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Sample records for 183-dr sedimentation basin

  1. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-50:5 Process Sewers (183-DR Sedimentation Basin Drains), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-025

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-11-06

    The 100-D-50:5 subsite encompasses the southern process sewers formerly servicing the 183-DR coagulation and sedimentation basins and proximate surface runoff collection drains. The results of confirmatory sampling of pipeline sediments and underlying soils at the 100-D-50:5 subsite demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  2. Description of Work for Drilling at the 183-DR Site in Support of the In Situ Gaseous Reduction Test

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Edward C.; Olsen, Khris B.; Schalla, Ronald

    2000-06-26

    In Situ Gaseous Reduction is a technology currently being developed by DOE for the remediation of soil waste sites contaminated with hexavalent chromium. Prior work suggests that a candidate for application of this approach is the 183-DR site at Hanford. However, deep vadose zone drilling is needed to verify the presence of a hexavalent chromium source and to determine the concentration levels and spatial distribution of contamination. This document presents the requirements associated with drilling one to two vadose zone boreholes at the 183-DR site to obtain this information. If hexavalent chromium is determined to be present at levels of at least 10 ppm in the vadose zone in one of the initial boreholes, this hole will be completed for gas injection and six additional gas extraction boreholes will be drilled and completed. This network will be used as a flowcell for performing a gas treatment test at the site.

  3. Construction of sediment budgets for drainage basins

    Treesearch

    William E. Dietrich; Thomas Dunne; Neil F. Humphrey; Leslie M. Reid

    1982-01-01

    Abstract - A sediment budget for a drainage basin is a quantitative statement of the rates of production, transport, and discharge of detritus. To construct a sediment budget for a drainage basin, one must integrate the temporal and spatial variations of transport and storage processes. This requires: recognition and quantification of transport processes, recognition...

  4. Kanawha River Basin Sediment Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This data set contains sediment size data collected at research sites using a Wolman Pebble Count method.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Collins , S., M. Thoms, and J. Flotemersch. Hydrogeomorphic zones characterize riverbed sediment patterns within a river network. River Systems. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, GERMANY, 21(4): 203-213, (2015).

  5. Sediment dynamics in Alpine basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habersack, Helmut; Liébault, Fred; Comiti, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    In rivers and streams and of the European Alps, sediment transport processes are of great relevance due to their ecological (e.g. aquatic habitats), energy (e.g. reservoir sedimentation) and risk-related (floods and debris flows) consequences. In fact, sediment fluxes are crucial to maintain a good ecological status of watercourses (required by the EU ;Water Framework Directive;, WFD, 2000), as they provide the hydromorphological conditions supporting dynamic aquatic ecosystems (Fryirs and Brierley, 2013; Wohl et al., 2015; Gurnell et al., 2016). Indeed, the key issue to ameliorate river hydrogeomorphological - and thus ecological - status and to comply with WFD provisions lies in allowing the natural processes of sediment and wood supply and transport to take place as much as possible, given the constraints imposed by the non-eliminable uses of each river (Comiti, 2012; Liébault et al., 2013). Specifically river continuity is mentioned in the WFD not only for biota but also sediments, which is hardly discussed in river management so far and almost no concrete measures to improve sediment continuity have been implemented so far (Habersack et al., 2016).

  6. Anode circuit reconfiguration of two sedimentation basins

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.

    1999-12-01

    Upgrades at two sedimentation basins of a water treatment plant necessitated reconfiguration of the cathodic protection system. Modifications to the anode circuit and improvements to the corrosion monitoring system were implemented. The reconfiguration included the use of continuous strings of tubular mixed metal oxide (MMO) anode assemblies.

  7. Prediction method of sediment discharge from forested basin

    Treesearch

    Kazutoki Abe; Ushio Kurokawa; Robert R. Ziemer

    2000-01-01

    An estimation model for sediment discharge from a forested basin using Universal Soil Loss Equation and delivery ratio was developed. Study basins are North fork and South fork in Caspar Creek, north California, where Forest Service, USDA has been using water and sediment discharge from both basins since 1962. The whole basin is covered with the forest, mainly...

  8. Sediment thickness in the southern Canada Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, S.D.; Grantz, A.

    1990-01-01

    Multichannel seismic reflection data are used, in conjunction with deep crustal seismic refraction data, to estimate the thickness of sediments in the southern Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean north of Alaska. The sediments are interpreted to be of Hauterivian (mid-Early Cretaceous) to Holocene age. Comparison of the seismic reflection character of seismic reflections in the study area with that in other basins indicates that a base-of-sediment-top of oceanic layer 2 reflection is not present above the depth at which the water-bottom multiple obscures all deeper arrivals, which is in conflict with the conclusions drawn from aeromagnetic, refraction, and other reflection studies. Seismic velocity structure, determined from the reflection data, indicates that the reflections above the multiple are from sedimentary strata. In the absence of seismic reflection evidence for the top of layer 2 above the multiple, we estimate total sediment thickness by using the layer 3 refractions and subtracting an average assumed layer 2 thickness from the top of layer 3. Assuming that an average thickness of oceanic layer 2 (1.4 km) overlies layer 3 in the southern Canada Basin, sediment thickness in the study area is estimated to range between 6.5 km where water depth is 3.8 km to greater than 11 km where the water depth is 2 km. This is nearly double that of any previous estimates and should have a significant effect on calculations such as the age of Canada Basin, regional heat flow, and long-term sedimentation rates. ?? 1990.

  9. Submarine landslides in Arctic sedimentation: Canada Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  10. Submarine Landslides in Arctic Sedimentation: Canada Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  11. Sediment fluxes in transboundary Selenga river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerova, Ekaterina

    2013-04-01

    Gathering reliable information on transboundary river systems remains a crucial task for international water management and environmental pollution control. Countries located in the lower parts of the river basins depend on water use and management strategies in adjacent upstream countries. One important issue in this context is sediment transport and associated contaminant fluxes across the state borders. The mass flows of dissolved ions, biogens, heavy metal concentrations, as far as suspended sediment concentration (SSC, mg/l) along upper Selenga river and its tributaries based on the literature review and results of field campaigns 2011-2012 were estimated. Based on the water discharges measurements Q, suspended load WR (t/day) and dissolved loads WL were calculated. In the Selenga basin the minimal WR (1,34-3,74 t/day) were found at small rivers. Maximal sediment loads (WR = 15 000 t/day) were found at the upper Orkhon river during flood event. The downstream point (Mongolia-Russia border) was characterized 2 220 t/day in 2011. Generally the prevalence of the accumulation is found through calculating sediment budget for all rivers (ΔW = WR (downstream) - WR (upstream) < 0). Downstream of Orkhon river (below confluence with Tuul) ΔW = - 1145 t/day. Below Selenga-Orkhon confluence sediment yield reached 2515 t/day, which is corresponded to transboundary sediment flux. Silt sediments (0,001 - 0,05 mm) form the main portion of the transported material. The maximal value of sand flux (302 t/day) was reported for middle stream station of Selenga river (upstream from confluence with Orkhon). The increase of human activities (mining and pastures) increases the portion of clay particles in total sediment load (e.g. at the downstream point of most polluted Orkhon river it reached 207,8 t/day). The existed estimates are compared with distribution of the main matter sources within basin: mining and industry, river-bank erosion and slope wash. The heaviest increase of

  12. Sedimentation basin performance at highway construction sites.

    PubMed

    Kalainesan, Sujaya; Neufeld, Ronald D; Quimpo, Rafael; Yodnane, Precha

    2009-02-01

    Sedimentation basins (SBs) are commonly used during highway construction for erosion and sedimentation pollution control as well as for attenuation of overland storm waters. In order to evaluate the sediment removal capacity of these SBs, four basins were selected for monitoring from a new highway construction that extends I-99 to I-80, in Pennsylvania. Between September 2004 and August 2005, ten sampling trips were conducted during which basin inlet and outlet water samples were obtained. The SB samples were analyzed for pH, color, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), total and dissolved iron, magnesium, manganese, aluminum, calcium, sulfate and phosphate. The data showed peaks in concentrations of TSS, total aluminum, total manganese, total iron and total phosphate that closely correlated to localized rainfall peaks. For certain samples, the concentration of TSS in the outlet was higher than the TSS concentration at the basin inlet, suggesting sediment re-suspension. In general SBs managed high flows during wet weather events, but were not effective in capturing particulates. This paper discusses the need for Best Management Practices (BMPs) for the design of SBs that reflect contemporary concerns for management of particle removal and to control the release of particulate-bound metals. This paper also evaluates the water quality impacts of naturally occurring acidic drainages into SBs, as several acidic seeps with pH in the range of 5-6 and having high dissolved concentrations of metals (Fe, Mn, Mg and Ca), sulfate and phosphate were observed draining into the SBs.

  13. Sedimentation in Canada Basin, Western Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, D. C.; Shimeld, J.; Jackson, R.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Chapman, B.; Chian, D.; Childs, J. R.; Mayer, L. A.; Edwards, B. D.; Verhoef, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Canada Basin of the western Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin on Earth. Marine seismic field programs were conducted during the past 5 years in order to study the geology, sedimentary history and geomorphology of the region. As part of this program, five annual icebreaker expeditions acquired bathymetric, seismic reflection and seismic refraction data on a regional scale. More than 12,000 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data and 120 sonobuoy seismic refraction records over abyssal plain and continental rise regions of Canada Basin, Northwind Ridge and Alpha Ridge were acquired. The success of these programs was achieved through novel technical modifications to equipment to permit towing in heavy ice conditions and through collaboration between multiple Canadian and US agencies and institutions, enabling utilization of two ice breakers during seismic and multibeam data acquisition in heavy ice. The seafloor of the Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. The sedimentary succession is generally flat lying with reflections extending over hundreds of km. These reflections onlap bathymetric highs, such as Alpha and Northwind ridges. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 6.5 km, and generally thins to the north and west. Reflection characteristics suggest that sediment volume input to the Arctic Ocean has been high and dominated by turbidity current deposition, similar to Amundsen and Nansen Basins of the eastern Arctic. These turbidites originate from the eastern and southern continental margins. There is no evidence of contemporaneous or post-depositional reworking by bottom currents. Additionally, there is little evidence of tectonic deformation after primary basin-forming events except in the NE quadrant, nearer Alpha Ridge. In this area, there is significant normal faulting propagating from basement through much of the

  14. Sediment Yield Modeling in a Large Scale Drainage Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, K.; de Boer, D. H.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents the findings of spatially distributed sediment yield modeling in the upper Indus River basin. Spatial erosion rates calculated by using the Thornes model at 1-kilometre spatial resolution and monthly time scale indicate that 87 % of the annual gross erosion takes place in the three summer months. The model predicts a total annual erosion rate of 868 million tons, which is approximately 4.5 times the long- term observed annual sediment yield of the basin. Sediment delivery ratios (SDR) are hypothesized to be a function of the travel time of surface runoff from catchment cells to the nearest downstream channel. Model results indicate that higher delivery ratios (SDR > 0.6) are found in 18 % of the basin area, mostly located in the high-relief sub-basins and in the areas around the Nanga Parbat Massif. The sediment delivery ratio is lower than 0.2 in 70 % of the basin area, predominantly in the low-relief sub-basins like the Shyok on the Tibetan Plateau. The predicted annual basin sediment yield is 244 million tons which compares reasonably to the measured value of 192.5 million tons. The average annual specific sediment yield in the basin is predicted as 1110 tons per square kilometre. Model evaluation based on accuracy statistics shows very good to satisfactory performance ratings for predicted monthly basin sediment yields and for mean annual sediment yields of 17 sub-basins. This modeling framework mainly requires global datasets, and hence can be used to predict erosion and sediment yield in other ungauged drainage basins.

  15. Sediment Transport in Streams in the Umpqua River Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Onions, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    This report presents tables of suspended-sediment data collected from 1956 to 1967 at 10 sites in the Umpqua River basin. Computations based on these data indicate that average annual suspended-sediment yields at these sites range from 137 to 822 tons per square mile. Because available data for the Umpqua River basin are generally inadequate for accurate determinations of sediment yield and for the definition of characteristics of fluvial sediments, recommendations are made for the collection and analysis of additional sediment data.

  16. Styles of interdistributary basin sedimentation: Mississippi delta plain, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Tye, R.S.; Kosters, E.C.

    1986-09-01

    Analyses of sedimentary processes in the Barataria and Atchafalaya basins of the Louisiana delta plain reveal two contrasting styles of sediment accumulation. The deposits are largely controlled by the relative rates of subsidence and the amount of sediment transported into the basins. Marine delta progradation and subsequent abandonment on approximately a 1000 to 1500-year cycle isolate extensive backswamp and marshy areas between major distributary channels. The resulting interdistributary basins areally occupy a large part of the lower alluvial valley and upper delta plain. Extensive well-drained and poorly drained backswamp environments occur at the apex of these basins and grade seaward into fresh, brackish, and saline marshes. Following delta-lobe abandonment, high subsidence rates combined with low sediment input lead to basin flooding, both by marine incursion and the enlargement of lakes.

  17. Selenium in Reservoir Sediment from the Republican River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    1998-01-01

    Reservoir sediment quality is an important environmental concern because sediment may act as both a sink and a source of water-quality constituents to the overlying water column and biota. Once in the food chain, sediment-derived constituents may pose an even greater concern due to bioaccumulation. An analysis of reservoir bottom sediment can provide historical information on sediment deposition as well as magnitudes and trends in constituents that may be related to changes in human activity in the basin. The assessment described in this fact sheet was initiated in 1997 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR), U.S. Department of the Interior, to determine if irrigation activities have affected selenium concentrations in reservoir sediment of the Republican River Basin of Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska.

  18. Ecotoxicological characterisation of sediments from stormwater retention basins.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Merchan, C; Perrodin, Y; Sébastian, C; Bazin, C; Winiarski, T; Barraud, S

    2014-01-01

    Retention-detention basins are important structures for managing stormwater. However, their long-term operation raises the problem of managing the sediments they accumulate. Potential uses for such sediments have been envisaged, but each sediment must be characterised beforehand to verify its harmlessness. In this paper we address this issue through the development of a battery of bioassays specifically adapted to such sediments. We tested the method on samples taken from four retention basins in the region of Lyon (France). This battery focuses on the toxic effects linked to both the solid phase (ostracod and Microtox(®) solid-phase tests) and the liquid-phase (interstitial water) of sediments (rotifer and Microtox(®) liquid-phase tests). The results obtained permit the sorting of sediments presenting little toxicity, and which could therefore be potentially exploitable, from those from more polluted areas presenting higher toxicity that limits their use.

  19. Sediment yields of streams in the Umpqua River Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtiss, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    This report summarizes sediment data collected at 11 sites in the Umpqua River basin from 1956 to 1973 and updates a report by C. A. Onions (1969) of estimated sediment yields in the basin from 1956-67.  Onions' report points out that the suspended-sediment data, collected during the 1956-67 period, were insufficient to compute reliable sediment yields.  Therefore, the U.S, Geological Survey, in cooperation with Douglas County, collected additional data from 1969 to 1973 to improve the water discharge-sediment discharge relationships at these sites.  These data are published in "Water resources data for Oregon, Part 2, Water quality records," 1970 through 1973 water years.  In addition to the 10 original sites, data were collected during this period from the Umpqua River near Elkton station, and a summary of the data for that station is included in table 1.

  20. Flocculated sediments can reduce the size of sediment basin at construction sites.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jihoon; King, Scott E; McLaughlin, Richard A

    2016-01-15

    Due to stringent water quality regulations on stormwater discharges, there is increasing interest in chemically-assisted settling of suspended sediments at construction sites. This study investigated settling characteristics of flocculated sediment by polyacrylamide (PAM) in a top-loading settling tube. Studied sediment materials were obtained from construction sites in North Carolina, USA: Coastal Plain loamy sand (CPLS), Piedmont sandy clay loam (PSCL), Piedmont silt loam (PSL), and Mountain clay loam (MCL). The four different sediment suspensions mixed with and without dissolved PAM were introduced to the top of the column individually. During a 1-h settling period, samples were taken at 1-m depth from surface at various times and analyzed for total suspended solids (TSS). Flocculated sediment by PAM greatly increased its settled TSS fraction up to 95-97% only in 1-min settling period compared to those of unflocculated sediment (16-72%). The settling improvement by PAM was profound in the finer-textured soils (PSL and MCL) by increasing their median particle settling velocity (>2 cm s(-1)) compared to unflocculated counterparts (<1.1 cm s(-1)). Estimated surface area requirement of sediment basin suggested that the basins receiving flocculated sediment could be reduced in size (surface area) by 2- to 4-times compared to those receiving unflocculated sediment. Our results suggests that current sediment basin design could be modified when chemically-assisted settling is implemented, taking up less space and cost in construction sites.

  1. Sedimentation, accretion, and subsidence in marshes of Barataria Basin, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Hatton, R.S.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Vertical accretion and sediment accumulation rates were determined from the distribution of /sup 137/Cs in cores collected from fresh water, intermediate, brackish, and salt marshes in the Barataria Basin, Louisiana. Vertical accretion rates vary from about 1.3 cm.yr/sup -1/ in levee areas to 0.7 in backmarshes. Mineral sediment content of the marsh soil profile decreased with distance from the coast. Except in natural levee areas, marsh accretion rates are less than subsidence measured by water level data, however this alone cannot account for observed land-loss patterns in the basin area.

  2. Recent sedimentation patterns within the central Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, C.R.; Demas, C.R.; Kroes, D.E.; Day, Richard H.; Doyle, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment deposition and storage are important functions of forested bottomlands, yet documentation and interpretation of sedimentation processes in these systems remain incomplete. Our study was located in the central Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana, a distributary of the Mississippi River and contains the largest contiguously forested riparian wetland in North America, which suffers from high sedimentation in some areas and hypoxia in others. We established 20 floodplain transects reflecting the distribution of depositional environments within the central Basin and monitored general and local sediment deposition patterns over a three-year period (2000-2003). Deposition rate, sediment texture, bulk density, and loss on ignition (LOI, percent organic material) were determined near or just above artificial markers (clay pads) located at each station per transect. Transect mean sedimentation rates ranged from about 2 to 42 mm/yr, mean percent organic material ranged from about 7% to 28%, mean percent sand (> 63 ??) ranged from about 5% to 44%, and bulk density varied from about 0.4 to 1.3. The sites were categorized into five statistically different clusters based on sedimentation rate; most of these could be characterized by a suite of parameters that included hydroperiod, source(s) of sediment-laden water, hydraulic connectivity, flow stagnation, and local geomorphic setting along transect (levee versus backswamp), which lead to distinct spatial sedimentation patterns. Sites with low elevation (long hydroperiod), high hydraulic connectivity to multiple sources of sediment-laden water, and hydraulic damming (flow stagnation) featured the highest amounts of sediment trapping; the converse in any of these factors typically diminished sediment trapping. Based on aerial extent of clusters, the study area potentially traps 6,720,000 Mg of sediment annually, of which, 820,000 Mg represent organic materials. Thus, the Atchafalaya Basin plays a substantial role in lowland

  3. The geochemistry of manganese carbonate in Panama Basin sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, T. F.; Price, N. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Mn distribution in Panama Basin area sediments and interstitial waters is discussed. Striking surficial Mn enrichments produced by a well-known diagenetic recycling process characterize the sediments of the region. Thermodynamic solubility calculations indicate that in at least one core interstitial waters approach saturation with respect to MnCO 3. A mixed carbonate phase of composition (Mn 48 Ca 47 Mg 5)CO 3 was recovered from an ash band in the same core. The association of this material with the coarse volcaniclastic debris is thought to result from facile manganous carbonate precipitation in sediment horizons of coarser mean grain size. Since sulphate reduction in the upper two metres of Panama Basin sediments is fairly minor, little increase in alkalinity is observed, and it is postulated that significant production of carbonate alkalinity is not a prerequisite for manganous carbonate generation in hemipelagic sediments. A more important factor appears to be the availability of Mn oxides for solution during early diagenesis. Stable C isotopic analyses indicate that little C of organic origin is used in the precipitation reaction in either Panama Basin or Loch Fyne (Scotland) sediments.

  4. Modelling sediment fluxes in the Danube River Basin with SWAT.

    PubMed

    Vigiak, Olga; Malagó, Anna; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Obreja, Florin; Poesen, Jean; Habersack, Helmut; Fehér, János; Grošelj, Samo

    2017-12-01

    Sediment management is of prior concern in the Danube Basin for provision of economic and environmental services. This study aimed at assessing current (1995-2009) sediment fluxes of the Danube Basin with SWAT model and identifying sediment budget knowledge gaps. After hydrologic calibration, hillslope gross erosion and sediment yields were broadly calibrated using ancillary data (measurements in plots and small catchments, and national and European erosion maps). Mean annual sediment concentrations (SSC) from 269 gauging stations (2968 station-year entries; median 19mg/L, interquartile range IQR 10-36mg/L) were used for calibrating in-stream sediments. SSC residuals (simulations-observations) median was 2mg/L (IQR -14; +22mg/L). In the validation dataset (172 gauging stations; 1457 data-entries, median 17mg/L, IQR 10-28), median residual was 9mg/L (IQR -9; +39mg/L). Percent bias in an independent dataset of annual sediment yields (SSY; 689 data-entries in 95 stations; median 52t/km(2)/y, IQR 20-151t/km(2)/y) was -21.5%. Overall, basin-wide model performance was considered satisfactory. Sediment fluxes appeared overestimated in some regions (Sava and Velika Morava), and underestimated in others (Siret-Prut and Romanian Danube), but unbiased elsewhere. According to the model, most sediments were generated by hillslope erosion. Streambank degradation contributed about 5% of sediments, and appeared important in high stream power Alpine reaches. Sediment trapping in reservoirs and floodplain deposition was probably underestimated and counterbalanced by high stream deposition. Factor analysis showed that model underestimations were correlated to Alpine and karst areas, whereas underestimations occurred in high seismicity areas of the Lower Danube. Contemporary sediment fluxes were about one third of values reported for the 1980s for several tributaries of the Middle and Lower Danube. Knowledge gaps affecting the sediment budget were identified in the contributions of

  5. Sediment quality in the north coastal basin of Massachusetts, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Ashman, Mary S.; Heath, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, completed a reconnaissance-level study of bottom-sediment quality in selected lakes, rivers, and estuaries in the North Coastal Basin of Massachusetts. Bottom-sediment grab samples were collected from 20 sites in the North River, Lake Quannapowitt, Saugus River, Mill River, Shute Brook, Sea Plane Basin, Pines River, and Bear Creek. The samples were tested for various types of potentially harmful contaminants? including 33 elements, 17 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 22 organochlorine pesticides, and 7 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures (Aroclors)?to benthic organisms (bottom-dwelling) and humans. The results were compared among sampling sites, to background concentrations, and to concen-trations measured in other urban rivers, and sediment-quality guidelines were used to predict toxicity at the sampling sites to benthic organisms and humans. Because there are no standards for human toxicity for aquatic sediment, standards for contaminated upland soil were used. Contaminant concentrations measured in sediment collected from the North Coastal Basin generally were equal to or greater than concentrations in sediment from uncontaminated rivers throughout New England. Contaminants in North Coastal Basin sediment with elevated concentrations (above back-ground levels) included arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc, some of the PAHs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloro-ethane (DDT) and its metabolites, and dieldrin. No PCBs were measured above the detection limits. Measured concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and lead were also generally greater than those measured in other urban rivers throughout the conter-minous United States. With one exception (arsenic), local con-centrations measured in sediment samples collected from the North Coastal Basin were lower than concentrations measured in sediment collected from two of three urban rivers draining to Boston

  6. Evaluation of sediment yield and sediment data-collection network in the Piceance basin, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kircher, J.E.; Von Guerard, Paul

    1982-01-01

    Statistical relationships were developed between suspended-sediment discharge and several regional factors of climate, physiography, and land use in the Piceance basin, northwestern Colorado. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the existing sediment collection network, especially in regard to detecting changes in suspended-sediment discharge due to the development in the basin. Spatial- and time variability were examined using multiple linear regression techniques. Because of the short period of record, monthly mean sediment loads were used to determine shifts or changes in trends due to mining and related activities in the basin. Dummy variable analysis was used to detect these premining and postmining differences in the regression lines and also to detect seasonal differences in the sediment discharge. Differences did exist in the sediment discharge from season to season and before and after mining; however, due to the variability and short period of record the cause of these differences could not be adequately determined. Part of the high variability in sediment discharge was due to variability in the water discharge. Therefore, if the network is to be improved, the emphasis needs to be on improvement of the water-discharge. The results of the monthly mean regression analysis were used in the mean monthly and mean annual analysis for determination of initial network design equations. These were only preliminary in nature and could be improved with additional data. (USGS)

  7. 105-N basin sediment disposition phase-two sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R. C.

    1997-03-14

    The sampling and analysis plan for Phase 2 of the 105-N Basin sediment disposition task defines the sampling and analytical activities that will be performed to support characterization of the sediment and selection of an appropriate sediment disposal option.

  8. Influence of basin connectivity on sediment source, transport, and storage within the Mkabela Basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. R.; Mackin, G.; Lechler, P.; Lord, M.; Lorentz, S.

    2012-09-01

    The management of sediment and other non-point source (NPS) pollution has proven difficult, and requires a sound understanding of particle movement through the drainage system. The primary objective of this investigation was to obtain an understanding of NPS sediment source(s), transport, and storage within the Mkabela basin, a representative agricultural catchment within the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands of southeastern South Africa, by combining geomorphic, hydrologic and geochemical fingerprinting analyses. The Mkabela Basin can be subdivided into three distinct subcatchments that differ in their ability to transport and store sediment along the axial valley. Headwater (upper catchment) areas are characterized by extensive wetlands that act as significant sediment sinks. Mid-catchment areas, characterized by higher relief and valley gradients, exhibit few wetlands, but rather are dominated by a combination of alluvial and bedrock channels that are conducive to sediment transport. The lower catchment exhibits a low-gradient alluvial channel that is boarded by extensive riparian wetlands that accumulate large quantities of sediment (and NPS pollutants). Fingerprinting studies suggest that silt- and clay-rich layers found within wetland and reservoir deposits are derived from the erosion of fine-grained, valley bottom soils frequently utilized as vegetable fields. Coarser-grained deposits within both wetlands and reservoirs result from the erosion of sandier hillslope soils extensively utilized for sugar cane, during relatively high magnitude runoff events that are capable of transporting sand-sized sediment off the slopes. Thus, the source of sediment to the axial valley varies as a function of sediment size and runoff magnitude. Sediment export from the basin was limited until the early 1990s, in part because the upper catchment wetlands were hydrologically disconnected from lower parts of the watershed during low- to moderate flood events. The construction of a

  9. Linked basin sedimentation and orogenic uplift: The Neogene Barinas basin sediments derived from the Venezuelan Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erikson, Johan P.; Kelley, Shari A.; Osmolovsky, Peter; Verosub, Kenneth L.

    2012-11-01

    The Venezuelan Andes are an asymmetric, doubly vergent orogen that is flanked on its southeastern side by the Barinas basin. Analyses of sedimentary facies, sandstone petrography, apatite fission-tracks, and magnetostratigraphy were completed on a 1750-m section of the syn-orogenic Neogene Parángula and Río Yuca formations in the Barinas side foothills of the Venezuelan Andes. Our sedimentary facies analyses record a progression of sedimentary environments from floodplain and floodplain channel deposits through the 560-m thick Parángula Formation transitioning to distal alluvial fan deposits in the lower Río Yuca Formation and finally to an alternation of distal alluvial fan and two, ˜100-m thick organic-rich lacustrine deposits in the upper third of the section. Major- and minor-mineral petrographic analysis reveals unroofing of the Venezuelan Andes, with quartz arenite composition low in the section succeeded by metamorphic and igneous clasts and potassium feldspar appearing near the base of the Río Yuca Formation. Apatite fission-track (AFT) analysis of sandstones and pebbles generated ages of 11.2 ± 1.3 - 13.8 ± 2.0 Ma over ˜1100 m of stratigraphic section. Thermal modeling of the detrital AFT and vitrinite data from the lower Río Yuca Formation indicates exhumation of the source area was occurring by 12-13 Ma, surface exposure at 10-9 Ma, maximum burial by 4-2 Ma and exhumation of the sedimentary package starting 3-2 Ma. Accumulation of the Río Yuca Formation is contemporaneous with a basinward migration of the deformation front. Regional considerations indicate that the Venezuelan Andes evolved from a primarily singly vergent orogen to its current double vergence over the interval of Neogene-Quaternary sedimentation.

  10. Influence of basin connectivity on sediment source, transport, and storage within the Mkabela Basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. R.; Mackin, G.; Lechler, P.; Lord, M.; Lorentz, S.

    2013-02-01

    The management of sediment and other non-point source (NPS) pollution has proven difficult, and requires a sound understanding of particle movement through the drainage system. The primary objective of this investigation was to obtain an understanding of NPS sediment source(s), transport, and storage within the Mkabela Basin, a representative agricultural catchment within the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands of eastern South Africa, by combining geomorphic, hydrologic and geochemical fingerprinting analyses. The Mkabela Basin can be subdivided into three distinct subcatchments that differ in their ability to transport and store sediment along the axial valley. Headwater (upper catchment) areas are characterized by extensive wetlands that act as significant sediment sinks. Mid-catchment areas, characterized by higher relief and valley gradients, exhibit few wetlands, but rather are dominated by a combination of alluvial and bedrock channels that are conducive to sediment transport. The lower catchment exhibits a low-gradient alluvial channel that is boarded by extensive riparian wetlands that accumulate large quantities of sediment (and NPS pollutants). Fingerprinting studies suggest that silt- and clay-rich layers found within wetland and reservoir deposits of the upper and upper-mid subcatchments are derived from the erosion of fine-grained, valley bottom soils frequently utilized as vegetable fields. Coarser-grained deposits within these wetlands and reservoirs result from the erosion of sandier hillslope soils extensively utilized for sugar cane, during relatively high magnitude runoff events that are capable of transporting sand-sized sediment off the slopes. Thus, the source of sediment to the axial valley varies as a function of sediment size and runoff magnitude. Sediment export from upper to lower catchment areas was limited until the early 1990s, in part because the upper catchment wetlands were hydrologically disconnected from lower parts of the watershed during

  11. Cenozoic North American Drainage Basin Evolution, Sediment Yield, and Accumulation in the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, W.; Ganey-Curry, P. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Cenozoic fill of the Gulf of Mexico basin contains a continuous record of sediment supply from the North American continental interior for the past 65 million years. Regional mapping of unit thickness and paleogeography for 18 depositional episodes defines patterns of shifting entry points of continental fluvial systems and quantifies the total volume of sediment supplied during each episode. Eight fluvio-deltaic depocenters, named for geographic similarities to entry points and drainage basins of modern rivers, are present. From southwest to northeast, they are the Rio Bravo, Rio Grande, Guadalupe, Colorado, Houston-Brazos, Red, Mississippi, and Tennessee axes. Sediment volume was calculated from hand-contoured unit thickness maps compiled from basin-wide well and seismic control. Using a GIS algorithm to sum volumes within polygons bounding interpreted North American river contribution, the total extant volume was then calculated. General compaction factors were used to convert modern volume to quantitative approximations of total grain volume. Grain volume rate of supply for each depositional episode was then calculated. Values vary by more than an order of magnitude. Supply rate has commonly varied by two-fold or more between successive depositional episodes. Sediment supply is a significant, independent variable in development of stratigraphic sequences within the Gulf basin. Paleogeographic maps of the continental interior for eleven Cenozoic time intervals display the evolving and complex interplay of intracontinental tectonism, climate change, and drainage basin evolution. Five tectono-climatic eras are differentiated: Paleocene late Laramide era; early to middle Eocene terminal Laramide era; middle Cenozoic (Late Eocene—Early Miocene) dry, volcanogenic era; middle Neogene (Middle—Late Miocene) arid, extensional era; and late Neogene (Plio—Pleistocene) monsoonal, epeirogenic uplift era. Sediment supply to the GOM reflects the interplay of (1

  12. Coupling climate conditions, sediment sources and sediment transport in an alpine basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainato, Riccardo; Picco, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Marco; Mao, Luca; Neverman, Andrew J.; Tarolli, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    In a fluvial system, mountain basins control sediment export to the lowland rivers. Hence, the analysis of the erosion processes and sediment delivery patterns that act in mountain basins is important. Several studies have investigated the alterations triggered by recent climatic change on the hydrological regime, whilst only a few works have explored the consequences on the sediment dynamics. Here we combined and analyzed the quasi-unique dataset of climatic conditions, landscape response, and sediment export produced, since 1986 in the Rio Cordon basin (5 km2, Eastern Italian Alps) to examine the sediment delivery processes occurring in the last three decades. The temperature, precipitation, and fluvial sediment fluxes in the basin were analyzed using continuous measurement executed by a permanent monitoring station, while the landscape evolution was investigated by three sediment source inventories established in 1994, 2006, and 2016. Thus, the analysis focused on the trends exhibited during the periods 1986-1993, 1994-2006, and 2007-2015. In terms of climatic conditions, three distinct climate forcing stages can be observed in the periods analyzed: a relatively stable phase (1986-1993), a period characterized by temperature and rainfall fluctuations (1994-2006), and a more recent warmer and wetter phase (2007-2015). In the 1986-1993 period, the fluvial sediment fluxes reflected the stable trend exhibited by the climatic conditions. In the subsequent 1994-2006 period, the average temperature and precipitation were in line with that previously observed, although with higher interannual variability. Notwithstanding the climate forcing and the occurrence of high magnitude/low frequency floods that strongly influenced the source areas, between 1994 and 2006 the Rio Cordon basin showed relatively limited erosion activity. Hence, the climatic conditions and the landscape response can only partially explain the strong increase of sediment export recorded in the 1994

  13. Workshop on sediment budgets and routing in forested drainage basins: proceedings.

    Treesearch

    Frederick J. Swanson; Richard J. Janda; Thomas Dunne; Douglas N. Swanston

    1982-01-01

    Sediment budgets quantify the transport and storage of soil and sediment in drainage basins or smaller landscape units. Studies of sediment routing deal with the overall movement of soil and sediment through a series of landscape units. The 14 papers and 5 summaries from discussion groups in this volume report results of sediment budget and routing studies conducted...

  14. Toxicity assessment of sediments from three European river basins using a sediment contact test battery.

    PubMed

    Tuikka, A I; Schmitt, C; Höss, S; Bandow, N; von der Ohe, P C; de Zwart, D; de Deckere, E; Streck, G; Mothes, S; van Hattum, B; Kocan, A; Brix, R; Brack, W; Barceló, D; Sormunen, A J; Kukkonen, J V K

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of four polluted sediments and their corresponding reference sediments from three European river basins were investigated using a battery of six sediment contact tests representing three different trophic levels. The tests included were chronic tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a sub-chronic test with the midge Chironomus riparius, an early life stage test with the zebra fish Danio rerio, and an acute test with the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The endpoints, namely survival, growth, reproduction, embryo development and light inhibition, differed between tests. The measured effects were compared to sediment contamination translated into toxic units (TU) on the basis of acute toxicity to Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas, and multi-substance Potentially Affected Fractions of species (msPAF) as an estimate for expected community effects. The test battery could clearly detect toxicity of the polluted sediments with test-specific responses to the different sediments. The msPAF and TU-based toxicity estimations confirmed the results of the biotests by predicting a higher toxic risk for the polluted sediments compared to the corresponding reference sediments, but partly having a different emphasis from the biotests. The results demonstrate differences in the sensitivities of species and emphasize the need for data on multiple species, when estimating the effects of sediment pollution on the benthic community. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sediment driven meander migration in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, J.; Constantine, J. A.; Dunne, T.

    2015-12-01

    Meander migration is the principal process controlling how river channels lengthen through time; despite this universal observation, little analysis has been dedicated to evaluating the mechanisms by which meanders accomplish this lengthening. Using an almost yearly archive of Landsat imagery, we show that meandering rivers in the Andes-Foreland Basin of the Amazon Basin lengthen linearly with centreline migration rate, in the absence of cutoff events. We characterised the dominant meander movement mechanism by defining an index we term the symmetry index. The index measures the ratio between downstream and upstream meander erosion about the apex and bounded by inflection points. Indices greater than one represent more translational meander deformation, that is, downstream migration, whereas indices close to one indicate more extensional migration (i.e., increasing meander amplitude). We expanded our dataset to 25 reaches from varying physiographic provinces across the basin. Our results suggest that rivers located in sediment-rich regions migrate more rapidly, and possess higher symmetry indices indicative of more translational bend development. Conversely, rivers with low sediment yields show more extensional bend development. Since alluvial material is responsible for the construction of point bars, rivers conveying larger sediment fluxes have the ability to build bars more quickly. Point bar growth increases channel curvature and deflects high-velocity fluid towards the outer bank encouraging bank erosion. An analysis of point bar locations along the banks of two meandering streams shows that bars positioned downstream of the apex correlate with bends that undergo translational development, whilst material deposited in the centre and upstream of the apex show more extensional and lobing evolution. These results suggest that point bar growth and its relationship to the sediment budget of rivers play an important role in meander migration.

  16. Catastrophic flood sediments in Chryse Basin, Mars, and Quincy Basin, Washington: Application of sandar facies model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, James W., Jr.; Edgett, Kenneth S.

    Viking visible and thermal infrared observations and terrestrial catastrophic flood deposits provide clues to identify the outflow channel sediments that went into Chryse Basin on Mars. On Earth, sandar (outwash plains formed by coalescence of many jökulhlaup floods) are described in terms of three laterally adjacent facies: proximal, midfan, and distal. The Missoula Flood sediments deposited in Quincy Basin, Washington, comprise a miniature analog of Chryse Basin. The terminology and general characteristics of the sandar facies model are applied to Quincy Basin, although the depositional environment and clast sizes are somewhat different (higher-energy flood, larger clasts, subaqueous rather than subaerial deposition). For example, the Ephrata Fan (a deposit of boulders, cobbles, and pebbles) forms the midfan facies analog; a downfan sandy deposit (reworked into a dune field) comprises the distal facies analog. In Chryse Basin the midfan is defined by a heterogeneous rocky (0-25%), intermediate-albedo (0.21-0.26), intermediate thermal inertia (260-460Jm-2s-0.5K-1) surface, while the distal facies has a low albedo (0.14-0.16) and higher thermal inertia (340-700Jm-2s-0.5K-1). The Chryse midfan unit has rocks and windblown dust exposed at the surface. The sand of the distal facies in Chryse/Acidalia is reworked by the wind, as in Quincy Basin. The Viking 1 and Mars Pathfinder landing sites are located on the midfan unit. Observations that can be made at the Mars Pathfinder site might help in reevaluating whether or not Viking 1 landed on outflow channel sediments.

  17. Stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Date Creek Basin, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Butz, T.R.; Tieman, D.J.; Grimes, J.G.; Bard, C.S.; Helgerson, R.N.; Pritz, P.M.

    1980-06-30

    Results of the Date Creek Basin detailed geochemical survey are reported. Field and laboratory data are reported for 239 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Based on stream sediment geochemical data, significant concentrations of uranium are restricted to the Anderson Mine area. The 84th percentile concentrations of U-FL, U-NT, and U-FL/U-NT combined with low thorium/U-NT values reflect increased mobility and enrichment of uranium in the carbonate host rocks of that area. Elements characteristically associated with the uranium mineralization include lithium and arsenic. No well defined diffusion halos suggesting outliers of similar uranium mineralization were observed from the stream sediment data in other areas of the Date Creek Basin. Significant concentrations of U-FL or U-NT found outside the mine area are generally coincident with low U-FL/U-NT values and high concentrations of zirconium, titanium, and phosphorus. This suggests that the uranium is related to a resistate mineral assemblage derived from surrounding crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks.

  18. Transient electromagnetic study of basin fill sediments in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bultman, M.W.; Gray, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Upper San Pedro River Basin in Mexico and the United States is an important riparian corridor that is coming under increasing pressure from growing populations and the associated increase in groundwater withdrawal. Several studies have produced three-dimensional maps of the basin fill sediments in the US portion of the basin but little work has been done in the Mexican portion of the basin. Here, the results of a ground-based transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico are presented. These basin fill sediments are characterized by a 10-40 m deep unsaturated surficial zone which is composed primarily of sands and gravels. In the central portion of the basin this unsaturated zone is usually underlain by a shallow clay layer 20-50 m thick. Beneath this may be more clay, as is usually the case near the San Pedro River, or interbedded sand, silt, and clay to a depth of 200-250 m. As you move away from the river, the upper clay layer disappears and the amount of sand in the sediments increases. At 1-2 km away from the river, sands can occupy up to 50% of the upper 200-250 m of the sediment fill. Below this, clays are always present except where bedrock highs are observed. This lower clay layer begins at a depth of about 200 m in the central portion of the basin (250 m or more at distances greater than 1-2 km from the river) and extends to the bottom of most profiles to depths of 400 m. While the depth of the top of this lower clay layer is probably accurate, its thickness observed in the models may be overestimated due to the relatively low magnetic moment of the TEM system used in this study. The inversion routine used for interpretation is based on a one-dimensional geologic model. This is a layer based model that is isotropic in both the x and y directions. Several survey soundings did not meet this requirement which invalidates the inversion process and the resulting interpretation at these locations. The results from these

  19. Distributed model of hydrological and sediment transport processes in large river basins in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuliziana, S.; Tanuma, K.; Yoshimura, C.; Saavedra, O. C.

    2015-07-01

    Soil erosion and sediment transport have been modeled at several spatial and temporal scales, yet few models have been reported for large river basins (e.g., drainage areas > 100 000 km2). In this study, we propose a process-based distributed model for assessment of sediment transport at a large basin scale. A distributed hydrological model was coupled with a process-based distributed sediment transport model describing soil erosion and sedimentary processes at hillslope units and channels. The model was tested on two large river basins: the Chao Phraya River Basin (drainage area: 160 000 km2) and the Mekong River Basin (795 000 km2). The simulation over 10 years showed good agreement with the observed suspended sediment load in both basins. The average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and average correlation coefficient (r) between the simulated and observed suspended sediment loads were 0.62 and 0.61, respectively, in the Chao Phraya River Basin except the lowland section. In the Mekong River Basin, the overall average NSE and r were 0.60 and 0.78, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that suspended sediment load is sensitive to detachability by raindrop (k) in the Chao Phraya River Basin and to soil detachability over land (Kf) in the Mekong River Basin. Overall, the results suggest that the present model can be used to understand and simulate erosion and sediment transport in large river basins.

  20. Lake Pontchartrain Basin; bottom sediments and related environmental resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, Frank T.; Hayes, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Lake Pontchartrain, the largest estuary in southern Louisiana, is an important recreational, commercial, and environmental resource for New Orleans and southeastern Louisiana. This publication is part of a 5-year, cooperative program led by the USGS on the geological framework and sedimentary processes of the Lake Pontchartrain Basin. This presentation is divided into two main parts. The scientifc sections include historical information on the area; shipboard, field, and remote-sensing studies; and a comprehensive sediment database with geological and chemical discussions of the region. The multimedia and resources sections include geographic information system (GIS) tools and data, a video demonstrating vibracore sampling techniques in Lake Pontchartrain, and abstracts from four Basics of the Basin symposia.

  1. Polyphase basin evolution of the Vienna Basin inferred from 3D visualization of sedimentation setting and quantitative subsidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Young; Novotny, Johannes; Wagreich, Michael

    2016-04-01

    This study analyzed and visualized data from 210 wells using a MATLAB-based program (BasinVis 1.0) for 3D visualization of sediment distribution, thickness, and quantitative subsidence of the northern and central Vienna Basin. The sedimentation settings for selected horizons were visualized to 3D sediment distribution maps, isopach maps, and cross-sections. Subsidence of the study area resulted in 3D subsidence depth and rate maps of basement and tectonic subsidences. Due to the special position of the Vienna Basin, the basin evolution was influenced by the regional tectonics of surrounding units. The 2D/3D maps provided insights into the polyphase evolution of the Vienna Basin, which is closely related to changes in the changing regional stress field and the paleoenvironmental setting. In the Early Miocene, the sedimentation and subsidence were shallow and E-W/NE-SW trending, indicating the development of piggy-back basins. During the late Early Miocene, maps show wider sedimentation and abruptly increasing subsidence by sinistral strike-slip faults, which initiated the Vienna pull-apart basin system. The sediments of the Early Miocene were supplied through a small deltaic system entering from the south. After thin sedimentation and shallow subsidence of the early Middle Miocene, the development of the Vienna Basin was controlled and accelerated mainly by NE-SW trending synsedimentary normal faults, especially the Steinberg fault. From the Middle Miocene, the subsidence was decreasing overall, however the tectonic subsidence show regionally different patterns. This study suggests that a major tensional regime change, from transtension to E-W extension, caused laterally varying subsidence across the Vienna Basin. The Late Miocene was characterized by the slowing down of basement and tectonic subsidence. From the middle Middle to Late Miocene, enormous amount of sediments supplied by a broad paleo-Danube delta complex on the western flank of the basin. The latest

  2. Flooding and sedimentation in Wheeling Creek basin, Belmont County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolva, J.R.; Koltun, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    The Wheeling Creek basin, which is located primarily in Belmont County, Ohio, experienced three damaging floods and four less severe floods during the 29-month period from February 1979 through June 1981. Residents of the basin became concerned about factors that could have affected the severity and frequency of out-of-bank floods. In response to those concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, undertook a study to estimate peak discharges and recurrence intervals for the seven floods of interest, provide information on current and historical mining-related stream-channel fill or scour, and examine storm-period subbasin contributions to the sediment load in Wheeling Creek. Streamflow data for adjacent basins, rainfall data, and, in two cases, flood-profile data were used in conjunction with streamflow data subsequently collected on Wheeling Creek to provide estimates of peak discharge for the seven floods that occurred from February 1979 through June 1981. Estimates of recurrence intervals were assigned to the Peak discharges on the basin of regional regression equations that relate selected basin characteristics to peak discharge with fixed recurrence intervals. These estimates indicate that a statistically unusual number of floods with recurrence intervals of 2 years or more occurred within that time period. Three cross sections located on Wheeling Creek and four located on tributaries were established and surveyed quarterly for approximately 2 years. No evidence of appreciable stream-channel fill or scour was observed at any of the cross sections, although minor profile changes were apparent at some locations. Attempts were made to obtain historical cross-section profile data for comparison with current cross-section profiles; however, no usable data were found. Excavations of stream-bottom materials were made near the three main-stem cross-section locations and near the mouth of Jug Run. The bottom

  3. Paleotectonic controls on sedimentation in northern Williston basin area, Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, D.M.

    1983-08-01

    The Williston basin lies within the so-called stable cratonic interior and would not be expected to have had the same intensity of tectonic activity as is generally considered to be characteristic of cratonic margin sedimentary basins. From time to time, however, other structural features appear to have been effective controls on sediment distribution patterns. In southern Saskatchewan, one of the most active of these was the Swift current platform. This feature appears to have been sufficiently positive during early Paleozoic time to have caused a distinct thinning of those sediments over it. The platform was mildly positive during other periods of sedimentation, as well as during periods of erosion. It was a site of widespread salt solution during Mesozoic time, which was also its time of major tectonic fluctuation, as well as being the period when it had the most significant influence on sedimentation. Southeastern Saskatchewan is the locale for some significant regional gravity and magnetic anomalies which appear related to exposed structural zones in the Precambrian Shield. A major gravity anomaly on the extreme eastern side of the province is on trend with the Nelson River zone of Manitoba and a magnetic anomaly (Camfield-Gough conductor zone) can be traced to the Wollaston trend in north-central Saskatchewan. The Camfield-Gough zone is particularly significant in that it lies along the axis of the Hummingbird trough, an area affected by basement-controlled early salt solution, and it extends southward into the United States, where it is flanked by a number of local multizone oil-producing structures in North Dakota and Montana.

  4. Arsenic incorporation into authigenic pyrite, Bengal Basin sediment, Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowers, H.A.; Breit, G.N.; Foster, A.L.; Whitney, J.; Yount, J.; Uddin, Md. N.; Muneem, Ad. A.

    2007-01-01

    Sediment from two deep boreholes (???400 m) approximately 90 km apart in southern Bangladesh was analyzed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), total chemical analyses, chemical extractions, and electron probe microanalysis to establish the importance of authigenic pyrite as a sink for arsenic in the Bengal Basin. Authigenic framboidal and massive pyrite (median values 1500 and 3200 ppm As, respectively), is the principal arsenic residence in sediment from both boreholes. Although pyrite is dominant, ferric oxyhydroxides and secondary iron phases contain a large fraction of the sediment-bound arsenic between approximately 20 and 100 m, which is the depth range of wells containing the greatest amount of dissolved arsenic. The lack of pyrite in this interval is attributed to rapid sediment deposition and a low sulfur flux from riverine and atmospheric sources. The ability of deeper aquifers (>150 m) to produce ground water with low dissolved arsenic in southern Bangladesh reflects adequate sulfur supplies and sufficient time to redistribute the arsenic into pyrite during diagenesis.

  5. Arsenic Incorporation Into Authigenic Pyrite, Bengal Basin Sediment, Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Lowers, H.A.; Breit, G.N.; Foster, A.L.; Whitney, J.; Yount, J.; Uddin, Md.N.; Muneem, Ad.A.; /Geological Survey, Denver /Geological Survey, Menlo Park

    2007-07-10

    Sediment from two deep boreholes ({approx}400 m) approximately 90 km apart in southern Bangladesh was analyzed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), total chemical analyses, chemical extractions, and electron probe microanalysis to establish the importance of authigenic pyrite as a sink for arsenic in the Bengal Basin. Authigenic framboidal and massive pyrite (median values 1500 and 3200 ppm As, respectively), is the principal arsenic residence in sediment from both boreholes. Although pyrite is dominant, ferric oxyhydroxides and secondary iron phases contain a large fraction of the sediment-bound arsenic between approximately 20 and 100 m, which is the depth range of wells containing the greatest amount of dissolved arsenic. The lack of pyrite in this interval is attributed to rapid sediment deposition and a low sulfur flux from riverine and atmospheric sources. The ability of deeper aquifers (>150 m) to produce ground water with low dissolved arsenic in southern Bangladesh reflects adequate sulfur supplies and sufficient time to redistribute the arsenic into pyrite during diagenesis.

  6. An appraisal of the sediment yield in western Mediterranean river basins.

    PubMed

    Buendia, C; Herrero, A; Sabater, S; Batalla, R J

    2016-12-01

    The number of studies assessing soil erosion and sediment transport has increased with the aim of achieving sustainable land and water management. Mediterranean rivers have been the object of many of these studies due to their naturally high values of sediment fluxes and a higher vulnerability under future climate scenarios. In this context, we attempt to use empirical relationships to (i) further assess the relation between sediment yield and basin scale and (ii) provide an update on the main drivers controlling sediment yield in these particular river systems. For this purpose, sediment yield data (from reservoir sedimentation surveys and sediment transport records) was collected from >100 locations distributed across the western Mediterranean area, with basin areas ranging from 1 to 100,000km(2). Quantile Regression analysis was used to assess the correlation between basin area and sediment yield, while additional basin-scale descriptors were related to sediment yield by means of multiple regression analysis. Results showed the complexity in the relationship between basin scale and sediment yield, with changes in supply conditions with increasing area introducing uncertainties in the correlation. Despite the large scatter, analysis pointed towards the same direction and area appeared to be the main constrain for the maximum value of sediment yield that can be found at a specific basin scale. Results from the multiple regression indicated that variables representing basin's physiography, climate and land use were highly correlated with the basins' sediment yield. Also, a better model performance was obtained when using total sediment yield instead of specific values (per unit area). Validation showed model instability, potentially due to data limitations and the use of catchments with varying characteristics. Overall, despite providing some insights on the correlation between sediment yield and basin-scale characteristics, validation prevented direct

  7. Campano-Maastrichtian foraminifera from onshore sediments in the Rio del Rey Basin, Southwest Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoh, Oliver Anoh; Victor, Obiosio; Christopher, Agyingi

    2013-03-01

    Campanian-Maastrichtian marine sediments outcrop in five genetically linked sedimentary basins along the West African coast in the Gulf of Guinea, from the Douala Basin in Cameroon to the Anambra Basin in Nigeria. These sediments in the more centrally located Rio del Rey Basin have been the least studied. Therefore, the geologic history of this region has merely been speculative. The Rio del Rey Basin like the adjacent Niger Delta is producing hydrocarbon from the offshore Tertiary sedimentary interval in which all studies have been focused, neglecting the onshore Cretaceous sediments. Outcrops in the basin are rare, small and highly weathered. Samples from some of these sediments have yielded a few Planktonic and dominantly benthonic foraminiferal assemblages. The long-ranging heterohelix and hedbergellids characterized the planktics while the species Afrobolivina afra which is a well known diagnostic taxon for Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments in West African basins clearly dominate the benthic assemblage. Its occurrence in association with other Upper Cretaceous forms such as Bolivina explicata, Praebulimina exiqua, Gabonita lata, Ammobaculites coprolithiformis amongst others, formed the basis on which this age was assigned to the sediments sampled from the Rio del Rey Basin. Hence, this work has undoubtedly established the much needed link in this regional geologic history and correlates these sediments with the Logbaba and Nkporo Formations in the Douala Basin in Cameroon and the southeastern Nigerian Sedimentary Basins. Thus, these units were all deposited during this same geologic period and probably controlled by the same geologic event.

  8. Fluvial sediment in the little Arkansas River basin, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albert, C.D.; Stramel, G.J.

    1966-01-01

    Characteristics and transport of sediment in the Little Arkansas River basin in south-central Kansas were studied to determine if the water from the river could be used as a supplemental source for municipal supply or would provide adequate recharge to aquifers that are sources of municipal and agricultural water supplies. During periods when overland 1low contributed a significant amount to streamflow, the suspended sediment in the Little Arkansas River at Valley Center averaged about 85 percent of clay, about 13 percent of silt, and about 2 percent of sand. The average annual suspended-sediment discharge for the water years 1958, 1959, 1960, and 1961 was about 306,000 tons, and about 80 percent of the load was transported during 133 days of the 1,461-day period. The average daily water discharge of 352 cubic feet per second for the period 1958-61 was more than the long-term (i}9-year) average of 245 cfs; therefore, the average annual sediment load for 1958-61 was probably greater than the average annual load for the same long-term period. Studies of seepage in a part of the channel of Kisiwa Creek indicated that an upstream gravel-pit operation yielded clays which, when deposited in the channel, reduced seepage. A change in plant operation and subsequent runoff that removed the deposited clays restored natural seepage conditions. Experiments by the Wichita Water Department showed that artificial recharge probably cannot be accomplished by using raw turbid water that is injected into wells or by using pits. Recharge by raw turbid water on large permeable areas or by seepage canals may be feasible. Studies of chemical quality of surface water at several sites in the Little Arkansas River basin indicate that Turkey. Creek is a major contributor of chloride and other dissolved solids to the Little Arkansas River and that the dissolved-solids content is probably highest during low-flow periods when suspended-sediment concentration is low. Data collected by the Wichita

  9. Accelerator-mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dating of Pleistocene lake sediments in the Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.S.; Toolin, L.J.; Forester, R.M.; Spencer, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Pleistocene lake sediments in the Great Basin typically contain little organic carbon, and thus are difficult to date reliably by conventional radioccarbon methods. Paleoenvironmental data are abundant in these sediments, but are of limited value without adequate age controls. With the advent of accelerator-mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dating, it is now possible to date these paleolacustrine sediments. AMS dates were obtained on sediment cores from the Bonneville, Franklin, and Lahontan Basins. In the Bonneville Basin, the AMS-based chronology compares well with other chronologies constructed from dated shore-zone features. In the Bonneville and Franklin basins, AMS dates delimit unconformities not apparent by other means. We found that dispersed organic carbon from sediments deposited during relatively freshwater intervals provided apparently reliable AMS radiocarbon dates. Carbonate microfossils from the Lahontan Basin also produced results that appear reasonable, while bulk carbonate yielded erroneous results. ?? 1990.

  10. Characterization of the efficiency of sedimentation basins downstream of harvested peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson-Do, Myriam; St-Hilaire, André

    2015-04-01

    Peat harvesting is a very lucrative industry in the provinces of Quebec and New-Brunswick (Canada). Peat enters in many potting mix used for horticulture. However, harvesting this resource has some impacts on the environment. First, industries need to drain the peat bog to dry the superficial layer. Then, it is harvested with industrial vacuums and the underlying layer is allowed to dry. The drained water is laden with suspended sediments (mostly organic peat fibers) that may affect biota of the stream where it is discharged. To counter the problem, this water does not go directly on the stream but first flows through a sedimentation basin, built to reduce suspended sediment loads. This work focuses on characterizing and eventually modeling the efficiency of those sedimentation basins. Seven basins were studied in Rivière-du-Loup, St-Valère and Escoumins (Quebec, Canada). They each have a different ratio basin area/drained area (4.7 10-4 to 20.3 10-4). To continuously monitor the sediment loads (calculated from sediment concentrations and discharge) entering and leaving basins, a nephelometer and a level logger were installed in the water column upstream and downstream of sedimentation basins. Their trapping efficiency was measured during the ice-free period (May to October) and for each significant rain event, since it is known that the rain and subsequent runoff induce most of the peat transport in and out of the basin. Results show that the event efficiency decreases as the basin is filled up with trapped sediments. For one basin, the efficiency was 85August. Trapping efficiency can be used as a tool to estimate basin dimensions. This has been done for municipal sedimentation ponds that trap minerals and will be adapted to the current context, where the dominant sediment is organic.

  11. Provenance and sediment dispersal of the Triassic Yanchang Formation, southwest Ordos Basin, China, and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiangyang

    2016-04-01

    The Ordos Basin in north central China records a transition from marine to non-marine deposition during the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. As a result, the northern and southern regions of the Ordos Basin show different tectonic histories and very distinctive sedimentation styles. Two deformation belts, the Qinling orogenic belt to the south and the Liupanshan thrust and fold belt to the west, controlled the structural evolution of the southern Ordos Basin during the early Mesozoic. Paleocurrent analysis, net-sand ratio maps, sandstone modal analysis, and U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology were used to document sediment sources and dispersal patterns of the Triassic Yanchang Formation in the southwest Ordos Basin. Paleocurrent measurements suggest that the sediments were mainly derived from the Liupanshan and the Qinling orogenic belts. Net-sand ratio maps show that several fan delta systems controlled sediment delivery in the south Ordos Basin. Both sandstone modal analysis and U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology suggest that the Yanchang Formation is locally sourced from both of the basin marginal deformation belts; the lower and middle sections are recycled Paleozoic sedimentary rocks mainly derived from the north Qinling orogenic belt, whereas for the upper section, the Qilian-Qaidam terranes and possibly the west Qinling orogenic belt began to shed sediments into the southwest Ordos Basin. Results have important implications for basin marginal tectonics and its controls on sedimentation of intracratonic basins in China and similar settings.

  12. Application of REE geochemical signatures for Mesozoic sediment provenance to the Gettysburg Basin, Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Johanna M.; Peters, Stephen C.; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2017-03-01

    Rift basins adjacent to accreted terranes provide accommodation space for sediments eroded from these terranes. Despite similar depositional environments and geologic age, rocks of the Triassic Gettysburg Basin have approximately half the arsenic concentrations of the adjacent Newark Basin. Quartz-feldspar-lithics (QFL) diagrams and rare earth element (REE) geochemical signatures can inform sediment provenance. Here we investigate REE geochemical signatures of the sedimentary rocks in the Triassic Gettysburg rift basin, with the goal of distinguishing the main sources of siliciclastic sediment among the Appalachian foreland in the rift footwall from Piedmont arc and Iapetan continental margin rocks exposed in the hanging wall and ultimately understanding the geochemical cycling of arsenic to the Gettysburg Basin. Shale-normalized REE spider diagrams and Mann-Whitney tests on trace element ratios suggest that the Gettysburg Basin samples show patterns that most closely resemble those of the Iapetus Continental Slope Rise Iapetus Rift Volcanic, and Accretionary Complex deposits. Mann-Whitney Rank Sum analysis suggest that the Iapetus Continental Slope Rise terrane is the main source of sediments to the basin, which confirms results from prior QFL analysis and shows the utility of REE fingerprinting in provenance analysis. The main sources of sediment have smaller minimum and maximum arsenic concentrations than other terranes and the Newark Basin sediments, additionally suggesting the source of arsenic to the Gettysburg Basin is based upon specific terranes.

  13. Spatial patterns of scale effect on specific sediment yield in the Yangtze River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yunxia; Wang, Suiji; Chen, Junfeng

    2011-07-01

    This paper examines the spatial variation of sediment yield in the Yangtze basin in China, a large basin with complex geology, climate, land-use history, and extensive sediment monitoring. 287 stations with drainage area less than 10,000 km 2 were used to study the scale effects of sediment yield. In order to develop scale relations for regional sediment yield, the whole study area was divided into eight sub-basins. Relation between specific sediment yield and drainage basin area was built for each sub-basin. Regional scaling relation was analyzed based on landforms, geology, lithology and land-use of each sub-basin. Three regional trends were identified in relation to the drainage area: (1) a declining trend, due to soil erosion on heavily cultivated steep land and the storage of sediment in floodplains; (2) a flat trend, due to mass movement on the upper reach and heavy agricultural disturbance on the middle and lower reaches; and (3) an increasing trend, due to downstream recruitment of sediment from land downstream where slope farming and deforestation occurred. Using these developed relations, areally adjusted sediment yield maps were created over the entire Yangtze basin.

  14. Event sedimentation in low-latitude deep-water carbonate basins, Anegada passage, northeast Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2015-01-01

    The Virgin Islands and Whiting basins in the Northeast Caribbean are deep, structurally controlled depocentres partially bound by shallow-water carbonate platforms. Closed basins such as these are thought to document earthquake and hurricane events through the accumulation of event layers such as debris flow and turbidity current deposits and the internal deformation of deposited material. Event layers in the Virgin Islands and Whiting basins are predominantly thin and discontinuous, containing varying amounts of reef- and slope-derived material. Three turbidites/sandy intervals in the upper 2 m of sediment in the eastern Virgin Islands Basin were deposited between ca. 2000 and 13 600 years ago, but do not extend across the basin. In the central and western Virgin Islands Basin, a structureless clay-rich interval is interpreted to be a unifite. Within the Whiting Basin, several discontinuous turbidites and other sand-rich intervals are primarily deposited in base of slope fans. The youngest of these turbidites is ca. 2600 years old. Sediment accumulation in these basins is low (−1) for basin adjacent to carbonate platform, possibly due to limited sediment input during highstand sea-level conditions, sediment trapping and/or cohesive basin walls. We find no evidence of recent sediment transport (turbidites or debris flows) or sediment deformation that can be attributed to the ca. M7.2 1867 Virgin Islands earthquake whose epicentre was located on the north wall of the Virgin Islands Basin or to recent hurricanes that have impacted the region. The lack of significant appreciable pebble or greater size carbonate material in any of the available cores suggests that submarine landslide and basin-wide blocky debris flows have not been a significant mechanism of basin margin modification in the last several thousand years. Thus, basins such as those described here may be poor recorders of past natural hazards, but may provide a long-term record of past oceanographic

  15. Seismic stratigraphy, sediments, and basin history of Tonga forearc basin, late Eocene to Pleistocene

    SciTech Connect

    Herzer, R.H.; Ballance, P.F.; Cole, J.W.; Exon, N.F.; Stevenson, A.J.; Tappin, D.

    1986-07-01

    Four seismic reflectors (A, B, C, V) define primarily unconformity-bounded sedimentary sequences. Basement (V) is a block-faulted surface, apparently of Eocene volcanics. Above this, an upper Eocene sequence (CV) mainly buries the fault topography, pinching out locally on fault-block and volcanic highs along the eastern side of the basin. This sequence includes volcaniclastics and, on paleohighs, shallow-water limestones. Overlying this is a widespread upper Oligocene-lower Miocene sequence (BC), which also thins and pinches out locally against the high eastern side of the basin. Volcaniclastics are common, but limestones may occur locally. Seismic interpretations indicate little faulting during deposition of this sequence; prominent lenticular bodies could be either sills or reefs. Sequence AB, of middle and late Miocene to early Pliocene age, is composed of volcanopelagics deposited when the Lau arc was active, adjacent to the Tonga platform. No volcanic centers are seen in this sequence in the forearc, but shallow intrusions are common. Major tensional faulting developed toward the end of this depositional cycle. The uppermost sequence (SBA), of late Pliocene to Pleistocene age, also comprises volcanopelagic sediments. The volcanics are derived from the nearby Tofua arc, which developed with the opening of the Lau back-arc basin. Doming and tensional faulting in the late Pliocene-Pleistocene raised parts of the Tonga forearc basin, allowing wide reef platforms to develop.

  16. Sediment conditions in the San Antonio River Basin downstream from San Antonio, Texas, 2000-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Banta, J. Ryan; Crow, Cassi L.; Opsahl, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment plays an important role in the ecological health of rivers and estuaries and consequently is an important issue for water-resource managers. To better understand sediment characteristics in the San Antonio River Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority, completed a two-part study in the San Antonio River Basin downstream from San Antonio, Texas, to (1) collect and analyze sediment data to characterize sediment conditions and (2) develop and calibrate a watershed model to simulate hydrologic conditions and suspended-sediment loads during 2000–12.

  17. Sediment Production From Small Undisturbed Forested Basins In The Upper Coastal Plain

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Marion; Greg Malstaff; Howard G. Halverson

    1996-01-01

    Forest lands in the Upper Coastal Plain (UCP) of the American South are widely recognized as producing water with relatrvely low amounts of sediment. Previous research has established that sediment concentrations from forest basins lacking well-defined channel networks averages 5.3 to 6.2 kg of sediment per hectare per centimeter of runoff (kg/ha-cm) in this...

  18. A sediment trap intercomparison experiment in the Panama Basin, 1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honjo, Susumu; Spencer, Derek W.; Gardner, Wilford D.

    1992-02-01

    In order to compare the collection efficiency of settling particles among sediment traps in a variety of design concepts, 28 sediment traps of 11 different designs were deployed at six depths ranging from 665 to 3769 m along five rigid mooring anchored in a sill-protected marginal basin about 3865 m deep for about 4 months from August to November 1979. The traps represented three basic designs: (1) cylinders with an aspect ratio between 2 and 3; (2) funnels with a large opening covered by a baffle with a small grid and (3) open boxes whose openings were covered by a baffle. All but two of these types of participating traps had a mechanism to isolate the collected sample. Monitoring instruments indicate that all moorings provided a stable platform throughout the duration of Sediment Trap Intercomparison Experiment (STIE) with relatively low current velocity at the middle layers and very low velocity at the deep layers. Total mass flux, fluxes of three size fractions after water sieving, carbonate, combustible and noncombustible fractions, organic carbon, nitrogen and other sedimentary constituents in the individual samples were determined and evaluated with regard to the relative consistency in terms of depth and statistical tests on the similarity of the constituents. Under the conditions tested, the trapping efficiency of settling particles between a large funnel trap with baffle and an intermediate-sized cylinder trap was nearly identical considering the laboratory analytical errors. This conclusion might be extended to cylinder traps with diameters as small as 7 cm and a large aspect ratio when deployed rigidly in a low energy ocean environment. A funnel-type trap with a more effective baffle had a higher collecting efficiency than the other traps. Because of mechanical problems, comparison of the box-type traps to the other types was inconclusive.

  19. Indus Basin sediment provenance constrained using garnet geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizai, Anwar; Clift, Peter D.; Still, John

    2016-08-01

    The chemical and mineralogical diversity of western Himalayan rivers is the result of each of them draining different tectonic and lithologic units, whose character is partly transferred to the sediments carried by those rivers. Garnet geochemistry was employed to discriminate provenance in the Indus River system. We characterized the geochemistry of garnet sediment grains from the modern Indus and all its major tributaries, as well as the related but ephemeral Ghaggar-Hakra River and dune sand from the Thar Desert. Garnet geochemistry displays a unique signature for the Himalayan rivers on the east of the Indus drainage compared to those in the western drainage. The trunk Indus remains distinct because of the dominant arc-type pyrope-garnet derived from Kohistan and the Karakoram. The Jhellum, which lies just east of the modern Indus has modest concentrations of arc-type pyrope garnets, which are more depleted in the other eastern tributaries. Their presence in the Jhellum reflects recycling of trunk Indus garnets through the Miocene Siwalik Group foreland sedimentary rocks. The Thar Desert dune sample contains significant numbers of grains similar to those in the trunk Indus, likely reworked by monsoon winds from the SW. Our data further indicate the presence of a Himalayan river channel east of the present Indus, close to the delta, in the Nara River valley during the middle Holocene. Sands from this channel cannot be distinguished from the Indus on the basis of their garnet geochemistry alone but we favour their sedimentation from an Indus channel rather than reworking of desert sands by another stream. The garnet geochemistry shows some potential as a provenance tool, but cannot be used alone to uniquely discriminate Indus Basin provenance.

  20. Channel evolution and hydrologic variations in the Colorado River basin: Factors influencing sediment and salt loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellis, Allen; Hereford, Richard; Schumm, S. A.; Hayes, B. R.

    1991-05-01

    Suspended-sediment and dissolved-solid (salt) loads decreased after the early 1940s in the Colorado Plateau portion of the Colorado River basin, although discharge of major rivers — the Colorado, Green and San Juan — did not change significantly. This decline followed a period of high sediment yield caused by arroyo cutting. Reduced sediment loads have previously been explained by a change in sediment sampling procedures or changes in climate, land-use and conservation practices. More recent work has revealed that both decreased sediment production and sediment storage in channels of tributary basins produced the decline of sediment and salt loads. Sediment production and sediment storage are important components of incised-channel evolution, which involves sequential channel deepening, widening and finally floodplain formation. Accordingly, the widespread arroyo incision of the late nineteenth century resulted initially in high sediment loads. Since then, loads have decreased as incised channels (arroyos) have stabilized and begun to aggrade. However, during the 1940s, a period of low peak discharges permitted vegetational colonization of the valley floors, which further reduced sediment loads and promoted channel stabilization. This explanation is supported by experimental studies and field observations. Both geomorphic and hydrologic factors contributed to sediment storage and decreased sediment and salt loads in the upper Colorado River basin.

  1. Understanding sedimentation in the Song Hong-Yinggehai Basin, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yi; Carter, Andrew; Palk, Carl; Brichau, StéPhanie; Hu, Xiaoqiong

    2011-06-01

    The Cenozoic Song Hong-Yinggehai Basin in the South China Sea contains a large volume of sediment that has been used in previous studies, together with regional geomorphology, to argue for the existence of a large palaeodrainage system that connected eastern Tibet with the South China Sea. To test this and to understand the significance of sediment volumes deposited in the Song Hong-Yinggehai Basin, this study compared erosion histories of source regions with sediment volumes deposited during the two main stages in basin evolution spanning active rifting and subsidence (30-15.5 Ma) and postrift sedimentation (15.5 Ma to present). The study of basin provenance by detrital zircon U-Pb dating revealed Hainan was an important and continuous source of sediment, and a bedrock thermochronological study quantified its overall contribution to basin sedimentation. Comparison between the accumulated mass of basin sediment and volumes of eroded bedrock, calculated from apatite thermochronometry across the modern Red River drainage in northern Vietnam as well as Hainan Island, accounted for the bulk of sediment deposited since 30 Ma. Consequently, if an expanded paleodrainage ever existed it must have predated the Oligocene.

  2. Process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics in a river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, M. A.; Dutta, D.; Hironaka, S.

    2011-04-01

    Modeling of sediment dynamics for developing best management practices of reducing soil erosion and of sediment control has become essential for sustainable management of watersheds. Precise estimation of sediment dynamics is very important since soils are a major component of enormous environmental processes and sediment transport controls lake and river pollution extensively. Different hydrological processes govern sediment dynamics in a river basin, which are highly variable in spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics at river basin scale by integrating sediment processes (soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition) with an existing process-based distributed hydrological model. In this modeling approach, the watershed is divided into an array of homogeneous grids to capture the catchment spatial heterogeneity. Hillslope and river sediment dynamic processes have been modeled separately and linked to each other consistently. Water flow and sediment transport at different land grids and river nodes are modeled using one dimensional kinematic wave approximation of Saint-Venant equations. The mechanics of sediment dynamics are integrated into the model using representative physical equations after a comprehensive review. The model has been tested on river basins in two different hydro climatic areas, the Abukuma River Basin, Japan and Latrobe River Basin, Australia. Sediment transport and deposition are modeled using Govers transport capacity equation. All spatial datasets, such as, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), land use and soil classification data, etc., have been prepared using raster "Geographic Information System (GIS)" tools. The results of relevant statistical checks (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and R-squared value) indicate that the model simulates basin hydrology and its associated sediment dynamics reasonably well. This paper presents the model including descriptions

  3. Process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics in a river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, M. A.; Dutta, D.; Hironaka, S.

    2010-08-01

    Modeling of sediment dynamics for developing best management practices of reducing soil erosion and of sediment control has become essential for sustainable management of watersheds. Precise estimation of sediment dynamics is very important since soils are a major component of enormous environmental processes and sediment transport controls lake and river pollution extensively. Different hydrological processes govern sediment dynamics in a river basin, which are highly variable in spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics at river basin scale by integrating sediment processes (soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition) with an existing process-based distributed hydrological model. In this modeling approach, the watershed is divided into an array of homogeneous grids to capture the catchment spatial heterogeneity. Hillslope and river sediment dynamic processes have been modeled separately and linked to each other consistently. Water flow and sediment transport at different surface grids and river nodes are modeled using one-dimensional kinematic wave approximation of Saint-Venant equations. The mechanics of sediment dynamics are integrated into the model using representative physical equations after a comprehensive review. The model has been tested on river basins in two different hydro climatic areas, the Abukuma River Basin, Japan and Latrobe River Basin, Australia. Sediment transport and deposition are modeled using Govers transport capacity equation. All spatial datasets, such as, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), land use and soil classification data, etc., have been prepared using raster "Geographic Information System (GIS)" tools. The results of relevant statistical checks (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and R-squared value) indicate that the model simulates basin hydrology and its associated sediment dynamics reasonably well. This paper presents the model including

  4. Relation of waterfowl poisoning to sediment lead concentrations in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Audet, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Day, D.

    2000-01-01

    For many years, waterfowl have been poisoned by lead after ingesting contaminated sediment in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, in Idaho. Results of studies on waterfowl experimentally fed this sediment were combined with results from field studies conducted in the Basin to relate sediment lead concentration to injury to waterfowl. The first step in the model estimated exposure as the relation of sediment lead concentration to blood lead concentration in mute swans (Cygnus olor), ingesting 22% sediment in a rice diet. That rate corresponded to the 90th percentile of sediment ingestion estimated from analyses of feces of tundra swans (Olor columbianus) in the Basin. Then, with additional laboratory studies on Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) fed the sediment, we developed the general relation of blood lead to injury in waterfowl. Injury was quantified by blood lead concentrations, ALAD (-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase) activity, protoporphyrin concentrations, hemoglobin concentrations, hepatic lead concentrations, and the prevalence of renal nuclear inclusion bodies. Putting the exposure and injury relations together provided a powerful tool for assessing hazards to wildlife in the Basin. The no effect concentration of sediment lead was estimated as 24 mg/kg and the lowest effect level as 530 mg/kg. By combining our exposure equation with data on blood lead concentrations measured in moribund tundra swans in the Basin, we estimated that some mortality would occur at a sediment lead concentration as low as 1800 mg/kg.

  5. Sediment discharge in the Santa Clara River Basin, Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Rhea P.

    1979-01-01

    Sediment data collected in the Santa Clara River in California basin, during the 1967-75 water years were analyzed to determine the particle size and quantity of sediment transported past three gaging stations. The total sediment discharge of the basin , computed from records of Santa Clara River at Montalvo for water years 1968-75, was 63.5 million tons, of which 59.5 million tons was carried in suspension and an estimated 4 million tons was transported as unsampled sediment discharge. About 17.7 million tons, or 28 percent of the total sediment discharge, was coarse sediment (particles larger than 0.062 millimeter). Most of the sediment was transported during only a few days of floodflow each year. During the 1968-75 water years, approximately 55 percent of the total sediment was transported in 2 days and 92 percent was transported in 53 days. The long-term (1928-75) average annual sediment discharge of the Santa Clara River at Montalvo is estimated at 3.67 million tons. Of that quantity, 2.58 million tons consisted of fine sediment and 1.09 million tons consisted of coarse sediment. A sediment budget for the Santa Clara River basin was estimated for sediment discharges under both natural and actual conditions. The major difference between natural and actual sediment discharges of the Santa Clara River basin is the sediment intercepted upstream from Lake Piru. The combined trap efficiency of Lake Piru and Pyramid Lake approaches 100 percent. Sediment deposited in these reservoirs resulted in about a 6-percent reduction of sediment to the Santa Clara River basin during the historical period (1928-75) and a 12-percent reduction during the period most affected by dams (1953-75). Sediment losses to the basin by gravel mining, diversion of flows, and interception of sediment in the Castaic Creek basin resulted in additional reductions of 2 percent during the period 1928-75 and 4 percent during the period 1953-75. (Kosco-USGS)

  6. Sediment loads in the Ventura River Basin, Ventura County, California, 1969-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, B.R.; McConaughy, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    To estimate the replenishment of beach sands by fluvial transport from the Ventura River, California sediment data collected during a 12-year period (1969-81) were used to develop relations between bedload and coarse-suspended-sediment loads and streamflow. These relations were used to calculate coarse-sediment and total-sediment loads from the Ventura River, and to assess the effects of major storms on sediment transport. Sediment data collected on an unregulated tributary over a 12-year period were used to assess effects of dam construction on sediment loads and to identify major sediment source areas in the Ventura basin. Total-sediment load from the Ventura River for the 12 years of data collection was 12,800,000 tons, of which 5,100,000 tons, or 40%, consisted of coarse material potentially available for replenishment of beach sands. Suspended-sediment transport was the dominant process supplying sediment to the coast, accounting for more than 98% of the coarse-sediment load. Higher streamflows carried proportionately more coarse-suspended sediment than low flows. Major storm events transported more than 96% of both total-sediment and course-sediment annual loads during three high-flow years. The sequence of storm events may influence storm-period sediment transport, as sediment removed rapidly during high flows is gradually replenished by hillslope processes. The sediment yield of the unregulated part of the basin was higher than that of the regulated part. Consideration of the trap efficiencies of reservoirs in the basin, however, indicates that actual yields may be highest in areas affected by impoundments. (USGS)

  7. Spatial Patterns of Suspended Sediment Yield in the Upper Indus River Basin, Northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, K.; de Boer, D. H.; Martz, L. W.

    2004-05-01

    The Indus River is one of the world`s largest rivers in term of water discharge and sediment loads, and the backbone of Pakistan`s economy for agriculture and hydropower. Much of its flow originates in the mountains of the Himalayas, Karakoram and Hindu Kush. The suspended sediment load, which constitutes the main portion of the total load in mountain rivers, creates major water resources management problems such as siltation of reservoirs, damage to turbines, and a reduction in water quality. An understanding of the spatial pattern of suspended sediment yield in the upper Indus River basin is, therefore, essential for effective water resources development in northern Pakistan. Discharge and suspended sediment concentration records are available for 17 active and discontinued hydrological stations (with drainage areas ranging from 600 to 166,000 km2) operated by the Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority. The objective of this study is to delineate the spatial pattern of suspended sediment yield in the basin by analyzing the available hydrological database. Sediment yields have been calculated by constructing sediment rating curves. Physiographic characteristics, hydrologic regimes and climatic patterns of the basin have also been investigated. The results show that the upper Indus River basin can be subdivided into three regions based on suspended sediments yield. This division reflects the contrasting hydrological regimes of the basin. Region 1 comprises the high elevation, glacierized areas of the Karakoram Mountains in the northernmost part of the basin. This region extends downstream to Partab Bridge on the Indus River, and excludes areas around Nanga Parbat, which acts as a barrier to the monsoon. The sediments are mainly derived from the Shyok, Shigar, Hunza and Gilgit sub-basins during the period of increasing summer runoff in June. This runoff is caused by the melt of glaciers and permanent snow pack, and peaks in July and August, when almost the

  8. A reconnaissance of stream sediment in the Erie-Niagara basin, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archer, R.J.; La Sala, A.M.

    1968-01-01

    This reconnaissance study of erosion and deposition of sediment in the Erie-Niagara basin indicates that the highest sediment yields, on the order of 1,000 tons per square mile per year, occur in streams that drain upland areas. In contrast, for example, from the lowland part of the Tonawanda Creek basin, the annual sediment yields are on the order of 100 tons per square mile per year. The estimated average annual sediment yields of streams in the basin range from 50 tons per square mile for Little Tonawanda Creek at Linden, to 1,500 tons per square mile for Cazenovia Creek at Ebenezer. These estimates are based on measured instantaneous sediment discharge at selected stream stations, the sediment loads of which ranged from 1,100 tons per year for Little Tonawanda Creek at Linden to 610,000 tons per year for Cattaraugus Creek at Gowanda. The accuracy of the estimates of average annual sediment discharge could be considerably improved by the collection of additional data. Nevertheless, the estimates are believed to be indicative of the magnitude of sediment yields and provide a general description of stream-sediment movement in the study area. Peak suspended-sediment concentrations in the range of 2,600 to 5,300 ppm (parts per million) were observed at three stations in the Cattaraugus Creek basin, as well as at Buffalo Creek at Gardenville, Cazenovia Creek at Ebenezer, and Cayuga Creek near Lancaster.

  9. Trends in suspended-sediment loads and concentrations in the Mississippi River Basin, 1950–2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heimann, David C.; Sprague, Lori A.; Blevins, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    Trends in loads and concentrations of suspended sediment and suspended sand generally were downward for stations within the Mississippi River Basin during the 60-, 34-, and 12-year periods analyzed. Sediment transport in the lower Mississippi River has historically been, and continues to be, most closely correlative to sediment contributions from the Missouri River, which generally carried the largest annual suspended-sediment load of the major Mississippi River subbasins. The closure of Fort Randall Dam in the upper Missouri River in 1952 was the single largest event in the recorded historical decline of suspended-sediment loads in the Mississippi River Basin. Impoundments on tributaries and sediment reductions as a result of implementation of agricultural conservation practices throughout the basin likely account for much of the remaining Mississippi River sediment transport decline. Scour of the main-stem channel downstream from the upper Missouri River impoundments is likely the largest source of suspended sand in the lower Missouri River. The Ohio River was second to the Missouri River in terms of sediment contributions, followed by the upper Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers. Declines in sediment loads and concentrations continued through the most recent analysis period (1998–2009) at available Mississippi River Basin stations. Analyses of flow-adjusted concentrations of suspended sediment indicate the recent downward temporal changes generally can be explained by corresponding decreases in streamflows.

  10. Three decades of monitoring in the Rio Cordon instrumented basin: Sediment budget and temporal trend of sediment yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainato, R.; Mao, L.; García-Rama, A.; Picco, L.; Cesca, M.; Vianello, A.; Preciso, E.; Scussel, G. R.; Lenzi, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates nearly 30 years of monitoring of sediment fluxes in an instrumented Alpine basin (Rio Cordon, Italy). The collected bedload and suspended sediment transport data allows sediment dynamics to be analyzed at different time scales, ranging from short- (single event) to long-term (three decades). The Rio Cordon monitoring station has been operating since 1986, continuously recording water discharge, bedload and suspended load. At the flood event scale, a good relationship was found between peak discharges (Qpeak) and sediment load (bedload and suspended load). The inter-annual sediment yields were analyzed, also assessing the contribution of the single floods to the total sediment budget. The annual suspended load ranges from 10 to 2524 t yr- 1, while the bedload varies from 0 to 1543 t yr- 1. The higher annual yields were recorded in the years when large floods occurred, highlighting that the sediment budget in the Rio Cordon is strongly controlled by the occurrence of high magnitude events. Investigation of the seasonal suspended load contribution demonstrated that from 1986 to 1993 most fine sediments were transported during the snowmelt/summer seasons, while autumn and snowmelt were the dominant seasons contributing to sediment yield in the periods 1994-2002 and 2003-2014, respectively. The mean annual sediment yield from 1986 to 2014 is equal to 103 t km- 2 yr- 1, and overall, bedload accounts for 21% of the total sediment yield. The ratio between the sediment transport and the effective runoff of the events allowed the temporal trends of transport efficiency to be inferred, highlighting the existence of periods characterized by different sediment availability. In particular, despite no significant changes in the hydrological variables (i.e. rainfall), nearly a decade (1994-2002) with high transport efficiency appears to have occurred after an exceptional event (recurrence interval > 100 years). This event affected the sediment availability

  11. Spatial variability of sediment ecotoxicity in a large storm water detention basin.

    PubMed

    Merchan, Carolina Gonzalez; Perrodin, Yves; Barraud, Sylvie; Sébastian, Christel; Becouze-Lareure, Céline; Bazin, Christine; Kouyi, Gislain Lipeme

    2014-04-01

    Detention basins are valuable facilities for urban storm water management, from both the standpoint of flood control and the trapping of pollutants. Studies performed on storm water have shown that suspended solids often constitute the main vector of pollutants (heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), etc.). In order to characterise the ecotoxicity of urban sediments from storm water detention basins, the sediments accumulated over a 6-year period were sampled at five different points through the surface of a large detention basin localised in the east of Lyon, France. A specific ecotoxicological test battery was implemented on the solid phase (raw sediment) and the liquid phase (interstitial water of sediments). The results of the study validated the method formulated for the ecotoxicological characterization of urban sediments. They show that the ecotoxicological effect of the sediments over the basin is heterogeneous and greater in areas often flooded. They also show the relationship between, on one hand, the physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments and, on the other hand, their ecotoxicity. Lastly, they contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of the pollution close to the bottom of detention basins, which can be useful for improving their design. The results of this research raise particularly the issue of using oil separators on the surface of detention basins.

  12. Mapping Buried Impact Craters in the Chryse Basin to Understand the Distribution of Outflow Channel Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Moira; Frey, Herbert V.

    2016-01-01

    The Chryse Basin's location in the northern hemisphere of Mars allowed it to collect water from a number of major outflow channels. These outflows likely deposited significant amounts of sediment within the Basin. This project's goal was to see if mapping buried impact craters, revealed as Quasi-Circular Depressions (QCDs) in Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data, could be used to determine the distribution and variation of sediment thickness within the Basin. QCDs, including likely buried impact craters, were mapped to test the hypothesis that further into the basin there would be fewer smaller craters because thicker sediments would have preferentially covered them. Mapping was done using Gridview, an interactive graphics program that manipulates data, in this case topographic data from MOLA. It should be possible to estimate the thickness of the sediment from the smallest buried craters found in a given area, and therefore map out the change in sediment thickness across the basin. The smallest QCDs beginning to be completely covered by sediment were just below 30 km in diameter. The minimum sediment needed to cover a QCD of this size was calculated to be between 1-2km. Therefore, the absence of QCDs below 30 km in the NE corner of Chryse could be explained by sediment at least that thick. Lower thickness is expected elsewhere in the basin, especially in the SW, where more QCDs with smaller diameters were found. The method of mapping buried impact craters provides a way to determine variations in sediment thickness within the Chryse Basin. This method could be used on other sediment-covered areas to learn about past water flow.

  13. Toxicity of water and sediment from stormwater retarding basins to Hydra hexactinella.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke T; Pollino, Carmel A; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Baun, Anders

    2008-12-01

    Hydra hexactinella was used to assess the toxicity of stormwater and sediment samples from three retarding basins in Melbourne, Australia, using an acute test, a sublethal test, and a pulse test. Stormwater from the Avoca St retarding basins resulted in a LC50 of 613 ml/L, NOEC and LOEC values of 50 ml/L and 100 ml/L, while the 7h pulse exposure caused a significant increase in the mean population growth rate compared to the control. Water samples from the two other retarding basins were found non-toxic to H. hexactinella. This is the first study to employ sediment tests with Hydra spp. on stormwater sediments and a lower population growth rate was observed for organisms exposed to sediment from the Avoca St retarding basins. The behavioral study showed that H. hexactinella tended to avoid the sediment-water interface when exposed to sediment from all retarding basins, compared to the reference sediment. Further work is needed to determine the long-term effects of stormwater polluted sediments and acute effects due to organism exposure to short-term high concentrations during rain events.

  14. Sediment structures and sediment ages of the Chukchi region, Amerasia Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegewald, A.; Jokat, W.

    2011-12-01

    In 2008, the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) of Germany, using the RV Polarstern, collected multichannel seismic reflection data in the eastern Arctic Ocean (73-79°N and 170°E-165°W), namely the East Siberian Shelf, the Chukchi Shelf, - Plateau, and - Abyssal Plain, and the southern part of the Mendeleev Ridge. For the seismic data acquisition an air gun array with up to six air guns (48 ltr. total volume fired at 200 bar) was used. With a 3000 m long streamer including 240 active channels and a 600 m long streamer including 96 active channels the seismic signals were recorded. Obtaining the ages of the sediments, the information of five exploration wells near the coast of Alaska were correlated into the new seismic lines. For this correlation an existing network of more than 200 seismic reflection lines on the East Siberian Shelf and Chukchi Shelf from the USGS, TGS-NOPEC and ION-GX Technology were used. The research area is dominated by two different sediment packages ranging from the Paleocene to the Jurassic. The upper part is an undisturbed unit with low amplitudes and flat-lying reflections. In contrast, the lower package is dominated by an undulated stratification with many fractures and faults. Moreover, the lower unit consists of higher amplitudes with strong reflection bands. The sedimentary thickness varied from the East Siberian Shelf to the Chukchi Plateau from more than 8 km to 4 km. In the basin between the Chukchi Plateau and the Mendeleev Ridge the sedimentary thickness is about 2 km. Furthermore, a series of prograding sequences at the continental margin of the Chukchi Shelf with ages of 65 Ma and younger were analysed. These sequences are the result of an enormous sediment influx from Siberia and Alaska and can be explained by variations in the sedimentation rate over time.

  15. Reconnaissance of sedimentation in the Rio Pilcomayo Basin, May 1975, Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, John R.

    1977-01-01

    The Río Pilcomayo "Alto" (Bolivia) and "Superior" (Bolivia, Argentina, and Paraguay) transport large quantities of sediment for the size of the basin. The Río Pilcomayo "Inferior" (Argentina and Paraguay) seems to carry little sediment. The large loads of the "Alto" and "Superior" must be considered before dams or irrigation projects are started. The shifting channel and flooding of the Río Pilcomayo "Superior" also are problems to be considered before development. The Río Pilcomayo "Alto" basin has relatively little deposition whereas the "Superior" basin has considerable deposition. A part of the "Superior" channel is filled with sediment to the top of its banks. The upstream limit of filling is moving farther upstream each year causing the place of overbank flooding to move upstream also.More data must be collected and more observations made before a complete analysis of the sediment movement in the basin can be made.

  16. Microbial Breakdown of Organic Carbon in the Diverse Sediments of Guaymas Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoarfrost, A.; Snider, R.; Arnosti, C.

    2015-12-01

    Guaymas Basin is characterized by sediments under conditions ranging from hemipelagic to hydrothermal. This wide range in geochemical contexts results in diverse microbial communities that may have varying abilities to access organic matter. We can address these functional differences by comparing enzyme activities initializing the breakdown of organic matter across these sediment types; however, previous direct measurements of the extracellular hydrolysis of complex organic carbon in sediments are sparse. We measured this first step of heterotrophic processing of organic matter in sediments at 5-10cm and 55-60cm depth from a wide range of environmental settings in Guaymas Basin. Sediment sources included sulfidic seeps on the Sonora Margin, hemipelagic ridge flank sediments, and hydrothermically altered Sonora Margin sediments bordering a methane seep site. Hydrolysis of organic substrates varied by depth and by sediment source, but despite high energy potential and organic carbon load in sulfidic sediments, activity was not highest where hydrothermal influence was highest. These results suggest that heterotrophic breakdown of organic carbon in Guaymas Basin sediments may be sensitive to factors including varying composition of organic carbon available in different sediment types, or differences in microbial community capacities to access specific organic substrates.

  17. Part I: Integrated water quality management: river basin approach. Geochemical techniques on contaminated sediments--river basin view.

    PubMed

    Förstner, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    The big flood in the upper Elbe River catchment area has revealed a wide spectrum of problems with contaminated sediments. So far, an effective strategy for managing contaminated sediments on a river basin scale is still missing and it seems that not much has been learned from the lessons received during the last decade. In the following overview, special emphasis is given to the utilization of geochemically-based techniques for sediment remediation, which can be applied in different parts of a river basin. The examples presented here are mostly from the Elbe River catchment area. In general, new technical problem solutions need a set of practical process knowledge that uses a wide range of simulation techniques, as well as models in different spatial and temporal scales. The evaluation of recent flood events clearly demonstrates the importance of chemical expertise in the decision-making process for the sustainable development in river basins.

  18. ALARA Review for the Sediment Relocation and Removal from the 105-N Fuel Storage Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Demers, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    This as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA) review revision provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used to manage personnel exposure, control contamination levels, and airborne radioactivity concentrations during sediment relocation and removal in the 105-N Fuel Storage Basin. This document updates and supercedes the ALARA review of the sediment-related activities contained in 100-N Basin Stabilization Project As Low As Reasonably Achievable Plan (BHI 1995).

  19. Sediment yields in a thick loess region: The Missouri River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bettis, E.A. III

    1995-12-31

    Sediment yields in the thick loess region of the Missouri River basin are among the highest in North America. The combination of high local relief, easily eroded loessal surficial deposits, entrenched stream systems, and a humid climate foster high erosion rates and sediment yields. Stratigraphic investigations in over twenty watersheds within the thick loess region have documented the magnitude of several episodes of Holocene sediment movement and storage. Spatial and temporal patterns of sediment storage vary within a given drainage basin, but are similar in like-size elements of different basins. These patterns suggest that intrinsic controls are as important a climate in the long-term behavior of this fluvial system. The magnitude and pattern of Holocene sediment accumulation during the Historic period is similar to that which occurred on at least one occasion during the prehistoric period when the landscape was little modified by human activity.

  20. Temporal and basin-specific population trends of quagga mussels on soft sediment of a multi-basin reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, Timothy J; Rosen, Michael R.; Chandra, Sudeep; Acharya, Kumud; Caires, Andrea M; Davis, Clinton J.; Thaw, Melissa; Webster, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive quagga (Dreissena bugnesis) and zebra (Dreissena ploymorpha) mussels have rapidly spread throughout North America. Understanding the relationships between environmental variables and quagga mussels during the early stages of invasion will help management strategies and allow researchers to predict patterns of future invasions. Quagga mussels were detected in Lake Mead, NV/AZ in 2007, we monitored early invasion dynamics in 3 basins (Boulder Basin, Las Vegas Bay, Overton Arm) bi-annually from 2008-2011. Mean quagga density increased over time during the first year of monitoring and stabilized for the subsequent two years at the whole-lake scale (8 to 132 individuals·m-2, geometric mean), in Boulder Basin (73 to 875 individuals·m-2), and in Overton Arm(2 to 126 individuals·m-2). In Las Vegas Bay, quagga mussel density was low (9 to 44 individuals·m-2), which was correlated with high sediment metal concentrations and warmer (> 30°C) water temperatures associated with that basin. Carbon content in the sediment increased with depth in Lake Mead and during some sampling periods quagga density was also positively correlated with depth, but more research is required to determine the significance of this interaction. Laboratory growth experiments suggested that food quantity may limit quagga growth in Boulder Basin, indicating an opportunity for population expansion in this basin if primary productivity were to increase, but was not the case in Overton Arm. Overall quagga mussel density in Lake Mead is highly variable and patchy, suggesting that temperature, sediment size, and sediment metal concentrations, and sediment carbon content all contribute to mussel distribution patterns. Quagga mussel density in the soft sediment of Lake Mead expanded during initial colonization, and began to stabilize approximately 3 years after the initial invasion.

  1. Hydrology and sedimentation of Corey Creek and Elk Run basins, north-central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Lloyd A.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of data collected from two small agricultural basins in northcehtral Pennsylvania during the period May 1954 to September 1967 indicates that conservation measures reduced the quantity of suspended sediment leaving the Corey Creek basin as a result of frequent storms during the growing season. Extensive soil conservation treatments were applied in the 12.2-squaremile Corey Creek basin, but only minor treatments were applied in the adjacent 10.2-square-mile Elk Run basin. These treatments included the construction of ponds and diversion terraces and altering land use by such measures as establishing permanent hay land and changing marginal pasture land to wood lands. Elk Run basin, which is topographically and hydrologically similar to the Corey Creek basin, was used as an external control to assist in detecting and evaluating the hydrologic changes in Corey Creek. Trend analyses of data from both basins indicate a 47-percent decrease in sediment discharge from Corey Creek during the frequent storms that occur in the May to October growing season. Six percent of the sediment discharged from Corey Creek during the period of this investigation (1954-67) was discharged during these frequent growing-season storms. The remaining 94 percent of the sediment was discharged during the November to April dormant season and during two major events during the growing season, one October 1955 and one May 1961. No decrease in sediment discharge was observed for these events or for this period. The adjacent basin of similar size, topography, and hydrologic characteristics, Elk Run, was not scheduled for extensive conservation treatment; it was selected as a control for this study "because of the assumption that any changes in precipitation and runoff patterns would affect both basins in a similar manner. Rainfall, runoff, sediment, and stream-channel data are used in this report to estimate the probable hydrologic behavior of the Corey Creek basin provided the intensive

  2. Current-controlled, abyssal microtopography and sedimentation in Mozambique Basin, southwest Indian Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolla, V.; Eittreim, S.; Sullivan, L.; Kostecki, J.A.; Burckle, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    The Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) activity and the variations in the abundance and grain size of the terrigenous sediments, derived from Africa and Madagascar land masses, are reflected in different types of microtopography in the Mozambique Basin. In southerly areas, where the sediment supply is much less, the bottom-current activity has resulted in the presence of manganese nodules, a thin veneer of sediments, and the absence of sediment waves. Farther north, along the marginal areas of the basin where the fine-grained sediments from the Africa-Madagascar source have been supplied in abundance, wavy bedforms have been generated by AABW. Wavy bedforms do not exist even in the northerly areas if coarse-grained, turbidite sediments are present on the sea floor. The continuation of acoustic reflectors from the zone of turbidites in the central areas of the basin into the zone of sediment waves along the margins, and the lithology and structures in sediment cores from these zones suggest that the turbidity-current-fed, fine-grained sediments were deposited as wavy bedforms by AABW flow. Thus, sediment waves formed readily during Pleistocene times. The enrichment of quartz and displaced Antarctic diatoms, and the relatively low kaolinite/chlorite ratios in the sediments, the north-pointing current lineations on the sea floor, the lack of any perceptible sedimentary fill in the troughs of waves, and the dense nepheloid layer in the westerly areas of the Mozambique Basin, attest to the current-controlled sedimentation and generation of wavy bedforms during Holocene time also. The formation of sediment waves in the Mozambique Basin can be modeled after a fluvial antidune mechanism. This model envisages that internal waves, focussed on a benthic boundary layer cap, have been locked in phase with sediment waves in the presence of an 8-10 cm/sec current in the Mozambique Basin. A density contrast of 2??10-6 g/cm3 appears to exist at the tops of benthic boundary layers in the

  3. Sedimentation and subsidence patterns in the central and north basins of Lake Baikal from seismic stratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.C.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Golmshtok, A.J.; Weber, E.

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of sedimentation patterns, basement subsidence, and faulting histories in the north and central basins of Lake Baikal aids in developing an interbasinal seismic stratigraphy that reveals the early synrift evolution of the central portion of the Baikal rift, a major continental rift system. Although there is evidence that the central and northern rift basins evolved at approximately the same time, their sedimentation histories are markedly different. Primary sediment sources for the initial rift phase were from the east flank of the rift; two major deltas developed adjacent to the central basin: the Selenga delta at the south end and the Barguzin delta at the north end. The Barguzin River system, located at the accommodation zone between the central and north basins, also fed into the southern part of the north basin and facilitated the stratigraphic linkage of the two basins. A shift in the regional tectonic environment in the mid Pliocene(?) created a second rift phase distinguished by more rapid subsidence and sediment accumulation in the north basin and by increased subsidence and extensive faulting in the central basin. The Barguzin delta ceased formation and parts of the old delta system were isolated within the north basin and on Academic Ridge. These isolated deltaic deposits provide a model for the development of hydrocarbon plays within ancient rift systems. In this second tectonic phase, the dominant sediment fill in the deeper and more rapidly subsiding north basin shifted from the flexural (eastern) margin to axial transport from the Upper Angara River at the north end of the basin.

  4. Spatial variation in spawning habitat of cutthroat trout in a sediment-rich basin

    Treesearch

    James P. Magee; Thomas E. McMahon; Russell F. Thurow

    1996-01-01

    We examined distribution and habitat characteristics of spawning sites of cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki at various spatial scales to assess effects of sedimentation within a large basin in Montana. Redd density varied widely across the basin; nearly all (99%) of the 362 redds observed occurred in two high-elevation headwater tributaries. Redd density at the reach...

  5. Sedimentation and tectonics in the southern Bida Basin, Nigeria: depositional response to varying tectonic context

    SciTech Connect

    Braide, S.P. )

    1990-05-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Bida basin of central Nigeria is sandwiched between the Precambrian schist belts of the Northern Nigerian massif and the West African craton. Of interest is the southern part of the basin, which developed in continental settings, because the facies architecture of the sedimentary fill suggests a close relation between sedimentation dynamics and basin margin tectonics. This relationship is significant to an understanding of the basin's origin, which has been controversial. A simple sag and rift origin has been suggested, and consequently dominated the negative thinking on the hydrocarbon prospects of the basin which were considered poor. This detailed study of the facies indicates rapid basin-wide changes from various alluvial fan facies through flood-basin and deltaic facies to lacustrine facies. Paleogeographic reconstruction suggests lacustrine environments were widespread and elongate. Lacustrine environments occurred at the basin's axis and close to the margins. This suggests the depocenter must have migrated during the basin's depositional history and subsided rapidly to accommodate the 3.5-km-thick sedimentary fill. Although distinguishing pull-apart basins from rift basins, based solely on sedimentologic grounds, may be difficult, the temporal migration of the depocenter, as well as the basin architecture of upward coarsening cyclicity, show a strong tectonic and structural overprint that suggests a tectonic framework for the Southern Bida basin similar in origin to a pull-apart basin.

  6. Thermal alteration of organic matter in recent marine sediments. 2: Isoprenoids. [Tanner Basin off Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikan, R.; Baedecker, M. J.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1974-01-01

    A series of isoprenoid compounds were isolated from a heat treated marine sediment (from Tanner Basin) which were not present in the original sediment. Among the compounds identified were: phytol, dihydrophytol, c-18-isoprenoid ketone, phytanic and pristanic acids, c-19 and c-20-monoolefines, and the alkanes pristane and phytane. The significance and possible routes leading to these compounds is discussed.

  7. Runoff and sediment yield from proxy records: Upper Animas Creek Basin, New Mexico

    Treesearch

    W. R. Osterkamp

    1999-01-01

    Analyses of water- and sediment-yield records from the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, the San Simon Wash Basin, and the Jornada Experimental Range, combined with observations of regional variations in climate, geology and soils, vegetation, topography, fire frequency, and land-use history, allow estimates of present conditions of water and sediment discharges in...

  8. Modeling sedimentation-filtration basins for urban watersheds using Soil and Water Assessment Tool

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sedimentation-filtration (SedFil) basins are one of the storm-water best management practices (BMPs) that are intended to mitigate water quality problems in urban creeks and rivers. A new physically based model of variably saturated flows was developed for simulating flow and sediment in SedFils wi...

  9. The Contribution of Slope and Basin Sediments to Fluid Budgets of the Costa Rica and the Nankai Trough Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Screaton, E.; James, S. R.; Meridth, L. N.; Villaseñor, T.; Jaeger, J. M.; Kenney, W.

    2016-12-01

    Fluid budgets of subduction zones generally include the fluids entering with sediments at the deformation front but not fluids added to the margin through slope and basin sedimentation. Although the fluids trapped within slope and basin sediments are unlikely to be subducted except in extreme cases, they may still need to be considered in overall fluid budgets. As a first step, we compare the influx of pore fluids contributed by slope and basin sedimentation within 50 km landward of the deformation front to that entering the margin within sediments of the incoming plate. We examine transects offshore of the Osa and Nicoya Peninsulas of Costa Rica and the Kumano Basin transect offshore the Kii Peninsula of Japan. Incoming sediment thicknesses and porosities are determined from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) results. Drilling results also provide estimates of Pleistocene sedimentation rates on slopes and in basins, and seismic reflection profiles are used to roughly estimate basin extent. Slope and basin sediments are assumed to have initial porosities of 70%. Offshore the Nicoya Peninsula the percentage of pore fluids contributed by slope sediment to those carried in sediments on the incoming plate is relatively small, <5%. In contrast, because the Osa Peninsula transect has rapid sedimentation on the upper plate, fluid influx from above can exceed that carried within the thin (<100 m) sediment cover on the incoming plate. The Kumano Basin transect lies between these two extremes. It has thick incoming sediments ( 2 km) but also high sedimentation rates within the Kumano forearc basin. The fluid influx from slope and basin sedimentation is estimated to be 30-40% of the influx at the deformation front. The presentation will further examine the fate of these fluids and the contributions of hydrous minerals in sediments.

  10. Climate, tectonics or morphology: what signals can we see in drainage basin sediment yields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulthard, T. J.; Van de Wiel, M. J.

    2013-06-01

    Sediment yields from river basins are typically considered to be controlled by tectonic and climatic drivers. However, climate and tectonics can operate simultaneously and the impact of autogenic processes scrambling or shredding these inputs can make it hard to unpick the role of these drivers from the sedimentary record. Thus an understanding of the relative dominance of climate, tectonics or other processes in the output of sediment from a basin is vital. Here, we use a numerical landscape evolution model (CAESAR) to specifically examine the relative impact of climate change, tectonic uplift (instantaneous and gradual) and basin morphology on sediment yield. Unexpectedly, this shows how the sediment signal from significant rates of uplift (10 m instant or 25 mm a-1) is lost due to internal storage effects within even a small basin. However, the signal from modest increases in rainfall magnitude (10-20%) can be seen in increases in sediment yield. In addition, in larger basins, tectonic inputs can be significantly diluted by regular delivery from non-uplifted parts of the basin.

  11. Climate, tectonics or morphology: what signals can we see in drainage basin sediment yields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulthard, T. J.; Van de Wiel, M. J.

    2013-10-01

    Sediment yields from river basins are typically considered to be controlled by tectonic and climatic drivers. However, climate and tectonics can operate simultaneously and the impact of autogenic processes scrambling or shredding these inputs can make it hard to unpick the role of these drivers from the sedimentary record. Thus an understanding of the relative dominance of climate, tectonics or other processes in the output of sediment from a basin is vital. Here, we use a numerical landscape evolution model (CAESAR) to specifically examine the relative impact of climate change, tectonic uplift (instantaneous and gradual) and basin morphology on sediment yield. Unexpectedly, this shows how the sediment signal from significant rates of uplift (10 m instant or 25 mm a-1) may be lost due to internal storage effects within even a small basin. However, the signal from modest increases in rainfall magnitude (10-20%) can be seen in increases in sediment yield. In addition, in larger basins, tectonic inputs can be significantly diluted by regular delivery from non-uplifted parts of the basin.

  12. Metamorphism of Triassic sediments from the Dunbarton Basin, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Snipes, D.S.; Warner, R.D. . Earth Sciences Dept.); Price, V. Jr. ); Thayer, P. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Modal analyses and microprobe studies were performed on eight core samples obtained from the US Geological Survey Well A1 324. The well is situated in the southern part of the buried Triassic Dunbarton Basin, about 1 km south of the US Department of Energy's Westinghouse Savannah River Company Site. The samples came from an interval of 407.0--413.4 m beneath the land surface. At the well site, Triassic red beds are overlain by Late Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments which have an aggregate thickness of 408 m. The sample from a depth of 407 m is a weathered, poorly sorted, clayey sandstone from the basal portion of the Late Cretaceous Cape Fear Formation. This specimen is not metamorphosed; whereas, the Triassic specimens taken from an interval of 411.6--413.4 m exhibit evidence of thermal metamorphism as well as hydrothermal alteration. In hand specimen, three of the samples (412.8--413.4 m) resemble hornfelses. These samples exhibit decussate texture. Results of modal analyses of the two deepest specimens follow: plagioclase (43-52%), quartz (9-23%), chlorite (22-29%), epidote (1-6%), hematite (3-4%), and magnetite (2-3%). Relict detrital quartz grains, especially the finer ones, are mostly angular-to-subangular and the grain boundaries show little evidence of rounding. The authors feel that hydrothermal alteration was the principal metamorphic process. This belief is supported by the fact that most of the plagioclase has undergone extensive sericitization. In addition, the presence of abundant chlorite together with a minor amount of epidote supports this interpretation. The alteration halo extends upward for 1.8 m. This interpretation is based on the observation that two Triassic arkose sandstone specimens (411.6 m, 412.2 m) contain clouded, slightly sericitized K-feldspar and plagioclase grains in a matrix of red-colored smectite.

  13. Sediment dispersal in modern and mid-Holocene basins: implications for shoreline progradation and sediment bypassing, Poverty Bay, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bever, A. J.; Harris, C. K.; McNinch, J.

    2006-12-01

    Poverty Bay is a small embayment located on the eastern shore of New Zealand's North Island. The modern Waipaoa River, a small mountainous river that drains highly erodible mudstone and siltstone, discharges ~15 million tons of sediment per year to Poverty Bay. Rates of bay infilling from fluvial sediment have varied since the maximum shoreline transgression, ~7000 kya. The evolving geometry of Poverty Bay has likely impacted sediment dispersal over these timescales, and thereby influenced the stratigraphic architecture, rates of shoreline progradation, and sediment supply to the continental shelf. This modeling study investigates sediment transport within both modern and paleo, ~7000 kya, Poverty Bays. The Regional Ocean Modeling System was used to examine sediment transport within modern and ~7000 kya Poverty Bay basin geometries. The numerical model includes hydrodynamics driven by winds and buoyancy, and sediment resuspension from energetic waves and currents. Strong winds and waves from the southeast were used, along with high Waipaoa freshwater and sediment discharge, consistent with storm conditions. Besides shedding light on short term transport mechanisms, these results are being incorporated into a stratigraphic model by Wolinsky and Swenson. The paleo basin geometry narrowed at the head of the bay, causing currents to converge and promoting near- field sediment deposition. Buoyancy and wind driven across-shelf currents in the modern bay transport sediment away from the river mouth. Sediment was deposited closer to the river mouth in the paleo than the modern bay, and the modern bay exported much more sediment to the continental shelf than predicted for the middle Holocene bay. Net across-shelf fluxes decreased from a maximum at the head of the bay to nearly zero at the mouth during the paleo run. The modern run, however, had net across-shelf fluxes still half the maximum at the bay mouth. Results from short term model runs indicated that, with similar

  14. Temporal dynamics of suspended sediment transport in a glacierized Andean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Luca; Carrillo, Ricardo

    2017-06-01

    Suspended sediment transport can affect water quality and aquatic ecosystems, and its quantification is of the highest importance for river and watershed management. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and discharge were measured at two locations in the Estero Morales, a Chilean Andean stream draining a small basin (27 km2) hosting glacierized areas of about 1.8 km2. Approximately half of the suspended sediment yield (470 t year- 1 km- 2) was transported during the snowmelt period and half during glacier melting. The hysteresis patterns between discharge and SSC were calculated for each daily hydrograph and were analysed to shed light on the location and activity of different sediment sources at the basin scale. During snowmelt, an unlimited supply of fine sediments is provided in the lower and middle part of the basin and hysteresis patterns tend to be clockwise as the peaks in SSC precede the peak of discharge in daily hydrographs. Instead, during glacier melting the source of fine sediments is the proglacial area, producing counterclockwise hysteresis. It is suggested that the analysis of hysteretic patterns over time provides a simple concept for interpreting variability of location and activity of sediment sources at the basin scale.

  15. Analysis of sediment production from two small semiarid basins in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rankl, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Data were collected at two small, semiarid basins in Wyoming to determine the relation between rainfall, runoff, and sediment production. The basins were Dugout Creek tributary and Saint Marys Ditch tributary. Sufficient rainfall and runoff data were collected at Dugout Creek tributary to determine the source of sediment and the dominant sediment production processes. Because runoff from only one storm occurred in Saint Marys Ditch tributary, emphasis of the study was placed on the analysis of data collected at Dugout Creek tributary. At Dugout Creek tributary, detailed measurements were made to establish the source of sediment. To determine the quantity of material removed from headcuts during the study, two headcuts were surveyed. Aerial photographs were used to define movement of all headcuts. The total quantity of sediment removed from all headcuts between September 26, 1982, and September 26, 1983, was estimated to be 1,220 tons, or 15%-25% of the estimated total sediment load passing the streamflow-gaging station. A soil plot was used to sample upland erosion. A rainfall and runoff modeling system was used to evaluate the interaction between the physical processes which control sediment production. The greatest change in computed sediment load was caused by changing the parameter values for equations used to compute the detachment of sediment particles by rainfall and overland flow resulted in very small changes in computed sediment load. The upland areas were the primary source of sediment. A relationship was developed between the peak of storm runoff and the total sediment load for that storm runoff. The sediment concentration used to compute the total sediment load for the storm runoff was determined from sediment samples collected by two automatic pumping samplers. The coefficient of variation of the relationship is 34% with a 0.99 correlation coefficient. (Author 's abstract)

  16. Morphology and Late Quaternary sedimentation in the Gulf of Oman Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchupi, Elazar; Swift, S. A.; Ross, D. A.

    The morphology of the Gulf of Oman Basin, a 3,400 m deep oceanic basin between Oman and southern Pakistan and southern Iran, ranges from a convergent margin (Makran margin) along the north side, a passive type (Oman margin) along the south side, translation types along the basin's west (Zendan Fault-Oman Line) and east (Murray Ridge) sides and a narrow continental rise and a wide abyssal plain in the centre of the basin. Sediment input into the basin during the Late Quaternary has been mainly from the north as a result of the uplift of the Coast Makran Mountains in the Late Miocene-Pliocene. Today most of this detritrus is deposited on the shelf and upper continental slope and perched basins behind the fold/fault ridges on the lower slope. The presence of fans and channels on the continental rise on the north side of the basin indicate, however, that continental derived debris was, and possibly is, being transported to the deep-sea by turbidity currents via gaps in the ridges on the lower slope. In addition to land derived terrigenous sediments, the basin deposits also contain biogenic (organic matter and calcium carbonate), eolian detritus and hydrates and authigenic carbonates from the tectonic dewatering of the Makran accretionary wedge. The eolian sediment is carried into the Gulf of Oman Basin from Arabia and the Mesopotamia Valley by the northwesterly Shamal winds. This type of detritus was particularly abundant during the glacial arid periods 21,000-20,000 and 11,000 (Younger Dryas) years ago when exposure of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf increased the area of dust entrainment and shifted the position of the source of the eolian sediments closer to the basin.

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP OF MOTILE DIATOMS TO ESTIMATES OF SEDIMENTATION IN STREAMS IN THE WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because certain motile diatoms are known to be asociated with sediments, we examined the relationship of the diatom assemblages in streams of the Western Lake Superior basin to estimates of sedimentation.

  18. Erosion, sediment discharge, and channel morphology in the Upper Chattahoochee River basin, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faye, Robert E.; Carey, W.R.; Stamer, J.K.; Kleckner, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Average annual rates of sheet erosion and sediment discharge were computed for several watersheds in the Upper Chattahoochee River basin in Georgia. Erosion yields ranged from about 900 to 6,000 tons per year per square mile in nine watersheds and were greatest where land use is largely agricultural or transitional. Suspended sediment yields from the same watershed ranged from about 300 to 800 tons per year per square mile and were greatest from urban areas and least from mostly forested watersheds. The impact of suspended sediment on stream quality was evaluated for 14 watersheds. In general, 60 percent or more of the total annual discharge of trace metals and phosphorus was contributed by suspended sediment. Yields of trace metals and nutrients in suspension were consistently greater in urban watersheds. Turbidity in basin streams increased geometrically with increasing concentrations of suspended sediment. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediment cores from the southern basin of Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Doskey, P.V.; Andren, A.W.

    1991-10-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the southern basin of Lake Michigan have planktonic, terrigenous, and petroleum residue origins. Surficial sediments collected near the eastern shore in 60-80 m of water contained more petroleum residue and planktonic hydrocarbons and exhibited less terrigenous character than sediments collected from the deepest location in the basin. Petroleum residue inputs have increased since 1900 as evidenced by a change in the flux of an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of hydrocarbons from 6 ng/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}yr to a flux of approximately 100 ng/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}yr in 1980. Sediment profiles of the UCM exhibited subsurface concentration maxima that may be due to reduced inputs of combustion products or feeding by oligochaetes. Profiles of n-C{sub l7} and pristane indicated that planktonic n-alkanes undergo degradation in the aerobic, mixed zone of the sediments.

  20. Impact of Placer Mining on Sediment Transport in Headwaters of the Lake Baikal Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietron, J.; Jarsjo, J.; Chalov, S.

    2015-12-01

    Adverse practices in alluvial surface mining (placer mining) can lead to shifts in sediment transport regimes of rivers. However, some placer mines are located in remote parts of river basins, which constrain data availability in mining impact assessments. One such mining area is the Zaamar Goldfield (Northern Mongolia) which stretches 60 km along the Tuul River. The area is located in the headwaters of the Lake Baikal Basin, and may impact the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Lake Baikal. Previous studies indicate that the mining industry in the Zaamar Goldfield loads the river system with considerable amount of contaminated sediments (heavy metals). Still, transport processes and possible changes in local to regional sediment transport need to be better understood. In this work, we use snapshot field measurements and various flow and transport modelling techniques to analyze (1) the impact of placer mining in the sediment delivery to the river system and (2) the dynamics of further sediment transport to downstream Tuul River. Our results indicate that surface mining operations and waste management have considerable impact on the sediment input from the landscape. Furthermore, dynamic in-channel storage of sediments can act as intermittent sources of mining sediments. These effects occur in addition to impacts of on-going changes in hydro-climatic conditions of the area. We hope that our methodology and results will aid in studying similar unmonitored and mining-affected river basins.

  1. Simulation of continental basin margin sedimentation in response to crustal movements, eustatic sea level change, and sediment accumulation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Helland-Hansen, W.; Kendall, C.G.St.C.; Lerche, I.; Nakayama, K.

    1988-10-01

    As eustasy, subsidence, and sediment accumulation vary, a 2D computer-based graphical simulation generates on-lapping and off-lapping geometries of both marine and near coastal alluvial deposits, reproducing timelines within sediment-bodies at basin margins. In the simulation, deposition is expressed by creation of new surfaces above previous ones. Thicknesses of layers are reduced by both erosion and compaction while their surfaces move vertically in response to tectonic change and loading. Simulation is divided into a series of equal time steps in which sediment is deposited as an array of en-echelon columns that mark the top of the previous depositional surface. The volume of sediment deposited in each time step is expressed as a 2D cross section and is derived from two right-angle triangles (sand and shale), whose areas are a 2D expression of the quantity of sediment deposited at that time step and whose length matches the width of the offshore sediment wedge seaward of the shoreline. Each column in the array is filled by both marine sediments up to sea level, and alluvial sediments to a surface determined by an alluvial angle that is projected landward from the shore to its intersection with the previous surface. Each time the area representing the sediment column is subtracted from the triangles, the triangle heights are reduced correspondingly. This process is repeated until the triangle heights match the position of sea level above the sediment surface, at which time the remaining area of the sediment triangle is deposited seaward as a single wedge of offshore sediments. This simulation is designed to aid interpretation of stratigraphic sequences. It can be used as a complement to seismic stratigraphy or can be used alone as an inexpensive test of stratigraphic models.

  2. Global sediment production from in-situ cosmogenic nuclides in large river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haedke, H.; Wittmann, H.; von Blanckenburg, F.; Gaillardet, J.

    2016-12-01

    The worlds 30 largest rivers represent half of the total runoff to the ocean and thus integrate the fluxes of Earth surface weathering and erosion over a large portion of global tectonic, geomorphic, and climatic zones. In-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides (10Be, 26Al) in detrital quartz sand can be used to constrain the mean millennial-scale denudation of these large basins. Yet cosmogenic nuclides have mostly been applied to small and intermediate size basins of significant relief. One reason is that in these settings, lowland sediment storage and burial are short compared to the half life of the nuclide (e.g. 1.4 Myr for 10Be). However, if sediment storage is long compared to the half-life, paired nuclides (e.g. 26Al/10Be), through their differential decay, allow to assess the duration of sediment transfer and burial ages from source to sink[1]. Here we present a new dataset of cosmogenic nuclides from 60 large rivers that integrate over 30% of Earth's terrestrial surface. 26Al/10Be ratios of around 6 to 7.5 for most rivers reveal burial durations shorter than the nuclides' decay time scales, indicating high source-sink connectivity. In slowly-eroding basins such as the tectonically quiescent Australian Murray-Darling or the central African Okavango and Congo rivers, 26Al/10Be ratios of <6 indicate decay of nuclide concentrations. Such low nuclide ratios evolve during Myr-scale sediment burial during slow source to sink transfer. We converted denudation rates to sediment fluxes by estimating their actively eroding source areas. Extrapolating these millennial-scale sediment fluxes to global source areas provides an estimate of the global sediment flux. The comparison with estimates of modern sediment fluxes from river load gauging offers to deciphering the controls of sediment generation versus sediment transport across large basins. [1] Wittmann and von Blanckenburg (2016), Earth Science Reviews, 159,118-141.

  3. Sediment data for mid-Arkansas and upper-Red River basins through 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blumer, Stephen P.

    1983-01-01

    Sediment data have been collected at 279 locations within the Mid-Arkansas and Upper-Red River basins in and along the borders of Oklahoma and Kansas. This compilation of sediment records presents tables and plots of all suspended-sediment data collected between 1930 and 1980. The publication not only provides a published source of all available suspended-sediment data, but more importantly provides potential users with an efficient means to access this large amount of data through the U.S. Geological Survey WATSTORE system.

  4. Sediment and nutrient accumulation within lowland bottomland ecosystems: An example from the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, C.R.; Noe, G.B.

    2006-01-01

    Sediment and nutrient deposition, storage, and transformations are important environmental functions of riverine forested wetland ecosystems, yet documentation and interpretation of sedimentation/nutrient processes remain incomplete. Our studies located in the Coastal Plain of southeastern USA, including the Atchafalaya Basin, La. (a distributary of the Mississippi River) serve as example for detailed discussion of sediment and nutrient accumulation in lowland systems. The Atchafalaya Basin is the largest contiguously forested riparian wetland in North America and is incurring high sediment loads and hypoxic zones in backswamp settings. We established several floodplain transects, located to reflect major depositional environments within the Basin, to monitor general and local sediment deposition patterns over a multi-year period. Deposition rate and loss on ignition (LOI) data were collected above artificial markers (clay pads) at multiple stations along each transect. Mean floodplain sedimentation rates ranged from about 2 to 42 mm/yr and mean percent organic material ranged from about 7 to 28 percent. The transects were categorized into statistically different deposition groups based on sedimentation rate; most of these groups could be coherently interpreted based on a suite of parameters that includes hydroperiod (elevation), source(s) of sediment-laden water, hydraulic connectivity, flow stagnation, and location in transect (levee versus backswamp). Low elevatic (long hydroperiod), high hydraulic connectivity to multiple sources of sediment-laden water, and hydraulic damming (flow stagnation) lead to the highest amounts of sediment trapping; the converse in any of these factors may diminish sediment trapping. Based on aerial extent of deposition groups, the study area (about 500 km 2) potentially traps 6.72+109 kg of sediment, annually, of which 12 percent or 8.20.108 kg are organic material. This accumulated sediment contains a coarsely estimated 5% and 27

  5. Statistical modelling of suspended sediment load in small basin located in the tropical Andes of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, L. J.; Barco, J.

    2014-12-01

    Sedimentation is a complex process that varies with watershed characteristics, climate dynamics, human watershed intervention, etc. The sediment load is a concern as it reduces the operating capacity of reservoirs. In this study a statistical modelling for the estimation of sediment yield based on observations of water discharge and suspended sediment concentration was performed. A multivariate model was used to analyze a 33 years period of daily suspended sediments load available at the La Garrucha gauging station. A regional analysis was conducted to develop a non-dimensional sediment load duration curves. These duration curves were used to estimate flow and sediments regimen at other inner point at the basin where there are located the Calderas reservoir, scaling the suspended sediment load by the basin area. The observed data of sediments in the reservoir were used to validate the model results. The obtained non-dimensional sediment load duration curve was used to estimate the sediment concentration during high flow regimen (10% of time the values were met or exceeded).A periodical reservoir flushing, by the opening of the bottom gate, it is necessary to maintain it at the best operating capacity. The sediment concentration during high flows has been assumed as a concentration that allows an 'environmental flushing'. The sediment transport capacity for the sediment load was verified with a 1D model in order to include the environmental constraints downstream of the dam. Field data were collected to understand the physical phenomena involved in flushing dynamics into the reservoir and downstream of the dam. The model allows to define an operation rules for the flushing to minimize the environmental effects.

  6. Sediment supply as a driver of river evolution in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Joshua; Constantine, José Antonio; Dunne, Thomas; Legleiter, Carl; Lazarus, Eli D.

    2015-04-01

    The Amazon represents the only large river basin in the world where there is a sufficient range of sediment supplies and a lack of engineering controls to assess how sediment supply drives the evolution of meandering rivers. Despite recent analytical advances (Asahi et al., 2013; Pittaluga and Seminara, 2011), modern theory does not yet identify or explain the effects of externally imposed sediment supplies, a fundamental river characteristic, on meandering river evolution. These sediment supplies would be radically reduced by the construction of large dams proposed for the Amazon Basin (Finer and Jenkins, 2012). Here, we demonstrate that the sediment loads imposed by their respective drainage basins determine planform changes in lowland rivers across the Amazon. Our analysis, based on Landsat image sequences, indicates that rivers with high sediment loads draining the Andes and associated foreland basin experience annual migration rates that are on average four times faster than rivers with lower sediment loads draining the Central Amazon Trough and shields. Incidents of meander cutoff also occur more frequently along the rivers of the Andes and foreland basin, where the number of oxbows in the floodplains is more than twice that observed in the floodplains of the Central Amazon Trough and shields. Our results, which cannot be explained by differences in channel slope or hydrology, highlight the importance of sediment supply in modulating the ability of meandering alluvial rivers to reshape the floodplain environment through river migration. Asahi, K., Shimizu, Y., Nelson, J., Parker, G., 2013. Numerical simulation of river meandering with self-evolving banks. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 118(4), 2013JF002752. Finer, M., Jenkins, C.N., 2012. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity. PLOS One, 7(4), e35126. Pittaluga, M.B., Seminara, G., 2011. Nonlinearity and unsteadiness in river

  7. Multistate Evaluation of Microbial Water and Sediment Quality from Agricultural Recovery Basins.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Melissa L; Bond, Ronald F; Chase, Jennifer A; Kiger, Luana; Atwill, Edward R

    2016-03-01

    Agricultural recovery basins are an important conservation practice designed to provide temporary storage of sediment and water on farms before low-volume discharge. However, food safety concerns have been raised regarding redistribution of captured sediment and water to fields used for human food production. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential microbiological risk that recovery basins may contribute to nearby produce fields and to evaluate characteristics that may influence or mitigate those risks. Water and sediment samples were collected from participating farms in three states and evaluated for bacterial indicators and pathogens over several months. Overall, 45% ( = 48) of water samples and less than 15% ( = 13) of sediment samples were positive for spp. In water samples, the occurrence of was positively associated with the use of surface water as a source of irrigation compared with groundwater as well as log-scale increases in concentration. In sediment samples, was associated with basin location (region) and basin fill levels. Sediment exposed to drying during dewatering had lower concentrations of indicator and a lower proportion of positives than submerged sediment from the same pond. Surrounding landscape characteristics, including vegetative coverage, proximity to livestock operations, and evidence of wildlife, were not correlated with pathogen occurrence in either sediment or water samples, suggesting that although habitat surrounding ponds may be an attractant to wildlife, those features may not contribute to increased pathogen occurrence in agricultural recovery basins. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Fate and Transport of Cohesive Sediment and HCB in the Middle Elbe River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshenberg, Kari; Heise, Susanne; Calmano, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Chemical contamination of waterways and floodplains is a pervasive environmental problem that threatens aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Due to extensive historical contamination and redistribution of contaminated sediments throughout the basin, the Elbe River transports significant loads of contaminants downstream, particularly during flood events. This study focuses on Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a persistent organic pollutant that has been identified as a contaminant of concern in the Elbe Basin. To better understand the fate and transport of cohesive sediments and sediment-sorbed HCB, a hydrodynamic, suspended sediment, and contaminated transport model for the 271-km reach of the Elbe River basin between Dresden and Magdeburg was developed. Additionally, trends in suspended sediment and contaminant transport were investigated in the context of the recent high frequency of floods in the Elbe Basin. This study presents strong evidence that extreme high water events, such as the August, 2002 floods, have a permanent effect on the sediment transport regime in the Elbe River. Additionally, results indicate that a significant component annual HCB loads are transported downstream during floods. Additionally, modeled results for suspended sediment and HCB accumulation on floodplains are presented and discussed. Uncertainty and issues related to model development are also addressed. A worst case analysis of HCB uptake by dairy cows and beef cattle indicate that significant, biologically relevant quantities of sediment-sorbed HCB accumulate on the Elbe floodplains following flood events. Given both the recent high frequency of floods in the Elbe Basin, and the potential increase in flood frequency due to climate change, an evaluation of source control measures and/or additional monitoring of floodplain soils and grasses is recommended.

  9. Using 10Be and 26Al to determine sediment generation rates and identify sediment source areas in an arid region drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Erik M.; Bierman, Paul R.; Caffee, Marc

    2002-06-01

    We measured 10Be and 26Al in 64 sediment and bedrock samples collected throughout the arid, 187 km 2 Yuma Wash drainage basin, southwestern Arizona. From the measurements, we determine long-term, time-integrated rates of upland sediment generation (81±5 g m -2 year -1) and bedrock equivalent lowering (30±2 m Ma -1) consistent with other estimates for regions of similar climate, lithology, and topography. In a small (˜8 km 2), upland sub-basin, differences in nuclide concentrations between bedrock outcrops and hillslope colluvium suggest weathering of bedrock beneath a colluvial cover is a more significant source of sediment (40×10 4 kg year -1) than weathering of exposed bedrock surfaces (10×10 4 kg year -1). Mixing models constructed from nuclide concentrations of sediment reservoirs identify important sediment source areas. Hillslope colluvium is the dominant sediment source to the upper reaches of the sub-basin channel; channel cutting of alluvial terraces is the dominant source in the lower reaches. Similarities in nuclide concentrations of various sediment reservoirs indicate short sediment storage times (<10 3 years). Nuclide concentrations, measured in channel sediment from tributaries of Yuma Wash and in samples collected along the length of the Wash, were used to construct mixing models and determine sediment sources to the main stem channel. We find an exponential decrease in the channel nuclide concentrations with distance downstream, suggesting that as much as 40% of sediment discharged from Yuma Wash has been recycled from storage within basin fill alluvium. Sediment generation and denudation rates determined from the main stem are greater (25%) than rates determined from upland sub-basins suggesting that, currently, sediment may be exported from the basin more quickly than it is being generated in the uplands. Independence of nuclide concentration and sediment grain size indicates that channels transport sediment in discrete pulses before rapidly

  10. Late Quarternary Sedimentation in the Eastern Angola Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-11-01

    Angola diapir field. Illite and montmorillonite are abundant in the southern part of the basin, reflecting the source in soils of South West Africa and...northward transport in the Benguela Current system. Kaolinite dominates the clay-mineral assemblage in the north-central part of the basin

  11. Characteristics of Holocene sediments in the Gunsan Basin, central Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, H. J.; Huh, S.; Jeong, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; Ham, A.; Kang, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Gunsan Basin, in the eastern part of the South Yellow Sea Basin, is filled by terrestrial sedimentary rocks, maximally up to 8 km deep on the basement of metamorphic rocks that constitutes the Yangtze Platform. The uppermost sedimentary layer (generally less than 1 km) appears to have formed experiencing the repeated marine environments since the middle Miocene. This study is to investigate the characteristics of Holocene sediments in the Gunsan Basin, based on interpretation of core sediments and high-resolution shallow (Sparker and Chirp) seismic profiles. The surface sediments in the basin consist of sand (56.6% on the average), silt (18.4%), and clay (25.0%) with a mean grain size of 1.5 to 7.8 Ø. Sand is prevalent (63.8 to 98.3%) in and around the Yellow Sea Trough lying in the eastern part of the basin. The sandy sediments are regarded as relict sediments deposited in the last glacial maximum (LGM). The sedimentary environments are classified, based on the acoustic and morphological characters of high-resolution shallow (Sparker and Chirp) seismic profiles, into mud zone, deformed zone, and sand ridges with sand waves zone from the west to the east in the Gunsan Basin. The deformed zone in the central Yellow Sea is a mixing area of sediments derived from China and Korea, where there are a number of paleochannels and erosional surfaces in the direction of northwest-southeast. The deformed zone represents non-deposition or erosion in the central Yellow Sea during the Holocene. Tidal sand ridges and sand waves are well developed along the coast of Korea. Modern sand ridges are generally moving in the northeast-southwest direction, which coincide with dominant tidal current direction. Fifteen piston cores were collected in the basin to investigate the general geological characters of the marine sedimentary sequence. In comparison with three cores in the southern basin, the sand contents tend to increase in the direction of east. 14C dates from three cores

  12. Fluvial bar dynamics in large meandering rivers with different sediment supply in the Amazon River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monegaglia, Federico; Zolezzi, Guido; Tubino, Marco; Henshaw, Alex

    2017-04-01

    Sediments in the large meandering rivers of the Amazon basin are known to be supplied by sources providing highly different magnitudes of sediment input and storage, ranging from the sediment-rich Andean region to the sediment-poor Central Trough. Recent observations have highlighted how such differences in sediment supply have an important, net effect on the rates of planform activity of meandering rivers in the basin, in terms of meander migration and frequency of cutoffs. In this work we quantify and discuss the effect of sediment supply on the organization of macroscale sediment bedforms on several large meandering rivers in the Amazon basin, and we link our findings with those regarding the rates of planform activity. Our analysis is conducted through the newly developed software PyRIS, which enables us to perform extensive multitemporal analysis of river morphodynamics from multispectral remotely sensed Landsat imagery in a fully automated fashion. We show that large rivers with low sediment supply tend to develop alternate bars that consistently migrate through long reaches, characterized at the same time by limited planform development. On the contrary, high sediment supply is associated with the development of point bars that are well-attached to the evolving meander bends and that follow temporal oscillations around the bend apexes, which in turn show rapid evlution towards complex meander shapes. Finally, rivers with intermediate rates of sediment supply develop rather steady point bars associated with slowly migrating, regular meanders. We finally discuss the results of the image analysis in the light of the properties of river planform metrics (like channel curvature and width) for the examined classes of river reaches with different sediment supply rates.

  13. Gully development in Pavon Creeks: Downstream sediment supply and sub-basin restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, S.; McKee, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Sediment supply in watersheds is a function of geology, climate, and land use. Small watersheds in the Coast Ranges of California can provide large volumes of sediment to downstream waterbodies due to the active tectonic setting, the Mediterranean climate, and the history of intense land use. The Pavon Creeks sub-basin, a 1.1 km2 tributary to Pinole Creek which drains to San Francisco Bay, California, currently provides a large supply of fine-grained sediment to the detriment of creek function and native species habitat. The sub-basin is situated near the active Hayward Fault Zone, is underlain by highly erosive shales and siltstones, and has experienced over 100 years of cattle grazing. Despite only comprising 3% of the total watershed area, the Pavon Creeks sub-basin has been identified as one of the largest sources of fine sediment within the Pinole Creek watershed. To protect creek function and habitat, watershed stakeholders have prioritized preventing excess fine sediment delivery to Pinole Creek. The sub-basin includes four small ephemeral gully channels that are primarily actively eroding, downcutting, and extending over their length, and secondarily aggrading over a shorter localized reach. Field-based geomorphic data including channel cross-sections, longitudinal profiles, bank pins, and headcut monitoring have documented channel incision, erosion, and lengthening of the channel network over six years. During Water Year 2006, the first and wettest year of measurements, we observed maximum rates of incision of 0.75 m, lateral bank erosion of 2.5 m, and gully extension of 16.3 m. Annual repeat surveys show continued gully evolution, and allowed for quantitative assessment of incision, aggradation, and extension rates over this time period, as well as eroded sediment volume. We found that the largest storm events of a season cause the greatest instantaneous amount of change in the sub-basin, but cumulative seasonal rainfall determines the total amount and

  14. Sediment supply as a driver of river meandering and floodplain evolution in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantine, José Antonio; Dunne, Thomas; Ahmed, Joshua; Legleiter, Carl; Lazarus, Eli D.

    2014-12-01

    The role of externally imposed sediment supplies on the evolution of meandering rivers and their floodplains is poorly understood, despite analytical advances in our physical understanding of river meandering. The Amazon river basin hosts tributaries that are largely unaffected by engineering controls and hold a range of sediment loads, allowing us to explore the influence that sediment supply has on river evolution. Here we calculate average annual rates of meander migration within 20 reaches in the Amazon Basin from Landsat imagery spanning 1985-2013. We find that rivers with high sediment loads experience annual migration rates that are higher than those of rivers with lower sediment loads. Meander cutoff also occurs more frequently along rivers with higher sediment loads. Differences in meander migration and cutoff rates between the study reaches are not explained by differences in channel slope or river discharge. Because faster meander migration and higher cutoff rates lead to increased sediment-storage space in the resulting oxbows, we suggest that sediment supply modulates the reshaping of floodplain environments by meandering rivers. We conclude that imposed sediment loads influence planform changes in lowland rivers across the Amazon.

  15. The origin of salt-encased sediment packages: Observations from the SE Precaspian Basin (Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Naiara; Duffy, Oliver B.; Hudec, Michael R.; Jackson, Martin P. A.; Burg, George; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Dooley, Tim P.

    2017-04-01

    Intrasalt sediment packages containing siliciclastic sediments, carbonate sediments, or non-halite evaporites such as gypsum or anhydrite are common within most salt sequences. Intrasalt sediment packages may have been deposited before, during, or after salt deposition and be incorporated into the salt by various processes. Understanding the origin and evolution of intrasalt sediment packages may yield important insights into the tectonic and geodynamic history of the basin, and also into the understanding of salt tectonics. Despite the importance of intrasalt sediment packages, currently there is no systematic description of their possible origins and their distinguishing criteria. This work is divided into three parts. The first part outlines the possible origins of intrasalt sediment packages, as well as criteria to determine if they originated as subsalt, suprasalt or intrasalt sequences. The second part examines how sediment packages that originated on top of salt, such as minibasins, can be encased within salt. Four key encasement processes are proposed: a) salt expulsion from beneath a minibasin experiencing density-driven subsidence; b) salt expulsion from beneath adjacent subsiding minibasins; c) salt expulsion associated with lateral shortening; d) override of minibasins by a salt sheet sourced from elsewhere. The third part of the paper presents a case study from the SE Precaspian Basin, Kazakhstan, where, using a borehole-constrained 3D seismic reflection dataset, the proposed criteria are applied to an area with abundant, newly discovered sediment packages within salt.

  16. The Origin of Salt-Encased Sediment Packages: Observations from the SE Precaspian Basin (Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Naiara; Duffy, Oliver B.; Hudec, Michael R.; Jackson, Martin P. A.; Burg, George; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Dooley, Tim P.

    2017-04-01

    Intrasalt sediment packages containing siliciclastic sediments, carbonate sediments, or non-halite evaporites such as gypsum or anhydrite are common within most salt sequences. Intrasalt sediment packages may have been deposited before, during, or after salt deposition and be incorporated into the salt by various processes. Understanding the origin and evolution of intrasalt sediment packages may yield important insights into the tectonic and geodynamic history of the basin, and also into the understanding of salt tectonics. Despite the importance of intrasalt sediment packages, currently there is no systematic description of their possible origins and their distinguishing criteria. This work is divided in three parts. First, we outline the possible origins of intrasalt sediment packages, as well as criteria to determine if they originated as subsalt, suprasalt or intrasalt sequences. Second, we examine how sediment packages that originated on top of salt, such as minibasins, can be encased within salt. We propose four key processes by which salt can be expelled and emplaced above minibasins to encase them: a) salt expulsion from beneath a minibasin experiencing density-driven subsidence; b) salt expulsion from beneath adjacent subsiding minibasins; c) salt expulsion associated with lateral shortening; d) override of minibasins by a salt sheet sourced from elsewhere. Third, we present a case study from the SE Precaspian Basin, Kazakhstan, where, using a borehole-constrained 3D seismic reflection dataset, the proposed criteria are applied to an area with abundant, newly discovered sediment packages within salt.

  17. Coarse-grained deltaic sedimentation in the Miocene Cuyama strike-slip basin, California Coast Ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alan, Bartow J.

    1990-01-01

    The Cuyama basin, located in the southern Coast Ranges of California southwest of the San Andreas fault, developed early in the history of the San Andreas transform system. The Miocene marine basin formed in a transtensional setting along a dextral strike-slip fault of the transform system following Oligocene non-marine basin formation in an extensional setting. The lower and middle Miocene Vaqueros Formation in the northwestern part of the basin, which represents the first of two transgressive-regressive cycles, is described here in terms of nine facies in two broad facies groups. The 400-m-thick Soda Lake Shale Member (of the Vaqueros) comprises deep-basin and starved-basin facies. A thin transgressive facies occurs locally at the base of the formation. The overlying Painted Rock Sandstone Member (of the Vaqueros), which is more than 2200 m thick and consists mostly of coarse-grained sandstone and pebbly sandstone, constitutes a delta complex of prodelta, slope channel, delta front, tide-influenced distributary channel, interdistributary bay, and fluvial channel facies. The basinal depositional system consisted of turbidite mud and sand, and hemipelagic and pelagic sediments of the basinal facies deposited in a rapidly subsiding basin. The delta depositional system consisted of the delta complex facies that prograded into the deep basin and had a steep prodelta slope that extended to bathyal depths. The delta is inferred to be a mixed fluvial-wave-dominated fan delta, analogous in its delta-front morphology and processes to a fjord delta, in which coarse sediment delivered to the delta front by braided streams was transported down the prodelta slope into deep water by sediment gravity flows. Transgression and rapid deepening of the basin in the early Miocene coincided with rapid tectonic subsidence. Deepening culminated with deposition of a starved-basin facies or condensed section at the time of maximum transgression, which was followed by the beginning of a

  18. Coarse-grained deltaic sedimentation in the Miocene Cuyama strike-slip basin, California Coast Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alan Bartow, J.

    1990-07-01

    The Cuyama basin, located in the southern Coast Ranges of California southwest of the San Andreas fault, developed early in the history of the San Andreas transform system. The Miocene marine basin formed in a transtensional setting along a dextral strike-slip fault of the transform system following Oligocene non-marine basin formation in an extensional setting. The lower and middle Miocene Vaqueros Formation in the northwestern part of the basin, which represents the first of two transgressive-regressive cycles, is described here in terms of nine facies in two broad facies groups. The 400-m-thick Soda Lake Shale Member (of the Vaqueros) comprises deep-basin and starved-basin facies. A thin transgressive facies occurs locally at the base of the formation. The overlying Painted Rock Sandstone Member (of the Vaqueros), which is more than 2200 m thick and consists mostly of coarse-grained sandstone and pebbly sandstone, constitutes a delta complex of prodelta, slope channel, delta front, tide-influenced distributary channel, interdistributary bay, and fluvial channel facies. The basinal depositional system consisted of turbidite mud and sand, and hemipelagic and pelagic sediments of the basinal facies deposited in a rapidly subsiding basin. The delta depositional system consisted of the delta complex facies that prograded into the deep basin and had a steep prodelta slope that extended to bathyal depths. The delta is inferred to be a mixed fluvial-wave-dominated fan delta, analogous in its delta-front morphology and processes to a fjord delta, in which coarse sediment delivered to the delta front by braided streams was transported down the prodelta slope into deep water by sediment gravity flows. Transgression and rapid deepening of the basin in the early Miocene coincided with rapid tectonic subsidence. Deepening culminated with deposition of a starved-basin facies or condensed section at the time of maximum transgression, which was followed by the beginning of a

  19. Deconvoluting Himalayan Climate and Tectonics Based on Zada Basin Sediments, Southwestern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J. E.; Decelles, P. G.; Quade, J.; Kapp, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Zada basin of southwestern Tibet is the largest late Cenozoic basin on the Tibetan plateau. The basin developed above the Tethyan Himalayan sequence and is located between major detachment faults to the northwest and southeast, the Ayi Shan Mountains along the dextral Karakoram fault to the northeast, and a major newly recognized dextral strike slip fault to the southwest. However, Zada basin fill is presently flat-lying, buttressing paleotopography along its northern and southern margins and not spatially associated with the South Tibetan detachment system. The Zada basin records one major pulse of accommodation creation as indicated by basal debris flows and fluvial pebble conglomerates. Paleocurrent data show transverse flow along basin margins and axial NW-ward flow along the basin center. A period of lacustrine sedimentation followed, with deposition of multiple, upward coarsening calcareous clay - fine sand para-sequences within an overall progradational sequence. The sands display turbidites, oscillatory current ripples, mudcracks, hummocky cross-stratification and planar and trough cross-stratification. Fossils, primarily gastropods, ostracods, fish and rare large vertebrates, are found in both the lower fluvial and also lacustrine/fluvial units. An alluvial fan boulder conglomerate caps the basin fill. Subsequent incision by the Sutlej River following breaching of a structural dam in the western corner of the basin created spectacular bluffs and canyons. The basin contains a sedimentary record extending back to the late Miocene. As such, it records the regional C3 - C4 transition and associated climate change at 7 - 8 Ma. The extensive lacustrine deposits also provide an excellent source of paleoelevation data. Paleosol carbonates in the basal and capping conglomerates extend this data set to the onset of sedimentation in the basin. Finally, sedimentary provenance, basin subsidence history, and regional structure give insight into the causes of

  20. Windblown sediment transport and loss in a desert-oasis ecotone in the Tarim Basin.

    PubMed

    Pi, Huawei; Sharratt, Brenton; Lei, Jiaqiang

    2017-08-10

    The Tarim Basin is regarded as one of the most highly erodible areas in China. Desert comprises 64% of the land use in the Basin, but the desert-oasis ecotone plays a prominent role in maintaining oasis ecological security and stability. Yet, little is known concerning the magnitude of windblown sediment transport in a desert-oasis ecotone. Therefore, aeolian sediment transport and loss was assessed from a desert-oasis experimental site located near Alaer City in the northwestern Tarim Basin. Sediment transport and factors governing transport were measured during three high wind events in 2012 and four events in 2013. Sediment transport was measured to a height of 10 m using passive aeolian airborne sediment samplers. The mass flux profile over the eroding surface was well represented by the power-law (R(2) > 0.77). Sediment loss from the site ranged from 118 g m(-2) for the 20-24Apr 2012 wind event to 2925 g m(-2) for the 31Mar-11Apr 2012 event. Suspension accounted for 67.4 to 84.8% of sediment loss across all high wind events. Our results indicate the severity of wind erosion in a desert-oasis ecotone and thus encourage adoption of management practices that will enhance oasis ecological security.

  1. Physical and geoacoustic properties of surface sediments in the southwestern Ulleung Basin, East Sea of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Kim, D. C.; Lee, G.; Kim, S. P.; Bae, S.

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the physical and geoacoustic properties of surface sediments in the southwestern Ulleung Basin, East Sea of Korea, eighty-two piston cores and sixty-six box cores were analyzed for sediment texture (grain size, sand, silt and clay contents), physical properties (porosity, water content, bulk density, grain density and shear strength), and acoustic properties (compressional wave velocity and attenuation). We conducted mapping the distribution of sediment texture, each physical properties, and compressional wave velocity. According to the distribution map of sediment texture, the inner shelf area is consists of fine-grained sediments that are interpreted as recent sediments deposited under the present environment condition. Ulleung Basin also dominated fine-grained sediments consist of hemi-pelagic mud. On the mid-shelf, fine materials are mixed with fine-grained sediments and relict coarse sediments. Some part of the relict sediments on the mid-shelf were continuously reworked under the present environmental conditions forming the palimpsest sediments. The outer shelf area is composed of very coarse-grained sediments that are considered relict sediments deposited during the last glacial periods when the sea level was lower than the present. Based on geoacoustic property analyzed from this study, the study area is divided into five different geoacoustic provinces: (1) Province I is composed of muddy sediments that are directly affected by the Nakdong River discharge (1486 m/s, 8.1Φ, 1.32 g/cm3, and 80 %), (2) Province II is generally characterized by hemi-pelagic muds and partially mixed with intermittent sandy sediments originated from the outer shelf and upper slope (1495 m/s, 8.4Φ, 1.27 g/cm3, and 82 %), (3) Province III is comprised of muddy sand sediments that are corresponding to the boundary between recent sediments and relict sediments (1539 m/s, 5.8Φ, 1.52 g/cm3, and 69 %), (4) Province IV is dominated by coarse-grained relict sediments

  2. Stream sediment sources in midwest agricultural basins with land retirement along channel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Christensen, Victoria G.; Richardson, William B.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Gellis, Allen C.; Kieta, K. A.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    Documenting the effects of agricultural land retirement on stream-sediment sources is critical to identifying management practices that improve water quality and aquatic habitat. Particularly difficult to quantify are the effects from conservation easements that commonly are discontinuous along channelized streams and ditches throughout the agricultural midwestern United States. Our hypotheses were that sediment from cropland, retired land, stream banks, and roads would be discernible using isotopic and elemental concentrations and that source contributions would vary with land retirement distribution along tributaries of West Fork Beaver Creek in Minnesota. Channel-bed and suspended sediment were sampled at nine locations and compared with local source samples by using linear discriminant analysis and a four-source mixing model that evaluated seven tracers: In, P, total C, Be, Tl, Th, and Ti. The proportion of sediment sources differed significantly between suspended and channel-bed sediment. Retired land contributed to channel-bed sediment but was not discernible as a source of suspended sediment, suggesting that retired-land material was not mobilized during high-flow conditions. Stream banks were a large contributor to suspended sediment; however, the percentage of stream-bank sediment in the channel bed was lower in basins with more continuous retired land along the riparian corridor. Cropland sediments had the highest P concentrations; basins with the highest cropland-sediment contributions also had the highest P concentrations. Along stream reaches with retired land, there was a lower proportion of cropland material in suspended sediment relative to sites that had almost no land retirement, indicating less movement of nutrients and sediment from cropland to the channel as a result of land retirement.

  3. Estimation of Streamflow and Fluvial Sediment Loads in the White Volta Basin under Future Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumor, M.; Amisigo, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    The White Volta Basin is one of the major sub-catchments of the Volta Basin of West Africa, covers an estimated 106,000 km2 and is shared between Burkina Faso and Ghana. The basin currently faces many challenges such as flooding, drought, high temporal and spatial variation of rainfall, deforestation, land degradation, climate change and high population growth rate. These challenges put pressure on the quantity and quality of the water resources in the basin. Current infrastructure developments in the basin have already impacted on the hydrological cycle, and future development plans potentially pose a threat to the sustainability of the resources if not appropriately managed. Information on runoff and sediment loads is a very important requirement for sustainable management of the water resources in the basin. This study therefore seeks to assess runoff and sediment loads in the White Volta Basin using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and provide understanding of how climate change impacts on future runoff and sediment loads in the basin.The model was calibrated for the period 1991 to 2003 and validated for the period 2004 to 2013.The model was also validated at one gauging station on the main river and another on a tributary. Analysis of the water balance of the basin shows that 4.90% of the simulated mean annual precipitation is converted to surface runoff while 84.37% evapotranspires. The results also show that the White Volta Basin contributes approximately 5.68x106tonnes/yr of sediment load into the Volta Lake. The calibrated model was used to simulate the water balance for the present time slice (1975-2005) as the basis for comparing with the future (2025-2055) water balance in the WhiteVolta Basin. The results show that annual surface runoff and sediment loads could increase by 56% and 70% respectively. A projected reduction by 0.54% in actual evapotranspiration is however estimated for the selected time period in the basin.

  4. Spatio-temporal patterns of soil erosion and suspended sediment dynamics in the Mekong River Basin.

    PubMed

    Suif, Zuliziana; Fleifle, Amr; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Saavedra, Oliver

    2016-10-15

    Understanding of the distribution patterns of sediment erosion, concentration and transport in river basins is critically important as sediment plays a major role in river basin hydrophysical and ecological processes. In this study, we proposed an integrated framework for the assessment of sediment dynamics, including soil erosion (SE), suspended sediment load (SSL) and suspended sediment concentration (SSC), and applied this framework to the Mekong River Basin. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model was adopted with a geographic information system to assess SE and was coupled with a sediment accumulation and a routing scheme to simulate SSL. This framework also analyzed Landsat imagery captured between 1987 and 2000 together with ground observations to interpolate spatio-temporal patterns of SSC. The simulated SSL results from 1987 to 2000 showed the relative root mean square error of 41% and coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.89. The polynomial relationship of the near infrared exoatmospheric reflectance and the band 4 wavelength (760-900nm) to the observed SSC at 9 sites demonstrated the good agreement (overall relative RMSE=5.2%, R(2)=0.87). The result found that the severe SE occurs in the upper (China and Lao PDR) and lower (western part of Vietnam) regions. The SSC in the rainy season (June-November) showed increasing and decreasing trends longitudinally in the upper (China and Lao PDR) and lower regions (Cambodia), respectively, while the longitudinal profile of SSL showed a fluctuating trend along the river in the early rainy season. Overall, the results described the unique spatio-temporal patterns of SE, SSL and SSC in the Mekong River Basin. Thus, the proposed integrated framework is useful for elucidating complex process of sediment generation and transport in the land and river systems of large river basins.

  5. Water and sediment quality in the Yukon River basin, Alaska, during water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.

    2006-01-01

    This report contains water-quality and sediment-quality data from samples collected in the Yukon River Basin from March through September during the 2004 water year (WY). Samples were collected throughout the year at five stations in the basin (three on the main stem Yukon River, one each on the Tanana and Porcupine Rivers). A broad range of physical, chemical, and biological analyses are presented.

  6. Transfer of fine sediments and particulate heavy metals in large river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Ulrike; Reid, Lucas; Fuchs, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    For heavy metals and other particulate contaminants erosion is an important emission pathway into surface waters. Emissions via erosion can strongly vary depending on land use, morphology, erodibility of the soils and the heavy metal content in the topsoil layer of the source areas. A high spatial resolution of input data is thus necessary to identify hotspots of heavy metal emissions via erosion in large river basins. In addition a part of the suspended solid load which is emitted to surface waters from the catchment areas can be deposited in the river system during transportation. The retention of sediments mainly takes place in lakes, reservoirs and river barrages. Former modelling studies in large river basins of Germany revealed, that the observed suspended sediment loads at monitoring stations were strongly overestimated, if retention processes in the river system were neglected. The objective of this study was therefore to test whether the consideration of sedimentation rates in lakes, reservoirs and river barrages can improve the prediction of observed suspended sediment loads in large river basins. We choose the German/Austrian part of the Danube basin until Passau (77 156 km²) for this analysis, as the alpine tributaries in the South of the Danube basin deliver high annual sediment rates (i.e. Inn and Isar) which are not fully recovered at the monitoring stations located further upstream of the Danube due to retention processes. The sediment input was quantified for all tributaries and added up along the flow path of the river system. Due to the large scale, sediment production within the catchments was calculated using the USLE for cultivated land and naturally covered areas and specific erosion rates for alpine areas without vegetation cover. Sediment delivery was estimated using an approach based on the location of the sediment source areas in the catchments and the morphology on the way to the surface waters. The location of the lakes, reservoirs and

  7. Mercury concentrations in Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) and sediments in the Columbia River basin.

    PubMed

    Linley, Timothy; Krogstad, Eirik; Mueller, Robert; Gill, Gary; Lasorsa, Brenda

    2016-10-01

    The accumulation of mercury was investigated in Pacific lamprey and stream sediments in the Columbia River basin. Mercury concentrations in larval lamprey differed significantly among sample locations (p < 0.001) and were correlated with concentrations in sediments (r(2)  = 0.83). Adult concentrations were highly variable (range, 0.1-9.5 μg/g) and unrelated to holding time after collection. The results suggest that Pacific lamprey in the Columbia River basin may be exposed to mercury levels that have adverse ecological effects. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2571-2576. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  8. Geoacoustic model of surface sediments in the southwestern Ulleung basin, the East Sea of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Kim, D. C.; Lee, G. S.; Kim, S. P.; Bae, S. H.

    2012-04-01

    To realization of geoacoustic model in the southwestern Ulleung basin, the East Sea of Korea, eighty-two piston core samples and sixty-six box core samples were collected. Sediment texture (mean grain size and sand, silt, and clay contents), physical properties (porosity, water content, bulk density, and grain density), and acoustic properties (compressional wave velocity and attenuation) were measured using surface sediments below 40 cm from the surface. As the results, the study area is divided into five sub-areas based on acoustic property of sediments: (1) Area I is composed of muddy sediments that affected directly by the Nakdong River discharge. The velocity is almost 1490 m/s. (2) Area II is generally characterized by hemi-pelagic muds and partially mixed with intermittent sandy sediments originated from the outer shelf and upper slope. The velocity approximately ranges from 1490 to 1500 m/s. (3) Area III is comprised of muddy sand sediments that are corresponds to the boundary between recent sediments and relict sediments. The velocity ranges from 1500 to 1600 m/s. (4) Area IV is dominated by coarse-grained relict sediments. The velocity ranges from 1600 to 1700 m/s. And (5) Area V consists of very coarser sediments. The velocity is higher than 1700 m/s. The sediment velocity generally decreases with increasing porosity or decreasing mean grain size and bulk density.

  9. Assessing sediment dynamics of the Middle St. Johns River Basin, Lake Jesup, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. T.; Nielsen, S. M.; Scinto, L. J.; Thomas, S.; Fugate, D. C.; Corbett, D. R.; Brandt-Williams, S.

    2010-12-01

    Lake Jesup is a shallow, hypereutrophic lake located in the middle St. Johns River basin that received large loads of secondary effluent prior to 1985 and experiences tidal, tributary and wind influenced flow. To date we have assessed the use of several different types of sediment traps at different water depths within this shallow basin (typically less than 2.5 m). Each system deployed has its advantages, but deployments in shallow systems present unique challenges. We have augmented our sediment traps with additional observation and data collection systems to evaluate our approach for studying sedimentation rates in the basin. These systems include a floating barge platform to collect daily water samples for suspended particles, weather stations for wind direction and velocity current (flow) meter and acoustic Doppler water velocity systems (ADVs). Results from 2009 to 2010 show mass accumulation rates ranging between 200 g dw m-2 d-1 to 1200 g dw m-2 d-1. Trap material was analyzed for nutrients to better understand fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Sediment oxygen demand was measured during incubation experiments to determine potential effects on water column oxygen concentrations during resuspension events. In the second phase of this project (2010 to 2011) we will measure radioisotopes to better estimate the source of resuspended particles. Our goal is to use the deployed instrumentation to show how hydrodynamics affect sediment transport in this basin. Studying the sediment dynamics of highly productive fresh water end members of estuary systems is critical to better quantify biogeochemical fluxes necessary for effective restoration management. This paper will present a model of nutrient flux and accumulation rates, sediment oxygen demand, correlations between sediment flux and potential driving forces, and initial results from radioisotope sourcing.

  10. Geochemistry of sediments in the modern Aral Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturin, G. N.; Zavjalov, P. O.; Friedrich, J.

    2015-03-01

    The study presents the first geochemical data on the bottom sediments from the modern desiccating Aral Sea, which allowed a direct comparison between the compositions of the sediments collected during the pre- and postdesiccation periods. This study revealed the differences and similarities in the major and trace element composition of the sediments collected from the former bottom of the Large Aral Sea, the present-day sea bottom, the desiccated sea bottom, and the Amu Darya suspended sediments with respect to the average shale composition. The euxinic sediments from the western deep-water depression are characterized by high concentrations of U, Mo, and organic matter. The precipitation of evaporite salts occurs at the shallowest depths and in the western depression. The salt deposits exposed by the shrinking sea tend to be desalinated due to intense weathering. The mercury detected at high levels in the river suspended sediments of the former Amu Darya discharge was found to be absent in the modern marine sediments due to reductions in the river flow and the possible migration to the atmosphere. Many other trace elements, besides uranium, may also accumulate in seawater.

  11. Sediment Bacterial Communities Reflect the History of a Sea Basin

    PubMed Central

    Lyra, Christina; Sinkko, Hanna; Rantanen, Matias; Paulin, Lars; Kotilainen, Aarno

    2013-01-01

    How entire microbial communities are structured across stratified sediments from the historical standpoint is unknown. The Baltic Sea is an ideal research object for historical reconstruction, since it has experienced many fresh- and brackish water periods and is depleted of dissolved oxygen, which increases the sediment's preservation potential. We investigated the bacterial communities, chemical elements (e.g. Cr, Pb Na, P, Sr and U) and sediment composition in a stratified sediment core dated by radiocarbon and spanning 8000 years of Baltic Sea history, using up-to-date multivariate statistics. The communities were analysed by 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The communities of the deep Early Litorina and surface Late Litorina Sea laminae were separated from the communities of the middle Litorina Sea laminae, which were associated with elevated concentrations of U and Sr trace elements, palaeo-oxygen and palaeosalinity proxies. Thus, the Litorina Sea laminae were characterized by past oxygen deficiency and salinity increase. The communities of the laminae, bioturbated and homogeneous sediments were differentiated, based on the same historical sea phases, with correct classifications of 90%. Palaeosalinity was one of the major parameters that separated the bacterial communities of the stratified sediments. A discontinuous spatial structure with a surprising increase in community heterogeneity was detected in Litorina Sea sediments from 388 to 422 cm deep, which suggests that a salinity maximum occurred in the central Gulf of Finland app. 6200–6600 years ago. The community heterogeneity decreased from the surface down to 306 cm, which reflected downcore mineralization. The plateau of the decrease was in the app. 2000-year-old sediment layers. Bacterial community data may be used as an additional tool in ocean-drilling projects, in which it is important to detect mineralization plateaus both to determine historically comparable

  12. Short and long term sediment flux in an inner-alpine sedimentary basin (Hohe Tauern, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, Joachim; Schrott, Lothar

    2015-04-01

    Combined analyses of short and long term sediment fluxes in mountain environments have been rarely carried out until now. However, the relation of integrated postglacial landform volumes to single events (e.g. debris flows) provide the opportunity to establish meaningful frequency-magnitude-relationships, to evaluate present day geomorphic activity more reasonable, and to complement time series data typically covering only a short period of time. In this study we investigate recent and postglacial sediment flux in a small-scale denudation-accumulation system in the Hohe Tauern Range (Austrian Alps) using a complementary multi method approach including surface, subsurface and temporal analyses. We reconstructed the infill history and sedimentary architecture of the almost closed Gradenmoos basin, which has been filled up with sediments from different source areas delivered by mainly debris flows, rockfall and avalanche activity, and fluvial processes. In former times, glacial, glacio-fluvial and lacustrine sedimentation contributed to the basin fill as well. This process diversity led to a variety of interfingering and nested sediment storage landforms with a complex postglacial stratigraphy. Most important landforms include floodplain and peat bog deposits in the basin center as well as debris cones and talus sheets adjacent to the surrounding rockwalls. Postglacial basin sedimentation started after Younger Dryas deglaciation as indicated by radiocarbon ages of early-Holocene sediment core samples taken in the basin. For the following 7500 years, trap efficiency was maximised due to the presence of a former lake which is proved by morphometric, palynologic and stratigraphic data. Peat bog development finally began around 3500 years ago in the distal part of the basin. We interpolated the bedrock interface below the basin fill deposits using bedrock coordinates derived from core-drilling, geophysical prospection (electrical resistivity tomography, refraction seismic

  13. The legacy of lead (Pb) in fluvial bed sediments of an urban drainage basin, Oahu, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Hotton, Veronica K; Sutherland, Ross A

    2016-03-01

    The study of fluvial bed sediments is essential for deciphering the impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality and drainage basin integrity. In this study, a systematic sampling design was employed to characterize the spatial variation of lead (Pb) concentrations in bed sediment of urban streams in the Palolo drainage basin, southeastern Oahu, Hawaii. Potentially bioavailable Pb was assessed with a dilute 0.5 N HCl extraction of the <63 μm grain-size fraction from the upper bed sediment layer of 169 samples from Palolo, Pukele, and Waiomao streams. Contamination of bed sediments was associated with the direct transport of legacy Pb from the leaded gasoline era to stream channels via a dense network of storm drains linked to road surfaces throughout the basin. The Palolo Stream had the highest median Pb concentration (134 mg/kg), and the greatest road and storm drain densities, the greatest population, and the most vehicle numbers. Lower median Pb concentrations were associated with the less impacted Pukele Stream (24 mg/kg), and Waiomao Stream (7 mg/kg). The median Pb enrichment ratio values followed the sequence of Palolo (68) > Pukele (19) > Waiomao (8). Comparisons to sediment quality guidelines and potential toxicity estimates using a logistic regression model (LRM) indicated a significant potential risk of Palolo Stream bed sediments to bottom-dwelling organisms.

  14. A review of sediment quantity issues: examples from the River Ebro and adjacent basins (Northeastern Spain).

    PubMed

    Batalla, Ramon J; Vericat, Damià

    2011-04-01

    Sediment flows naturally through the drainage network, from source areas to deposition zones. Sedimentary disequilibrium in rivers and coastlines is related to the imbalance within the fluvial system caused mostly by dams, instream mining, and changes in land use. This phenomenon is also responsible for ecological perturbations in rivers and streams. A broad need exists to establish comprehensive management strategies (soft measures) that would go beyond site-specific engineering practices (technical measures) typically taken to solve particular problems. Long-term programs are also required to monitor sediment transport in river basins, in order to assess the magnitude and variability of sediment transfer and potential deficits. This paper shows examples of rivers with important sediment disequilibrium in the Ebro and adjacent basins. These basins, like most in the Iberian Peninsula, experience sediment discontinuity in the catchment-river-coast system. Reservoir siltation is the main quantitative issue. Land use change and especially gravel mining downstream from dams accentuate the process. We also present and discuss recent developments on water and sediment management undertaken to improve the morphosedimentary dynamics of rivers.

  15. The Impact of Rainstorm Stochasticity on Hillslope Sediment Supply to River Channels in Dryland Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelides, K.; Singer, M. B.

    2011-12-01

    Climate interacts with hillslopes supplying sediment to river channels, and impacting drainage basin functioning and evolution. In particular, coarse sediment supply from hillslopes exerts a strong control on channel bed material grain-size distributions (GSD) which feeds back on bedload flux and consequently affects long-term rates of valley incision/aggradation. However, process-based understanding of sediment supply from hillslopes is poorly constrained because it is spatially and temporally variable as a result of interactions between rainstorm attributes (frequency, intensity, duration, size) and hillslope characteristics within a basin (length, gradient, infiltration rates, GSD). Drylands are particularly sensitive to climatic forcing because they are subjected to infrequent, short-lived, but high intensity rainfall events, which are spatially-variable and often smaller than the basin area. These climatic factors coupled with thin, stony soils typical of drylands, produce dynamic and variable sediment supply to channels, with a high proportion of coarse material that remains in channel beds over long timescales. Currently there is limited understanding of how variability and nonstationarity in regional climate affect hillslope sediment supply to valley floors in dryland basins. In these landscapes, the discrete and spatially variable nature of convective rainstorms and other catchment characteristics create challenges for deterministic modelling of the interaction between climate and sediment transport. Here we represent climate as a stochastic process characterized by probability density functions of storm properties (total annual rainfall, location, size, duration, peak rainfall intensity). This stochastic driver is coupled to a physics-based hillslope sediment transport model in order to investigate the decadal impact of climatic variability on longitudinal hillslope coarse (> 2 mm) sediment supply (flux and GSD) to a mainstem channel within a 170 km2

  16. [Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyl in sediments from Songhua River Basin].

    PubMed

    Nie, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Chuan-Dong; Liu, Ying-Han; Peng, Min; Li, Kuo; Yang, Ke; Liu, Fei

    2012-10-01

    In order to find out the distribution, source and pollution situation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments of Songhua River basin, GC-ECD and GC-MS were used to determine the PCBs contents in sediments of Songhua River basin. Regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQG) and the potential ecological risk index (Er) were utilized to evaluate the ecological risk of PCBs in the sediments. The results showed that 2-10 PCBs congeners were detected in the sediments. The total contents of PCBs varied from 0.83 ng x g(-1) to 125.53 ng x g(-1) in sediments of Songhua river basin, 0.83-4.44 ng x g(-1) for Nen River, 12.44-125.53 ng x g(-1) for Second Songhua River, and 1.74-6.25 ng x g(-1) for the mainstream of Songhua River. The highest level of PCBs was detected in sediments of Second Songhua River, which mainly came from pollution sources which are related with industrial products such as paint, insulation materials and the like, and were distributed along the river. While in other rivers, the dominant PCB was Dichlorobiphenyl, which mainly came from the atmospheric deposition. Risk assessment using three methods (EPA, SQG and Er) showed that PCBs in the sediment of the Second Songhua River has already reached the medium to high level of contamination, and PCBs in sediments of other rivers has no ecological risks at the moment.

  17. Suspended sediment fluxes in an Indonesian river draining a rainforested basin subject to land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschman, F.; Hoitink, A.; de Jong, S.; Hoekstra, P.

    2011-12-01

    Forest clearing in the tropics for reasons of timber production, open pit mining and the establishment of oil palm plantations generally results in excessively high sediment loads. The increasing sediment fluxes pose a threat to coastal marine ecosystems such as coral reefs. This study presents observations of suspended sediment fluxes in the Berau river (Indonesia), which debouches into a coastal ocean that can be considered the preeminent center of coral diversity. The Berau is an example of a small river draining a mountainous, relatively pristine basin that receives abundant rainfall. Flow velocity was measured over a large part of the river width at a station under the influence of tides, using a Horizontal Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (HADCP). Surrogate measurements of suspended sediment concentration were taken with an Optical Backscatter Sensor (OBS). Tidally averaged suspended sediment concentration increases with river discharge, implying that the tidally averaged suspended sediment flux increases non-linearly with river discharge. Averaged over the 6.5 weeks covered by the benchmark survey, the tidally averaged suspended sediment flux was estimated at 2 Mt/y. Considering the wet conditions during the observation period, this figure may be considered as an upper limit of the yearly averaged flux. This flux is significantly smaller than what could have been expected from the characteristics of the catchment. Furthermore, the consequences of ongoing clearing of rainforest were explored using a plot scale erosion model. When rainforest, which still covered 50 - 60 % of the basin in 2007, is converted to production land, soil loss is expected to increase with a factor between 10 and 100. If this soil loss is transported seaward as suspended sediment, the increase in suspended sediment flux in the Berau river would impose a severe sediment stress on the global hotspot of coral reef diversity. The impact of land cover changes will largely depend on the

  18. Suspended sediment fluxes in an Indonesian river draining a rainforested basin subject to land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschman, F. A.; Hoitink, A. J. F.; de Jong, S. M.; Hoekstra, P.

    2011-07-01

    Forest clearing for reasons of timber production, open pit mining and the establishment of oil palm plantations generally results in excessively high sediment loads in the tropics. The increasing sediment fluxes pose a threat to coastal marine ecosystems such as coral reefs. This study presents observations of suspended sediment fluxes in the Berau river (Indonesia), which debouches into a coastal ocean that can be considered the preeminent center of coral diversity. The Berau is an example of a small river draining a mountainous, relatively pristine basin that receives abundant rainfall. Flow velocity was measured over a large part of the river width at a station under the influence of tides, using a Horizontal Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (HADCP). Surrogate measurements of suspended sediment concentration were taken with an Optical Backscatter Sensor (OBS). Tidally averaged suspended sediment concentration increases with river discharge, implying that the tidally averaged suspended sediment flux increases non-linearly with river discharge. Averaged over the 6.5 weeks observations covered by the benchmark survey, the tidally averaged suspended sediment flux was estimated at 2 Mt y-1. Considering the wet conditions during the observation period, this figure may be considered as an upper limit of the yearly averaged flux. This flux is significantly smaller than what could have been expected from the characteristics of the catchment. The consequences of ongoing clearing of rainforest were explored using a plot scale erosion model. When rainforest, which still covered 50-60 % of the basin in 2007, is converted to production land, soil loss is expected to increase with a factor between 10 and 100. If this soil loss is transported seaward as suspended sediment, the increase in suspended sediment flux in the Berau river would impose a severe sediment stress on the global hotspot of coral reef diversity. The impact of land cover changes will largely depend on the

  19. Spectroscopic characterization of uranium in evaporation basin sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, M. C.; Morris, D. E.; Hunter, D. B.; Bertsch, P. M.

    2000-05-01

    Evaporation ponds in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), CA, used for the containment of irrigation drainage waters contain elevated levels of uranium (U) resulting from the extensive leaching by carbonate-rich irrigation waters of the local agricultural soils that contain low levels of naturally-occurring U. The SJV ponds are subjected to changes in redox chemistry with cycles of drying and flooding. Our past studies have shown that U in the SJV Pond 14 surface sediments is present as mostly the oxidized and soluble form, U(VI). However, we were uncertain whether the U in the soil was only present as a U oxide of mixed stoichiometry, such as U 3O 8(s) (pitchblende) or other species. Here we present characterization information, which includes wet chemical and in situ spectroscopic techniques (X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and low temperature time-resolved luminescence spectroscopies) for samples from two SJV Pond sediments. Surface sediments from SJV Pond 16 were characterized for average oxidation state of U with XANES spectroscopy. The fraction of U(VI) to U(IV) in the Pond 16 sediments decreased with depth with U(IV) being the dominant oxidation state in the 5 cm to 15 cm depth. Two luminescent U(VI) species were identified in the surface sediments from Pond 14; a U(VI)-tricarbonate phase and another phase likely comprised of U(VI)-hydroxide or hydroxycarbonate. The luminescent U(VI) population in the Pond 16 sediments is dominated by species with comparable spectral characteristics to the U(VI)-hydroxide or hydroxycarbonate species found in the Pond 14 sediments. The luminescence spectroscopic results were complemented by wet chemical U leaching methods, which involved the use of carbonate and sulfuric acid solutions and oxidizing solutions of peroxide, hypochlorite and Mn(IV). Leaching was shown to decrease the total U concentration in the sediments in all cases. However, results from luminescence studies of the residual fraction in the leached

  20. Estimation of sediment sources using selected chemical tracers in the Perry lake basin, Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.; Ziegler, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to achieve meaningful decreases in sediment loads to reservoirs requires a determination of the relative importance of sediment sources within the contributing basins. In an investigation of sources of fine-grained sediment (clay and silt) within the Perry Lake Basin in northeast Kansas, representative samples of channel-bank sources, surface-soil sources (cropland and grassland), and reservoir bottom sediment were collected, chemically analyzed, and compared. The samples were sieved to isolate the <63 ?? m fraction and analyzed for selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 25 trace elements, and the radionuclide cesium-137 (137Cs). On the basis of substantial and consistent compositional differences among the source types, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total organic carbon (TOC), and 137Cs were selected for use in the estimation of sediment sources. To further account for differences in particle-size composition between the sources and the reservoir bottom sediment, constituent ratio and clay-normalization techniques were used. Computed ratios included TOC to TN, TOC to TP, and TN to TP. Constituent concentrations (TN, TP, TOC) and activities (137Cs) were normalized by dividing by the percentage of clay. Thus, the sediment-source estimations involved the use of seven sediment-source indicators. Within the Perry Lake Basin, the consensus of the seven indicators was that both channel-bank and surface-soil sources were important in the Atchison County Lake and Banner Creek Reservoir subbasins, whereas channel-bank sources were dominant in the Mission Lake subbasin. On the sole basis of 137Cs activity, surface-soil sources contributed the most fine-grained sediment to Atchison County Lake, and channel-bank sources contributed the most fine-grained sediment to Banner Creek Reservoir and Mission Lake. Both the seven-indicator consensus and 137Cs indicated that channel-bank sources were dominant for

  1. Assessing Suspended-Sediment Transport Rates at the Regional Scale: Lake Tahoe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heins, A.; Simon, A.

    2003-12-01

    In recent years, suspended-sediment transport has received increased attention due to a greater emphasis being placed on water quality issues. Secchi-disk data has shown a trend of decreasing water clarity in Lake Tahoe over the past 35 years that can be partly attributed to delivery of fine sediment from channel and upland sources. In an effort to quantify the magnitude and sources of suspended sediment into Lake Tahoe, the USDA-ARS National Sedimentation Laboratory with support from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers initiated a study to examine these issues. Historical flow and sediment-transport data from more than 30 gages were used to determine bulk suspended-sediment loads and yields for sites around the lake. Eighteen index stations were used to make comparisons between sediment production and delivery from individual watersheds and between different sides of the lake. Fine-grained sediment transport was determined for 20 sites based on relations derived from particle-size distributions across the range of measured flows. Suspended-sediment loads and yields vary over orders of magnitude from year to year, from west to east and north to south across the basin. Median annual suspended-sediment loads for index stations range from about 2200 tonnes/yr (T/y) from the Upper Truckee River to 3 T/y from Logan House Creek. Based on the historical data, the largest annual contributors of sediment are in decreasing order, Upper Truckee River (2200 T/y), Blackwood Creek (1930 T/y), Second Creek (1410 T/y), Trout Creek (1190 T/y), Third Creek (880 T/y) and Ward Creek (855 T/y). Data from Second and Third Creeks may be somewhat misleading though because of a short period of data collection in the case of the former, and the fact that data collection occurred during major construction activities and following storm-induced debris flows in these basins. Analysis of suspended-sediment transport ratings with longer periods of record show that sediment loads from northeastern

  2. Synthesis of nutrient and sediment data for watersheds within the Chesapaeake Bay drainage basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langland, M.J.; Lietman, P.L.; Hoffman, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Nutrient and sediment data collected by Federal and state agencies from 1972 through 1992 at 1,058 surface-water sites in nontidal parts of the Chesapeake Bay Basin were compiled into a large database. Adequate nutrient, sediment, and streamflow data were not available to compute annual loads for all sites because water-quality monitoring at many of the sites was either short term or noncontinuous or because stream-flow was not measured. Annual nutrient and sediment loads were calculated at a total of 127 sites. Annual loads of dissolved nitrate were calculated for 108 sites, but total nitrogen loads could be calculated for only 48 of these sites because ammonia plus organic nitrogen data were not available for many of these 108 sites. Annual loads of total phosphorus were calculated for 99 sites, and annual loads of suspended sediment were calculated for 33 sites. Loads could be calculated for only a very few sites in the Juniata River Basin (a tributary to the Susquehanna River), the York River Basin, the middle and lower reaches of the James River, and the nontidal parts of the eastern shore of the Bay. Geographic Information System (GIS) spatial data sets of land use, physiographic province, rock type, and watershed delineation were compiled for the entire Chesapeake Bay Basin (approximately 64,000 square miles). The nutrient- and sediment-yield were evaluated with respect to land use, physiographic province, rock type, and hydrologic characteristics. During years that the mean streamflow was about equal to the long-term mean streamflow, the Susquehanna River contributed about 50 percent of the freshwater, 66 percent of the total nitrogen, and 40 percent of the total phosphorus transported by tributaries to the Bay. Nutrient and sediment data were available for less than 18 percent of the predominantly agricultural areas underlain by siliciclastic rock and for less than 35 percent of the predominantly agricultural areas underlain by either carbonate rock or

  3. Role of river bank erosion in sediment budgets of catchments within the Loire river basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Aurore; Cerdan, Olivier; Poisvert, Cecile; Landemaine, Valentin

    2014-05-01

    Quantifying volumes of sediments produced on hillslopes or in channels and transported or stored within river systems is necessary to establish sediment budgets. If research efforts on hillslope erosion processes have led to a relatively good understanding and quantification of local sources, in-channel processes remain poorly understood and quasi inexistent in global budgets. However, profound landuse changes and agricultural practices have altered river functioning, caused river bank instability and stream incision. During the past decades in France, river channelization has been perfomed extensively to allow for new agricultural practices to take place. Starting from a recent study on the quantification of sediment fluxes for catchments within the Loire river basin (Gay et al. 2013), our aim is to complete sediment budgets by taking into account various sources and sinks both on hillslope and within channel. The emphasis of this study is on river bank erosion and how bank erosion contributes to global budgets. A model of bank retreat is developed for the entire Loire river basin. In general, our results show that bank retreat is on average quite low with approximately 1 cm.yr-1. However, a strong variability exists within the study area with channels displaying values of bank retreat up to ~10 cm.yr-1. Our results corroborate those found by Landemaine et al. in 2013 on a small agricultural catchment. From this first step, quantification of volumes of sediment eroded from banks and available for transport should be calculated and integrated in sediment budgets to allow for a better understanding of basin functioning. Gay A., Cerdan O., Delmas M., Desmet M., Variability of sediment yields in the Loire river basin (France): the role of small scale catchments (under review). Landemaine V., Gay A., Cerdan O., Salvador-Blanes S., Rodriguez S. Recent morphological evolution of a headwater stream in agricultural context after channelization in the Ligoire river (France

  4. Accumulation and trace-metal variability of estuarine sediments, Barataria Basin, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Landrum, K.

    1994-09-01

    Prior to government regulation, little monitoring of metal discharges into the canals, bayous, and rivers that drain estuarine systems occurred. Discharges of heavy metals are now limited through the use of regulatory permit programs for industries and municipalities. Resource management of economically important estuarine systems has fostered increasing concern over the accumulation of heavy metal pollutants in water, sediments, and biota of these dynamic areas. As a result of the low solubility of most metals, very small amounts are transported in solution. Most metals transported by rivers are tightly bound in the aluminosilicate phases associated with the suspended and bottom sediments. The bottom sediments of lakes and estuaries have served as sinks for the accumulation of heavy metals from natural weathering products, spills, effluents, runoff, and atmospheric sources. These accumulations have left a metal signature upon essentially every bay and estuary in the northern Gulf. The acid-leachable concentrations of 14 metals (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) were determined for 136 bottom sediment samples and 40 core interval samples by plasma emission analysis. Elevated concentrations in heavy metals near the centers of the Barataria basin lakes reflect the strong correlations between increased trace-metal concentrations and smaller grain-size sediments. Heavy metal concentrations within the 2-cm core intervals indicate increases in Ba, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Zn (10-30%) within Barataria basin sediments accumulated in the last 75 yr. Although anthropogenic heavy metal contributions within Barataria basin exist, comparisons of average trace-metal concentrations from the study areas with those of other Gulf Coast estuaries and with the average shale indicate that the heavy metal contents of upper Barataria basin sediments have not reached alarming levels.

  5. Simulation of contaminated sediment transport in White Oak Creek basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Y.; Clapp, R.B.; Brenkert, A.L.; Moore, T.D.; Fontaine, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a systematic approach to management of the contaminated sediments in the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The primary contaminant of concern is radioactive cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), which binds to soil and sediment particles. The key components in the approach include an intensive sampling and monitoring system for flood events; modeling of hydrological processes, sediment transport, and contaminant flux movement; and a decision framework with a detailed human health risk analysis. Emphasis is placed on modeling of watershed rainfall-runoff and contaminated sediment transport during flooding periods using the Hydrologic Simulation Program- Fortran (HSPF) model. Because a large number of parameters are required in HSPF modeling, the major effort in the modeling process is the calibration of model parameters to make simulation results and measured values agree as closely as possible. An optimization model incorporating the concepts of an expert system was developed to improve calibration results and efficiency. Over a five-year simulation period, the simulated flows match the observed values well. Simulated total amount of sediment loads at various locations during storms match with the observed values within a factor of 1.5. Simulated annual releases of {sup 137}Cs off-site locations match the data within a factor of 2 for the five-year period. The comprehensive modeling approach can provide a valuable tool for decision makers to quantitatively analyze sediment erosion, deposition, and transport; exposure risk related to radionuclides in contaminated sediment; and various management strategies.

  6. An investigation of element ratios for assessing suspended-sediment sources in small agricultural basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.

    2012-01-01

    Various sediment properties previously have been investigated for the purpose of determining sources of suspended sediment. A remaining research need is an assessment of element ratios for the determination of suspended-sediment sources in different terrestrial environments. In this study, 253 element ratios were assessed to determine which, if any, were potentially useful for sediment-source determinations in six small agricultural basins in northeastern Kansas, USA. Samples of surface soils (cropland and grassland), channel banks, and reservoir bottom sediments were collected, analyzed for 23 elements, and compared. Of the 253 element ratios assessed, only the Co/Pb and Co/Zn ratios were substantially and consistently different between the channel banks and surface soils for all six basins. For three of four reservoirs for which data were available, sediment-source estimates provided by Co/Pb ratios were in agreement with estimates previously provided using 137Cs. For two of the four reservoirs, sediment-source estimates provided by Co/Zn ratios were consistent with the 137Cs estimates. Thus, the Co/Pb ratio potentially may be more useful. Additional research is needed to ascertain whether or not the use of Co/Pb and Co/Zn ratios as tracers is widely applicable or restricted to specific terrestrial environments.

  7. Simulating sediment loading into the major reservoirs in Trinity River Basin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Upper Trinity Basin supplies water to about one-fourth of Texas' population. The anticipated rapid growth of North Central Texas will certainly increase regional demands for high quality drinking water. This has increased concerns that sediment and nutrient loads received by drinking water reser...

  8. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in surface sediments of Beiluohe Basins, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Helin; Zhang, Li; Yue, Leping; Zheng, Guozhang

    2008-10-01

    Twenty-two surface sediment samples were collected from Beiluohe River, China, in 2005. Saturated hydrocarbons analysis was carried out on different river sediments in order to detect possible contaminations by petroleum development. Total concentrations of hydrocarbons in the sediments ranged from 6.4-147.3 microg g(-1) (dry wt) with an average of 76.8 microg g(-1), revealing relatively low to medium contamination in studied areas in spite of oil development for many years. The THC levels in the mainstream of Beiluohe River were relatively low. Sediment samples with higher total hydrocarbon concentrations were from the sites related to the petroleum activities or urban discharges. Gas chromatographic distribution patterns of n-alkanes are characteristic of petroleum in most samples. They show a strong unresolved complex mixture (UCM) with a small predominance of odd on even numbered n-alkanes. On the other hand, pentacyclic triterpanes and steranes occurred in all analyzed sediments and displayed similar signatures that are characteristic of mature organic matter contribution from oil contaminations. Hydrocarbons of terrestrial origin were also detected in the samples. However, contribution from plantwax hydrocarbons is overshadowed in samples by hydrocarbons of petroleum origin. This is obvious by the presence of the high relative abundance of UCM, and the identification of mature hopane and sterane in samples.

  9. Historical trends in organochlorine compounds in river basins identified using sediment cores from reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Callender, E.; Fuller, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high focusing factors distinguish reservoir sediment cores from cores collected in natural lakes. Temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs, total DDT (DDT + DDD + DDE), and chlordane reflect historical use and regulation of these compounds and differences in land use between reservoir drainages. PCB and total DDT core burdens, normalized for sediment focusing, greatly exceed reported cumulative regional atmospheric fallout of PCBs and total DDT estimated using cores from peat hogs and natural lakes, indicating the dominance of fluvial inputs of both groups of compounds to the reservoirs.This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high

  10. Hydrocarbon gas in sediment from the shelf, slope and basin of the Bering Sea.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Redden, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    Methane, ethane, ethene, propane, propene, isobutane and n-butane are present in low concentrations in the top 2m of sediment. Methane is most abundant and its concentration increases with depth in the sediment. Ethane, ethene, propane and propene are present in almost all samples, but the concentrations of these gases are about two orders of magnitude-lower than the concentration of methane. The average ratios of ethane to ethene are usually greater than one in shelf sediment, about one in slope sediment, and usually less than one in basin sediments. These hydrocarbon gases are probably derived from low-temperature chemical and biochemical processes operating at or near the sea-floor. -from Authors

  11. Late Miocene and Pliocene synorogenic sedimentation in northern Livermore basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacson, K.A.; Andersen, D.W.

    1987-05-01

    Late Tertiary synorogenic sedimentation in the northern Livermore basin, Contra Costa County, California, has recorded two major changes in provenance. Changes in clast composition of fluvial conglomerates reflect regional tectonic reorganization as the San Andreas fault system began to evolve at this latitude. Shallow marine deposition of Sierran andesitic sediment gave way at approximately 8 Ma to fluvially dominated deposition of sediment from a local, graywacke-rich, Coast Range source. Deposition of reworked andesitic material prior to 5.5 Ma records development of anticlinal uplifts along trends of the present Altamont Hills and Calaveras fault system. By 4 Ma, the areal extent of the subsiding basin had increased; the Altamont Hills continued to be uplifted, but the Calaveras fault region began to subside rapidly. Late Miocene and Pliocene deformation of the Livermore basin area extended over a broad zone east of the developing transform fault system. Structures that developed included broad synclinal basins and gentle anticlinal uplifts that had topographic expression but were not deeply incised. Intense deformation of the basin and uplift of Mount Diablo occurred after 3 Ma.

  12. Re-evaluating the Amerasian Basin tectonic and sedimentation history with new geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, David; Chian, Deping; Oakey, Gordon; Jackson, Ruth; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah; Coakley, Bernard; Li, Quinmou; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Evangelatos, John; Mayer, Larry; Verhoef, Jacob

    2013-04-01

    A new wave of geophysical data acquisition in the high Arctic as part of extended continental shelf mapping programmes permits re-evaluation of the Arctic Amerasian Basin tectonic and sedimentologic history. In the past seven years, 15,000 line-km of new seismic reflection data and coincident refraction data and 38,000 line-km of shipborne gravity data and >50,000 line-km of airborne gravity and magnetic anomaly data were acquired in Amerasian Basin and over Lomonosov Ridge by Canadian, US and Danish expeditions. These new data support a limited rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin around a pole located about 64.6°N and 130.8°W; south of existing rotational models thus requiring less rotation (32 deg vs 66 deg). Gravity anomaly data reveal a central basement ridge and valley. Coincident symmetric magnetic anomalies and blocky basement morphology are consistent with an extinct spreading center. This interpretation is further supported by refraction observations of oceanic crustal velocities within this zone. To the flanks, crustal velocities suggest significant areas of stretched serpentinized continental crust. The consequence of these findings is that new oceanic crust accounts for about 13.2 deg or rotation with about 20 deg accounted for by stretching (Beta factor of 5). Basement elevations within the Canada Basin deepen to the south, mostly due to sediment loading, where sediment thicknesses exceed 15 km. The sedimentary sequence thins to the north and west. The seafloor and underlying sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying. Reflections that correlate across the basin comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Isopach maps reveal three distinct depositional patterns, documenting the migration of sediment sources during the basin's history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene, synrift and

  13. Sediment Transportation Induced by Deep-Seated Landslides in a Debris Flow Basin in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meei Ling; Chen, Te Wei; Chen, Yong Sheng; Sin Jhuang, Han

    2016-04-01

    Typhoon Morakot brought huge amount of rainfall to the southern Taiwan in 2009 and caused severe landslides and debris flow hazard. After Typhoon Morakot, it was found that the volume of sediment transported by the debris flow and its effects on the affected area were much more significant compared to previous case history, which may due to the huge amount of rainfall causing significant deep-seated landslides in the basin. In this study, the effects and tendency of the sediment transportation in a river basin following deep-seated landslides caused by typhoon Morakot were evaluated. We used LiDAR, DEM, and aerial photo to identify characteristics of deep-seated landslides in a debris flow river basin, KSDF079 in Liuoguey District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Eight deep-seated landslides were identified in the basin. To estimate the potential landslide volume associated with the deep-seated landslides, the stability analysis was conducted to locate the critical sliding surface, and the potential landside volume was estimated based on the estimation equation proposed by the International Geotechnical Societies' UNESCO Working Party on World Landslide Inventory (WP/WLI, 1990). The total potential landslide volume of the eight deep-seated landslides in KSDF079 basin was about 28,906,856 m3. Topographic analysis was performed by using DEM before and LiDAR derived DEM after typhoon Morakot to calculate the landslide volume transported. The result of erosion volume and deposition volume lead to a run out volume of 5,832,433 m3. The results appeared to consist well with the field condition and aerial photo. Comparing the potential landslide volume and run out volume of eight deep-seated landslides, it was found that the remaining potential landslide volume was about 80%. Field investigation and topographic analysis of the KSDF079 debris flow revealed that a significant amount of sediment deposition remained in the river channel ranging from the middle to the downstream

  14. Google Earth-Based Grand Tours of the World's Ocean Basins and Marine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St John, K. K.; De Paor, D. G.; Suranovic, B.; Robinson, C.; Firth, J. V.; Rand, C.

    2016-12-01

    The GEODE project has produced a collection of Google Earth-based marine geology teaching resources that offer grand tours of the world's ocean basins and marine sediments. We use a map of oceanic crustal ages from Müller et al (2008; doi:10.1029/2007GC001743), and a set of emergent COLLADA models of IODP drill core data as a basis for a Google Earth tour introducing students to the world's ocean basins. Most students are familiar with basic seafloor spreading patterns but teaching experience suggests that few students have an appreciation of the number of abandoned ocean basins on Earth. Students also lack a valid visualization of the west Pacific where the oldest crust forms an isolated triangular patch and the ocean floor becomes younger towards the subduction zones. Our tour links geographic locations to mechanical models of rifting, seafloor spreading, subduction, and transform faulting. Google Earth's built-in earthquake and volcano data are related to ocean floor patterns. Marine sediments are explored in a Google Earth tour that draws on exemplary IODP core samples of a range of sediment types (e.g., turbidites, diatom ooze). Information and links are used to connect location to sediment type. This tour compliments a physical core kit of core catcher sections that can be employed for classroom instruction (geode.net/marine-core-kit/). At a larger scale, we use data from IMLGS to explore the distribution of the marine sediments types in the modern global ocean. More than 2,500 sites are plotted with access to original data. Students are guided to compare modern "type sections" of primary marine sediment lithologies, as well as examine site transects to address questions of bathymetric setting, ocean circulation, chemistry (e.g., CCD), and bioproductivity as influences on modern seafloor sedimentation. KMZ files, student exercises, and tips for instructors are available at geode.net/exploring-marine-sediments-using-google-earth.

  15. Temporal variations of water and sediment fluxes in the Cointzio river basin, central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvert, C.; Gratiot, N.; Navratil, O.; Esteves, M.; Prat, C.; Nord, G.

    2009-04-01

    The STREAMS program (Sediment TRansport and Erosion Across MountainS) was launched in 2006 to study suspended sediment dynamics in mountainous areas. Two watersheds were selected as part of the program: the Bléone river basin in the French Alps, and the Cointzio river basin (636 km2), located in the mountainous region of Michoacán, in central Mexico. The volcanic soils of the Cointzio catchment undergo important erosion processes, especially during flashflood events. Thus, a high-frequency monitoring of sediment transport is highly required. The poster presents the high-frequency database obtained from the 2008 hydrological season at the Santiago Undameo gauged station, located at the basin's outlet. Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) was estimated every 10 minutes by calibrating turbidity measurements with bottle sampling acquired on a double-daily basis. Water discharge time-series was approximated with continuous water-level measurements (5 minutes time-step), and a stage-discharge rating curve. Our investigation highlights the influence of sampling frequency on annual water and sediment fluxes estimate. A daily or even a weekly water-level measurement provides an unexpectedly reliable assessment of the seasonal water fluxes, with an under-estimation of about 5 % of the total flux. Concerning sediment fluxes, a high-frequency SSC survey appears to be necessary. Acquiring SSC data even twice a day leads to a significant (over 30 %) under-estimation of the seasonal sediment load. These distinct behaviors can be attributed to the fact that sediment transport almost exclusively occurs during brief night flood events, whereas exfiltration on the watershed always provides a base flow during the daily water-level measurements.

  16. Sediment concentration rating curves for a monsoonal climate: upper Blue Nile Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moges, M. A.; Zemale, F. A.; Alemu, M. L.; Ayele, G. K.; Dagnew, D. C.; Tilahun, S. A.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    Information on sediment content in rivers is important for design of reservoirs and for environmental applications. Because of scarcity of continuous sediment data, methods have been developed to predict sediment loads based on few discontinuous measurements. Traditionally, loads are being predicted using rating curves that relate sediment load to discharge. The relationship assumes inherently a unique relationship between concentration and discharge and therefore although performing satisfactorily in predicting loads, it may be less suitable for predicting concentration. This is especially true in the Blue Nile basin of Ethiopia where concentrations decrease for a given discharge with the progression of the rainy monsoon phase. The objective of this paper is to improve the sediment concentration predictions throughout the monsoon period for the Ethiopian highlands with a modified rating type equation. To capture the observed sediment concentration pattern, we assume that the sediment concentration was at the transport limit early in the rainy season and then decrease linearly with effective rainfall towards source limited concentration. The modified concentration rating curve was calibrated for the four main rivers in the Lake Tana basin where sediment concentrations affect fish production and tourism. Then the scalability of the rating type equation was checked in three 100-ha watersheds for which historic data was available. The results show, that for predicting sediment concentrations, the (modified) concentration rating curve was more accurate than the (standard) load rating curve as expected. In addition loads were predicted more accurately for three of the four rivers. We expect that after more extensive testing over a wider geographical area, the proposed concentration rating curve will offer improved predictions of sediment concentrations in monsoonal climates.

  17. Arsenic associations in sediments from shallow aquifers of northwestern Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deng, Y.; Wang, Y.; Ma, T.; Yang, H.; He, J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of arsenic mobilization from sediments to groundwater is important for water quality management in areas of endemic arsenic poisoning, such as the Hetao Basin in Inner Mongolia, northern China. Aquifer geochemistry was characterized at three field sites (SH, HF, TYS) in Hangjinhouqi County of northwestern Hetao Basin. The results of bulk geochemistry analysis of sediment samples indicated that total As concentrations have a range of 6. 8-58. 5 mg/kg, with a median of 14. 4 mg/kg. The highest As concentrations were found at 15-25 m depth. In the meanwhile, the range of As concentration in the sediments from background borehole is 3-21. 8 mg/kg, with a median value of 9 mg/kg. The As sediments concentrations with depth from the SH borehole were correlated with the contents of Fe, Sb, B, V, total C and total S. Generally, the abundance of elements varied with grain size, with higher concentrations in finer fractions of the sediments. Distinct lithology profile and different geochemical characteristics of aquifer sediments indicate the sediments are associated with different sources and diverse sedimentary environments. Up to one third of arsenic in the sediments could be extracted by ammonium oxalate, suggesting that Fe oxyhydroxides may be the major sink of As in the aquifer. Sequential extraction results indicate that arsenic occurs as strongly adsorbed on and/or co-precipitated with amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides in sediments accounting for 35 and 20%, respectively, of the total contents of arsenic. The release of As into groundwater may occur by desorption from the mineral surface driven by reductive dissolution of the Fe oxide minerals. Furthermore, small proportions of As associated with iron sulfides occur in the reductive sediments. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Soft sediment deformation structures in the Maastrichtian Ajali Formation Western Flank of Anambra Basin, Southern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabode, Solomon Ojo

    2014-01-01

    Soft sediment deformation structures were recognized in the Maastrichtian shallow marine wave to tide influenced regressive sediments of Ajali Formation in the western flank of Anambra basin, southern Nigerian. The soft sediment deformation structures were in association with cross bedded sands, clay and silt and show different morphological types. Two main types recognised are plastic deformations represented by different types of recumbent folds and injection structure represented by clastic dykes. Other structures in association with the plastic deformation structures include distorted convolute lamination, subsidence lobes, pillars, cusps and sand balls. These structures are interpreted to have been formed by liquefaction and fluidization mechanisms. The driving forces inferred include gravitational instabilities and hydraulic processes. Facies analysis, detailed morphologic study of the soft sediment deformation structures and previous tectonic history of the basin indicate that the main trigger agent for deformation is earthquake shock. The soft sediment deformation structures recognised in the western part of Anambra basin provide a continuous record of the tectonic processes that acted on the regressive Ajali Formation during the Maastrichtian.

  19. Application of Sediment Backstripping Corrections for Basin Analysis Using Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Marlon Scott; Hsui, Albert Tong-Kwan

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a program created to serve as an instructional tool for teaching basin analysis. Described is the use of the program for interpreting plots resulting from backstripping methods. Included in the discussion are implementation, applications and availability of the "Subside!" program. (CW)

  20. Application of Sediment Backstripping Corrections for Basin Analysis Using Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Marlon Scott; Hsui, Albert Tong-Kwan

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a program created to serve as an instructional tool for teaching basin analysis. Described is the use of the program for interpreting plots resulting from backstripping methods. Included in the discussion are implementation, applications and availability of the "Subside!" program. (CW)

  1. Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- This report contains water-quality and sediment-quality data from samples collected in the Yukon River Basin during water year 2001 (October 2000 through September 2001). A broad range of chemical and biological analyses from three sets of samples are presented. First, samples were collected throughout the year at five stations in the basin (three on the mainstem Yukon River, one each on the Tanana and Porcupine Rivers). Second, fecal indicators were measured on samples from drinking-water supplies collected near four villages. Third, sediment cores from five lakes throughout the Yukon Basin were sampled to reconstruct historic trends in the atmospheric deposition of trace elements and hydrophobic organic compounds.

  2. Initial Sediment Transport Model of the Mining-Affected Aries River Basin, Romania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.; Linard, Joshua I.

    2008-01-01

    The Romanian government is interested in understanding the effects of existing and future mining activities on long-term dispersal, storage, and remobilization of sediment-associated metals. An initial Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was prepared using available data to evaluate hypothetical failure of the Valea Sesei tailings dam at the Rosia Poieni mine in the Aries River basin. Using the available data, the initial Aries River Basin SWAT model could not be manually calibrated to accurately reproduce monthly streamflow values observed at the Turda gage station. The poor simulation of the monthly streamflow is attributed to spatially limited soil and precipitation data, limited constraint information due to spatially and temporally limited streamflow measurements, and in ability to obtain optimal parameter values when using a manual calibration process. Suggestions to improve the Aries River basin sediment transport model include accounting for heterogeneity in model input, a two-tier nonlinear calibration strategy, and analysis of uncertainty in predictions.

  3. Factors Controlling Sediment Load in The Central Anatolia Region of Turkey: Ankara River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duru, Umit; Wohl, Ellen; Ahmadi, Mehdi

    2017-05-01

    Better understanding of the factors controlling sediment load at a catchment scale can facilitate estimation of soil erosion and sediment transport rates. The research summarized here enhances understanding of correlations between potential control variables on suspended sediment loads. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to simulate flow and sediment at the Ankara River basin. Multivariable regression analysis and principal component analysis were then performed between sediment load and controlling variables. The physical variables were either directly derived from a Digital Elevation Model or from field maps or computed using established equations. Mean observed sediment rate is 6697 ton/year and mean sediment yield is 21 ton/y/km² from the gage. Soil and Water Assessment Tool satisfactorily simulated observed sediment load with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, relative error, and coefficient of determination ( R²) values of 0.81, -1.55, and 0.93, respectively in the catchment. Therefore, parameter values from the physically based model were applied to the multivariable regression analysis as well as principal component analysis. The results indicate that stream flow, drainage area, and channel width explain most of the variability in sediment load among the catchments. The implications of the results, efficient siltation management practices in the catchment should be performed to stream flow, drainage area, and channel width.

  4. Factors Controlling Sediment Load in The Central Anatolia Region of Turkey: Ankara River Basin.

    PubMed

    Duru, Umit; Wohl, Ellen; Ahmadi, Mehdi

    2017-01-18

    Better understanding of the factors controlling sediment load at a catchment scale can facilitate estimation of soil erosion and sediment transport rates. The research summarized here enhances understanding of correlations between potential control variables on suspended sediment loads. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to simulate flow and sediment at the Ankara River basin. Multivariable regression analysis and principal component analysis were then performed between sediment load and controlling variables. The physical variables were either directly derived from a Digital Elevation Model or from field maps or computed using established equations. Mean observed sediment rate is 6697 ton/year and mean sediment yield is 21 ton/y/km² from the gage. Soil and Water Assessment Tool satisfactorily simulated observed sediment load with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, relative error, and coefficient of determination (R²) values of 0.81, -1.55, and 0.93, respectively in the catchment. Therefore, parameter values from the physically based model were applied to the multivariable regression analysis as well as principal component analysis. The results indicate that stream flow, drainage area, and channel width explain most of the variability in sediment load among the catchments. The implications of the results, efficient siltation management practices in the catchment should be performed to stream flow, drainage area, and channel width.

  5. Carbon dioxide production in surface sediments of temporarily anoxic basins (Baltic Sea) and resulting sediment-water interface fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, M. E.; Al-Raei, A. M.; Winde, V.; Lenz, C.; Dellwig, O.; Leipe, T.; Segl, M.; Struck, U.

    2009-04-01

    Organic matter is mineralized in marine sediments by microbial activity using predominantly oxygen, sulfate, and metal oxides as electron acceptors. Modern euxinic basins as found in the Baltic Sea or the Black Sea are of particular importance because they may serve as type systems for anoxia in Earth's history. We present here results from biogeochemical investigations carried out in the Baltic deeps (Gotland Basin, Landsort Deep) during the first scientific cruise of RV M.S. MERIAN in 2006, additionally during RV Prof. Penck cruises in 2006 and 2007. Short sediment cores were obtained with a multi-corer and analyzed for particulate and dissolved main, minor and trace elements, pH, DIC, methane alkalinity, besides the stable carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Microsensors were applied to analyze steep gradients of oxygen, sulphide and sulphate. Pore water profiles are evaluated in terms of process rates and associated element fluxes using the PROFILE software (Berg et al., 1998, L&O). Gross and net anaerobic mineralization rates were additionally obtained from core incubations with 35S. Steep gradients in DIC are associated with a strong enrichment of the light stable isotope resulting in the Gotland basin from oxidized OM. Element fluxes across the sediment-water interface are compared with literature data and show for the Baltic Sea a dependence from bottom water redox conditions, and sediment compositions and formation conditions (e.g., accumulation rates). DIC in the anoxic part of the water column in the Landsort Deep and the Gotland Deep show relatively similar isotope values, close to the bottom water value, but steep gradients towards heavier values above the pelagic redoxcline. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by Leibniz IO Warnemünde, DFG (Cruise RV MSM MERIAN 01), and MPG. Thanks to B. Schneider and F. Pollehne stimulating discussions, and S. Lage and A. Schipper for technical support.

  6. Nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads in the Steele Bayou Basin, northwestern Mississippi, 2010–14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hicks, Matthew B.; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Stocks, Shane J.

    2017-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Vicksburg District, monitored streamflow, water quality, and sediment at two stations on the Steele Bayou in northwestern Mississippi from October 2010 through September 2014 to characterize nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads in areas where substantial implementation of conservation efforts have been implemented. The motivation for this effort was to quantify improvements, or lack thereof, in water quality in the Steele Bayou watershed as a result of implementing large- and small-scale best-management practices aimed at reducing nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads. The results of this study document the hydrologic, water-quality, and sedimentation status of these basins following over two decades of ongoing implementation of conservation practices.Results from this study indicate the two Steele Bayou stations have comparable loads and yields of total nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment when compared to other agricultural basins in the southeastern and central United States. However, nitrate plus nitrite yields from basins in the Mississippi River alluvial plain, including the Steele Bayou Basin, are generally lower than other agricultural basins in the southeastern and central United States.Seasonal variation in nutrient and sediment loads was observed at both stations and for most constituents. About 50 percent of the total annual nutrient and sediment load was observed during the spring (February through May) and between 25 and 50 percent was observed during late fall and winter (October through January). These seasonal patterns probably reflect a combination of seasonal patterns in precipitation, runoff, streamflow, and in the timing of fertilizer application.Median concentrations of total nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, and suspended sediment were slightly higher at the upstream station, Steele Bayou near Glen Allan

  7. Channel morphometry, sediment transport, and implications for tectonic activity and surficial ages of Titan basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, R.; Clayton, J.A.; Kirk, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Fluvial features on Titan and drainage basins on Earth are remarkably similar despite differences in gravity and surface composition. We determined network bifurcation (Rb) ratios for five Titan and three terrestrial analog basins. Tectonically-modified Earth basins have Rb values greater than the expected range (3.0-5.0) for dendritic networks; comparisons with Rb values determined for Titan basins, in conjunction with similarities in network patterns, suggest that portions of Titan's north polar region are modified by tectonic forces. Sufficient elevation data existed to calculate bed slope and potential fluvial sediment transport rates in at least one Titan basin, indicating that 75mm water ice grains (observed at the Huygens landing site) should be readily entrained given sufficient flow depths of liquid hydrocarbons. Volumetric sediment transport estimates suggest that ???6700-10,000 Titan years (???2.0-3.0??105 Earth years) are required to erode this basin to its minimum relief (assuming constant 1m and 1.5m flows); these lowering rates increase to ???27,000-41,000 Titan years (???8.0-12.0??105 Earth years) when flows in the north polar region are restricted to summer months. ?? 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  8. An evaluation of selenium concentrations in water, sediment, invertebrates, and fish from the Solomon River Basin.

    PubMed

    May, Thomas W; Fairchild, James F; Petty, Jim D; Walther, Michael J; Lucero, Jeff; Delvaux, Mike; Manring, Jill; Armbruster, Mike

    2008-02-01

    The Solomon River Basin is located in north-central Kansas in an area underlain by marine geologic shales. Selenium is an indigenous constituent of these shales and is readily leached into the surrounding groundwater. Portions of the Basin are irrigated primarily through the pumping of selenium-contaminated groundwater from wells onto fields in agricultural production. Water, sediment, macroinvertebrates, and fish were collected from various sites in the Basin in 1998 and analyzed for selenium. Selenium concentrations were analyzed spatially and temporally and compared to reported selenium toxic effect thresholds for specific ecosystem components: water, sediments, food-chain organisms, and wholebody fish. A selenium aquatic hazard assessment for the Basin was determined based on protocol established by Lemly. Throughout the Basin, water, macroinvertebrate, and whole fish samples exceeded levels suspected of causing reproductive impairment in fish. Population structures of several fish species implied that successful reproduction was occurring; however, the influence of immigration of fish from low-selenium habitats could not be discounted. Site-specific fish reproduction studies are needed to determine the true impact of selenium on fishery resources in the Basin.

  9. Tectonically controlled sedimentation in the Mesozoic basins of the Antarctic Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, D.I.M.; Butterworth, P.J. )

    1990-05-01

    The Antarctica Peninsula (AP) lies on a medium-size block of continental crust and is one of a mosaic of west Antarctica coastal block that underwent a complex tectonic evolution during Gondwana breakup. The peninsula represents the eroded roots of a microcontinental volcanic arc; this arc lay above the easterly subducting proto-Pacific plate, and was active throughout the Mesozoic. The exposed Mesozoic basins display a complex stratigraphy, reflecting local tectonic and volcanic events. There are a few general trends. Almost all basins are post-late Oxfordian, their fill is entirely clastic, and is largely derived from the Antarctica peninsula volcanic arc. Most basins were affected by a period of arc expansion in the latest Jurassic or earliest Cretaceous, which manifests itself as inputs of lava or coarse volcaniclastic sediment overlying mudstones with an open marine fauna. Barriasian and older mudstones are generally finer grained and darker than mudstones from post-Berriasian strata. However, it must be emphasized that these are only general trends. Deformation is variable, commonly progressive. No lithostratigraphic units can be correlated between any two basins, nor are there any interregional unconformities. No matching is possible with basins of equivalent age in formerly contiguous areas of Gondwana. There is evidence that some global eustatic events are recorded in the sedimentary records of at least two of the AP Mesozoic basins, but these have effect only in periods of local tectonic quiescence. The dominant control on sedimentation in this large segment of the Pacific rim was arc tectonics.

  10. Eustatic and tectonic control of sedimentation in the Pennsylvanian strata of the Central Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Chesnut, D.R. Jr. . Kentucky Geological Survey)

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the Breathitt Group of the Central Appalachian Basin reveals three orders of depositional cycles or trends. The Breathitt coarsening-upward trend (20 million years (my)) represents increasing intensity of the Alleghenian Orogeny. The major transgression (MT) cycle (2.5 my) was controlled by an unknown eustatic or tectonic mechanism. The major coal beds and intervening strata make up the coal-clastic cycle (CC cycle) (=Appalachian cyclothem) which has a 0.4 my periodicity. This periodicity supports eustatic control of sedimentation modulated by an orbital periodicity. Extensive coastal peats deposited at lowstand (CC cycle) were preserved as coals, whereas highstand peats were eroded during the subsequent drop in sea level. Autocyclic processes such as delta switching and avulsion occurred within CC cycles. An Early Pennsylvanian unconformity represents uplift and erosion of mid-Carboniferous foreland basin deposits. Alluvial deposits (Breathitt Group) derived from the highlands were transported to the northwest toward the forebulge. During lowstand, the only outlet available to further sediment transport (Lee sandstones) was toward the southwest (Ouachita Trough), along the Black Warrior-Appalachian foreland basins. The Middle Pennsylvanian marks a period of intermittent overfilling of the foreland basin and cresting of the forebulge. Marine transgressions entered through the foreland basins and across saddles in the forebulge. After the Ouachita Trough was destroyed during the late Middle Pennsylvanian, marine transgressions migrated only across saddles in the forebulge. In the Late Pennsylvanian, marine waters entered the basin only across the diminished forebulge north of the Jessamine Dome.

  11. An evaluation of selenium concentrations in water, sediment, invertebrates, and fish from the Solomon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, T.W.; Fairchild, J.F.; Petty, J.D.; Walther, M.J.; Lucero, J.; Delvaux, M.; Manring, J.; Armbruster, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Solomon River Basin is located in north-central Kansas in an area underlain by marine geologic shales. Selenium is an indigenous constituent of these shales and is readily leached into the surrounding groundwater. Portions of the Basin are irrigated primarily through the pumping of selenium-contaminated groundwater from wells onto fields in agricultural production. Water, sediment, macroinvertebrates, and fish were collected from various sites in the Basin in 1998 and analyzed for selenium. Selenium concentrations were analyzed spatially and temporally and compared to reported selenium toxic effect thresholds for specific ecosystem components: water, sediments, food-chain organisms, and wholebody fish. A selenium aquatic hazard assessment for the Basin was determined based on protocol established by Lemly. Throughout the Basin, water, macroinvertebrate, and whole fish samples exceeded levels suspected of causing reproductive impairment in fish. Population structures of several fish species implied that successful reproduction was occurring; however, the influence of immigration of fish from low-selenium habitats could not be discounted. Site-specific fish reproduction studies are needed to determine the true impact of selenium on fishery resources in the Basin. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  12. Sediment transport by streams in the Palouse River basin, Washington and Idaho, July 1961-June 1965

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boucher, P.R.

    1970-01-01

    The Palouse River basin covers about 3,300 square miles in southeastern Washington and northwestern Idaho. The eastern part of the basin is composed of steptoes and foothills which are generally above an altitude of 2,600 feet; the central part is of moderate local relief and is mantled chiefly by thick loess deposits; and the western part is characterized by low relief and scabland topography and is underlain mostly by basalt. Precipitation increases eastward across the study area. It ranges annually from 12 to 18 inches in the western part and from 14 to 23 inches in the central part, and it exceeds 40 inches in the eastern part. Surface runoff from the basin for the 4-year period of study (July 1961-June 1965) averaged 408,000 acre-feet per year, compared with 445,200 acre-feet per year for the 27-year period of record. The eastern part of the basin contributed about 55 percent of the total, whereas the central and western parts contributed 37 percent and 8 percent, respectively. Most sediment transport from the Palouse River basin and the highest sediment concentrations in streams occurred in the winter. Of the several storms during the study period, those of February 3-9, 1963, December 22-27, 1964, and January 27-February 4, 1965, accounted for 81 percent of the total 4-year suspended-sediment load; the storm of February 3-9, 1963, accounted for nearly one-half the total load. The discharge-weighted mean concentration of suspended sediment carried in the Palouse River past Hooper during the study period was 2,970 milligrams per liter. The average annual sediment discharge of the Palouse River at its mouth was about 1,580,000 tons per year, and the estimated average annual sediment yield was 480 tons per square mile. The yield ranged from 5 tons per square mile from the western part of the basin to 2,100 tons per square mile from the central part. The high yield from the central part is attributed to a scarcity of vegetal cover, to the fine-grained loess soils

  13. When sink becomes source: Importance of sediment recycling in linked orogen-basin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romans, Brian W.; Fosdick, Julie C.; Hubbards, Stephen M.; Fildani, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Much of the recent research on sedimentary system dynamics has focused on extant systems where the linkage of sediment production from eroding highlands can be directly linked to deposition in lowlands and/or offshore basins. Studies of such systems, typically late Pleistocene to Holocene in age, are especially valuable for quantitative constraints such as system morphometrics (e.g., longitudinal profiles, basin volumes, etc.) and rates of processes (e.g., erosion/denudation, sediment accumulation, etc.), which can be measured directly or estimated with relatively high certainty. Moreover, information about climate and tectonic forcings that are independent to the system is explicitly known for extant systems. However, an understanding of longer-term (>105 yr) evolution can only be gained through the investigation of ancient systems. Such systems are either buried in the subsurface, which requires geophysical remote sensing and/or drilling, or exposed at the Earth's surface as outcrops as the result of uplift and exhumation. The dynamic linkage of mountain belt and adjacent basin makes foreland basin systems ideal natural laboratories to address long-term sedimentary system evolution. In this presentation, we highlight important issues and challenges that sedimentary systems research is currently facing, with an emphasis on sediment recycling during progressive stages of basin development. In this context, we focus on sedimentary systems in which multiple episodes of uplift and erosion of the primary depocenter led to a history whereby basin material was repeatedly recycled. The spatial and temporal aspects of sediment recycling have implications for how provenance signals (based on composition, crystallization or metamorphic age information, thermal history, etc.) are used. Additionally, improved constraints regarding the timescales and magnitude of sediment recycling have implications for system-scale modeling. Key parameters such as total sediment volumes and

  14. Relationship between sediment provenance of foreland basin and kinematics of orogenic belt in southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kun-An; Yang, Kenn-Ming; Chien, Chih-Wei; Wu, Leh-chyun

    2017-04-01

    The foreland basin in southwestern Taiwan offers an idealistic example for geologists to study the tectonostratigraphy in the foreland basin development from initial to latest stages. The subsidence analysis indicate that the initial stage of foreland basin development had started in the Mid Pliocene, and the basin went through two rapid subsidence events, along with forebulge moving back-and-forth in the E-W direction during the Late Pliocene to the Pleistocene. Thus, the tectonostratigraphic sequences deposited from the Late Pliocene to the later periods would provide crucial evidences for the relationship between foreland basin and its adjacent orogenic belt. Based on the tectonostratigraphic sequences in the late stage (Upper Pliocene to Pleistocene) of foreland basin development in SW Taiwan, this study aims to explore the mode of interaction between the evolution of foreland basin and kinematics of orogenic belt primarily based on petrofacies analysis. The results of petrofacies analysis were interpreted with the tectonostratigraphic and biostratigraphic frameworks of previous studies to infer the regional and local sediment provenances and transportation modes. The the craton had been the sediment source to the west of the study area in the pre-orogenic period. The maturity of these sediments was high due to slow exhumation rates and long transportation distance. In the initial stage of foreland basin development, the forebulge slowly elevated and started to partially or totally obstruct sediment supplies from the craton. Before the period of NN19 when the forebulge steadily moved westward, the forebulge not only became the barrier of the most continental sediment supplies from the west but also shed a minor amount of detritus into the adjacent area. In addition, regional topographic relief, which was due to syn-orogenic normal faulting during the NN11-15, locally changed the composition and transportation modes of the sediments; the exposed basement of the

  15. Paleomagnetic secular variation as an intra-basinal and extra-basinal correlation tool for Pleistocene lake sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Negrini, R.M.; Erbes, D.B. . Dept. of Physics and Geology); Roberts, A.P.; Verosub, K.L.

    1993-04-01

    High-resolution age control is a serious problem encountered by those studying middle to late Pleistocene lake sediments, especially saline lake deposits which commonly are low in organic content obviating the use of bulk sediment radiocarbon dating. Paleomagnetic secular variation, the low amplitude variation in the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field, can be recorded accurately in lake sediments. In this case if offers a high-resolution correlation tool which can be used for intra- and extra-basinal correlations. In principal, this could extend geographically as far away as marine environments enabling on to tie non-marine stratigraphy into the well-dated chronology common to marine sediment records. Examples are given of correlations based on this technique. The examples, in turn, are based on ongoing paleomagnetic and lithostratigraphic studies in the sediments of Pleistocene Lakes Chewaucan, Lahontan and previously-published paleomagnetic records from Pleistocene Lake Russell and from two un-named Pleistocene lakes. Intrabasinal correlations in Lake Chewaucan support the contention that secular variation can be used to correlate outcrop exposures (three samples per horizon) on a depth scale of several centimeters which probably corresponds to a temporal resolution of a few hundred years or less.

  16. Some rainfall-related thresholds for erosion and sediment yield in the upper Yangtze River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiongxin

    2009-01-01

    This study examines rainfall thresholds for erosion and sediment yield in the upper Yangtze River basin. Sediment reduction effects of soil conservation measures depend on the magnitudes of rainstorm. When the latter is less than a critical threshold, sediment reduction effects of soil conservation measures are positive; when this magnitude is exceeded, the effect is negative. An analysis based on data from the Jialingjiang River shows that the sediment reduction by soil conservation measures increased with annual precipitation to a peak, and then decreased to a negative value. The annual precipitation at the peak and zero values of sediment reduction are 970 and 1,180 mm, respectively, which can be regarded as two thresholds. Annual precipitation at the zero-value of sediment reduction has a return period of 25 years. In general, the design standard of soil conservation works in China is related with rainstorms with return periods of 10-20 years. When the magnitude of rainstorm exceeds this, the soil conservation works may be partly or totally destroyed by rainstorms, and the previously trapped sediment may be released, resulting in a sharp increase in sediment yield. It was also found in the lower Jinshajiang River that when annual precipitation exceeds 1,050 mm or high-flow season precipitation exceeds 850 mm, the annual sediment yield increased sharply. These can also be regarded as key rainfall thresholds for erosion and sediment yields. When precipitation is less than the two thresholds, dominant erosion types are sheet, rill and gully erosions. When precipitation crosses the two thresholds, debris flows may occur more frequently. As a result, the previously stored loose sediment is released and sediment yield increases sharply.

  17. Gas and porewater composition of shallow sediments in the Tuaheni Basin, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, P. S.; Coffin, R. B.; Yoza, B.; Boyd, T. J.; Crutchley, G. J.; Mountjoy, J. J.; Pecher, I. A.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic profiles collected during previous investigations on the Hikurangi Margin, off the North Island, New Zealand showed bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs), which are generally indicative of the presence of free gas. Further, double BSRs clearly identified in the Tuaheni Basin were hypothesized to result from differences in gas composition and fluid migration. During a cruise on the RV Tangaroa in June 2015 (TAN 1508) additional seismic data were collected and used to identify piston coring targets. Coring locations were selected to sample around BSR pinch-outs and possible fluid migration pathways to determine gas composition and flux. Shallow sediments collected in June 2015 in the Tuaheni Basin had relatively low sediment headspace CH4 concentrations (sediment headspace CH4 concentrations in other sediment cores collected on the Hikurangi Margin during the same cruise were >6000ppm. Higher molecular weight alkanes were not detected in the sediment headspace gas at any location. Sediment porewater sulfate, chloride and sulfide concentrations will be presented with CH4concentration profiles and geophysical data.

  18. Sediment Flux in First Order Basins in the Mid-Atlantic Piedmont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. M.; Wilcock, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    The flux of sediment within and from headwater basins in the Piedmont of the Mid-Atlantic has historically been poorly documented. Most available sediment data have been obtained from alluvial channels at the outlets from third order or higher watersheds. This has hindered prediction of sediment yield in large basins, such as the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Three years of flow and suspended sediment monitoring in the headwaters of the Upper Patuxent River watershed in Maryland have provided a new dataset that allows for the investigation of the relative roles of hillslopes and first order gullies in producing sediment yield from first order watersheds. Measurements from three primary settings, including cropped land, forest, and suburban land cover conditions with similar lithologies and slopes, provides a new opportunity to evaluate mass flux of sediment within a region undergoing rapid land use transitions. The results have implications to watershed management strategies including storm water management, erosion control, and water quality modeling in the suburbanizing region between Washington D.C. and Baltimore.

  19. Fluvial landscapes evolution in the Gangkou River basin of southern Taiwan: Evidence from the sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jia-Hong; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Yen, Jiun-Yee; Lin, Li-Hung; Yen, I.-Chin; Yu, Neng-Ti; Ho, Lih-Der; Jen, Chia-Hung

    2017-04-01

    The Gangkou River basin is the largest basin in the eastern Hengchun Peninsula of Taiwan. Its main river length is 31km and the basin area is 102sq. km. The width of the active channel is relatively narrow, but the valley from the middle to downstream is remarkably wide, indicating a feature of underfit stream. We drilled two sediment cores in the downstream area, including a 30m core (core-A) from a higher terrace, which is 14m above mean sea level, and a 20m core (core-B) from a lower terrace, which is 4m above mean sea level. Most of the sediments in the core-A are mud, which represents the flood plain facies, and 14C dates in the core-A range from 11ka to 7ka BP. Furthermore, the sediment layers reveal signals of marine events at the core depths of 5m to 11m by X-ray fluorescence. In the core-B, there is an erosional surface at the core depth of 5m. The age of the fluvial gravel layer above the erosional surface is about 0.4ka BP, and the mud layer top the surface is about 8.5ka BP. The preliminary results show that (1) as the tectonic uplift rate induced by the marine terraces around the basin is 1.0 to 2.5 mm/yr, and the accumulation rate of the mud layer in the basin is 6.7 to 8.7 mm/yr, the sediments infilling (more than 30-meters-thick) in the downstream area of the basin should be the results of the lower tectonic uplifting and the higher post-glacial sea level rise and; (2) the marine sediment layer with 14C dates of 7.5ka to 8.5ka BP is very likely the remain of the maximum flooding surface (MFS) in the early Holocene. These results indicate that the fluvial landscapes evolution of the basin was controlled by the sea-level; (3) the erosional surface in the core-B indicates the Gangkou River continuously erode the infilling sediments from 7ka to 0.4ka BP. Previous studies show that the sea-level around Taiwan gradually declined from its high stand since 6ka, we proposed that the continuous erosion was probably the results of tectonic uplifting and

  20. Magnetotelluric Evidence of Deep Mesozoic-Paleozoic Sediments beneath Parecis Basin, West Central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, S. L.; Maurya, V. P.; La Terra, E. F.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated Parecis basin, an intracratonic rifted sag basin, evolved with opening of weakness zones of the basement during an extensional event in the Amazonic craton after Rodinia break-up, by regional scale MT/AMT surveys to understand its behavior and tectonic set up environment. Parecis Basin is located in the southwestern portion of the Amazonian Craton between the Rondônia and Guaporé shear belts in the western-central Brazil and is divided into three tectono-sedimentary domains: 1) a western tectonic depression; 2) a central gravimetric low; and 3) an eastern "sag-basin". We covered the main sedimentary and conglomerate formations of Parecis basin by four regional MT/AMT profiles PC02 (central part of basin), PC03 (western part of the basin), PC07 (eastern part of the basin) and PC9+10 (eastern part of basin) having 101, 80, 101 and 100 MT sites respectively. Phase tensor dimensionality criterion (β > ±1o) for these sites confirms the existence of very shallow (shorter periods) and deep 3-D structures (longer periods). Subsequently, 3-D inversion was carried out for each MT profile, to obtain the conductivity images best suited in such environment. We found several important structures such as variation in basement depths, sedimentary formations depth extent, existence of alternating conductive and resistive features, which were unclear from previous geophysical studies over there. Parecis basin depocenter found at its central part below Pimenta Bueno Graben is filled up with Paleozoic-Mesozoic sediments, having depth extent up to 8 km and basin shallows up mostly at northern, western and eastern end while it deepens towards southcentral region. We found deep crustal conductors beneath the southern end of PC02 and PC03 whose dimension is not clearly resolved and require some resolution studies before final interpretation. Granitic basement rocks have uniform thickness 25km at the eastern end, while it shallows up for western and central part of

  1. Quaternary break-out flood sediments in the Peshawar basin of northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwell, Kevin

    1998-11-01

    The presence of horizontally bedded, fining upward sequences of sands, silts, and clays throughout the Peshawar basin of northern Pakistan has previously been ascribed to Pleistocene lakes within the basin. Close inspection of these sediments, however, show sedimentological properties that suggest these stacked sequences are more characteristic of deposits of periodic break-out flood deposits and not lacustrine deposits. Exposures near the villages of Piran, Nowshera, Jehingira, Jalala and along the Kabul River show evidence of subaerial exposure (mudcracks and bioturbation zones), lateral continuity and fracture sets. At least three distinct cycles of deposition are apparent in the basin, each exhibiting slightly different structural and sedimentological properties. The groupings and dimensions of the rhythmite sequences indicate that within each cycle multiple episodes of flooding occurred. The absence of significant erosional and depositional features, as well as the preservation of mud rip-up clasts and bioturbation zones further suggests that the periods between episodes of flooding were probably on the order of 10 1 to 10 2 years. Evidence of ice-dams and lakes in the Indus drainage system is abundant. Cross-valley moraines and lacustrine deposits that stretch many kilometers upstream are visible in the middle Indus valley between the villages of Sazin and Shatial and Skardu. Calculated ratios of sediment to water suggest that an upstream reservoir at least 32 km 3 and perhaps as large as 128 km 3 would have been required to produce the extent of rhythmites observed in the Peshawar basin. Generating a reservoir of this size in the Indus drainage system was accomplished near the villages of Sazin-Shatial where large cross-valley moraines and upstream lacustrine sediments indicate large ice-dams as do the moraines and lacustrine sediments near Gilgit and Skardu. The origin of the graded sediments in the Peshawar basin, however, has not been correlated to the

  2. Sediment yield and runoff frequency of small drainage basins in the Mojave Desert, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, P.G.; Hereford, R.; Webb, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    Sediment yield from small arid basins, particularly in the Mojave Desert, is largely unknown owing to the ephemeral nature of these fluvial systems and long recurrence interval of flow events. We examined 27 reservoirs in the northern and eastern Mojave Desert that trapped sediment from small (< 1 km2) drainage basins on alluvial fans over the past 100 yr, calculated annual sediment yield, and estimated the average recurrence interval (RI) of sediment-depositing flow events. These reservoirs formed where railbeds crossed and blocked channels, causing sediment to be trapped and stored upslope. Deposits are temporally constrained by the date of railway construction (1906-1910), the presence of 137Cs in the reservoir profile (post-1952 sediment), and either 1993, when some basins breached during regional flooding, or 2000-2001, when stratigraphic analyses were performed. Reservoir deposits are well stratified at most sites and have distinct fining-upward couplets indicative of discrete episodes of sediment-bearing runoff. Average RI of runoff events for these basins ranges from 2.6 to 7.3 yr and reflects the incidence of either intense or prolonged rainfall; more than half the runoff events occurred before 1963. A period of above-normal precipitation, from 1905 to 1941, may have increased runoff frequency in these basins. Mean sediment yield (9 to 48 tons km-2 yr-1) is an order of magnitude smaller than sediment yields calculated elsewhere and may be limited by reduced storm intensity, the presence of desert pavement, and shallow gradient of fan surfaces. Sediment yield decreases as drainage area increases, a trend typical of much larger drainage basins where sediment-transport processes constrain sediment yield. Coarse substrate and low-angle slopes of these alluvial fan surfaces likely limit sediment transport capacity through transmission losses and channel storage. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lead exposure of waterfowl ingesting Coeur d?Alene River Basin sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Audet, D.J.; Morton, Alexandra; Campbell, J.K.; LeCaptain, L.

    1998-01-01

    Feces from tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus [Ord]), Canada geese (Branta canadensis [L.]) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos [L.]) were collected from the Coeur d?Alene River Basin and two reference areas to estimate exposure to lead from mining activities and to relate that exposure to the ingestion of contaminated sediments. The average acid-insoluble ash content of the feces, a measure of sediment, was 18% for Canada geese and tundra swans, and 12% for ducks. The 18% value corresponded to an estimated 9% sediment ingestion rate (dry weight). The 90th percentile for acid-insoluble ash in feces of tundra swans corresponds to an estimated 22% sediment in the diet. The average lead concentration (dry weight) of tundra swan feces from all Coeur d?Alene River Basin wetlands sampled was 880 mg/kg, compared to 2.1 mg kg1 from reference wetlands. The 90th percentile of lead in tundra swan feces from the Coeur d?Alene River Basin sites was 2700 mg kg1. Fecal lead concentrations of tundra swans from Harrison Slough, the wetland studied in most detail, were correlated (Spearman?s rho = 0.74, p < 0.05) with the acid-insoluble ash content of the feces. The very low lead concentrations in feces having low acid-insoluble ash contents established that the sediment was the primary source of the lead ingested by waterfowl. Sediment lead concentrations at 11 wetland sites were closely correlated (r = 0.91, p < 0.05) with average fecal lead concentrations for all waterfowl, corrected for the average percent acid-insoluble ash in the feces. The regression equation describing this relation, along with estimates of sediment ingestion, provides a straight-forward means of estimating the current exposure of waterfowl to lead and of predicting the potential exposure of waterfowl to lead under plans to clean up the contaminated sites.

  4. Sand-Mud Sediment Transport induced by tidal currents and wind waves in shallow microtidal basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniello, L.; Defina, A.; D'Alpaos, L.

    2011-12-01

    Field data and mathematical modeling have demonstrated that the morphological evolution of shallow tidal basins is the result of the combined effect of tidal currents and wind waves. Tidal currents, in particular, drive the morphological evolution of shallow tidal systems in proximity of the inlets and within the channel network, whereas in shallow areas tidal current mainly acts enhancing the bottom shear stress due to wind waves and redistributing sediments within the basin. In this study we present a mathematical model for sediment entrainment, transport and deposition due to the combined effect of tidal currents and wind waves. The model is coupled with a hydrodynamic module based on the shallow water equations and with a module for the generation and propagation of wind waves. The sediment transport model describes the sediments by the way of a bi-granular mixtures composed by both cohesive and non-cohesive sediments thus considering the contemporary presence of clay, silt and sand which usually characterizes estuaries and tidal basins. Moreover, the model describes the bed evolution and evaluates the variation of bed sediment composition considering also the transition between cohesive and non-cohesive behavior. Attention is focused on some issues concerning the definition of a reliable initial bed composition and the incipient sediment motion which is treated following a stochastic approach for the bottom shear stress and for the critical shear stress distribution. The model is applied to the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) and the results of different simulations are compared, with good agreement, to a series of turbidity measurements collected inside the lagoon. The application of the model to the present bathymetry of the Venice lagoon allows for a first estimation of the actual net amount of sand and mud flowing through the three inlets and also gives some information on bottom evolution in terms of elevation and composition.

  5. Source identification of fine-grained suspended sediment in the Kharaa River basin, northern Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Theuring, Philipp; Collins, Adrian L; Rode, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Fine sediment inputs into river systems can be a major source of nutrients and heavy metals and have a strong impact on water quality and ecosystem functions of rivers and lakes, including those in semiarid regions. However, little is known to date about the spatial distribution of sediment sources in most large scale river basins in Central Asia. Accordingly, a sediment source fingerprinting technique was used to assess the spatial sources of fine-grained (<10 μm) sediment in the 15 000 km(2) Kharaa River basin in northern Mongolia. Variation in geochemical composition (e.g. in Ti, Sn, Mo, Mn, As, Sr, B, U, Ca and Sb) was used for sediment source discrimination with geochemical composite fingerprints based on Genetic Algorithm (GA)-driven Discriminant Function Analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and Principal Component Analysis. All composite fingerprints yielded a satisfactory GOF (>0.97) and were subsequently used for numerical mass balance modelling with uncertainty analysis. The contributions of the individual sub-catchment spatial sediment sources varied from 6.4% (the headwater sub-catchment of Sugnugur Gol) to 36.2% (the Kharaa II sub-catchment in the middle reaches of the study basin), generally showing higher contributions from the sub-catchments in the middle, rather than the upstream, portions of the study area. The importance of river bank erosion is shown to increase from upstream to midstream tributaries. The source tracing procedure provides results in reasonable accordance with previous findings in the study region and demonstrates the applicability and associated uncertainties of the approach for fine-grained sediment source investigation in large scale semi-arid catchments.

  6. Mercury in bottom sediment and aquatic invertebrates, Carson and Truckee River Basins, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, S.J.; Bevans, H.E.

    1994-12-31

    Bottom sediment and aquatic invertebrates were sampled for trace-element analyses at 11 sites in the Carson and Truckee River Basins during September 1 992 as part of the US Geological Survey`s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Composite bottom-sediment samples from inundated depositional areas were wet-sieved through a 63-micrometer nylon mesh and composite aquatic invertebrate samples were allowed to depurate prior to analyses. In the Carson River Basin, mercury concentrations increased downstream from 0.24 microgram per gram, dry weight ({mu}g/g), in both bottom sediment and western crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) samples from the East Fork Carson River near Markleeville, Calif., to 5.9 {mu}g/g in bottom sediment in the Carson River near Fallon, Nev., and to 48 {mu}g/g in western crayfish in the river near Fort Churchill, Nev. Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) from the Carson River at Fort Churchill and near Fallon had 6.1 and 1.4 {mu}g/g of mercury, respectively. In the Truckee River Basin, mercury concentrations increased downstream from 0.02 {mu}g/g in bottom sediment and 0.17--0.21 {mu}g/g in western crayfish at sites upstream of Reno, Nev., to 0.58 {mu}g/g in bottom sediment and 0.49 {mu}g/g in western crayfish at Clark, Nev. Downstream patterns of mercury concentration in bottom sediment and western crayfish are similar. Possible sources of mercury include historical gold and silver ore-milling activities, acid mine drainage, mineral deposits, and urban activities.

  7. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yping; Chen, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide.

  8. A numerical model study to evaluate the effect of sedimentation on the thermal structure of extensional basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeseul; Lee, Changyeol

    2017-04-01

    Sedimentation on extensional basins allows fast cooling of the shallow crust because the overlying sediments efficiently transfer heats from the shallow crust to the surface and hinders heat transfer from the underlying deep crust and mantle to the surface, which lowers the surface heat flux (e.g., covering effect). Therefore, it is important to evaluate the impact of transient sedimentation on the thermal structure of the extensional basin. We designed a numerical model which considers transient sedimentation based on the kinematic basin extension formulated by Jarvis and McKenzie (1980). In the model study, we vary duration of extension, stretch factor (β) and sediment thickness of the basin with 100 Myr of cooling since the basin extension ceases. First, we evaluate the effect of duration of extension on the thermal structure of the basin by using the stretch factor (β) and sediment thickness of 2 and 2 km, respectively. Our model calculations show that longer duration of extension results in larger decreases in the geotherm and surface heat flux of the basin. Second, we evaluate the effect of stretch factor (β) on the thermal structure of the basin by using the duration of extension and sediment thickness of 20 Myr and 2 km, respectively. The results indicate that larger stretch factor (β) results in larger decreases in the geotherm and surface heat flux of the basin. Evaluation of the effect of the sediment thickness is ongoing by keeping the duration of extension and stretch factor (β) of 20 Myr and 2, respectively. We will apply our findings to analyze the thermal structure of the Ulleung and Yamato Basins in the East (Japan) Sea.

  9. Monitoring baseline suspended sediment in forested basins: the effects of sampling on suspended sediment rating curves

    Treesearch

    Robert B. Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Abstract - Rating curves are widely used for directly assessing changes in the suspended sediment delivery process and indirectly for estimating total yields. Four sampling methods were simulated-over a 31-day record of suspended sediment from the North Fork of the Mad River near Korbel, California. The position and size of the four groups of plotted slope/intercept...

  10. The link between tectonics and sedimentation in back-arc basins: New genetic constraints from the analysis of the Pannonian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs, A.; Matenco, L.; Magyar, I.; Horváth, F.; Cloetingh, S.

    2016-06-01

    The architecture of sedimentary basins reflects the relationship between accommodation space and sediment supply, their rates and localization being variable during basin evolution. The mechanisms driving the interplay between tectonics and sedimentation in extensional back-arc basins overlying rheological weak zones inherited from an earlier orogenic evolution are less understood. A typical example is the Pannonian back-arc basin of Central Europe. It is floored by continental lithosphere and was affected by large amounts of extension driven by the subduction rollback that took place in the Carpathians and/or Dinarides. A novel kinematic and seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation calibrated by wells allows the quantification of the link between the formation of half grabens and coeval sedimentation in the Great Hungarian Plain part of the basin. While the lower order tectonic-induced cycles characterize the main phases of extension in various subbasins, the higher-order cyclicity and associated unconformities define individual moments of fault (re)activation. Our novel interpretation of a temporal and spatial migration of extension during Miocene times explains the contrasting present-day strike of various subbasins as a result of their gradual clockwise rotation. Incorporating the observed asymmetry, in particular the associated footwall exhumation, infers that the amount of extension is much larger than previously thought. The quantitative link between tectonics and sedimentation has allowed the definition of a novel model of sedimentation in asymmetric basins that can be ported to other natural scenarios of similarly hyperextended back-arc basins observed elsewhere.

  11. Assessing sedimentation rates at Usumacinta and Grijalva river basin (Southern Mexico) using OSL and suspended sediment load analysis: A study from the Maya Classic Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz-Salinas, E.; Castillo, M.; Sanderson, D.; Kinnaird, T.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.

    2013-12-01

    Studying sedimentation rates on floodplains is key to understanding environmental changes occurred through time in river basins. The Usumacinta and Grijalva rivers flow most of their travel through the southern part of Mexico, forming a large river basin, crossing the states of Chiapas and Tabasco. The Usumacinta-Grijalva River Basin is within the 10 major rivers of North America, having a basin area of ~112 550 km2. We use the OSL technique for dating two sediment profiles and for obtaining luminescence signals in several sediment profiles located in the streambanks of the main trunk of the Usumacinta and Grijalva rivers. We also use mean annual values of suspended sediment load spanning ~50 years to calculate the sedimentation rates. Our OSL dating results start from the 4th Century, when the Maya Civilization was at its peak during the Classic Period. Sedimentation rates show a notable increase at the end of the 19th Century. The increase of the sedimentation rates seems to be related to changes in land uses in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Altos de Chiapas, based on deforestation and land clearing for developing new agrarian and pastoral activities. We conclude that the major environmental change in the basin of the Usumacinta and Grijalva Rivers since the Maya Classic Period was generated since the last Century as a result of an intense anthropogenic disturbance of mountain rain forest in Chiapas.

  12. Suspended-sediment data in the upper Rio Grande De Loiza basin, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guzman-Rios, Senen

    1989-01-01

    Fluvial sediment, a widely recognized pollutant of surface water , is reducing the efficiency and useful life of almost all reservoirs in Puerto Rico. Sediment transported from the upper basin of the Rio Grande de Loiza is eventually deposited in the bottom of Lago Loiza, a water reservoir. Suspended sediment data were collected from 1983 to 1986 from a 208 sq mi area extending from the headwaters of Rio Grande de Loiza to the Lago Loiza. The drainage areas range from 0.82 sq mi to 89.8 sq mi. Results are based on three years of data from a network of five daily- record stations and five partial-record stations. A total of 2 ,114 sediment samples were collected and analyzed during the investigation. Instantaneous concentrations of suspended sediment varied from 0 to 56, 100 mg/L. Instantaneous suspended sediment loads ranged from 0 tons/day to 817,000 tons/day. A total of 152 suspended sediment samples were analyzed for particle size distribution. Suspended sediment in the streams is composed mostly of silt and clay. Sand content ranged from 6 to 80% during high flows. (Author 's abstract)

  13. Tectonic controls on sedimentation in Mesozoic convergent margin basin of Baja California (Mexico)

    SciTech Connect

    Busby-Spera, C.J.; Smith, D.P.; Morris, W.R. )

    1990-05-01

    Mesozoic rocks of the Baja California peninsula form one of the most extensive, best exposed, oldest (160 m.y.), and least-tectonized and metamorphosed convergent margin basin complexes in the world. Much of the fill of these basins consist of coarse-grained volcaniclastic and epiclastic sequences that directly reflect the tectonic evolution of the region. The early history of the convergent margin was dominated by sedimentation in small, steep-sided basins within oceanic island arc systems. The Triassic and Jurassic convergent margin basins probably represent proto-Pacific terranes that traveled from another area. These terranes were assembled by the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, and underlie the forearc region of a medial Cretaceous oceanic island arc system. Tbis system fringed the Mesoamerican continental margin and underwent regional-scale extension during subduction of old, dense lithosphere. The latest phases of sedimentation in the convergent margin occurred in broad, relatively stable forearc basins of a mature continental arc, during the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene. Nonetheless, intrabasinal faults provided some controls on depositional systems and bathymetry. The authors speculate that these faults formed in response to oblique convergence which ultimately resulted in 10-19{degree} northward displacement of Baja California relative to the North American craton, from the latitude of Central America to northern Mexico. The fill of oceanic island arc basins in Baja California is dominated by coarse-grained marine wedges including (1) arc apron deposits, consisting of pyroclastic and/or volcanic epiclastic debris deposited in intra-arc or back-arc basins, and (2) slope apron deposits, consisting of epiclastic debris shed from local fault scarps and more distally derived arc volcaniclastics, deposited in forearc basins.

  14. Sediment flow routing during formation of forearc basins: Constraints from integrated analysis of detrital pyroxenes and stratigraphy in the Kumano Basin, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchs, David M.; Cukur, Deniz; Masago, Hideki; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2015-03-01

    The evolution of sediment flow routing during complete evolution of the Kumano forearc basin is determined through integration of stratigraphic and sediment provenance analyses in the upper Nankai forearc. A new approach uses the compositional variability of detrital clinopyroxenes and orthopyroxenes collected at eight major rivers in Japan and three drill sites in the basin and nearby slope environment, including the first drill cuttings retrieved by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). Joint interpretation of these datasets reveals that the sedimentation history of the basin is characterised by three main phases separated by newly-recognised time-transgressive boundaries. We show that the Kumano Basin initiated as a trench-slope basin in the early Quaternary (∼1.93 Ma) and that it progressively evolved towards an upper slope environment with increased turbidite confinement and influence from climatic forcing. Basin initiation was broadly synchronous with development of the Nankai megasplay fault, suggesting a causal relationship with construction of the Nankai accretionary prism. Unlike preceding studies documenting long-distance longitudinal transport of clastic material along the lower Nankai forearc, only limited longitudinal transport is documented by detrital pyroxenes in the upper forearc. These results suggest that transverse canyons are a major control on the sediment flow routing during maturation of forearc basins and that long-distance longitudinal flows along convergent margins are principally restricted to near-trench environments, even in the presence of large forearc basins.

  15. Bacterial biogeography influenced by shelf-basin exchange in the Arctic surface sediment at the Chukchi Borderland.

    PubMed

    Han, Dukki; Nam, Seung-Il; Ha, Ho Kyung; Kim, Hyoungjun; Sadowsky, Michael J; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2016-02-01

    It has been known that continental shelves around the Arctic Ocean play a major role in the ventilation of the deep basins as a consequence of shelf-basin exchange. In the present study, we found that bacterial assemblage of the surface sediment was different from that of seawater while seawater harboured local bacterial assemblages in response to the Arctic hydrography. This finding suggests that the Arctic seafloor sediments may have distinctive bacterial biogeography. Moreover, the distribution of bacterial assemblages and physicochemical properties in surface sediments changed gradually from the Arctic continental shelf to deep-sea basin. Based on the results, bacterial biogeography in the Arctic seafloor sediments may be influenced by winnowing and re-deposition of surface sediments through the sediment gravity flow. The present study offers a deeper understanding of shelf convection and its role for the construction of bacterial assemblages in the Arctic Ocean. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Integrative neural networks model for prediction of sediment rating curve parameters for ungauged basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atieh, M.; Mehltretter, S. L.; Gharabaghi, B.; Rudra, R.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most uncertain modeling tasks in hydrology is the prediction of ungauged stream sediment load and concentration statistics. This study presents integrated artificial neural networks (ANN) models for prediction of sediment rating curve parameters (rating curve coefficient α and rating curve exponent β) for ungauged basins. The ANN models integrate a comprehensive list of input parameters to improve the accuracy achieved; the input parameters used include: soil, land use, topographic, climatic, and hydrometric data sets. The ANN models were trained on the randomly selected 2/3 of the dataset of 94 gauged streams in Ontario, Canada and validated on the remaining 1/3. The developed models have high correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.86 for α and β, respectively. The ANN model for the rating coefficient α is directly proportional to rainfall erosivity factor, soil erodibility factor, and apportionment entropy disorder index, whereas it is inversely proportional to vegetation cover and mean annual snowfall. The ANN model for the rating exponent β is directly proportional to mean annual precipitation, the apportionment entropy disorder index, main channel slope, standard deviation of daily discharge, and inversely proportional to the fraction of basin area covered by wetlands and swamps. Sediment rating curves are essential tools for the calculation of sediment load, concentration-duration curve (CDC), and concentration-duration-frequency (CDF) analysis for more accurate assessment of water quality for ungauged basins.

  17. Fluvial sediment study of Fishtrap and Dewey Lakes drainage basins, Kentucky - Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, William F.; Flint, Russell F.; George, Frederick H.; Santos, John F.

    1978-01-01

    Fourteen drainage basins above Fishtrap and Dewey Lakes in the Levisa Fork and Johns Creek drainage basins of eastern Kentucky and southwestern Virginia were studied to determine sedimentation rates and origin of sediment entering the two lakes. The basins ranged in size from 1.68 to 297 square miles. Sediment yields ranged from 2,890 to 21,000 tons per square mile where surface-mining techniques predominated, and from 732 to 3 ,470 tons per square mile where underground mining methods predominated. Yields, in terms of tons per acre-foot of runoff, ranged from 2.2 to 15 for surface-mined areas, and from 0.5 to 2.7 for underground-mined areas. Water and sediment discharges from direct runoff during storms were compared for selected surface-mined and underground-mined areas. Data points of two extensively surface-mined areas, one from the current project and one from a previous project in Beaver Creek basin, McCreary County, Kentucky, grouped similarly in magnitude and by season. Disturbed areas from mining activities determined from aerial photographs reached 17 percent in one study area where extensive surface mining was being practiced. For most areas where underground mining was practiced, percentage disturbed area was almost negligible. Trap efficiency of Fishtrap Lake was 89 percent, and was 62 percent for Dewey Lake. Average annual deposition rates were 464 and 146 acre-feet for Fishtrap and Dewey Lakes, respectively. The chemical quality of water in the Levisa Fork basin has been altered by man 's activities. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. PHAHs in 14 principal river sediments from Hai River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gaofeng; Zhou, Huaidong; Liu, Xiaoru; Li, Kun; Zhang, Panwei; Wen, Wu; Yu, Yang

    2012-06-15

    This study was undertaken to investigate the current contamination status of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) in sediments from 14 principal rivers of the Hai River basin. The concentrations of 22 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) congeners, 27 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and 27 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in sediments were measured using GC-MS/MS technique. The highest PBB levels were detected in sediments from River Daqing: PBB3, 10, 4, 15, 26, 31, and 49 were observed in the sediments. The highest concentrations of PBDEs were in River Tuhe (G.M.=2.10 ng g(-1) dw), and PBDE15 was the most predominant congener in the sediments from all of the rivers of this study, except for River Tuhe, which accounted for >13.5% of the total PBDEs in sediments. PBDE209 was detected in sediments from the Beijingpaiwu, Nanyun, Majia and Tuhe rivers, with observed values ranging from 0.06 to 0.13 ng g(-1) dw. PCBs had the highest concentrations in sediment samples collected from River Luan and River Daqing, with levels of 18.13 and 25.62 ng g(-1) dw, respectively. The most predominant PCB congener in these samples was PCB138, which accounted for about 24% of the sum of the seven indicator PCB congeners (PCB28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) measured in the two rivers. The measured levels of PHAHs were compared with recent results, reported in the literature, and the respective sediment quality guidelines recommended by USEPA. The levels of PHAHs in the present study were generally lower than respective threshold-effect levels, or were comparable to those reported in relatively uncontaminated freshwaters from other regions. This suggests that, in these rivers, toxic biological effects on aquatic biota-due to PHAH contamination of sediments-can be expected to be negligible. Thus, in terms of PHAHs, the sediments can be regarded as relatively uncontaminated.

  19. Temporal Variation of Streamflow, Sediment Load and Their Relationship in the Yellow River Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guangju; Mu, Xingmin; Strehmel, Alex; Tian, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Variation of streamflow and sediment load in the Yellow River basin has received considerable attention due to its drastic reduction during the past several decades. This paper presents a detailed investigation on the changes of streamflow and sediment load from 1952 to 2011 using monthly observations at four gauging stations along the Yellow River. The results show significant decreasing trends for both streamflow and sediment load at all four gauging stations over the past 60 years. The wavelet transform demonstrated discontinuous periodicities from 1969 to 1973 and after 1986 due to the construction of large reservoirs and implementation of numerous soil and water conservations practices. The sediment rating curves with the power-law function was applied to investigate the relationship between discharge and sediment load. The results indicate distinct variations of the relationship between streamflow and sediment and implied significant hydro-morphological changes within different periods. The reducing sediment supply from the source region and the increased erosive power of the river are detected at Lanzhou station, while the decrease of the transport capacity at Toudaoguai is caused by severe siltation. Significant changes in the relationship between streamflow and sediment load are found at Huayuankou and Gaocun stations, which are largely induced by evident sediment income and trapping effects of large reservoirs. It is estimated that numerous reservoirs have strongly altered the regime and magnitude of streamflow and trapped large amount of sediment, leading to severe siltation and evident reduction of their total volumes. A decrease in precipitation, incoming water from the upper reaches, soil and water conservation measures as well as water consumption contribute most to the significant reduction of streamflow. The decrease of sediment load mainly resulted from various soil and water conservation measures and trapping in reservoirs from 1986 to 2011. PMID

  20. Temporal variation of streamflow, sediment load and their relationship in the Yellow River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangju; Mu, Xingmin; Strehmel, Alex; Tian, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Variation of streamflow and sediment load in the Yellow River basin has received considerable attention due to its drastic reduction during the past several decades. This paper presents a detailed investigation on the changes of streamflow and sediment load from 1952 to 2011 using monthly observations at four gauging stations along the Yellow River. The results show significant decreasing trends for both streamflow and sediment load at all four gauging stations over the past 60 years. The wavelet transform demonstrated discontinuous periodicities from 1969 to 1973 and after 1986 due to the construction of large reservoirs and implementation of numerous soil and water conservations practices. The sediment rating curves with the power-law function was applied to investigate the relationship between discharge and sediment load. The results indicate distinct variations of the relationship between streamflow and sediment and implied significant hydro-morphological changes within different periods. The reducing sediment supply from the source region and the increased erosive power of the river are detected at Lanzhou station, while the decrease of the transport capacity at Toudaoguai is caused by severe siltation. Significant changes in the relationship between streamflow and sediment load are found at Huayuankou and Gaocun stations, which are largely induced by evident sediment income and trapping effects of large reservoirs. It is estimated that numerous reservoirs have strongly altered the regime and magnitude of streamflow and trapped large amount of sediment, leading to severe siltation and evident reduction of their total volumes. A decrease in precipitation, incoming water from the upper reaches, soil and water conservation measures as well as water consumption contribute most to the significant reduction of streamflow. The decrease of sediment load mainly resulted from various soil and water conservation measures and trapping in reservoirs from 1986 to 2011.

  1. Pb isotopes and toxic metals in floodplain and stream sediments from the Volturno river basin, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeVivo, B.; Somma, R.; Ayuso, R.A.; Calderoni, G.; Lima, A.; Pagliuca, S.; Sava, A.

    2001-01-01

    We present results of a stratigraphic and environmental geochemistry study of the eastern sector of the Volturno river basin (Italy) using stream sediment and floodplain drill core samples. The cores, dated back to 7,000 years B.P., have been used to evaluate background (baseline) values. Pb isotopic compositions and toxic metal abundances have been determined to discriminate natural versus anthropogenic sources. The Pb isotopic compositions of the stream sediments overlap the values of Pb in petrol. The results from both stream sediment and drill core samples plot along a mixing line between the field that characterizes the volcanic rocks outcropping in the area (the natural component) and the Pb isotopic composition of petrol used in western Europe. Results suggest a prevalent contribution of the natural component for the Pb in the drill core samples and a prevailing anthropogenic component for the Pb isotopic compositions in the active stream sediments samples.

  2. Erosion in the Western Alps (Dora Baltea Basin). 2. Quantifying sediment yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vezzoli, Giovanni

    2004-10-01

    The present work shows how sediment composition can be used to constrain bed load sediment budgets in mountain catchments. A database of high-resolution petrographic and dense-mineral analyses of detritus carried by the Dora Baltea River and its tributaries allowed us to partition bed-load sediment budgets, obtained from data available from a public authority, between two different sets of sediment sources (major tributaries and major geological units). Relative and absolute budgets of sediment bed-load thus obtained are more robust than those derived from traditional empirical methods alone. Total detrital flux in the Dora Baltea drainage basin is 1,000,000 ton/year (bed-load 590,000 ton/year, suspended load 410,000 ton/year), with denudation rates of 0.12 mm/year (data from Italian public authority—Progetto di piano stralcio per l'assetto idrogeologico (PAI). Parma, Supplemento Straordinario della Gazzetta Ufficiale 166). More than 75% of the Dora Baltea total bed-load (453,000±9000 ton/year) is derived from tributaries (Dora di Ferret, Dora di Veny, Savara, Grand Eyvia, Buthier, Lys) sourced from the highest granitoid peaks (>4000 m a.s.l.: M. Bianco, M. Rosa, M. Cervino, Gran Paradiso massifs), which drain 36% of the whole catchment. The M. Bianco Massif, with its granitoid lithology, extreme relief and heavily glaciated drainage basins, occupies only 3% of total basin area, but it produces 294,000±6000 tons of arkosic sands per year, which represents 50% of total Dora Baltea bed-load. The Dora di Veny (2% of total Dora Baltea mountain catchment) exhibits the highest denudation rate of the whole Dora Baltea mountain basin (0.73 mm/year). The values calculated in this study compare well with measured modern river loads of partly glaciated mid-latitude mountain regions.

  3. Arsenic in rocks and stream sediments of the central Appalachian Basin, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Hower, James C.

    2002-01-01

    Arsenic (As) enrichment in coal and stream sediments has been documented in the southern Appalachian basin (see Goldhaber and others, submitted) and is attributed to interaction of rocks and coal with metamorphic fluids generated during the Allegheny Orogeny (late Paleozoic). Similarly derived fluids are expected to affect the coal and in the Kentucky Appalachian Basin to the north as well. In addition, similar processes may have influenced the Devonian oil shale on the western margin of the basin. The major goals of this study are to determine the effect such fluids had on rocks in the Kentucky Appalachian basin (fig. 1), and to understand the geochemical processes that control trace-metal source, residence, and mobility within the basin. This report includes data presented in a poster at the USGS workshop on arsenic (February 21 and 22, 2001), new NURE stream sediment data3 , and field data from a trip in April 2001. Although data for major and minor elements and all detectable trace metals are reported in the Appendices, the narrative of this report primarily focuses on arsenic.

  4. Shallow marine sedimentation within an active margin basin, James Ross Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrie, Duncan

    1989-06-01

    The Santa Marta Formation exposed on northern James Ross Island, Antarctica, represents shallow marine shelf sedimentation within an active margin basin. The formation is approximately 1000 m thick, is of uppermost Santonian to Campanian age and represents part of a 5000-6000 m thick sedimentary sequence forming the Larsen Basin. The Larsen Basin represents either a back-arc basin, or a half-graben basin, developed on the extending margin of the Weddell Sea. Twelve sedimentary facies have been recognised, which can be subdivided into two groups: those which are controlled by shelf processes and those which are related to active arc volcanism. Background shelf processes include fair-weather suspension sedimentation, storm sands and rare tidal current reworking. Active arc processes include direct settling of airfall detritus and rapid resedimentation of volcaniclastic detritus by sandy debris-flows and both high- and low-concentration turbidity currents. In addition sheet conglomerates represent debris flows that evolved from syn-sedimentary slumps. Two facies associations representing a mid to outer shelf and an inner shelf depositional setting respectively can be distinguished, with an apparent regression in the ?mid to late Campanian.

  5. Provenance and Dispersal of Quaternary Sediments in the Gaxun Nur Basin, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimpf, S.; Diekmann, B.; Hartmann, K.; Wuennemann, B.; Zhang, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Gaxun Nur Basin is an intramontane accumulation area with one of the biggest continental alluvial fans in the world. It is situated in the western part of Inner Mongolia and its origin is the result of the interplay between tectonic activity and climate dynamics. Due to the endorheic character of the basin, it is predestined as a terrestrial longtime-archive of climate and environmental change. The sediments in the Gaxun Nur basin were deposited during the last 250 kyr by the Hei River System with a catchment size of roughly 130.000 km2. To understand the sedimentary processes of this huge sediment cascade from the Qilian Mountains in the south to the terminal lakes in the north, sources of sediments have to be investigated. Sediment provenance can be deduced from mineralogical fingerprints of modern sediments deposited along the recent pathways from the sources (Qilian Mountains) to the sink (Gaxun Nur Basin). The resulting spatial variation serves as a reference for the mineralogical data from a drilling core in the distal part of the Gaxun Nur Basin. Inferring spatial and temporal variation of sediment provenance provides important information for reconstructing sediment input by fluvial, eolian, lacustrine, and glacial processes. The methodical approach focusses on the analysis of clay and heavy minerals, using XRD and petrographic techniques. Other methods involve geochemistry of heavy mineral grains, using computer-controlled scanning electron microscope (CCSEM), as well as bulk geochemistry, XRF element scanning and a statistical data processing. In this poster we present geochemical and mineralogical data of a 20 m long sediment core (GN100) combined with the results of about 200 surface sediment samples from different archives of the whole Hei River catchment. Lithological changes in the drilling core reveal temporal variations in the depositional environment. These variations are related to alternating phases of fluvial and eolian activity supported

  6. Adapting SWAT hillslope erosion model to predict sediment concentrations and yields in large Basins.

    PubMed

    Vigiak, Olga; Malagó, Anna; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Poesen, Jean

    2015-12-15

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used worldwide for water quality assessment and planning. This paper aimed to assess and adapt SWAT hillslope sediment yield model (Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation, MUSLE) for applications in large basins, i.e. when spatial data is coarse and model units are large; and to develop a robust sediment calibration method for large regions. The Upper Danube Basin (132,000km(2)) was used as case study representative of large European Basins. The MUSLE was modified to reduce sensitivity of sediment yields to the Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) size, and to identify appropriate algorithms for estimating hillslope length (L) and slope-length factor (LS). HRUs gross erosion was broadly calibrated against plot data and soil erosion map estimates. Next, mean annual SWAT suspended sediment concentrations (SSC, mg/L) were calibrated and validated against SSC data at 55 gauging stations (622 station-years). SWAT annual specific sediment yields in subbasin reaches (RSSY, t/km(2)/year) were compared to yields measured at 33 gauging stations (87station-years). The best SWAT configuration combined a MUSLE equation modified by the introduction of a threshold area of 0.01km(2) where L and LS were estimated with flow accumulation algorithms. For this configuration, the SSC residual interquartile was less than +/-15mg/L both for the calibration (1995-2004) and the validation (2005-2009) periods. The mean SSC percent bias for 1995-2009 was 24%. RSSY residual interquartile was within +/-10t/km(2)/year, with a mean RSSY percent bias of 12%. Residuals showed no bias with respect to drainage area, slope, or spatial distribution. The use of multiple data types at multiple sites enabled robust simulation of sediment concentrations and yields of the region. The MUSLE modifications are recommended for use in large basins. Based on SWAT simulations, we present a sediment budget for the Upper Danube Basin. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Turbidity and suspended-sediment transport in the Russian River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, John R.; Brown, William M.

    1971-01-01

    The Russian River in north coastal California has a persistent turbidness, which has reportedly caused a decline in the success of the sports fishermen. As a consequence, the number of sports fishermen angling in the river has declined, and industries dependent on their business have suffered. To determine the source of the turbidity and the rate of sediment transport in the basin, a network of sampling station was established in February 1964 along the river, on some of its tributaries, and near Lake Pillsbury in the upper Eel River basin.

  8. Manganese Oxidizing Bacteria in Guaymas Basin Hydrothermal Fluids, Sediments, and Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, G. J.; Tebo, B. M.

    2002-12-01

    The active seafloor hydrothermal system at Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California is unique in that spreading centers are covered with thick sediments, and hydrothermal fluids are injected into a semi-enclosed basin. This hydrothermal activity is the source of a large input of dissolved manganese [Mn(II)] into Guaymas Basin, and the presence of a large standing stock of particulate manganese in this basin has been taken as evidence for a short residence time of dissolved Mn(II) with respect to oxidation, suggestive of bacterial catalysis. During a recent Atlantis/Alvin expedition (R/V Atlantis Cruise #7, Leg 11, Jim Cowen Chief Scientist), large amounts of particulate manganese oxides were again observed in Guaymas Basin hydrothermal plumes. The goal of the work presented here was to identify bacteria involved in the oxidation of Mn(II) in Guaymas Basin, and to determine what molecular mechanisms drive this process. Culture-based methods were employed to isolate Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria from Guaymas Basin hydrothermal fluids, sediments, and plumes, and numerous Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria were identified based on the formation of orange, brown, or black manganese oxides on bacterial colonies on agar plates. The Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria were able to grow at temperatures from 12 to 50°C, and a selection of the isolates were chosen for phylogenetic (16S rRNA genes) and microscopic characterization. Endospore-forming Bacillus species accounted for many of the Mn(II)-oxidizing isolates obtained from both hydrothermal sediments and plumes, while members of the alpha- and gamma-proteobacteria were also found. Mn(II)-oxidizing enzymes from previously characterized Bacillus spores are known to be active at temperatures greater than 50°C. The presence of Mn(II)-oxidizing spores - some of which are capable of growing at elevated temperatures - in hydrothermal fluids and sediments at Guaymas Basin suggests that Mn(II) oxidation may be occurring immediately or very soon

  9. Sedimentation and chemical quality of surface waters in the Wind River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colby, B.R.; Hembree, C.H.; Rainwater, F.H.

    1956-01-01

    This report gives results of an investigation by the U. S. Geological Survey of chemical quality of surface waters and sedimentation in the Wind River Basin, Wyo. The sedimentation study was begun in 1946 to determine the quantity of sediment that is transported by the streams in the basin; the probable sources of the sediment; the effect of large irrigation projects on sediment yield, particularly along Fivemile Creek; and the probable specific weight of the sediment when initially deposited in a reservoir. The study of the chemical quality of the water was begun in 1945 to obtain information on the sources, nature, and amounts of dissolved material that is transported by streams and on the suitability of the waters for different uses. Phases of geology and hydrology pertinent to the sedimentation and chemical quality were studied. Results of the investigation through September 30, 1952, and some special studies that were made during the 1953 and 1954 water years are reported. The rocks in the Wind River Basin are granite, schist, and gneiss of Precambrian age and a thick series of sedimentary strata that range in age from Cambrian to Recent. Rocks of Precambrian and Paleozoic age are confined to the mountains, rocks of Mesozoic age crop out along the flank of the Wind River and Owl Creek Mountains and in denuded anticlines in the floor of the basin, and rocks of Tertiary age cover the greater part of the floor of the basin. Deposits of debris from glaciers are in the mountains, and remnants of gravel-capped terraces of Pleistocene age are on the floor of the basin. The lateral extent and depth of alluvial deposits of Recent age along all the streams are highly variable. The climate of the floor of the basin is arid. The foothills probably receive a greater amount of intense rainfall than the areas at lower altitudes. Most precipitation in the Wind River Mountains falls as snow. The foothill sections, in general, are transitional zones between the cold, humid

  10. Kankakee River Basin: Evaluation of Sediment Management Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    estimated bank erosion in the Yellow River reach Y1, a tributary source for Singleton Ditch for Kankakee River reach MK2, and incoming sediment loads for...Singleton Ditch TR 26,452 8,552 778 778 1,167 1,167 1 WS=watershed contribution, US=upstream load, BE=bank erosion , TR=tributary load Table 4.4...1.0 Yellow R. bank erosion 1.0 Singleton Ditch 1.0 The reach-average hydraulic values used to

  11. Lead exposure of waterfowl ingesting Coeur d`Alene River Basin sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, W.N.; Morton, A.; Audet, D.J.; Campbell, J.K.; LeCaptain, L.

    1998-11-01

    Feces from tundra swans [Bygnus columbianus (Ord)], Canada geese [Branta canadensis (L.)], and mallards [Anas platrhynchos (L.)] were collected from the Coeur d`Alene River Basin and two reference areas in Idaho to estimate exposure to lead from mining activities and relate that exposure to the ingestion of contaminated sediments. The average acid-insoluble ash content of the feces, a measure of sediment ingestion, was 18% for Canada geese and tundra swans, and 12% for ducks. The 18% value corresponded to an estimated 9% sediment ingestion rate (dry weight). The 90th percentile for acid-insoluble ash in feces of tundra swans-corresponded to an estimated 22% sediment in the diet. The average lead concentration (dry weight) of tundra swan feces from all Coeur d`Alene River Basin wetlands sampled was 880 mg/kg, compared to 2.1 mg kg{sup {minus}1} from reference areas. the 90th percentile of lead in tundra swan feces from the Coeur d`Alene River Basin sites was 2700 mg kg{sup {minus}1}. Fecal lead concentrations of tundra swans were correlated with the acid-insoluble ash content of the feces. The very low lead concentrations in feces having low acid-insoluble ash contents established that the sediment was the primary source of the lead ingested by waterfowl. Sediment lead concentrations at 11 wetland sites were closely correlated with average fecal lead concentrations for all waterfowl, corrected for the average percent acid-insoluble ash in the feces.

  12. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals in Stormwater Detention Basin Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schifman, L. A.; Kasaraneni, V. K.; Boving, T. B.; Craver, V.

    2015-12-01

    Stormwater runoff is a conduit for several pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into surface and ground water bodies. The control of runoff and pollutants is typically addressed by best management practices, such as retention/detention ponds. While the effectiveness of catchment basins in runoff volume reduction and removal of some contaminants has been established, very little is known about contaminant fate within these structures. Particularly in coastal regions and places with shallow groundwater tables PAH accumulation in the bottom sediments poses a potential threat for groundwater contamination. The concentrations of PAHs accumulated in the sediments of these catchment basins will primarily depend on the sources of runoff origin and the surrounding land use. Here, five stormwater catchment basins along the I-95 corridor in Rhode Island were selected based on the stormwater runoff origin and land use (industrial, urban, highway, and commercial). To study the stratification of PAHs one foot sediment cores were collected and analyzed for 17 PAHs (16 EPA parent PAH and Retene). The concentrations of PAHs in sediments of detention ponds in urban and industrial land use areas ranged from 20 μg/g to 200 μg/g. Generally higher concentrations of contaminants were found in sediments near the pond inlet and a decreasing concentration gradient is observed laterally and vertically throughout the pond. To compare stormwater ponds in various land use settings a new index based on sediment contamination, pond size and age, and catchment area will be presented. Further, it will be investigated whether BMP maintenance has to be targeted towards pollutant removal to maintain an effective stormwater treatment system.

  13. Microbial Communities in Methane- and Short Chain Alkane-Rich Hydrothermal Sediments of Guaymas Basin

    PubMed Central

    Dowell, Frederick; Cardman, Zena; Dasarathy, Srishti; Kellermann, Matthias Y.; Lipp, Julius S.; Ruff, S. Emil; Biddle, Jennifer F.; McKay, Luke J.; MacGregor, Barbara J.; Lloyd, Karen G.; Albert, Daniel B.; Mendlovitz, Howard; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Teske, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The hydrothermal sediments of Guaymas Basin, an active spreading center in the Gulf of California (Mexico), are rich in porewater methane, short-chain alkanes, sulfate and sulfide, and provide a model system to explore habitat preferences of microorganisms, including sulfate-dependent, methane- and short chain alkane-oxidizing microbial communities. In this study, hot sediments (above 60°C) covered with sulfur-oxidizing microbial mats surrounding a hydrothermal mound (termed “Mat Mound”) were characterized by porewater geochemistry of methane, C2–C6 short-chain alkanes, sulfate, sulfide, sulfate reduction rate measurements, in situ temperature gradients, bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and V6 tag pyrosequencing. The most abundantly detected groups in the Mat mound sediments include anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea of the ANME-1 lineage and its sister clade ANME-1Guaymas, the uncultured bacterial groups SEEP-SRB2 within the Deltaproteobacteria and the separately branching HotSeep-1 Group; these uncultured bacteria are candidates for sulfate-reducing alkane oxidation and for sulfate-reducing syntrophy with ANME archaea. The archaeal dataset indicates distinct habitat preferences for ANME-1, ANME-1-Guaymas, and ANME-2 archaea in Guaymas Basin hydrothermal sediments. The bacterial groups SEEP-SRB2 and HotSeep-1 co-occur with ANME-1 and ANME-1Guaymas in hydrothermally active sediments underneath microbial mats in Guaymas Basin. We propose the working hypothesis that this mixed bacterial and archaeal community catalyzes the oxidation of both methane and short-chain alkanes, and constitutes a microbial community signature that is characteristic for hydrothermal and/or cold seep sediments containing both substrates. PMID:26858698

  14. Microbial Communities in Methane- and Short Chain Alkane-Rich Hydrothermal Sediments of Guaymas Basin.

    PubMed

    Dowell, Frederick; Cardman, Zena; Dasarathy, Srishti; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Lipp, Julius S; Ruff, S Emil; Biddle, Jennifer F; McKay, Luke J; MacGregor, Barbara J; Lloyd, Karen G; Albert, Daniel B; Mendlovitz, Howard; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Teske, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The hydrothermal sediments of Guaymas Basin, an active spreading center in the Gulf of California (Mexico), are rich in porewater methane, short-chain alkanes, sulfate and sulfide, and provide a model system to explore habitat preferences of microorganisms, including sulfate-dependent, methane- and short chain alkane-oxidizing microbial communities. In this study, hot sediments (above 60°C) covered with sulfur-oxidizing microbial mats surrounding a hydrothermal mound (termed "Mat Mound") were characterized by porewater geochemistry of methane, C2-C6 short-chain alkanes, sulfate, sulfide, sulfate reduction rate measurements, in situ temperature gradients, bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and V6 tag pyrosequencing. The most abundantly detected groups in the Mat mound sediments include anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea of the ANME-1 lineage and its sister clade ANME-1Guaymas, the uncultured bacterial groups SEEP-SRB2 within the Deltaproteobacteria and the separately branching HotSeep-1 Group; these uncultured bacteria are candidates for sulfate-reducing alkane oxidation and for sulfate-reducing syntrophy with ANME archaea. The archaeal dataset indicates distinct habitat preferences for ANME-1, ANME-1-Guaymas, and ANME-2 archaea in Guaymas Basin hydrothermal sediments. The bacterial groups SEEP-SRB2 and HotSeep-1 co-occur with ANME-1 and ANME-1Guaymas in hydrothermally active sediments underneath microbial mats in Guaymas Basin. We propose the working hypothesis that this mixed bacterial and archaeal community catalyzes the oxidation of both methane and short-chain alkanes, and constitutes a microbial community signature that is characteristic for hydrothermal and/or cold seep sediments containing both substrates.

  15. The Nordkapp Basin, Norway: Development of salt and sediment interplays for hydrocarbon exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, I.; Toerudbakken, B.O.

    1996-12-31

    Investigation of a particular salt diapir in the Nordkapp Basin, Barents Sea has revealed the following sequence of events: (1) salt started to rise when approximately 1.5 {+-} 0.3 km of sedimentary cover was present (Carboniferous/Permian time); (2) salt reached the sediment surface when about 3.5 {+-} 0.7 km of sediment had been deposited (Triassic time); (3) the mushroom cap on the salt stock top developed over a period of about 75--100 Ma (i.e. during the time when about another km of sediment had been deposited) (Triassic through Base Cretaceous time); (4) the mushroom cap started to dip down significantly ({approximately}1 km) into the sediments around Cretaceous to Tertiary erosion time; (5) oil generation started in the deep sediments of the Carboniferous around the time that salt reached the surface (Triassic time) and continues to the present day at sedimentary depths between about 4 to 7 km (currently Triassic and deeper sediments); (6)gas generation started around mushroom cap development time and continues to the present day at sedimentary depths greater than about 6--7 km (Permian/Carboniferous); (7) the salt stock is currently 3--4 km wide, considerably less than the mushroom cap which is 9 km wide and 1 km thick. The relative timing of mushroom cap development, bed upturning, and hydrocarbon generation makes the salt diapir an attractive exploration target, with suggested reservoir trapping under the downturned mushroom cap on the deep basin side of the salt. In addition, rough estimates of rim syncline fill suggest the basin had an original salt thickness of 2.4--3.3 km, depending upon the amount of salt removed at the Tertiary erosion event.

  16. Chromium isotope composition of reducing and anoxic sediments from the Peru Margin and Cariaco Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueguen, B.; Planavsky, N.; Wang, X.; Algeo, T. J.; Peterson, L. C.; Reinhard, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Chromium isotope systematics in marine sediments are now being used as a new redox proxy of the modern and ancient Earth's surface. Chromium is primarily delivered to the oceans by riverine inputs through weathering of Cr(III)-rich minerals present in the continental crust and oxidation of insoluble Cr(III) to soluble Cr(VI) species. Since oxidation-reduction reactions fractionate Cr isotopes whereby oxidized Cr(VI) species are preferentially enriched in heavy Cr isotopes, the Cr isotope composition of marine sediments may be useful tracers of redox conditions at the Earth's surface through geological time. Chromium is quantitatively removed in organic-rich sediments where reducing conditions prevail and promote reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and thus, these sediments should capture the ambient seawater Cr isotope composition. However, the isotopic composition of modern organic-rich sediments is poorly documented so far, and this step is essential for further modeling the global oceanic Cr isotope mass balance and assessing the effects of sedimentation and post-depositional processes on the marine Cr isotopes archive. In this study, we have characterized modern marine organic-rich sediments for their Cr isotope composition (δ53/52Cr) from two different settings, the Peru margin upwelling zone and the anoxic Cariaco Basin (Venezuela). Chromium isotopes were measured on a MC-ICP-MS (Nu Plasma) using a double-spike correction method. The authigenic fraction of shallow samples from the Peru margin sedimentary sequence with a high Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content (>10 wt%) yield an average δ53/52Crauthigenic value of +0.67 ±0.05 ‰ (2sd). However, although this value is close to the seawater value (Atlantic Ocean) and to Cariaco basin sediments (~ +0.6 ‰), reducing sediments from the Peru margin are on average isotopically slightly heavier, especially in samples having a low authigenic fraction and a low TOC content (δ53/52Crauthigenic values up to +1.30

  17. New chronology for the southern Kalahari Group sediments - implications for sediment-cycle dynamics and basin development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matmon, Ari; Hidy, Alan; Vainer, Shlomy; Crouvi, Onn; Fink, David; Erel, Yigal; Aster Team; Horwitz, Liora; Chazan, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Kalahari Group sediments accumulated in the Kalahari basin, which started forming during the breakup of Gondwana in the early Cretaceous. These sediments cover an extensive part of southern Africa and form a low-relief landscape. Current models assume that the Kalahari Group accumulated throughout the entire Cenozoic. However, chronology has been restricted to early-middle Cenozoic biostratigraphic correlations and to OSL dating of only the past ~300 ka. We present a new chronological framework that reveals a dynamic nature of sedimentation in the southern Kalahari. Cosmogenic burial ages obtained from a 55 m section of Kalahari Group sediments from the Mamatwan Mine, southern Kalahari, indicate that the majority of deposition at this location occurred rapidly at 1-1.2 Ma. This Pleistocene sequence overlies the Archaean basement, forming a significant hiatus that permits the possibility of many Phanerozoic cycles of deposition and erosion no longer preserved in the sedimentary record. Our data also establish the existence of a shallow early-middle Pleistocene water body that persisted for >450 ka prior to this rapid period of deposition and suggesting an Okavango-like environment. Evidence from neighboring archaeological excavations in southern Africa suggests an association of high-density hominin occupation with this water body.

  18. The importance of subsurface nepheloid layers in transport and delivery of sediments to the eastern Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzoni, Laura; Thunell, Robert C.; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.; Hollander, David; Martinez, Nahysa; Tappa, Eric; Varela, Ramón; Astor, Yrene; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    2009-12-01

    Optical transmissometer measurements were coupled with particulate organic matter (POM) observations to understand suspended sediment composition and distribution in the eastern Cariaco Basin during the rainy seasons of September 2003 and 2006. Our results suggest that nepheloid layers originating at the mouth of small mountainous rivers discharging into the eastern Basin are a major delivery mechanism of terrigenous sediments to the Basin interior. Intermediate nepheloid layers (INL) were observed near the shelf break (˜100 m) and appear to effectively transport terrigenous material laterally from the shelf to deep waters, thereby providing a plausible supply mechanism of the terrestrial material observed in sediment traps. These findings highlight the importance of small, local rivers in the Cariaco Basin as sources of terrestrial material. In contrast, these nepheloid layers contained only limited POM. When this information is combined with published sediment trap POM data, it suggests that nepheloid layers may not be a primary mechanism for delivering terrigenous POM to the deeper waters of the basin during the rainy season. Rather, BNL may redistribute marine-derived POM from shallow waters to the Basin's interior by providing ballast materials, particularly during episodic events driven by wind and precipitation. Though we have determined that nepheloid layers play an important role in the seaward transport of particulate material in the Cariaco Basin, their composition and temporal variability have not been fully characterized. This is critical to understand lateral particle transport, since nepheloid layers constitute a significant source of sediment to the deep Cariaco Basin.

  19. Differential arsenic binding in the sediments of two sites in Chile's lower Loa River basin.

    PubMed

    Bugueño, Manuel P; Acevedo, Sara E; Bonilla, Carlos A; Pizarro, Gonzalo E; Pasten, Pablo A

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial sediments from two lower Loa River basin sites in northern Chile were compared in order to probe the effects of vegetation and organic matter (OM) on As accumulation in fluvial environments. The two sites were the Sloman dam, which lacks macrophytes and has a low OM content (2.4%) in sediments, and the Quillagua Oasis, which is 23 km downstream from the Sloman site and has a higher OM (6.2%) in sediments and abundant aquatic plant life. The Quillagua site had preferential As enrichment with a co-occurrence pattern that differed from that of the Sloman site, which had a lower As concentration (1528 vs. 262 mg/kg d.w., respectively). At the Quillagua site, As concentration was strongly correlated with Mn and OM (r = 0.91 and 0.85, respectively); while at the Sloman site, As concentration in sediments was significantly correlated with Ca and Sr (r = 0.63 and 0.54, respectively). Sequential extraction analyses showed that the Sloman site had higher percentage of easily exchangeable As within the surface sediment (12%, 45 mg/kg d.w.) compared with the Quillagua site (3%, 40 mg/kg d.w.). These contrasting results suggest that both vegetation and OM control the immobilization and accumulation of As in the arid Loa River basin.

  20. Precambrian alluvial fan and braidplain sedimentation patterns: Example from the Mesoproterozoic Rjukan Rift Basin, southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köykkä, Juha

    2011-03-01

    An integrated approach of facies analysis, geochemistry and paleohydrology provides new insight into the sedimentology and paleogeography of alluvial sediments in the Precambrian. Here, alluvial fan and braidplain sedimentation patterns are documented in a Mesoproterozoic rift basin, called (known as) the Rjukan Rift Basin in southern Norway. The studied formation (Heddersvatnet Formation) consists of volcanoclastic breccias and conglomerates, cross-bedded sandstones with associated mudstones, and subaerial basaltic lava beds, deposited in a rift basin during the syn-rifting phase. Based on genetically related major lithofacies associations and individual minor lithofacies, the sedimentation is characterized by colluvial and screen apron deposits, subaerial debris flows, hyperconcentrated or sheet flood deposits in the proximal part, representing waning-flood cycles. The distal part contains shallow-water traction current deposits and associated subaerial continental flood basalts that flowed down the rift valleys. The synsedimentary intra-rift faulting formed seasonal or climatically controlled, intrafan ponded-lake with playa lake type cycles and shrinkage cracks. The geochemical composition of the of the studied sandstones and mudstones suggests a passive rifted continental margin with minor to moderate chemical weathering, possible in a semi-arid/arid paleoclimate. Clastic petrofacies of the sandstones indicate a locally uplifted and syn-rift paleotectonic setting during the main sedimentation stage, passing toward a post-rifting stage of the depositional basin. Small-scale structures within the sedimentary basin affected the depositional patterns of the Heddersvatnet Formation by creating local sites of uplift and erosion, controlling the sediment transport, and defining the accommodation space for deposition. The sedimentation of the Heddersvatnet Formation reflects a tectonic base level fall, which resulted in an accumulation of thick alluvial fan or

  1. Stochastic Geomorphology: A Framework for Creating General Principles on Erosion and Sedimentation in River Basins (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benda, L. E.

    2009-12-01

    Stochastic geomorphology refers to the interaction of the stochastic field of sediment supply with hierarchically branching river networks where erosion, sediment flux and sediment storage are described by their probability densities. There are a number of general principles (hypotheses) that stem from this conceptual and numerical framework that may inform the science of erosion and sedimentation in river basins. Rainstorms and other perturbations, characterized by probability distributions of event frequency and magnitude, stochastically drive sediment influx to channel networks. The frequency-magnitude distribution of sediment supply that is typically skewed reflects strong interactions among climate, topography, vegetation, and geotechnical controls that vary between regions; the distribution varies systematically with basin area and the spatial pattern of erosion sources. Probability densities of sediment flux and storage evolve from more to less skewed forms downstream in river networks due to the convolution of the population of sediment sources in a watershed that should vary with climate, network patterns, topography, spatial scale, and degree of erosion asynchrony. The sediment flux and storage distributions are also transformed downstream due to diffusion, storage, interference, and attrition. In stochastic systems, the characteristically pulsed sediment supply and transport can create translational or stationary-diffusive valley and channel depositional landforms, the geometries of which are governed by sediment flux-network interactions. Episodic releases of sediment to the network can also drive a system memory reflected in a Hurst Effect in sediment yields and thus in sedimentological records. Similarly, discreet events of punctuated erosion on hillslopes can lead to altered surface and subsurface properties of a population of erosion source areas that can echo through time and affect subsequent erosion and sediment flux rates. Spatial patterns of

  2. Radionuclide concentrations in bed sediment and fish tissue within the Rio Grande drainage basin

    SciTech Connect

    Booher, J.L.; Fresquez, P.R.; Carter, L.F.; Gallaher, B.M.; Mullen, M.A.

    1998-02-01

    In 1992-93, Los Alamos National Laboratory collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey in an effort to characterize radionuclide concentrations in bed sediment and fish tissue within the Rio Grande drainage basin from Colorado to Texas. Bed sediment was sampled from 18 locations for cesium ({sup 137}Cs), tritium ({sup 3}H), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu), americium ({sup 241}Am), total uranium ({sup tot}U) and alpha, beta, and gamma activity. Fish tissue was sampled from 12 locations for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup tot}U.

  3. Abundant Atribacteria in deep marine sediment from the Adélie Basin, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Stephanie A.; Orcutt, Beth N.; Mandernack, Kevin W.; Spear, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the newly classified candidate phylum “Atribacteria” (formerly referred to as “OP9” and “JS1”) are common in anoxic methane-rich sediments. However, the metabolic functions and biogeochemical role of these microorganisms in the subsurface remains unrealized due to the lack of pure culture representatives. In this study of deep sediment from Antarctica’s Adélie Basin, collected during Expedition 318 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), Atribacteria-related sequences of the 16S rRNA gene were abundant (up to 51% of the sequences) and steadily increased in relative abundance with depth throughout the methane-rich zones. To better understand the metabolic potential of Atribacteria within this environment, and to compare with phylogenetically distinct Atribacteria from non-deep-sea environments, individual cells were sorted for single cell genomics from sediment collected from 97.41 m below the seafloor from IODP Hole U1357C. As observed for non-marine Atribacteria, a partial single cell genome suggests a heterotrophic metabolism, with Atribacteria potentially producing fermentation products such as acetate, ethanol, and CO2. These products may in turn support methanogens within the sediment microbial community and explain the frequent occurrence of Atribacteria in anoxic methane-rich sediments. This first report of a single cell genome from deep sediment broadens the known diversity within the Atribacteria phylum and highlights the potential role of Atribacteria in carbon cycling in deep sediment. PMID:26379647

  4. Unusual soft-sediment deformation structures in the Maritimes Basin, Canada: Possible seismic origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Morgan E.; Waldron, John W. F.

    2016-10-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures provide information on the early deformation history of sedimentary rocks. In the Mississippian Horton Group of the Windsor-Kennetcook subbasin of the Maritimes Basin in Nova Scotia, soft-sediment deformation structures include well-known features like load structures, neptunian dykes, and an intraformational breccia. More unusual features include sedimentary boudins, upward-convex bulb structures, and unique structures here termed microbasins. Microbasins are geometrically similar to minibasins associated with salt tectonics, but about three orders of magnitude smaller. These deformation structures formed when primary stratification was in a weakened state due to liquidization of sediment. Two types of structures exist: those that formed at the sediment surface and those that formed later, during burial. The triggering mechanism for soft-sediment deformation structures in the Horton Group was likely seismicity and overpressured conditions. A strong preferred orientation of soft-sediment structures oriented NW-SE is attributed to dextral strike-slip on the E-W Minas Fault Zone. Seismicity associated with movement along faults associated with the Minas Fault Zone could have induced liquidization of sediment.

  5. Delineating incised stream sediment sources within a San Francisco Bay tributary basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Paul; Benda, Lee; Pearce, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Erosion and sedimentation pose ubiquitous problems for land and watershed managers, requiring delineation of sediment sources and sinks across landscapes. However, the technical complexity of many spatially explicit erosion models precludes their use by practitioners. To address this critical gap, we demonstrate a contemporary use of applied geomorphometry through a straightforward GIS analysis of sediment sources in the San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA, designed to support erosion reduction strategies. Using 2 m lidar digital elevation models, we delineated the entire river network in the Arroyo Mocho watershed (573 km2) at the scale of ˜ 30 m segments and identified incised landforms using a combination of hillslope gradient and planform curvature. Chronic erosion to the channel network was estimated based on these topographic attributes and the size of vegetation, and calibrated to sediment gage data, providing a spatially explicit estimate of sediment yield from incised channels across the basin. Rates of erosion were summarized downstream through the channel network, revealing patterns of sediment supply at the reach scale. Erosion and sediment supply were also aggregated to subbasins, allowing comparative analyses at the scale of tributaries. The erosion patterns delineated using this approach provide land use planners with a robust framework to design erosion reduction strategies. More broadly, the study demonstrates a modern analysis of important geomorphic processes affected by land use that is easily applied by agencies to solve common problems in watersheds, improving the integration between science and environmental management.

  6. Sediment geochemistry and arsenic mobilization in shallow aquifers of the Datong basin, northern China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xianjun; Wang, Yanxin; Duan, Mengyu; Liu, Huaiqing

    2009-08-01

    Understanding the mechanism of arsenic (As) mobilization from sediments to groundwater is important for water quality management in areas of endemic arsenic poisoning, such as the Datong basin in northern China. The bulk geochemistry analysis of sediment samples from three 50-m boreholes drilled specifically for this study at As-contaminated aquifers, the groundwaters of which have an As concentration up to 1060 microg/l, revealed that the average bulk concentrations of major and trace elements of the samples are similar to those of the average upper continental crust. The average As content of the sediment samples (18.7 mg/kg) is higher than that of modern unconsolidated sediments (5-10 mg/kg). Moreover, the abundance of elements varied with grain size, with higher concentrations in finer fractions of the sediments, such as silt and clay. The concentration of NH(2)OH-HCl-extracted iron (Fe) strongly correlated with that of extracted As, suggesting that Fe oxyhydroxides may be the major sink of As in the aquifer. The results of microcosm experiments showed that As mobilization from sediments to groundwater is probably mainly related to changes in the redox conditions, with moderately reducing conditions being favorable for As release from sediments into groundwater.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of agricultural conservation practices on sediment yield in the Colusa Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatzke, S. E.; Zhang, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to assess the impact of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) on sediment runoff from almond orchards in the lower Colusa Basin Drain watershed in the Sacramento Valley, California. This study used modeling techniques that include varying hydrologic parameters for both upland areas and small channels to quantify the effects of BMPs water quality. The BMPs simulated in this study are commonly used in almond orchards and include strip cropping, cover cropping, vegetative filter strips, grassed waterways and channel stabilization. The effectiveness of each BMP was simulated for an above average, below average and average rainfall year. Comparison of annual total watershed sediment loads for each BMP simulation showed that overall, channel stabilization and grassed waterways, which target in stream sediment erosion and transport, are the most effective BMPs with an estimated respective reduction in sediment load of 18% and 35% for a below average precipitation year, 13% and 26% for an above average precipitation year, and 17% and 30% for an average precipitation year. Simulations of BMPs designed to reduce sediment transport in upland areas, which include strip cropping and vegetative filter strips, estimated a reduction in total annual sediment load of less than 1% at the watershed outlet. These results indicated that in-stream sediment transport is the dominant sediment transport process in this watershed. Implementation of channel stabilization measures or grassed waterways on almond orchards is estimated to result in an annual reduction of total sediment load of 41,874 kg or 72,753 kg of sediment per square kilometer of almond orchard for an above average precipitation year.

  8. Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.

    2007-01-01

    OVERVIEW: This report contains water-quality and sediment-quality data from samples collected in the Yukon River Basin from March through September during the 2005 water year (WY). Samples were collected throughout the year at five stations in the basin (three on the main stem Yukon River, one each on the Tanana and Porcupine Rivers). A broad range of physical, chemical, and biological analyses are presented. This is the final report in a series of five USGS Open-File Reports spanning five WYs, from October 2000 through September 2005. The previous four reports are listed in the references (Schuster, 2003, 2005a, 2005b, 2006). Water-quality and sediment-quality data from samples collected on the Yukon River and selected major tributaries in Alaska for synoptic studies during WYs 2002-03 are published in Dornblaser and Halm (2006).

  9. Evolution of the central Walvis Basin / offshore NW Namibia - balancing onshore erosion and offshore sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henk, A.; Kukulus, M.; Junker, R.

    2003-04-01

    Rifting and break-up of Gondwana in the Late Jurassic / Early Cretaceous led to formation of the South Atlantic. One of the associated passive margins, the Walvis Basin in NW Namibia, is used as a case study to investigate the mass and process balances which link uplift and erosion onshore to contemporaneous subsidence and sedimentation offshore. One of the main objectives of the project is to gain quantitative insights into the feedback mechanisms between surface processes and lithospheric processes during passive margin evolution. Modeling concentrates on a traverse across the central Walvis Basin and adjacent onshore areas. Mass balancing requires a reconstruction of the denudation history and the volumes eroded onshore as well as a quantification of the contemporaneous sedimentary record preserved offshore. In the offshore parts of the study area, seismic sections and well data are available to constrain the post-rift evolution of the Walvis basin. However, as none of the exploration wells has yet reached syn-rift deposits, the early margin evolution has to remain speculative. In the onshore part of the traverse, field evidence and published apatite fission track data are used to reconstruct the erosion history. Comparison of the eroded and deposited volumes and masses, respectively, reveals a misfit of about 50 %, i.e. only half of the sediments observed offshore can be attributed to nearby source areas onshore. This result is supported by provenance analysis on cuttings from an offshore well which indicate that a substantial part of the detritus was derived from sources to the south and transported to the central Walvis Basin by coast-parallel currents. Sediment supply rates derived from reconstruction of the onshore erosion history and subsidence rates based on lithospheric cooling models together with global sea level changes are then used to model quantitatively deposition and stratigraphic architectures of the post-rift succession in the central Walvis

  10. Sedimentary facies, organic facies, and hydrocarbon generation in evaporite sediments of the Mulhouse Basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    The sediments of the S unit (lower Oligocene) of the Mulhouse Basin, France, display lithofacies characteristic for the deposition in a perennial evaporitic lake that received frequent marine influx. The sediments consist of marls, anhydrites, and halite. The organic content of these sediments stems from algal and most likely bacterial sources. Terrigenous, plant-derived organic matter comprises on average less than 10% of the total organic matter. The mass of the organic matter is concentrated in the marl lithofacies, which display a varve-like lamination. The 2 organic racies correlate with distinct lithofacies. It therefore appears that the deposition of sediments and their organic content was governed by the physical conditions of the lake. The accumulation of organic matter-rich sediments in the S unit of the Mulhouse Basin is thought to have been favored by a high paleoproductivity and good to excellent preservation conditions. Low sedimentation rates in conjunction with elevated salinities led to the accumulation of marls rich in organic matter. The kerogens of the S unit can be classified as type II. The organic matter from the sites Amelie II and Berrwiller is immature and corresponds to a maturity level of 0.35 and 0.45% vitrinite reflectance. Petroleum formation resulted in significantly higher amounts of bitumen as expected from shale source rocks of this maturity level. The bitumens are dominated by asphaltenes and NSO-compounds and contain less than 50% hydrocarbons. In the maturity interval from 0.35-0.45% R[sub o], hydrocarbon generation took place in all lithofacies. Hydrocarbons formed via kerogen conversion in the marl-dominated sediments and via asphaltene/NSO-compound conversion in anhydrite-dominated lithofacies. The massive anhydrites of the S unit have already expelled hydrocarbons. The naphthalene patterns of this lithofacies show fractionation effects that resulted from water washing during the phase transition from gypsum to anhydrite.

  11. Sediment discharge in the Upper Arroyo Grande and Santa Rita Creek basins, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knott, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Sediment data collected in the upper Arroyo Grande and Santa Rita Creek basins, San Luis Obispo County, California, during the 1968-73 water years were analyzed to determine total sediment discharge at four stations in the basins. Water discharge and total sediment discharge at these stations, representative of the 1943-72 period, were estimated from long-term flow data for nearby gaging stations and water-sediment discharge relations determined for the 1968-73 water years. Most of the total annual sediment discharge at each station occurs during a few days each year. The quantity of sediment transported in a single day often accounts for more than 40 percent of the total annual sediment discharge. Estimated sediment discharge for the upper Arroyo Grande and Santa Rita Creek basins during the 1943-72 water years averaged 53,000 tons and 23,000 tons per year. Long-term sediment deposition in Lopez Reservoir, which is in the southern part of the upper Arroyo Grande basin, was estimated to be 35 acre-feet per year. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Variability in the Mean Latitude of the Atlantic ITCZ as Recorded in Cariaco Basin Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, L. C.; Haug, G. H.; Lea, D. W.; Hughen, K. A.

    2003-12-01

    Climate variability in the tropical Atlantic is largely forced by changes in the strength and position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The Cariaco Basin, located on the northern margin of Venezuela, is sensitive to tropical Atlantic climate change and its sediments provide a record of past ITCZ behavior. Today, the Cariaco Basin has two distinct seasons that reflect the annual migration of the ITCZ. Between January-March, when the ITCZ lies south near the equator, northeasterly trade winds sit directly overhead Cariaco Basin and coastal upwelling and high surface productivity dominate. Beginning in June-July, as the ITCZ moves north to near the Venezuelan coast, local rainfall reaches a maximum and upwelling diminishes or disappears. The impact of ITCZ motion on local sea surface temperatures (SSTs), rainfall, primary production and Cariaco sediment properties is marked, with varved sediments preserved during anoxic intervals the result of the seasonal contrast between biogenic input during the upwelling season and detrital input from rivers during the wet season. Here we review data from Cariaco Basin and other localities which suggest a coherent climatological response in the tropical Atlantic triggered by a pattern of ITCZ migration that mimicks the seasonal cycle. During periods of cooler North Atlantic SSTs, on time-scales ranging from the Little Ice Age to the Younger Dryas to the cold stadials of the last glacial, evidence suggests a southward shift in the mean latitudinal position of the ITCZ. During warm interstadials and periods of Holocene and deglacial warmth, northward shifts in ITCZ position and its belt of convective rainfall are inferred from increased detrital delivery. The apparent synchronization of changes in Cariaco sediment properties with changes recorded in Greenland ice imply a tight teleconnection between the tropical and high latitudes of the North Atlantic. Whether the rapid shifts in ITCZ position reflect a response to

  13. Integrative assessment of sediment quality in lower basin affected by former mining in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bonnail, Estefanía; Buruaem, Lucas M; Morais, Lucas G; Araujo, Giuliana S; Abessa, Denis M S; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Ángel DelValls, T

    2017-06-13

    The Ribeira de Iguape River (Southeast Brazil) is metal contaminated by mining activities. Despite it has been cataloged as "in via of restoration" by the literature, this basin is still a sink of pollution in some segments of the fluvial system. This study aimed to assess the sediment quality in the lower part of the RIR basin. The employed approach was based on biological responses of the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea after 7-day exposure bioassays using as the reference site the Perequê Ecological Park. Toxic responses (burial activity and lethality) and biochemical biomarkers (GST, GR, GPx, LPO, MTs, AChE and DNA damage) were evaluated and then integrated with metal bioavailability and chemical concentrations to address the sediment quality in the area through the weight-of-evidence approach. A multivariate analysis identified linkages between biological responses and contamination. Results pointed that, despite being below the benchmarks of the US Environmental Protection Agency, there is slight metal contamination in the lower part of the basin which induces oxidative stress in C. fluminea; other toxic responses were sometimes attributed to As and Cr bioaccumulation. The sediment quality values (TEL-PEL values in mg/kg) were calculated for the current study for As (0.63-1.31), Cr (3.5-11.05), Cs (1.0-1.17), Cu (6.32-7.32), Ni (6.78-7.46), Ti (42.0-215), V (1.77-8.00). By comparison with other international guidelines, the sediment quality of the lower basin of the Vale de Ribeira does not identify a significant environmental risk.

  14. Modeling studies of dissolved organic matter cycling in Santa Barbara Basin (CA, USA) sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdige, David J.; Komada, Tomoko; Magen, Cédric; Chanton, Jeffrey P.

    2016-12-01

    Here we describe new reaction-transport models for the cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM, both dissolved organic carbon [DOC] and dissolved organic nitrogen [DON]) in anoxic marine sediments, and apply these models to data from Santa Barbara Basin sediment cores (maximum depth of 4.6 m). Model results show that most organic carbon (and nitrogen) flow in the sediments occurs through reactive DOM intermediates that turn over rapidly to produce inorganic remineralization end-products. Refractory DOM is also produced, and the vast majority of this refractory DOM is not remineralized and either escapes as a benthic flux across the sediment-water interface or is buried. Except near the sediment surface, refractory DOM represents >95% of the total pore water DOM. Pore water DOM appears to be consistently depleted in nitrogen as compared to its source organic matter, which may be the result of differential production of carbon- versus nitrogen-containing refractory DOM during remineralization. Refractory DOC (DOCr) in Santa Barbara Basin sediment pore waters is largely produced from degradation of sediment particulate organic carbon (POC). In addition, there is an upward basal flux of DOCr that is strongly depleted in 14C (-810‰). The Δ14C value of DOCr varies according to its source, ranging from +60‰ (a component of surface sediment POC enriched with radiocarbon from nuclear weapons testing in the 1960's) to -810‰ (the basal DOC flux). Each contributes to the DOCr benthic flux, which has a weighted-average Δ14C value of -40‰. The model-determined DOCr benthic flux is roughly half of the total DOC benthic flux, consistent with observations in the literature that sediments are a source of both labile and refractory DOC to bottom waters. These results support previous arguments that sediment benthic fluxes represent an important source of refractory DOC to the oceans. The benthic flux of refractory DOC from these sediments may also contribute pre-aged DOC

  15. Paleoproterozoic basin development and sedimentation in the Lake Superior region, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ojakangas, R.W.; Morey, G.B.; Southwick, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    The peneplaned Archean craton in the Lake Superior region was the platform upon which a continental margin assemblage was deposited. Extension resulted in localized rifts that received thicker accumulations of sediments and volcanic rocks than did adjacent parts of the platform. Seas transgressed onto the continent several times and an ocean basin opened south of the present-day Lake Superior. Island arcs that formed during subduction collided with the craton margin as the ocean basin closed; oceanic crust is poorly preserved as a dismembered ophiolite sequence. The arc volcanics are preserved as the Wisconsin magmatic terranes. The collision resulted in a fold-and-thrust belt known as the Penokean orogen. To the north of the fold-and-thrust belt, a northward-migrating foreland basin - the Animikie basin - developed. Thick turbidite successions were deposited along the basin axis, and terrigenous clastics and Lake Superior-type iron-formation were deposited on the shelf along the northern margin of the basin. The primary paleoclimatic indicators are: (1) glaciogenic rocks at the base of the Paleoproterozoic succession in Michigan indicating ice-house conditions; 2) remnants of a paleosol on the glaciogenic rocks indicative of deep weathering, probably under subtropical conditions and therefore of greenhouse conditions; and (3) carbonate minerals after gypsum, halite, and anhydrite in stromatolitic dolomite, indicative of aridity. Three second-order depositional sequences are bounded by major unconformities, and can be correlated throughout the Lake Superior region. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Climatic Rhythms in Holocene Sediments, Alfonso and Pescadero basins, Gulf of California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Yajimovich, O.; Douglas, R. G.; Gorsline, D. S.

    2003-12-01

    Box cores, multicores and gravity cores collected during cruises in the Gulf of California from 1994 to 2001 have revealed a variety of primary and secondary sedimentary structures that provide information regarding changes in climate and oceanography of the region. Alfonso Basin and La Paz Basin on the western side and Pescadero Basin on the center slope of the east side of the Gulf are margin basins which have sills or shoreward slopes in the Oxygen Minimum Zone and preserve primary varves whose physical and associated geochemical characteristics yield information on Holocene climate and oceanographic changes in the Gulf. Primary productivity and sedimentation in the Gulf are to the dominant wind fields and the sediment record can be considered as an imperfect proxy of climate. Here we examine the sediment components and show that the sediments provide an important history of the changing environment. Laminated, hemipelagic mud, accumulating at rates of 25-50 cm/kyr, were sampled at 1 cm intervals to produce a high resolution record of organic carbon, calcium carbonate (foraminifera and coccoliths), opal silica (diatoms, radiolaria) and terrigenous content, that was examined for variations in accumulation and preservation. The grain size distribution of the fine fraction (silt and clay) was compared to dust samples obtained with 5 traps located around the La Paz Bay and also to the fine fraction of sediment collected at the Rancho Las Animas dunes. Growing evidence from deep-sea sediments and ice cores reveal that Holocene climates were unstable and punctuated by changes that are part of a 1-2 kyr climate rhythm first detected in the North Atlantic and recently elsewhere. Such rhythms have been recently attributed to variations in solar forcing associated with ocean-atmosphere feedbacks. Alfonso Basin sediments are organic carbon-rich (5-7%) with varying amounts of calcium carbonate (1-25%) and little opal silica (<4%) below the top 10 cm because of dissolution

  17. Walker Lake, Nevada: sedimentation in an active, strike-slip related basin

    SciTech Connect

    Link, M.H.; Roberts, M.T.

    1984-04-01

    Walker Lake, Nevada, is in an active fault-controlled basin related to the right-lateral, northwest-trending Walker Lane Shear Zone on the western side of the Basin and Range province. The lake occurs in a half graben bounded on its west side by a high-angle normal fault zone along the Wassuk Range front. This fault zone may merge to the north into the Walker Lane fault system, which forms the northeast boundary of the basin. To the south of Walker Lake, the Wassuk front fault merges with an east-northeast trending left-lateral fault. The Walker Lake basin is interpreted to be a pull-apart basin formed within the triangular zone bounded by the Wassuk front, the Walker Lane, and left-lateral faults. The Walker River drainage basin occupies about 10,000 km/sup 2/ (3800 mi/sup 2/) in western Nevada and parts of California and is essentially a closed hydrologic system that drains from the crest of the Sierra Nevada in California and terminates in Walker Lake. Walker Lake trends north-northwest and is 27.4 km (17 mi) long and 8 km (5 mi) wide with water depths exceeding 30 m (100 ft). Lake Lahontan (Wisconsinian) shorelines ring Walker Lake and suggest water depths of 150 m (500 ft) above the present lake level. The lake is situated in an asymmetric basin with steep alluvial fans flanking the western shoreline (Wassuk Range) and gentle, areally more extensive fans flanking the eastern shoreline (Gillis Range). The Walker River delta enters the lake from the north and is a major sediment point source for the basin. Older dissected shoreline, alluvial fan, Gilbert delta, and beach ridge deposits were built largely of coarse-grained, locally derived materials. Stromatolites, oncolites, and tufas formed along the shorelines, whereas mud and organic sediments accumulated in the lake on the west side of the basin. Extensive submerged sand flats and local sand dunes occur on the east side of the basin.

  18. Sedimentation rate curves as a key to understand the evolution of arc and backarc basin -Arc type and Basin type-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, K.; Matsuoka, H.

    2003-12-01

    The deepsea cores recovered from about 50 drilling sites in the Philippine Sea, equally distributed in marginal basins, remnant arcs, present arcs and other tectonic settings, during the DSDP/IPOD/ODP offer significant geotectonic information. Sediment accumulation rates, lithologic changes and frequency of tephras were examined in the light of the recent advanced nannofossil biostratigraphy of the sediment on these cores. Sediment accumulation rate curves of these drill sites were classified into two major types, A and B types, respectively. A type has rapid accumulation rates just above the arc basement and then shows a decreasing pattern. In contrast, B type has rather constant accumulation rate throughout the cores. Sediments from the rapid sediment accumulation rates imply volcanogenic debris flow and volcaniclastic turbidite sequences derived which were derived from arcs that represent an activity of magmatic arc consisting of tholeiitic and calc-alkalic volcanic rocks. On the contrary, sediments from the low sediment accumulation rates imply mostly biogenic materials instead of volcaniclastic materials. This may mean the termination of intense arc volcanism. Frequency of volcanic ash layers deduced from these cores has maxima just after the rapid sediment accumulation stage of A type curves. As for the remnant arcs such as the Kyushu-Palau and the Daito Ridge, tephra maxima exist at both late Eocene to early Oligocene time and the present arc such as the Izu-Bonin Arc, there are two major maxima at Eocene-Oligocene and Pliocene-Pleistocene time, respectively. Explosive volcanism may take place when oceanic arc develops as shallow as the pressure compensation level (PCL). If this is the case, we may draw the volcanic history of oceanic island arc. At the incipient stage of arc evolution the style of volcanism is quiet resultant formation of pillow lavas and hyaloclastite. On the contrary, the intense volcanism takes place with formation of marine tephra

  19. Cenozoic sediment flux in the Qaidam Basin, northern Tibetan Plateau, and implications with regional tectonics and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jing; Wang, Yadong; Song, Chunhui; Feng, Ying; Hu, Chunhua; Zhong, Sirui; Yang, Jiwei

    2017-08-01

    As the largest Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial intermountain basin in the northern Tibetan Plateau, the Qaidam Basin is an ideal basin to examine the influences of regional tectonics and climate on sediment flux. Research conducted over the last two decades has provided abundant information about paleoclimatology and tectonic histories. In this study, we used the restoration of seven balanced cross-sections and compiled thickness data of ten outcrop sections and four boreholes to reconstruct the basin boundaries, develop isopach maps, and calculate the sediment flux in the Qaidam Basin. Our results show that the sediment flux in the Qaidam Basin increased gradually between 53.5 and 35.5 Ma, decreased to its lowest value from 35.5 to 22 Ma, increased between 22 and 2.5 Ma, and then increased dramatically after 2.5 Ma. By comparing the changes in the sediment flux with our reconstructed shortening rate in the Qaidam Basin, and the records of regional tectonic events and regional and global climate changes, we suggest that the gradual increase in the sediment flux from 53.5 to 40.5 Ma was controlled by both the tectonic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the relatively warm and humid climate, and that the high sediment flux from 40.5 to 35.5 Ma was mainly controlled by tectonics. The low sediment flux from 35.5 to 22 Ma was a response to the relatively cold and arid climate in a stable tectonic setting. The relatively high sediment flux between 22 and 15.3 Ma was related to tectonic activity and the warm and humid climate. The intense tectonic uplift of the northern Tibetan Plateau and the frequent climate oscillations after 15.3 Ma, particularly the glacial-interglacial cycles after 2.5 Ma, caused the high sediment flux after 15.3 Ma and the dramatic increase after 2.5 Ma, respectively.

  20. Sediment from hydraulic mining detained by Englebright and small dams in the Yuba basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, L. Allan

    2005-10-01

    Recent initiatives to find ways to reintroduce anadromous fish to the Central Valley of California have identified the Yuba River as one of the best potential watersheds for expanding spawning habitat of spring-run chinook salmon and steelhead trout. Salmon spawning in the Yuba River would require substantial modifications or removal of Englebright Dam, a large dam (86 million m3 capacity) built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1941. An extensive on-going feasibility study by local, state, and federal organizations, therefore, is examining aspects of various dam-treatment scenarios that range from no action to complete dam removal. This paper examines the extraordinary history of the watershed and resulting conditions pertinent to the feasibility of altering Englebright Dam. It seeks to accomplish four goals. First, historical geomorphic changes in the watershed are outlined that influence the physical context of the feasibility study. The Yuba watershed is centered in the hydraulic gold-mining region made famous by G.K. Gilbert (Gilbert, G.K., 1917. Hydraulic-mining débris in the Sierra Nevada. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 105 154 pp.), and Englebright Dam was built as a débris dam to control the sediment from hydraulic mining. Second, recent findings of high concentrations of mercury in sediment and fish tissues in the watershed are briefly reviewed. Much mercury was applied during the 20th century. Third, historic data on 20th century hydraulic mining are presented that document numerous small dams built in the Yuba basin to detain mining sediment. Finally, field measurements of the texture and lithology of modern bed materials in the Yuba River basin are presented that demonstrate reworked sediment from mining is an important component of the modern sediment load and fine spawning gravels. The complex anthropogenic geomorphic changes in the Yuba basin present a challenge with regards to responsible treatment of Englebright Dam. If toxic sediment is

  1. The Cup of Tea - Drift Sediment Analogy: The Example of a Southern Patagonian Lacustrine Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilli, A.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Ariztegui, D.; McKenzie, J. A.; Markgraf, V.

    2001-12-01

    The tools to probe both modern and ancient lake deposits were perfected to a large degree during the 1970's when Kerry Kelts coined the concept of Limnogeology. Lakes could then be used as small, well-defined laboratories for ocean processes and marine techniques adapted to limnic settings. We present here a further application of a lake as a geological laboratory by comparing the sediment transport and drift deposition in a closed lacustrine basin as an analogue to marine settings. An ongoing study in Lago Cardiel, a 20 km diameter closed-basin in southern Patagonia (Argentina), is providing a wealth of limnogeological data that will help to clarify some fundamental questions concerning timing and extend of global paleoclimatic change. A dense grid of seismic lines with both a 3.5 kHz single-channel and a stronger boomer source has provided excellent seismic penetration with up to 10 cm vertical resolution. The quasi 3D mapping of six major acoustic packages resulted in detailed contour and thickness maps for each identified sequence. Combined with piston core analyses and AMS radiocarbon dating these data allowed a continuous lake level reconstruction since and beyond the last glacial maximum. Low lake levels are identified prior to 11.2 kyr and a prominent desiccation ca. 21 kyr. The Pleistocene/Holocene transition is characterized by a large lake level rise of at least 80 m higher than modern level. The transgression and the time there after are characterized by an almost uniform sediment distribution with a weak focusing towards the center of the basin. A dramatic change in depositional pattern characterizes the Mid- and Late-Holocene. A thick dome-shaped sediment package was deposited just north of the center of the basin during the last 5'000 years, with an average sedimentation rate of 6 m per 1000 years. Striking similarities can be observed among these lacustrine sediment geometries and marine drift settings such as the Straits of Florida or the Marion

  2. Quantifying sediment dynamics on alluvial fans, Iglesia basin, south Central Argentine Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harries, Rebekah; Kirstein, Linda; Whittaker, Alex; Attal, Mikael; Peralta, Silvio

    2017-04-01

    Qualitative interpretations of environmental change drawn from alluvial fan stratigraphy typically tie the deposition of greater volumes of coarser sediment to wetter climatic periods. For example, step changes in sediment flux and discharge associated with glacial-interglacial cycles are often linked to the progradation and back stepping of a fan's toe (Harvey et al, 2002). Indeed, more recent quantitative stratigraphic models demonstrate changes in the volume and calibre of sediment fluxed from an uplifted catchment can produce predictable shifts in the rate at which fluvial deposits fine downstream (Duller et al. 2010, Armitage et al. 2011). These interpretations, however, make three important assumptions: 1) the volume and calibre of the sediment transferred from an eroding mountain belt to a depositional basin is directly related to climate through some value of time-averaged discharge or catchment wetness; 2) lateral sources of sediment, such as tributaries, do not significantly influence the pattern of deposition in a basin and, similarly, 3) the reworking of older fan surfaces is minimal and does not impact the depositional pattern of younger deposits. Here we demonstrate each of these assumptions underestimates the importance of variance in transportable grain sizes in influencing the local and basin-wide deposited grain size trends. Using the Iglesia basin in the Argentine south Central Andes as a natural laboratory, we compare three large, adjacent, alluvial fan systems whose catchments experience the same background tectonic and climatic forcing. We find regional climate forcing is not expressed uniformly in the downstream grain size fining rates of their modern systems. Furthermore, we observe the variance in transportable grain sizes supplied from each primary catchment and the variance of material introduced by tributaries and fan surfaces downstream can act as first order controls on the rate of downstream fining. We also raise the importance of

  3. Design of a sediment quality assessment for the tidal Christina River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Olinger, K.; Allen, R.; Williams, S.

    1995-12-31

    A detailed baseline sediment study was designed and conducted within the tidal portion of the Christina River Basin, Delaware. A complementary battery of field-screening and laboratory analyses was established in order to obtain substantial coverage of the basin at reasonable cost. The approach provided for 180 sediment sample locations from a 15 mile stretch of the Christina River, the proximal reaches of its tributaries, and associated wetlands. Analytical parameters consisted of physiochemical measurements (TOC, grain size distribution, and redox potential), total metals, major anions, carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pH, and metals partitioning analysis. Toxicity indicators included in the study were: SEM/AVS analysis, IQ{reg_sign} toxicity tests, Microtox{reg_sign}, and Hyalella azteca 10-day acute toxicity tests. This basin-wide approach successfully established a database of sediment information that allowed for the determination of: contaminants of concern; contaminant spatial distribution; potential ecological impacts; contaminant/indicator relationships; and potential upland contaminant source areas. The incorporation of low cost field and analytical methods permitted the use of short-spaced systematic sampling thus eliminating stratified random sampling methods and the need to focus on localized reaches. The database was sufficiently large to allow for statistically valid analyses of the results. Additionally, it will aid in the delineation of relevant strata for subsequent monitoring, provide a comparative baseline for future investigations, and guide state decision-making.

  4. Late Holocene Marine Sediment Record from the Bransfield Basin, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, A.; Wellner, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    A comparison of published records of marine sediment cores from fjords around the northern Antarctic Peninsula suggests that climate change during the deglacial period occurred diachronously across the region. This is in contrast to the widespread retreat observed today. However, detailed records of the Holocene climate from the Antarctic Peninsula are widely spaced and this paucity does not allow for an understanding of the controls on the changes in different areas, or if the apparent diachronous change is simply due to poor chronostratigraphic controls. The purpose of this study is to correlate studies that are separated by large distances with a new record in a central location. The Bransfield Basin is located between the Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands and links marine records from the Firth of Tay, Maxwell Bay, Palmer Deep and the western Bransfield Basin. This study focuses on a 22 m sediment core collected in 2007 from the deep central Bransfield Basin, which spans the last 4000 years. Analyses completed to date include core descriptions, laser particle size analysis, multi-sensor core logger analysis, X-ray radiograph fabric description, pebble count and petrography. Ongoing analyses include TOC, total C, total N, 12-13C and 14-15N. The core lithology is dominantly characterized by diatomaceous mud with varying amounts of terrigenous sediment and ice rafted debris. Interpretation of the sedimentary facies suggests that this is a high-resolution record of climatic change that may be used to link other records in this region.

  5. Gravel sediment routing from widespread, low-intensity landscape disturbance, Current River basin, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, R.B.; Gran, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    During the last 160 years, land-use changes in the Ozarks have had the potential to cause widespread, low-intensity delivery of excess amounts of gravel-sized sediment to stream channels. Previous studies have indicated that this excess gravel bedload is moving in wave-like forms through Ozarks drainage basins. The longitudinal, areal distribution of gravel bars along 160 km of the Current River, Missouri, was evaluated to determine the relative effects of valley-scale controls, tributary basin characteristics, and lagged sediment transport in creating areas of gravel accumulations. The longitudinal distribution of gravel-bar area shows a broad scale wave-like form with increases in gravel-bar area weakly associated with tributary junctions. Secondary peaks of gravel area with 1.8-4.1 km spacing (disturbance reaches) are superimposed on the broad form. Variations in valley width explain some, but not all, of the short-spacing variation in gravel-bar area. Among variables describing tributary drainage basin morphometry, present-day land use and geologic characteristics, only drainage area and road density relate even weakly to gravel-bar areal inventories. A simple, channel network-based sediment routing model shows that many of the features of the observed longitudinal gravel distribution can be replicated by uniform transport of sediment from widespread disturbances through a channel network. These results indicate that lagged sediment transport may have a dominant effect on the synoptic spatial distribution of gravel in Ozarks streams; present-day land uses are only weakly associated with present-day gravel inventories; and valley-scale characteristics have secondary controls on gravel accumulations in disturbance reaches.

  6. Constraining the Equatorial Basins Sedimentation Chronology from MARSIS Tomographic Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggy, E.; Boisson, J.; Clifford, S. M.; Plaut, J. J.; Ferro, A.; Gim, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Martian hydrogeologic surface chronology strongly depends on our understanding of the cratering process and our ability to perform surface crater count to assess rough formation ages. Of particular interest are Isidis and Amazonis Planitia as both basins are among the smoothest surface areas on Mars with very few observable large craters. Such surface conditions give a unique potential to the current sounding radars to overcome clutter arising from surface textural and topographic complexity to assess the dielectric properties of the shallow subsurface and also to attempt to explore potential buried large craters that could constrain the ambiguities on the chronology and type of sedimentation that filled these two basins. Isidis has been hypothesized to be filled by either sediments derived from drainage leading into those lower topographic zones or by an older paleo-ocean. It has been suggested that those large-scale sedimentary deposits may still be volatile-rich. The Gamma Ray Spectroscopy Observations onboard Mars Odyssey suggested a maximum inferred water abundance of 3wt% in the top few meters. For Amazonis Planitia, it has been hypothesized that Tharsis produced lava flows that formed a barrier across the plain, which in turn created a basin that collected lava flows and other sediments. It is assumed that this basin and the repeated flows of lava and sedimentary materials through it, causing the smoothness of the plain, especially in the southern part of the basin. In order to constrain the chronology, origin and type of each of these basin fills, we created three-dimensional regional-normalized attenuation maps of the surface and shallow subsurface using the signal-decay method to provide insights into the three-dimensional variations of dielectric properties within these terrains. MARSIS radar tomography on Isidis yielded a complex large-scale westward flow-like pattern and ponding that appears to be similar to many of earth dry lakes. The attenuation

  7. Reconnaissance of chemical quality of surface water and fluvial sediment in the Price River Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mundorff, J.C.

    1972-01-01

    This report on the quality of surface water in the Price River basin was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights. The primary purpose of the reconnaissance on which this report is based was to obtain information about (1) the general chemical characteristics of surface water throughout the basin, (2) the effect of the natural environment and of present water use on these chemical characteristics, and (3) general characteristics of the sediment discharge of selected streams in the basin. A secondary objective was the definition of specific problem areas or reaches in which marked deterioration in water quality was evident.

  8. Transtensional arm of the early Mesozoic Fundy rift basin: Penecontemporaneous faulting and sedimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, P.E.; Schlische, R.W. )

    1990-08-01

    Formed as a major right-lateral fault zone during Paleozoic collisional orogenies and reactivated as a left-oblique system during the early Mesozoic, the east-striking Minas fault zone of Atlantic Canada controlled adjacent sedimentation in the Fundy rift basin, producing a series of synsedimentary microbasins. Northeast-striking boundary faults of the Fundy basin underwent mostly early Mesozoic normal slip and are reactivated Paleozoic thrusts. The adjacent basin has a much thicker section, transverse folds, and synthetic rider blocks. Contrasts in structural and stratigraphic styles are a response to local deformation controlled by reactivated fault zones of differing orientation under consistent northwest-southeast early Mesozoic extension rather than responses to a sequence of changing stress patterns.

  9. Dam sediment tracking using spectrometry and Landsat 8 satellite image, Taleghan Basin, Iran.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Sirous; Shamsai, Abolfazl; Saghafian, Bahram

    2016-02-01

    Sedimentation in reservoirs, in addition to reducing water storage capacity, causes serious environmental impacts including intensification of river erosion. Detection of sediment origins plays a determining role in control and prevention of sedimentation. Nowadays, with the help of studies on sedimentation and erosion, sediment origins can be detected with high accuracy. This research integrated geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) techniques to detect the primary source of sediment to Taleghan Dam in northern Iran. After collecting samples of sediment from the basin outlet, they were divided into two parts. One part was sent to the Mineralogy Laboratory in order to determine the percentage of each mineral in the samples using X-ray. A few were sent to the Spectroscopy Laboratory to determine their spectral signature using the spectrometer. The laboratory test results determined the wavelength of the minerals. In the next step, those spots on the satellite image whose spectral reflectance fell within the spectral signature of the minerals were detected and enhanced by mixture-tuned matched filtering (MTMF) method. These spots were overlapped with the map of geological formations. Accordingly, the origin of the minerals was detected. The greatest proportion of trace minerals was found in sample 4 including 6% of Illite trace mineral, while sample 2 contains only 2% of trace minerals. Accordingly, the origin of the minerals was detected. The obtained results revealed that mudstone, red siltstone, and conglomerate formations, Karaj formation in section Poldokhtar, acidic tuffs, alcanic lavas of Karaj Formation, mudstone and gypsum of upper red formation, and Cambrian dolomites were recognized as the most possible origins of the dam sediments. These formations are vulnerable to erosion and should be conserved so as to substantially prevent the volume of sedimentation in the reservoir.

  10. (210)Pb and compositional data of sediments from Rondonian lakes, Madeira River basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Vergotti, Marcelo

    2015-05-01

    Gold exploration has been intensive in Brazilian Amazon over the last 40 years, where the use of mercury as an amalgam has caused abnormal Hg concentrations in water bodies. Special attention has been directed to Madeira River due to fact it is a major tributary of Amazon River and that since 1986, gold exploration has been officially permitted along a 350km sector of the river. The (21)(0)Pb method has been used to date sediments taken from nine lakes situated in Madeira River basin, Rondônia State, and to verify where anthropogenic Hg might exist due to gold exploitation in Madeira River. Activity profiles of excess (21)(0)Pb determined in the sediment cores provided a means to evaluate the sedimentation rates using a Constant Flux: Constant Sedimentation (CF:CS) and Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) of unsupported/excess (21)(0)Pb models. A significant relationship was found between the CF:CS sedimentation rates and the mean values of the CRS sedimentation rates (Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.59). Chemical data were also determined in the sediments for identifying possible relationships with Hg occurring in the area. Significant values were found in statistical correlation tests realized among the Hg, major oxides and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content in the sediments. The TOC increased in the sediment cores accompanied by a loss on ignition (LOI) increment, whereas silica decreased following a specific surface area raising associated to the TOC increase. The CRS model always provided ages within the permitted range of the (21)(0)Pb-method in the studied lakes, whereas the CF:CS model predicted two values above 140 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Riparian Vegetation, Sediment Dynamics and Hydrologic Change in the Minnesota River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batts, V. A.; Triplett, L.; Gran, K. B.; Lenhart, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    In the last three decades the Minnesota River Basin (MRB) has experienced increased precipitation and anthropogenic alteration to the drainage network, which contributes to higher flows and increased sediment loading. From field and laboratory approaches, this study investigates the implications of hydrologic change on the colonization of riparian vegetation on pointbars, and of vegetation loss on near-channel sediment storage within the lower Minnesota River. Field surveys consisted of vegetation surveys along pointbars, which were then related to flow records. Surveys revealed a dominance of woody seedlings over older established saplings, and high frequencies of species with alternative forms of propagation that tolerate high flows such as sandbar willow (Salix interior), and beggarticks (Bidens sp.). Surveys also showed in increase in elevation of plant establishment from measurements taken in 1979, resulting in higher area of exposed pointbar and easier mobilization of sediment. Geospatial analysis completed at each sampling location found decreased area of exposed pointbar in association with increases in pointbar vegetation between lower flow years and increased area of exposed pointbar in association with decreased pointbar vegetation between higher flow years. An experimental approach addresses implications of vegetation loss on pointbar sediment storage. In a 1.5m x 6m flume, we are conducting experiments to measure the efficiency of bar vegetation in trapping fine sediment as a function of stem density. Self-formed pointbars are vegetated at varying densities with Medicago sativa (alfalfa) sprouts to represent riparian woody saplings, then flooded with fine sediment-rich water to simulate summer flooding. Sediment deposited at each stem density is then measured to estimate efficiency. While results of these experiments are currently ongoing, we hypothesize that a threshold density exists at which trapping efficiency declines substantially. Preliminary

  12. Tracing suspended sediment sources in the Upper Sangamon River Basin using conservative and non-conservative tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Stumpf, A.

    2015-12-01

    As the awareness of water pollution, eutrophication and other water related environmental concerns grows, the significance of sediment in the transport of nutrients and contaminants from agricultural areas to streams has received increasing attention. Both the physical and geochemical properties of suspended sediment are strongly controlled by sediment sources. Thus, tracing sources of suspended sediment in watersheds is important for the design of management practices to reduce sediment loads and contributions of sediment-adsorbed nutrients from agricultural areas to streams. However, the contributions of different sediment sources to suspended sediment loads within intensively managed watersheds in the Midwest still remain insufficiently explored. This study aims to assess the provenance of suspended sediment and the relation between channel morphology and production of suspended sediment in the Upper Sangamon River Basin, Illinois, USA. The 3,690-km2 Upper Sangamon River Basin is characterized by low-relief, agricultural lands dominated by row-crop agriculture. Sediment source samples were collected in the Saybrook from five potential sources: farmland, forests, floodplains, river banks, and grasslands. Event-based and accumulated suspended sediment samples were collected by ISCO automatic pump samplers and in situ suspended sediment samplers and from the stream at watershed outlet. A quantitative geochemical fingerprinting technique, combining statistically verified multicomponent signatures and an un-mixing model, was employed to estimate the relative contributions of sediment from five potential sources to the suspended sediment loads. Organic matter content, trace elements, and radionuclides from soil samples were used as potential tracers. Our preliminary results indicate that the majority of suspended sediment is derived from floodplains in the downstream portions of the watersheds, while only minor amounts of suspended sediment are derived from upland

  13. Sedimentation of the Triassic Jurassic Adigrat Sandstone Formation, Blue Nile (Abay) Basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolela, A.

    2008-09-01

    Exploration of oil and gas deposits in the Blue Nile Basin targeted the Adigrat Sandstone Formation as a reservoir objective. Conglomerates, gravely sandstones, coarse to medium-grained sandstones, very fine-grained cross-bedded sandstones, siltstones and mudstones of the Adigrat Sandstone Formation were deposited in semi-arid to arid climates. The North-western highlands are the main source for the sedimentation. The poorly-sorted, crudely-bedded conglomerates and gravely sandstones are interpreted as alluvial fan deposits. The basal polymictic orthoconglomerate passes up vertically into gravely sandstone, possibly indicating proximal to mid-fan sedimentation. The alluvial fan sedimentation passes up vertically into channel, point bars and flood-plain fines. The meandering river sedimentation is characterized by single and amalgamated multi-storey sandstone bodies. In places, the uppermost part of the Adigrat Sandstone Formation is represented by coal-bearing sediments possibly reflect lacustrine depositional environment. The medium-coarse-grained sandstone is a possible oil and gas reservoir, whilst the fine-grained sediments are a possible gas reservoir.

  14. Benthic protists and fungi of Mediterranean deep hypsersaline anoxic basin redoxcline sediments.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Joan M; Kormas, Konstantinos; Pachiadaki, Maria G; Rocke, Emma; Beaudoin, David J; Morrison, Colin; Visscher, Pieter T; Cobban, Alec; Starczak, Victoria R; Edgcomb, Virginia P

    2014-01-01

    Some of the most extreme marine habitats known are the Mediterranean deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs; water depth ∼3500 m). Brines of DHABs are nearly saturated with salt, leading many to suspect they are uninhabitable for eukaryotes. While diverse bacterial and protistan communities are reported from some DHAB water-column haloclines and brines, the existence and activity of benthic DHAB protists have rarely been explored. Here, we report findings regarding protists and fungi recovered from sediments of three DHAB (Discovery, Urania, L' Atalante) haloclines, and compare these to communities from sediments underlying normoxic waters of typical Mediterranean salinity. Halocline sediments, where the redoxcline impinges the seafloor, were studied from all three DHABs. Microscopic cell counts suggested that halocline sediments supported denser protist populations than those in adjacent control sediments. Pyrosequencing analysis based on ribosomal RNA detected eukaryotic ribotypes in the halocline sediments from each of the three DHABs, most of which were fungi. Sequences affiliated with Ustilaginomycotina Basidiomycota were the most abundant eukaryotic signatures detected. Benthic communities in these DHABs appeared to differ, as expected, due to differing brine chemistries. Microscopy indicated that only a low proportion of protists appeared to bear associated putative symbionts. In a considerable number of cases, when prokaryotes were associated with a protist, DAPI staining did not reveal presence of any nuclei, suggesting that at least some protists were carcasses inhabited by prokaryotic scavengers.

  15. Archaeal communities associated with shallow to deep subseafloor sediments of the New Caledonia Basin.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Erwan G; Sauvadet, Anne-Laure; Chaduteau, Carine; Fouquet, Yves; Charlou, Jean-Luc; Prieur, Daniel; Cambon Bonavita, Marie-Anne

    2009-09-01

    The distribution of the archaeal communities in deep subseafloor sediments [0-36 m below the seafloor (mbsf)] from the New Caledonia and Fairway Basins was investigated using DNA- and RNA-derived 16S rRNA clone libraries, functional genes and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A new method, Co-Migration DGGE (CM-DGGE), was developed to access selectively the active archaeal diversity. Prokaryotic cell abundances at the open-ocean sites were on average approximately 3.5 times lower than at a site under terrestrial influence. The sediment surface archaeal community (0-1.5 mbsf) was characterized by active Marine Group 1 (MG-1) Archaea that co-occurred with ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA) sequences affiliated to a group of uncultured sedimentary Crenarchaeota. However, the anoxic subsurface methane-poor sediments (below 1.5 mbsf) were dominated by less active archaeal communities, such as the Thermoplasmatales, Marine Benthic Group D and other lineages probably involved in the methane cycle (Methanosarcinales, ANME-2 and DSAG/MBG-B). Moreover, the archaeal diversity of some sediment layers was restricted to only one lineage (Uncultured Euryarchaeota, DHVE6, MBG-B, MG-1 and SAGMEG). Sequences forming two clusters within the Thermococcales order were also present in these cold subseafloor sediments, suggesting that these uncultured putative thermophilic archaeal communities might have originated from a different environment. This study shows a transition between surface and subsurface sediment archaeal communities.

  16. Benthic protists and fungi of Mediterranean deep hypsersaline anoxic basin redoxcline sediments

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Joan M.; Kormas, Konstantinos; Pachiadaki, Maria G.; Rocke, Emma; Beaudoin, David J.; Morrison, Colin; Visscher, Pieter T.; Cobban, Alec; Starczak, Victoria R.; Edgcomb, Virginia P.

    2014-01-01

    Some of the most extreme marine habitats known are the Mediterranean deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs; water depth ∼3500 m). Brines of DHABs are nearly saturated with salt, leading many to suspect they are uninhabitable for eukaryotes. While diverse bacterial and protistan communities are reported from some DHAB water-column haloclines and brines, the existence and activity of benthic DHAB protists have rarely been explored. Here, we report findings regarding protists and fungi recovered from sediments of three DHAB (Discovery, Urania, L’ Atalante) haloclines, and compare these to communities from sediments underlying normoxic waters of typical Mediterranean salinity. Halocline sediments, where the redoxcline impinges the seafloor, were studied from all three DHABs. Microscopic cell counts suggested that halocline sediments supported denser protist populations than those in adjacent control sediments. Pyrosequencing analysis based on ribosomal RNA detected eukaryotic ribotypes in the halocline sediments from each of the three DHABs, most of which were fungi. Sequences affiliated with Ustilaginomycotina Basidiomycota were the most abundant eukaryotic signatures detected. Benthic communities in these DHABs appeared to differ, as expected, due to differing brine chemistries. Microscopy indicated that only a low proportion of protists appeared to bear associated putative symbionts. In a considerable number of cases, when prokaryotes were associated with a protist, DAPI staining did not reveal presence of any nuclei, suggesting that at least some protists were carcasses inhabited by prokaryotic scavengers. PMID:25452749

  17. Long-term suspended sediment transport in the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed and Salt River Basin, Missouri, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since 1992, efforts have been conducted in Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed to assess sediment transport from this 72-km2 Missouri watershed located in the Salt River Basin, the Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research site in the Central Mississippi River Basin. This effort was complemented by field...

  18. Clay mineralogy of surface sediments as a tool for deciphering river contributions to the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bout-Roumazeilles, V.; Riboulleau, A.; du Châtelet, E. Armynot; Lorenzoni, L.; Tribovillard, N.; Murray, R. W.; Müller-Karger, F.; Astor, Y. M.

    2013-02-01

    The mineralogical composition of 95 surface sediment samples from the Cariaco Basin continental shelf and Orinoco delta was investigated in order to constrain the clay-mineral main provenance and distribution within the Cariaco Basin. The spatial variability of the data set was studied using a geo-statistical approach that allows drawing representative clay-mineral distribution maps. These maps are used to identify present-day dominant sources for each clay-mineral species in agreement with the geological characteristics of the main river watersheds emptying into the basin. This approach allows (1) identifying the most distinctive clay-mineral species/ratios that determine particle provenance, (2) evaluating the respective contribution of local rivers, and (3) confirming the minimal present-day influence of the Orinoco plume on the Cariaco Basin sedimentation. The Tuy, Unare, and Neveri Rivers are the main sources of clay particles to the Cariaco Basin sedimentation. At present, the Tuy River is the main contributor of illite to the western part of the southern Cariaco Basin continental shelf. The Unare River plume, carrying smectite and kaolinite, has a wide westward propagation, whereas the Neveri River contribution is less extended, providing kaolinite and illite toward the eastern Cariaco Basin. The Manzanares, Araya, Tortuga, and Margarita areas are secondary sources of local influence. These insights shed light on the origin of present-day terrigenous sediments of the Cariaco Basin and help to propose alternative explanations for the temporal variability of clay mineralogy observed in previously published studies.

  19. History of suspended-sediment data collection and inventory of available data for the Tennessee and Cumberland River basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, William P.; Brown, Russell T.; Chatham, Carrie G.

    1988-01-01

    In 1934 and 1935, the Tennessee Valley Authority established 51 daily record suspended-sediment stations on the Tennessee River and its major tributaries. Most of these stations were operated for 8 years. From 1962 to 1965, the Tennessee Valley Authority again collected daily sediment record at 10 of the original 49 stations. In addition to the data sets collected on the major rivers, the Tennessee Valley Authority has conducted several intensive studies of small watersheds throughout the Tennessee River basin. In the Cumberland River basin, daily sediment records have been collected primarily by the Survey. Daily stations have been operated for various periods on 17 basins ranging in size from 0.67 to 1,977 sq mi, with the earliest data of daily record being October 1953. All of these daily stations are located in the upper Cumberland River basin upstream of any major impoundments. Periodic sediment data have been collected by the Survey at 194 stations in the Tennessee River basin and at 106 stations in the Cumberland River basin, however; the number of samples/station is quite low. 86% of the periodic stations in the Tennessee River basin and 91% of the periodic stations in the Cumberland River basin have 30 samples or less. (USGS)

  20. Sr and Nd isotopes of suspended sediments from rivers of the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatting, Karina; Santos, Roberto V.; Sondag, Francis

    2014-05-01

    The Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems are important tools to constrain the provenance of sediment load in river systems. This study presents the isotopic composition of Sr and Nd isotopes and major and minor elements in suspended sediments from the Marañón-Solimões, Amazonas and Beni-Madeira rivers. The data were used to constrain the source region of the sediments and to better understand the main seasonal and spatial transport processes within the basin based on the variations of the chemical and isotopic signals. They also allow establishing a relationship between sediment concentrations and flow rate values. The study presents data collected during a hydrological year between 2009 and 2010. The Marañón-Solimões River presents low Sr isotopic values (0.7090-0.7186), broad EpslonNd(0) range (-15.17 to -8.09) and Nd model (TDM) ages varying from 0.99 to 1.81 Ga. Sources of sediments to the Marañón-Solimões River include recent volcanic rocks in northern Peru and Ecuador, as well as rocks with long crustal residence time and carbonates from the Marañón Basin, Peru. The Beni-Madeira River has more radiogenic Sr isotope values (0.7255-0.7403), more negative EpslonNd(0) values (-20.46 to -10.47), and older Nd isotope model ages (from 1.40 to 2.35 Ga) when compared to the Marañón-Solimões River. These isotope data were related to the erosion of Paleozoic and Cenozoic foreland basins that are filled with Precambrian sediments derived from the Amazonian Craton. These basins are located in Bolivian Subandina Zone. The Amazon River presents intermediate isotopic values when compared to those found in the Marañón-Solimões and Beni-Madeira rivers. Its Sr isotope ratios range between 0.7193 and 0.7290, and its EpslonNd(0) values varies between -11.09 and -9.51. The Nd isotope model ages of the suspended sediments vary between 1.28 and 1.77 Ga. Concentrations of soluble and insoluble elements indicate a more intense weathering activity in sediments of the Beni

  1. Floodplains and Sedimentation Processes in a Changing Basin: Case Study Sacramento Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, M. B.; Aalto, R.

    2006-12-01

    The diverse floodplains of the Sacramento Valley in California have undergone dramatic post-glaciation changes. The natural reduction in sediment supply following glacial melting appears to have altered channel pattern of the in the Middle Sacramento River from braided to meandering. This trend has been exacerbated by recent dam construction, gravel and sand mining, and bank protection, which have apparently increased the frequency of chute cutoff and decreased channel sinuosity. The sum of factors controlling sediment supply and channel pattern are evidently converting the Sacramento from an aggraded river with frequent access to its natural floodplain to a degrading river with limited connectivity. We have documented via 210Pb dating low volumes of recent sediment transfer to: inset floodplains in Upper Sacramento River canyons; meander belt deposits, low-lying sinks bounding natural levees, and oxbow lakes along the Middle Sacramento River; and crevasses splay deposits and lowland floodways in the Lower Sacramento Valley. These observations are contrasted with historical maps and preserved deposits from the previous era of floodplain creation, which suggest higher rates of sediment accumulation. The presence of high sand content in recent deposits along channel margins determined via granulometry and its rapid decline with depth and distance from the channel attests to recent erosion of channel sediments throughout the Sacramento River. Most of the natural crevasses splays that once dominated sediment transfer into floodplains along the Sacramento's lower course have been cut off from the channel by flood control levees built upon channel banks. However, several splay fans were retrofitted for use in the valley's flood control system (c. 1920's) as lateral spill weirs that shunt flood flow out of the mainstem Sacramento River. These weirs focus flow and sediment transport into engineered floodways (i.e., leveed portions of natural low gradient flood basins

  2. Effects of uranium development on erosion and associated sedimentation in southern San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1979-01-01

    A reconnaissance was made of some of the effects of uranium development on erosion and associated sedimentation in the southern San Juan Basin, where uranium development is concentrated. In general, the effects of exploration on erosion are minor, although erosion may be accelerated by the building of access roads, by activities at the drilling sites, and by close concentration of drilling sites. Areas where the greatest effects on erosion and sedimentation from mining and milling operations have occurred are: (1) in the immediate vicinity of mines and mills, (2) near waste piles, and (3) in stream channels where modifications, such as changes in depth have been caused by discharge of excess mine and mill water. Collapse of tailings piles could result in localized but excessive erosion and sedimentation.

  3. Distribution of maximum burial temperatures across northern Appalachian Basin and implications for Carboniferous sedimentation patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsson, M.J.

    1986-05-01

    Clay-mineral diagenesis and apatite fission-track age data indicate that the maximum burial temperatures to which the Middle Devonian Tioga metabentonite was exposed rise abruptly from low values in western New York State to higher values in the east. The highest temperatures, which approach 175/sup 0/C, were reached just west of Syracuse. Neither the pattern nor the magnitude of burial temperatures can be explained solely by burial of the metabentonite beneath Upper Devonian sediments. Although spatial variations in the geothermal gradient could have produced the observed pattern of burial temperatures, it is more likely that Carboniferous sediments, no longer preserved in the area, were responsible for the indicated burial. The inferred presence of thick Carboniferous sequences in western New York State suggests that the Allegheny orogeny had a stronger influence on sedimentation in the northern Appalachian Basin than has been previously recognized. 25 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Evaluating the efficiency of sediment metal pollution indices in interpreting the pollution of Haraz River sediments, southern Caspian Sea basin.

    PubMed

    Nasrabadi, Touraj; Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Mehrdadi, Nasser

    2010-12-01

    The Haraz River is one of the most significant rivers in the southern Caspian Sea basin. Towards the estuary, the river receives discharges of industrial, agricultural, and urban wastes. In the present investigation, bulk concentrations of Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Fe, Ni, Cr, Co, and Sr in Haraz River (Iran) bed sediments were measured from several sample locations. In addition, association of studied metals with various sedimentary phases was assessed to determine the proportions of metals in different forms. The intensity of sediment contamination was evaluated using an enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (I(geo)), and a newly developed pollution index (I(poll)). Both EF and I(geo) formulae compare present concentrations of metals to their background levels in crust and shale, respectively. In a specific area with its own geological background like Haraz River water basin where naturally high concentrations of metals may be found, such a comparison may lead to biased conclusions regarding levels of anthropogenic contamination. Accordingly, chemical partitioning results are substituted for the mean crust and shale levels in the new index (I(poll)). The Pearson correlation coefficient between the anthropogenic portion of metallic pollution in Haraz river-bed sediments with I(poll) showed much more value in comparison with those of geochemical accumulation index and enrichment factor. The order of metals introduced by anthropogenic activities are as follows: Sr > Pb > Co > Cd > Zn > Cu > Ni > As > Cr > Fe. The results showed relatively higher concentrations of Cd, As, Sr, and Pb in comparison with those of shale. However, based on the chemical partitioning of metals, it is found that Sr, Pb, Co, and Cd are the most mobile metals. In spite of the high As concentrations in sediments, it is not likely that this element is a major hazard for the aquatic environment since it is found mainly in the residual fraction. Also, Fe, Cr, and Ni are present in the greatest

  5. Early diagenesis of interdistributary basin sediments - Atchafalaya basin, Mississippi delta complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, A.M.; Roberts, H.H.; Zanghi, E.

    1987-05-01

    Terrigenous clays, silts, and organic sediments are filling the topographic depressions between alluvial ridges that partition the Mississippi River's deltaic plain. As compared to many other deltaic deposits, these sediments are accumulating slowly and are therefore impacted early in their depositional history by organisms and diagenesis. Early emplacement of numerous diagenetic products suggests the possibility that minerals that survive later diagenesis may be used as indicators of early depositional conditions, a useful approach for studying ancient sequences. To better understand these relationships, samples from six undisturbed 5-in. (12.7-cm) diameter borings (to 152 ft (96 m) long) have been examined using x-ray radiography, light and electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction analysis. The maximum C/sub 14/ age of these sediments is 8200 y.B.P. Early diagenetic minerals identified using these methods include iron oxides, pyrite, siderite, a variety of other carbonates, vivianite, and gypsum. Iron oxides occur primarily in well-drained swamp and levee deposits, associated with permeable pathways in the sediments. Pyrite is found throughout most borings and is associated with organic-rich zones and organic fragments. It occurs as individual octahedral crystals, framboidal aggregates, and mats. Crystals commonly line rootlets and fill cells. Siderite occurs primarily in lake sediments and lake deltas as diffuse lenticular masses. The shapes of siderite masses appear to be controlled by bedding characteristics. SEM examination indicates that manganese is present and that there are numerous inclusions of CaCO/sub 3/ and quartz. The CaCO/sub 3/ contains various amounts of magnesium, and diffractograms indicate dolomite in some places. Vivianite is common as radial aggregates in organic-rich, poorly drained swamp deposits. Finally, gypsum occurs as radial aggregates associated with very organic-rich zones.

  6. Managing flow, sediment, and hydropower regimes in the Sre Pok, Se San, and Se Kong Rivers of the Mekong basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Thomas B.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2014-06-01

    The Lancang/Mekong River Basin is presently undergoing a period of rapid hydropower development. In its natural undeveloped state, the river transports about 160 million metric tons of sediment per year, maintaining the geomorphologic features of the basin, sustaining habitats, and transporting the nutrients that support ecosystem productivity. Despite the importance of sediment in the river, currently little attention is being paid to reservoir sediment trapping. This study is devoted to assessing the potential for managing sediment and its impact on energy production in the Se San, Sre Pok, and Se Kong tributaries of the Mekong River. These tributaries drain a set of adjacent watersheds that are important with respect to biodiversity and ecological productivity, and serve as a significant source of flow and sediment to the mainstream Mekong River. A daily sediment transport model is used to assess tradeoffs among energy production and sediment and flow regime alteration in multiple reservoir systems. This study finds that eventually about 40%-80% of the annual suspended sediment load may be trapped in reservoirs. Clearly, these reservoirs will affect the rivers' sediment regimes. However, even after 100 years of simulated sedimentation, reservoir storage capacities and hydropower production at most reservoir sites are not significantly reduced. This suggests that the strongest motivation for implementing measures to reduce trapped sediment is their impact not on hydropower production but on fish migration and survival and on sediment-dependent ecosystems such as the Vietnam Delta and Cambodia's Tonle Sap Lake.

  7. Redox controls on arsenic enrichment and release from aquifer sediments in central Yangtze River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Michael V.; Guo, Xinxin; Gan, Yiqun; Benner, Shawn G.; Griffin, Aron M.; Gorski, Christopher A.; Wang, Yanxin; Fendorf, Scott

    2017-05-01

    More than 100 million people in Asia are presently exposed to groundwater with arsenic (As) concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization standard of 10 μg L-1. Arsenic contaminated groundwater within basins of the central portion of the Yangtze River has recently been reported, but the processes controlling arsenic concentrations have yet to be resolved. We examined the hydrologic and geochemical factors controlling arsenic within the Jianghan Plain, an inland sedimentary basin of the Yangtze River, where arsenic concentrations exhibit strong seasonal variability driven by surface and groundwater mixing (Schaefer et al., 2016). Hydrologic fluctuations alter redox conditions in the aquifer, leading to oscillations between arsenic/iron reduction and oxidation. Here we investigate the depth-distribution of solid and aqueous phase iron and arsenic species and, through a series of laboratory manipulations, constrain the biogeochemical processes controlling seasonal changes in groundwater arsenic concentrations. In sediment incubations from ∼20 m below the surface, where solid-phase arsenic concentrations exceed 100 mg kg-1, both unamended and glucose-amended sediment samples result in arsenic release to the aqueous phase. In situ carbon was capable of promoting As release in the sediment. In contrast, sediment batch incubations from other depths resulted in limited As release. Solid phase arsenic in the enriched zone was relatively oxidized but may become reduced over short time periods. In sediments below the As-enriched zone, glucose amendment resulted in arsenic reduction, but arsenic release to the aqueous phase was restricted by the subsequent formation of arsenic sulfide minerals. Buried sedimentary arsenic coupled with anaerobic microbial respiration of subsurface organic carbon within the Jianghan Plain aquifer leads to rapid release of As to groundwater. Arsenic release from sediments at ∼20 m depth is sufficient to explain arsenic concentrations

  8. A Record of Tropical Vegetation Change from Terrestrial Biomarkers Preserved in Cariaco Basin Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, M.; Eglinton, T.; Hughen, K.

    2001-05-01

    A record of tropical vegetation change since the last glacial maximum was established using terrestrial biomarkers preserved in Cariaco Basin sediments. Vascular plant biomarkers derived from proximal terrestrial sources preserved in these anoxic sediments can be compared to previously established records of North Atlantic climate change from the same location. The terrestrial biomarkers used consisted of C24-C32 n-alkanoic acids, which are derived from plant leaf waxes. Average carbon chain length and δ 13C of n-alkanoic acids were used to construct the vegetation record. For C30 and C32 n-alkanoic acids, δ 13C variations of more than 3‰ between the last glacial maximum and the present interglacial period suggest changes in the character of terrestrial biota that parallel changes in climate, as inferred from North Atlantic sediment and Greenland ice core records. Terrestrial biomarker δ 13C data indicates that C3 plants predominated in this area of the tropics during warm periods, such as the B\\o{}lling-Aller\\o{}d and the Holocene, and C4 plants proliferated during cold periods, such as the last glacial maximum and the Younger Dryas. The tradeoff between C3 and C4 plants represents a switch from arid grasslands to more humid forest vegetation as the climate warmed. Average carbon chain length data also show variations synchronous with climate changes during the last deglaciation. The biomarker record agrees with pollen data previously developed from Cariaco Basin sediments, confirming that leaf wax compounds preserved in marine sediments can accurately record terrestrial vegetation changes. This study shows that terrestrial biomarkers are a useful paleoclimate proxy and could be used to compare marine and terrestrial climate changes in the same marine sediment core. With the aid of automated analytical techniques, these compounds can be analyzed much more quickly than pollen, and can therefore be used for construction of long, high-resolution records.

  9. Monitoring suspended sediments and turbidity in Sahelian basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Elodie; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Pinet, Sylvain; Nogmana, Soumaguel

    2017-04-01

    Suspended matter can carry viruses and bacteria that are pathogenic to humans and can foster their development. Therefore, turbidity can be considered a vector of microbiological contaminants, which cause diarrheal diseases, and it can be used as a proxy for fecal bacteria. Few studies have focused on water turbidity in rural Africa, where many cases of intestinal parasitic infections are due to the consumption of unsafe water from ponds, reservoirs, lakes and rivers. Diarrheal diseases are indeed the second cause of infant mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, in this region, environment survey is minimal or inexistent. Monitoring water turbidity therefore represents a challenge for health improvement. Turbidity refers to the optical properties of water and it is well suited to monitoring by remote sensing. Because it varies in space and time and because the small water bodies (< 250m2) are critical for Sahelian societies, monitoring turbidity requires the use of high temporal and spatial resolution sensors like Landsat 7 and 8, Sentinel-2 as well SPOT5-TAKE5 data. Compared to many other regions of the world, the particularly high turbidity values found in tropical Africa challenges the use of remote sensing and questions the methods developed for less turbid waters. In addition, high aerosol loadings (mineral dust and biomass burning) may be detrimental to turbidity retrieval in this region because of inaccurate atmospheric corrections. We propose a method to monitor water quality of Sahelian ponds, lakes and rivers using in-situ and remote sensing data, which is tested at different sites for which in-situ water turbidity and suspended sediments concentration (SSSC) measurements are acquired. Water sample are routinely collected at two sites within the AMMA-CATCH observatory part of the Réseau de Bassin Versants (RBV) French network: the Agoufou pond in northern Mali (starting September 2014), and the Niger River at Niamey in Niger (starting June 2015

  10. Prediction and forecast of Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) on the Upper Yangtze basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, José Pedro; Hassan, Marwan; Lu, Xixi; Franca, Mário J.

    2017-04-01

    Sediment transport in suspension may represent 90% or more of the global annual flux of sediment. For instance, more than 99% of the sediment supplied to the sea by the Yangtze River is suspended load. Suspended load is an important component for understanding channel dynamics and landscape evolution. Sediments transported in suspension are a major source of nutrients for aquatic organisms in riparian and floodplain habitats, and play a beneficial role acting as a sink in the carbon cycle. Excess of fine sediments may also have adverse effects. It can impair fish spawning by riverbed clogging, disturb foraging efficiency of hunting of river fauna, cause algae and benthos scouring, reduce or inhibit exchanges through the hyporheic region. Accumulation of fine sediments in reservoirs reduces storage capacity. Although fine sediment dynamics has been the focus of many studies, the current knowledge of sediment sources, transfer, and storage is inadequate to address fine sediment dynamics in the landscape. The theoretical derivation of a complete model for suspended sediment transport at the basin scale, incorporating small scale processes of production and transport, is hindered because the underlying mechanisms are produced at different non-similar scales. Availability of long-term reliable data on suspended sediment dynamics is essential to improve our knowledge on transport processes and to develop reliable sediment prediction models. Over the last 60 years, the Yangtze River Commission has been measuring the daily Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) at the Pingshan station. This dataset provides a unique opportunity to examine temporal variability and controls of fine sediment dynamics in the Upper Yangtze basin. The objective of this study is to describe temporal variation of fine sediment dynamics at the Pingshan station making use of the extensive sediment monitoring program undertaken at that location. We test several strategies of prediction and forecast

  11. Fate of copper complexes in hydrothermally altered deep-sea sediments from the Central Indian Ocean Basin.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Sander, Sylvia G; Jayachandran, Saranya; Nath, B Nagender; Nagaraju, G; Chennuri, Kartheek; Vudamala, Krushna; Lathika, N; Mascarenhas-Pereira, Maria Brenda L

    2014-11-01

    The current study aims to understand the speciation and fate of Cu complexes in hydrothermally altered sediments from the Central Indian Ocean Basin and assess the probable impacts of deep-sea mining on speciation of Cu complexes and assess the Cu flux from this sediment to the water column in this area. This study suggests that most of the Cu was strongly associated with different binding sites in Fe-oxide phases of the hydrothermally altered sediments with stabilities higher than that of Cu-EDTA complexes. The speciation of Cu indicates that hydrothermally influenced deep-sea sediments from Central Indian Ocean Basin may not significantly contribute to the global Cu flux. However, increasing lability of Cu-sediment complexes with increasing depth of sediment may increase bioavailability and Cu flux to the global ocean during deep-sea mining. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in sediment volume in Alder Lake, Nisqually River Basin, Washington, 1945-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Gish, Casey C.

    2012-01-01

    The Nisqually River drains the southwest slopes of Mount Rainier, a glaciated stratovolcano in the Cascade Range of western Washington. The Nisqually River was impounded behind Alder Dam when the dam was completed in 1945 and formed Alder Lake. This report quantifies the volume of sediment deposited by the Nisqually and Little Nisqually Rivers in their respective deltas in Alder Lake since 1945. Four digital elevation surfaces were generated from historical contour maps from 1945, 1956, and 1985, and a bathymetric survey from 2011. These surfaces were used to compute changes in sediment volume since 1945. Estimates of the volume of sediment deposited in Alder Lake between 1945 and 2011 were focused in three areas: (1) the Nisqually River delta, (2) the main body of Alder Lake, along a 40-meter wide corridor of the pre-dam Nisqually River, and (3) the Little Nisqually River delta. In each of these areas the net deposition over the 66-year period was 42,000,000 ± 4,000,000 cubic meters (m3), 2,000,000 ± 600,000 m3, and 310,000 ± 110,000 m3, respectively. These volumes correspond to annual rates of accumulation of 630,000 ± 60,000 m3/yr, 33,000 ± 9,000 m3/yr, and 4,700 ± 1,600 m3/yr, respectively. The annual sediment yield of the Nisqually (1,100 ± 100 cubic meters per year per square kilometer [(m3/yr)/km2]) and Little Nisqually River basins [70 ± 24 (m3/yr)/km2] provides insight into the yield of two basins with different land cover and geomorphic processes. These estimates suggest that a basin draining a glaciated stratovolcano yields approximately 15 times more sediment than a basin draining forested uplands in the Cascade Range. Given the cumulative net change in sediment volume in the Nisqually River delta in Alder Lake, the total capacity of Alder Lake since 1945 decreased about 3 percent by 1956, 8 percent by 1985, and 15 percent by 2011.

  13. Sedimentation and water quality in the West Branch Shade River basin, Ohio, 1983-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oblinger Childress, C. J.; Jones, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Loss of channel conveyance from deposition of sediment from abandoned surface mines in the West Branch Shade River basin has resulted in frequent flooding. In addition, water quality in the West Branch Shade River and some of its tributaries is typical of streams affected by acid mine drainage. About 938 acres were surfaced mined and abandoned in West Branch Shade River basin. By the end of 1984, about 450 acres were reclaimed. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of abandoned surface mines and their reclamation on suspended-sediment load, channel cross-section profile, and water quality of West Branch Shade River. Sediment data were collected from June 1983 through September 1985. Daily suspended-sediment samples were collected and continuous streamflow data were recorded at two locations in West Branch Shade River basin and one location in the unmined, East Branch Shade River basin. Water-quality samples were collected three times per year, from June 1983 through July 1986, at four locations in the West Branch Shade River basin and at one location in East Branch Shade River basin and at one location in East Branch Shade River basin. Stream-channel cross sections were surveyed at least twice per year at 10 locations. During the period of study, annual mean suspended-sediment concentration was unchanged for the unmined, East Branch Shade River basin; 0.28 ton per acre-foot of runoff in 1984 and 1985 water years. Annual suspended-sediment concentration, in tons per acre foot, in West Branch Shade River near Harrisonville, from 8.6 in 1984 water year to 0.15 in 1985 water year. In West Branch Shade River near Burlingham, where 48 percent of the abandoned mines were reclaimed by the end of 1984, annual mean suspended-sediment concentration was unchanged (0.5 ton per acre-foot of runoff) in 1984 and 1985 water years and was twice that of the unmined basin. Channel profiles, surveyed at each of the 10 cross sections, indicated scouring at two locations

  14. Understanding controls on redox processes in floodplain sediments of the Upper Colorado River Basin

    DOE PAGES

    Noël, Vincent; Boye, Kristin; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; ...

    2017-03-27

    Floodplains, heavily used for water supplies, housing, agriculture, mining, and industry, are important repositories of organic carbon, nutrients, and metal contaminants. The accumulation and release of these species is often mediated by redox processes. By understanding the physicochemical, hydrological, and biogeochemical controls on the distribution and variability of sediment redox conditions we can develop conceptual and numerical models of contaminant transport within floodplains. The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) is impacted by former uranium and vanadium ore processing, resulting in contamination by V, Cr, Mn, As, Se, Mo and U. Previous authors have suggested that sediment redox activity occurring withinmore » organic carbon-enriched bodies located below the groundwater level may be regionally important to the maintenance and release of contaminant inventories, particularly uranium. To help assess this hypothesis, vertical distributions of Fe and S redox states and sulfide mineralogy were assessed in sediment cores from three floodplain sites spanning a 250 km transect of the central UCRB. Our results support the hypothesis that organic-enriched reduced sediments are important zones of biogeochemical activity within UCRB floodplains. Furthermore, we found that the presence of organic carbon, together with pore saturation, are the key requirements for maintaining reducing conditions, which were dominated by sulfate-reduction products. Sediment texture was found to be of secondary importance and to moderate the response of the system to external forcing, such as oxidant diffusion. Consequently, fine-grain sediments are relatively resistant to oxidation in comparison to coarser-grained sediments. Exposure to oxidants consumes precipitated sulfides, with a disproportionate loss of mackinawite (FeS) as compared to the more stable pyrite. The accompanying loss of redox buffering capacity creates the potential for release of sequestered radionuclides and

  15. Understanding controls on redox processes in floodplain sediments of the Upper Colorado River Basin.

    PubMed

    Noël, Vincent; Boye, Kristin; Kukkadapu, Ravi K; Bone, Sharon; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Cardarelli, Emily; Janot, Noémie; Fendorf, Scott; Williams, Kenneth H; Bargar, John R

    2017-12-15

    Floodplains, heavily used for water supplies, housing, agriculture, mining, and industry, are important repositories of organic carbon, nutrients, and metal contaminants. The accumulation and release of these species is often mediated by redox processes. Understanding the physicochemical, hydrological, and biogeochemical controls on the distribution and variability of sediment redox conditions is therefore critical to developing conceptual and numerical models of contaminant transport within floodplains. The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) is impacted by former uranium and vanadium ore processing, resulting in contamination by V, Cr, Mn, As, Se, Mo and U. Previous authors have suggested that sediment redox activity occurring within organic carbon-enriched bodies located below the groundwater level may be regionally important to the maintenance and release of contaminant inventories, particularly uranium. To help assess this hypothesis, vertical distributions of Fe and S redox states and sulfide mineralogy were assessed in sediment cores from three floodplain sites spanning a 250km transect of the central UCRB. The results of this study support the hypothesis that organic-enriched reduced sediments are important zones of biogeochemical activity within UCRB floodplains. We found that the presence of organic carbon, together with pore saturation, are the key requirements for maintaining reducing conditions, which were dominated by sulfate-reduction products. Sediment texture was found to be of secondary importance and to moderate the response of the system to external forcing, such as oxidant diffusion. Consequently, fine-grain sediments are relatively resistant to oxidation in comparison to coarser-grained sediments. Exposure to oxidants consumes precipitated sulfides, with a disproportionate loss of mackinawite (FeS) as compared to the more stable pyrite. The accompanying loss of redox buffering capacity creates the potential for release of sequestered

  16. Fluvial sediment and chemical quality of water in the Little Blue River basin, Nebraska and Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mundorff, J.C.; Waddell, K.M.

    1966-01-01

    The Little Blue River drains about 3,37)0 square miles in south-central Nebraska and north-central Kansas. The uppermost bedrock in the basin is limestone and shale of Permian age and sandstone, shale, and limestone of Cretaceous age. Bedrock is exposed in many places in the lower one-third of the basin but elsewhere is buried beneath a thin to thick mantle of younger sediments, mostly of Quaternary age. These younger sediments are largely fluvial and eolian deposits but also include some glacial till. Consisting in large part of sand and gravel, the fluvial deposits are an important source of ground-water supplies throughout much of the upper two-thirds of the basin. Loess, an eolian deposit of clayey silt, is by far the most widespread surficial deposit. The climate is continental. Temperatures ranging from -38 ? F to 118 ? F have been recorded in the basin. Average annual precipitation as low as 10.31 and as high as 49.32 inches has been recorded. During most years in the period 1956-62, when nearly all the water-quality data were obtained, annual precipitation and annual runoff were greater than normal. Flow-duration data indicate, however, that the flow distribution for the period was near normal. The Little Blue River has the same suspended-sediment characteristics as nearly all unregulated streams in the Great Plains--a wide range in concentrations, low concentrations during low-flow periods, and high concentrations during almost all periods of significant overland runoff. The maximum instantaneous concentration normally occurs many hours before maximum water discharge during any given rise in stage; the maximum daily mean concentration during any given year normally occurs at a moderate stream stage, not during a major flood. Suspended-sediment data for Little Blue River near Deweese, Nebr., which receives drainage from the upstream third of the basin, approximately, show that during the 1!}57-61 water years concentrations of 100 ppm (parts per million) or

  17. Bottom currents and sediment waves on a shallow carbonate shelf, Northern Carnarvon Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belde, Johannes; Reuning, Lars; Back, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The modern seafloor of the Australian Northwest Shelf between Exmouth and Dampier was analyzed for large scale sedimentary bedforms on 3D seismic reflection data. The Carnarvon MegaSurvey of Petroleum Geo-Services (PGS), a merged dataset of multiple industrial 3D seismic reflection surveys with a total size of 49,717 km2, offers an extensive view of the continental shelf, slope and rise of the Northern Carnarvon Basin. Over the shelf two fields of large scale sediment waves were observed in water depths between 55-130 m, where the seafloor may be influenced by different processes including internal waves, tides and storms. Based on the dimensions and orientations of the sediment waves the dominant direction and approximate strength of local bottom currents could be estimated. Information on local sediment grain-size distribution was provided by the auSEABED database allowing a classification of the observed sediment waves into sand- or mudwaves. The first sediment wave field is positioned northwest of the Montebello Islands where the shelf is comparatively narrow and local sediment is mainly sand-sized. It most likely formed by increased bottom currents induced by the diversion of tidal flows around the islands. The second sediment wave field is located north of the Serrurier and Bessieres Islands within a local seafloor depression. Local sediments are poorly sorted, containing significant amounts of mud and gravel in addition to the mainly sand-sized grains. The coarser sediment fraction could have been reworked to sandwaves by cyclone-induced bottom currents. Alternatively, the finer sediment fraction could form mudwaves shaped by less energetic along-slope oriented currents in the topographic depression. The sediment waves consist partially of carbonate grains such as ooids and peloids that formed in shallow water during initial stages of the post glacial sea-level rise. These stranded carbonate grains thus formed in a different environment than the sediment

  18. Dissolved sulfide distributions in the water column and sediment pore waters of the Santa Barbara Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, J.S.; VanGeen, A.; McCorkle, D.C.; Bernhard, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Dissolved sulfide concentrations in the water column and in sediment pore waters were measured by square-wave voltammetry (nanomolar detection limit) during three cruises to the Santa Barbara Basin in February 1995, November-December 1995, and April 1997. In the water column, sulfide concentrations measured outside the basin averaged 3 ?? 1 nM (n = 28) in the 0 to 600 m depth range. Inside the basin, dissolved sulfides increased to reach values of up to 15 nM at depths >400 m. A suite of box cores and multicores collected at four sites along the northeastern flank of the basin showed considerable range in surficial (400 ??M at 10 cm. Decreases in water-column nitrate below the sill depth indicate nitrate consumption (-55 to -137 ??mole m-2 h-1) similar to nearby Santa Monica Basin. Peaks in pore-water iron concentrations were generally observed between 2 and 5 cm depth with shallowest peaks at the 590 m site. These observations, including observations of the benthic microfauna, suggest that the extent to which the sulfide flux, sustained by elevated pore-water concentrations, reaches the water column may be modulated by the abundance of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria in addition to iron redox and precipitation reactions.

  19. Sediment-source data for four basins tributary to Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada; August 1983-June 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, B.R.; Hill, J.R.; Nolan, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Data were collected during a 5-year study of sediment sources in four drainage basins tributary to Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada. The study areas include the Blackwood Creek, General Creek, Edgewood Creek, and Logan House Creek basins. Data include changes in bank and bed positions at channel cross sections; results of stream-channel inventories; analyses of bank and bed material samples; tabulations of bed-material pebble counts; measured rates of hillslope erosion; dimensions of gullies; suspended-sediment data collected during synoptic snowmelt sampling; and physiographic data for the four study basins. (USGS)

  20. Tectonics and sedimentation of Oligo-Miocene Vasquez Formation, Soledad basin, southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, E.D.

    1987-05-01

    The nonmarine Oligo-Miocene Vasquez Formation represents the earliest sedimentation within the Soledad basin. Basin analysis of this unit provides important clues to the tectonic regimen during the convergent/transform-margin transition in southern California during the mid-Tertiary. The Vasquez crops out in three separate subbasins or depocenters; from south to north, these are the Vasquez Rocks, Texas Canyon, and Charlie Canyon subbasins. Basaltic-andesitic volcanism and rapid subsidence punctuated the initial rifting event which generated the Vasquez Rocks half-graben and Texas Canyon graben. Small, thick alluvial fans were shed into these two subbasins, with sediment derived via erosion of local plutonic, metamorphic, and volcanic source terranes. A minimum of four discrete uplift events generated development of 250 to 600-m thick, upward-fining alluvial megacycles in both the Vasquez Rocks and Texas Canyon depocenters. In the absence of biostratigraphic control, these allocyclic megasequences provide a tangible means of lithostratigraphic correlation between these separate subbasins. A major uplift and drainage basin reorganization event subsequently modified the Vasquez depositional system, facilitating physical interconnection of the two southern subbasins. The northernmost subbasin, Charlie Canyon, is characterized by a single, thick, upward-coarsening alluvial fan sequence. There are no megacycles or clast suites to suggest interconnection with or evolutionary similarities to the other two depocenters. This sedimentologic uniqueness may support a mid-Tertiary palinspastic reconstruction which places the Charlie Canyon region 80-100 km northwest of its current location. Soledad basin rifting and Vasquez sedimentation are consistent with a tectonic model involving lithospheric extension north of the unstable Mendocino triple junction.

  1. West pannonian and Vienna basin sediments - A geoscientific cooperation call for Austria, Hungary and Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstbach, G.; Papp, G.

    2003-04-01

    A three-country cooperation of Geodesy, Geophysics and Geology is proposed, aiming to a better density model of circum-pannonian sediments up to depths of 5-8km. New ideas and questions will occur, interdisciplinary cooperation will raise the project chances, the a-priori models and the final output. The geodetic interest is to improve the geoid by 50% (already done by astro points in the Vienna basin) and to get densities for other tectonic basins or methods. We plan to measure vertical deflections by a mobile Zenith camera; a partner with modern gravimetry is welcome. Geophysical density interest is even broader: gravimetry and inter- relations with seismics, evt. geohydrology or petrology... As shown by new projects, vertical density functions can be derived with 0.03/km accuracy. Borehole or density logs can supplement the basic data. Geologists may share their experience at start, but will raise it with increasing measurements. Perhaps special data statistics, GIS methods or sediment compaction are interesting scientific goals. Apriori models usually have horizontal sediment layers, based on rock densities, drillings and geologic profiles. In Pannonia good depth maps (and files) exist but the basin slopes can be corrected for new measurements, e.g. by Software Gremmo. Other goals may be local compaction rates. At Vienna they range from 0.11 to 0.16/km. Local density variations of +0.1/-0.5g/cm^3 in the Vienna Basin are typical and were modeled in the past by vertical cylinder of defined depth and variable density gradients. This may be a good possibility for similar features in western Pannonia - or even at subsurface Volcanoees A model of 22 Astropoints (vertical vectors) e.g. could be improved from +/-0.6" to final residuals 0.25", corresponding to ˜1mgal. In contrast to many Pancardi projects the deeper crust is not analysed but the results can be used to reduce some trend effects.

  2. Evidence of annual variations in sediment supply to the Illinois Basin in Lower Pennsylvanian estuarine tidalites

    SciTech Connect

    Kvale, E.P.; Fraser, G.S. ); Zawistoski, A. ); Archer, A.W. )

    1992-01-01

    The intertidal to subtidal estuarine deposits in the early Pennsylvanian (Morrowan) Hindostan whetstone beds of Indiana consist of finely laminated siltstones with very thin intercalated claystone drapes. The laminae are grouped into millimeter-scale tidal bundles that thicken and thin in a vertical sequence that reflect a hierarchy of semidaily, daily, fortnightly, and monthly tidal cycles that are superposed on yearly cycles. The yearly pattern is recognized as a progressive thickening and thinning of neap-neap (semi-monthly) intervals. This yearly cyclicity provides a finite, short-term time element against which rates, duration, and timing of other geologic processes may be determined. Tidal theory predicts two equivalent neap-neap maxima per year, but all of the nine yearly cycles preserved in the whetstone beds contain one dominant maximum and one subordinant maximum. The Illinois Basin lay at 5[degree] south latitude during the Early Pennsylvanian, but presently, such equatorial zones are characterized by a uniform annual rainfall regime. The annual change in sedimentation patterns interpreted for the whetstone beds could be explained in several ways: (1) shifts in the intertropical convergence Zone may have resulted from substantial seasonal changes in latitudinal pressure variations brought about by the extreme concentration of land mass (Gondwanaland) in south arctic latitudes during the early Pennsylvanian; (2) shifts in westerly wind flow off the Tethys Ocean, across the Appalachian mountains and into the Illinois Basin, may also have produced seasonal rainfall patterns; or (3) the bulk of the sediment yield to the Illinois Basin came from relatively less vegetated source areas in higher latitudes and/or elevations that experienced strong seasonal variations in precipitation, and that relatively little sediment was contributed by the heavily vegetated parts of the drainage basin in the lower latitudes.

  3. Seismic Velocity and Thickness of Sediments Beneath the Aleutian Basin, Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheirer, D. S.; Barth, G. A.; Sliter, R. W.; Hart, P. E.; Childs, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The thickness and seismic velocity structure of sediments of the Aleutian Basin were mapped during a 2011 multichannel seismic (MCS) cruise of the R/V Langseth. Combined with legacy MCS, sonobuoy, and scientific drilling data, the Langseth observations allowed us to study the history of sedimentation in this area. Semblance velocity analyses from common-depth-point gathers of the 8-km-long streamer data were conducted at-sea every 6.25 km. Post-cruise, these semblance analyses were refined and supplemented with new analyses where significant basement topography is present. The flat-lying nature of both the seafloor and the within-sediment reflectors allowed determination of interval velocity and thickness values with high precision using the Dix equation. Two prominent bottom-simulating reflections (BSRs) are common within the sediment column: a shallower one inferred to represent the base of gas hydrate stability, and a deeper one inferred to represent the diagenetic transformation from opal-A to opal-CT. This latter transition was reached by the one deep hole (Site 190, DSDP Leg19) drilled into the Aleutian Basin, where the lithologic contrast prevented further penetration. The gas hydrate BSR is associated with subvertical velocity-amplitude anomalies, and the opal A/CT transition is associated with a large decrease in reflector amplitudes beneath it, indicating the decrease in acoustic impedance contrasts associated with diagenetic dewatering. Seismic interval velocities range from 1600 m/sec at the top of the sediment column to 2800-3500 m/sec at its base. The largest step in interval velocity occurs at the opal A/CT transition. Interval velocities are laterally continuous over many tens of kilometers, and this continuity allows the generation of seismic travel-time vs. sediment thickness relationships across the basin. A second-degree polynomial relationship between time and thickness, developed by regression of all of the semblance velocity analyses from the

  4. INAA for determination of trace elements in bottom sediments of the Selenga river basin in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baljinnyam, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Aleksiayenak, Yu. V.

    2014-03-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used for the determination of major, minor and trace elements in samples of bottom sediments of the inflows of the Selenga river basin to assess the impact of the contamination from the industrial complex Erdenet and other industrial enterprises in Mongolia. A total of 42 elements (Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th, and U) was determined by combination of conventional and epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor, FLNP JINR, Dubna. For the first time such a large set of elements was used for characterization of the bottom sediments as accumulating media which may reflect industrial contamination of the water basin. The concentrations of heavy metals and other trace elements in the samples from three inflows of the Selenga river basin were compared with data from the previous studies. It was shown that the industrial zone of the Erdenet Mining Corporation (EMC) and gold mining zone Zaamar are the sources of strong environmental contamination. The concentrations of Cu and Sb determined in sediment samples of the River Khangal and Govil near the EMC exceed average crustal rock and soil values by factors of 50 and 15, respectively. In the area of the gold mining zone Zaamar concentrations of Au, As, and Sb exceed crustal rock and soil values by factors of 4, 25, and 6, respectively. The relatively high levels of As, V, Zn, V, and Sr in the sediments of the studied rivers are obviously due to the discharges of untreated wastewater of desalination plant, electrical power station, textile industry and mining activities as well as domestic wastewater.

  5. Hydrologic and sediment data collected from selected basins at the Fort Leonard Wood Military Reservation, Missouri--2010-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Joseph M.; Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.; Barr, Miya N.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial and residential development within a basin often increases the amount of impervious area, which changes the natural hydrologic response to storm events by increasing runoff. Land development and disturbance combined with increased runoff from impervious areas potentially can increase sediment transport. At the Fort Leonard Wood Military Reservation in Missouri, there has been an increase in population and construction activities in the recent past, which has initiated an assessment of the hydrology in selected basins. From April 2010 to December 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Maneuver Support Center at the Fort Leonard Wood Military Reservation, collected hydrologic and suspended-sediment concentration data in six basins at Fort Leonard Wood. Storm-sediment concentration, load, and yield varied from basin to basin and from storm to storm. In general, storm-sediment yield, in pounds per square mile per minute, was greatest from Ballard Hollow tributary (06928410) and Dry Creek (06930250), and monthly storm-sediment yield, in tons per square mile, estimates were largest in Ballard Hollow tributary (06928410), East Gate Hollow tributary (06930058), and Dry Creek (06930250). Sediment samples, collected at nine sites, primarily were collected using automatic samplers and augmented with equal-width-increment cross-sectional samples and manually collected samples when necessary. Storm-sediment load and yield were computed from discharge and suspended-sediment concentration data. Monthly storm-sediment yields also were estimated from the total storm discharge and the mean suspended-sediment concentration at each given site.

  6. Viruses, prokaryotes and DNA in the sediments of a deep-hypersaline anoxic basin (DHAB) of the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Danovaro, R; Corinaldesi, C; Dell'Anno, A; Fabiano, M; Corselli, C

    2005-04-01

    Viral and prokaryote abundance were investigated in a deep-hypersaline anoxic basin of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (DHAB Atalante basin at c. 3000 m depth). This system was compared with two nearby deep-sea sites characterized by oxic conditions. Viral abundance and virus to prokaryote abundance ratio in hypersaline anoxic sediments displayed values close to those reported in oxic sites. The analysis of vertical profiles of viral abundance in the Atalante basin revealed the lack of significant changes with depth in the sediment, suggesting that benthic viruses in these anoxic and hypersaline conditions are preserved or resistant to decay. The anoxic basin displayed also very high concentrations of labile organic components (proteins and lipids) and extracellular DNA. These findings suggest that the DHAB sediments represent a reservoir for long-term preservation of benthic viruses and nucleic acids.

  7. Microbial Communities from Methane Hydrate-Bearing Deep Marine Sediments in a Forearc Basin

    PubMed Central

    Reed, David W.; Fujita, Yoshiko; Delwiche, Mark E.; Blackwelder, D. Brad; Sheridan, Peter P.; Uchida, Takashi; Colwell, Frederick S.

    2002-01-01

    Microbial communities in cores obtained from methane hydrate-bearing deep marine sediments (down to more than 300 m below the seafloor) in the forearc basin of the Nankai Trough near Japan were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Acridine orange direct count data indicated that cell numbers generally decreased with sediment depth. Lipid biomarker analyses indicated the presence of viable biomass at concentrations greater than previously reported for terrestrial subsurface environments at similar depths. Archaeal lipids were more abundant than bacterial lipids. Methane was produced from both acetate and hydrogen in enrichments inoculated with sediment from all depths evaluated, at both 10 and 35°C. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the sediments indicated that archaeal clones could be discretely grouped within the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota domains. The bacterial clones exhibited greater overall diversity than the archaeal clones, with sequences related to the Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and green nonsulfur groups. The majority of the bacterial clones were either members of a novel lineage or most closely related to uncultured clones. The results of these analyses suggest that the microbial community in this environment is distinct from those in previously characterized methane hydrate-bearing sediments. PMID:12147470

  8. Assessing sediment yield for selected watersheds in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin under future agricultural scenarios.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yang; Lunetta, Ross S; Macpherson, Alexander J; Luo, Junyan; Chen, Guo

    2013-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (GLB), corn acreage has been expanding since 2005 in response to high demand for corn as an ethanol feedstock. This study integrated remote sensing-derived products and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) within a geographic information system (GIS) modeling environment to assess the impacts of cropland change on sediment yield within four selected watersheds in the GLB. The SWAT models were calibrated during a 6 year period (2000-2005), and predicted stream flows were validated. The R(2) values were 0.76, 0.80, 0.72, and 0.81 for the St. Joseph River, the St. Mary River, the Peshtigo River, and the Cattaraugus Creek watersheds, respectively. The corresponding E (Nash and Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient) values ranged from 0.24 to 0.79. The average annual sediment yields (tons/ha/year) ranged from 0.12 to 4.44 for the baseline (2000 to 2008) condition. Sediment yields were predicted to increase for possible future cropland change scenarios. The first scenario was to convert all "other" agricultural row crop types (i.e., sorghum) to corn fields and switch the current/baseline crop rotation into continuous corn. The average annual sediment yields increased 7-42 % for different watersheds. The second scenario was to further expand the corn planting to hay/pasture fields. The average annual sediment yields increased 33-127 % compared with baseline conditions.

  9. Assessing Sediment Yield for Selected Watersheds in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin Under Future Agricultural Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yang; Lunetta, Ross S.; Macpherson, Alexander J.; Luo, Junyan; Chen, Guo

    2013-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (GLB), corn acreage has been expanding since 2005 in response to high demand for corn as an ethanol feedstock. This study integrated remote sensing-derived products and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) within a geographic information system (GIS) modeling environment to assess the impacts of cropland change on sediment yield within four selected watersheds in the GLB. The SWAT models were calibrated during a 6 year period (2000-2005), and predicted stream flows were validated. The R 2 values were 0.76, 0.80, 0.72, and 0.81 for the St. Joseph River, the St. Mary River, the Peshtigo River, and the Cattaraugus Creek watersheds, respectively. The corresponding E (Nash and Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient) values ranged from 0.24 to 0.79. The average annual sediment yields (tons/ha/year) ranged from 0.12 to 4.44 for the baseline (2000 to 2008) condition. Sediment yields were predicted to increase for possible future cropland change scenarios. The first scenario was to convert all "other" agricultural row crop types (i.e., sorghum) to corn fields and switch the current/baseline crop rotation into continuous corn. The average annual sediment yields increased 7-42 % for different watersheds. The second scenario was to further expand the corn planting to hay/pasture fields. The average annual sediment yields increased 33-127 % compared with baseline conditions.

  10. Metal bioleaching from anaerobic sediments from Reconquista River basin (Argentina) as a potential remediation strategy.

    PubMed

    Porzionato, Natalia; Tufo, Ana; Candal, Roberto; Curutchet, Gustavo

    2016-04-27

    Anaerobic sediments of urban watercourses are subjected to industrial pollution and frequently tend to accumulate heavy metals. The biocatalyzed oxidation and reduction of sulphur compounds that occur within the sediment are key reactions that determine mobility of metals such as that occurred in mine acidic drainage reactions. The aim of this work was to study the application of these processes using heap leaching technology for the remediation of anaerobic contaminated sediments from Reconquista River basin. The bioleaching potentiality for remediation was demonstrated through batch tests in shake flasks with different pulp densities of anaerobic sediment containing 338 mg kg(-1) of Zn and 117 mg kg(-1) of Cu. Subsequently, bioleaching heap systems were compiled into columns of 12-cm height and 6-cm diameter, fitted with perlite to improve drainage. In order to assess the effect of elementary sulphur over the mobility of metals from the bioheap to the aqueous solution, increasing concentrations of elementary sulphur (1, 2, 5 % w/w) were added. After 3 months of acidification generated by periodic watering, the extraction of 70 % of the initial Zn and 43 % of the initial Cu was achieved. Polluted sediments from waterways as Reconquista River should not be indiscriminately manipulated if acid drainage is possible. Remediation by a simple and economically viable strategy like heap leaching is feasible.

  11. Microbial communities from methane hydrate-bearing deep marine sediments in a forearc basin.

    PubMed

    Reed, David W; Fujita, Yoshiko; Delwiche, Mark E; Blackwelder, D Brad; Sheridan, Peter P; Uchida, Takashi; Colwell, Frederick S

    2002-08-01

    Microbial communities in cores obtained from methane hydrate-bearing deep marine sediments (down to more than 300 m below the seafloor) in the forearc basin of the Nankai Trough near Japan were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Acridine orange direct count data indicated that cell numbers generally decreased with sediment depth. Lipid biomarker analyses indicated the presence of viable biomass at concentrations greater than previously reported for terrestrial subsurface environments at similar depths. Archaeal lipids were more abundant than bacterial lipids. Methane was produced from both acetate and hydrogen in enrichments inoculated with sediment from all depths evaluated, at both 10 and 35 degrees C. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the sediments indicated that archaeal clones could be discretely grouped within the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota domains. The bacterial clones exhibited greater overall diversity than the archaeal clones, with sequences related to the Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and green nonsulfur groups. The majority of the bacterial clones were either members of a novel lineage or most closely related to uncultured clones. The results of these analyses suggest that the microbial community in this environment is distinct from those in previously characterized methane hydrate-bearing sediments.

  12. Magnetic properties of sediments from the Pangani River Basin, Tanzania: Influence of lithology and particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mzuza, Maureen Kapute; Zhang, Weiguo; Kapute, Fanuel; Selemani, Juma R.

    2017-08-01

    Use of magnetic properties in tracing sediment source in river systems is valuable for proper management of soil erosion and dam siltation. This study investigated magnetic properties variation from the upstream down to the coast of the Pangani River Basin in Tanzania, East Africa. The influence of lithology and sedimentary sorting on magnetic properties from source to sink pathway has been discussed. Results show that lithology can explain the differences in magnetic properties among the tributaries in the upstream and in the lower reach of the main stream. Ferrimagnetic minerals mainly consist of magnetite and titanomagnetite, with the latter more abundant in the upstream tributary Kikuletwa River. Upstream sediments have higher ferrimagnetic mineral concentrations but coarser grain size than the mainstream sediments, especially the dam sediments. A decline in ferrimagnetic mineral concentration with fining grain size is also observed along the mainstream. Such a trend can be explained by hydrodynamic sorting effect, which is well documented elsewhere. This study demonstrates that lithology and sorting have strong effect on magnetic properties, which should be properly addressed when using magnetic method in assessing fluvial sediment source.

  13. The linkage between longitudinal sediment routing systems and basin types in the northern South China Sea in perspective of source-to-sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming; Hsiung, Kan-Hsi; Zhang, Cuimei; Xie, Xinong; Yu, Ho-Shing; Wang, Zhenfeng

    2015-11-01

    Using bathymetric and seismic data, this study describes the morpho-sedimentary features in Qiongdongnan basin and southwest Taiwan collision basin, northern South China Sea and reveals the linkages between sediment routing system and basin types. The modern Central Canyon in the Qiongdongnan basin is located along the rift margin, and subparallel to the shelf-break southeast of Hainan Island. The modern Central Canyon develops along the basin axis (i.e., Xisha Trough) and longitudinally transports sediments eastward which are mainly supplied by northern continental slope. The Penghu Canyon in the southwest Taiwan collision basin is located along the collision boundary parallel to the strike of the adjacent uplifted Taiwan orogen. The Penghu Canyon develops along the tilting basin axis transporting sediments longitudinally southward to the deep-sea basin and Manila Trench. The Penghu Canyon is supplied with sediments from both flank Kaoping and South China Sea slopes where tributary canyons and channels transport sediments down-slope and feed the axial canyon. The certain basin types may be occupied by particular styles of sediment routing system. By comparing the morpho-sedimentary features and basin characteristics associated with the modern Central Canyon to that of the Valencia Channel in NW Mediterranean Sea, the longitudinal sediment routing system in rift basin type can be determined. In contrast, the longitudinal sediment routing systems in collision setting can be represented by the comparable examples of Penghu Canyon in southwest Taiwan collision basin and Markham Canyon in western Solomon Sea. The rift type sediment routing system is characterized by an axial canyon with a single sediment supply from land drainage margin. In contrast, sediment routing system in collision type basins consists of an axial canyon and dual sediment supplies from flank adjacent slopes. The axial canyons in collision basins are more active than that of the rift basin due to

  14. Spatial distribution and potential toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from Liaohe River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Meng, Wei; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Changsheng

    2016-03-01

    The distribution and potential toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments of Liaohe River Basin were investigated in this study. Total concentrations of 16 PAHs (∑PAH16) ranged from 82.5 to 25374.4 μg/kg averaging 3149.2 μg/kg. Three predominant PAHs were fluoranthene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. In Liao River, two-to-three-ring PAHs were dominant taking up 67.2-92.5% of ∑PAH16, whereas sediments in Daliao River system mainly contained four-to-six-ring PAHs ranging from 47.8 to 83.7%. Both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources contributed to the PAH pollution based on diagnostic ratios. The empirical and mechanistic sediment quality guidelines were used to estimate the toxicity risk of PAHs to benthic organisms. The ∑PAH16 in all sediments were significantly lower than probable effect concentrations (PEC), while ∑PAH16 at nine sites of the Daliao River system were between threshold effect concentrations (TEC) and PEC, suggesting that adverse effects were possible at the nine sites. The only individual PAH was acenaphthene whose concentrations were above PEC at some sites, indicating its potential toxicity. Based upon equilibrium partitioning theory and narcosis model, the obtained toxic units for PAH mixtures at all sites were far less than one, implying that the levels of PAH mixtures were acceptable for the protection of benthic fauna. The two evaluation methods lead to the consistent results that benthic organisms inhabiting in the sediments of Liaohe River Basin have no or low risk of adverse effects resulting from exposure to PAHs.

  15. Geomechanical modeling of salt-sediment interaction in evolving sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemings, P. B.; Luo, G.; Nikolinakou, M. A.; Hudec, M.

    2011-12-01

    We use coupled geomechanical modeling to describe how stress and pore pressure evolve in sedimentary basins where salt is present. We treat salt as a visco-elastic material and sediment as a poro-elastic, poro-elastoplastic or Coloumb plastic material. At geological timescales (100 k.y. and longer) salt flow releases differential stresses, whereas sediment maintains significant differential stresses. Significant perturbations in stress and pore pressure occur near salt bodies to accommodate these material behaviors. In low permeability systems, where salt is encased by sediment, the least principal stress and pore pressure are reduced at the crest and base of salt whereas they are elevated at the flanks of salt. Salt loading induces pore pressures that extend kilometers away from the salt. These results are similar to drilling results that record reduced pore pressure and reduced least principal stress beneath salt. We also consider the case where a salt sheet advances across sediment. When salt advances over low permeability sediment, pore pressures rise and effective stresses are low beneath the salt, and the salt sheet advances rapidly. In contrast, when salt advances over a high permeability substrate, fluids drain, pore pressures are low and effective stresses are high beneath salt, and the salt sheet advances slowly. The magnitude of the overpressure beneath the salt can be estimated from its geometry. Our approach extends beyond large-scale uncoupled basin models that have assumed only uniaxial (vertical) strain. This coupled approach provides insight as to the interpretation of large scale geological structures and has the potential to predict in situ stresses and pore pressures.

  16. Contaminant residues in fish and sediments from lakes in the Atchafalaya River Basin (Louisiana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Andreasen, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Conversion of bottomland hardwood forests agricultural land has reduced habitat and water quality in many lakes in the floodplain of the lower Mississippi River. The objectives of this study were to ascertain current contaminant residue concentrations in fish and sediment from lakes in the Atchafalaya River Basin and to determine the influence of overflow and agricultural land use on contaminant levels. Fish and sediment samples were collected from eight lakes that differed in overflow (no overflow, headwater overflow, backwater overflow) and land-use characteristics (presence or absence of agricultural land). Residue analysis of 24 sediment and 82 fish samples collected from the study lakes showed that contaminant residues were uniformly low. Total DDT concentrations, consisting mainly of DDE, were found in 98% of the fish samples and generally were the highest residues though they rarely exceeded 0.50 ug/g. Dieldrin, -BHC and -BHC, in concentrations rarely exceeding 0.05 ug/g, were detected in about 50% of the fish samples. Total organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues were less than 2.00 ug/g in all fish from all lakes, except for a 3.46 ug/g total in spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) from one lake. Sediments were free from pesticide residues except for occasional traces (0.01 ug/g) of -BHC. Metal residue concentrations in fish and sediment samples were typical of uncontaminated areas. Lake systems in the Atchafalaya River Basin appeared to be relatively uncontaminated by agricultural pesticides, but metal and organic residues in fish were similar from lakes with the same land-use and overflow characteristics.

  17. Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures Interpreted as Seismites in the Kolankaya Formation, Denizli Basin (SW Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Savaş; Özkul, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The NW-trending Denizli basin of the SW Turkey is one of the neotectonic grabens in the Aegean extensional province. It is bounded by normal faults on both southern and northern margins. The basin is filled by Neogene and Quaternary terrestrial deposits. Late Miocene- Late Pliocene aged Kolankaya formation crops out along the NW trending Karakova uplift in the Denizli basin. It is a typical fluviolacustrine succession that thickens and coarsens upward, comprising poorly consolidated sand, gravelly sand, siltstone and marl. Various soft-sediment deformation structures occur in the formation, especially in fine- to medium grained sands, silts and marls: load structures, flame structures, clastic dikes (sand and gravely-sand dike), disturbed layers, laminated convolute beds, slumps and synsedimentary faulting. The deformation mechanism and driving force for the soft-sediment deformation are related essentially to gravitational instability, dewatering, liquefaction-liquidization, and brittle deformation. Field data and the wide lateral extent of the structures as well as regional geological data show that most of the deformation is related to seismicity and the structures are interpreted as seismites. The existence of seismites in the Kolankaya Formation is evidence for continuing tectonic activity in the study area during the Neogene and is consistent with the occurrence of the paleoearthquakes of magnitude >5. PMID:25152909

  18. U-Pb ages of detrital zircons in Lower Cretaceous non-marine successions of the Gyeongsang Basin, Northeast Asia: Implications for sediment provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changyoon; Ryu, In-Chang; Shinn, Young Jae

    2017-05-01

    The Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin is the largest non-marine Mesozoic sedimentary basin of the Korean Peninsula. The Lower Cretaceous successions of the Gyeongsang Basin are coevally correlated to those of the Cretaceous Gunsan Basin in the Yellow Sea which is located far to the west of the Gyeongsang Basin. This study presents U-Pb ages of detrital zircons to evaluate the sediment provenances of the Gyeongsang Basin. The detrital zircon ages clearly show the different distributions between the northern (Uiseong area) and southern (Jinju area) areas of the Gyeongsang Basin. The detrital zircons of the northern area have an age cluster in the Jurassic or Triassic, whereas the detrital zircons of the southern area show a wide range of ages from early Cretaceous to Neoarchean. In the Gunsan Basin, detrital zircons from a core also yield ages ranging from early Cretaceous to Neoarchean. The age distribution from the Gunsan Basin is similar to those of the southern Gyeongsang Basin, except for the absence of Jurassic detrital zircons. The petrographic modal analysis of sandstones in the Gyeongsang Basin suggests a mixed provenance. This study indicates that possible sediment provenances of the Gyeongsang Basin were shared with those of the Gunsan Basin. We suggest that the sediment provenance of the northern Gyeongsang Basin was adjacent basement highs, whereas sediments to the southern Gyeongsang Basin were probably derived from relatively distant source areas that possibly were located in the vicinity of the Gunsan Basin during the early Cretaceous (ca. 113 Ma).

  19. Water and sediment transport modeling of a large temporary river basin in Greece.

    PubMed

    Gamvroudis, C; Nikolaidis, N P; Tzoraki, O; Papadoulakis, V; Karalemas, N

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this research was to study the spatial distribution of runoff and sediment transport in a large Mediterranean watershed (Evrotas River Basin) consisting of temporary flow tributaries and high mountain areas and springs by focusing on the collection and use of a variety of data to constrain the model parameters and characterize hydrologic and geophysical processes at various scales. Both monthly and daily discharge data (2004-2011) and monthly sediment concentration data (2010-2011) from an extended monitoring network of 8 sites were used to calibrate and validate the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. In addition flow desiccation maps showing wet and dry aquatic states obtained during a dry year were used to calibrate the simulation of low flows. Annual measurements of sediment accumulation in two reaches were used to further calibrate the sediment simulation. Model simulation of hydrology and sediment transport was in good agreement with field observations as indicated by a variety of statistical measures used to evaluate the goodness of fit. A water balance was constructed using a 12 year long (2000-2011) simulation. The average precipitation of the basin for this period was estimated to be 903 mm yr(-1). The actual evapotranspiration was 46.9% (424 mm yr(-1)), and the total water yield was 13.4% (121 mm yr(-1)). The remaining 33.4% (302 mm yr(-1)) was the amount of water that was lost through the deep groundwater of Taygetos and Parnonas Mountains to areas outside the watershed and for drinking water demands (6.3%). The results suggest that the catchment has on average significant water surplus to cover drinking water and irrigation demands. However, the situation is different during the dry years, where the majority of the reaches (85% of the river network are perennial and temporary) completely dry up as a result of the limited rainfall and the substantial water abstraction for irrigation purposes. There is a large variability in the

  20. The relationship between diagenesis and physical properties of sediments in the Shikoku Basin; Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gwang Soo; Kim, Gil Young; Kyo Seo, Young; Henry, Pierre; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Kyaw Thu, Moe; 333 Scientists, Expedition

    2013-04-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site C0011 is located on the northwest flank of the Kashinosaki Knoll which is the crest of bathymetric high in the Shikoku Basin. In this site, the physical properties of sediment were measured to provide high-resolution data on the bulk physical properties and their downhole variations. All physical property (moisture and density, gamma ray attenuation density, magnetic susceptibility, P-wave velocity, thermal conductivity, vane shear, and electrical resistivity) measurements were made after cores had been imaged by X-ray CT and had equilibrated to room temperature (about 20 °C). From the surface to 50 mbsf, bulk density generally increases and porosity decreases along the downhole. The trend reverses between 50 and 80 mbsf and then remains relatively constant until 240 mbsf. A sharp increase in bulk density (decrease in porosity) occurs between 240 and 270 mbsf, after which a steady consolidation trend continues to the base of the borehole. The dramatic change of physical properties in this section was estimated to be caused by sediment diagenesis which is cementation by the opal-A and opal-CT transformation, because the sediment texture observing from core description and CT scan is unconverted in this section. In the result of sediment texture analysis for total 128 subsamples of Holes C0011C and C0011D, the sediment texture does not show the features related to the change of the physical property between 240 and 270 mbsf, except relatively high mean grain size and sand contents at 235 mbsf. In the quantitative analysis of opal contents for 11 subsamples of Holes C0011C and C0011D, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and computer software based on Rietveld quantification method, the contents of clay mineral and opal-A are high and also unconverted in all samples, whereas the contents of opal-CT are few. The result of quantitative analysis of opal contents using XRD does not support the sediment diagenesis caused by the opal

  1. Modern sediment yield compared to geologic rates of sediment production in a semi-arid basin, New Mexico: Assessing the human impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, A.C.; Pavich, M.J.; Bierman, P.R.; Clapp, E.M.; Ellevein, A.; Aby, S.

    2004-01-01

    In the semi-arid Arroyo Chavez basin of New Mexico, a 2.28 km2 sub-basin of the Rio Puerco, we contrasted short-term rates (3 years) of sediment yield measured with sediment traps and dams with long-term, geologic rates (???10 000 years) of sediment production measured using 10Be. Examination of erosion rates at different time-scales provides the opportunity to contrast the human impact on erosion with background or geologic rates of sediment production. Arroyo Chavez is grazed and we were interested in whether differences in erosion rates observed at the two time-scales are due to grazing. The geologic rate of sediment production, 0-27 kg m-2 a -1 is similar to the modern sediment yields measured for geomorphic surfaces including colluvial slopes, gently sloping hillslopes, and the mesa top which ranged from 0.12 to 1.03 kg m -2 a-1. The differences between modern sediment yield and geologic rates of sediment production were most noticeable for the alluvial valley floor, which had modern sediment yields as high as 3.35 kg m-2 a-1. The hydraulic state of the arroyo determines whether the alluvial valley floor is aggrading or degrading. Arroyo Chavez is incised and the alluvial valley floor is gullied and piped and is a source of sediment. The alluvial valley floor is also the portion of the basin most modified by human disturbance including grazing and gas pipeline activity, both of which serve to increase erosion rates. ?? 2004 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  2. Selected organic compounds and trace elements in streambed sediments and fish tissues, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    Organochlorines, semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and trace elements were investigated in streambed sediments and fish tissues at selected sites in the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, during 1998. At most sites, SVOCs and organochlorine compounds were either not detected or detected at very low concentrations. Chester Creek at Arctic Boulevard at Anchorage, which was the only site sampled with a significant degree of development in the watershed, had elevated levels of many SVOCs in streambed sediment. Coring of sediments from two ponds on Chester Creek confirmed the presence of elevated concentrations of a variety of organic compounds. Moose Creek, a stream with extensive coal deposits in its watershed, had low concentrations of numerous SVOCs in streambed sediment. Three sites located in national parks or in a national wildlife refuge had no detectable concentrations of SVOCs. Trace elements were analyzed in both streambed sediments and tissues of slimy sculpin. The two media provided similar evidence for elevated concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc at Chester Creek. In this study, 'probable effect levels '(PELs) were determined from sediments finer than 0.063 millimeters, where concentrations tend to be greatest. Arsenic and chromium concentrations exceeded the PEL at eight and six sites respectively. Zinc exceeded the PEL at one site. Cadmium and copper concentrations were smaller than the PEL at all sites. Mercury concentrations in streambed sediments from the Deshka River were near the PEL, and selenium concentrations at that site also appear to be elevated above background levels. At half the sites where slimy sculpin were sampled, selenium concentrations were at levels that may cause adverse effects in some species.

  3. Denitrification and environmental factors influencing nitrate removal in Guaymas Basin hydrothermally altered sediments

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Marshall W.; Nigro, Lisa M.; Teske, Andreas P.; Joye, Samantha B.

    2012-01-01

    We measured potential nitrate removal and denitrification rates in hydrothermally altered sediments inhabited by Beggiatoa mats and adjacent brown oil stained sediments from the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Sediments with Beggiatoa maintained slightly higher rates of potential denitrification than did brown sediments at 31.2 ± 12.1 versus 21.9 ± 1.4 µM N day−1, respectively. In contrast, the nitrate removal rates in brown sediments were higher than those observed in mat-hosting sediments at 418 ± 145 versus 174 ± 74 µM N day−1, respectively. Additional experiments were conducted to assess the responses of denitrifying communities to environmental factors [i.e., nitrate, sulfide, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration)]. The denitrifying community had a high affinity for nitrate (Km = 137 ± 91 µM NO3−), in comparison to other environmental communities of denitrifiers, and was capable of high maximum rates of denitrification (Vmax = 1164 ± 153 µM N day−1). The presence of sulfide resulted in significantly lower denitrification rates. Microorganisms with the potential to perform denitrification were assessed in these sediments using the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) functional gene libraries. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library was dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria (38%), some of which (e.g., Sulfurimonas sp.) have a potential for sulfide-dependent denitrification. The nosZ clone library did not contain clones similar to pure culture denitrifiers; these clones were most closely associated with environmental clones. PMID:23112796

  4. Perennial-streamflow characteristics related to channel geometry and sediment in Missouri River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Hedman, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Geometry, channel-sediment, and discharge data were collected and compiled from 252 streamflow-gaging stations in the Missouri River basin. The sites represent the complete ranges of hydrologic and geologic conditions found in the basin. The data were analyzed by computer to yield equations relating various discharge characteristics to variables of channel geometry and bed and bank material. The equations provide discharge as the dependent variable for the purpose of making estimates of discharge characteristics at ungaged sites. Results show that channel width is best related to variables of discharge, but that reduction of standard errors can be achieved by considering channel-sediment properties, channel gradient, and discharge variability. The channel-material variables do not exert uniform effects on width-discharge relations and, therefore, are considered as sediment-data groups, or stream types, rather than as terms in multiple power-function equations. Relative to streamflow, narrowest channels occur when streams of steady discharge transport sufficient silt and clay to form stable, cohesive banks but have a small tractive load of sand and coarser sizes. Stable channels also are associated with high channel gradients, which cause high channel roughness and bed and bank armouring by coarse particle sizes. The widest, most unstable channels are found with streams that apparently transport of large tractive load of sand sizes. The downstream rates of change of width with discharge reflect these trends, suggesting that a given bed-material load necessitates a minimum width over which the tractive material can be moved. (USGS)

  5. Arsenic release by indigenous bacteria Bacillus cereus from aquifer sediments at Datong Basin, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zuoming; Wang, Yanxin; Duan, Mengyu; Xie, Xianjun; Su, Chunli

    2011-03-01

    Endemic arsenic poisoning due to long-term drinking of high arsenic groundwater has been reported in Datong Basin, northern China. To investigate the effects of microbial activities on arsenic mobilization in contaminated aquifers, Bacillus cereus ( B. cereus) isolated from high arsenic aquifer sediments of the basin was used in our microcosm experiments. The arsenic concentration in the treatment with both bacteria and sodium citrate or glucose had a rapid increase in the first 18 d, and then, it declined. Supplemented with bacteria only, the concentration could increase on the second day. By contrast, the arsenic concentration in the treatment supplemented with sodium citrate or glucose was kept very low. These results indicate that bacterial activities promoted the release of arsenic in the sediments. Bacterial activities also influenced other geochemical parameters of the aqueous phase, such as pH, Eh, and the concentrations of dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al that are important controls on arsenic release. The removal of Fe, Mn, and Al from sediment samples was observed with the presence of B. cereus. The effects of microbial activities on Fe, Mn, and Al release were nearly the same as those on As mobilization. The pH values of the treatments inoculated with bacteria were lower than those without bacteria, still at alkaline levels. With the decrease of Eh values in treatments inoculated with bacteria, the microcosms became more reducing and are thus favorable for arsenic release.

  6. Dams in the Mekong River Basin: Options for Improved Sediment and Fish Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, T. B.; Loucks, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Mekong River and its tributaries comprise one of the most productive fish habitats in the world today. The economic value of the Mekong fishery in Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam is among the highest in the world, providing income and food security to tens of millions of people. However, the construction of multiple dams in the basin will reduce sediment discharge, which will adversely impact nutrient transport and habitat quality and availability, and disrupt fish migration routes. Thus, of considerable interest is the identification of alternatives to the location, design and operation of planned hydropower dams that could improve sediment passage, enable migratory fish passage, and sustain fish production for local use. This paper describes the results of simulation studies designed to identify and evaluate such alternatives, as well as their potential impact on hydropower production. Dam sites in Cambodia and Lao PDR on tributaries and on the mainstream Mekong River will be discussed. Evaluations of sediment management techniques such as flushing, sluicing and bypassing will be discussed. This study is intended to inform decision makers in Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam about potential alternatives to current plans as they prepare decisions regarding the development of over 100 hydropower dams throughout the basin.

  7. Suspended sediment load below open-cast mines for ungauged river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuksina, L.

    2011-12-01

    Placer mines are located in river valleys along river benches or river ancient channels. Frequently the existing mining sites are characterized by low contribution of the environmental technologies. Therefore open-pit mining alters stream hydrology and sediment processes and enhances sediment transport. The most serious environmental consequences of the sediment yield increase occur in the rivers populated by salmon fish community because salmon species prefer clean water with low turbidity. For instance, placer mining located in Kamchatka peninsula (Far East of Russia) which is regarded to be the last global gene pool of wild salmon Oncorhynchus threatens rivers ecosystems significantly. Impact assessment is limited by the hydrological observations scarcity. Gauging network is rare and in many cases whole basins up to 200 km length miss any hydrological data. The main purpose of the work is elaboration of methods for sediment yield estimation in rivers under mining impact and implementation of corresponding calculations. Subjects of the study are rivers of the Vivenka river basin where open-cast platinum mine is situated. It's one of the largest platinum mines in Russian Federation and in the world. This mine is the most well-studied in Kamchatka (research covers a period from 2003 to 2011). Empirical - analytical model of suspended sediment yield estimation was elaborated for rivers draining mine's territories. Sediment delivery at the open-cast mine happens due to the following sediment processes: - erosion in the channel diversions; - soil erosion on the exposed hillsides; - effluent from settling ponds; - mine waste water inflow; - accident mine waste water escape into rivers. Sediment washout caused by erosion was estimated by repeated measurements of the channel profiles in 2003, 2006 and 2008. Estimation of horizontal deformation rates was carried out on the basis of erosion dependence on water discharge rates, slopes and composition of sediments. Soil

  8. Discharge and sediment loads in the Boise River drainage basin, Idaho 1939-40

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, S.K.; Benedict, Paul Charles

    1948-01-01

    The Boise River project is a highly developed agricultural area comprising some 520 square miles of valley and bench lands in southwestern Idaho. Water for irrigation is obtained from the Boise River and its tributaries which are regulated by storage in Arrow Rock and Deer Flat reservoirs. Distribution of water to the farms is effected by 27 principal canals and several small farm laterals which divert directly from the river. The- New York Canal, which is the largest, not only supplies water to smaller canals and farm laterals, but also is used to fill Deer Flat Reservoir near Nampa from which water is furnished to farms in the lower valley. During the past 15 years maintenance costs in a number of those canals have increased due to deposition of sediment in them and in the river channel itself below the mouth of Moore Creek. Interest in determining the runoff and sediment loads from certain areas in the Boise River drainage basin led to an investigation by the Flood Control Coordinating Committee of the Department of Agriculture. Measurements of daily discharge and sediments loads were made by the Geological Survey at 13 stations in the drainage basin during the 18-month period ended June 30, 1940. The stations were on streams in areas having different kinds of vegetative cover and subjected to different kinds of land-use practice. Data obtained during the investigation furnish a basis for certain comparisons of runoff and sediment loads from several areas arid for several periods of time. Runoff measured at stations on the. Boise River near Twin Springs and on Moore Creek near Arrow Rock was smaller during 1939 than during 1940 and was below the average annual runoff for the period of available record. Runoff measured at the other stations on the project also was smaller during 1939 than during 1940 and probably did not exceed the average for the previous 25 years. The sediment loads measured during the spring runoff in 1939 were smaller at most stations than

  9. Monitoring suspended sediment and associated trace element and nutrient fluxes in large river basins in the USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, the US Geological Survey converted its occurrence and distribution-based National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) to a national, flux-based water-quality monitoring programme. The main objective of the revised programme is to characterize large USA river basins by measuring the fluxes of selected constituents at critical nodes in various basins. Each NASQAN site was instrumented to determine daily discharge, but water and suspended sediment samples are collected no more than 12-15 times per year. Due to the limited sampling programme, annual suspended sediment fluxes were determined from site-specific sediment rating (transport) curves. As no significant relationship could be found between either discharge or suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and suspended sediment chemistry, trace element and nutrient fluxes are estimated using site-specific mean or median chemical levels determined from a number of samples collected over a period of years, and under a variety of flow conditions.

  10. Sediment Dynamics in the Upper McKenzie River Basin, Central Oregon Cascade Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallman, J. D.; Bowers, R. J.; Cabrera, N. C.; Real de Asua, R.; Wooster, J. K.

    2005-12-01

    Reference and current sediment budgets were developed to evaluate the extent to which hydroelectric dams alter sediment dynamics in the upper McKenzie River basin of central Oregon. The 647 km2 study area straddles the western boundary of the High Cascades graben separating the High Cascades and Western Cascades geologic terrains. Permeable Quaternary volcanics forming the low-gradient High Cascades plateau promote surface hydrologic disconnection, nearly constant discharge controlled by groundwater emergence, and low sediment yield. In contrast, deeply weathered Tertiary volcanics, rugged topography, and a dense network of steep channels in the Western Cascades terrain promote peaked storm responses and high sediment yield by deep-seated mass movement, debris slides, and debris flows. Three independent estimates of sediment yield (application of published surface process rates, extrapolation of regional suspended load and bedload flux rates, and extrapolation of reservoir sedimentation rates) illustrate the dominant role of geologic terrains in determining the longitudinal pattern of sediment supply to the McKenzie River. Average reference yields from High Cascades and Western Cascades sources were 9 t km-2y-1 and 200 t km-2y-1, respectively. Downstream of Trail Bridge Dam, High Cascades sources (241 km2) account for 12% of the total reference yield, while Western Cascades sources (67 km2) account for 62%. Estimates of current sediment yield illustrate the offsetting effects of reservoir sediment trapping and accelerated yield related to forest management. Average current yields from High Cascades and Western Cascades sources were 17 t km-2y-1 and 300 t km-2y-1, respectively. Current yield to the McKenzie River arm of Trail Bridge Reservoir (42 km2 sourced in High Cascades terrain) was 17 t km-2y-1, while current yield to Smith Reservoir (48 km2 sourced in Western Cascades terrain) was 251 t km-2y-1. The relation between hydroelectric project effects and forest

  11. Development and Interpretation of New Sediment Rating Curve Considering the Effect of Vegetation Cover for Asian Basins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Suspended sediment concentration of a river can provide very important perspective on erosion or soil loss of one river basin ecosystem. The changes of land use and land cover, such as deforestation or afforestation, affect sediment yield process of a catchment through changing the hydrological cycle of the area. A sediment rating curve can describe the average relation between discharge and suspended sediment concentration for a certain location. However, the sediment load of a river is likely to be undersimulated from water discharge using least squares regression of log-transformed variables and the sediment rating curve does not consider temporal changes of vegetation cover. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can well be used to analyze the status of the vegetation cover well. Thus long time monthly NDVI data was used to detect vegetation change in the past 19 years in this study. Then monthly suspended sediment concentration and discharge from 1988 to 2006 in Laichau station were used to develop one new sediment rating curve and were validated in other Asian basins. The new sediment model can describe the relationship among sediment yield, streamflow, and vegetation cover, which can be the basis for soil conservation and sustainable ecosystem management. PMID:24453795

  12. Quantifying and identifying the sources of fine sediment input in a typical Mongolian river basin, the Kharaa River case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuring, Phillip

    2013-04-01

    Mongolia is facing a tremendous change of land-use intensification due to expansions in the agricultural sector, an increase of cattle and livestock and a growth of urban settlements by migration of the rural population to the cities. With most of its area located in a semiarid to arid environment, Mongolia is vulnerable to climatic changes that are expected to lead to higher temperatures and increased evapotranspiration. It is expected that this may lead to unfavorable changes in surface water quality caused by increased nutrients and sediment bound pollutants emissions. Increased fine sediment load is associated with nutrient, heavy metal and pollutant input and therefore affects water quality. Previous studies using radionuclide fallout isotope sediment source fingerprinting investigations identified riverbank erosion as the main source of suspended sediment in the Kharaa River. Erosion susceptibility calculations in combination with suspended sediment observations showed strong seasonal and annual variabilities of sediment input and in-stream transport, and a strong connection of erosional behaviour with land-use.The objective of this study is to quantify the current water quality threats by fine sediment inputs in the 15,000 km2 Kharaa River basin in Northern Mongolia by delineating the sources of the fine sediments and estimating the sediment budget.To identify the spatial distribution of sediment sources within the catchment, more than 1000 samples from the river confluences at the outlet of each sub basin into the main tributary were collected during 5 intensive grab sediment sampling campaigns in 2009-11. The fine sediment fraction (<10μm) has been analysed using geochemical tracer techniques for spatial source identification, based on major elements (e.g. Si, Al, Mg, Fe, Na, K, P) and trace elements (e.g. Ba, Pb, Sr, Zn). The contribution of suspended sediment of each sub basin in the main tributary has been evaluated with help of a mixing model. To

  13. Annual suspended sediment and trace element fluxes in the Mississippi, Columbia, Colorado, and Rio Grande drainage basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Elrick, K.A.; Smith, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Suspended sediment, sediment-associated, total trace element, phosphorus (P), and total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes were determined for the Mississippi, Columbia, Rio Grande, and Colorado Basins for the study period (the 1996, 1997, and 1998 water years) as part of the US Geological Survey's redesigned National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) programme. The majority (??? 70%) of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Ba, P, As, Fe, Mn, and Al are transported in association with suspended sediment; Sr transport seems dominated by the dissolved phase, whereas the transport of Li and TOC seems to be divided equally between both phases. Average dissolved trace element levels are markedly lower than reported during the original NASQAN programme; this seems due to the use of 'clean' sampling, processing, and analytical techniques rather than to improvements in water quality. Partitioning between sediment and water for Ag, Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, V, Be, As, Sb, Hg, and Ti could not be estimated due to a lack of detectable dissolved concentrations in most samples. Elevated suspended sediment-associated Zn levels were detected in the Ohio River Basin and elevated Hg levels were detected in the Tennessee River, the former may affect the mainstem Mississippi River, whereas the latter probably do not. Sediment-associated concentrations of Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Co, Ba, Mo, Sb, Hg, and Fe are markedly elevated in the upper Columbia Basin, and appear to be detectable (Zn, Cd) as far downstream as the middle of the basin. These elevated concentrations seem to result from mining and/or mining-related activities. Consistently detectable concentrations of dissolved Se were found only in the Colorado River Basin. Calculated average annual suspended sediment fluxes at the mouths of the Mississippi and Rio Grande Basins were below, whereas those for the Columbia and Colorado Basins were above previously published annual values. Downstream suspended sediment-associated and total trace element fluxes

  14. Ecological risk assessment and sources of heavy metals in sediment from Daling River basin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Mi, Dong; Chen, Yifu; Wang, Luo; Sun, Yeqing

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the distribution, source, and ecological risk of heavy metals in Daling River basin, 28 surface sediments collected in this region were analyzed by experimental and theoretical methods. Seven heavy metals, including Pb, Cr, Hg, Cu, As, Cd, and Zn, were detected in all samples. Monte Carlo simulation was used to assess the ecological risks of these heavy metals. It was found that the pollution of Cd was the most serious; the ecological risks in Daling River and Bohai Bay were significantly higher than those in estuary, Bohai Sea, and wetland, but overall, the ecological risks of these heavy metals were low to aquatic organisms in Daling River basin at present. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis showed that these heavy metals might originate from the same pollution sources located near Daling River and Bohai Bay.

  15. Rift border system: The interplay between tectonics and sedimentation in the Reconcavo basin, northeastern Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Magnavita, L.P.; Silva, T.F. da

    1995-11-01

    A geometric and depositional model is proposed to explain the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the main border of the Reconcavo basin. The architecture of the rift margin is characterized by a rift border system constituted by (1) a master fault, (2) a step, and (3) a clastic wedge. This footwall-derived clastic wedge is interpreted as alluvial fans and fan deltas composed of conglomerates that interfinger with hanging-wall strata. The analysis of the vertical distribution of coarse-grained components of this wedge suggests that its composition is geographically controlled, and no regular inverted stratigraphy is commonly described for this type of succession. During an initial lacustrine phase, turbidites accumulated farther from and parallel to the rift margin. The mapping of marker beds that bound these lacustrine turbidite deposits may be used to infer major periods of clastic influx and, therefore, to correlate with periods of fault-related subsidence or climatic fluctuations in the depositional basin and erosion of the sediment source area. Periods of limited back-faulting and basin expansion toward the main border are distinguished through patterns of progradation and aggradation indicating progressive retreat of the rift border and younging; in the footwall direction. The overall evolution of the rift border seems to be related to extension, block rotation, hanging-wall subsidence, and footwall uplift associated with the initial master fault, with limited propagation of faults away from the basin into the footwall.

  16. Trace elements and organic contaminants in stream sediments from the Red River of the North Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brigham, M.E.; Tornes, L.H.

    1996-01-01

    To assess the presence and distribution of a variety of hydro-phobic chemicals in streams in the Red River of the North Basin, bottom sediments were analyzed for trace elements, organochlorines, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Glaciolacustrine clays and carbonate minerals are common in fine sediments of the region, and can help explain the distribution of many elements. Aluminum (Al), an indicator of glaciolacustrine clay minerals, correlates strongly (r>0.75, p<0.05) with Cr, Co, Fe, La, Li, K, Sc, and Ti; and moderately (0.55Basin, Eu, Nb, Ce, La, Nd, and Ni also have strong correlations with Al. Al correlates negatively with major elements associated with carbonate minerals (Ca, Mg, and inorganic carbon). No significant correlations with Al, Ca, or Mg were observed for As, Pb, Mn, Hg, Se, or Ag, which implies that these elements have different environmental sources or behaviors than glaciolacustrine clays or carbonate minerals. Reduction-oxidation processes may influence Mn distribution. Lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) are known to be anthropogenically enriched in the environment--their distribution may indicate environmental enrichment in Red River of the North Basin streams. Organochlorines detected are limited to traces of DDT and its metabolites (mostlyp,p'-DDE). Fourteen PAHs, which are constituents of fossil fuels and of combustion byproducts, were detected in at least halfthe sediment samples; pyrene and fluoranthene were detected in about 90 percent of samples. The contaminants detected in this study were present at low levels, likely indicative of diffuse or remote sources; they occur widely in the environment. 

  17. Geomechanical Behavior of Hydrate-Bearing Sediments in the Ulleung Basin during Methane Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, G. C.; Kim, A. R.; KIM, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The potential of methane hydrate deposits in the Ulleung Basin of the Korean East Sea was suggested by the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources between 2000 and 2004. In a few years, a pilot production project is planned as the world's second offshore methane production project. The basin has a water depth of 1500-2300 m; however, the depth of the hydrate occurrence zone is relatively shallow (about 100-200 mbsf) for gas hydrate production. There is high potential for geomechanical stability problems such as seafloor subsidence, differential settlement, effective stress concentrations, marine landslides, and wellbore instability. In this study, 2D axisymmetric numerical modeling is conducted to simulate the depressurization process in the Ulleung Basin for methane gas production. The coupled mechanical-flow-thermal model used for this purpose incorporates the physical processes of hydrate dissociation, the pore fluid flow, thermal advection, and the geomechanical response of hydrate-bearing sediments. Using the coupled model, two high-potential sites are compared with respect to the pore pressure, temperature change, production efficiency, and geomechanical stability. During depressurization, deformation of the sediments around the production well occurs due to the pore pressure difference and the increase in the effective stress in the depressurized region. This tendency becomes more pronounced due to the decrease in the stiffness of the hydrate-bearing sediments, which is caused by hydrate dissociation. In addition, the latent heat induced by methane hydrate dissociation and thermal advection due to the pore fluid flow have greater effects on the dissociation range and pace than do the geomechanical behaviors. Meanwhile, higher production efficiency, a larger latent heat effect and less settlement are induced in the site, which consists of thick sand layers with greater stiffness and permeability levels than mud layers.

  18. Distribution and source analysis of heavy metals in soils and sediments of Yueqing Bay basin, East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohui; Wu, Pengbao; Yin, Aijing; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Ming; Gao, Chao

    2017-02-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals in coastal soils, stream sediments and intertidal sediments of Yueqing Bay basin were analyzed to study their distribution and trace the possible sources. According to various single- and multi-index methods, heavy metal enrichment, especially for Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni in stream sediments, should draw environmental concern. Controlling factors such as inorganic scavengers, organic matter, sample grain size and hydrodynamic conditions were identified to influence the transportation and distribution of metals within coastal soils and sediments. Principal component analysis indicated that most metals in soils and stream sediments originate primarily from natural and anthropogenic sources, respectively. Most metals in intertidal sediments, originating both from natural processes and human activities, tend to be concentrated in fine particles. The exchange of water and sediment between the bay and open waters is strong enough to keep the metals in the tidal flats from rising to very high levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Short- and long-term studies of sediment dynamics in a small humid mountain Mediterranean basin with badlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallart, F.; Pérez-Gallego, N.; Latron, J.; Catari, G.; Martínez-Carreras, N.; Nord, G.

    2013-08-01

    Badland landscapes are the main sediment sources in the Vallcebre area (Eastern Pyrenees, Catalonia, Spain). Short-term studies (up to 3-years long) carried out between 1980 and 1994 were used to estimate the rates of both denudation on bare surfaces and sediment production at the plot scale, to analyse the seasonal dynamics of bedrock weathering and regolith behaviour, and to study the relationships between geomorphic activity and herbaceous plant colonisation. Since 1990, stream flow and suspended sediment loads have been monitored using three gauging stations equipped with infrared backscattering turbidimeters, ultra-sonic beam attenuation solids sensors and automatic water samplers. The combination of the two different approaches has been useful for a better perception of the dynamics of the badland systems and to assess the long-term contribution of these areas to the basin sediment loads. Badland erosion at the event scale for a period of 15 years was simulated with the KINEROS2 model and allowed the long-term comparison between badland erosion and sediment yield at the small basin scale. Badlands are the main source of sediment in the basin for most of the events, but infrequent runoff events cause the removal of sediment stores and the activation of other sediment sources. The analysis of the uncertainty of sediment yield measurements for a range of record durations demonstrated that long records are needed for obtaining acceptable results due to the high interannual variability. Relatively low-cost short-term geomorphic observations may provide information useful for assessing the long-term sediment production in these basins with badland areas only if the observations are used to implement a model able to simulate long-term observations.

  20. Priority-pollutant trace elements in streambed sediments of the Cook Inlet basin, Alaska, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, Steven A.

    2002-01-01

    Trace element concentrations in 48 streambed sediment samples collected at 47 sites in the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, were compared to concentrations from studies in the conterminous United States using identical methods and to Probable Effect Concentrations. Concentrations of arsenic, chromium, mercury, and nickel in the 0.063-mm size fraction of streambed sediments from the Cook Inlet Basin were elevated relative to reference sites in the conterminous United States. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc were highest at the most urbanized site in Anchorage and at two sites downstream from an ore body in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve. At least 35 percent of the 48 samples collected in the Cook Inlet Basin exceeded the Probable Effect Concentration for arsenic, chromium, or nickel. More than 50 percent of the samples were considered to have low potential toxicity for cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc. A Probable Effect Concentration quotient that reflects the combined toxicity of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc was exceeded in 44 percent of the samples from the Cook Inlet Basin. The potential toxicity was high in the Denali and Lake Clark National Parks and Preserves where organic carbon concentrations in streambed sediments were low. However, potential toxicity results should be considered in context with the very small amounts of fine-grained sediment present in the streambed sediments of the Cook Inlet Basin.

  1. Geochemistry of volcanogenic clayey marine sediments from the Hazar-Maden Basin (Eastern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkoca, Dicle Bal; Kürüm, Sevcan; Huff, Warren D.

    2013-12-01

    The Hazar-Madeıı Basin sediments were deposited along the southern branch of the Neotethys Ocean margin during Late Maastrichtian-Middle Eocene times. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), ICP-AES, ICP-MS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed on samples of the Upper Maastrichtian-Middle Eocene Hazar Group and the Middle Eocene Maden Complex from the Hazar-Maden Basin to investigate the main effects of depositional envi- ronmental parameters in three sections belonging to deeper marine (slope), proximal arc volcanic (Mastarhill and Yukaribag sections) and shallow platform marine (Sebken section) settings. Marine sediments contain clay minerals (smectite, smectite/chlorite, chlorite, illite, interstratified illite/smectite, illite/chlorite, palygorskite), clinoptilolite, quartz, feldspar, calcite, dolomite, opal-CT and hematite. The clays are dominated by iron-rich smectites. La, Zr and Th concentrations are high in the shallow marginal Sebken section where the terrestrial detrital contribution is significant, while Sc and Co are more dominant in the deeper marine (slope) Yukaribag section, which is represented by basic-type volcanism and a higher contribution of hydrothermal phases. In a chondrite-normalized REE diagram, the negative Eu anomaly in samples from Sebken, the section which was deposited in a shallow marine environment, is less significant than that of the other two sections indicating the presence of a high terrestrial contribution in that part of the basin. A decrease in LREE v/HREEiV and Lajv/Ybv, LaiV/Sin v ratios from Sebken to Mastarhill and the Yukaribag sections indi- cates deepening of the basin and an increasing contribution of volcanism in that direction.

  2. Distribution of trace elements in sediment and soil from river Vardar Basin, Macedonia/Greece.

    PubMed

    Popov, Stanko Ilić; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    A systematic study was carried out to investigate the distribution of 59 elements in the sediment and soil samples collected from the river Vardar (Republic of Macedonia and Greece) and its major tributaries. The samples were collected from 28 sampling sites. Analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. R-mode factor analysis (FA) was used to identify and characterise element associations. Seven associations of elements were determined by the method of multivariate statistics. Every factor (Factors 1-3 and 6 and 7 as geogenic and Factors 4 and 5 as anthropogenic associations of elements) are examined and explained separately. The distribution of various elements showed that there is a presence of anthropogenic elements (Ag, Cd, Cu, Ge, Pb, Sn and Zn) introduced in the river sediments and soils from the mining, metallurgical, industrial and agricultural activities in Vardar River Basin, which covers most of the Republic of Macedonia and Central-northern part of Greece.

  3. Nannofossils in upper quaternary bottom sediments of back-arc basins in the southwestern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrenko, O. B.

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of calcareous nannoplankton assemblages in bottom sediments sampled during Cruise 21 of the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in three areas located in back-arc basins of the southwestern Pacific (western Woodlark in the Solomon Sea, Manus in the Bismarck Sea, Central Lau) reveal that they belong to the Emiliania huxleyi Acme Zone, the most detailed one in the Gartner's scale of 1977. The content of coccoliths and their taxonomic composition indicate warm subtropical-tropical conditions. Long cores demonstrate a decrease in species diversity reflecting the transition from the cold late Pleistocene to the Holocene. The changes in species diversity and presence/absence of thermophilic representatives indicate transformation of depositional environments with unstable conditions in the water column and bottom layer, seismic activity, and widely developed processes of sediment redistribution and reworking.

  4. Solved and unsolved problems of sedimentation, glaciation and paleolakes of the Darhad Basin, Northern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivonogov, S. K.; Yi, S.; Kashiwaya, K.; Kim, J. C.; Narantsetseg, T.; Oyunchimeg, T.; Safonova, I. Y.; Kazansky, A. Y.; Sitnikova, T.; Kim, J. Y.; Hasebe, N.

    2012-11-01

    The paper reviews previously published and presents new data on the Darhad Basin, Mongolia, which is a key locality for reconstruction of Quaternary glaciation and environmental changes in northern Central Asia. The previously published data include those obtained in the 20th century by Soviet geological surveys and academic researches of the Darhad Basin, which are, as a rule, not accessible for an international reader, and those obtained by several international teams during the last decade. The new results include geomorphologic, sedimentological and geochronological data obtained prior to and within the International Darhad Drilling Project (DDP-2010). These data show that the Darhad sedimentary sequence has been formed since the Pliocene and represents a detailed archive of environmental changes due to a high content of lacustrine beds. Lakes formed several times in the Darhad Basin by basaltic, glacial and sedimentary dams, which blocked the water outlet of the basin. Of special interest in this paper are the late Pleistocene damming events, which are well-documented in the sediments and landforms, however, their chronology is still obscure. There have been two stages of deep lake. The first lake was dammed by a glacier during late MIS 5 (Krivonogov et al., 2005) or, alternatively, during early to middle MIS 3 (Gillespie et al., 2008a). The second damming, glacial or sedimentary, formed another deep lake during MIS 4 or MIS 2. The level of the lake was greatly variable up to its complete disappearance. Our new data from the DDP10-3 and DN-1 boreholes and from the Hodon outcrop illustrate the Holocene history of the paleolake, which was dammed by the sediments and was kept at low levels. We propose a first sedimentation model for the Holocene part of the lacustrine sedimentary sequence. The lake was minimal or disappeared at ca 12-9.6 and after 4.5 ka cal. BP, relatively deep at 9.6-7.1 and 6.4-4.5 ka cal. BP and shallow at 7.1-6.4 ka cal. BP. Conclusively, we

  5. Linking Late Pleistocene alpine glacial erosion and continental margin sedimentation: Insights from 40Ar/39Ar dating of silt-sized sediment, Canterbury Basin, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaseñor, Tania; Jaeger, John M.; Foster, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary climatic and eustatic cycles in mid-latitude regions have led to more extensive alpine glaciations and continental shelf progradation, respectively. However, the glacial influence on sediment fluxes to the ocean creating continental margin strata is poorly documented. This contribution analyzes the provenance of fine sediment accumulating on the continental shelf during the Late Pleistocene to evaluate the influence of glacial cycles on sediment erosion and routing to the continental shelf. Taking advantage of the contrasting bedrock ages exposed across the Southern Alps, New Zealand, we perform 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating on the bulk silt-size sediment from three drill sites of IODP Expedition 317, Canterbury Basin, New Zealand. The results suggest that a large proportion of sediment accumulating on the continental shelf results from erosion within the Main Divide fault zone of the Southern Alps. Sediment 40Ar/39Ar age fluctuations over this time period suggest that bedrock with various 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages has been differentially eroded in the upper Waitaki River catchment and mixed in the Waitaki-Canterbury sediment-routing system. Across-shelf variations in sediment 40Ar/39Ar age reflect changing modes of sediment dispersal on the continental shelf. Fluvial material, likely derived from the main drainage divide zone, preferentially accumulates in the middle continental shelf, whereas material representing erosion of older bedrock (Torlesse Terrane), located lower in the drainage basin, is dispersed uniformly across the shelf. The age signature of the muddy sediment accumulating on the continental shelf reflects Late Pleistocene landscape evolution of the Southern Alps and its influence on sediment dispersal to the continental shelf.

  6. Variations in trace element geochemistry in the Seine River Basin based on floodplain deposits and bed sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Meybeck, Michel; Idlafkih, Z.; Biger, E.

    1999-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1995 a series of bed sediment, suspended sediment and fresh floodplain samples were collected within the Seine River Basin, in France, to evaluate variations in trace element geochemistry. Average background trace element levels for the basin were determined from the collection and subsequent analyses of bed sediment samples from small rural watersheds and from a prehistoric (5000 BP) site in Paris. Concentrations are relatively low, and similar to those observed for fine-grained bed sediments from unaffected areas in the United States and Canada. However, the concentrations are somewhat higher than the reference levels presently adopted by French water authorities for areas north of the Seine Basin, which have similar bedrock lithologies. Downstream trace element variations were monitored in 1994 and 1995 using fresh surficial floodplain samples that were collected either as dried deposits a few days after peak discharge, or immediately after peak discharge (under ??? 30 cm of water). Chemical comparisons between fresh floodplain deposits, and actual suspended sediments collected during flood events, indicate that, with some caveats, the former can be used as surrogates for the latter. The floodplain sediment chemical data indicate that within the Seine Basin, from the relatively unaffected headwaters through heavily affected urban streams, trace element concentrations vary by as much as three orders of magnitude. These trace element changes appear to be the result of both increases in population as well as concomitant increases in industrial activity. This article is a US government work and is in the public domain in the United States.

  7. Soil disturbance/restoration effects on stream sediment loading in the Tahoe Basin--detection monitoring.

    PubMed

    Grismer, M E

    2014-07-01

    Quantifying the relative impacts of soil restoration or disturbance on watershed daily sediment and nutrients loads is essential towards assessing the actual costs/benefits of the land management. Such quantification requires stream monitoring programs capable of detecting changes in land-use or soil functional and erosive area "connectivity" conditions across the watershed. Previously, use of a local-scale, field-data based runoff and erosion model for three Lake Tahoe west-shore watersheds as a detection monitoring "proof of concept" suggested that analyses of midrange average daily flows can reveal sediment load reductions of relatively small watershed fractional areas (∼5 %) of restored soil function within a few years of treatment. Developing such an effective stream monitoring program is considered for tributaries on the west shore of the Lake Tahoe Basin using continuous (15-min) stream monitoring information from Ward (2,521 ha), Blackwood (2,886 ha), and the Homewood (260 ha, HMR) Creek watersheds. The continuous total suspended sediment (TSS) and discharge monitoring confirmed the hysteretic TSS concentration-flowrate relationship associated with the daily and seasonal spring snowmelt hydrographs at all three creeks. Using the complete dataset, daily loads estimated from 1-h sampling periods during the day indicated that the optimal sampling hours were in the afternoon during the rising limb of the spring snowmelt hydrograph, an observation likely to apply across the Sierra Nevada and other snowmelt driven watersheds. Measured rising limb sediment loads were used to determine if soils restoration efforts (e.g., dirt road removal, ski run rehabilitation) at the HMR creek watershed reduced sediment loads between 2010 and 2011. A nearly 1.5-fold decrease in sediment yields (kg/ha per m(3)/s flow) was found suggesting that this focused monitoring approach may be useful towards development of TMDL "crediting" tools. Further monitoring is needed to verify

  8. Large-scale patterns of recent sedimentation along the Cayman Troughpull-apart basin, Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Debalko, D.; Mann, P. )

    1990-05-01

    The North American-Caribbean plate boundary zone consists of a broad zone of active strike-slip deformation that extends 3,200 km from Middle America to the Lesser Antilles. An 1,100-km-long, 100-km-wide pull-apart basin the Cayman Trough is the dominant structural element of the submerged central part of the plate boundary zone between Jamaica and Honduras. In order to investigate large-scale patterns of recent sedimentation in a fully marine pull-apart setting, the authors surveyed a 90,000-km{sup 2} area along the southern edge of the Cayman Trough using SeaMARC II side-scan sonar, 3.5 KHz, and digital single-channel reflection techniques. These data allow them to divide the southern margin of the Cayman Trough pull-apart into three provinces of recent sedimentation: (1) an eastern terrigenous province characterized by straight short canyon systems (average 1-3 km wide and 10-15 km long) and associated small, lobate fans; canyon-fan systems are sourced by clastic spillover from filled borderland-type basins and by erosion of emergent fault-block islands; (2) a central carbonate province characterized by periplatform carbonate detritus fringing four isolated carbonate banks which collectively make up the Nicaraguan Rise; canyon systems (1-3 km wide, 15-80 km long) are highly meandering when unfaulted and straight when faulted; and (3) an eastern carbonate and terrigenous province characterized by both carbonate sediments shed off the easternmost bank of the Nicaraguan Rise bank and by terrigenous sediment derived from Jamaica.

  9. Beyond Colorado's Front Range - A new look at Laramide basin subsidence, sedimentation, and deformation in north-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, James C.; Trexler, James H.; Cashman, Patricia H.; Miller, Ian M.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Workman, Jeremiah B.

    2010-01-01

    This field trip highlights recent research into the Laramide uplift, erosion, and sedimentation on the western side of the northern Colorado Front Range. The Laramide history of the North Park?Middle Park basin (designated the Colorado Headwaters Basin in this paper) is distinctly different from that of the Denver basin on the eastern flank of the range. The Denver basin stratigraphy records the transition from Late Cretaceous marine shale to recessional shoreline sandstones to continental, fluvial, marsh, and coal mires environments, followed by orogenic sediments that span the K-T boundary. Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene strata in the Denver basin consist of two mega-fan complexes that are separated by a 9 million-year interval of erosion/non-deposition between about 63 and 54 Ma. In contrast, the marine shale unit on the western flank of the Front Range was deeply eroded over most of the area of the Colorado Headwaters Basin (approximately one km removed) prior to any orogenic sediment accumulation. New 40Ar-39Ar ages indicate the oldest sediments on the western flank of the Front Range were as young as about 61 Ma. They comprise the Windy Gap Volcanic Member of the Middle Park Formation, which consists of coarse, immature volcanic conglomerates derived from nearby alkalic-mafic volcanic edifices that were forming at about 65?61 Ma. Clasts of Proterozoic granite, pegmatite, and gneiss (eroded from the uplifted core of the Front Range) seem to arrive in the Colorado Headwaters Basin at different times in different places, but they become dominant in arkosic sandstones and conglomerates about one km above the base of the Colorado Headwaters Basin section. Paleocurrent trends suggest the southern end of the Colorado Headwaters Basin was structurally closed because all fluvial deposits show a northward component of transport. Lacustrine depositional environments are indicated by various sedimentological features in several sections within the >3 km of sediment

  10. Analysing sediment production and transfer in a small Mediterranean mountain basin using a 15-year data period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallart, Francesc; Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Soler, Montserrat; Nord, Guillaume; Catari, Gusman

    2010-05-01

    Badland landscapes are known to be the main sediment sources in the upper Llobregat basin and particularly in the small Vallcebre research basins (Eastern Pyrenees). The dynamics of these badlands is dominated by physical weathering during winter and by water erosion during intense rainstorms in summer. Nevertheless, as these landscapes represent a small fraction of the basin area, their role as runoff source is only relevant when the basin is dry, but it becomes less important during major rainfall events under wet conditions. Thus, there is a temporal uncoupling between runoff and sediment supply that results in events with a large variety of sediment concentration - discharge relationships at the gauging stations, as well as sediment deposition and erosion phases in the stream channels. The main aim of this work is to analyse the relevance and renewal times of the sediment stored in the stream channels in the Ca l'Isard sub-basin (1.32 km2). Information on stream discharge and suspended sediment loads was taken from a 15-year record at the gauging station, whereas badland erosion for the same period was simulated using the soil erosion model KINEROS2. The model was calibrated and validated using 3-year sediment yield data obtained using containers provided with slot divisors in a 1,240 m2 elementary badland catchment. Other qualitative observations were also used for validation. The results demonstrated that there was a low correlation between badland erosion volumes and stream sediment loads at the event scale; the first were well correlated with rainfall intensities whereas the latter were better correlated with total event precipitations and stream discharges. Badland erosion was simulated as null for some events with large stream sediment loads because de model did not simulate any runoff on the hillslopes. Stream sediment transport was more compulsive than badland erosion, as 90% of the sediment exported from the basin was produced by only 21% of the events

  11. Spatial distribution of allochthonous fine-grained sediments from drilling activities in the deepwater Ulleung Basin, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Jong-Hwa; Um, In-Kwon; Bahk, Jang-Jun; Kim, Yuri; Ryu, Byong-Jae

    2015-04-01

    The marine sediments in deepwater basins can be used as sedimentologic, stratigraphic, paleoceanographic, and paleoclimatologic tools to interpret the various scientific topics in the world. As a result, many drilling and coring activities were performed by international ocean drilling programs in deepwater basins during the last 50 years. In the deepwater Ulleung Basin, the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH2) was conducted to perform the gas hydrate R&D in 2010. During the UBGH2, drilling and coring activities were successfully accomplished in 13 sites ranging from 898 m to 2,156 m water depth. The three major sediment facies in the Ulleung Basin are composed of light-colored bioturbated hemipelagic muds under a highly oxygenated bottom-water conditions, dark-colored crudely laminated muds under a poorly oxygenated bottom-water conditions, and laminated/massive sand with turbidites. The present seafloor sediments commonly consist of 1-2 thick light-colored bioturbated hemipelagic muds in the deepwater Ulleung Basin. We observed the UBGH2 drilling holes using by Ultra-short Baseline (USBL)-guided KIGAM Seafloor Observation System (KISOS) in 2013. The UBGH2 drilling holes were found on the seafloor with partially collapse of the margin. We also found the multi-colored sediment patches on the seafloor due to allochthonous sediment input. We analyzed the elements using a non-destructive Itrax X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanner for split core. The sediment patches have relatively low concentrations of Fe, Ba, Mn and Pb compared to the element concentrations of the present seafloor sediments. The concentrations of K, Ca, and Ti are higher than the present seafloor sediments. The patch sediments are observed no more than 50 m away from the UBGH2 drilling holes. The allochthonous sediments occur at depth of about 6 cm below seafloor in the observed drilling holes. The origin of allochthonous sediments on the seafloor is interpreted as drilling

  12. Comparison of Storm-Generated Sediment Concentrations and Loads in an Urban Disturbed Basin and a Rural Undisturbed Basin, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellis, A. C.

    2002-05-01

    The factors controlling storm-generated suspended-sediment loads and concentrations were examined for two basins of contrasting land use in Puerto Rico from 1989 to 1995. The Quebrada Blanca Basin (8.39 km2), a relatively undisturbed basin, drains pasture (54%), forest (21%), cropland (8%), and rural (15%). The Rio Piedras Basin (19.4 km2) is 73% urban and is considered disturbed because of extensive urbanization in the remaining 23% forested areas of the basin, involving many construction projects that expose bare soil. Twenty-three runoff events, defined by a peak over 0.42 m3/s, were examined in Quebrada Blanca and 26 events, defined by a peak over 1.4 m3/s, were examined in Rio Piedras. Three dependent factors were used to describe suspended-sediment transport: (1) suspended-sediment load, (2) discharge-weighted sediment concentration, and (3) time-weighted sediment concentration. Thirteen independent factors controlling sediment were delineated into three time categories: (1) characteristics of the previous event, (2) characteristics between events, and (3) characteristics of the current event. The dependent and independent factors were separated into quickflow and total runoff to determine if one was more significant in explaining sediment. Forward stepwise regression analysis for Quebrada Blanca showed that the most significant variables explaining sediment load and concentrations were directly correlated to the characteristics of the current storm event (for both the quickflow and total runoff aspects of the hydrographs). These included the total quickflow, sum of peak flows, and maximum rate of hydrograph rise for any peak. In Rio Piedras, the three dependent variables for both aspects of the hydrograph were inversely correlated to the rainfall since the previous runoff event. These are smaller rainfall totals that do not cause significant increases in streamflow but are flushing sediment from the system that would be available for the current sampled

  13. Estimation of Sediment Sources Using Selected Chemical Tracers in the Perry Lake and Lake Wabaunsee Basins, Northeast Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2007-01-01

    In Kansas and nationally, stream and lake sediment is a primary concern as related to several important issues including water quality and reservoir water-storage capacity. The ability to achieve meaningful decreases in sediment loads to reservoirs requires a determination of the relative importance of sediment sources within the contributing basins. To investigate sources of sediment within the Perry Lake and Lake Wabaunsee Basins of northeast Kansas, representative samples of channel-bank sources, surface-soil sources (cropland and grassland), and reservoir bottom sediment were collected, analyzed, and compared. Subbasins sampled within the Perry Lake Basin included Atchison County Lake, Banner Creek Reservoir, Gregg Creek, Mission Lake, and Walnut Creek. The samples were sieved to isolate the less than 63-micron fraction (that is, the silt and clay) and analyzed for selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 25 trace elements, and the radionuclide cesium-137 (137Cs). To determine which of the 30 constituents provided the best ability to discriminate between channel-bank and surface-soil sources in the two basins, four selection criteria were used. To be selected, it was required that the candidate constituent (1) was detectable, (2) had concentrations or activities that varied substantially and consistently between the sources, (3) had concentration or activity ranges that did not overlap between the sources, and (4) had concentration or activity differences between the sources that were statistically significant. On the basis of the four selection criteria, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total organic carbon (TOC), and 137Cs were selected. Of the four selected constituents, 137Cs likely is the most reliable indicator of sediment source because it is known to be conservative in the environment. Trace elements were not selected because concentrations in the channel-bank and surface-soil sources generally were

  14. Suspended-sediment concentrations, bedload, particle sizes, surrogate measurements, and annual sediment loads for selected sites in the lower Minnesota River Basin, water years 2011 through 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groten, Joel T.; Ellison, Christopher A.; Hendrickson, Jon S.

    2016-12-20

    Accurate measurements of fluvial sediment are important for assessing stream ecological health, calculating flood levels, computing sediment budgets, and managing and protecting water resources. Sediment-enriched rivers in Minnesota are a concern among Federal, State, and local governments because turbidity and sediment-laden waters are the leading impairments and affect more than 6,000 miles of rivers in Minnesota. The suspended sediment in the lower Minnesota River is deleterious, contributing about 75 to 90 percent of the suspended sediment being deposited into Lake Pepin. The Saint Paul District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Lower Minnesota River Watershed District collaborate to maintain a navigation channel on the lower 14.7 miles of the Minnesota River through scheduled dredging operations. The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency has adopted a sediment-reduction strategy to reduce sediment in the Minnesota River by 90 percent by 2040.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, and the Lower Minnesota River Watershed District, collected suspended-sediment, bedload, and particle-size samples at five sites in the lower Minnesota River Basin during water years 2011 through 2014 and surrogate measurements of acoustic backscatter at one of these sites on the lower Minnesota River during water years 2012 through 2016 to quantify sediment loads and improve understanding of sediment-transport relations. Annual sediment loads were computed for calendar years 2011 through 2014.Data collected from water years 2011 through 2014 indicated that two tributaries, Le Sueur River and High Island Creek, had the highest sediment yield and concentrations of suspended sediment. These tributaries also had greater stream gradients than the sites on the Minnesota River. Suspended fines were greater than suspended sand at all sites in the study area. The range of median particle sizes matched

  15. Selected elements and organic chemicals in bed sediment and fish tissue of the Tualatin River basin, Oregon, 1992-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonn, Bernadine A.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of a reconnaissance survey of elements and organic compounds found in bed sediment and fish tissue in streams of the Tualatin River Basin. The basin is in northwestern Oregon to the west of the Portland metropolitan area (fig. 1). The Tualatin River flows for about 80 miles, draining an area of about 712 square miles, before it enters the Willamette River. Land use in the basin changes from mostly forested in the headwaters, to mixed forest and agriculture, to predominately urban. The basin supports a growing population of more than 350,000 people, most of whom live in lower parts of the basin. Water quality in the Tualatin River and its tributaries is expected to be affected by the increasing urbanization of the basin.

  16. Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (D-025): Summary of closure under Rules Governing Hazardous Waste Management in Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.E.

    1989-07-01

    On February 29, 1988, the Revised Closure Plan for Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin,'' Y/TS-390 (Reference 1) was submitted to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for review and transmittal to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE). The closure activities described in the closure plan have been performed. The purpose of this document is to summarize the closure activities for the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal (CRSDB). The closure of CRSDB is a final closure. The Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB), Unit D-025, was an unlined, man-made sediment disposal facility on Chestnut Ridge, south of New Hope Pond (NHP). The CRSDB was constructed during 1972--73 for the disposal of sediments hydraulically dredged from NHP. It was designed to hold approximately 30,000 cubic yards of sediments. Since 1973, the basin had been used for the periodic disposal of sediments excavated from NHP and its appurtenant structures. NHP has previously received discharges form RCRA-related waste streams. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Final report for 105-N Basin sediment disposition task, phase 2 -- samples BOMPC8 and BOMPC9

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1998-02-05

    This document is the final report deliverable for Phase 2 analytical work for the 105-N Basin Sediment Disposition Task. On December 23, 1997, ten samples were received at the 222-S Laboratory as follows: two (2) bottles of potable water, six (6) samples for process control testing and two (2) samples for characterization. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Letter of Instruction for Phase 2 Analytical Work for the 105-N Basin Sediment Disposition Task (Logan and Kessner, 1997) (Attachment 7) and 105-N Basin Sediment Disposition Phase-Two Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) (Smith, 1997). The analytical results are included in Table 1. This document provides the values of X/Qs for the onsite and offsite receptors, taking into account the building wake and the atmospheric stability effects. X/Qs values for the potential fire accident were also calculated. In addition, the unit dose were calculated for the mixtures of isotopes.

  18. Biogeochemical Insights into B-Vitamins in the Coastal Marine Sediments of San Pedro Basin, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteverde, D.; Berelson, W.; Baronas, J. J.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal marine sediments support a high abundance of mircoorganisms which play key roles in the cycling of nutrients, trace metals, and carbon, yet little is known about many of the cofactors essential for their growth, such as the B-vitamins. The suite of B-vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B7, B12) are essential across all domains of life for both primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore, studying sediment concentrations of B-vitamins can provide a biochemical link between microbial processes and sediment geochemistry. Here we present B-vitamin pore water concentrations from suboxic sediment cores collected in September 2014 from San Pedro Basin, a silled, low oxygen, ~900 m deep coastal basin in the California Borderlands. We compare the B-vitamin concentrations (measured via LCMS) to a set of geochemical profiles including dissolved Fe (65-160 μM), dissolved Mn (30-300 nM), TCO2, solid phase organic carbon, and δ13C. Our results show high concentrations (0.8-3nM) of biotin (B7), commonly used for CO2 fixation as a cofactor in carboxylase enzymes. Thiamin (B1) concentrations were elevated (20-700nM), consistent with previous pore water measurements showing sediments could be a source of B1 to the ocean. Cobalamin (B12), a cofactor required for methyl transfers in methanogens, was also detected in pore waters (~4-40pM). The flavins (riboflavin [B2] and flavin mononucleotide[FMN]), molecules utilized in external electron transfer, showed a distinct increase with depth (10-90nM). Interestingly, the flavin profiles showed an inverse trend to dissolved Fe (Fe decreases with depth) providing a potential link to culture experiments which have shown extracellular flavin release to be a common trait in some metal reducers. As some of the first B-vitamin measurements made in marine sediments, these results illustrate the complex interaction between the microbial community and surrounding geochemical environment and provide exciting avenues for future research.

  19. Basin formation and Neogene sedimentation in a backarc setting, Halmahera, eastern Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R. ); Nichols, G.J. )

    1991-03-01

    It has been proposed that basins in backarc setting form in association with subduction by thinning of continental crust, backarc spreading in oceanic crust, compression, or trapping of pieces of oceanic plate behind an arc. The Halmahera basin in eastern Indonesia developed in a backarc setting but does not fall into these categories; it formed by subsidence of thickened crust made up of imbricated Mesozoic-Paleogene arc and ophiolite rocks. Halmahera lies at the western edge of the Philippine Sea Plate in a complex zone of convergence between the Eurasian margin, the oceanic plates of the West Pacific, and the Australian/Indian Plate to the south. The basement is an imbricated complex of Mesozoic to Paleogene ophiolite, arc, and arc-related rocks. During the Miocene this basement complex formed an area of thickened crust upon which carbonate reef and reef-associated sediments were deposited. The authors interpret this shallow marine region to be similar to many of the oceanic plateaus and ridges found within the Philippine Sea Plate today. In the Late Miocene, convergence between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian margin resulted in the formation of the Halmahera Trench to the west of this region of thickened crust. Subduction of the Molucca Sea Plate caused the development of a volcanic island arc. Subsidence in the backarc area produced a broad sedimentary basin filled by clastics eroded from the arc and from uplifted basement and cover rocks. The basin was asymmetric with the thickest sedimentary fill on the western side, against the volcanic arc. The Halmahera basin was modified in the Plio-Pleistocene by east-west compression as the Molucca Sea Plate was eliminated by subduction.

  20. Elemental chemistry of streambed sediments of the St. Croix River Basin, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brigham, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Streambed sediments from 30 sites in the St. Croix River Basin were analyzed for selected chemical elements. Possible occurrences of low-level contamination include: (1) elevated concentrations of arsenic, lead, silver, and to a lesser extent cadmium, copper, and mercury in the Namekagon River downstream of Hayward, Wisconsin; (2) elevated lead concentrations in the St. Croix River downstream of the Stillwater, Minnesota—Hudson, Wisconsin region; (3) slightly elevated concentrations of Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Mercury, Silver, Vanadium, and Zinc in the Kettle River downstream of Sandstone and Hinckley, Minnesota; (4) and substantially elevated mercury concentrations in Rush Creek downstream of Rush City, Minnesota. Elevated concentrations of copper, lead, and to a lesser extent cadmium, in Osceola Creek, downstream of Osceola, Wisconsin may be due to anthropogenic sources or contributions from bedrock that differs geochemically from sediments farther upstream. There does not appear to be large anthropogenic contributions of trace elements—above the background geochemical and atmospherically deposited levels—in the streams sampled for this study. Many of the elements appear to be associated with mineral sources. Concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements in the St. Croix River Basin generally were lower than concentrations associated with frequent adverse effects to aquatic biota. Exceptions were arsenic (7 of 30 samples) and mercury (1 of 30 samples).

  1. Diatom distribution as an environmental indicator in surface sediments of the West Philippine Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Linnan; Chen, Min; Lan, Binbin; Qi, Hongshuai; Zhang, Aimei; Lan, Dongzhao; Fang, Qi

    2017-03-01

    The distribution of diatoms from surface sediments of the West Philippine Basin was analyzed, with 68 species and varieties of diatoms from 26 genera identified. Diatom abundance varied spatially, with the absolute abundance of diatoms ranging from 0 to 3.4×104 frustules/g. The seven tropical pelagic diatoms were Alveus marinus, Azpeitia africana, Azpeitia nodulifera, Hemidiscus cuneiformis, Hemidiscus cuneiformis var. ventricosus, Roperia tesselata and Rhizosolenia bergonii. The relative abundance of these species was greater than 20%, and their distribution pattern in the sediments was overlaid by the flow of the Kuroshio Current. Ethmodiscus rex was present at 159 stations, formed the most abundant and dominant species in the diatomaceous ooze, and thus referred to as Ethmodiscus ooze. Ethmodiscus rex was also a major contributor to primary production in the region. A principal component analysis was employed to explain the relationship between samples and variations in diatom species from the WPB. Four diatom assemblages were distinguished, representing different oceanographic conditions; their spatial distributions were closely related with the North Equatorial Current and Kuroshio Current patterns in the region. These diatom assemblages can therefore be useful in deciphering late Quaternary palaeoceanographic reconstructions of the West Philippine Basin.

  2. Suspended Sediment Variability and Erosion Geochemical Budget of the Ganga Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France-Lanord, C.; Galy, V.; Galy, A.; Singh, S. K.

    2005-12-01

    Himalayan part of the basin, these data imply that the fluxes of bedload transport and floodplain sequestration do represent 50 to 70 % of the suspended load fluxes. This result confirms our preliminary budget and suggests that the Himalayan range drained by the Ganga delivers an erosion flux above 1100 Mt/yr. Taking into account the mineralogical sorting associated to the transport dynamic of the river is essential for geochemical approaches of erosion budgets. It also allows more accurate characterization of the sediment sources and of the weathering stage of the sediments. [1] Geology 29, 23-26, 2001.

  3. Coupling a basin erosion and river sediment transport model into a large scale hydrological model: an application in the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buarque, D. C.; Collischonn, W.; Paiva, R. C. D.

    2012-04-01

    This study presents the first application and preliminary results of the large scale hydrodynamic/hydrological model MGB-IPH with a new module to predict the spatial distribution of the basin erosion and river sediment transport in a daily time step. The MGB-IPH is a large-scale, distributed and process based hydrological model that uses a catchment based discretization and the Hydrological Response Units (HRU) approach. It uses physical based equations to simulate the hydrological processes, such as the Penman Monteith model for evapotranspiration, and uses the Muskingum Cunge approach and a full 1D hydrodynamic model for river routing; including backwater effects and seasonal flooding. The sediment module of the MGB-IPH model is divided into two components: 1) prediction of erosion over the basin and sediment yield to river network; 2) sediment transport along the river channels. Both MGB-IPH and the sediment module use GIS tools to display relevant maps and to extract parameters from SRTM DEM (a 15" resolution was adopted). Using the catchment discretization the sediment module applies the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation to predict soil loss from each HRU considering three sediment classes defined according to the soil texture: sand, silt and clay. The effects of topography on soil erosion are estimated by a two-dimensional slope length (LS) factor which using the contributing area approach and a local slope steepness (S), both estimated for each DEM pixel using GIS algorithms. The amount of sediment releasing to the catchment river reach in each day is calculated using a linear reservoir. Once the sediment reaches the river they are transported into the river channel using an advection equation for silt and clay and a sediment continuity equation for sand. A sediment balance based on the Yang sediment transport capacity, allowing to compute the amount of erosion and deposition along the rivers, is performed for sand particles as bed load, whilst no

  4. Structure and sediment budget of Yinggehai-Song Hong basin, South China Sea: Implications for Cenozoic tectonics and river basin reorganization in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Chao; Ren, Jianye; Sternai, Pietro; Fox, Matthew; Willett, Sean; Xie, Xinong; Clift, Peter D.; Liao, Jihua; Wang, Zhengfeng

    2015-08-01

    The temporal link between offshore stratigraphy and onshore topography is of key importance for understanding the long-term surface evolution of continental margins. Here we present a grid of regional, high-quality reflection seismic and well data to characterize the basin structure. We identify fast subsidence of the basin basement and a lack of brittle faulting of the offshore Red River fault in the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin since 5.5 Ma, despite dextral strike-slip movement on the onshore Red River fault. We calculate the upper-crustal, whole-crustal, and whole-lithospheric stretching factors for the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin, which show that the overall extension observed in the upper crust is substantially less than that observed for the whole crust or whole lithosphere. We suggest that fast basement subsidence after 5.5 Ma may arise from crustal to lithospheric stretching by the regional dynamic lower crustal/mantle flow originated by collision between India-Eurasia and Indian oceanic subduction below the Eurasian margin. In addition, we present a basin wide sediment budget in the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin to reconstruct the sedimentary flux from the Red River drainage constrained by high-resolution age and seismic stratigraphic data. The sediment accumulation rates show a sharp increase at 5.5 Ma, which suggests enhanced onshore erosion rates despite a slowing of tectonic processes. This high sediment supply filled the accommodation space produced by the fast subsidence since 5.5 Ma. Our data further highlight two prominent sharp decreases of the sediment accumulation at 23.3 Ma and 12.5 Ma, which could reflect a loss of drainage area following headwater capture from the Paleo-Red River. However, the low accumulation rate at 12.5 Ma also correlates with drier and therefore less erosive climatic conditions.

  5. Global Overview On Delivery Of Sediment To The Coast From Tropical River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syvitski, J. P.; Kettner, A. J.; Brakenridge, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    Depending on definition, the tropics occupy between 16% and 19% of the earth's land surface, and discharge ~18.5% of the earth's fluvial water runoff. These flow regimes are driven by three types of sub-regional climate: rainforest, monsoon, and savannah. Even though the tropics include extreme precipitation events, particularly for the SE Asian islands, the general rainfall pattern alternates between wet and dry seasons as the ITCZ follows the sun and where annual monsoonal rain occurs. ITCZ convective rainfall is the dominant style of precipitation but this can be influenced by rare intra-tropical cyclone events, and by atmospheric river events set up by strong monsoonal conditions. Though a rainy season is normal (for example, portions of India discharge in summer may reach 50 times that of winter), the actual rainfall events are in the form of short bursts of precipitation (hours to days) separated by periods of dry (hours to weeks). Some areas of the tropics receive more than 100 thunderstorms per year. Rivers respond to this punctuated weather by seasonal flooding. For the smaller island nations and locales (e.g. Indonesia, Philippines, Borneo, Hainan, PNG, Madagascar, Hawaii, Taiwan) flash floods are common. Larger tropical river systems (Niger, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Congo, Amazon, Orinoco, Magdalena) show typical seasonally modulated discharges. The sediment flux from tropical rivers is approximately 17% to 19% of the global total - however individual river basins offer a wide range in sediment yields reflecting highly variable differences in their hinterland lithology, tectonic activity and volcanism, land-sliding, and relief. Human influences also greatly influence the range for tropical river sediment yield. Some SE Asian Rivers continue to be greatly affected by deforestation, road construction, and monoculture plantations. Sediment flux is more than twice the pre-Anthropocene flux in many of these SE Asian countries, especially where dams and reservoir

  6. [Surface physicochemical and fractal characteristics of sediments in desilting basin from Yellow River diversion reservoir].

    PubMed

    Hu, Kang-Bo; Wang, Yi-Li; Li, Jun-Qing; Gui, Ping; Jiang, Yan-Ling

    2011-07-01

    Surface morphology and pore surface fractal characteristics of the sediment in the desilting basin of Queshan Reservoir were studied. Six sediment samples were collected and particle size, morphology, pore structure and fractal characteristics, surface elements distribution were analyzed as well. The objectives of this study were to investigate the reason for the differences among the pore surface fractal dimensions and fractal scales on the basis of different models, and discuss the effect of surface morphology of these sediment particles on their surface elements distribution. The results showed that these sediment particles with average diameter of 18-83 microm were mainly composed of clay, silt and fine sand. Their complex surface morphology and pore size distribution were reflected by wide range of the BET surface area (8.248-31.60 m2/g), average pore diameter (3.977-7.850 nm) and pore-size distribution (1.870-60.78 nm). Although the pore surface fractal dimensions (D(s)), based on fractal FHH or thermodynamic models, were 2.67-2.89, and their fractal scales generally ranged from several nanometers to tens of nanometers, the differences were still observed in D(s) values calculated from above two models because of inhomogeneity in surface pore size distribution. Therefore, the D(s) based on pore-size distribution were 2.12-2.60, these values close to D(s) calculated from fractal FHH models revealed that pore-size distribution could contribute significantly to D(s) calculation. In addition, the heterogeneous surface adsorption sites of these sediment particles caused by much complex surface morphology had strong influence on the each element distribution on the particle surface.

  7. Fungi in deep-sea sediments of the Central Indian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damare, Samir; Raghukumar, Chandralata; Raghukumar, S.

    2006-01-01

    Although a great amount of information is available on bacteria inhabiting deep-sea sediments, the occurrence of fungi in this environment has been poorly studied and documented. We report here the occurrence of fungi in deep-sea sediments from ˜5000 m depth in the Central Indian Basin (9-16°S and 73-76°E). A total of 181 cultures of fungi, most of which belong to terrestrial sporulating species, were isolated by a variety of isolation techniques. Species of Aspergillus and non-sporulating fungi were the most common. Several yeasts were also isolated. Maximum species diversity was observed in 0-2 cm sections of the sediment cores. Direct staining of the sediments with Calcofluor, a fluorescent optical brightener, revealed the presence of fungal hyphae in the sediments. Immunofluorescence using polyclonal antibodies raised against a deep-sea isolate of Aspergillus terreus (# A 4634) confirmed its presence in the form of hyphae in the sub-section from which it was isolated. A total of 25 representative species of fungi produced substantial biomass at 200 bar pressure at 30° as well as at 5 °C. Many fungi showed abnormal morphology at 200 bar/5 °C. A comparison of terrestrial isolates with several deep-sea isolates indicated that the former could grow at 200 bar pressure when growth was initiated with mycelial inocula. However, spores of a deep-sea isolate A. terreus (# A 4634), but not the terrestrial ones, showed germination at 200 bar pressure and 30 °C. Our results suggest that terrestrial species of fungi transported to the deep sea are initially stressed but may gradually adapt themselves for growth under these conditions.

  8. The last interglacial-glacial transition as recorded in sediments from the deep Dead Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, I.; Brauer, A.; Schwab, M. J.; Waldmann, N.; Hadzhiivanova, E.; Frank, U.; Dulski, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Dead Sea and its Pleistocene precursors act as amplifier lakes of climate change affecting the eastern Mediterranean region. The ~460 m long sediment core 5017-1, retrieved from the deepest part of the lake, ideally mirrors the climate variability of the last approximately 200-250 ka. In the current study, we focus on the upper part of the last interglacial Samra Formation (~135-70 ka BP; Waldmann et al., 2009) and the transition into the last glacial Lisan Formation (~70-14ka BP; e.g. Bartov et al., 2002). Overlying the ca 45 m thick main salt layered sequence deposited during the last interglacial, the analyzed ca 30 m thick interval in core 5017-1 is characterized by a lower ~20 m thick interval of predominant alternating aragonite and detrital marl (aad) with occasional intercalations of mass movement deposits, accumulated during temporary humid climatic conditions. The entire sequence is topped by an upper ~10 m thick interval of predominantly layered massive halite, reflecting a dryer climate. Micro-facies analysis on large-scale petrographic thin sections, XRF element scanning, grain size and magnetic susceptibility measurements have been carried out on this interval for detailed and high-resolution characterization of the sediments and interpretation in terms of depositional processes and their value as paleoclimate proxies. The finding of a most likely millennial-scale dry interval just before the beginning of the stratigraphically defined humid Lisan interval falls in agreement with a previously identified depositional hiatus and associated erosional unconformity in the shallower areas outcropping at the margins of the lake (Stein, 2001). However, the deposition of glacial-like aad sediments prior to this pronounced dry period stands in contrast to previous analyses on outcrops (Waldmann et al. 2009). Investigating sediments from the deep Dead Sea basin will hence allow understanding and better deciphering the depositional processes in relation with

  9. The isotopic composition of authigenic chromium in anoxic marine sediments: A case study from the Cariaco Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhard, Christopher T.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Wang, Xiangli; Fischer, Woodward W.; Johnson, Thomas M.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2014-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) isotopes are an emerging proxy for tracking redox processes at the Earth's surface. However, there has been limited exploration of the Cr isotope record of modern and recent marine sediments. The basic inorganic chemistry of Cr suggests that anoxic marine basins should factor prominently in the global Cr cycle and that sediments deposited within anoxic basins may offer a valuable Cr isotope archive throughout Earth's history. Here, we present δ53Cr data from sediments of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela-a 'type' environment for large, perennially anoxic basins with a relatively strong hydrological connection to the global oceans. We document a marked positive shift in bulk δ53Cr values following the termination of the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by relative stasis. Based on a suite of independent redox proxies, this transition marks a switch from oxic to persistently anoxic and sulfidic (euxinic) depositional conditions within the basin. We find good agreement between two independent approaches toward estimating the δ53Cr composition of authigenic Cr in euxinic Cariaco Basin sediments and that these estimates are very similar to the δ53Cr composition of modern open Atlantic Ocean seawater. These data, together with considerations of reaction kinetics and mass balance within the Cariaco Basin, are consistent with the hypothesis that anoxic marine settings can serve as a chemical archive of first-order trends in seawater δ53Cr composition. Additionally, the Cariaco Basin data suggest that there has been secular stability in the average δ53Cr value of Atlantic seawater over the last ∼15 kyr.

  10. Reconnaissance assessment of erosion and sedimentation in the Canada de los Alamos basin, Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knott, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of present erosion and sedimentation conditions in the Ca?ada de los Alamos basin was made to aid in estimating the impact of off-road-vehicle use on the sediment yield of the basin. Impacts of off-road vehicles were evaluated by reconnaissance techniques and by comparing the study area with other offroad-vehicle sites in California. Major-storm sediment yields for the basin were estimated using empirical equations developed for the Transverse Ranges and measurements of gully erosion in a representative off-road-vehicle basin. Normal major-storm yields of 73,200 cubic yards would have to be increased to about 98,000 cubic yards to account for the existing level of accelerated erosion caused by off-road vehicles. Long-term sediment yield of the Ca?ada de los Alamos basin upstream from its confluence with Gorman Creek, under present conditions of off-road-vehicle use, is approximately 420 cubic yards per square mile per year--a rate that is considerably lower than a previous estimate of 1,270 cubic yards per square mile per year for the total catchment area above Pyramid Lake.

  11. Reconnaissance assessment of erosion and sedimentation in the Canada de los Alamos Basin, Los Angeles and Ventura counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knott, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    An assessment of present erosion and sedimentation conditions in the Canada de Los Alamos basin, Calif., was made to aid in estimating the impact of off-road-vehicle use on the sediment yield of the basin. Evaluations were made by reconnaissance techniques and by comparing the study area with other off-road-vehicle sites in California. Major-storm sediment yields for the basin were estimated, using empirical equations developed for the Transverse Ranges and measurements of gully erosion in a representative off-road vehicle basin. Normal major-storm yields of 73,200 cubic yards would have to be increased to about 98,000 cubic yards to account for the existing level of accelerated erosion caused by off-road vehicles. Long-term sediment yield of the Canada de Los Alamos basin upstream from its confluence with Gorman Creek, under present conditions of off-road-vehicle use, is approximately 420 cubic yards per square mile per year--a rate that is considerably lower than a previous estimate of 1,270 cubic yards per square mile per year for the total catchment area above Pyramid Lake. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Metagenomics of the subsurface Brazos-Trinity Basin (IODP site 1320): comparison with other sediment and pyrosequenced metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Jennifer F; White, James Robert; Teske, Andreas P; House, Christopher H

    2011-06-01

    The Brazos-Trinity Basin on the slope of the Gulf of Mexico passive margin was drilled during Integrated Ocean Drilling Progam Expedition 308. The buried anaerobic sediments of this basin are largely organic-poor and have few microbial inhabitants compared with the organic-rich sediments with high cell counts from the Peru Margin that were drilled during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 201. Nucleic acids were extracted from Brazos-Trinity Basin sediments and were subjected to whole-genome amplification and pyrosequencing. A comparison of the Brazos-Trinity Basin metagenome, consisting of 105 Mbp, and the existing Peru Margin metagenome revealed trends linking gene content, phylogenetic content, geological location and geochemical regime. The major microbial groups (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota and Chloroflexi) occur consistently throughout all samples, yet their shifting abundances allow for discrimination between samples. The cluster of orthologous groups category abundances for some classes of genes are correlated with geochemical factors, such as the level of ammonia. Here we describe the sediment metagenome from the oligotrophic Brazos-Trinity Basin (Site 1320) and show similarities and differences with the dataset from the Pacific Peru Margin (Site 1229) and other pyrosequenced datasets. The microbial community found at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site 1320 likely represents the subsurface microbial inhabitants of turbiditic slopes that lack substantial upwelling.

  13. Landscape response to late Pleistocene climate change in NW Argentina: Sediment flux modulated by basin geometry and connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildgen, Taylor F.; Robinson, Ruth A. J.; Savi, Sara; Phillips, William M.; Spencer, Joel Q. G.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Scherler, Dirk; Tofelde, Stefanie; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Kubik, Peter W.; Binnie, Steven A.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2016-02-01

    Fluvial fill terraces preserve sedimentary archives of landscape responses to climate change, typically over millennial timescales. In the Humahuaca Basin of NW Argentina (Eastern Cordillera, southern Central Andes), our 29 new optically stimulated luminescence ages of late Pleistocene fill terrace sediments demonstrate that the timing of past river aggradation occurred over different intervals on the western and eastern sides of the valley, despite their similar bedrock lithology, mean slopes, and precipitation. In the west, aggradation coincided with periods of increasing precipitation, while in the east, aggradation coincided with decreasing precipitation or more variable conditions. Erosion rates and grain size dependencies in our cosmogenic 10Be analyses of modern and fill terrace sediments reveal an increased importance of landsliding compared to today on the west side during aggradation, but of similar importance during aggradation on the east side. Differences in the timing of aggradation and the 10Be data likely result from differences in valley geometry, which causes sediment to be temporarily stored in perched basins on the east side. It appears as if periods of increasing precipitation triggered landslides throughout the region, which induced aggradation in the west, but blockage of the narrow bedrock gorges downstream from the perched basins in the east. As such, basin geometry and fluvial connectivity appear to strongly influence the timing of sediment movement through the system. For larger basins that integrate subbasins with differing geometries or degrees of connectivity (like Humahuaca), sedimentary responses to climate forcing are likely attenuated.

  14. Hypoxic cyclicity in sediments of Soledad Basin, Baja Mexico: A record of high-frequency climate fluctuations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westman, A. E.; Brooks, G. R.; Lea, C.

    2007-05-01

    The sedimentary record in Soledad Basin, 45 km west of Baja, Mexico, shows high-frequency oscillations in hypoxia, which can be linked to fluctuations in climate. Soledad Basin, a semi-enclosed basin with a sill depth of 290m, has been shown to exhibit variable levels of hypoxia throughout the geologic past. Located at the intersection of the California Current and California Undercurrent, Soledad Basin is highly responsive to changes in current strength and upwelling, the combination of which creates fluctuations in hypoxia. During climatic cool periods, the California Current is weakened decreasing upwelling and biologic productivity along the Baja Borderland. This causes increased hypoxia in Soledad Basin. The California Undercurrent is also weakened during these cooler periods and brings less nutrients and oxygen to the basin further increasing hypoxia. Since Soledad Basin sediments are undisturbed and have accumulated rapidly, this is a prime location to study high frequency variations in hypoxia in the sedimentary record. The objective of this study was to examine how and to what extent hypoxic events have been recorded in the sedimentary record of Soledad Basin, and gain insight into what controls these events. Surface sediment samples and a single 1.1m gravity core were collected aboard the S.S.V. Robert C. Seamans on a SEA Semester cruise in October 2005. The core was taken at a depth of 490 m near the deepest point of the basin. The core contained laminated sediments consisting of >95% mud. Using 210Pb analysis, a sedimentation rate of 15 cm over the past 100 years was determined, which is consistent with previous research. Trace metal analyses were performed at the cm-scale on selected intervals between 0.34-0.44m and 0.78-0.92m. These intervals correspond to dark organic-rich (>15% organic content) laminations alternating with lighter layers containing less organic material (<15% organic content). All sediments were found to be enriched in Molybdenum

  15. Uncertainty in flow and sediment projections due to future climate scenarios for the 3S Rivers in the Mekong Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Bikesh; Cochrane, Thomas A.; Caruso, Brian S.; Arias, Mauricio E.; Piman, Thanapon

    2016-09-01

    Reliable projections of discharge and sediment are essential for future water and sediment management plans under climate change, but these are subject to numerous uncertainties. This study assessed the uncertainty in flow and sediment projections using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) associated with three Global Climate Models (GCMs), three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and three model parameter (MP) sets for the 3S Rivers in the Mekong River Basin. The uncertainty was analyzed for the short term future (2021-2040 or 2030s) and long term future (2051-2070 or 2060s) time horizons. Results show that dominant sources of uncertainty in flow and sediment constituents vary spatially across the 3S basin. For peak flow, peak sediment, and wet seasonal flows projection, the greatest uncertainty sources also vary with time horizon. For 95% low flows and for seasonal and annual flow projections, GCM and MP were the major sources of uncertainty, whereas RCPs had less of an effect. The uncertainty due to RCPs is large for annual sediment load projections. While model parameterization is the major source of uncertainty in the short term (2030s), GCMs and RCPs are the major contributors to uncertainty in flow and sediment projections in the longer term (2060s). Overall, the uncertainty in sediment load projections is larger than the uncertainty in flow projections. In general, our results suggest the need to investigate the major contributing sources of uncertainty in large basins temporally and at different scales, as this can have major consequences for water and sediment management decisions. Further, since model parameterization uncertainty can play a significant role for flow and sediment projections, there is a need to incorporate hydrological model parameter uncertainty in climate change studies and efforts to reduce the parameter uncertainty as much as possible should be considered through a careful calibration and validation process.

  16. Interim report on streamflow, sediment discharge, and water quality in the Calabazas Creek Basin, Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knott, J.M.; Pederson, G.L.; Middelburg, Robert F.

    1978-01-01

    Streamflow, sediment-discharge, and water-quality data are being collected in the Calabazas Creek basin, Santa Clara County, Calif., to determine annual water and sediment discharge at base-line conditions that are representative of a basin prior to urbanization. Results of the first 3 years of the study (1973-75) are given in this report. Climatic conditions during this period were representative of a very wet year (1973) and 2 years of above-average rainfall (1974 and 1975). Daily water and sediment discharge were monitored at three primary stations, and periodic measurements were made at five secondary stations during selected storms. Most of the total annual sediment discharge at each station was transported during a few days each year. Maximum daily sediment discharge in a given year ranged from 23 to 62 percent of the annual total. Daily water discharge at the gaging station Calabazas Creek at Rainbow Drive, near Cupertino, ranged from no flow to 3.31 cubic meters per second. Streamflow at this location was significantly augmented during low flow by diversion of water from the South Bay Aqueduct. Annual sediment discharge at Calabazas Creek at Rainbow Drive was 4,900 t in 1974 and 9,570 t in 1975. A large quantity of sediment was trapped in a debris basin at Comer Drive upstream from this station during both years. If this sediment had not been trapped, sediment discharge at the station would have been about 35 percent greater in 1974 and 30 percent greater in 1975. Most of the trapped sediment consists of sand and gravel that would probably have been deposited in the Calabazas Creek channel downstream from the station. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Effects of land use and retention practices on sediment yields in the Stony Brook basin, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mansue, Lawrence J.; Anderson, Peter W.

    1974-01-01

    The average annual rate of suspended-sediment discharge of the Stony Brook at Princeton, N.J. (44.5 square miles) is about 8,800 tons, or 200 tons per square mile. Annual yields within the basin, which is in the Piedmont Lowlands section of the Piedmont physiographic province in west-central New Jersey, range from 25 to 400 tons per square mile. Storm runoff that transports suspended materials in excess of a ton carries 90 percent of the total suspended-sediment discharge from the basin. Observations of particlesize distributions indicate that the suspended material carried during storms is 55 percent silt, 40 percent clay, and 5 percent sand. A trend analysis of sediment records collected at Princeton between 1956 and 1970 indicated an increase in suspended-sediment discharge per unit of water discharge during 1956-61. From early 1962 to late 1967, sediment trends were difficult to interpret owing to complicating factors, such as reservoir construction, urbanization, and extreme drought. After 1967, yields decreased. Variations in sediment yields during the study are attributed to the integrated influence of several factors. A 2.9 percent decrease in croplands and an increase of 5.1 percent in idle and urban land use probably produced a net increase in sediment yields. Construction of seven sediment-retention reservoirs under Public Law 566 resulted in temporary increases in sediment yields. However, based on a trap-efficiency investigation at 1 site, the combined effect of operation of these 7 reservoirs is estimated to result in a 20 percent reduction in sediment discharge from the basin. Other factors that influence the noted decrease include reduction in yields during 5 years of drought, 1962-66, and reduced construction and development during the latter part of the study period resulting from a general economic slowdown.

  18. Estimating long-term sediment export using a seasonal rainfall-dependent hydrological model in the Glonn River basin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diodato, Nazzareno; de Vente, Joris; Bellocchi, Gianni; Guerriero, Luigi; Soriano, Marcella; Fiorillo, Francesco; Revellino, Paola; Guadagno, Francesco M.

    2015-01-01

    In European catchments, rainfall and overland flow trigger erosive processes that could result in soil detachment and transportation. However, estimation of both erosive rainfalls and sediment yields is very challenging, especially in historical times when only precipitations at seasonal or annual scales are available. This motivated us to develop a parsimonious hydroclimatological model (ASCLIM, Annual Sediment CLImatological Model) for predicting catchment scale sediment yield when temporal and spatial high-resolution precipitation data are not available. The model was developed by using the annual data of suspended-sediment yield from Glonn basin (1981-1995, gauge of Hohenkammer, Germany) and seasonal rainfall data from a NOAA data set. The correlation coefficient between predicted and observed sediment yields was 0.94 and the efficiency index was 0.89. Once parameterized, the model was able to capture annual sediment yield variability better than the Langbein-Schumm and the Fournier Index equations, also based on limited sets of inputs. The model holds potential for historical reconstruction of sediment yields in the Glonn catchment (assuming constant land cover) and for simulating sediment fluxes from catchments with similar characteristics. Our application highlights the control of rainfall seasonality on sediment export and demonstrates that our sediment yield proxy could be considered as a good tool for the expectation and planning of soil conservation. Moreover, considering that we used modeled data to reconstruct past sediment loss, we could expect that using projected future rainfall data our proxy could be able to assess future scenarios.

  19. Chemosynthetic activity prevails in deep-sea sediments of the Central Indian Basin.

    PubMed

    Das, Anindita; Sujith, P P; Mourya, Babu Shashikant; Biche, Sushanta U; LokaBharathi, P A

    2011-03-01

    It is hypothesized that in the deep-sea, under psychrophilic, barophilic and oligotrophic conditions, microbial community of Central Indian Basin (CIB) sediments could be chemosynthetic. In the dark, at near ambient temperature, 4 ± 2°C, 500 atm pressure, pelagic red clay could fix carbon at rates ranging from 100 to 500 nmol C g(-1) dry wt day(-1). These clays accumulate in the deepest and the most remote areas of the ocean and contain <30% biogenic material. These clays with volcanic signatures fixed 230-9,401 nmol C g(-1) dry wt day(-1) while siliceous radiolarian oozes of the basin fixed only 5-45 nmol C g(-1) dry wt day(-1). These rates are comparable to those of white smoker waters and are 1-4 orders of magnitude less than those of bacterial mats and active vents recorded at other localities worldwide. The experimental ratios of carbon fixation to metal oxidation in the sediments were 0-1 order of magnitude higher than the corresponding average theoretical ratio of 0.0215 (0.0218, 0.0222, 0.0207 and 0.0211 for Fe, Mn, Co and Ni, respectively) in the siliceous ooze. In case of pelagic red clay it was 0-2 orders higher than theoretical ratio. Thus, chemosynthetic activity could be more widespread, albeit at low rates, than previously considered for abyssal basins. These environments may be dependent partially or even wholly on in situ microbial primary production for their carbon requirements rather than on photosynthetically derived detritus from surface waters.

  20. Trace elements in lake sediment, macrozoobenthos, and fish near a coal ash disposal basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, Charles O.; Ogawa, Roann E.; Poe, Thomas P.; French, John R. P.

    1992-01-01

    Of the 29 trace elements examined, arsenic and cobalt were significantly (p <0.05) more concentrated in sediment nearest the coal ash basin except in spring, when little or no difference was detected. Arsenic and bromine were significantly higher in oligochaetes, and selenium was significantly higher in both oligochaetes and chironomids taken from proximal stations than in those taken from reference stations. Selenium, bromine, cobalt, nickel, and chromium were higher in young-of-the-year brown bullheads taken nearer the disposal basin in fall 1983. Selenium was higher in adult spottail shiners taken at the proximal station in spring 1984, and bromine was higher in yearling white bass from the proximal station in fall 1983 and 1984. None of the trace elements was higher in adult yellow perch or adult brown bullheads at any time. Fewer spottail shiners and yearling white bass were caught close to the disposal basin than far away, which may indicate avoidance by these fish of increased concentrations of trace elements contained within the ash effluent.

  1. Biosphere frontiers of subsurface life in the sedimented hydrothermal system of Guaymas Basin

    PubMed Central

    Teske, Andreas; Callaghan, Amy V.; LaRowe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is one of the key constraints on the spatial extent, physiological and phylogenetic diversity, and biogeochemical function of subsurface life. A model system to explore these interrelationships should offer a suitable range of geochemical regimes, carbon substrates and temperature gradients under which microbial life can generate energy and sustain itself. In this theory and hypothesis article, we make the case for the hydrothermally heated sediments of Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California as a suitable model system where extensive temperature and geochemical gradients create distinct niches for active microbial populations in the hydrothermally influenced sedimentary subsurface that in turn intercept and process hydrothermally generated carbon sources. We synthesize the evidence for high-temperature microbial methane cycling and sulfate reduction at Guaymas Basin – with an eye on sulfate-dependent oxidation of abundant alkanes – and demonstrate the energetic feasibility of these latter types of deep subsurface life in previously drilled Guaymas Basin locations of Deep-Sea Drilling Project 64. PMID:25132832

  2. Radiolarian polycystine in holocenic sediments from Carmen Basin, Gulf of California—their paleoenvironment significant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monzon, O.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Barbara, L.; Schmidt, S.

    2013-05-01

    In this study radiolarian assemblages are analyzed in a sedimentary sequence from Carmen Basin in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironment conditions in the study area during the past 200 (?) years. The sequence sediment (core C53) was collected using a box core in western sector of Carmen Basin, at 560 m depth, aboard the R/V El Puma. The core C53 it has 34 cm length and is characterized by silty-clays sediments and fine laminated structure throughout the core.The age model is based on 210Pb and radiocarbon AMS methods (now in progress). According with the 210Pb the sedimentation rate in the first 15 cm of the core is ca. 1.75 mm/yr. Radiolarians are counted and identified in 114 continuous samples along the core. Radiolarians are used as proxies of temperature, nutrients and ocean circulation. Here preliminary results are presented. Two hundred and ten taxa were identified in all samples, belong to Spumellaria and Nassellaria orders, 90 and 120 taxa, respectively. Twenty seven were dominant (e. g. Druppatractus variabilis, Larcopyle buetschlii, Phorticium pylonium, Tetrapyle octacantha, Arachnocorallium calvata, Clathrocircus stapedius, Cladoscenuim ancoratum, Lithomelissa pentacantha, Lithomelissa setosa, Pseudocubus obeliscus and Pseudodyctiophimus gracilipes). They are in more than 1% in average in all samples. The stratigraphy distribution of the dominant species throughout the core suggests two general environments. 1) High productivity conditions from 34.5 to 16 cm, based on the abundance of Lithomelissa pentacantha and L. setosa (surface dwelling taxa associated by upwelling processes), and 2) Less productivity and stratified conditions from16 cm to top, were Tetrapyle octacantha group and Phorticium pylonium group are dominant.

  3. Shelf-to-basin iron shuttling enhances vivianite formation in deep Baltic Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Daniel C.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal hypoxia is a growing and persistent problem largely attributable to enhanced terrestrial nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) loading. Recent studies suggest phosphorus removal through burial of iron (II) phosphates, putatively vivianite, plays an important role in nutrient cycling in the Baltic Sea - the world's largest anthropogenic dead zone - yet the dynamics of iron (II) phosphate formation are poorly constrained. To address this, a reactive-transport model was used to reconstruct the diagenetic and depositional history of sediments in the Fårö basin, a deep anoxic and sulphidic region of the Baltic Sea where iron (II) phosphates have been observed. Simulations demonstrate that transport of iron from shelf sediments to deep basins enhances vivianite formation while sulphide concentrations are low, but that pyrite forms preferentially over vivianite when sulphate reduction intensifies due to elevated organic loading. Episodic reoxygenation events, associated with major inflows of oxic waters, encourage the retention of iron oxyhydroxides and iron-bound phosphorus in sediments, increasing vivianite precipitation as a result. Results suggest that artificial reoxygenation of the Baltic Sea bottom waters could sequester up to 3% of the annual external phosphorus loads as iron (II) phosphates, but this is negligible when compared to potential internal phosphorus loads due to dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides when low oxygen conditions prevail. Thus, enhancing vivianite formation through artificial reoxygenation of deep waters is not a viable engineering solution to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Finally, simulations suggest that regions with limited sulphate reduction and hypoxic intervals, such as eutrophic estuaries, could act as important phosphorus sinks by sequestering vivianite. This could potentially alleviate eutrophication in shelf and slope environments.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, sediment and soil of the Songhua River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wan-Li; Liu, Li-Yan; Qi, Hong; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Song, Wei-Wei; Shen, Ji-Min; Chen, Zhong-Lin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Grabuski, Josey; Li, Yi-Fan

    2013-10-01

    The Songhua River is the third largest river in China and the primary source of drinking and irrigation water for northeastern China. The distribution of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water [dissolved water (DW) and suspended particulate matter (SPM)], sediment, and soil in the river basin was investigated, and the associated risk of cancer from these PAHs was also assessed. The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 13.9 to 161 ng L(-1) in DW, 9.21 to 83.1 ng L(-1) in SPM, 20.5 to 632 ng g(-1) dw (dry weight) in sediment, and from 30.1 to 870 ng g(-1) dw in soil. The compositional pattern of PAHs indicated that three-ring PAHs were predominant in DW and SPM samples, while four-ring PAHs dominated in sediment and soil samples. The spatial distribution of PAHs revealed some site-specific sources along the river, with principal component analysis indicating that these were from pyrogenic sources (such as coal and biomass combustion, and vehicle emissions) and coke oven emission distinguished as the main source of PAHs in the Songhua River Basin. Based on the ingestion of PAH-contaminated drinking water from the Songhua River, cancer risk was quantitatively estimated by combining the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk assessment model and BaP-equivalent concentration for five age groups of people (adults, teenagers, children, toddlers, and infants). Overall, the results suggest that the estimated integrated lifetime cancer risk for all groups was in acceptable levels. This study is the first attempt to provide information on the cancer risk of PAHs in drinking water from the Songhua River.

  5. Benthic foraminifera records in marine sediments during the Holocene from Pescadero basin, Gulf of California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, M.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Roy, P.; Monreal, M.; Fenero, R.

    2013-05-01

    Gravity core T-56 (256 cm length) was collected in Pescadero Basin located on the western side of the Gulf of California within the oxygen minim zone (OMZ) at 597 cm depth, aboard of the R/V "El Puma". Pescadero basin is located at mouth of the gulf; because of its location is sensitive to record the changes in the gulf and in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. The sedimentary sequence is analyzed to contribute to the understanding the oceanographic variability in the southern part of the gulf of California during the Holocene using benthic foraminifera assemblages and organic carbon as proxies of organic matter flux and bottom water oxygenation. In general, the core is characterized by silty-clay sediments, and it exhibits a turbidite between 198 and 134 cm, distinguished by sandy sediments and reworking material. From 134 cm to the top shows a visible laminated structure. The initial chronology is based on three AMS radiocarbon dates, and estimated sedimentation rates are 0.22 and 0.19 mm/yr for the first 32 cm of the core. Six radiocarbon dates are in progress. Preliminary results of benthic foraminiferal assemblages showed that species of Bolivina are dominated, mainly megalospheric forms, from 134 cm to top of the core. They are small and thin-shelled forms (e.g., Bolivina subadvena, Bolivina minuta, Bolivina seminuda, Bolivina plicata), and also Buliminella, Cassidulina and Epistominella are abundant. In particular, species of Bolivina are environmental indicators and exhibit a typical reproductive dimorphism. The predominance of the genus Bolivina suggest organic flux variations, because of the productivity changes that might be related to changes in ocean circulation and in the environmental variability in the region.

  6. Reservoir Sediment Management Workshop for Tuttle Creek Lake and Perry Lake Reservoirs in the Kansas River Basin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Sedimentation problems are severe in reservoirs on the Kansas River, where expanding water demand due to population increases must be satisfied by...ERDC/CHL CHETN-XIV-43 March 2015 Reservoir Sediment Management Workshop for Tuttle Creek Lake and Perry Lake Reservoirs in the Kansas River...USACE) reservoirs in the Kansas River basin in the state of Kansas within the U.S. Army Engineer District, Kansas City (NWK). The focus of the workshop

  7. Development of a time-stepping sediment budget model for assessing land use impacts in large river basins.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S N; Dougall, C; Kinsey-Henderson, A E; Searle, R D; Ellis, R J; Bartley, R

    2014-01-15

    The use of river basin modelling to guide mitigation of non-point source pollution of wetlands, estuaries and coastal waters has become widespread. To assess and simulate the impacts of alternate land use or climate scenarios on river washload requires modelling techniques that represent sediment sources and transport at the time scales of system response. Building on the mean-annual SedNet model, we propose a new D-SedNet model which constructs daily budgets of fine sediment sources, transport and deposition for each link in a river network. Erosion rates (hillslope, gully and streambank erosion) and fine sediment sinks (floodplains and reservoirs) are disaggregated from mean annual rates based on daily rainfall and runoff. The model is evaluated in the Burdekin basin in tropical Australia, where policy targets have been set for reducing sediment and nutrient loads to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon from grazing and cropping land. D-SedNet predicted annual loads with similar performance to that of a sediment rating curve calibrated to monitored suspended sediment concentrations. Relative to a 22-year reference load time series at the basin outlet derived from a dynamic general additive model based on monitoring data, D-SedNet had a median absolute error of 68% compared with 112% for the rating curve. RMS error was slightly higher for D-SedNet than for the rating curve due to large relative errors on small loads in several drought years. This accuracy is similar to existing agricultural system models used in arable or humid environments. Predicted river loads were sensitive to ground vegetation cover. We conclude that the river network sediment budget model provides some capacity for predicting load time-series independent of monitoring data in ungauged basins, and for evaluating the impact of land management on river sediment load time-series, which is challenging across large regions in data-poor environments.

  8. Sediment storage quantification and postglacial evolution of an inner-alpine sedimentary basin (Gradenmoos, Schober Mountains, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, J.; Buckel, J.; Otto, J. C.; Schrott, L.

    2012-04-01

    Knickpoints in longitudinal valley profiles of alpine headwater catchments can be frequently assigned to the lithological and tectonical setting, to damming effects through large (rockfall) deposits, or to the impact of Pleistocene glaciations causing overdeepened basins. As a consequence various sedimentary sinks developed, which frequently interrupt sediment flux in alpine drainage basins. Today these locations may represent landscape archives documenting a sedimentary history of great value for the understanding of alpine landscape evolution. The glacially overdeepened Gradenmoos basin at 1920 m a.s.l. (an alpine lake mire with adjacent floodplain deposits and surrounding slope storage landforms; approx. 4.1 km2) is the most pronounced sink in the studied Gradenbach catchment (32.5 km2). The basin is completely filled up with sediments delivered by mainly fluvial processes, debris flows, and rock falls, it is assumed to be deglaciated since Egesen times and it is expected to archive a continuous stratigraphy of postglacial sedimentation. As the analysis of denudation-accumulation-systems is generally based on back-calculation of stored sediment volumes to a specific sediment delivering area, most reliable results will be consequently obtained (1) if sediment output of the system can be neglected for the investigated period of time, (2) if - due to spatial scale - sediment storage can be assessed quantitatively with a high level of accuracy, and (3) if the sediment contributing area can be clearly delimited. All three aspects are considered to be fulfilled to a high degree within the Gradenmoos basin. Sediment storage is quantified using geophysical methods, core drillings and GIS modelling whereas postglacial reconstruction is based on radiocarbon dating and palynological analyses. Subject to variable subsurface conditions, different geophysical methods were applied to detect bedrock depth. Electrical resistivity surveying (2D/3D) was used most extensively as it

  9. Suspended-Sediment Loads and Yields in the North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, Water Years 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bragg, Heather M.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Uhrich, Mark A.; Piatt, David R.

    2007-01-01

    The North Santiam River provides drinking water to the residents and businesses of the city of Salem, Oregon, and many surrounding communities. Since 1998, water-quality data, including turbidity, were collected continuously at monitoring stations throughout the basin as part of the North Santiam River Basin Turbidity and Suspended Sediment Study. In addition, sediment samples have been collected over a range of turbidity and streamflow values. Regression models were developed between the instream turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration from the samples collected from each monitoring station. The models were then used to estimate the daily and annual suspended-sediment loads and yields. For water years 1999-2004, suspended-sediment loads and yields were estimated for each station. Annual suspended-sediment loads and yields were highest during water years 1999 and 2000. A drought during water year 2001 resulted in the lowest suspended-sediment loads and yields for all monitoring stations. High-turbidity events that were unrelated or disproportional to increased streamflow occurred at several of the monitoring stations during the period of study. These events highlight the advantage of estimating suspended-sediment loads and yields from instream turbidity rather than from streamflow alone.

  10. Sediment-water column fluxes of carbon, oxygen and nutrients in Bedford Basin, Nova Scotia, inferred from 224Ra measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, W. J.; Thomas, H.; Fennel, K.; Horne, E.

    2012-07-01

    Exchanges between sediment pore waters and the overlying water column play a significant role in the chemical budgets of many important chemical constituents. Quantification of such benthic fluxes requires explicit knowledge of the sediment properties and biogeochemistry. Alternatively, changes in water column properties near the sediment-water column interface can be exploited to gain insight into the sediment biogeochemistry and benthic fluxes. Here, we apply a 1-D diffusive mixing model to near-bottom water column profiles of 224Ra activity in order to yield vertical eddy diffusivities (KZ), based upon which we assess the diffusive exchange of inorganic carbon (DIC), nutrients and oxygen (O2), across the sediment-water interface in a coastal inlet, Bedford Basin, Nova Scotia, Canada. Near-bottom observations of DIC, O2 and nutrients provide flux ratios similar to Redfield values, suggesting that benthic respiration of primarily marine organic matter is the dominant driver. Furthermore, we did not observe any significant release of alkalinity (AT) from the sediments to the overlying water column, providing further insight into the dominant reactions taking place within sediments: the respiration of organic matter occurs largely under aerobic conditions or products of anaerobic processes are reoxidized quickly in oxygenated layers of the sediments. Finally, comparison with other carbon sources reveal the observed benthic DIC release as a significant contributor to the Bedford Basin carbon system.

  11. Land-use effects on erosion, sediment yields, and reservoir sedimentation: a case study in the Lago Loiza Basin, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, A.C.; Webb, R.M.T.; McIntyre, S.C.; Wolfe, W.J.

    2006-01-01

     Lago Loíza impounded in 1953 to supply San Juan, Puerto Rico, with drinking water; by 1994, it had lost 47% of its capacity. To characterize sedimentation in Lago Loíza, a study combining land-use history, hillslope erosion rates, and subbasin sediment yields was conducted. Sedimentation rates during the early part of the reservoir’s operation (1953– 1963) were slightly higher than the rates during 1964–1990. In the early history of the reservoir, cropland comprised 48% of the basin and erosion rates were high. Following economic shifts during the 1960s, cropland was abandoned and replaced by forest, which increased from 7.6% in 1950 to 20.6% in 1987. These land-use changes follow a pattern similar to the northeastern United States. Population in the Lago Loíza Basin increased 77% from 1950 to 1990, and housing units increased 194%. Sheetwash erosion measured from 1991 to 1993 showed construction sites had the highest sediment concentration (61,400 ppm), followed by cropland (47,400 ppm), pasture (3510 ppm), and forest (2050 ppm). This study illustrates how a variety of tools and approaches can be used to understand the complex interaction between land use, upland erosion, fluvial sediment transport and storage, and reservoir sedimentation

  12. Evidence For Diffusion Dominant Solute Transport In The Ordovician Sediments Of The Michigan Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, J. F.; Normani, S. D.; Yin, Y.

    2011-12-01

    A Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste has been proposed by Ontario Power Generation for the Bruce site near Tiverton, Ontario, 225 km northwest of Toronto. The DGR concept envisions a repository excavated at a depth of 680 m within the low permeability (less than 10e-14 m/s) limestone Cobourg Formation beneath 200 m of Ordovician age shale. The attributes of the hydrogeologic environment for the DGR, and the potential for solute transport from a repository, were assessed using numerical models for hypothesis testing and numerical experiments. Data for the analyses included Westbay pressure measurements from the DGR site investigation boreholes. These data indicate that the Cambrian sandstone and the Niagaran Group in the Silurian are over-pressured relative to density corrected hydrostatic levels while the Ordovician limestone and shale are significantly under-pressured. The abnormal pressures provide evidence that solute transport in the low permeable Ordovician sediments is diffusion dominant. Sedimentary basins, when at hydrological equilibrium, normally show a near-hydrostatic pressure distribution. Under certain conditions, some excess pressure or pressure greater than hydrostatic can develop in low-permeability layers or other hydraulically isolated parts of systems. The processes commonly invoked to explain these over-pressures are compaction, hydrocarbon migration, diagenesis, tectonic stress or more simply topographic effects. Explanations of abnormal under-pressures include osmosis, exhumation, glaciation unloading, crustal flexure and the presence of a non-wetting gas phase in pores. A requirement of both abnormal over-pressures and under-pressures is low hydraulic conductivity in either the formation in which the abnormal pressures are observed, or in the overlying and underlying formations. Hydraulic conductivity estimates from straddle packer tests in the DGR boreholes confirm that the hydraulic

  13. Sediment aggradation and erosional dynamics of intermontane basins in NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookhagen, Bodo; Castino, Fabiana; Purinton, Ben; Strecker, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    The NW Argentine Andes constitute the Andean Plateau (Altiplano-Puna), the second-largest orogenic plateau on Earth, an internally drained highland with a mean elevation of 4.0 ± 0.5 km (±2 sigma). The Puna is flanked by the externally drained Eastern Cordillera thrust belt and the adjacent broken foreland that are connected to the Atlantic Ocean. These mountain ranges lie in the south-central Andes and are characterized by steep topographic and climatic gradients: The first windward topographic rise east of the Puna forms a significant orographic barrier resulting in high orographic rainfall causing some of the wettest places on Earth. In contrast, the higher-elevation areas of the windward flanks become progressively drier westward, until arid conditions are attained in the central Puna. During the Quaternary the south-central Andes have repeatedly experienced significant paleoclimatic changes associated with deeper penetration of moisture into the orogen, and thus an orogenward shift of the climate gradient. This mechanism has resulted in large variations in erosion dynamics and sediment transfer toward the foreland, resulting in thick valley fills and multiple terrace levels. At much shorter timescales, climate variability during the Holocene has caused similar, yet less pronounced hydrologic trends and associated sedimentation- and erosion processes. Here, we use a time series of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) to reconstruct land-level changes in the intramontane basins in NW Argentina. We generated the DEMs and height measurements based on stereo airphotos from the 1980s, ASTER satellite imagery, ICESat and dGPS measurements during the past decade, and several TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X CoSSC pairs starting in 2013. Our data show a strong signal of fluvial sediment aggradation during the past 30 years, in places up to 0.5m per decade, which explains the regionally observed, modern sediment accumulation in basins that has caused major infrastructural problems

  14. Sedimentology of subaqueous volcaniclastic sediment gravity flows in the Neogene Santa Maria Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Ronald B.; Stanley, Richard G.

    1994-01-01

    Subaqueous tuff deposits within the lower Miocene Lospe Formation of the Santa Maria Basin, California, are up to 20 m thick and were deposited by high density turbidity flows after large volumes of ash were supplied to the basin and remobilized. Tuff units in the Lospe Formation include a lower lithofacies assemblage of planar bedded tuff that grades upward into massive tuff, which in turn is overlain by an upper lithofacies assemblage of alternating thin bedded, coarse grained tuff beds and tuffaceous mudstone. The planar bedded tuff ranges from 0.3 to 3 m thick and contains 1-8 cm thick beds that exhibit inverse grading, and low angle and planar laminations. The overlying massive tuff ranges from 1 to 10 m thick and includes large intraclasts of pumiceous tuff and stringers of pumice grains aligned parallel to bedding. The upper lithofacies assemblage of thin bedded tuff ranges from 0.4 to 3 m thick; individual beds are 6-30 cm thick and display planar laminae and dewatering structures. Pumice is generally concentrated in the upper halves of beds in the thin bedded tuff interval.The association of sedimentary structures combined with semi-quantitative analysis for dispersive and hydraulic equivalence of bubble-wall vitric shards and pumice grains reveals that particles in the planar bedded lithofacies are in dispersive, not settling, equivalence. This suggests deposition under dispersive pressures in a tractive flow. Grains in the overlying massive tuff are more closely in settling equivalence as opposed to dispersive equivalence, which suggests rapid deposition from a suspended sediment load. The set of lithofacies that comprises the lower lithofacies assemblage of each of the Lospe Formation tuff units is analogous to those of traction carpets and subsequent suspension sedimentation deposits often attributed to high density turbidity flows. Grain distributions in the upper thin bedded lithofacies do not reveal a clear relation for dispersive or settling

  15. Phenols in hydrothermal petroleums and sediment bitumen from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneit, B. R.; Leif, R. N.; Ishiwatari, R.

    1996-01-01

    The aliphatic, aromatic and polar (NSO) fractions of seabed petroleums and sediment bitumen extracts from the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal system have been analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (free and silylated). The oils were collected from the interiors and exteriors of high temperature hydrothermal vents and represent hydrothermal pyrolyzates that have migrated to the seafloor by hydrothermal fluid circulation. The downcore sediments are representative of both thermally unaltered and thermally altered sediments. The survey has revealed the presence of oxygenated compounds in samples with a high degree of thermal maturity. Phenols are one class of oxygenated compounds found in these samples. A group of methyl-, dimethyl- and trimethyl-isoprenoidyl phenols (C27-C29) is present in all of the seabed NSO fractions, with the methyl- and dimethyl-isoprenoidyl phenols occurring as major components, and a trimethyl-isoprenoidyl phenol as a minor component. A homologous series of n-alkylphenols (C13-C33) has also been found in the seabed petroleums. These phenols are most likely derived from the hydrothermal alteration of sedimentary organic matter. The n-alkylphenols are probably synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, but the isoprenoidyl phenols are probably hydrothermal alteration products of natural product precursors. The suites of phenols do not appear to be useful tracers of high temperature hydrothermal processes.

  16. Seismic stratigraphy and sedimentation of Magdalena Fan, Southern Colombian Basin, Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kolla, V.; Buffler, R.T.; Ladd, J.W.

    1984-03-01

    Analysis of all available seismic data from the Magdalena Fan in the southern Colombian basin, Caribbean Sea, allows subdivision of the sedimentary section into six seismic sequences (units). Although sediments were deposited in the present-day Magdalena Fan region since about Late Cretaceous, terrigenous sedimentation became significant only in the late Cenozoic during deposition of the upper three sequences associated with the uplifts of the Andes. These upper three sequences comprise the Magdalena Fan proper. The uppermost sequence probably represents the last main phase of sedimentation subsequent to the major uplift of the Andes in the Pliocene. The morphologic and shallow acoustic (3.5 kHz) characteristics of this fan unit are: upper fan, 1:60-1:110 gradients, channels having well-developed levees, and several subbottom reflectors in all areas except in channels; middle fan, 1:110-1:200 gradients, numerous channels with very subdued levees, and several to few subbottom reflectors; lower fan, < 1:250 gradients, small channels, relatively smooth sea floor, and few or no subbottom reflectors.

  17. Cable Bacteria Control Iron-Phosphorus Dynamics in Sediments of a Coastal Hypoxic Basin.

    PubMed

    Sulu-Gambari, Fatimah; Seitaj, Dorina; Meysman, Filip J R; Schauer, Regina; Polerecky, Lubos; Slomp, Caroline P

    2016-02-02

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for life. The release of phosphorus from sediments is critical in sustaining phytoplankton growth in many aquatic systems and is pivotal to eutrophication and the development of bottom water hypoxia. Conventionally, sediment phosphorus release is thought to be controlled by changes in iron oxide reduction driven by variations in external environmental factors, such as organic matter input and bottom water oxygen. Here, we show that internal shifts in microbial communities, and specifically the population dynamics of cable bacteria, can also induce strong seasonality in sedimentary iron-phosphorus dynamics. Field observations in a seasonally hypoxic coastal basin demonstrate that the long-range electrogenic metabolism of cable bacteria leads to a dissolution of iron sulfides in winter and spring. Subsequent oxidation of the mobilized ferrous iron with manganese oxides results in a large stock of iron-oxide-bound phosphorus below the oxic zone. In summer, when bottom water hypoxia develops and cable bacteria are undetectable, the phosphorus associated with these iron oxides is released, strongly increasing phosphorus availability in the water column. Future research should elucidate whether formation of iron-oxide-bound phosphorus driven by cable bacteria, as observed in this study, contributes to the seasonality in iron-phosphorus cycling in aquatic sediments worldwide.

  18. Sedimentation of the Cretaceous Bauru Group in São Paulo, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula e Silva, Flavio; Kiang, Chang Hung; Caetano-Chang, Maria Rita

    2009-07-01

    The post-basaltic sediments of the Cretaceous Bauru Group in the Paraná Basin cover an area of 117,000 km 2 in São Paulo State, and are subdivided into the Caiuá, Pirapozinho, Santo Anastácio, Birigüi, Araçatuba, Adamantina and Marília formations. The sedimentation of Bauru Group was controlled by a combination of post-basaltic tectonism (responsible for the migration of the depocenters), erosion and climatic changes. Three main depositional phases are separated by two erosive/non-depositional phases defining depositional sequences. The fluvial-lacustrine deposition represented by the Caiuá/Pirapozinho formations (first sequence), initially filled the basaltic substratum troughs. After an erosional interval, the Santo Anastácio Formation was deposited and overlapped (eastward) underlying beds (second sequence). Renewed erosion and tectonism initiated the last depositional sequence, with the migration of the depocenter to the Queiroz depression. High topographic gradients initially favored the accumulation of fluvial deposits of braided systems of the Birigüi Formation. With the enlarging of the depositional area, a lacustrine system was formed (Araçatuba Formation) and overlapped by a fluvial system with progradation of lacustrine deltas (Adamantina Formation). The sedimentation of the Bauru Group ceased with deposition of marginal fans of Marília Formation.

  19. Phenols in hydrothermal petroleums and sediment bitumen from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneit, B. R.; Leif, R. N.; Ishiwatari, R.

    1996-01-01

    The aliphatic, aromatic and polar (NSO) fractions of seabed petroleums and sediment bitumen extracts from the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal system have been analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (free and silylated). The oils were collected from the interiors and exteriors of high temperature hydrothermal vents and represent hydrothermal pyrolyzates that have migrated to the seafloor by hydrothermal fluid circulation. The downcore sediments are representative of both thermally unaltered and thermally altered sediments. The survey has revealed the presence of oxygenated compounds in samples with a high degree of thermal maturity. Phenols are one class of oxygenated compounds found in these samples. A group of methyl-, dimethyl- and trimethyl-isoprenoidyl phenols (C27-C29) is present in all of the seabed NSO fractions, with the methyl- and dimethyl-isoprenoidyl phenols occurring as major components, and a trimethyl-isoprenoidyl phenol as a minor component. A homologous series of n-alkylphenols (C13-C33) has also been found in the seabed petroleums. These phenols are most likely derived from the hydrothermal alteration of sedimentary organic matter. The n-alkylphenols are probably synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, but the isoprenoidyl phenols are probably hydrothermal alteration products of natural product precursors. The suites of phenols do not appear to be useful tracers of high temperature hydrothermal processes.

  20. Characterization and mobility of geogenic chromium in soils and river bed sediments of Asopos basin.

    PubMed

    Lilli, Maria A; Moraetis, Daniel; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Karatzas, George P; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-08

    A field and laboratory study was conducted to assess the origin and mobility of CrVI in Asopos basin in Greece. Sampling was designed in such way as to capture the spatial variability of chromium occurring in sediments and soils in different lithological units in the area. Physicochemical and geochemical characterization of surface agricultural soils obtained from river terraces and river bed sediments was conducted in order to determine the natural background of chromium. Lithologies with strong calcareous, siliceous and ultramafic components were identified using principal component analysis. Laboratory mobility studies quantified the rates of chromium sorption and release from soils and their capacity to adsorb chromium. Heavy metal analysis and local geology study support the hypothesis that the main source of chromium is of geogenic origin. Chromium distribution in Asopos river bed was influenced from the eroded products derived from extensive areas with ultramafic rocks the last 5Ma. The mobility studies showed that leaching process was very fast and sorption capacity was significant and capable to retain chromium in case of waste release in the river. Finally the mobility of chromium release is limited due to existing attenuation capacity controlled by ferric oxides coatings on the soil and sediments.

  1. Phenols in hydrothermal petroleums and sediment bitumen from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Simoneit, B R; Leif, R N; Ishiwatari, R

    1996-01-01

    The aliphatic, aromatic and polar (NSO) fractions of seabed petroleums and sediment bitumen extracts from the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal system have been analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (free and silylated). The oils were collected from the interiors and exteriors of high temperature hydrothermal vents and represent hydrothermal pyrolyzates that have migrated to the seafloor by hydrothermal fluid circulation. The downcore sediments are representative of both thermally unaltered and thermally altered sediments. The survey has revealed the presence of oxygenated compounds in samples with a high degree of thermal maturity. Phenols are one class of oxygenated compounds found in these samples. A group of methyl-, dimethyl- and trimethyl-isoprenoidyl phenols (C27-C29) is present in all of the seabed NSO fractions, with the methyl- and dimethyl-isoprenoidyl phenols occurring as major components, and a trimethyl-isoprenoidyl phenol as a minor component. A homologous series of n-alkylphenols (C13-C33) has also been found in the seabed petroleums. These phenols are most likely derived from the hydrothermal alteration of sedimentary organic matter. The n-alkylphenols are probably synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, but the isoprenoidyl phenols are probably hydrothermal alteration products of natural product precursors. The suites of phenols do not appear to be useful tracers of high temperature hydrothermal processes.

  2. Dynamics of daily fluctuations of suspended sediment discharge in a glacierized Andean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carillo, Ricardo; Mao, Luca; Morche, David

    2015-04-01

    Sediment transport during flood events often reveals hysteretic patterns. Hysteresis can be clockwise (when flow discharge peaks after the peak of bedload) or counterclockwise (when flow discharge peaks before the peak of bedload), and recent indexes have been developed in order to quantify the degree of hysteretic patterns. Hysteresis patterns and degree can be used to infer the dynamics of sediment availability, as counterclockwise and clockwise hysteresis have been interpreted as representative of limited and unlimited sediment supply conditions, respectively. This work focuses on the temporal variability of suspended sediment transport measured in the Estero Morales, a 27 km² Andean catchment located in central Chile. The elevations range from 1850 m a.s.l to 3815 m a.s.l., and the basin host glaciers with a current extent of 1.8 km². Runoff is dominated by snowmelt in late spring, and glacier melt from December to March. Liquid discharge and turbidity have been measured continuously from October 2013 to March 2014 and recently from October 2014 on. The analysis of the regressions between liquid discharge and turbidity reveals that a higher discharge is progressively needed to transport the same concentration of suspended sediments as the glacier melting season progresses. In fact, the coefficient a of the regressions (NTU=a*Qb) reduces, whereas the exponent b of the regressions increases overtime. The analysis of hysteretic loops of daily discharge fluctuations of spring and summer using three indexes are quite consistent in showing that patterns are mostly clockwise during snowmelt and early glacier melt period, and counterclockwise during late glacier melting. This tendency suggests a progressive reduction of sediment supply conditions overtime. Alternatively, this tendency could be interpreted as a proxy for the type and location of the main sediment source, that is likely to be the main channel and tributaries draining snowmelt in spring, and then only

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediment from a river basin: sediment-water partitioning, source identification and environmental health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caiyun; Zhang, Jiquan; Ma, Qiyun; Chen, Yanan; Ju, Hanyu

    2017-02-01

    The information on concentration levels, partitioning and sources of pollutants in aquatic environment is quite necessary for pollution treatment and quality criteria. In this work, sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) recommended by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the water and sediment of Yinma River Basin were firstly investigated. Among 16 individual PAHs, naphthalene was the highest average concentration in water samples as well as in sediment samples, 67.2 ng/L and 825.06 ng/g, respectively, whereas benzo(g,h,i)perylene was undetected in water samples nor in sediment samples. For three PAH compositional patterns, concentrations of light (2-3 ring) PAHs were dominant in water and sediment, accounting for 71.69 and 86.98 % respectively. The PAH partitioning in the sediment-water system was studied, results showed that PAH partitioning was in an unsteady state and tended to accumulate in the sediment. The possible sources of PAHs in water and sediment were both identified as a mixed source of petroleum and combustion. The benzo(a)pyrene equivalents (EBaP) values for PAHs in the water and sediment in some sites were relatively higher, suggesting the existence of environmental health risk.

  4. Bridging the gap between small and large scale sediment budgets? - A scaling challenge in the Upper Rhone Basin, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, Anna; Blöthe, Jan; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schrott, Lothar

    2016-04-01

    A large number of sediment budgets have been compiled on different temporal and spatial scales in alpine regions. Detailed sediment budgets based on the quantification of a number of sediment storages (e.g. talus cones, moraine deposits) exist only for a few small scale drainage basins (up to 10² km²). In contrast, large scale sediment budgets (> 10³ km²) consider only long term sediment sinks such as valley fills and lakes. Until now, these studies often neglect small scale sediment storages in the headwaters. However, the significance of these sediment storages have been reported. A quantitative verification whether headwaters function as sediment source regions is lacking. Despite substantial transport energy in mountain environments due to steep gradients and high relief, sediment flux in large river systems is frequently disconnected from alpine headwaters. This leads to significant storage of coarse-grained sediment along the flow path from rockwall source regions to large sedimentary sinks in major alpine valleys. To improve the knowledge on sediment budgets in large scale alpine catchments and to bridge the gap between small and large scale sediment budgets, we apply a multi-method approach comprising investigations on different spatial scales in the Upper Rhone Basin (URB). The URB is the largest inneralpine basin in the European Alps with a size of > 5400 km². It is a closed system with Lake Geneva acting as an ultimate sediment sink for suspended and clastic sediment. We examine the spatial pattern and volumes of sediment storages as well as the morphometry on the local and catchment-wide scale. We mapped sediment storages and bedrock in five sub-regions of the study area (Goms, Lötschen valley, Val d'Illiez, Vallée de la Liène, Turtmann valley) in the field and from high-resolution remote sensing imagery to investigate the spatial distribution of different sediment storage types (e.g. talus deposits, debris flow cones, alluvial fans). These sub

  5. A 10Be-based sediment budget of the Upper Rhône basin, Central Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutenbecker, Laura; Delunel, Romain; Schlunegger, Fritz; Akçar, Naki; Christl, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    The Upper Rhône catchment located in southwestern Switzerland is one of the largest Alpine intramontane basins and, due to high topographic gradients and intense glacial conditioning, an important sediment factory in the Alps. Sediment is being produced in around 50 tributary basins, transported along the 150 km long course of the Rhône River, and deposited in the river delta and associated subaquatic canyons within Lake Geneva, its primary sedimentary sink. In order to quantify the modern sediment fluxes in this Alpine basin we infer catchment-wide denudation rates from concentrations of the cosmogenic nuclide 10Be in quartz extracted from modern fluvial sediment of the major tributary basins. Additionally, 10Be-based denudation rates are calculated for 14 locations along the main Rhône River to track downstream changes. Results from the tributary basins show a large scatter of 10Be concentrations and their respective inferred denudation rates, ranging from 9.72 x 104 atoms/g and 0.17 mm/a to 0.13 x 104 atoms/g and 2.64 mm/a. The Rhône basin does show a rather large spatial variability of parameters that are known to possibly influence denudation rates, for example recent rock uplift rates, lithology, precipitation and temperature, as well as geomorphological parameters such as relief, mean elevation and slope values. However, there is no significant correlation between those parameters and the calculated denudation rates. Instead, the denudation rates are found to be positively correlated with the recent glacial cover in the catchments. This suggests that in glaciated basins glaciogenic material with very low 10Be concentrations is the dominating source of sediment, and inferred denudation rates must be interpreted with great care, as they may overestimate the actual rates. Downstream the main Rhône River the 10Be-concentrations are rather stable and do not record significant inputs of the glaciogenic material supplied by the glaciated basins. Possible

  6. Risk Evaluation of Multiple Hazards during Sediment and Water Related Disasters in a Small Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanoi, Kazuki; Fujita, Masaharu

    2016-04-01

    To reduce human damage due to sediment and water related disasters induced by heavy rainfall, warning and evacuation system is very important. In Japan, the Meteorological Agency issues the sediment disaster alert when the potential of sediment disaster increases. Following the alert, local government issues evacuation advisory considering the alert and premonitory phenomena. However, it is very difficult for local people to perceive the dangerousness around them because the alert and advisory do not contain any definite information. Therefore, they sometimes misjudge the evacuation action. One reason of this is not only crucial hazards but also relatively small-scale multiple hazards take place and rise evacuation difficulties during sediment and water related disaster. Examples of small-scale hazards include: rainfall-associated hazards such as poor visibility or road submergence; landslide-associated hazards such as slope failure or sediment inflow; and flood-associated hazards such as overtopping of river dike, inundation, or destruction of bridges. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of multiple hazards during disaster events by numerical simulation. We applied the integrated sediment runoff model on unit channels, unit slopes, and slope units to an actual sediment and water related disaster occurred in a small basin in Tamba city, Hyogo, Japan. The maximum rainfall per hour was 91 mm (17/09/2014 2:00˜3:00) and the maximum daily precipitation was 414mm. The integrated model contains semi-physical based landslide prediction (sediment production) model, rainfall runoff model employing the kinematic wave method, model of sediment supply to channels, and bedload and suspended sediment transport model. We evaluated the risk of rainfall-associated hazards in each slope unit into 4 levels (Level I ˜ IV) using the rainfall intensity Ir [mm/hour]. The risk of flood- associated hazards were also estimated using the ratio of calculated water level and

  7. Sediment volume estimates of the middle-shelf grounding-zone wedge in the Glomar-Challenger-Basin paleotrough, Eastern Basin Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, P. J.; Owolana, B.

    2010-12-01

    Previously-acquired geophysical data revealed the existence of what appeared to be two grounding-zone wedges (GZW-4b and GZW-4a) on the middle continental shelf of Glomar Challenger Basin - a paleo-trough in Eastern Basin, Ross Sea. Our ongoing integration of seismic data with a large-area multibeam survey acquired during NBP0802 and NBP0803 reveals that the morphological complex is part of a single grounding zone wedge. In particular, a feature previously interpreted to be a grounding-zone-wedge foreset surface for the second GZW (i.e., GZW 4a) is here re-interpreted to be a basinward-dipping erosional scarp. The scarp was eroded at the eastern edge of the ice stream as it over-rode the southern backside of the grounding zone wedge. Thus, the sediment volume of the grounding-zone wedge is significantly larger than previously estimated and the number of pauses of the WAIS during its retreat from Eastern Basin in Glomar-Challenger Basin is reduced by one. As of this writing, we tentatively estimate the sediment volume of the grounding-zone wedge to be 28,125 x 106 m3. Utilizing a recent estimate of sediment flux for the modern Whillans Ice Stream suggests that the middle-shelf grounding-zone wedge was constructed within approximately 5,500 years.

  8. Paleomagnetism and rock magnetism of the Lago Lungo sediments (Rieti basin, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Florindo, Fabio; Mensing, Scott; Noble, Paula; Piovesan, Gianluca; Tunno, Irene

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of a high-resolution rock magnetic and paleomagnetic study of the sedimentary sequence of Lago Lungo, in the Rieti basin of the central Apennines (Italy). The Rieti Plain is an intramontane basin with an area about 90 km2, located about 80 km north of Rome, filled by alluvial sediments and bordered by mountains composed of carbonate and siliciclastic deposits. The basin has been nearly continuously utilized for agriculture for >2,300 years and it is characterized by the diffuse occurrence of springs along the plain border. It presently includes a few shallow lakes which represent the remnants of a larger ancient lake (known as "Lacus Velinus"), that was partially drained by the Romans in 272 BCE through the drainage system of the "Cascata delle Marmore". The basin is characterized by very high sedimentation rates during historical times, with preservation of a lacustrine sequence suitable for reconstruction of past environmental change at decadal resolution. In this study, we analyzed the rock magnetic and paleomagnetic properties measured at 1-cm spacing on u-channel samples collected from four distinct and partly overlapping cores retrieved from Lago Lungo, in a water depth of 4.4 m. The composite section that we analyzed spans a total sedimentary thickness of about 15 m. The cores were also analyzed for their pollen and diatom content, as well as for geochemical proxies, with the aim of reconstructing a detailed record of forest and land use changes, flood occurrence and erosion history in the Rieti basin catchment. The trends in the rock magnetic and paleomagnetic parameters can be correlated at high resolution between the overlapping sections of the different cores. The variation in the concentration of magnetic minerals in the Lago Lungo sequence - as indicated by the trends in the magnetic susceptibility (k), natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) values - shows some distinct sharp features

  9. Effects of hydrology, watershed size, and agricultural practices on sediment yields in two river basins in Iowa and Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merten, Gustavo Henrique; Welch, Heather L.; Tomer, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    The specific sediment yield (SSY) from watersheds is the result of the balance between natural, scale-dependent erosion and deposition processes, but can be greatly altered by human activities. In general, the SSY decreases along the course of a river as sediments are trapped in alluvial plains and other sinks. However, this relation between SSY and basin area can actually be an increasing one when there is a predominance of channel erosion relative to hillslope erosion. The US Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study of suspended sediment in the Iowa River basin (IRB), Iowa, and the Yazoo River basin (YRB), Mississippi, from 2006 through 2008. Within each river basin, the SSY from four largely agricultural watersheds of various sizes (2.3 to 35,000 km2 [0.9 to 13,513 mi2]) was investigated. In the smallest watersheds, YRB sites had greater SSY compared to IRB sites due to higher rain erosivity, more erodible soils, more overland flow, and fluvial geomorphological differences. Watersheds in the YRB showed a steady decrease in SSY with increasing drainage basin area, whereas in the IRB, the maximum SSY occurred at the 30 to 500 km2 (11.6 to 193 mi2) scale. Subsurface tile drainage and limits to channel downcutting restrict the upstream migration of sediment sources in the IRB. Nevertheless, by comparing the SSY-basin size scaling relationships with estimated rates of field erosion under conservation and conventional tillage treatments reported in previous literature, we show evidence that the SSY-basin size relationship in both the IRB and YRB remain impacted by historical erosion rates that occurred prior to conservation efforts.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of a sediment dynamics model applied in a Mediterranean river basin: global change and management implications.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Canales, M; López-Benito, A; Acuña, V; Ziv, G; Hamel, P; Chaplin-Kramer, R; Elorza, F J

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and land-use change are major factors influencing sediment dynamics. Models can be used to better understand sediment production and retention by the landscape, although their interpretation is limited by large uncertainties, including model parameter uncertainties. The uncertainties related to parameter selection may be significant and need to be quantified to improve model interpretation for watershed management. In this study, we performed a sensitivity analysis of the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs) sediment retention model in order to determine which model parameters had the greatest influence on model outputs, and therefore require special attention during calibration. The estimation of the sediment loads in this model is based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The sensitivity analysis was performed in the Llobregat basin (NE Iberian Peninsula) for exported and retained sediment, which support two different ecosystem service benefits (avoided reservoir sedimentation and improved water quality). Our analysis identified the model parameters related to the natural environment as the most influential for sediment export and retention. Accordingly, small changes in variables such as the magnitude and frequency of extreme rainfall events could cause major changes in sediment dynamics, demonstrating the sensitivity of these dynamics to climate change in Mediterranean basins. Parameters directly related to human activities and decisions (such as cover management factor, C) were also influential, especially for sediment exported. The importance of these human-related parameters in the sediment export process suggests that mitigation measures have the potential to at least partially ameliorate climate-change driven changes in sediment exportation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Late Quaternary co-seismic sedimentation in the Sea of Marmara's deep basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Christian; Mercier de Lépinay, Bernard; Schneider, Jean-Luc; Cremer, Michel; Çağatay, Namik; Wendenbaum, Evrard; Boutareaud, Sébastien; Ménot, Guillemette; Schmidt, Sabine; Weber, Olivier; Eris, Kadir; Armijo, Rolando; Meyer, Bertrand; Pondard, Nicolas; Gutscher, Marc-André; Turon, J.-L.; Labeyrie, L.; Cortijo, E.; Gallet, Y.; Bouquerel, Hélène; Gorur, N.; Gervais, A.; Castera, M.-H.; Londeix, L.; de Rességuier, A.; Jaouen, A.; Marmacore Cruise Party

    2007-07-01

    The deep, northern, part of the Sea of Marmara (northwestern Turkey) is composed of several aligned, actively subsiding, basins, which are the direct structural and morphological expression of the North-Anatolian Fault's northern branch. The last 20 kyr of their sedimentary fill (non-marine before 12 kyr BP) have been investigated through giant piston coring onboard R/V MARION-DUFRESNE (MARMACORE Cruise, 2001) and by chirp sub-bottom profiler onboard R/V ATALANTE during MARMARASCARPS Cruise (2002). Especially during the lacustrine stage, the infilling of the deep basins (Tekirdağ, Central, Kumburgaz, and Çinarcic Basins; up to 1250-m depth) was dominated by turbidites (with coarse mixed siliciclastic and bioclastic basal parts), intercalated in "hemipelagic-type" fine-grained calcareous and slightly siliceous clays. Often the turbidites show strong segregation and a sharp boundary between a coarse lower part and a suspended-load upper part. In the Central Basin, 8 m of a unique sedimentary event include a 5 to 8-m thick "homogenite" well imaged on seismic profiles. The latter is interpreted as related to a major - possibly earthquake-triggered - tsunami effect, as described in the Eastern Mediterranean by Kastens and Cita [Kastens K. and Cita M.B., 1981. Tsunami-induced sediment transport in the abyssal Mediterranean Sea. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 92:845-857]. In the marine (Holocene) upper part of the sedimentary fill, repeated to-and-from structures, affecting silt or fine sand, are evidencing seiche-like effects and, thus, earthquake triggering. Detailed correlations between two deep coring sites (at 1250 m and 1200 m) indicate more than 100% over-thickening in the deepest one; this implies specific processes of distribution of terrigenous input by dense currents (high kinetic energy, seiche effects, complex reflections on steep slopes). The peculiar sedimentary fill of the Sea of Marmara's Central Basin is interpreted as a direct consequence of

  12. Transport of Water, Carbon, and Sediment Through the Yukon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Schuster, Paul F.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a water-quality study of the Yukon River. The Yukon River Basin (YRB), which encompasses 330,000 square miles in northwestern Canada and central Alaska (fig. 1), is one of the largest and most diverse ecosystems in North America. The Yukon River is more than 1,800 miles long and is one of the last great uncontrolled rivers in the world, and is essential to the eastern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea ecosystems, providing freshwater runoff, sediments, and nutrients (Brabets and others, 2000). Despite its remoteness, recent studies (Hinzman and others, 2005; Walvoord and Striegl, 2007) indicate the YRB is changing. These changes likely are in response to a warming trend in air temperature of 1.7i??C from 1951 to 2001 (Hartmann and Wendler, 2005). As a result of this warming trend, permafrost is thawing in the YRB, ice breakup occurs earlier on the main stem of the Yukon River and its tributaries, and timing of streamflow and movement of carbon and sediment through the basin is changing (Hinzman and others, 2005; Walvoord and Striegl, 2007). One of the most striking characteristics in the YRB is its seasonality. In the YRB, more than 75 percent of the annual streamflow runoff occurs during a five month period, May through September. This is important because streamflow determines when, where, and how much of a particular constituent will be transported. As an example, more than 95 percent of all sediment transported during an average year also occurs during this period (Brabets and others, 2000). During the other 7 months, streamflow, concentrations of sediment and other water-quality constituents are low and little or no sediment transport occurs in the Yukon River and its tributaries. Streamflow and water-quality data have been collected at more than 50 sites in the YRB (Dornblaser and Halm, 2006; Halm and Dornblaser, 2007). Five sites have been sampled more than 30 times and others have been sampled twice

  13. Erosion processes, fluvial sediment transport, and reservoir sedimentation in a part of the Newell and Zayante Creek basins, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The drainage basins upstream from Loch Lomond, a water-supply reservoir on Newell Creek, and a proposed reservoir site on Zayante Creek were investigated for their characteristics with respect to the erosion, transportation, and deposition of sediment. The study area is underlain predominantly by sandstone, siltstone, and shale of Tertiary age that decompose readily into moderately deep soils, friable colluvium, and easily transported sediment particles. The Rices Mudstone and Twobar, Shale Members of the San Lorenzo Formation of Brabb (1964) underlie steep dip slopes in the study area, and probably are the most highly erodible of the several geologic units present there. However, nearly all of the geologic units have shown a propensity for accelerated erosion accompanying the disturbance of the land surface by the roadbuilding practices that predominate over other types of sediment-producing land-use activities in the study area. Sediment transport in the study area was estimated from (1) a reservoir survey of Loch Lomond in 1971 that was compared with a preconstruction survey of 1960, and (2) sampling of sediment transported in suspension by Zayante Creek during the 1970 and 1971 water years. At least 46 acre-feet of sediment accumulated in Loch Lomond in a 10-year period, and an unmeasured quantity of very fine sediment in the form of a thin layer over much of the reservoir bottom was observed. The measured quantity of deposited sediment in a 10-year period represented a sediment yield of about 1,100 tons annually per square mile of drainage basin upstream from the reservoir arms where the major deposition occurred. This sediment occupied less than i percent of the original capacity of Loch Lomond, but the volume of measured sediment deposition is probably conservative in view of the unmeasured deposits observed and a reservoir trap efficiency of about 95 percent. Sediment sampling on Zayante Creek indicated suspended-sediment yields of about 4,570 and 570 tons

  14. Estimating the combined effects of road-induced landslides and reservoir sediment trapping on the regional sediment budget in the Lancang Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Schmitt, R. J. P.; Kondolf, G. M.; Huang, Y.; Xie, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Roads are essential for rural development, but road construction can also increase hillslope erosion rates, disconnect ecosystems, and disrupt social structures. Moreover, we identify a feedback between road-induced landslides and reservoirs: Dam construction commonly requires road construction for access, and the new roads themselves can accelerate rural development, which induces further road construction. Poorly sited or constructed roads on steep slopes increase risks of landslides, which increase sediment loads, and thus increase the rate of sediment accumulation in downstream reservoirs, which can damage turbines and shorten reservoir life. However, landslide-generated sediment reaching rivers downstream of dams could compensate for reduced sediment loads from sediment trapping in reservoirs. We quantified the combined effects ofroad and reservoir development on river sediment transport and reservoir sedimentation rates in the Chinese Lancang Basin (165,000 km2). We mapped landslides along all highways, national roads, and provincial roads (total length 4845 km), as well as on slopes opposite of roads (as control sites to estimate ambient landslide rates). We determined the relative increase in landslide risks due to road construction, estimated slide volumes, and classified landslide connectivity to the fluvial system. From this inventory, we quantified the spatial and temporal distribution of road-induced landslides and estimated sediment inputs to the Lancang River. Our findings indicate that road-induced landslides significantly exceed naturally occurring landslides both in frequency and area, and are changing the regional sediment budget, though overall, sediment transport in the Lancang is reduced due to the larger alteration- sediment trapping in reservoirs.Our results highlight links between resource management and geomorphic change, and the need to consider human impacts on regional scales and from interacting processes.

  15. Analysis of suspended-sediment concentrations and radioisotope levels in the Wild Rice River basin, northwestern Minnesota, 1973-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brigham, Mark E.; McCullough, Carolyn J.; Wilkinson, Philip M.

    2001-01-01

    We examined historical suspended-sediment data and activities of fallout radioisotopes (lead-210 [210Pb], cesium-137 [137Cs], and beryllium-7 [7Be]) associated with suspended sediments and source-area sediments (cultivated soils, bank material, and reference soils) in the Wild Rice River Basin, a tributary to the Red River of the North, to better understand sources of suspended sediment to streams in the region. Multiple linear regression analysis of suspended-sediment concentrations from the Wild Rice River at Twin Valley, Minnesota indicated significant relations between suspended-sediment concentrations and streamflow. Flow-adjusted sediment concentrations tended to be slightly higher in spring than summer-autumn. No temporal trends in concentration were observed during 1973-98. The fallout radioisotopes were nearly always detectable in suspended sediments during spring-summer 1998. Mean 210Pb and 7Be activities in suspended sediment and surficial, cultivated soils were similar, perhaps indicating little dilution of suspended sediment from low-isotopic-activity bank sediments. In contrast, mean 137Cs activities in suspended sediment indicated a mixture of sediment originating from eroded soils and from eroded bank material, with bank material being a somewhat more important source upstream of Twin Valley, Minnesota; and approximately equal fractions of bank material and surficial soils contributing to the suspended load downstream at Hendrum, Minnesota. This study indicates that, to be effective, efforts to reduce sediment loading to the Wild Rice River should include measures to control soil erosion from cultivated fields.

  16. Thermal alteration of organic matter in recent marine sediments. 1: Pigments. [photosynthetic pigments from Tanner Basin off Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikan, R.; Aizenshtat, Z.; Baedecker, M. J.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1974-01-01

    Sediment from Tanner Basin, the outer continental shelf off Southern California, was analyzed for photosynthetic pigments and their derivatives, namely carotenes and chlorins. Samples of the sediment were also exposed to raised temperatures (65, 100, 150 C) for various periods of time (1 week, 1 month, 2 months). Analysis of the heat-treated sediment revealed the presence of alpha-ionene and 2,6-dimethylnapthalene, thermal degradation products of Betacarotente. Chlorins were converted to nickel porphyrins of both DPEP and etio series. Possible mechanisms of these transformations are presented.

  17. Global Climate Change and Sedimentation Patterns in the Neogene Baringo Basin, Central Kenya Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deino, A. L.; Kingston, J. D.; Wilson, K. E.; Hill, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Tugen Hills are part of a ~100 km N-S tilted fault block, just west of Lake Baringo within the Central Kenyan Rift Valley. Sediments exposed in this block span the last 16 Ma and have yielded abundant and diverse fossil assemblages including a number of hominoid and hominid specimens. Much research has also focused on documenting the paleoecology of the succession through analyses of fossil floral, faunal, and biogeochemical proxies. Data from the Tugen Hills have revealed a complex evolutionary history of ecosystems characterized by spatial and temporal heterogeneity with no clear evidence of any long-term trends. While these studies suggest that the patterns of heterogeneity may be shifting at short time-scales (104-105 ka), limited temporal resolution has until now generally precluded assessments of environmental change at these scales. Recently published investigations in the Baringo Basin have provided evidence of orbitally mediated environmental change over periods which include hominid fossil localities (Deino et al., 2006; Kingston et al., 2007). The Baringo data represent the only empirical evidence for significant local environmental shifts that can directly be correlated with insolation patterns in equatorial Africa. Sedimentation patterns in the Baringo Basin between ca. 2.70 and 2.55 Ma, controlled by climatic factors, provide a detailed paleoenvironmental record including a sequence of diatomites that record rhythmic cycling of major freshwater lake systems consistent with ~23 kyr Milankovitch precessional periodicity modulated by eccentricity. The timing of the paleolakes most closely approximates insolation maximum for the June/July 30○N insolation curve, suggesting that precipitation patterns in the region are controlled by the African monsoon system. More recent fieldwork has identified older sequences that similarly demonstrate rhythmic cycling of freshwater lake systems. Preliminary 40Ar/39Ar dating of intercalated tephra reveals that

  18. Fungal diversity from deep marine subsurface sediments (IODP 317, Canterbury Basin, New Zealand)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redou, V.; Arzur, D.; Burgaud, G.; Barbier, G.

    2012-12-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest regarding micro-eukaryotic communities in extreme environments as a third microbial domain after Bacteria and Archaea. However, knowledge is still scarce and the diversity of micro-eukaryotes in such environments remains hidden and their ecological role unknown. Our research program is based on the deep sedimentary layers of the Canterbury Basin in New Zealand (IODP 317) from the subsurface to the record depth of 1884 meters below seafloor. The objectives of our study are (i) to assess the genetic diversity of fungi in deep-sea sediments and (ii) identify the functional part in order to better understand the origin and the ecological role of fungal communities in this extreme ecosystem. Fingerprinting-based methods using capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography were used as a first step to raise our objectives. Molecular fungal diversity was assessed using amplification of ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacer 1) as a biomarker on 11 samples sediments from 3.76 to 1884 meters below seafloor. Fungal molecular signatures were detected throughout the sediment core. The phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were revealed with DNA as well as cDNA. Most of the phylotypes are affiliated to environmental sequences and some to common fungal cultured species. The discovery of a present and metabolically active fungal component in this unique ecosystem allows some interesting first hypotheses that will be further combined to culture-based methods and deeper molecular methods (454 pyrosequencing) to highlight essential informations regarding physiology and ecological role of fungal communities in deep marine sediments.

  19. Connectivity and scale effect on sediment fluxes dynamic from the hillslope to the river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdan, Olivier; Landemaine, Valentin; Vandromme, Rosalie; Gay, Aurore; Laignel, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    The phenomena of erosion and sediment transport are often observed with a time lag and / or space within a watershed, especially between the upstream and downstream areas. This difference between runoff and erosion assessments that depends on the size of observation is commonly called the "scale effect". This effect has often been studied globally and reduced runoff and erosion rates are generally reported as one moves from the local to the regional level. To quantify the scale effect, local erosion models are often linked to the empirical concept of SDR (Sediment