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Sample records for 183-h basin sludge

  1. 183-H Basin Mixed Waste Analysis and Testing Report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this sampling and analysis report is to provide data necessary to support treatment and disposal options for the low-level mixed waste from the 183-H solar evaporation ponds. In 1973, four of the 16 flocculation and sedimentation basins were designated for use as solar evaporation basins to provide waste reduction by natural evaporation of liquid chemical wastes from the 300 Area fuel fabrication facilities. The primary purpose of this effort is to gather chemical and bulk property data for the waste in the drums/boxes of sediment removed from the basin at Central Waste Complex.

  2. Groundwater monitoring plan for the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, M.J.

    1997-05-01

    Groundwater monitoring at the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins is regulated under Washington Administrative Code 173-303-645. Proposed in this plan is the first phase of a final-status, corrective action monitoring program for the site. The monitoring network consists of four existing wells: 199-H4-3, 199-H4-7, 199-H4-12A, and 199-H4-12C. Well 199-H4-12C is completed at the base of the unconfined aquifer; the other wells are screened at the water table. Wells 199-H4-7 and 199-H4-12A are groundwater extraction wells used in a pump-and-treat system. Groundwater samples will be collected from each well annually. Samples will be analyzed for the following: (1) constituents of concern (i.e., chromium, nitrate, technetium-99, and uranium) and fluoride; (2) additional constituents to aid data interpretation (e.g., alkalinity, anions, and metals); and (3) field parameters routinely acquired at the wellhead (e.g., pH, specific conductance, temperature, and turbidity). The objective of monitoring during operation of the pump-and-treat system is to determine whether concentrations of the contaminants of concern are decreasing.

  3. Geohydrologic characterization of the area surrounding the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Liikala, T.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Aimo, N.J.; Bates, D.J.; Gilmore, T.J.; Jensen, E.J.; Last, G.V.; Oberlander, P.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Oster, K.R.; Roome, L.R.; Simpson, J.C.; Teel, S.S.; Westergard, E.J.

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to achieve regulatory compliance with the applicable ground-water monitoring requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC). An assessment-level compliance monitoring project was established for the 183-H Basins because hazardous waste constituents were known to have entered the ground water beneath the facility. Three phases were defined for this project, with work being concentrated in five areas: geology, hydrology, ground-water monitoring, geochemistry, and ground-water modeling. These characterization activities have resulted in the definition of principal lithologic and hydrostratigraphic units. Ground-water monitoring results indicated a contamination peak, which occurred between April and August 1986. Further monitoring has shown that nitrate, sodium, gross alpha, and gross beta are the clearest indicators of ground-water contamination attributable to the 183-H Basins. In addition, the concentrations of these contaminants are affected by variations in Columbia River stage. Future studies will focus on continued ground-water monitoring throughout the closure and post-closure periods for the 183-H Basins, sampling of the Columbia River and nearby ground-water springs, and soil sampling adjacent to the facility. 45 refs., 90 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. RESULTS OF GROUNDWATER MONITORING FOR THE 183-H SOLAR EVAPORATION BASINS AND 300 AREA PROCESS TRENCHES JANUARY-JUNE 2010

    SciTech Connect

    WEEKES, D. C.

    2010-11-07

    This is one of a series of reports on Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 monitoring at the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins and the 300 Area Process Trenches. It fulfills the requirement of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-645(11) to report twice each year on the effectiveness of the corrective action program. This report covers the period from January through June 2010. The concentrations of 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins contaminants remained below applicable concentration limits during the reporting period. The most recent exceedance of a concentration limit was May 2007. The overall concentration of uranium in 300 Area Process Trenches wells remained above the 20 {micro}g/L concentration limit in the three downgradient wells screened at the water table. Fluctuations of uranium concentration are caused by changes in river stage. The concentration of cis-l ,2-dichloroethene remained above the 70 {micro}g/L concentration limit in one deep well (399-1-16B). Concentrations are relatively steady at this well and are not affected by river stage. Trichloroethene concentrations were below detection limits in all wells during the reporting period.

  5. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    SciTech Connect

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-03-15

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.

  6. K Basins sludge removal temporary sludge storage tank system

    SciTech Connect

    Mclean, M.A.

    1997-06-12

    Shipment of sludge from the K Basins to a disposal site is now targeted for August 2000. The current path forward for sludge disposal is shipment to Tank AW-105 in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). Significant issues of the feasibility of this path exist primarily due to criticality concerns and the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) in the sludge at levels that trigger regulation under the Toxic Substance Control Act. Introduction of PCBs into the TWRS processes could potentially involve significant design and operational impacts to both the Spent Nuclear Fuel and TWRS projects if technical and regulatory issues related to PCB treatment cannot be satisfactorily resolved. Concerns of meeting the TWRS acceptance criteria have evolved such that new storage tanks for the K Basins sludge may be the best option for storage prior to vitrification of the sludge. A reconunendation for the final disposition of the sludge is scheduled for June 30, 1997. To support this decision process, this project was developed. This project provides a preconceptual design package including preconceptual designs and cost estimates for the temporary sludge storage tanks. Development of cost estimates for the design and construction of sludge storage systems is required to help evaluate a recommendation for the final disposition of the K Basin sludge.

  7. Summary status of K Basins sludge characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.B.

    1995-01-20

    A number of activities are underway as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project (SNFP) related to the processing and disposing of sludge in the 105-K Basins (K Basins). Efforts to rigorously define data requirements for these activities are being made using the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process. Summaries of current sludge characterization data are required to both help support this DQO process and to allow continued progress with on-going engineering activities (e.g., evaluations of disposal alternatives). This document provides the status of K Basins sludge characterization data currently available to the Nuclear Fuel Evaluations group. This group is tasked by the SNFP to help develop and maintain the characterization baseline for the K Basins. The specific objectives of this document are to: (1) provide a current summary (and set of references) of sludge characterization data for use by SNFP initiatives, to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort and to support on-going initiatives; (2) submit these data to an open forum for review and comment, and identify additional sources of significant data that may be available; (3) provide a summary of current data to use as part of the basis to develop requirements for additional sludge characterization data through the DQO process; (4) provide an overview of the intended activities that will be used to develop and maintain the sludge characterization baseline.

  8. K Basin sludge treatment process description

    SciTech Connect

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-08-28

    The K East (KE) and K West (KW) fuel storage basins at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site contain sludge on the floor, in pits, and inside fuel storage canisters. The major sources of the sludge are corrosion of the fuel elements and steel structures in the basin, sand intrusion from outside the buildings, and degradation of the structural concrete that forms the basins. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be treated so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the double-shell waste tanks. The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office accepted a recommendation by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc., to chemically treat the sludge. Sludge treatment will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. A truck will transport the resulting slurry to an underground storage tank (most likely tank 241-AW-105). The undissolved solids will be treated to reduce the transuranic (TRU) and content, stabilized in grout, and transferred to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) for disposal. This document describes a process for dissolving the sludge to produce waste streams that meet the TWRS acceptance criteria for disposal to an underground waste tank and the ERDF acceptance criteria for disposal of solid waste. The process described is based on a series of engineering studies and laboratory tests outlined in the testing strategy document (Flament 1998).

  9. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2001-03-14

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focused on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report will present results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge.

  10. Project Management Plan 105-KE Basin sludge retrieval and packaging

    SciTech Connect

    McWethy, L.M.

    1994-11-07

    The KE Basin contains over 1,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The bulk of this inventory consists of over 50,000 zircaloy clad, uranium metal N-Reactor fuel element assemblies, along with less than half a metric ton of single-pass reactor fuel elements, stored in over 3,600 open top canister assemblies. In addition, sludge containing fissile and fission product material from damaged/degraded fuel has accumulated in the basin. The sludge, particularly the fines, impacts basin operations by clouding the water and making activities requiring a clear view impossible to complete until after sludge settles. Packaging would get the sludge out of the operator`s way and allow it to be moved within the basin in a more manageable state. The primary project objective is to develop, procure, and quality the equipment needed to remove all sludge from the KE Basin with minimal dose commitment, minimal cost, and on schedule. The project will provide: (1) the development, testing, and installation of equipment for sludge retrieval and packaging; (2) understanding of and experience with actual sludge through near-term sludge packaging feature tests in the KE Basin; (3) sludge removal and handling equipment required to support debris removal, fuel handling, and other activities involving sludge within the KE Basin; and (4) enlist industry expertise in all phases of the project. This Project Management Plant establishes the organizational responsibilities, control systems, and procedures for the execution of project activities for KE Basin sludge retrieval packaging, to meet programmatic requirements within authorized funding and approved schedules.

  11. Functions and requirements for 105-KE Basin sludge retrieval and packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Feigenbutz, L.V.

    1994-12-16

    Sludge, and the clouding due to sludge, interferes with basin operation and maintenance activities. This document defines the overall functions and requirements for sludge retrieval and packaging activities to be performed in the 105-KE Basin.

  12. Preparing T Plant for Storing Sludge from the K Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, W. S.; Erpenbeck, E. G.; McKenney, D. E.; Shrader, T. A.

    2003-02-25

    For a number of years, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the N Reactor has been stored underwater in the basins at the 100 K Area complex of the Hanford Site (K Basins). Fluor Hanford is managing a significant effort to remove the fuel from the K Basins and place it in dry storage. Removing accumulated sludges from the basins is also a part of this activity. Over time, corrosion by-products from degrading fuel rods, storage-rack rust, concrete fragments from pool walls, and environmental particulates have led to the accumulation of sludge on the floors and in the pits of the K Basins. Handling and cleaning the SNF as it is removed from the K Basins will generate additional sludge. Due to the age and condition of the basins, there is a potential for sludge and basin water to leak into the environment. This potential has created the impetus for removing the sludge, in addition to the fuel, from the basins as quickly as possible and placing it in a safe and secure storage configuration pending disposition.

  13. Comparison of toxicological and radiological aspects of K basins sludge

    SciTech Connect

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-10-27

    The composition of various K Basins sludge is evaluated for its toxicological and radiological impacts downwind from accidents. It is shown that the radiological risk evaluation guidelines are always more limiting than the toxicological risk evaluation guidelines.

  14. Analysis of sludge from Hanford K East Basin canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B.J.; Welsh, T.L.; Baker, R.B.; Hoppe, E.W.; Schmidt, A.J.; Abrefah, J.; Tingey, J.M.; Bredt, P.R.; Golcar, G.R.

    1997-09-12

    Sludge samples from the canisters in the Hanford K East Basin fuel storage pool have been retrieved and analyzed. Both chemical and physical properties have been determined. The results are to be used to determine the disposition of the bulk of the sludge and to assess the impact of residual sludge on dry storage of the associated intact metallic uranium fuel elements. This report is a summary and review of the data provided by various laboratories. Although raw chemistry data were originally reported on various bases (compositions for as-settled, centrifuged, or dry sludge) this report places all of the data on a common comparable basis. Data were evaluated for internal consistency and consistency with respect to the governing sample analysis plan. Conclusions applicable to sludge disposition and spent fuel storage are drawn where possible.

  15. Shear Strength Measurement Benchmarking Tests for K Basin Sludge Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Carolyn A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Luna, Maria; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-06-10

    Equipment development and demonstration testing for sludge retrieval is being conducted by the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) at the MASF (Maintenance and Storage Facility) using sludge simulants. In testing performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (under contract with the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company), the performance of the Geovane instrument was successfully benchmarked against the M5 Haake rheometer using a series of simulants with shear strengths (τ) ranging from about 700 to 22,000 Pa (shaft corrected). Operating steps for obtaining consistent shear strength measurements with the Geovane instrument during the benchmark testing were refined and documented.

  16. SLUDGE RETRIEVAL FROM HANFORD K WEST BASIN SETTLER TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    ERPENBECK EG; LESHIKAR GA

    2011-01-13

    In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was deployed to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from ten submerged tanks in Hanford's K-West Basin. As part of K-West Basin cleanup, the accumulated sludge needed to be removed from the 0.5 meter diameter by 5 meter long settler tanks and transferred approximately 45 meters to an underwater container for sampling and waste treatment. The abrasive, dense, non-homogeneous sludge was the product of the washing process of corroded nuclear fuel. It consists of small (less than 600 micron) particles of uranium metal, uranium oxide, and various other constituents, potentially agglomerated or cohesive after 10 years of storage. The Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS) was developed to access, mobilize and pump out the sludge from each tank using a standardized process of retrieval head insertion, periodic high pressure water spray, retraction, and continuous pumping of the sludge. Blind operations were guided by monitoring flow rate, radiation levels in the sludge stream, and solids concentration. The technology developed and employed in the STRS can potentially be adapted to similar problematic waste tanks or pipes that must be remotely accessed to achieve mobilization and retrieval of the sludge within.

  17. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  18. K Basin sludge polychlorinated biphenyl removal technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-08-25

    The two Hanford K Basins are water-filled concrete pools that contain over 2,100 metric tons of N Reactor fuel elements stored in aluminum or stainless steel canisters. During the time the fuel has been stored, approximately 50 m3 of heterogeneous solid material have accumulated in the basins. This material, referred to as sludge, is a mixture of fuel corrosion products, metallic bits of spent fuel and zirconium clad iron and metal corrosion products and silica from migrating sands. Some of the sludges also contain PCBs. The congener group of PCBs was identified as Aroclor 1254. The maximum concentration of sludge PCBS was found to be 140 ppm (as settled wet basis). However, the distribution of the PCBs is non-uniform throughout the sludge (i.e., there are regions of high and low concentrations and places where no PCBs are present). Higher concentrations could be present at various locations. Aroclors 1016/1242, 1221, 1248, 1254, and 1260 were identified and quantified in K West (KW) Canister sludge. In some of these samples, the concentration of 1260 was higher than 1254. The sludge requires pre-treatment to meet tank farm waste acceptance criteria, Among the numerous requirements, the sludge should be retreated so that it does not contain regulated levels of Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) compounds. Because of their stable chemistry and relative insolubility in water, PCBs are difficult to treat. They also resist degradation from heat and electrical charges. This stability has resulted in environmental persistence which has prompted the development of a variety of new cleanup processes including supercritical processes, advanced oxidation, dehalogenation and others. Hopefully, most of the new processes are discussed herein. Information on new processes are being received and will be evaluated in a future revision.

  19. K Basin sludge/resin bead separation test report

    SciTech Connect

    Squier, D.M.

    1998-08-25

    The K Basin sludge is an accumulation of fuel element corrosion products, organic and inorganic ion exchange materials, canister gasket materials, iron and aluminum corrosion products, sand, dirt and minor amounts of other organic material. The sludge will be collected and treated for storage and eventual disposal. This process will remove the large solid materials by a 1/4 inch screen. The screened material will be subjected to nitric acid in a chemical treatment process. The organic ion exchange resin beads produce undesirable chemical reactions with the nitric acid. The resin beads must be removed from the bulk material and treated by another process. An effective bead separation method must extract 95% of the resin bead mass without entraining more than 5% of the other sludge component mass. The test plan I-INF-2729, ``Organic Ion Exchange Resin Separation Methods Evaluation,`` proposed the evaluation of air lift, hydro cyclone, agitated slurry and elutriation resin bead separation methods. This follows the testing strategy outlined in section 4.1 of BNF-2574, ``Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process``. Engineering study BNF-3128, ``Separation of Organic Ion Exchange Resins from Sludge,`` Rev. 0, focused the evaluation tests on a method that removed the fine sludge particles by a sieve and then extracted the beads by means of a elutriation column. Ninety-nine percent of the resin beads are larger than 125 microns and 98.5 percent are 300 microns and larger. Particles smaller than 125 microns make up the largest portion of sludge in the K Basins. Eliminating a large part of the sludge`s non-bead component will reduce the quantity that is lifted with the resin beads in the elutriation column. Resin bead particle size distribution measurements are given in Appendix A The Engineering Testing Laboratory conducted measurements of a elutriation column`s ability to extract resin beads from a sieved, non-radioactive sludge

  20. Analysis of sludge from K East basin floor and weasel pit

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-04

    Sludge samples from the floor of the Hanford K East Basin fuel storage pool have been retrieved and analyzed. Both chemical and physical properties have been determined. The results are to be used to determine the disposition of the bulk of the sludge and possibly assess the impact of residual sludge on dry storage of the associated intact metallic uranium fuel elements.

  1. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Testing: Nitric Acid Dissolution Testing of K East Canister Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C.D.; Delegard, C.H.; Burgeson, I.E.: Schmidt, A.J.; Bredt, P.R.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-01

    This report describes tests performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) as part of the overall activities for the development of the K Basin Sludge Treatment System. These tests were conducted to examine the dissolution behavior of a K East Basin canister sludge composite in nitric acid at the following concentrations: 2 M, 4 M, 6 M, 7.8 M and 10 M and temperatures of 25 C and boiling. Assuming that the sludge was 100% uranium metal, a 4X stoichiometric excess of nitric acid was used for all testing, except that conducted at 4 M. In the 4 M nitric acid dissolution test, 50% excess nitric acid was used resulting in a dissolver solution with a significantly higher solids loading. The boiling tests were conducted for 11 hr, the 25 C dissolution tests were conducted from 24 hr to 2 weeks. For the 25 C dissolution testing, the weight percent residual solids was determined, however, chemical and radiochemical analyses were not performed.

  2. Feasibility report on criticality issues associated with storage of K Basin sludge in tanks farms

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, T.S.

    1997-05-29

    This feasibility study provides the technical justification for conclusions about K Basin sludge storage options. The conclusions, solely based on criticality safety considerations, depend on the treatment of the sludge. The two primary conclusions are, (1) untreated sludge must be stored in a critically safe storage tank, and (2) treated sludge (dissolution, precipitation and added neutron absorbers) can be stored in a standard Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) or 241-AW-105 without future restrictions on tank operations from a criticality safety perspective.

  3. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Fate of PCBs During K Basin Sludge Dissolution in Nitric Acid and with Hydrogen Peroxide Addition

    SciTech Connect

    GM Mong; AJ Schmidt; EW Hoppe; KH Pool; KL Silvers; BM Thornton

    1999-01-04

    The work described in this report is part of the studies being performed to address the fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in K Basin sludge before the sludge can be transferred to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) double shell tanks. One set of tests examined the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the disposition of PCBs in a simulated K Basin dissolver solution containing 0.5 M nitric acid/1 M Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. A second series of tests examined the disposition of PCBs in a much stronger ({approx}10 M) nitric acid solution, similar to that likely to be encountered in the dissolution of the sludge.

  4. DESIGN OF A SYSTEM TO RETRIEVE SLUDGE FROM THE K EAST SPENT FUEL BASIN AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    Twitchell, A.L.; MacLean, G.T.; Ho, Q.T.; Fort, D.L.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the Sludge Retrieval System (SRS), which was designed to safely remove radioactive sludge from the K East spent fuel basin at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. Basin water and sludge have the potential to leak to the environment due to the age and condition of the basins. Since the 100 K Area spent fuel basins are located next to the Columbia River, the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project mission includes the safe removal, containment, and transportation of sludge from the basins to a secure storage location. The scope of the SRS includes: A system capable of retrieving sludge from the K East basin floor, pits, and fuel canisters; Separation of debris from sludge, where debris is defined as any material greater than 0.64 cm (0.25 in.) in diameter; Collection of sludge particles in a container that can be transported away from the basin; Modifications to the K East basin to allow installation of the SRS. The SRS was designed by Fluor Federal Services. Changes to the designed system were made by Fluor Hanford as a result of full-scale testing performed after design. This paper discusses this testing, as well as operation and control of the system. Construction and startup testing was initially scheduled to be complete by the end of December 2002. Startup of the system is now expected in April 2003.

  5. Assessment of the quantities and distribution of K East Basin floor sludge constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, S.L.

    1996-10-01

    Floor sludge constituent masses and their spatial distribution within K East Basin were calculated. This information will be beneficial in the assessing the acceptability of K Basin sludge in the Tank Waste Remediation System and in the design and/or operational practices related to retrieval and handling of this K Basin sludge. Calculations were made based on results from recent laboratory chemical and radionuclides analyses of sludge sampled from thirteen locations in K East main basin. This concentration data was mathematically processed to determine the various constituents concentration distribution throughout the basin floor. This data was further processed, along with data previously generated from the analysis of measured sludge depths, to give both basin total masses and associated spatial distribution of the various sludge constituents. Results of these calculations, showed that the major gravimetric constituents of the sludge are iron (1505 kg), uranium (1387 kg), aluminum, sodium and c2@15cium. Significant amounts of fissionable materials were also calculated: u (9.92 kg) and 239pU (3.42 kg). The calculated distribution of sludge constituent masses showed distinct patterns. Sludge constituent associated with corroded spent nuclear fuel were concentrated near the north-west corner of the basin. Aluminum and iron, and many other elements are mainly located near the mouth of the South Load Out Pit. A value of 10,200 Ci of alpha (5%) + beta (95%) radioactivity was calculated for the total basin floor sludge, and was concentrated near the north-west corner of the basin and near the Dummy Elevator Pit.

  6. Composition and Technical Basis for K Basin Settler Sludge Simulant for Inspection, Retrieval, and Pump Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2007-06-25

    This report provides the formulation and technical basis for a K Basin Settler Tank Sludge simulant that will be used by the K Basin Closure Project (KBC) to test and develop equipment/approaches for Settler Tank sludge level measurement and retrieval in a mock-up test system of the actual Settler Tanks. The sludge simulant may also be used to demonstrate that the TOYO high pressure positive displacement pump design (reversing valves and hollow balls) is suitable for transfer of Settler Tank sludge from the K West (KW) Basin to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) (~500 ft). As requested the by the K Basins Sludge Treatment Project (STP) the simulant is comprised of non-radioactive (and non-uranium) constituents.

  7. Strength Measurements of Archive K Basin Sludge Using a Soil Penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

    2011-12-06

    Spent fuel radioactive sludge present in the K East and K West spent nuclear fuel storage basins now resides in the KW Basin in six large underwater engineered containers. The sludge will be dispositioned in two phases under the Sludge Treatment Project: (1) hydraulic retrieval into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and transport to interim storage in Central Plateau and (2) retrieval from the STSCs, treatment, and packaging for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In the years the STSCs are stored, sludge strength is expected to increase through chemical reaction, intergrowth of sludge crystals, and compaction and dewatering by settling. Increased sludge strength can impact the type and operation of the retrieval equipment needed prior to final sludge treatment and packaging. It is important to determine whether water jetting, planned for sludge retrieval from STSCs, will be effective. Shear strength is a property known to correlate with the effectiveness of water jetting. Accordingly, the unconfined compressive strengths (UCS) of archive K Basin sludge samples and sludge blends were measured using a pocket penetrometer modified for hot cell use. Based on known correlations, UCS values can be converted to shear strengths. Twenty-six sludge samples, stored in hot cells for a number of years since last being disturbed, were identified as potential candidates for UCS measurement and valid UCS measurements were made for twelve, each of which was found as moist or water-immersed solids at least 1/2-inch deep. Ten of the twelve samples were relatively weak, having consistencies described as 'very soft' to 'soft'. Two of the twelve samples, KE Pit and KC-4 P250, were strong with 'very stiff' and 'stiff' consistencies described, respectively, as 'can be indented by a thumb nail' or 'can be indented by thumb'. Both of these sludge samples are composites collected from KE Basin floor and Weasel Pit locations. Despite both strong sludges having

  8. PROGRESS WITH K BASINS SLUDGE RETRIEVAL STABILIZATION & PACKAGING AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR SITE

    SciTech Connect

    KNOLLMEYER, P.M.; PHILLIPS, C; TOWNSON, P.S.

    2006-01-30

    This paper shows how Fluor Hanford and BNG America have combined nuclear plant skills from the U.S. and the U.K. to devise methods to retrieve and treat the sludge that has accumulated in K Basins at the Hanford Site over many years. Retrieving the sludge is the final stage in removing fuel and sludge from the basins to allow them to be decontaminated and decommissioned, so as to remove the threat of contamination of the Columbia River. A description is given of sludge retrieval using vacuum lances and specially developed nozzles and pumps into Consolidation Containers within the basins. The special attention that had to be paid to the heat generation and potential criticality issues with the irradiated uranium-containing sludge is described. The processes developed to re-mobilize the sludge from the Consolidation Containers and pump it through flexible and transportable hose-in-hose piping to the treatment facility are explained with particular note made of dealing with the abrasive nature of the sludge. The treatment facility, housed in an existing Hanford building, is described, and the uranium-corrosion and grout packaging processes explained. The uranium corrosion process is a robust, tempered process very suitable for dealing with a range of differing sludge compositions. Optimization and simplification of the original sludge corrosion process design is described and the use of transportable and reusable equipment is indicated. The processes and techniques described in the paper are shown to have wide applicability to nuclear cleanup.

  9. Characterization of Hanford N Reactor spent fuel and K Basin sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B.J.; Omberg, R.P.; Trimble, D.J.; Baker, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    Characterization is in progress for the N Reactor fuel stored in the Hanford K Basins. These activities` support the strategy for removal of fuel from the basins and storage of fuel in a dry condition at an area remote from the Columbia River. This strategy currently consists of placing fuel in a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), drying the fuel while it resides in the MCO and conditioning some portion of the fuel to reduce its chemical reactivity. Characterization includes the examination of fuel, canisters, and associated sludge. It consists firstly of in-basin activities such as visual examination, sludge depth measurements, and sampling of gas and liquid in canisters. Secondly characterization ecompasses the examination of samples of fuel and sludge which have been removed from the basins and shipped to laboratories. This paper presents observations made in the basins during the most recent attempts to ship samples from the basins and data obtained in the laboratory hotcells.

  10. Characteristics of KE Basin Sludge Samples Archived in the RPL - 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

    2011-11-22

    Samples of sludge were collected from the K East fuel storage basin (KE Basin) floor, contiguous pits (Weasel Pit, North Load Out Pit, Dummy Elevator Pit, and Tech View Pit), and fuel storage canisters between 1995 and 2003 for chemical and radionuclide concentration analysis, physical property determination, and chemical process testing work. Because of the value of the sludge in this testing and because of the cost of obtaining additional fresh samples, an ongoing program of sludge preservation has taken place with the goals to track the sludge identities and preserve, as well as possible, the sludge composition by keeping the sludge in sealed jars and maintaining water coverage on the sludge consistent with the controlling Fluor Hanford (FH) Sampling and Analysis plans and FH contracts with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This work was originally initiated to provide material for planned hydrothermal treatment testing in accordance with the test plan for the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) corrosion process chemistry follow on testing (Delegard et al. 2007). Although most of the planned hydrothermal testing was canceled in July 2007 (as described in the forward of Delegard et al. 2007), sample consolidation and characterization was continued to identify a set of well-characterized sludge samples that are suited to support evolving STP initiatives. The work described in the letter was performed by the PNNL under the direction of the Sludge Treatment Project, managed by Fluor Hanford.

  11. Determination of Uranium Metal Concentration in Irradiated Fuel Storage Basin Sludge Using Selective Dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Welsh, Terri L.; Pool, Karl N.

    2014-03-01

    Uranium metal corroding in water-saturated sludges now held in the US Department of Energy Hanford Site K West irradiated fuel storage basin can create hazardous hydrogen atmospheres during handling, immobilization, or subsequent transport and storage. Knowledge of uranium metal concentration in sludge thus is essential to safe sludge management and process design, requiring an expeditious routine analytical method to detect uranium metal concentrations as low as 0.03 wt% in sludge even in the presence of 30 wt% or higher total uranium concentrations.

  12. Effects of Time, Heat, and Oxygen on K Basin Sludge Agglomeration, Strength, and Solids Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2011-01-04

    Sludge disposition will be managed in two phases under the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project. The first phase is to retrieve the sludge that currently resides in engineered containers in the K West (KW) Basin pool at ~10 to 18°C. The second phase is to retrieve the sludge from interim storage in the sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and treat and package it in preparation for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The work described in this report was conducted to gain insight into how sludge may change during long-term containerized storage in the STSCs. To accelerate potential physical and chemical changes, the tests were performed at temperatures and oxygen partial pressures significantly greater than those expected in the T Plant canyon cells where the STSCs will be stored. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of 50°C oxygenated water exposure on settled quiescent uraninite (UO2) slurry and a full simulant of KW containerized sludge to determine the effects of oxygen and heat on the composition and mechanical properties of sludge. Shear-strength measurements by vane rheometry also were conducted for UO2 slurry, mixtures of UO2 and metaschoepite (UO3•2H2O), and for simulated KW containerized sludge. The results from these tests and related previous tests are compared to determine whether the settled solids in the K Basin sludge materials change in volume because of oxidation of UO2 by dissolved atmospheric oxygen to form metaschoepite. The test results also are compared to determine if heating or other factors alter sludge volumes and to determine the effects of sludge composition and settling times on sludge shear strength. It has been estimated that the sludge volume will increase with time because of a uranium metal → uraninite → metaschoepite oxidation sequence. This increase could increase the number of containers required for storage and increase overall costs of sludge management activities. However, the volume

  13. STP K Basin Sludge Sample Archive at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY2014

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Smoot, Margaret R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) currently houses 88 samples (~10.5 kg) of K Basin sludge (81 wet and seven dry samples) on behalf of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), which is managed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Selected samples are intended to serve, in part, as sentinels to enhance understanding of sludge properties after long-term storage, and thus enhance understanding of sludge behavior following transfer to sludge transfer and storage containers (STSCs) and storage at the Hanford 200 Area central plateau. In addition, remaining samples serve in contingency for future testing requirements. At PNNL, the samples are tracked and maintained under a prescriptive and disciplined monthly sample-monitoring program implemented by PNNL staff. This report updates the status of the K Basin archive sludge sample inventory to April 2014. The previous inventory status report, PNNL 22245 (Fiskum et al. 2013, limited distribution report), was issued in February of 2013. This update incorporates changes in the inventory related to repackaging of 17 samples under test instructions 52578 TI052, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging for Continued Long Term Storage, and 52578 TI053, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging Post-2014 Shear Strength Measurements. Note that shear strength measurement results acquired in 2014 are provided separately. Specifically, this report provides the following: • a description of the K Basin sludge sample archive program and the sample inventory • a summary and images of the samples that were repackaged in April 2014 • up-to-date images and plots of the settled density and water loss from all applicable samples in the inventory • updated sample pedigree charts, which provide a roadmap of the genesis and processing history of each sample in the inventory • occurrence and deficiency reports associated with sample storage and repackaging

  14. Life-cycle cost and impacts: alternatives for managing KE basin sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Alderman, C.J.

    1997-06-27

    This document presents the results of a life-cycle cost and impacts evaluation of alternatives for managing sludge that will be removed from the K Basins. The two basins are located in the 100-K Area of the Hanford Site. This evaluation was conducted by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and its subcontractors to support decisions regarding the ultimate disposition of the sludge. The long-range plan for the Hanford Site calls for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), sludge, debris, and water to be removed from the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins. This activity will be conducted as a removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The scope of the CERCLA action will be limited to removing the SNF, sludge, debris, and water from the basins and transferring them to authorized facilities for interim storage and/or treatment and disposal. The scope includes treating the sludge and water in the 100-K Area prior to the transfer. Alternatives for the removal action are evaluated in a CERCLA engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) and include different methods for managing sludge from the KE Basins. The scope of the removal action does not include storing, treating, or disposing of the sludge once it is transferred to the receiving facility and the EE/CA does not evaluate those downstream activities. This life-cycle evaluation goes beyond the EE/CA and considers the full life-cycle costs and impacts of dispositioning sludge.

  15. Final Report - Gas Generation Testing of Uranium Metal in Simulated K Basin Sludge and in Grouted Sludge Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Gano, Sue; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2004-08-19

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being considered for the disposal of K Basin sludge as RH-TRU. Because the hydrogen gas concentration in the 55-gallon RH-TRU sealed drums to be transported to WIPP is limited by flammability safety, the number of containers and shipments likely will be driven by the rate of hydrogen generated by the uranium metal-water reaction (U + 2 H{sub 2}O {yields} UO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}) in combination with the hydrogen generated from water and organic radiolysis. Gas generation testing was conducted with uranium metal particles of known surface area, in simulated K West (KW) Basin canister sludge and immobilized in candidate grout solidification matrices. This study evaluated potential for Portland cement and magnesium phosphate grouts to inhibit the reaction of water with uranium metal in the sludge and thereby permit higher sludge loading to the disposed waste form. The best of the grouted waste forms decreased the uranium metal-water reaction by a factor of four.

  16. Engineering study: 105KE to 105KW Basin fuel and sludge transfer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gant, R.G.

    1994-09-20

    In the last five years, there have been three periods at the 105KE fuel storage basin (KE Basin) where the reported drawdown test rates were in excess of 25 gph. Drawdown rates in excess of this amount have been used during past operations as the primary indicators of leaks in the basin. The latest leak occurred in March, 1993. The reported water loss from the KE Basin was estimated at 25 gph. This engineering study was performed to identify and recommend the most feasible and practical method of transferring canisters of irradiated fuel and basin sludge from the KE Basin to the 105KW fuel storage basin (KW Basin). Six alternatives were identified during the performance of this study as possible methods for transferring the fuel and sludge from the KE Basin to the KW Basin. These methods were then assessed with regard to operations, safety, radiation exposure, packaging, environmental concerns, waste management, cost, and schedule; and the most feasible and practical methods of transfer were identified. The methods examined in detail in this study were based on shipment without cooling water except where noted: Transfer by rail using the previously used transfer system and water cooling; Transfer by rail using the previously used transfer system (without water cooling); Transfer by truck using the K Area fuel transfer cask (K Area cask); Transfer by truck using a DOE shipping cask; Transfer by truck using a commercial shipping cask; and Transfer by truck using a new fuel shipping cask.

  17. Management Of Hanford KW Basin Knockout Pot Sludge As Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, R. E.; Evans, K. M.

    2012-10-22

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) and AREVA Federal Services, LLC (AFS) have been working collaboratively to develop and deploy technologies to remove, transport, and interim store remote-handled sludge from the 10S-K West Reactor Fuel Storage Basin on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, WA, USA. Two disposal paths exist for the different types of sludge found in the K West (KW) Basin. One path is to be managed as Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) with eventual disposal at an SNF at a yet to be licensed repository. The second path will be disposed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, NM. This paper describes the systems developed and executed by the Knockout Pot (KOP) Disposition Subproject for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as SNF, (i.e., KOP material).

  18. Packaging design criteria for the K east basin sludge transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomaszewski, T.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-11

    This packaging design criteria (PDC) establishes the onsite transportation safety criteria for a reusable packaging and transport system to transport K East Basin sludge and water.This PDC provides the basis for the development of a safety analysis report for packaging; establishes the packaging contents and safety class of the package; and provides design criteria for the package, packaging, and transport systems.

  19. Sludge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenbaum, David

    1992-01-01

    Cites a recycling success story involving sludge production from wastewater and transformation into an effective plant fertilizer. Discusses related concerns such as dealing with pollutants like heavy metals and PCBs often found in sludge. Provides an example of an application of sludge produced in Chicago to an area reclamation site. (MCO)

  20. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Project Results from Test 4, ''Acid Digestion of Mixed-Bed Ion Exchange Resin''

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Delegard, C.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-02

    Approximately 73 m{sup 3} of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (HSNF) project has conducted a number of evaluations to examine technology and processing alternatives to pretreat K Basin sludge to meet storage and disposal requirements. From these evaluations, chemical pretreatment has been selected to address criticality issues, reactivity, and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Chemical pretreatment, referred to as the K Basin sludge conditioning process, includes nitric acid dissolution of the sludge (with removal of acid insoluble solids), neutrons absorber addition, neutralization, and reprecipitation. Laboratory testing is being conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide data necessary to develop the sludge conditioning process.

  1. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Testing Nitric Acid Dissolution Testing of K East Area Sludge Composite, Small- and Large-Scale Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C.D.; Delegard, C.H.; Burgeson, I.E.; Schmidt, A.J.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-02

    This report describes work performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to support the development of the K Basin Sludge Treatment System. For this work, testing was performed to examine the dissolution behavior of a K East Basin floor and Weasel Pit sludge composite, referred to as K East area sludge composite, in nitric acid at the following concentrations: 2 M, 4 M, 6 M and 7.8 M. With the exception of one high solids loading test the nitric acid was added at 4X the stoichiometric requirement (assuming 100% of the sludge was uranium metal). The dissolution tests were conducted at boiling temperatures for 24 hours. Most of the tests were conducted with {approximately}2.5 g of sludge (dry basis). The high solids loading test was conducted with {approximately}7 g of sludge. A large-scale dissolution test was conducted with 26.5 g of sludge and 620 mL of 6 M nitric acid. The objectives of this test were to (1) generate a sufficient quantity of acid-insoluble residual solids for use in leaching studies, and (2) examine the dissolution behavior of the sludge composite at a larger scale.

  2. Assessment of Jet Erosion for Potential Post-Retrieval K-Basin Settled Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Beric E.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-09-29

    Packaged K-Basin sludge will be transported to the T Plant on the Hanford Site where it will be interim stored. The sludge will be retrieved from the storage containers and processed for disposal. A sample of high uranium content canister sludge, designated 96-13, "self-cemented" during laboratory storage. This sample was uncharacteristically strong compared to expected K-Basin material. The purpose for this work is to evaluate the potential retrieval of such sludge after storage at the T Plant via jet erosion. The specific objectives of this report are to determine the modes of erosion and the methods used to measure/assess the erodibility parameters of sludge and identify those parameters applicable to jet erosion. The erodibility parameters of sample 96-13 are characterized to the extent possible. These objectives have been met based on literature review, past experience at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and observation of sample 96-13 video during hot-cell activities.

  3. 105-K Basin material design basis feed description for spent nuclear fuel project facilities. Volume 2: Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-08-30

    Volume 2 provides the design feed compositions for the baseline K East and K West Basin sludge process streams expected to be generated during Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project activities. Four types of feeds are required to support evaluation of specific facility and process considerations during the development of new facilities and processes. These four design feeds provide nominal and bounding conditions for design evaluations. Volume 2 includes definition of inventories for: (1) KE and KW Basins sludge locations (pit sludges, floor sludge, canister.sludge, and wash sludge components), (2) nominal feed for each of five process feed streams, (3) shielding design feed, (4) safety/regulatory assessment feed, and (5) criticality assessment feed.

  4. Transportability Class of Americium in K Basin Sludge under Ambient and Hydrothermal Processing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-08-01

    This report establishes the technical bases for using a ''slow uptake'' instead of a ''moderate uptake'' transportability class for americium-241 (241Am) for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) dose consequence analysis. Slow uptake classes are used for most uranium and plutonium oxides. A moderate uptake class has been used in prior STP analyses for 241Am based on the properties of separated 241Am and its associated oxide. However, when 241Am exists as an ingrown progeny (and as a small mass fraction) within plutonium mixtures, it is appropriate to assign transportability factors of the predominant plutonium mixtures (typically slow) to the Am241. It is argued that the transportability factor for 241Am in sludge likewise should be slow because it exists as a small mass fraction as the ingrown progeny within the uranium oxide in sludge. In this report, the transportability class assignment for 241Am is underpinned with radiochemical characterization data on K Basin sludge and with studies conducted with other irradiated fuel exposed to elevated temperatures and conditions similar to the STP. Key findings and conclusions from evaluation of the characterization data and published literature are summarized here. Plutonium and 241Am make up very small fractions of the uranium within the K Basin sludge matrix. Plutonium is present at about 1 atom per 500 atoms of uranium and 241Am at about 1 atom per 19000 of uranium. Plutonium and americium are found to remain with uranium in the solid phase in all of the {approx}60 samples taken and analyzed from various sources of K Basin sludge. The uranium-specific concentrations of plutonium and americium also remain approximately constant over a uranium concentration range (in the dry sludge solids) from 0.2 to 94 wt%, a factor of {approx}460. This invariability demonstrates that 241Am does not partition from the uranium or plutonium fraction for any characterized sludge matrix. Most of the K Basin sludge characterization

  5. Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located on the floor and in the pits of the 105-K basins

    SciTech Connect

    BAKER, R.B.

    1998-11-20

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the sampling of the sludge found on the floor and in the remote pits of the 105-K Basins to provide: (1) basic data for the sludges that have not been characterized to-date and (2) representative Sludge material for process tests to be made by the SNF Project/K Basins sludge treatment process subproject. The sampling equipment developed will remove representative samples of the radioactive sludge from underwater at the K Basins, depositing them in shielded containers for transport to the Hanford Site laboratories. Included in the present document is the basic background logic for selection of the samples to meet the requirements established in the Data Quality Objectives (DQO), HNF-2033, for this sampling activity. The present document also includes the laboratory analyses, methods, procedures, and reporting that will be required to meet the DQO.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Uranium Oxides in Support of the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2008-07-08

    Uraninite (UO2) and metaschoepite (UO3·2H2O) are the uranium phases most frequently observed in K Basin sludge. Uraninite arises from the oxidation of uranium metal by anoxic water and metaschoepite arises from oxidation of uraninite by atmospheric or radiolytic oxygen. Studies of the oxidation of uraninite by oxygen to form metaschoepite were performed at 21°C and 50°C. A uranium oxide oxidation state characterization method based on spectrophotometry of the solution formed by dissolving aqueous slurries in phosphoric acid was developed to follow the extent of reaction. This method may be applied to determine uranium oxide oxidation state distribution in K Basin sludge. The uraninite produced by anoxic corrosion of uranium metal has exceedingly fine particle size (6 nm diameter), forms agglomerates, and has the formula UO2.004±0.007; i.e., is practically stoichiometric UO2. The metaschoepite particles are flatter and wider when prepared at 21°C than the particles prepared at 50°C. These particles are much smaller than the metaschoepite observed in prolonged exposure of actual K Basin sludge to warm moist oxidizing conditions. The uraninite produced by anoxic uranium metal corrosion and the metaschoepite produced by reaction of uraninite aqueous slurries with oxygen may be used in engineering and process development testing. A rapid alternative method to determine uranium metal concentrations in sludge also was identified.

  7. CONSOLIDATION OF K BASIN SLUDGE DATA AND EXPERIENCES ON AGGLOMERATE FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    HILL SR

    2010-06-10

    The formation of high sludge strength agglomerates is a key concern to the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) to ensure the sludge can be retrieved after planned storage for up to 10 years in Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) at T Plant. This report addresses observations of agglomerate formation, conditions that the data shows lead to agglomeration, the frequency of agglomerate formation and postulated physiochemical mechanisms that may lead to agglomeration. Although the exact underlying chemistry of K Basin sludge agglomerate formation is not known, the factors that lead to agglomeration formation, based on observations, are as follows: (1) High Total Uranium Content (i.e., sample homogeneity and influence from other constituents); (2) Distribution of Uranium Phases (i.e., extent of conversion from uraninite to uranium oxide hydroxide compounds); (3) Sample Dry-out (loss of cover water); (4) Elevated temperature; (5) Solubility ofU(IV) phases vs. U(VI) phases; and (6) Long storage times. Agglomerated sludge has occurred infrequently and has only been observed in four laboratory samples, five samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (performed for 7 to 10 hours at {approx}185 C and 225 psig), and indirectly during six sampling events in the KE Basin. In the four laboratory samples where agglomerates were observed, the agglomerates exhibited high shear strength and the sample container typically had to be broken to remove the solids. The total uranium content (dry basis) for the four samples (KE Pit, KC-2/3 SS, KC-2/3 M250 and 96-13) were {approx}8 wt%, {approx}59.0 wt%, 68.3 wt% and 82 wt%. The agglomerates that were present during the six sampling events were undoubtedly disturbed and easily broken apart during sample collection, thus no agglomerates were observed in subsequent laboratory analyses. The highest shear strengths measured for K Basin sludge samples were obtained after hydrothermal treatment (7 to 10 hr at 185 C) of high-uranium-content KE

  8. 105-K Basin Material Design Basis Feed Description for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities VOL 2 Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    PEARCE, K.L.

    2000-04-05

    Volume 2 provides estimated chemical and radionuclide inventories of sludge currently stored within the Hanford Site's 105-K Basin This volume also provides estimated chemical and radionuclide inventories for the sludge streams expected to be generated during Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project activities.

  9. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-06-08

    Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrate’s beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ~60°C, 80°C, and 95°C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal

  10. Data quality objectives for sampling of sludge from the K West and K East Basin floor and from other Basin areas

    SciTech Connect

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1998-10-21

    This document addresses the characterization strategy for those types of sludge not previously characterized or discussed in previous DQO documents. It seeks to ascertain those characteristics of uncharacterized Sludge which are unique with respect to the properties already determined for canister and K East Basin floor Sludge. Also recent decisions have resulted in the need for treatment of the Sludge prior to its currently identified disposal path to the Hanford waste tanks. This has resulted in a need for process development testing for the treatment system development.

  11. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    SciTech Connect

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-03-24

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the dissolver

  12. Particle Size (Sieving) and Enthalpy (Acid Calorimetry) Analysis of Single-Pull K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludges

    SciTech Connect

    PR Bredt; CH Delegard; AJ Schmidt; KL Silvers; BM Thornton; S Gano

    2000-12-22

    This report presents the results of particle size analyses and calorimetry testing performed on selected single-pull sludge samples collected from the Hanford K East Basin between December 1998 and June 1999. The samples were collected as isolated cores predominantly from areas that had not been previously sampled (e.g., North Loadout Pit, Dummy Elevator Pit, Tech View Pit), or from areas in which the sludge composition had been altered since the last sampling (e.g., Weasel Pit). Particle size analyses were performed by washing wet sludge samples through a series of four sieves with openings of 250, 500, 1410, and 4000 {micro}m. The loaded sieves were weighed before and after drying to obtain wet and dry particle size distributions. Knowledge of the particle size distribution is needed to design and predict the performance of the systems that will be used to retrieve, transport, and recover sludge. Also, sieving provides an opportunity to observe the components in the sludge. For example, during sieving of the sludge sample from the North Loadout Pit, significant quantities of organic ion exchange beads were observed. The uranium metal content and the particle size of the uranium metal in the K Basin sludge will largely determine the chemical reactivity of the sludge. In turn, the designs for the sludge handling and storage systems must be compatible with the reactivity of the sludge. Therefore, acid calorimetry was performed to estimate the uranium metal content of the sludge. For this testing, sludge samples were dissolved in nitric acid within a calibrated adiabatic calorimeter. The resulting dissolution enthalpy data were then used to discriminate between metallic uranium ({minus}3750 J/g in nitric acid) and uranium oxide ({minus}394 J/g in nitric acid). Results from this testing showed that the single-pull sludge samples contained little or no uranium metal.

  13. Evaluation of Ion Exchange Materials in K Basin Floor Sludge and Potential Solvents for PCB Extraction from Ion Exchange Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A.J.; Klinger, G.S.; Bredt, P.R.

    1999-04-10

    Approximately 73 m{sup 3} of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. These small amounts are significant from a regulatory standpoint. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). Chemical pretreatment is required to address criticality issues and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Eleven technologies have been evaluated (Papp 1997) as potential pretreatment methods. Based on the evaluations and engineering studies and limited testing, Fluor Daniel Hanford recommended solvent washing of the K Basin sludge, followed by nitric acid dissolution and, potentially, peroxide addition (FDH 1997). The solvent washing (extraction) and peroxide addition would be used to facilitate PCB removal and destruction. Following solvent extraction, the PCBs could be distilled and concentrated for disposal as a low-level waste. The purpose of the work reported here was to continue investigating solvent extraction, first by better identifying the ion exchange materials in the actual sludge samples and then evaluating various solvents for removing the PCBs or possibly dissolving the resins. This report documents some of the process knowledge on ion exchange materials used and spilled in the K Basins and describes the materials identified from wet sieving KE Basin floor and canister sludge and the results of other analyses. Several photographs are included to compare materials and illustrate material behavior. A summary of previous tests on

  14. Technical Issues and Characterization for Fuel and Sludge in Hanford K Basins

    SciTech Connect

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    2000-06-01

    Technical Issues for the interim dry storage of N Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) are discussed. Characterization data from fuel, to support resolution of these issues, are reviewed and new results for the oxidation of fuel in a moist atmosphere and the drying of whole fuel elements are presented. Characterization of associated K basin sludge is also discussed in light of a newly adopted disposal pathway.

  15. Drying Results of K-Basin Damaged/Corroded SNF Internal Sludge and Surface Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Abrefah, J.; Alexander, D.L.; Marschman, S.C.

    2000-09-21

    Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) system by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)to study the drying behavior of the K-Basin spent nuclear fuel (SNF) internal sludge and two different surface coatings of SNF elements. These measurements were conducted in support of the safety and process analyses of the proposed Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) to move the N-Reactor fuel stored at K-Basin to an interim storage facility. These limited experiments on the corrosion products of K-Basin SNF material were part of the broad studies performed to ascertain the bounding pressurization of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO). Seven SNF internal sludge samples taken from different damage regions of three damaged/corroded outer K-Basin SNF elements were dried. Additionally, two surface coating samples taken from two SNF elements stored at K-West were tested. All the tests were performed in a vacuum atmosphere with the same temperature ramp rate of about 0.4 C/ min. Each TGA test sample was weighed before and after the test on a balance located in the Shielded Analytical Laboratory hot cell. The test samples were vacuum dried in the TGA system for about 24 hours prior to heating them at the rate of 0.4 C/min. The observations from the weight change data are summarized below.

  16. Sampling and analysis plan for the consolidated sludge samples from the canisters and floor of the 105-K East basin

    SciTech Connect

    BAKER, R.B.

    1999-02-18

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for sampling of fuel canister and floor Sludge from the K East Basin to complete the inventory of samples needed for Sludge treatment process testing. Sample volumes and sources consider recent reviews made by the Sludge treatment subproject. The representative samples will be characterized to the extent needed for the material to be used effectively for testing. Sampling equipment used allows drawing of large volume sludge samples and consolidation of sample material from a number of basin locations into one container. Once filled, the containers will be placed in a cask and transported to Hanford laboratories for recovery and evaluation. Included in the present SAP are the logic for sample location selection, laboratory analysis procedures required, and reporting needed to meet the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) for this initiative.

  17. Choices of canisters and elements for the first fuel and canister sludge shipment from K East Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B.J.

    1996-03-22

    The K East Basin contains open-top canisters with up to fourteen N Reactor fuel assemblies distributed between the two barrels of each canister. Each fuel assembly generally consists of inner and outer concentric elements fabricated from uranium metal with zirconium alloy cladding. The canisters also contain varying amounts of accumulated sludge. Retrieval of sample fuel elements and associated sludge for examination is scheduled to occur in the near future. The purpose of this document is to specify particular canisters and elements of interest as candidate sources of fuel and sludge to be shipped to laboratories.

  18. LESSONS LEARNED FROM CLEANING OUT THE SLUDGE FROM THE SPENT FUEL STORAGE BASINS AT HANFORD ICEM-07

    SciTech Connect

    KNOLLMEYER PM

    2007-08-31

    Until 2004, the K Basins at Hanford, in southeastern Washington State, held the largest collection of spent nuclear fuel in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The K East and K West Basins are massive pools each holding more than 4 million liters of water - that sit less than 450 meters from the Columbia River. In a significant multi-year campaign that ended in 2004, Fluor Hanford removed all of the fuel from the two Basins, over 2,300 metric tons (4.6 million pounds), dried it, and then placed it into dry storage in a specially designed facility away from the River. Removing the fuel, however, did not finish the cleanup work at the K Basins. The years of underwater storage had corroded the metallic uranium fuel, leaving behind a thick and sometimes hard-packed layer of sludge that coated the walls, floors and equipment inside the Basins. In places, the depth of the sludge was measured in feet rather than inches, and its composition was definitely not uniform. Together the Basins held an estimated 50 cubic meters of sludge (42 cubic meters in K East and 8 cubic meters in K West). The K East sludge retrieval and transfer work was completed in May 2007. Vacuuming up the sludge into large underwater containers in each of the Basins and then consolidating it all in containers in the K West Basin have presented significant challenges, some unexpected. This paper documents some of those challenges and presents the lessons learned so that other nuclear cleanup projects can benefit from the experience at Hanford.

  19. Plan for Characterization of K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and Sludge (OCRWM)

    SciTech Connect

    TRIMBLE, D.J.

    2000-08-24

    This is an update of the plan for the characterization of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and sludge stored in the Hanford K West and K East Basins. The purpose of the characterization program is to provide fuel and sludge data in support of the SNF Project in the effort to remove the fuel from the K Basins and place it into dry storage. Characterization of the K Basin fuel and sludge was initiated in 1994 and has been guided by the characterization plans (Abrefah 1994, Lawrence 1995a, Lawrence 1995b) and the characterization program management plan (PMP) (Lawrence 1995c, Lawrence 1998, Trimble 1999). The fuel characterization was completed in 1999. Summaries of these activities were documented by Lawrence (1999) and Suyama (1999). Lawrence (1999) is a summary report providing a road map to the detailed documentation of the fuel characterization. Suyama (1999) provides a basis for the limited characterization sample size as it relates to supporting design limits and the operational safety envelope for the SNF Project. The continuing sludge characterization is guided by a data quality objective (DQO) (Makenas 2000) and a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) (Baker, Welsh and Makenas 2000) The original intent of the characterization program was ''to provide bounding behavior for the fuel'' (Lawrence 1995a). To accomplish this objective, a fuel characterization program was planned that would provide data to augment data from the literature. The program included in-situ examinations of the stored fuel and laboratory testing of individual elements and small samples of fuel (Lawrence 1995a). Some of the planned tests were scaled down or canceled due to the changing needs of the SNF Project. The fundamental technical basis for the process that will be used to place the K Basin fuel into dry storage was established by several key calculations. These calculations characterized nominal and bounding behavior of fuel in Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) during processing and storage

  20. Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located in fuel storage canisters of the 105-K West basin

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.B.

    1997-04-30

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the first sampling of sludge from the K West Basin spent fuel canisters. The specially developed sampling equipment removes representative samples of sludge while maintaining the radioactive sample underwater in the basin pool (equipment is described in WHC-SD-SNF-SDD-004). Included are the basic background logic for sample selection, the overall laboratory analyses required and the laboratory reporting required. These are based on requirements put forth in the data quality objectives (WHC-SD-SNF-DQO-012) established for this sampling and characterization activity.

  1. Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located in fuel storage canisters of the 105-K east basin

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.B., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-20

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the first sampling of sludge from the K East Basin spent fuel canisters. The specially developed sampling equipment used removes representative samples of sludge while maintaining the radioactive sample underwater in the basin pool (equipment is described in WHC-SD-SNF-SDD-004). Included are the basic background logic for sample selection, the overall laboratory analyses required and the laboratory reporting required. These are based on requirements put forth in the data quality objectives (WHC-SD-SNF-DQO-008) established for this sampling and characterization activity.

  2. Development of K-Basin High-Strength Homogeneous Sludge Simulants and Correlations Between Unconfined Compressive Strength and Shear Strength

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo; Baer, Ellen BK; Chun, Jaehun; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sande, Susan; Buchmiller, William C.

    2011-02-20

    K-Basin sludge will be stored in the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) at an interim storage location on Central Plateau before being treated and packaged for disposal. During the storage period, sludge in the STSCs may consolidate/agglomerate, potentially resulting in high-shear-strength material. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) plans to use water jets to retrieve K-Basin sludge after the interim storage. STP has identified shear strength to be a key parameter that should be bounded to verify the operability and performance of sludge retrieval systems. Determining the range of sludge shear strength is important to gain high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from the STSCs. The shear strength measurements will provide a basis for bounding sludge properties for mobilization and erosion. Thus, it is also important to develop potential simulants to investigate these phenomena. Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) show that high-uranium-content K-Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has 'paste' and 'chunks' with shear strengths of approximately 3-5 kPa and 380-770 kPa, respectively. High-uranium-content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185 C, 10 hours) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. These high values were estimated by measured unconfined compressive strength (UCS) obtained with a pocket penetrometer. Due to its ease of use, it is anticipated that a pocket penetrometer will be used to acquire additional shear strength data from archived K-Basin sludge samples stored at the PNNL Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) hot cells. It is uncertain whether the pocket penetrometer provides accurate shear strength measurements of the material. To assess the bounding material strength and potential for erosion, it

  3. Potential of OUR and OTR measurements for identification of activated sludge removal processes in aerated basins.

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, A; Libra, J A; Sahlmann, C; Handschag, J; Wiesmann, U; Gnirss, R

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop a process control scheme to reduce energy costs for aeration in activated sludge systems with biological P removal, pre-denitrification and nitrification stages, the spatial distribution of carbon oxidation and nitrification was evaluated over a long full-scale plug flow aeration basin using an externally measured specific oxygen uptake rate (sOUR) and in basin measurement of the actual specific oxygen transfer rate (sOTR) with off-gas testing as well as with the calculated oxygen demand from NH4-N concentrations (sOTR(N)). Using a simple static model, a gas phase balance on oxygen and carbon dioxide, sOTR(N) values were also calculated from off-gas testing. Comparison of sOTR(N) to sOTR and sOUR for carbon oxidation (sOUR(C)) to nitrification (sOUR(N)) at different loading conditions allowed the oxidation processes to be followed over the three zones of the aeration basin. As expected, the distribution depended on the dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) in the basin. However, the major change was in the C-oxidation rate and not the nitrification rate. At a low DO, and when NH4-N was present in the zone, the amount of oxygen transferred for nitrification was nearly the same, but the overall sOTR was lower. The externally measured sOUR was only useful when it was differentiated into sOUR(N) and sOUR(C). sOUR(N) could be used to predict the nitrification rate in the basin. With further refinement, the gas phase balance model has potential to be used to monitor the degree of nitrification over the basin length. This can be integrated into a control scheme to reduce aeration costs by adjusting the DO setpoint according to loading conditions in the

  4. LESSONS LEARNED IN OPERATING THE HOSE-IN-HOSE SYSTEM FOR TRANSFSERRING SLUDGE AT HANFORDS K-BASINS

    SciTech Connect

    PERES MW

    2008-01-07

    In May 2007, the Department of Energy and the Fluor Hanford K Basin Closure Project completed transferring sludge from the K East Basin to new containers in the K West Basin using a Hose-in-Hose system. This project presented a number of complex and unique technical, operational, and management challenges that had to be resolved to complete the required transfers and satisfy project milestones. The project team (including DOE; regulators; and Fluor management, operations, maintenance, engineering and all other support organizations) found innovative solutions to each challenge. This paper records lessons learned during the operational phase of the sludge transfer via the Hose-In-Hose system. The subject is limited to the operational phase and does not cover design, development, testing or turnover. A discussion of the situation or problem encountered is provided, along with the lesson learned as applicable to a future program or project.

  5. Study of radionuclide leaching from the residues of K Basin sludge dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtold, D.B.

    1998-07-30

    The sludges remaining in the K Basins after removal of the spent N Reactor nuclear fuel will be conditioned for disposal. After conditioning, an acid-insoluble residue will remain that may require further leaching to properly condition it for disposal. This document presents a literature study to identify and recommend one or more chemical leaching treatments for laboratory testing, based on the likely compositions of the residues. The processes identified are a nitric acid cerate leach, a silver-catalyzed persulfate leach, a nitric hydrofluoric acid leach, an oxalic citric acid reactor decontamination leach, a nitric hydrochloric acid leach, a ammonium fluoride nitrate leach, and a HEOPA formate dehydesulfoxylate leach. All processes except the last two are recommended for testing in that order.

  6. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Partitioning of PCBs in Dissolver Solution After Neutralization/Precipitation (Caustic Adjustment)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Hoppe, E.W.; Mong, G.M.; Silvers, K.L.; Slate, S.O.

    1999-01-04

    The purpose of the work described in this report was to gain a better understanding of how PCB congeners present in a simulated K Basin sludge dissolver solution will partition upon neutralization and precipitation (i.e., caustic adjustment). In a previous study (Mong et al. 1998),the entire series of sludge conditioning steps (acid dissolution, filtration, and caustic adjustment) were examined during integrated testing. In the work described here, the caustic adjustment step was isolated to examine the fate of PCBs in more detail within this processing step. For this testing, solutions of dissolver simulant (containing no solids) with a known initial concentration of PCB congeners were neutralized with caustic to generate a clarified supernatant and a settled sludge phase. PCBs were quantified in each phase (including the PCBs associated with the test vessel rinsates), and material balance information was collected.

  7. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2010-01-29

    Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H·) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen

  8. KE Basin monorail modification for the sludge removal and packaging project

    SciTech Connect

    Orbeta, C.B.

    1995-02-06

    The 105KE Basin currently stores over 1,100 metric tons of various N Reactor spent fuel in several canister forms, as well as several metric tons of sludge which must be removed. Modifications will consist of anchoring a permanent steel frame directly into the pit walls between existing columns and adding two travelling hoist rails, each capable of two directional motions. Each pit will have its own capability for targeting loads to any point inside the working areas of these pits. The structural frame designed for the monorail system at the Weasel and Tech-View pits was qualified as adequate for normal/operating loads, and dead plus live loads combined with seismic loads. The hoist operating live load is limited to 2,000 lb. The physical strength of the existing pit walls where the base plates are to be structurally anchored is unknown. The original structural drawings specified a minimum concrete strength of 3,000 lb/in{sup 2}. A pullout test should be performed to verify the strength of this concrete base. To reduce radiation exposure to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), installation and erection work inside the basin controlled area must be minimized; therefore, the pieces required for the modifications should be numbered in the fabrication shop, and erection should follow a procedure that corresponds to the assembly sequence indicated by the numbers. In conjunction with final erection, a mock-up activity should be conducted and base-plate locations verified to be within dimensional tolerances.

  9. Alkali Treatment of Acidic Solution from Hanford K Basin Sludge Dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    AA Bessonov; AB Yusov; AM Fedoseev; AV Gelis; AY Garnov; CH Delegard; GM Plavnik; LN Astafurova; MS Grigoriev; NA Budantseva; NN Krot; SI Nikitenko; TP Puraeva; VP Perminov; VP Shilov

    1998-12-22

    Nitric acid solutions will be created from the dissolution of Hanford K Basin sludge. These acidic dissolver solutions must be made alkaline by treatment with NaOH solution before they are disposed to ~ the Tank Waste Remediation System on the Hanford Site. During the alkali treatments, sodium diuranate, hydroxides of iron and aluminum, and radioelements (uranium, plutonium, and americium) will precipitate from the dissolver solution. Laboratory tests, discussed here, were pefiormed to provide information on these precipitates and their precipitation behavior that is important in designing the engineering flowsheet for the treatment process. Specifically, experiments were conducted to determine the optimum precipitation conditions; the completeness of uranium, plutonium, and americium precipitation; the rate of sedimentation; and the physico-chemical characteristics of the solids formed by alkali treatment of simulated acidic dissolver solutions. These experiments also determined the redistribution of uranium, plutonium, and americium flom the sodium di~ate and iron and al&inurn hydroxide precipitates upon contact with carbonate- and EDTA-bearing simulated waste solutions. Note: EDTA is the tetrasodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

  10. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF SYSTEMS FOR THE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING OF REMOTE-HANDLED SLUDGE FROM HANFORD K-WEST FUEL STORAGE BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    RAYMOND RE

    2011-12-27

    In 2011, significant progress was made in developing and deploying technologies to remove, transport, and interim store remote-handled sludge from the 105-K West Fuel Storage Basin on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The sludge in the 105-K West Basin is an accumulation of degraded spent nuclear fuel and other debris that collected during long-term underwater storage of the spent fuel. In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was used to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from 10 submerged temporary storage containers in the K West Basin. In 2011, a full-scale prototype facility was completed for use in technology development, design qualification testing, and operator training on systems used to retrieve, transport, and store highly radioactive K Basin sludge. In this facility, three separate systems for characterizing, retrieving, pretreating, and processing remote-handled sludge were developed. Two of these systems were successfully deployed in 2011. One of these systems was used to pretreat knockout pot sludge as part of the 105-K West Basin cleanup. Knockout pot sludge contains pieces of degraded uranium fuel ranging in size from 600 {mu}m to 6350 {mu}m mixed with pieces of inert material, such as aluminum wire and graphite, in the same size range. The 2011 pretreatment campaign successfully removed most of the inert material from the sludge stream and significantly reduced the remaining volume of knockout pot product material. Removing the inert material significantly minimized the waste stream and reduced costs by reducing the number of transportation and storage containers. Removing the inert material also improved worker safety by reducing the number of remote-handled shipments. Also in 2011, technology development and final design were completed on the system to remove knockout pot material from the basin and transport the material to an onsite facility for interim storage. This system is

  11. Evaluation of Shear Strength Threshold of Concern for Retrieval of Interim-Stored K-Basin Sludge in the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2010-11-01

    K-Basin sludge will be recovered into the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) and will be stored in the T Plant for interim storage (at least 10 years). Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show that high uranium content K Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has "paste" and "chunks" with shear strengths of approximately 3~5 kPa and 380 ~ 770 kPa, respectively. High uranium content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185°C, 10 h) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. After interim storage at T Plant, the sludge in the STSCs will be mobilized by water jets impinging the sludge. The objective of the evaluation was to determine the range of sludge shear strength for which there is high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from STSCs. The shear strength at which the sludge can be retrieved is defined as the "shear strength threshold of concern." If the sludge shear strength is greater than the value of the shear strength threshold of concern, a water-jet retrieval system will be unlikely to mobilize the sludge up to the container’s walls. The shear strength threshold of concern can be compared with the range of possible shear strengths of K-Basin stored sludge to determine if the current post interim-storage, water-jet retrieval method is adequate. Fourteen effective cleaning radius (ECR) models were reviewed, and their validity was examined by applying them to Hanford 241-SY-101 and 241-AZ-101 Tanks to reproduce the measured ECR produced by the mixer pumps. The validation test identified that the Powell-3 and Crowe-2 ECR models are more accurate than other ECR models reviewed. These ECR models were used to address a question as to whether the effective cleaning radius of a water jet is sufficient or if it can be readily expanded

  12. Characteristics of STP Pre-2004 Archived KE Basin Sludge Samples Before and After Re-Jarring in the RPL - April 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

    2012-09-28

    This report describes results of work performed in the Shielded Analytical Laboratory (SAL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) with archive K East (KE) Basin sludge samples obtained before the year 2004, with some of them composited and initially characterized five years ago (Delegard et al. 2011). The previously performed testing included the physical properties determinations for selected samples (settled and particle densities, water and solids concentrations), the pH, as well as identification of crystalline phases by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) for selected samples. Another objective of the previous characterization and testing campaign was to transfer some sludge composites and individual samples into new storage containers to overcome the embrittlement effect which develops in original glass containers as a result of extended exposure to high radiation fields and which increases probability of sample loss.

  13. Evaluation of process for sludge particle size reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Precechtel, D.R.; Packer, M.J., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-18

    This document evaluates the available technology for K Basin sludge particle size. The results can be used to demonstrate the sensitivity or lack thereof, of K Basin sludge to available reduction processes and TWRS proposed particle acceptance criteria.

  14. Safety evaluation for packaging for the transport of K Basin sludge samples in the PAS-1 cask

    SciTech Connect

    SMITH, R.J.

    1998-11-17

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the shipment of up to two 4-L sludge samples to and from the 325 Lab or 222-S Lab for characterization. The safety of this shipment is based on the current U.S. Department of Energy Certification of Compliance (CoC) for the PAS-1 cask, USA/9184/B(U) (DOE).

  15. Revised sampling campaigns to provide sludge for treatment process testing

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN, C.A.

    1999-02-18

    The purpose of this document is to review the impact to the sludge sampling campaigns planned for FY 1999 given the recent decision to delete any further sludge sampling in the K West Basin. Requirements for Sludge sample material for Sludge treatment process testing are reviewed. Options are discussed for obtaining the volume sample material required and an optimized plan for obtaining this sludge is summarized.

  16. BASINS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) is a multipurpose environmental analysis system designed to help regional, state, and local agencies perform watershed- and water quality-based studies.

  17. Treating Sludges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

  18. Sludge sampler

    DOEpatents

    Ward, R.C.

    1981-06-25

    The disclosure relates to a sludge sampler comprising an elongated generally cylindrical housing containing a baffle containing an aperture. Connected to the aperture is a flexible tubing having a valve for maintaining and releasing pressure in the lower end of the housing and exiting the upper end of the housing. The lower end of the housing contains a ball check valve maintained in closed position by pressure. When the lower end of the device contacts the sludge bed, the pressure valve is opened, enabling sludge to enter the lower end of the housing. After the sample is collected the valve is closed. An upsetting pin opens the valve to empty a sludge sample after the sample is removed from the fluid.

  19. Sludge sampler

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Ralph C.

    1983-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a sludge sampler comprising an elongated generally cylindrical housing containing a baffle containing an aperture. Connected to the aperture is a flexible tubing having a valve for maintaining and releasing pressure in the lower end of the housing and exiting the upper end of the housing. The lower end of the housing contains a ball check valve maintained in closed position by pressure. When the lower end of the device contacts the sludge bed, the pressure valve is opened, enabling sludge to enter the lower end of the housing. After the sample is collected the valve is closed. An upsetting pin opens the valve to empty a sludge sample after the sample is removed from the fluid.

  20. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  1. Activated Sludge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, F. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) activated sludge process; (2) process control; (3) oxygen uptake and transfer; (4) phosphorus removal; (5) nitrification; (6) industrial wastewater; and (7) aerobic digestion. A list of 136 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELMINARY DESIGN HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    CARRO CA

    2011-07-15

    This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW Basin Annex, and preparing the STSC for transport to T Plant using the Sludge Transport System (STS). There are six, underwater engineered containers located in the KW Basin that, at the time of sludge retrieval, will contain an estimated volume of 5.2 m{sup 3} of KW Basin floor and pit sludge, 18.4 m{sup 3} of 105-K East (KE) Basin floor, pit, and canister sludge, and 3.5 m{sup 3} of settler tank sludge. The KE and KW Basin sludge consists of fuel corrosion products (including metallic uranium, and fission and activation products), small fuel fragments, iron and aluminum oxide, sand, dirt, operational debris, and biological debris. The settler tank sludge consists of sludge generated by the washing of KE and KW Basin fuel in the Primary Clean Machine. A detailed description of the origin of sludge and its chemical and physical characteristics can be found in HNF-41051, Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance. In summary, the ECRTS retrieves sludge from the engineered containers and hydraulically transfers it as a slurry into an STSC positioned within a trailer-mounted STS cask located in a Modified KW Basin Annex. The slurry is allowed to settle within the STSC to concentrate the solids and clarify the supernate. After a prescribed settling period the supernate is decanted. The decanted supernate is filtered through a sand filter and returned to the basin. Subsequent batches of slurry are added to the STSC, settled, and excess supernate removed until the prescribed quantity of sludge is collected

  3. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS SUMMARY REPORT [VOLUME 1

    SciTech Connect

    FREDERICKSON JR; ROURK RJ; HONEYMAN JO; JOHNSON ME; RAYMOND RE

    2009-01-19

    Highly radioactive sludge (containing up to 300,000 curies of actinides and fission products) resulting from the storage of degraded spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in temporary containers located in the 105-K West storage basin near the Columbia River. The background, history, and known characteristics of this sludge are discussed in Section 2 of this report. There are many compelling reasons to remove this sludge from the K-Basin. These reasons are discussed in detail in Section1, and they include the following: (1) Reduce the risk to the public (from a potential release of highly radioactive material as fine respirable particles by airborne or waterborn pathways); (2) Reduce the risk overall to the Hanford worker; and (3) Reduce the risk to the environment (the K-Basin is situated above a hazardous chemical contaminant plume and hinders remediation of the plume until the sludge is removed). The DOE-RL has stated that a key DOE objective is to remove the sludge from the K-West Basin and River Corridor as soon as possible, which will reduce risks to the environment, allow for remediation of contaminated areas underlying the basins, and support closure of the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The environmental and nuclear safety risks associated with this sludge have resulted in multiple legal and regulatory remedial action decisions, plans,and commitments that are summarized in Table ES-1 and discussed in more detail in Volume 2, Section 9.

  4. STP-ECRTS - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSES FOR SLUDGE TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CONTAINER (STSC) STORAGE AT T PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; LEE SJ; PLYS MG

    2010-04-29

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of sludge contained in the six engineered containers and Settler tank within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. The STP is retrieving and transferring sludge from the Settler tank into engineered container SCS-CON-230. Then, the STP will retrieve and transfer sludge from the six engineered containers in the KW Basin directly into a Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) contained in a Sludge Transport System (STS) cask. The STSC/STS cask will be transported to T Plant for interim storage of the STSC. The STS cask will be loaded with an empty STSC and returned to the KW Basin for loading of additional sludge for transportation and interim storage at T Plant. CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with Fauske & Associates, LLC (FAI) to perform thermal and gas generation analyses for interim storage of STP sludge in the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSCs) at T Plant. The sludge types considered are settler sludge and sludge originating from the floor of the KW Basin and stored in containers 210 and 220, which are bounding compositions. The conditions specified by CHPRC for analysis are provided in Section 5. The FAI report (FAI/10-83, Thermal and Gas Analyses for a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) at T Plant) (refer to Attachment 1) documents the analyses. The process considered was passive, interim storage of sludge in various cells at T Plant. The FATE{trademark} code is used for the calculation. The results are shown in terms of the peak sludge temperature and hydrogen concentrations in the STSC and the T Plant cell. In particular, the concerns addressed were the thermal stability of the sludge and the potential for flammable gas mixtures. This work was performed with preliminary design information and a preliminary software configuration.

  5. Innovative sludge stabilization method

    SciTech Connect

    Riggenbach, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Sludge is generated in many water and wastewater treatment processes, both biological and physical/chemical. Examples include biological sludges from sanitary and industrial wastewater treatment operations and chemical sludges such as those produced when metals are removed from metal plating wastewater. Even some potable water plants produce sludge, such as when alum is used as a flocculating agent to clarify turbid water. Because sludge is produced from such a variety of operations, different techniques have been developed to remove water from sludges and reduce the sludge volume and mass, thus making the sludge more suitable for recovery or disposal. These techniques include mechanical (e.g., filter presses), solar (sludge drying beds), and thermal. The least expensive of these methods, neglecting land costs, involves sludge drying beds and lagoons. The solar method was widely used in sewage treatment plants for many years, but has fallen in disfavor in the US; mechanical and thermal methods have been preferred. Since environmental remediation often requires managing sludges, this article presents a discussion of a variation of sludge lagoons known as evaporative sludge stabilization. Application of this process to the closure of two 2.5 acre (10117 m{sup 2}) hazardous waste surface impoundments will be discussed. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  6. A new process for enriching nitrifiers in activated sludge through separate heterotrophic wasting from biofilm carriers.

    PubMed

    Parker, Denny S; Rusten, Bjørn; Wien, Asgeir; Siljudalen, Jon G

    2002-01-01

    A new process, the biofilm-activated sludge innovative nitrification (BASIN) process, consisting of a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with separate heterotrophic wasting, followed by an activated-sludge process, has been proposed to reduce the volumetric requirements of the activated-sludge process for nitrification. The basic principle is to remove chemical oxygen demand on the biofilm carriers by heterotrophic organisms and then to waste a portion of the heterotrophic biomass before it can be released into the activated-sludge reactor. By this means, the amount of heterotrophic organisms grown in the activated-sludge reactor is reduced, thereby reducing the volume of that tank needed for nitrification. For nitrification applications, the simplest method for stripping biomass was to use an in-tank technique using high shearing rates with aeration. Bench-scale testing showed sludge yields in the BASIN process were one-half of that in a control activated-sludge process and twice that of a process line with intermediate settling between the MBBR and activated-sludge stage. Critical washout solids retention times for nitrifiers were the same for all three lines, so activated-sludge volumes for the BASIN process could be reduced by 50% compared with the control. Originally conceived process concepts for the BASIN process were confirmed by the experimental work.

  7. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

    1995-01-10

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  8. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1995-01-01

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  9. Impact of secondary treatment types and sludge handling processes on estrogen concentration in wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Marti, Erica J; Batista, Jacimaria R

    2014-02-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as estrogen, are known to be present in the aquatic environment at concentrations that negatively affect fish and other wildlife. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are major contributors of EDCs into the environment. EDCs are released via effluent discharge and land application of biosolids. Estrogen removal in WWTPs has been studied in the aqueous phase; however, few researchers have determined estrogen concentration in sludge. This study focuses on estrogen concentration in wastewater sludge as a result of secondary treatment types and sludge handling processes. Grab samples were collected before and after multiple treatment steps at two WWTPs receiving wastewater from the same city. The samples were centrifuged into aqueous and solid phases and then processed using solid phase extraction. Combined natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol and estriol) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) purchased from a manufacturer. Results confirmed that activated sludge treatments demonstrate greater estrogen removal compared to trickling filters and mass concentration of estrogen was measured for the first time on trickling filter solids. Physical and mechanical sludge treatment processes, such as gravity thickeners and centrifuges, did not significantly affect estrogen removal based on mass balance calculations. Dissolved air flotation thickening demonstrated a slight decrease in estrogen concentration, while anaerobic digestion resulted in increased mass concentration of estrogen on the sludge and a high estrogen concentration in the supernatant. Although there are no state or federally mandated discharge effluent standards or sludge application standards for estrogen, implications from this study are that trickling filters would need to be exchanged for activated sludge treatment or followed by an aeration basin in order to improve estrogen removal. Also, anaerobic digestion may need to be replaced

  10. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge -- engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-08-25

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation.

  11. Data quality objectives for K West canister sludge sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-11

    Data Quality Objectives have been developed for a limited campaign of sampling K Basin canister sludge. Specifically, samples will be taken from the sealed K West Basin fuel canisters. Characterization of the sludge in these canisters will address the needs of fuel retrieval which are to collect and transport sludge which is currently in the canisters. Data will be gathered on physical properties (such as viscosity, particle size, density, etc.) as well as on chemical and radionuclide constituents and radiation levels of sludge. The primary emphasis will be on determining radionuclide concentrations to be deposited on Ion Exchange Modules (IXMS) during canister opening and fuel retrieval. The data will also be useful in determining whether K West Basin sludge meets the waste acceptance criteria for Hanford waste tanks as a backup disposal concept and these data will also supply information on the properties of sludge material which will1403 accompany fuel elements in the Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOS) as envisioned in the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS).

  12. Remote Handled Transuranic Sludge Retrieval Transfer And Storage System At Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Rick E.; Frederickson, James R.; Criddle, James; Hamilton, Dennis; Johnson, Mike W.

    2012-10-18

    This paper describes the systems developed for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU). An experienced, integrated CH2M HILL/AFS team was formed to design and build systems to retrieve, interim store, and treat for disposal the K West Basin sludge, namely the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). A system has been designed and is being constructed for retrieval and interim storage, namely the Engineered Container Retrieval, Transfer and Storage System (ECRTS).

  13. Heat transfer analysis of sludge storage in the K east basinweasel pit

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsman, K.H.

    1997-02-21

    This document estimates the temperature of the sludge inventory projected to be stored in the K East Basin Weasel Pit during the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Hydrogen generation rates are also estimated. Since many of the needed sludge properties are not well known, the analysis considered a range values to show the sensitivity of the results.

  14. Accident Analyses in Support of the Sludge Water System Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    FINFROCK, S.H.

    2002-08-20

    This document quantifies the potential health effects of the unmitigated hazards identified Hey (2002) for retrieval of sludge from the KE basin. It also identifies potential controls and any supporting mitigative analyses.

  15. Thermal analysis of sludge transport system for Argon backfill and extended transport window

    SciTech Connect

    ROMANO, T.

    2003-10-02

    This calculation, which addresses the use of argon as the backfill gas and extended periods of transfer, provides the thermal and gas generation analyses for the Sludge Transportation System (STS) under Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) for onsite transportation of the STS between the K Basins and the interim storage location (Le., T Plant). The STS is comprised of a packaging and transportation system for the removal of radioactive sludge from the K Basins.

  16. K Basin safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  17. Refiner biodegrades separator-type sludge to BDAT standards

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, R.L. )

    1991-11-11

    This paper reports on bioremediation that has been successfully used to treat sludge from a refinery stormwater surge basin at the Murphy Oil USA Inc. refinery in Meraux, La. The technique can be used for numerous basins recently reclassified as hazardous waste units because thy contain listed waste, specifically primary and secondary oil/water/solids separation sludge, or F037 and F038. Approximately 9,000 cu yd of high oil and grease sludge accumulated in the storm water basin at the Meraux refinery. ENSR Consulting and Engineering performed a feasibility study on the sludge to determine if it degraded at a rate sufficient to justify a full-scale operation. Data from the feasibility study was used to scale-up to a 730,000 gal (in situ) reactor. The residual from the sludge degradation process was: noncharacteristically toxic-based according to the toxicity characteristic (TC); below land-ban standards for API separator bottoms (a listed refinery waste of similar composition).

  18. SLUDGE PARTICLE SEPAPATION EFFICIENCIES DURING SETTLER TANK RETRIEVAL INTO SCS-CON-230

    SciTech Connect

    DEARING JI; EPSTEIN M; PLYS MG

    2009-07-16

    The purpose of this document is to release, into the Hanford Document Control System, FA1/0991, Sludge Particle Separation Efficiencies for the Rectangular SCS-CON-230 Container, by M. Epstein and M. G. Plys, Fauske & Associates, LLC, June 2009. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) will retrieve sludge from the 105-K West Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Settler Tanks and transfer it to container SCS-CON-230 using the Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS). The sludge will enter the container through two distributors. The container will have a filtration system that is designed to minimize the overflow of sludge fines from the container to the basin. FAI/09-91 was performed to quantify the effect of the STRS on sludge distribution inside of and overflow out of SCS-CON-230. Selected results of the analysis and a system description are discussed. The principal result of the analysis is that the STRS filtration system reduces the overflow of sludge from SCS-CON-230 to the basin by roughly a factor of 10. Some turbidity can be expected in the center bay where the container is located. The exact amount of overflow and subsequent turbidity is dependent on the density of the sludge (which will vary with location in the Settler Tanks) and the thermal gradient between the SCS-CON-230 and the basin. Attachment A presents the full analytical results. These results are applicable specifically to SCS-CON-230 and the STRS filtration system's expected operating duty cycles.

  19. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2008-09-25

    This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

  20. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-05-27

    This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

  1. Role of Nocardia in Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Bafghi, Mehdi Fatahi; Yousefi, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge process is a biological process that is widely used in the domestic and industrial wastewater treatment in over the world. The foam formation is often reported in wastewater treatment plants which are related to this process. Some operational problems can be created by foaming, such as effluent quality deteriorates, the creation of malodorous, increased time requirements in order to plant maintenance, and in extreme cases, hazardous working conditions resulting from foam spilling out of the aeration basin and as well as increased in operational costs. There are different ways to overcome this problem, such as reduce air flows into the aeration basin, reduction in the grease and oil content of the wastewater, surface and return activated sludge (RAS) chlorination, anoxic and anaerobic selectors, solid retention time (SRT) control and antifoams and organic polymer addition. On the other hand, rapid and accurate identification of the foam causes is in the first step to control bulking and foaming. Foam problem is often created by filamentous bacteria, such as Nocardia and Gordonia species. This bacterium has a role important in activated sludge. PMID:27418874

  2. Role of Nocardia in Activated Sludge.

    PubMed

    Bafghi, Mehdi Fatahi; Yousefi, Nader

    2016-05-01

    Activated sludge process is a biological process that is widely used in the domestic and industrial wastewater treatment in over the world. The foam formation is often reported in wastewater treatment plants which are related to this process. Some operational problems can be created by foaming, such as effluent quality deteriorates, the creation of malodorous, increased time requirements in order to plant maintenance, and in extreme cases, hazardous working conditions resulting from foam spilling out of the aeration basin and as well as increased in operational costs. There are different ways to overcome this problem, such as reduce air flows into the aeration basin, reduction in the grease and oil content of the wastewater, surface and return activated sludge (RAS) chlorination, anoxic and anaerobic selectors, solid retention time (SRT) control and antifoams and organic polymer addition. On the other hand, rapid and accurate identification of the foam causes is in the first step to control bulking and foaming. Foam problem is often created by filamentous bacteria, such as Nocardia and Gordonia species. This bacterium has a role important in activated sludge.

  3. CSER 97-003: Analysis of the criticality safety of the 100K east basin weasel pit

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.G.

    1997-08-14

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report analyzes the criticality safety of the 100 KE Basin weasel pit for the storage of current operation sludge that is pumped from various locations in the basin.

  4. Sludge treatment studies

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Dillow, T.A.; Bush, S.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Hunt, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    Solid formation in filtered leachates and wash solutions was seen in five of the six sludges treated by Enhanced Sludge Washing. Solid formation in process solutions takes a variety of forms: very fine particles, larger particulate solids, solids floating in solution like egg whites, gels, crystals, and coatings on sample containers. A gel-like material that formed in a filtered leachate from Enhanced Sludge Washing of Hanford T-104 sludge was identified as natrophosphate, Na{sub 7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}F{center_dot}19H{sub 2}O. A particulate material that formed in a filtered caustic leachate from Hanford SX-113 sludge contained sodium and silicon. This could be any of a host of sodium silicates in the NaOH-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system. Acidic treatment of Hanford B-202 sludge with 1 M, 3 M, and 6 M HNO{sub 3} sequential leaching resulted in complete dissolution at 75 C, but not at ambient temperature. This treatment resulted in the formation of solids in filtered leachates. Analyses of the solids revealed that a gel material contained silica with some potassium, calcium, iron, and manganese. Two phases were embedded in the gel. One was barium sulfate. The other could not be identified, but it was determined that the only metal it contained was bismuth.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF EQUIPMENT FOR THE RETRIEVAL & STABILIZATION & ENCAPSULATION OF RADIOACTIVE SLUDGE AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    ROOSENDAAL, G.D.

    2005-07-05

    This poster presentation describes and illustrates some of the equipment and tools that Fluor Hanford and BNG America have developed and designed to remove, transport, stabilize and encapsulate radioactive sludge from the K Basins at the Hanford nuclear site in Washington State, U.S.A. K Basins were built in the early 1950s to temporarily store irradiated nuclear fuel prior to chemical processing to remove plutonium for nuclear weapons. The sludge is the result of corrosion of these fuel elements and its removal is the final stage before the basin water can be drained and the basins decommissioned. The sludge is hydrogen-generating because of its uranium metal content and account has to be taken also of its heat generating capacity and criticality potential as it is moved from one containment to another. The paper describes all stages of sludge treatment from the use of vacuum wands to suck up the sludge, through consolidating the sludge in temporary underwater containers, transporting it though flexible, temporary pipe systems, acceleration of the corrosion of uranium to reduce hydrogen generation, measuring the fissile content and finally encapsulation in a cement grout. Emphasis is placed on the use of existing, transportable and temporary equipment. This not only saves initial costs but it also reduces the total amount of equipment needed to be disposed of as radioactive waste at the end of the job. The processes, equipment and tools described potentially have a broad applicability to nuclear site decommissioning and cleanup worldwide.

  6. System Description for the KW Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) (70.3)

    SciTech Connect

    DERUSSEAU, R.R.

    2000-04-18

    This is a description of the system that collects and processes the sludge and radioactive ions released by the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) processing operations conducted in the 105 KW Basin. The system screens, settles, filters, and conditions the basin water for reuse. Sludge and most radioactive ions are removed before the water is distributed back to the basin pool. This system is part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP).

  7. Mineralogy and metals speciation in Mo rich mineral sludges generated at a metal recycling plant.

    PubMed

    Vemic, M; Bordas, F; Guibaud, G; Joussein, E; Labanowski, J; Lens, P N L; van Hullebusch, E D

    2015-04-01

    In France, more than 250 million metric tons of sludges need to be treated each year. These sludges are either dumped on the landfills or reused as secondary resources in order to preserve natural resources. A large portions of these sludges are mineral sludges, originating from metal recycling plants. In order to estimate their metal recovery potential, these mineral sludges were characterized. Four types of mineral sludge samples were collected from a metal recycling plant (3 from the recycling plant storage areas (bulk storage, barrel storage and storage shed) and 1 from the collection basin). The sludges were characterized, wherein the Mo, Ni, Cr, Co, Zn and W content and speciation were quantified. The samples had pH values between 5.9 and 10.3 with organic matter contents varying between 6.3% (storage shed) and 29.5% (bulk storage) (loss on ignition at 500 °C). Based on their leaching properties, the four mineral sludge samples (in the case of Mo) and the bulk storage sludge (in the case of Ni and Zn) were classified as potentially hazardous regarding the EN 12457-1 and EN 12457-2 method. Mineralogical results reveal that both bulk storage and the storage shed give the highest contributions to the metal content of the collection basin sample. Sequential extraction of the collection basin samples indicated that Mo is bound to the oxidizable and residual fraction, while Ni, Cr and Co were bound to the residual fraction, and Zn to the soluble acid fraction, respectively. W tends to be equally distributed among all extracted fractions. A strong correlation existed between Mo and Co, as well as between Ni, Zn and Cr, respectively.

  8. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    GEUTHER J; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER D

    2009-08-24

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described.

  9. Viscous sludge sample collector

    DOEpatents

    Beitel, George A [Richland, WA

    1983-01-01

    A vertical core sample collection system for viscous sludge. A sample tube's upper end has a flange and is attached to a piston. The tube and piston are located in the upper end of a bore in a housing. The bore's lower end leads outside the housing and has an inwardly extending rim. Compressed gas, from a storage cylinder, is quickly introduced into the bore's upper end to rapidly accelerate the piston and tube down the bore. The lower end of the tube has a high sludge entering velocity to obtain a full-length sludge sample without disturbing strata detail. The tube's downward motion is stopped when its upper end flange impacts against the bore's lower end inwardly extending rim.

  10. Engineering evaluation of neutralization and precipitation processes applicable to sludge treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Klem, M.J.

    1998-08-25

    Engineering evaluations have been performed to determine likely unit operations and methods required to support the removal, storage, treatment and disposal of solids/sludges present in the K Basins at the Hanford Site. This evaluation was initiated to select a neutralization process for dissolver product solution resulting from nitric acid treatment of about 50 m{sup 3} of Hanford Site K Basins sludge. Neutralization is required to meet Tank Waste Remediation Waste System acceptance criteria for storage of the waste in the double shell tanks after neutralization, the supernate and precipitate will be transferred to the high level waste storage tanks in 200E Area. Non transuranic (TRU) solids residue will be transferred to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This report presents an overview of neutralization and precipitation methods previously used and tested. This report also recommends a neutralization process to be used as part of the K Basins Sludge Treatment Project and identifies additional operations requiring further evaluation.

  11. Co-digestion of grease trap sludge and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Davidsson, A; Lövstedt, C; Jansen, J la Cour; Gruvberger, C; Aspegren, H

    2008-01-01

    Redirection of organic waste, from landfilling or incineration, to biological treatment such as anaerobic digestion is of current interest in the Malmö-Copenhagen region. One type of waste that is expected to be suitable for anaerobic digestion is sludge from grease traps. Separate anaerobic digestion of this waste type and co-digestion with sewage sludge were evaluated. The methane potential was measured in batch laboratory tests, and the methane yield was determined in continuous pilot-scale digestion. Co-digestion of sludge from grease traps and sewage sludge was successfully performed both in laboratory batch and continuous pilot-scale digestion tests. The addition of grease trap sludge to sewage sludge digesters was seen to increase the methane yield of 9-27% when 10-30% of sludge from grease traps (on VS-basis) was added. It was also seen that the grease trap sludge increases the methane yield without increasing the sludge production. Single-substrate digestion of grease trap sludge gave high methane potentials in batch tests, but could not reach stable methane production in continuous digestion.

  12. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  13. Process to stabilize scrubber sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, B.P.; Gabrielson, J.E.; Schrecengost, R.A.

    1994-01-04

    A process for stabilizing sludge containing flyash and calcium sulfate formed by a lime or limestone scrubber increases the sludge particles to a size at which leaching of toxic metals from the particles no longer occurs at toxic levels. The sludge is dewatered and injected into the furnace in a manner to cause the flyash to soften and stick together. The agglomerated particles then fall into a bottom ash pit for removal as a common waste. 4 figs.

  14. [Technology of sewage sludge hygienization].

    PubMed

    Keller, U

    1983-09-01

    That the use of modern technology against the laws of Nature must fail, has been clearly demonstrated again some years ago when sewage sludge postpasteurization was rashly introduced. Although many attempts were made to improve this procedure, it had to be abandoned because of unavoidable massive regrowth of pathogens which invaded the germ-free postpasteurized sludge. In contrast of postpasteurization, long-term large-scale tests with the pasteurization of fresh sludge (prepasteurization) have demonstrated that this procedure where methane digestion with its pathogen displacing effect constitutes the final stage, is basically able to function. With respect to the Swiss Sewage Sludge Decree which came into force in May 1981, and which imposes sludge hygienization for most applications throughout the year, various thermal prepasteurization methods have been offered on the market ready for application to meet the legally prescribed requirements. However, some of them still need selective improvements in order to ensure the desired hygienisation effect permanently. For some time now, attention has been focussed on a novel biological 2-stage procedure based on partial aerobic thermophilic fermentation followed by anaerobic sludge digestion which in addition to good hygienisation promises improved sludge thickening, reduced digestion time, more favourable energy consumption and added process stability etc. Although it has already been offered on the market, this interesting process is being thouroughly tested and optimized in parallel pilot tests plant at the WWTP Altenrhein. Finally, reference is made to further sludge treatment processes such as sludge drying and sludge composting which mostly comprise efficent sludge hygienisation although they may not entirely prevent pathogenic regrowth. Moreover, some unconventional and less popular processes such as liquid sludge irradiation and chemical methods are also mentioned.

  15. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  16. Water Clarity Simulant for K East Basin Filtration Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-01-20

    This document provides a simulant formulation intended to mimic the behavior of the suspended solids in the K East (KE) Basin fuel storage pool. The simulant will be used to evaluate alternative filtration apparatus to improve Basin water clarity and to possibly replace the existing sandfilter. The simulant was formulated based on the simulant objectives, the key identified parameters important to filtration, the composition and character of the KE Basin suspended sludge particles, and consideration of properties of surrogate materials.

  17. Disposal of domestic sludge and sludge ash on volcanic soils.

    PubMed

    Escudey, Mauricio; Förster, Juan E; Becerra, Juan P; Quinteros, Magdalena; Torres, Justo; Arancibia, Nicolas; Galindo, Gerardo; Chang, Andrew C

    2007-01-31

    Column leaching experiments were conducted to test the ability of Chilean volcanic soils in retaining the mineral constituents and metals in sewage sludge and sludge ash that were incorporated into the soils. Small or negligible amounts of the total content of Pb, Fe, Cr, Mn, Cd, and Zn (0 to <2%), and more significant amounts of mineral constituents such as Na (7-9%), Ca (7-13%), PO4 (4-10%), and SO4 (39-46%) in the sludge and sludge ash were readily soluble. When they were incorporated on the surface layer of the soils and leached with 12 pore volumes of water over a 3 month period of time, less than 0.1% of the total amount of heavy metals and PO4 in the sludge and sludge ash were collected in the drainage water. Cation exchange selectivity, specific anion adsorption and solubility are the processes that cause the reduction of leaching. The volcanic soils were capable of retaining the mineral constituents, P, and metals in applied sewage sludge and sludge ash and gradually released them as nutrients for plant growth.

  18. Impact of gas injection on the apparent viscosity and viscoelastic property of waste activated sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Bobade, Veena; Baudez, Jean Christophe; Evans, Geoffery; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

    2017-05-01

    Gas injection is known to play a major role on the particle size of the sludge, the oxygen transfer rate, as well as the mixing efficiency of membrane bioreactors and aeration basins in the waste water treatment plants. The rheological characteristics of sludge are closely related to the particle size of the sludge floc. However, particle size of sludge floc depends partly on the shear induced in the sludge and partly on physico-chemical nature of the sludge. The objective of this work is to determine the impact of gas injection on both the apparent viscosity and viscoelastic property of sludge. The apparent viscosity of sludge was investigated by two methods: in-situ and after sparging. Viscosity curves obtained by in-situ measurement showed that the apparent viscosity decreases significantly from 4000 Pa s to 10 Pa s at low shear rate range (below 10 s(-1)) with an increase in gas flow rate (0.5LPM to 3LPM); however the after sparging flow curve analysis showed that the reduction in apparent viscosity throughout the shear rate range is negligible to be displayed. Torque and displacement data at low shear rate range revealed that the obtained lower apparent viscosity in the in-situ method is not the material characteristics, but the slippage effect due to a preferred location of the bubbles close to the bob, causing an inconsistent decrease of torque and increase of displacement at low shear rate range. In linear viscoelastic regime, the elastic and viscous modulus of sludge was reduced by 33% & 25%, respectively, due to gas injection because of induced shear. The amount of induced shear measured through two different tests (creep and time sweep) were the same. The impact of this induced shear on sludge structure was also verified by microscopic images.

  19. Solids Control in Sludge Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C., Weber, C.F., Hunt, R.D., Dillow, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    Sludge pretreatment will likely involve washing, followed by caustic or acidic leaching and washing of sludge residues after leaching. The principal goal of pretreatment is to obtain a low-volume high-activity waste stream and a high-volume low-activity waste stream. Also, some waste constituents such as chromium and phosphate can be included in glass formulations only at very low concentrations; therefore, it is desirable to remove them from high-level waste streams. Two aspects of sludge treatment and subsequent separations should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns.Before any treatment technology is adopted, it must be demonstrated that the process can be carried out as planned. Three pretreatment methods were considered in the Tri-Party (Washington State Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy) negotiations: (1) sludge washing with corrosion- inhibiting water, (2) Enhanced Sludge Washing, and (3)acidic dissolution with separations processes. Enhanced Sludge Washing is the baseline process. In Enhanced Sludge Washing, sludge is first washed with corrosion-inhibiting water; it is then leached with caustic (sodium hydroxide solution) and washed again with corrosion- inhibiting water. The initial concern is whether a pretreatment technique is effective in separating sludge components. This can be evaluated by bench-scale tests with sludge specimens from underground storage tanks. The results give data on the distribution of important species such as aluminum, phosphate, and radionuclides between wash and leach solutions and solid sludge residues.

  20. Sludge dewatering and conveying equipment expands wastewater treatment capabilities to solve refinery's oily waste problem

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, C.; Matlock, M.

    1986-09-01

    Twenty-four years ago, the Sun Refining and Marketing Company refinery in Tulsa, OK installed a large water collection basin to capture storm runoff. Since that time, the refinery has increased its daily capacity to 92,000 bbl - including 52,000 bbl of automotive fuels, 8000 bbl of lubricants, 23,000 bbl of heating oils and LPG products, 200 tons of petro-chemicals, and 110 tons of waxes - to become Oklahoma's second largest refinery. The expansion, coupled with gradual filling of the compartmentalized basin with sludges, required remedial action. In May, 1984, the oil laden basins caught fire. The flames, easily seen from downtown Tulsa (just across the river), were visible from a distance of approximately ten miles. At this point, there was an estimated 16 million gallons of oil sludge present in the 18 million gallon capacity basin complex. Composition was about 20% solids, 10% oil, and 70% water. The EPA immediately issued a cleanup order for the basins; Sun management responded quickly. Replacement of the original sludge treatment equipment, which was both old (installed in the mid-1940s) and too small to handle Sun's subsequent expansion, centered around two highly specialized continuous pressure belt filters and a three dimensional, 85' continuous path sludge transport conveyor. Oily waste from the collection basins is filtered and pumped to the new dewatering facility after an auger-equipped barge churns it into material suitable for pumping. The dewatering facility constructed for the cleanup operations will become the refinery's new sludge treatment plant and will replace the present facility that has been operating since 1945, giving the 73 year old refinery one of the most modern wastewater treatment plants of its type in the industry.

  1. When Research Turns to Sludge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge is composed of residuals removed from wastewater that comes from homes, hospitals, and industries. Wastewater-treatment systems are designed to remove pollutants that could contaminate public waterways. Sludge--called "biosolids" by those who produce it, spread it, and regulate it--includes these pollutants as well as…

  2. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-03-20

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production.

  3. A Technology of Wastewater Sludge Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizatulin, R. A.; Senkus, V. V.; Valueva, A. V.; Baldanova, A. S.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-04-01

    At many communities, industrial and agricultural enterprises, treatment and recycling of wastewater sludge is an urgent task as the sludge is poured and stored in sludge banks for many years and thus worsens the ecology and living conditions of the region. The article suggests a new technology of wastewater sludge treatment using water-soluble binder and heat treatment in microwave ovens.

  4. K-Basins design guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  5. Sludge pretreatment chemistry evaluation: Enhanced sludge washing separation factors

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, N.G.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the work conducted in Fiscal Year 1994 by the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Treatment Science Task. The main purpose of this task, is to provide the technical basis and scientific understanding to support TWRS baseline decisions and actions, such as the development of an enhanced sludge washing process to reduce the volume of waste that will require high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. One objective within the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask was to establish wash factors for various SST (single-shell tank) sludges. First, analytical data were compiled from existing tank waste characterization reports. These data were summarized on tank-specific worksheets that provided a uniform format for reviewing and comparing data, as well as the means to verify whether the data set for each tank was complete. Worksheets were completed for 27 SST wastes. The analytical water wash data provided tank-specific information about the fraction of each component that dissolves with water, i.e., an estimate of tank-specific wash factors for evaluating tank-by-tank processing. These wash data were then used collectively to evaluate some of the wash factors that are assumed for the overall SST waste inventory; specifically, wash factors for elements that would be found primarily in sludges. The final step in this study was to incorporate the characterization and wash factor data into a spreadsheet that provides insight into the effect of enhanced sludge washing on individual tank sludges as well as for groups of sludges that may be representative of different waste types. Spreadsheet results include the estimated mass and percentage of each element that would be removed with washing and leaching. Furthermore, estimated compositions are given of the final wash and leach streams and residual solids, in terms of both concentration and dry weight percent.

  6. Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1998-01-01

    A process and apparatus for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion.

  7. Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

    1998-07-28

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion. 1 fig.

  8. Irradiation of municipal sludge for agricultural use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlstrom, Scott B.

    Research has demonstrated that irradiation is an effective means for reducing pathogens in sewage sludge to levels where sludge reuse in public areas meets criteria for protection of the public health. Complementary research has demonstrated the value of the irradiated sludge in both agronomic and animal science applications. The benefits of sludge application to cropland are well documented. The irradiation process does not increase the extractability and plant uptake of a broad range of nutrients and heavy metals from sludge-amended soils. However, it does eliminate the hazards associated with pathogen contamination when applying sludge to agricultural land. Irradiated sludge has also been evaluated as a supplemental foodstuff for cattle and sheep. The data indicate that products derived from raw sewage may have a substantial nutritive value for ruminant animals. Irradiation of sewage sludge is a practical means of sludge disinfection. Where a highly disinfected sludge is required, it should be considered as a viable sludge management alternative. Evaluation of sludge irradiation technology and its associated costs must be done with consideration of other sludge treatment processes to develop an acceptable sludge management system.

  9. Energy demand in sludge dewatering.

    PubMed

    Chu, C P; Lee, D J; Chang, C Y

    2005-05-01

    This work investigates the energy required to dewater a suspension, i.e., activated sludge dewatered by centrifugation or consolidation. Total energy input to the suspension from the dewatering device, bond strength between adjacent water and solid surface, and intra-cake friction loss were evaluated for original and flocculated sludges. In centrifugal dewatering, most energy input during the initial stage was consumed by overcoming process irreversibility other than intra-cake friction, and, thereby, had a low energy efficiency. To increase centrifuge speed or to flocculate the sludge at optimal flocculant dosage would yield a high-energy input. In the consolidation test, most energy input at the initial stage was consumed in breaking down the bond strength until the moisture content reduced to less than the critical content. During subsequent dewatering stages, friction loss became the dominant source of energy loss. Dewatering sludge with high-energy efficiency is beneficial to optimally operate a dewatering process.

  10. Sewage sludge treatment with lime.

    PubMed

    Herbst, B

    2000-01-01

    The article describes the application of lime as a method for treatment and hygienisation of sewage sludges with lime products such as quicklime, slake lime and dolomitic lime. As a result of the increase in temperature and pH-value during sludge and lime mixing most pathogenic vectors of disease (i.e. bacteria, worms, viruses and parasites) are reduced in concentration and viability to manufacture a safe product for further application on agricultural land.

  11. K-Basin gel formation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, M.A.

    1998-07-23

    A key part of the proposed waste treatment for K Basin sludge is the elimination of reactive uranium metal by dissolution in nitric acid (Fkirnent, 1998). It has been found (Delegard, 1998a) that upon nitric acid dissolution of the sludge, a gel sometimes forms. Gels are known to sometimes impair solid/liquid separation and/or material transfer. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine the cause(s) of the gel formation and to determine operating parameters for the sludge dissolution that avoid formation of gel. This work and related work were planned in (Fkunent, 1998), (Jewett, 1998) and (Beck, 1998a). This report describes the results of the tests in (Beck, 1998a) with non-radioactive surrogates.

  12. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices.

  13. Microwave Supported Treatment of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janíček, František; Perný, Milan; Šály, Vladimír; Giemza, Markus; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-07-01

    This work is focused on microwave treatment of sewage sludge. The aim of our experiments was to investigate the impact of microwave radiation upon different sewage sludge parameters such as concentration of nitrates and nitrites, phosphates, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), SVI (Sludge Volume Index) and the microscopic structure of sludge. The experiments with microwave irradiation of sewage sludge indicate that moderate microwave power causes visible effects on the chemical, physical and biological properties of the sludge. The calculation of profitability and energy efficiency is also presented.

  14. Technology Assessment Report: Aqueous Sludge Gasification Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study reveals that sludge gasification is a potentially suitable alternative to conventional sludge handling and disposal methods. However, very few commercial operations are in existence. The limited pilot, demonstration or commercial application of gasification technology t...

  15. POTW Sludge Sampling and Analysis Guidance Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In view of the variability of municipal sludge quality,appropriate procedures must be followed to collect and analyze samples that accurately represent each POTW's sludge quality.This manual was developed to provide that guidance to POTW operators, engin

  16. Pollutant element forms within sludges generated by treatment of two acid mine waters with lime, inorganic sulfide and sulfate reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chatham, B.; Diebold, F.

    1995-10-01

    One of the research projects within the Mine Waste Technology Pilot Program conducted at Montana Tech under subcontract to MSE, Inc., Butte, MT is entitled {open_quotes}Formation, Properties and Stability of Sludge Generated During Treatment of Acid Mine Water.{close_quotes} One area of study within this activity is the determination of the element-solid associations within the three sludges being studied, namely, a lime initiated sludge, an inorganic sulfide initiated sludge and a sulfate reducing bacteria initiated sludge. These sludges are formed from treatment of two acid mine waters; one from an abandoned metal sulfide open pit mine (the Berkeley Pit in Butte, MT) and another from an abandoned metal sulfide underground mine (the Crystal Mine NW of Basin, MT). A sequential leaching scheme has been used to determine the form of the pollutant elements (Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe, Mn, and As) within these sludges. Significant differences are observed between these pollutant elements for each sludge. These data are interpreted in terms of the potential for release of the pollutant elements within a sludge containment pond storage system.

  17. A modified oxic-settling-anaerobic activated sludge process using gravity thickening for excess sludge reduction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Li, Shi-Yu; Jiang, Feng; Wu, Ke; Liu, Guang-Li; Lu, Hui; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Oxic-settling-anaerobic process (OSA) was known as a cost-effective way to reduce the excess sludge production with simple upgrade of conventional activated sludge process (CAS). A low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) level was the key factor to sludge decay and lysis in the sludge holding tank of the OSA process. However, the ORP control with nitrogen purge or chemical dosing in the OSA process would induce extra expense and complicate the operation. Hence, in this study, a sludge holding tank using gravity thickening was applied to OSA process to reduce the excess sludge production without any ORP control. Results showed that the modified OSA process not only reduced the excess sludge production effectively but also improved the sludge settleability without affected the treatment capacity. The reduction of the excess sludge production in the modified OSA process resulted from interactions among lots of factors. The key element of the process was the gravity thickening sludge holding tank. PMID:26350761

  18. A modified oxic-settling-anaerobic activated sludge process using gravity thickening for excess sludge reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Shi-Yu; Jiang, Feng; Wu, Ke; Liu, Guang-Li; Lu, Hui; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-09-01

    Oxic-settling-anaerobic process (OSA) was known as a cost-effective way to reduce the excess sludge production with simple upgrade of conventional activated sludge process (CAS). A low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) level was the key factor to sludge decay and lysis in the sludge holding tank of the OSA process. However, the ORP control with nitrogen purge or chemical dosing in the OSA process would induce extra expense and complicate the operation. Hence, in this study, a sludge holding tank using gravity thickening was applied to OSA process to reduce the excess sludge production without any ORP control. Results showed that the modified OSA process not only reduced the excess sludge production effectively but also improved the sludge settleability without affected the treatment capacity. The reduction of the excess sludge production in the modified OSA process resulted from interactions among lots of factors. The key element of the process was the gravity thickening sludge holding tank.

  19. Treatment of Dredged Sludge By Mechanical Dehydration,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    there is an urgent need to reduce both the volume of dredged sludge and the size of the disposal area. This mechanical method is different from the...conventional engineering dehydration by loading, consolidation, and drainage in that the dredged sludge is separated into sludge cakes and clean water...turbidity in water. This mechanical sludge treatment technique can be most efficient when used in combination with a pump dredge. This method offers

  20. Laser removal of sludge from steam generators

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

  1. Accident analysis and control options in support of the sludge water system safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    HEY, B.E.

    2003-01-16

    A hazards analysis was initiated for the SWS in July 2001 (SNF-8626, K Basin Sludge and Water System Preliminary Hazard Analysis) and updated in December 2001 (SNF-10020 Rev. 0, Hazard Evaluation for KE Sludge and Water System - Project A16) based on conceptual design information for the Sludge Retrieval System (SRS) and 60% design information for the cask and container. SNF-10020 was again revised in September 2002 to incorporate new hazards identified from final design information and from a What-if/Checklist evaluation of operational steps. The process hazards, controls, and qualitative consequence and frequency estimates taken from these efforts have been incorporated into Revision 5 of HNF-3960, K Basins Hazards Analysis. The hazards identification process documented in the above referenced reports utilized standard industrial safety techniques (AIChE 1992, Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures) to systematically guide several interdisciplinary teams through the system using a pre-established set of process parameters (e.g., flow, temperature, pressure) and guide words (e.g., high, low, more, less). The teams generally included representation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), K Basins Nuclear Safety, T Plant Nuclear Safety, K Basin Industrial Safety, fire protection, project engineering, operations, and facility engineering.

  2. Separation technologies for sludge dewatering.

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Richard J

    2007-06-18

    Particles in sludge feeds interact strongly one with another to prevent settling and offer a significant resistance to filtration and compression. This leads to the need for dewatering forces to be compressive ones applied directly to the networked solid phase; sometimes shear forces can be an assist dewatering. Designs of filtration equipment most suitable for sludge dewatering have evolved to meet the intrinsic characteristics of sludges, the most important of which are their compressibility and fine particle sizes, which lead to cakes with extraordinarily high solids contents close to the filter medium. Hence, the membrane plate press, the belt filter and the decanter centrifuge have become most widely accepted machines for sludge dewatering. Filter presses tend to yield a drier solids discharge, but the level of dryness depends on the sludge properties. The same feed properties dictate the need for chemical pre-treatment to ensure the highest rates of dewatering and best clarity of filtrate, and correct choice of filter cloth is also crucial in these respects.

  3. Technology Assessment Report - Aqueous Sludge Gasification Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sludge production in the United States is increasing with an increase in population. An estimated 7.2 million dry tons of treated and tested sewage sludge was generated in 2004 and 4.1 million tons of paper mill sludge was produced in 1995. Consequently, there is an increased ne...

  4. Sewage sludge gasification: First studies

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Bacaicoa, P.; Bilbao, R.; Uson, C.

    1995-11-01

    Wastewater treatment installations produce a large quantity of sewage sludge, the disposal and treatment of which causes several problems because of its volume, its toxic organic constituents and the heavy metals that it contains. Certain methods of treatment and disposal do exist, but they are not entirely satisfactory. Moreover, it is important to develop a technology for the adequate treatment of sewage sludge in order to reduce the environmental problem and the costs of treatment. It can be assumed that gasification is a suitable technology because it reduces the waste volume, destroys the toxic organic compounds and fixes the heavy metals in the resultant solid. In order to gain knowledge of the processes occurring in the gasifier, the results obtained in experiments on the thermal decomposition of sewage sludge at different heating rates are shown.

  5. Chemical modeling of waste sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.

    1996-10-01

    The processing of waste from underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and other facilities will require an understanding of the chemical interactions of the waste with process chemicals. Two aspects of sludge treatment should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids, and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns. It is likely that the treatment of waste tank sludge will begin with washing, followed by basic or acidic leaching. The dissolved materials will be in a solution that has a high ionic strength where activity coefficients are far from unity. Activity coefficients are needed in order to calculate solubilities. Several techniques are available for calculating these values, and each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. The techniques adopted and described here is the Pitzer method. Like any of the methods, prudent use of this approach requires that it be applied within concentration ranges where the experimental data were fit, and its use in large systems should be preceded by evaluating subsystems. While much attention must be given to the development of activity coefficients, other factors such as coprecipitation of species and Ostwald ripening must also be considered when one aims to interpret results of sludge tests or to predict results of treatment strategies. An understanding of sludge treatment processes begins with the sludge tests themselves and proceeds to a general interpretation with the aid of modeling. One could stop with only data from the sludge tests, in which case the table of data would become an implicit model. However, this would be a perilous approach in situations where processing difficulties could be costly or result in concerns for the environment or health and safety.

  6. Filterability of membrane bioreactor (MBR) sludge: impacts of polyelectrolytes and mixing with conventional activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Nevzat O; Civelekoglu, Gokhan; Cinar, Ozer; Kitis, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the filterability of MBR sludge and its mixture with conventional activated sludge (CAS). In addition, the impacts of type and dose of various polyelectrolytes, filter type and sludge properties on the filterability of both MBR and Mixed sludges were determined. Specific cake resistance (SCR) measured by the Buchner funnel filtration test apparatus and the solids content of the resulting sludge cake were used to assess the dewaterability of tested sludges. The type of filter paper used in Buchner tests affected the results of filterability for MBR, CAS and Mixed sludges. SCR values and optimum polyelectrolyte doses increased with increasing MLSS concentrations in the MBR, which suggested that increase in MLSS concentrations accompanied by increases in EPS and SMP concentrations and a shift toward smaller particles caused poorer dewaterability of the MBR sludge. The significant differences observed among the filterability of CAS and MBR sludges suggested that MLSS alone is not a good predictor of sludge dewaterability. Combining CAS and MBR sludges at different proportions generally improved their dewaterability. Combining MBR sludges having typically high MLSS and EPS concentrations with CAS having much lower MLSS concentrations may be an option for full-scale treatment plants experiencing sludge dewaterability problems. Better filterability and higher cake dry solids were achieved with cationic polyelectrolytes compared to anionic and non-ionic ones for all sludge types tested.

  7. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  8. Pilot scale study on retrofitting conventional activated sludge plant for biological nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Chiang, W W; Qasim, S R; Zhu, G; Crosby, E C

    1999-01-01

    Eutrophication of receiving waters due to the discharge of nitrogen and phosphorus through the wastewater effluent has received much interest in recent years. Numerous techniques have been proposed and aimed at retrofitting the existing conventional activated sludge process for nutrient removal. A pilot-scale research program was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a biological nutrient process for this purpose. The results indicated that creating an anoxic/anaerobic zone before aeration basin significantly enhances total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) removal. Without internal cycle, about 80 percent TP and TN removal were respectively achieved under their optimal conditions. However, adverse trends for phosphorus and nitrogen removal were observed when the ratio of return sludge to the influent was varied in the range between 0.5 and 3.0. The total phosphorus removal decreased as the concentration of BOD5 in the mixture of influent and return sludge decreased. Improved sludge settling properties and reduced foaming problems were also observed during the pilot plant operation. Based upon experimental results, the strategies to modify an existing conventional activated sludge plant into a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system are discussed.

  9. Method for lime stabilization of wastewater treatment plant sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, W.O.

    1981-12-22

    A method for the lime stabilization of wastewater sludge, includes the steps of dewatering sludge so as to produce a sludge cake containing from about 10 to 60% by weight of dry solids and rapidly and intimately mixing and reacting the sludge cake with calcium oxide so as to produce stabilized sludge pellets. An apparatus for performing the process is also provided.

  10. Effect of polymeric substrate on sludge settleability.

    PubMed

    Martins, António M P; Karahan, Ozlem; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate the role of a polymeric substrate (starch) on sludge settleability. Despite being an important COD component of the wastewater, the relationship between polymeric substrates and bulking sludge has been hardly studied. The polymers are hydrolysed at a rate smaller than the consumption rate of monomers. This means that the soluble substrate resulting from hydrolysis is likely to be present at growth rate limiting concentrations. According to the kinetic selection theory this leads to bulking sludge. However, a recently postulated theory suggests that, strong diffusion limited micro-gradients of substrate concentration inside flocs lead to bulking sludge, and not a low substrate concentration as such. If the polymeric COD is first incorporated in the sludge floc and afterwards hydrolysed in the sludge floc then there is essentially no substrate gradient inside the biological flocs. The experiments showed that conditions leading to bulking sludge with monomers (glucose) did not lead to bulking when starch was used. A bulking sludge event was even cured just by substituting the monomer with starch. These results are clearly in line with a diffusion gradient--based theory for bulking sludge. Nevertheless, flocs growing on starch are more open, fluffy and porous than flocs formed on maltose or glucose, most likely because the starch needs to be hydrolysed at the surface of the micro-colonies forming the flocculated sludge. Some additional observations on occurrence of filamentous bacteria in oxygen diffusion limited systems are also discussed in this manuscript.

  11. Sludge ozonation: disintegration, supernatant changes and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangming; Yang, Jing; Liu, Huanzhi; Zhang, Jie

    2009-02-01

    This paper studied in detail the sludge disintegration and supernatant changes during ozonation and investigated the possible mechanisms. Ozone effectively lysed the sludge. The most important mechanism is proposed to be damages of microorganism cells. The ozone dose of 50 mgO(3)/gDS was found optimal for sludge lysis; 25 mgO(3)/gDS achieved only 10.4% sludge lysis after 90 min and 80 mgO(3)/gSS did not further improve sludge decomposition. When the ozone dose was 50 mgO(3)/gDS, the sludge disintegration degree was 46.7% after 105 min. The sludge solid concentration and volatile solid concentration decreased by 49.1% and 45.7%, respectively. The supernatant soluble chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, protein, polysaccharide, and deoxyribonucleic acid increased by 699%, 169%, 2379%, 602%, 528%, and 556%, respectively. Various components showed quite different patterns. Ozone treatment significantly reduced the sludge bioactivity, decreased the partition coefficients of heavy metals between sludge and supernatant, but did not alter the sludge size distribution.

  12. Radionuclide Leaching from Residual Solids Remaining after Acid Dissolution of K East Area Sludge Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.; Carlson, C.D.; Soderquist, C.Z.; Fadeff, S.K.

    1999-04-02

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of various leach treatments for decontaminating dissolver residual solids (KEACRESID1) produced during a 24-hour dissolution of K East Basin floor and Weasel Pit sludge composite in boiling 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The scope of this testing has been described in Section 4.5 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basin Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the residual solids generated in the K Basin sludge treatment process can restrict disposal of this solid to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The starting dissolver residual solid for this testing, KEACRESID1, is a visibly heterogeneous material. This material contains radionuclides at concentrations above the ERDF Waste Acceptance Criteria for transuranics (TRU) by about a factor of 3, for {sup 239}Pu by a factor of 10, and for {sup 241}Am by a factor of 1.6. It meets the ERDF criterion for {sup 137}Cs by a factor of 4 and for uranium by a factor of 10. Therefore, the radionuclides of greatest interest in this leaching study are first {sup 239}Pu, and then {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, and uranium.

  13. Radionuclide Leaching from Residual Solids Remaining after Acid Dissolution of Composite K East Canister Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.; Soderquist, C.Z.; Fadeff, S.K.

    1999-04-02

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine mixed nitric/hydrofluoric acid leach treatments for decontaminating dissolver residual solids (KECDVSR24H-2) produced during a 20- to 24-hr dissolution of a composite K East (KE) Basin canister sludge in 95 C 6 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The scope of this testing has been described in Section 4.5 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basin Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the residual solids generated in the K Basin sludge treatment process can restrict disposal of this solid to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The starting dissolver residual solid for this testing, KECDVSR24H-2, contains radionuclides at concentrations which exceed the ERDF Waste Acceptance Criteria for TRU by about a factor of 70, for {sup 239}Pu by a factor of 200, and for {sup 241}Am by a factor of 50. The solids also exceed the ERDF criterion for {sup 137}Cs by a factor of 2 and uranium by a factor of 5. Therefore, the radionuclides of greatest interest in this leaching study are first {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am (both components of TRU) and then uranium and {sup 137}Cs.

  14. Mechanical and hydraulic properties of sludge deposit on sludge drying reed beds (SDRBs): influence of sludge characteristics and loading rates.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Julie; Forquet, Nicolas; Molle, Pascal; Wisniewski, Christelle

    2012-07-01

    This work was designed to study the hydraulic properties of sludge deposit, focusing on the impact of operating conditions (i.e. loads and feeding frequencies) on air entrance (aerobic mineralization optimization) into the sludge deposit. The studied sludge deposits came from six 2m(2) pilot-scale SDRBs that had been in operation for 50 months with three different loads of 30, 50, and 70 kg of SSm(-2) y(-1). Two influents were assessed (i.e. activated sludge and septage) presenting different characteristics (i.e. pollutant contents, physical properties...). Two experimental approaches were employed based on establishing the water retention curve (capillary pressure versus volumetric water content) and the hydrotextural diagram to determine the hydraulic properties of sludge deposit. The study obtained valuable information for optimizing operating conditions, specifically for efficient management of loading frequency to optimize aerobic conditions within the sludge deposit.

  15. Hazard Evaluation for Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Sludge at the Solid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    SCHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-08-22

    As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) storage basin clean-up project, sludge that has accumulated in the K Basins due to corrosion of damaged irradiated N Reactor will be loaded into containers and placed in interim storage. The Hanford Site Treatment Complex (T Plant) has been identified as the location where the sludge will be stored until final disposition of the material occurs. Long term storage of sludge from the K Basin fuel storage facilities requires identification and analysis of potential accidents involving sludge storage in T Plant. This report is prepared as the initial step in the safety assurance process described in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports and HNF-PRO-704, Hazards and Accident Analysis Process. This report documents the evaluation of potential hazards and off-normal events associated with sludge storage activities. This information will be used in subsequent safety analyses, design, and operations procedure development to ensure safe storage. The hazards evaluation for the storage of SNF sludge in T-Plant used the Hazards and Operability Analysis (HazOp) method. The hazard evaluation identified 42 potential hazardous conditions. No hazardous conditions involving hazardous/toxic chemical concerns were identified. Of the 42 items identified in the HazOp study, eight were determined to have potential for onsite worker consequences. No items with potential offsite consequences were identified in the HazOp study. Hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker or offsite consequences are candidates for quantitative consequence analysis. The hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker consequences were grouped into two event categories, Container failure due to overpressure - internal to T Plant, and Spill of multiple containers. The two event categories will be developed into accident scenarios that will be quantitatively analyzed to determine release consequences. A third category, Container failure due to

  16. EXTRACELLULAR POLYANIONS IN DIGESTED SLUDGE: MEASUREMENT AND RELATIONSHIP TO SLUDGE DEWATERABILITY. (R823486)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The polyanionic fraction of digested sludge extracellular material was quantified using an in situ dye adsorption method, and the relationships between measured extracellular polyanion (ECPA)
    concentrations and sludge dewaterability were investigated. Measured ECPA concentrat...

  17. Sludge based Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticides: viscosity impacts.

    PubMed

    Brar, S K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2005-08-01

    Viscosity studies were performed on raw, pre-treated (sterilised and thermal alkaline hydrolysed or both types of treatment) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) fermented sludges at different solids concentration (10-40 g/L) for production of biopesticides. Correlations were established among rheological parameter (viscosity), solids (total and dissolved) concentration and entomotoxicity (Tx) of Bt fermented sludges. Exponential and power laws were preferentially followed by hydrolysed fermented compared to raw fermented sludge. Soluble chemical oxygen demand variation corroborated with increase in dissolved solids concentration on pre-treatments, contributing to changes in viscosity. Moreover, Tx was higher for hydrolysed fermented sludge in comparison to raw fermented sludge owing to increased availability of nutrients and lower viscosity that improved oxygen transfer. The shake flask results were reproducible in fermenter. This study will have major impact on selecting fermentation, harvesting and formulation techniques of Bt fermented sludges for biopesticide production.

  18. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  19. F-Canyon Sludge Physical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M. R.; Hansen, P. R.; Fink, S. D.

    2005-08-22

    The Site Deactivation and Decommissioning (SDD) Organization is evaluating options to disposition the 800 underground tanks (including removal of the sludge heels from these tanks). To support this effort, D&D requested assistance from Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel to determine the pertinent physical properties to effectively mobilize the sludge from these tanks (Tanks 804, 808, and 809). SDD provided SRNL with samples of the sludge from Tanks 804, 808, and 809. The authors measured the following physical properties for each tank: particle settling rate, shear strength (i.e., settled solids yield stress), slurry rheology (i.e., yield stress and consistency), total solids concentration in the sludge, soluble solids concentration of the sludge, sludge density, and particle size distribution.

  20. Production and flocculating performance of sludge bioflocculant from biological sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuhong; Sun, Jie; Liu, Xiuxiu; Zhou, Jiti

    2013-10-01

    Excess biological sludge was utilized to prepared bioflocculant with hydrochloric acid. The prepared crude bioflocculant was purified and fractionally precipitated to attain four purified sludge bioflocculant defined as PSB1-4. The PSB-2 has higher flocculating rate for kaolin suspension than others. When the pH of the flocculation system ranged from 4.0 to 11.0 the flocculating rates of PSB-2 were over 96.0%. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed that amino and hydroxyl groups were present in the bioflocculant molecules. More amine group existed in the bioflocculant PSB-2 relatively. The amino group was believed to play an important role in flocculation. The experiment of zeta potential measuring indicated that the charge neutralization contributed to flocculation process. Flocculating mechanism investigation reveals that the sludge bioflocculant caused kaolin suspension instability by means of charge neutralization firstly and then promoted the aggregation of suspension particles by adsorption and bridge.

  1. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction debris removal 105-KE basin

    SciTech Connect

    HAYS, C.B.

    1999-10-06

    The 105-KE Basin contains 1,150 Metric Tonnes of Uranium (MTU) of N Reactor fuel, along with less than half a MTU of single pass reactor (SPR) fuel. In addition to the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the 105-KE Basin, extensive quantities of debris and a substantial amount of sludge have accumulated in the basin. The 105-KE Basin fuel and sludge are not encapsulated and, as a result, corroding fuel has produced contamination products that are deposited on the basin walls, floor, and equipment. contamination products produce radiation dose exposures to the workers. To decrease worker exposures, this Notice of Construction (NOC) describes dose reduction modifications under consideration to mitigate worker radiation exposure from the basin walls and exposed piping. The major equipment egress paths from the basin (the dummy elevator pit and the south loadout pit) are blocked completely with debris and/or empty canisters. Therefore in addition to dose reduction, this NOC also describes debris removal activities and equipment. Recently, the primary water treatment system has been without mechanical filtration capabilities. This NOC describes planned modifications to the primary water treatment system to restore mechanical filtration by restarting the cartridge filters. The proposed modifications described in this NOC are expected to commence in the Fall of 1995. Finally, the NOC describes two other basin activities, fuel and sludge movement, that are expected to be routine in the future.

  2. IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

    2004-10-05

    The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

  3. Design of automated oil sludge treatment unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukhareva, N.; Korotchenko, T.; Yurkin, A.

    2015-11-01

    The article provides the feasibility study of contemporary oil sludge treatment methods. The basic parameters of a new resource-efficient oil sludge treatment unit that allows extracting as much oil as possible and disposing other components in efficient way have been outlined. Based on the calculation results, it has been revealed that in order to reduce the cost of the treatment unit and the expenses related to sludge disposal, it is essential to apply various combinations of the existing treatment methods.

  4. Utilizing waste activated sludge for animal feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Beszedits, S.

    1981-01-01

    Activated sludge has a high protein content and is a good source of B-group vitamins and generally also of minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe and K). Propionibacterium freudenreichii can be readily incorporated into the activated sludge to synthesize vitamin B12, particularly high vitamin yields being obtained with sewage mixed with dairy waste. Numerous examples of successful use of activated sludge in animal feeding are given.

  5. Plating Waste Sludge Metal Recovery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-30

    l - ~ ’.4 41 *4 7.1 4...34 L €5 ’ ’ . ’ " " r ,*: -: ,., -. . .,,:€ ,, .. € : ....- -1. PHASE I - UERATURE REVIEW Phase I of the project "Plating Waste Sludge Metal Recovery...8217’’,. ’.’.."..-’......’ ...’ , m .m llll- l ..m~ l : j nm~, l ~linn~ . l , b~~h~h , . r - r. -*1 . * , * . . , .d PHASE IV -

  6. Test Plan: Sludge Treatment Project Corrosion Process Chemistry Follow-on Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Poloski, Adam P.

    2007-08-17

    This test plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with Fluor Hanford (FH). The test plan describes the scope and conditions to be used to perform laboratory-scale testing of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) hydrothermal treatment of K Basin sludge. The STP, managed for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) by FH, was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from the sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by using high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. The proposed testing builds on the approach and laboratory test findings for both K Basin sludge and simulated sludge garnered during prior testing from September 2006 to March 2007. The outlined testing in this plan is designed to yield further understanding of the nature of the chemical reactions, the effects of compositional and process variations and the effectiveness of various strategies to mitigate the observed high shear strength phenomenon observed during the prior testing. These tests are designed to provide process validation and refinement vs. process development and design input. The expected outcome is to establish a level of understanding of the chemistry such that successful operating strategies and parameters can be implemented within the confines of the existing STP corrosion vessel design. In July 2007, the DOE provided direction to FH regarding significant changes to the scope of the overall STP. As a result of the changes, FH directed PNNL to stop work on most of the planned activities covered in this test plan. Therefore, it is unlikely the testing described here will be performed. However, to preserve the test strategy and details developed to date, the test plan has been published.

  7. System for disposing of sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.

    1991-05-28

    This patent describes improvement in a system for disposing of sludge by using the sludge as a primary source of fuel for its disposition by combustion thereof. The system comprises: processing a mass of liquified sludge to reduce the solids to a predetermined size for use as the fuel and concurrently separating a substantial portion of the contained liquid as a water vapor; delivering the processes solids and liquid to the combustor such that the combustor contains the solids and the liquids in the processed mass for conversion of the solids to ash and the conversion of the liquids to vapor; admitting a portion of the ambient air to the burner to support combustion of the solids, and another portion of ambient air to the combustor for removing the vapor at a temperature below the temperature at which the solids are reduced to ash; utilizing a part of the removed vapor to initiate evaporization of the liquid in the processed mass, and a part of the removed vapor to elevate the temperature of the ambient air admitted to the burner and to the combustor; releasing the part of the removed vapor used to elevate the temperature of the admitted ambient air to the ambient atmosphere; and removing the ash substantially free of vapor.

  8. Data evaluation technical memorandum on the K-1407C Retention Basin at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; Bock, J.; Hatmaker, T.; Zolyniak, J.; Goddard, P. ); Kucsmas, D. )

    1991-10-01

    The K-1407-C Retention Basin was a surface impoundment at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The basin was used primarily for storing potassium hydroxide scrubber sludge generated at the K-25 Site. In addition, from 1960 to 1973, metal hydroxide sludges that were removed from the K-1407-B Holding Pond were discharged to the K-1407-C Retention Basin. The sludge in the K-1407-B Pond contained discharge from the K-1420 Decontamination and Uranium Recovery, the K-1501 Steam Plant, the K-1413 Laboratory, and the K-1401 Maintenance Building. Radioactive material is also present in the K-1407-C Retention Basin, probably the result of cleaning and decontamination activities at some of the aforementioned facilities. The discharge of waste materials to K-1407-C was discontinued before November of 1988, and all sludge was removed from the retention basin. Some of the sludge was stored, and the remainder was fixed in concrete. This report is specific to the K-1407-C Retention Basin and includes information pertinent to the evaluation of soil contamination. The focus of this evaluation is the effectiveness of the Phase 1 investigation of the K-1407-C Retention Basin to define site conditions adequately to support decisions regarding appropriate closure alternatives. This includes the physical characterization of the site area and the characterization of the nature and extent of contamination at the site in relation to risk characterization and statistical evaluation.

  9. Data evaluation technical memorandum on the K-1407C Retention Basin at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; Bock, J.; Hatmaker, T.; Zolyniak, J.; Goddard, P.; Kucsmas, D.

    1991-10-01

    The K-1407-C Retention Basin was a surface impoundment at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The basin was used primarily for storing potassium hydroxide scrubber sludge generated at the K-25 Site. In addition, from 1960 to 1973, metal hydroxide sludges that were removed from the K-1407-B Holding Pond were discharged to the K-1407-C Retention Basin. The sludge in the K-1407-B Pond contained discharge from the K-1420 Decontamination and Uranium Recovery, the K-1501 Steam Plant, the K-1413 Laboratory, and the K-1401 Maintenance Building. Radioactive material is also present in the K-1407-C Retention Basin, probably the result of cleaning and decontamination activities at some of the aforementioned facilities. The discharge of waste materials to K-1407-C was discontinued before November of 1988, and all sludge was removed from the retention basin. Some of the sludge was stored, and the remainder was fixed in concrete. This report is specific to the K-1407-C Retention Basin and includes information pertinent to the evaluation of soil contamination. The focus of this evaluation is the effectiveness of the Phase 1 investigation of the K-1407-C Retention Basin to define site conditions adequately to support decisions regarding appropriate closure alternatives. This includes the physical characterization of the site area and the characterization of the nature and extent of contamination at the site in relation to risk characterization and statistical evaluation.

  10. Holistic sludge management through ozonation: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Semblante, Galilee U; Hai, Faisal I; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Fukushi, Kensuke; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically reviews the multidimensional benefits of ozonation in wastewater treatment plants. These benefits include sludge reduction, removal of emerging trace organic contaminants (TrOC) from wastewater and sludge, and resource recovery from sludge. Literature shows that ozonation leads to sludge solubilisation, reducing overall biomass yield. Sludge solubilisation is primarily influenced by ozone dosage, which, in turn, depends on the fraction of ozonated sludge, ozone concentration, and sludge concentration. Additionally, sludge ozonation facilitates the removal of TrOCs from wastewater. On the other hand, by inducing cell lysis, ozonation increases the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrient concentration of the sludge supernatant, which deteriorates effluent quality. This issue can be resolved by implementing resource recovery. Thus far, successful retrieval of phosphorous from ozonated sludge supernatant has been performed. The recovery of phosphorous and other resources from sludge could help offset the operation cost of ozonation, and give greater incentive for wastewater treatment plants to adapt this approach.

  11. Dose reduction improvements in storage basins of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Fan-Hsiung F.

    1997-08-13

    Spent nuclear fuel in storage basins at the Hanford Site has corroded and contaminated basin water, which has leaked into the soil; the fuel also had deposited a layer of radioactive sludge on basin floors. The SNF is to be removed from the basins to protect the nearby Columbia River. Because the radiation level is high, measures have been taken to reduce the background dose rate to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) to prevent radiation doses from becoming the limiting factor for removal of the SW in the basins to long-term dry storage. All activities of the SNF Project require application of ALARA principles for the workers. On the basis of these principles dose reduction improvements have been made by first identifying radiological sources. Principal radiological sources in the basin are basin walls, basin water, recirculation piping and equipment. Dose reduction activities focus on cleaning and coating basin walls to permit raising the water level, hydrolasing piping, and placing lead plates. In addition, the transfer bay floor will be refinished to make decontamination easier and reduce worker exposures in the radiation field. The background dose rates in the basin will be estimated before each task commences and after it is completed; these dose reduction data will provide the basis for cost benefit analysis.

  12. BASINS Publications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Although BASINS has been in use for the past 10 years, there has been limited modeling guidance on its applications for complex environmental problems, such as modeling impacts of hydro modification on water quantity and quality.

  13. Interim Storage of Hanford Spent Fuel & Associated Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    2002-07-01

    The Hanford site is currently dealing with a number of types of Spent Nuclear Fuel. The route to interim dry storage for the various fuel types branches along two different paths. Fuel types such as metallic N reactor fuel and Shippingport Core 2 Blanket assemblies are being placed in approximately 4 m long canisters which are then stored in tubes below grade in a new canister storage building. Other fuels such as TRIGA{trademark} and Light Water Reactor fuel will be relocated and stored in stand-alone casks on a concrete pad. Varying degrees of sophistication are being applied with respect to the drying and/or evacuation of the fuel interim storage canisters depending on the reactivity of the fuel, the degree of damaged fuel and the previous storage environment. The characterization of sludge from the Hanford K Basins is nearly complete and canisters are being designed to store the sludge (including uranium particles from fuel element cleaning) on an interim basis.

  14. 40 CFR 61.54 - Sludge sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Mercury § 61.54 Sludge...—Determination of Mercury in Wastewater Treatment Plant Sewage Sludges. A total of three composite samples shall.... Samples shall not be exposed to any condition that may result in mercury contamination or loss. (2)...

  15. 40 CFR 61.54 - Sludge sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Mercury § 61.54 Sludge...—Determination of Mercury in Wastewater Treatment Plant Sewage Sludges. A total of three composite samples shall.... Samples shall not be exposed to any condition that may result in mercury contamination or loss. (2)...

  16. 40 CFR 61.54 - Sludge sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Mercury § 61.54 Sludge...—Determination of Mercury in Wastewater Treatment Plant Sewage Sludges. A total of three composite samples shall.... Samples shall not be exposed to any condition that may result in mercury contamination or loss. (2)...

  17. 40 CFR 61.54 - Sludge sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Mercury § 61.54 Sludge...—Determination of Mercury in Wastewater Treatment Plant Sewage Sludges. A total of three composite samples shall.... Samples shall not be exposed to any condition that may result in mercury contamination or loss. (2)...

  18. 40 CFR 61.54 - Sludge sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Mercury § 61.54 Sludge...—Determination of Mercury in Wastewater Treatment Plant Sewage Sludges. A total of three composite samples shall.... Samples shall not be exposed to any condition that may result in mercury contamination or loss. (2)...

  19. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1985-08-30

    This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

  20. Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution Of Sludge Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Keefer, M.T.; Hamm, B.A.; Pike, J.A.

    2008-07-01

    High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored in aging underground storage tanks. This waste is a complex mixture of insoluble solids, referred to as sludge, and soluble salts. Continued long-term storage of these radioactive wastes poses an environmental risk. The sludge is currently being stabilized in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) through a vitrification process immobilizing the waste in a borosilicate glass matrix for long-term storage in a federal repository. Without additional treatment, the existing volume of sludge would produce nearly 8000 canisters of vitrified waste. Aluminum compounds, along with other non-radioactive components, represent a significant portion of the sludge mass currently planned for vitrification processing in DWPF. Removing the aluminum from the waste stream reduces the volume of sludge requiring vitrification and improves production rates. Treating the sludge with a concentrated sodium hydroxide (caustic) solution at elevated temperatures (>90 deg. C) to remove aluminum is part of an overall sludge mass reduction effort to reduce the number of vitrified canisters, shorten the life cycle for the HLW system, and reduce the risk associated with the long term storage of radioactive wastes at SRS. A projected reduction of nearly 900 canisters will be achieved by performing aluminum dissolution on six targeted sludge batches; however, a project to develop and install equipment will not be ready for operation until 2013. The associated upgrades necessary to implement a high temperature process in existing facilities are costly and present many technical challenges. Efforts to better understand the characteristics of the sludge mass and dissolution kinetics are warranted to overcome these challenges. Opportunities to further reduce the amount of vitrified waste and increase production rates should also be pursued. Sludge staged in Tank 51 as the next sludge batch for feed to DWPF consisted

  1. Plant uptake of sludge-borne PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, G.A.; Kiehl, D.; Eiceman, G.A.; Ryan, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Plant uptake of sludge-borne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (similar to Aroclor 1248) was evaluated in a greenhouse study with two food-chain crops and a grass species. Polychlorinated biphenyl loading to two soils was varied in one experiment by adding different rates of a municipal sewage sludge heavily contaminated (52 mg/kg) with PCBs. In a second experiment, Aroclor 1248 was spiked into unamended soils or soils amended with another sludge containing <1mg/kg PCBs. Analysis of PCBs was by GC/MS with a reliable detection limit in plants of 20 microg/kg for individual chlorinated classes (tri, tetra-, and pentachlorobiphenyls) and total PCBs. Only carrots (Daucus carota) were contaminated with PCBs, and contamination was restricted to carrot peels. Current USEPA guidelines for land application of sludges based on sludge PCB content are shown to be extremely conservative.

  2. Disposable sludge dewatering container and method

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Clifford M.

    1993-01-01

    A device and method for preparing sludge for disposal comprising a box with a thin layer of gravel on the bottom and a thin layer of sand on the gravel layer, an array of perforated piping deployed throughout the gravel layer, and a sump in the gravel layer below the perforated piping array. Standpipes connect the array and sump to an external ion exchanger/fine particulate filter and a pump. Sludge is deposited on the sand layer and dewatered using a pump connected to the piping array, topping up with more sludge as the aqueous component of the sludge is extracted. When the box is full and the free standing water content of the sludge is acceptable, the standpipes are cut and sealed and the lid secured to the box.

  3. Thermal hydraulics of steam generator sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ulke, A.; Goldberg, I.

    1990-12-31

    Experimental and analytical studies of thermal hydraulic processes in commercial steam generator tube sheet sludge have been previously reported. That work was performed because the authors believed that tubing corrosion occurs when the sludge deposit becomes too deep for the liquid to penetrate freely, leading to formation of a liquid deficient region with high chemical concentrations on the tube surface. The primary objective of this work is to determine analytically the extent of liquid penetration into porous sludge. The secondary objectives are determinations of liquid saturation and chemical concentration profiles along the sludge covered tube length. The method described in this paper differs from those used in previous works in that it allows specification of porosity and permeability as a function of distance into the sludge and, also, in some of the auxiliary equations used.

  4. Metals removal and recovery from municipal sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.L.; Scheybeler, B.J.; Smith, M.L.; Baird, R.; Lo, M.P.; Haug, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of metals removal from municipal sludges that may be disposed of on agricultural land was studied. Heavy metal accumulation in such vegetables as lettuce and heavy metal toxicity to such crops as oats, beans, corn, and radishes is of concern. The purpose of the study was to assess metal removal systems for sludges obtained from the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant, Carson, Calif. Primary sludge, waste activated sludge, and their anaerobically digested counterparts were dosed with sulfuric acid and the chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), to effect metal solubilization. Seven metals were examined for removal from sludge: Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Recovery of metals from the sludges was also examined. Using an acid dosage to effect pH decrease to pH 2 and a-stirring time of 24 hours, the removal efficiencies for Fe, Zn, Ni, and Cr were found to be upwards of 75%. Removal efficiencies for Pb and Cd were less, at about 30 to 70%. At less than 10%, Cu was hardly removed. Metal extraction using EDTA gave slightly higher removal efficiencies for Cd, Pb, and Cu. The recovery of solubilized metals from solution with lime was very successful at greater than 90% efficiencies. Examination of the dewaterability of the acid-treated sludge found no significant difference between treated and untreated. Preliminary estimates indicated that about 0.5 metric ton of acid would be required for each dry metric ton of sludge solids to effect significant metal removal of better than 50% of the cadmium and 33% of the lead. To precipitate the metals from the acid filtrate, 1 metric ton of lime per dry metric ton of sludge would be needed. Considering the chemical costs and metal removal efficiency by sludge acidification, it would seem that industrial source control would be a more practical approach, although its full economic impact on the industries has not been estimated.

  5. Activated Sludge. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Owen K.; Klopping, Paul H.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. Topic areas addressed in the lessons include: (1) activated sludge concepts and components (including aeration tanks, aeration systems, clarifiers, and sludge pumping systems); (2) activated sludge variations and modes; (3) biological nature of activated…

  6. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  7. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  8. Continuous sulfidogenic wastewater treatment with iron sulfide sludge oxidation and recycle.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dongyang; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the technical feasibility of packed-bed sulfidogenic bioreactors dosed with ferrous chloride for continuous wastewater treatment over a 450-day period. In phase I, the bioreactors were operated under different combinations of carbon, iron, and sulfate mass loads without sludge recycling to identify optimal treatment conditions. A COD/sulfate mass ratio of 2 and a Fe/S molar ratio of 1 yielded the best treatment performance with COD oxidation rate of 786 ± 82 mg/(L⋅d), which resulted in 84 ± 9% COD removal, 94 ± 6% sulfate reduction, and good iron retention (99 ± 1%) under favorable pH conditions (6.2-7.0). In phase II, the bioreactors were operated under this chemical load combination over a 62-day period, during which 7 events of sludge collection, oxidation, and recycling were performed. The collected sludge materials contained both inorganic and organic matter with FeS and FeS2 as the main inorganic constituents. In each event, the sludge materials were oxidized in an oxidizing basin before recycling to mix with the wastewater influent. Sludge recycling yielded enhanced COD removal (90 ± 6% vs. 75 ± 7%), and better effluent quality in terms of pH (6.8 ± 0.1 vs. 6.5 ± 0.2), iron (0.7 ± 0.5 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7 mg/L), and sulfide-S (0.3 ± 0.1 vs. 0.4 ± 0.1 mg/L) removal compared to the baseline operation without sludge recycling during phase II. This process exhibited treatment stability with reasonable variations, and fairly consistent sludge content over long periods of operation under a range of COD/sulfate and Fe/S ratios without sludge recycling. The bioreactors were found to absorb recycling-induced changes efficiently without causing elevated suspended solids in the effluents.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment.... 503, App. A Appendix A to Part 503—Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge Section 503.13(a)(4)(ii) requires that the product of the concentration for...

  10. Flotation process for sludge recovery and energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, G.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes a process for offshore sewage treatment comprising: () separating sewage into a watery effluent and a sludge; (b) placing the sludge in flexible buoyant balloon storage tanks for anaerobic digestion; (c) recovering and drying methane produced from the sludge during the digestion; (d) transferring the sludge to drying barges; (e) drying the sludge; and (f) supplying the watery effluent to surrounding seaweed farms as a nutrient.

  11. EFFICACY OF FILTRATION PROCESSES TO OBTAIN WATER CLARITY AT K EAST SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB

    2006-09-28

    The objective is to provide water clarity to the K East Basin via filtration processes. Several activities are planned that will challenge not only the capacity of the existing ion exchange modules to perform as needed but also the current filtration system to maintain water clarity. Among the planned activities are containerization of sludge, removal of debris, and hydrolasing the basin walls to remove contamination.

  12. Nutrient contributions by benthal sludge deposits.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Devendra S; Shrihari, S

    2009-10-01

    Settled solids from effluents discharged into a river system, undergoing decomposition at the river bottom, form an appreciable internal nutrient source for the biological activities in the river system. During the stabilization of benthal deposits, a variety of nutrients are released into the overlying waters. The exchange between sediment and overlying waters is a major component of the nitrogen and phosphorous cycles in the natural waters. The releases of such nutrients is a surface phenomenon, regulated by the conditions of benthal sludge layers, flow rate of overlying waters, etc. The rate of ammonia nitrogen release manifested an optimum low value when benthal sludge depth was 0.2 m, but was not influenced by the flow rate of overlying water and h/d ratios. The rate of phosphate release from benthal sludge was independent of depth of benthal sludge, flow rate and h/d ratios. The nutrients in the benthal sludge layers were increasing with time, and were concentrated at a layer 10 cm below the top surface. The nutrients release (percent of nutrient remaining in top benthal sludge layers) decreased with time and became almost constant after about 40 days. The nutrients release under continuously accumulating conditions of benthal sludge and the effects of frequency of addition have been discussed in this paper. The nutrients release was less when the frequency of addition was less.

  13. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    NELSEN LA

    2009-01-30

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining.

  14. Modelling the structure of sludge aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Smoczyński, Lech; Ratnaweera, Harsha; Kosobucka, Marta; Smoczyński, Michał; Kalinowski, Sławomir; Kvaal, Knut

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The structure of sludge is closely associated with the process of wastewater treatment. Synthetic dyestuff wastewater and sewage were coagulated using the PAX and PIX methods, and electro-coagulated on aluminium electrodes. The processes of wastewater treatment were supported with an organic polymer. The images of surface structures of the investigated sludge were obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The software image analysis permitted obtaining plots log A vs. log P, wherein A is the surface area and P is the perimeter of the object, for individual objects comprised in the structure of the sludge. The resulting database confirmed the ‘self-similarity’ of the structural objects in the studied groups of sludge, which enabled calculating their fractal dimension and proposing models for these objects. A quantitative description of the sludge aggregates permitted proposing a mechanism of the processes responsible for their formation. In the paper, also, the impact of the structure of the investigated sludge on the process of sedimentation, and dehydration of the thickened sludge after sedimentation, was discussed. PMID:26549812

  15. Modelling the structure of sludge aggregates.

    PubMed

    Smoczyński, Lech; Ratnaweera, Harsha; Kosobucka, Marta; Smoczyński, Michał; Kalinowski, Sławomir; Kvaal, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The structure of sludge is closely associated with the process of wastewater treatment. Synthetic dyestuff wastewater and sewage were coagulated using the PAX and PIX methods, and electro-coagulated on aluminium electrodes. The processes of wastewater treatment were supported with an organic polymer. The images of surface structures of the investigated sludge were obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The software image analysis permitted obtaining plots log A vs. log P, wherein A is the surface area and P is the perimeter of the object, for individual objects comprised in the structure of the sludge. The resulting database confirmed the 'self-similarity' of the structural objects in the studied groups of sludge, which enabled calculating their fractal dimension and proposing models for these objects. A quantitative description of the sludge aggregates permitted proposing a mechanism of the processes responsible for their formation. In the paper, also, the impact of the structure of the investigated sludge on the process of sedimentation, and dehydration of the thickened sludge after sedimentation, was discussed.

  16. Comparison and Analysis of Membrane Fouling between Flocculent Sludge Membrane Bioreactor and Granular Sludge Membrane Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Zhi-Qiang, Chen; Jun-Wen, Li; Yi-Hong, Zhang; Xuan, Wang; Bin, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of inoculating granules on reducing membrane fouling. In order to evaluate the differences in performance between flocculent sludge and aerobic granular sludge in membrane reactors (MBRs), two reactors were run in parallel and various parameters related to membrane fouling were measured. The results indicated that specific resistance to the fouling layer was five times greater than that of mixed liquor sludge in the granular MBR. The floc sludge more easily formed a compact layer on the membrane surface, and increased membrane resistance. Specifically, the floc sludge had a higher moisture content, extracellular polymeric substances concentration, and negative surface charge. In contrast, aerobic granules could improve structural integrity and strength, which contributed to the preferable permeate performance. Therefore, inoculating aerobic granules in a MBR presents an effective method of reducing the membrane fouling associated with floc sludge the perspective of from the morphological characteristics of microbial aggregates. PMID:22859954

  17. Regulation of aerobic granular sludge reformulation after granular sludge broken: effect of poly aluminum chloride (PAC).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongjun; Liu, Zhe; Wang, Fukun; Chen, Yiping; Kuschk, Peter; Wang, Xiaochang

    2014-04-01

    The present study focuses on the effect of poly aluminum chloride (PAC) on the re-formation of aerobic granular sludge after its rupture. The morphological changes, physical characteristics such as SVI, mechanical strength and surface properties of aerobic granular sludge during the re-formation process of broken granules were investigated. Moreover, components (protein (PN), polysaccharides (PS)) and distributions (soluble, loosely-bound (LB), tightly-bound (TB)) of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in sludge flocs were taken into consideration. It was found that the effect of charge neutralization and bridging induced by PAC treatment improved the surface properties of sludge, the re-formed granules had a larger size, more compact structure and that the removal performance of pollutants after chemical coagulation had improved. The results of correlation analysis demonstrated that PN in EPS correlated well with the surface characteristics and settling ability of sludge flocs, and PAC treatment strengthened the influence, further accelerated the reformation of granular sludge.

  18. Successful recycling for sludge and solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacik, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    We have mixed digested primary sewage sludge with undigested, thickened waste activated sludge, dewatered in polymer conditioned belt presses, and add lime and cement kiln dust in post press operations. For at least seven days the combined mixture is aerated. The product is far more community acceptable than traditional sludge cake, and is clearly environmentally safe and meets the most stringent new regulatory controls. Even when the kiln dust treated sludge was stressed to a pH of 4, which is far more acidic than would be expected in agricultural soils, the sludge/kiln dust mixture easily met EPA criteria. The process results in a reduction in the weight and in the volume of material. In our Sylvania Pilot Project, 555 tons of sludge were treated with 178 tons of kiln dust, resulting in 504 tons of finished product - a 10% reduction in sludge weight and a far greater reduction in sludge volume. The product can be stored for long periods of time without deterioration. Thus, we see a process that requires about seven days for total treatment. We see a process with limited capital requirements. We see a process with operating costs at or below traditional PSRP processes and far less than alternative PFRP options. We see a community acceptable, storable, nearly odorless, granular, pasteurized product that provides built in protection against pathogen regrowth, odors, and the migration of toxic compounds. We see a product that has multiple market options. The N-Viro Soil product optimizes the nutrient values of sludge, provides potassium, sulphur, and even trace minerals from kiln dust and provides sufficient calcium carbonate to provide both liming and long-term soil calcium requirements. This combination is attractive to agricultural interests, is ideal for reclamation projects or landfill cover materials, and is an excellent landscape fertilizer and soil conditioner.

  19. K-Basins particulate water content, and behavior

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-02-25

    This analysis summarizes the state of knowledge of K-basins spent nuclear fuel oxide (film, particulate or sludge) and its chemically bound water in order to estimate the associated multi-canister overpack (MCO) water inventory and to describe particulate dehydration behavior. This information can be used to evaluate the thermal and chemical history of an MCO and its contents during cold vacuum drying (CVD), shipping, and interim storage.

  20. [Characterisation of excess sludge reduction in an anoxic + oxic-settling-anaerobic activated sludge process].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xu; Lu, Yan-Hua; Guo, Jin-Song

    2009-05-15

    An energy balance analysis method with auto calorimeter being adopted was introduced to determine calorific values of sludge samples in influent and effluent of uncoupling tank in an anoxic (A) + oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process and a reference system. The affiliation of sludge amount change and its energy content were studied, as well as potential of excess sludge reduction was evaluated through modifying performance of uncoupling tank. The characteristi s and causes of sludge reduction in OSA system were deduced according to energy and matter balance analysis. Results show that when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of uncoupling tank are 5.56 h, 7.14 h and 9 h, the excess sludge reduction of whole A + OS Asystem are 1.236 g/d, 0.771 g/d and 0.599 g/d respectively. Energy content of sludge flows into and out of the uncoupling tank changes, the specific calorific value of sludge in effluent is inclined to be higher than that in influent with the HRT of the tank increasing: there isn't any significant difference of sludge calorific values between influent and effluent at 5.56 h, while the differences are in 99-113 J/g at 7.14 h, and 191-329 J/g at 9 h. Sludge in uncoupling tank would decay and longer HRT will result in more attenuation. It could be concluded that excess sludge reduction of A + OSA system is caused by both of sludge decay in uncoupling tank and sludge proliferation in AO reaction zone.

  1. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge.

    PubMed

    Dohányos, M; Zábranská, J; Kutil, J; Jenícek, P

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of the process conditions, pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature is frequently used. The thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, a high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, better pathogens destruction and an improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in a lysate centrifuge was proved to cause increase of biogas production in full-scale conditions. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is an acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization.

  2. Metals distributions in activated sludge systems

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.W.; Kodukula, P.S.

    1984-05-01

    Despite extensive laboratory and field studies over the past 25 years, little advance has been made in prediction of metals distribution and removal in activated sludge treatment systems. This paper reports the results of carefully controlled pilot studies, from which empirical metals distribution models were developed. The models accurately predict the distribution of process stream metals at each point in the activated sludge process between the soluble and solids phases. The distribution models together with data on primary and secondary clarifier suspended solids removal efficiencies, are easily applied to predict the removals of influent metals in activated sludge systems. 36 references, 2 figures.

  3. Enhancement of bioseparation and dewaterability of domestic wastewater sludge by fungal treated dewatered sludge.

    PubMed

    Fakhru'l-Razi, Ahmadun; Molla, Abul Hossain

    2007-08-17

    A promising biological, sustainable, non-hazardous, safe and environmental friendly management and disposal technique of domestic wastewater sludge is global expectation. Fungal entrapped biosolids as a result of prior fungal treated raw wastewater sludge was recycled to evaluate its performance as inoculum for bioseparation/bioconversion of supplemented sludge in view of continuous as well as scale up wastewater sludge treatment. Encouraging results were achieved in bioseparation of suspended solids and in dewaterability/filterability of treated domestic wastewater sludge. Fungal entrapped biosolids offered 98% removal of total suspended solids (TSS) in supplemented sludge treatment at 6-day without nutrient (wheat flour, WF) supply. Consequently, 99% removal of turbidity and 87% removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were achieved in supernatant of treated sludge. The lowest value (1.75 x 10(12)m/kg) of specific resistance to filtration (SRF) was observed at 6-day after treatment, which was equivalent to the 70% decrease of SRF. The all results except SRF were not influenced further in treatments accompanied with WF supplementation. The present treatments offered significant (Psludge compared to the control. Furthermore, the present result is addressing a potential avenue of probable solution for expected management and disposal of domestic wastewater sludge in future.

  4. Progress and perspectives of sludge ozonation as a powerful pretreatment method for minimization of excess sludge production.

    PubMed

    Chu, Libing; Yan, Sangtian; Xing, Xin-Hui; Sun, Xulin; Jurcik, Benjamin

    2009-04-01

    The treatment and disposal of excess sludge represents a bottleneck in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) worldwide, due to environmental, economic, social and legal factors. The ideal solution to the problem of sludge disposal is to combine sludge reduction with the removal of pollution at the source. This paper presents an overview of the potential of ozonation in sludge reduction. The full-scale application of ozonation in excess sludge reduction is presented. Improvements in the biodegradability of the ozonated sludge were confirmed. The introduction of ozonation into activated sludge did not significantly influence effluent quality but improved the settling properties of the sludge. An operation with a suitable sludge wasting ratio seems to be necessary to prevent accumulation of inorganic and inert particles for long-term operation. Sludge ozonation to reduce excess sludge production may be economical in WWTP which have high sludge disposal costs and operational problems such as sludge foaming and bulking. The recommended ozone dose ranges from 0.03 to 0.05 g O(3)/g TSS, which is appropriate to achieve a balance between sludge reduction efficiency and cost. An effort to design and optimize an economic sludge reduction process is necessary.

  5. K Basins isolation barriers summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, G.C., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    final disposition of the material. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1994), also known as the Tri-Party Agreement, commits to the removal of all fuel and sludge from the 105-K Basins by the year 2002.

  6. EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS AND ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH THE MANAGEMENT OF TREATED SLUDGES (BIOSOLIDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation looks at the pathogenic microorganisms present in municipal sludges and the public's concerns with the land application of sludges/biosolids. Methods for reducing pathogens in sludge; methods for reducing the vector attractiveness of sludge; and issues associate...

  7. Emissions from sludge pond drainage contained

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    When Laidlaw Environmental Services Inc. of Columbia, S.C., was contracted to remove and treat hazardous waste from sludge lagoons at a site in New Jersey, the job permit required control of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted when the sludge is pumped into storage tanks. The sludge lagoons are a product of the wastewater treatment system at an industrial facility. After the sludge is pumped into storage tanks, it is treated, then placed in a landfill. The three VOC control technologies considered were thermal incineration; catalytic incineration, and regenerative carbon adsorption. Regenerative carbon adsorption was chosen because carbon is more effective at reaching lower concentrations and it is more economical for this project.

  8. Plasma chemical gasification of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Balgaranova, Janetta

    2003-02-01

    The possibility for plasma gasification of sewage sludge is investigated. Water steam is used as the plasma generating gas and as a chemical reagent. The experiments are carried out at a sludge to water steam ratio of 1 to 1.5 by weight, and at a plasma torch temperature of up to 2600 degrees C. The calculated average temperature in the reactor after mixing with the sludge particles is up to 1700 degrees C. Proximate and ultimate analyses of the sludge are given. The resulting gases are analysed by gas chromatography. High calorific gas containing mainly carbon monoxide (48% volume) and hydrogen (46% volume), as well as glass-like slag, is obtained. No water-soluble substances are detected within it. The amount of carbon dioxide produced is under 4% mass. No hydrocarbons are observed within the gas. The investigated process is environmentally safe, compact and shows a high rate of conversion.

  9. Biodiesel production from municipal secondary sludge.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Ghosh, Pooja; Khosla, Khushboo; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of biodiesel production from freeze dried sewage sludge was studied and its yield was enhanced by optimization of the in situ transesterification conditions (temperature, catalyst and concentration of sludge solids). Optimized conditions (45°C, 5% catalyst and 0.16g/mL sludge solids) resulted in a 20.76±0.04% biodiesel yield. The purity of biodiesel was ascertained by GC-MS, FT-IR and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) spectroscopy. The biodiesel profile obtained revealed the predominance of methyl esters of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic, myristic, stearic, lauric, palmitoleic and linoleic acids indicating potential use of sludge as a biodiesel feedstock.

  10. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, L.W.

    1986-11-04

    A method is described of reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50-80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water. The method comprises: circulating a hot liquid metal in a loop; forming a mixture of the moist sludge and the hot liquid metal in a portion of the loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies; separating the liquid metal, dried sludge, and vaporized water in a separation zone of the loop; and drawing off the dried sludge and vaporized water from the loop whereby the liquid metal is left to be recirculated in the loop.

  11. Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianhong

    Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This

  12. Evaluation of nitrogen availability in irradiated sewage sludge, sludge compost and manure compost

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Guang; Bates, T.E.; Voroney, R.P.

    1995-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted during 2 yr to determine plant availability of organic N from organic wastes, and effects of gamma irradiation on organic N availability in sewage sludge. The wastes investigated were: digested, dewatered sewage sludge (DSS), irradiated sewage sludge (DISS), irradiated, composted sewage sludge (DICSS), and composted livestock manure (CLM). The annual application rates were: 10, 20, 30, and 40 Mg solids ha{sup {minus}1}. Fertilizer N was added to the control, to which no waste was applied, as well as to the waste applications to ensure approximately equal amounts of available N (110 kg N ha{sup {minus}1}) for all treatments. Lettuce, petunias, and beans were grown in 1990 and two cuts of lettuce were harvested in 1991. Crop yields and plant N concentrations were measured. Assuming that crop N harvested/available N applied would be approximately equal for the control and the waste treatments, the N from organic fraction of the wastes, which is as available as that in fertilizer, was estimated. With petunia in 1990 and the combination of first and second cut of lettuce in 1991, the percentage ranged from 11.2 to 29.7 in nonirradiated sludge, 10.1 to 14.0 in irradiated sludge, 10.5 to 32.1 in sludge compost and 10.0 to 19.7 in manure compost. Most often, the highest values were obtained with the lowest application rates. Yields of petunia and N concentrations in second cut lettuce in 1991 were lower with irradiated sludge than with nonirradiated sludge suggest that the availability of organic N in digested sludge may have been reduced after irradiation. Irradiation of sludge appears to have released NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. The availability of organic N, however, appears to have been reduced by irradiation by greater amount than the increase in NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. 41 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. An Aerobic Digestion of Lime Sludge.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    defined for process control. LITERATURE REVIEW GENERAL CONDITIONS The process of anaerobic digestion may be considered to occur in three stages . The... anaerobic digestion process can result in significantly higher digester volume require- ments. The characteristics of lime sludge degradatioA were...considerations: 1. The stabilized sludge must be of acceptable quality for disposal for the anaerobic digestion process to be feasible. 2. Since

  14. Treatability Studies of Tributyltin in Activated Sludge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    tributyltin and its degradation produts. We found that tributyltin degraded to dibutyltin and monobutyltin in activated sludge at the bench scale... Dibutyltin dichloride GC-FPD Gas chromatography-flame photometric detection L/day Liters per day L/min Liters per minute MBT Monobutyltin trichloride m3...that tributyltin degraded to dibutyltin and monobutyltin in activated sludge at the bench scale. Tributyltin also degrades under anaerobic conditions

  15. A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Connop, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenon—hazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended. PMID:21283298

  16. Disintegration impact on sludge digestion process.

    PubMed

    Dauknys, Regimantas; Rimeika, Mindaugas; Jankeliūnaitė, Eglė; Mažeikienė, Aušra

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic sludge digestion is a widely used method for sludge stabilization in wastewater treatment plant. This process can be improved by applying the sludge disintegration methods. As the sludge disintegration is not investigated enough, an analysis of how the application of thermal hydrolysis affects the sludge digestion process based on full-scale data was conducted. The results showed that the maximum volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction reached the value of 65% independently on the application of thermal hydrolysis. The average VSS destruction increased by 14% when thermal hydrolysis was applied. In order to have the maximum VSS reduction and biogas production, it is recommended to keep the maximum defined VSS loading of 5.7 kg VSS/m(3)/d when the thermal hydrolysis is applied and to keep the VSS loading between 2.1-2.4 kg VSS/m(3)/d when the disintegration of sludge is not applied. The application of thermal hydrolysis leads to an approximately 2.5 times higher VSS loading maintenance comparing VSS loading without the disintegration; therefore, digesters with 1.8 times smaller volume is required.

  17. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. )

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  18. Extracellular polymers of ozonized waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, J C; Lee, C H; Lai, J Y; Wang, K C; Hsu, Y C; Chang, B V

    2001-01-01

    Effect of ozonation on characteristics of waste activated sludge was investigated in the current study. Concentrations of cell-bound extracellular polymers (washed ECPs) did not change much upon ozonation, whereas the sum of cell-bound and soluble extracellular polymers (unwashed ECPs) increased with increasing ozone dose. Washed ECPs in original sludge as divided by molecular weight distribution was 39% < 1,000 Da (low MW), 30% from 1,000 to 10,000 Da (medium MW), and 31% > 10,000 Da (high MW). It was observed that the low-MW fraction decreased, and the high-MW fraction increased in ozonized sludge. The unwashed ECPs were characterized as 44% in low MW, 30% in medium MW, and 26% in high MW. Both low-MW and medium-MW fractions of unwashed ECPs decreased while high-MW fraction increased in ozonized sludge. The dewaterability of ozonized sludge, assessed by capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF), deteriorated with ozone dose. The optimal dose of cationic polyelectrolyte increased with increasing ozone dose. The production rate and the accumulated amount of methane gas of ozonized sludge were also higher.

  19. Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

    2012-09-25

    This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

  20. Project summary: Land treatability of refinery and petrochemical sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.W.; Deuel, L.E.; Thomas, J.C.

    1983-11-01

    The land disposal of API separator sludges was investigated with regard to decomposition rates of organic constituents and the possible impact of these materials on plants and surface water or groundwater quality. Two oily sludges (one from a petroleum refinery and one from a petrochemical plant) were studied as to their phytotoxicity, biodegradability in soils, water-soluble constituents, and field mobility. Concentrations of refinery sludge of 5% v/v and above depressed ryegrass emergence and yield. The petrochemical sludge suppressed emergence and yield proportional to the amount of sludge applied, and the suppression lasted longer than that of the refinery sludge.

  1. Effects of pyrite sludge pollution on soil enzyme activities: ecological dose-response model.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, M Belén; Carreira, José A; Rodríguez-Maroto, José M; García-Ruíz, Roberto

    2008-06-25

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the response of soil enzyme activities (acid and alkaline phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, urease and dehydrogenase) to different levels of trace elements pollution in soils representative of the area affected by the pyrite sludge mining spill of Aznalcóllar (Guadiamar basin, SW Spain). Three uncontaminated soils from the study area were mixed with different loads of pyrite sludge to resemble field conditions and criteria applied for reclamation practices following the pollution incident: 0% ("reference" or background level), 1.3% ("attention level", further monitoring required), 4% ("intervention level", further cleaning and liming required) and 13% (ten times the "attention level"). Enzyme activities were analysed 4, 7, 14, 21, 34 and 92 days after pollutant addition and those measured after 92 days were used to calculate the ecological dose value (ED50). Soil enzyme activities and pH decreased after the pyrite sludge addition with respect to the "reference level" (0% pyrite sludge), whereas soil bioavailable (DTPA-extractable) trace elements concentration increased. Arylsulfatase, beta-glucosidase and phosphatase activities were reduced by more than 50% at 1.3% pyrite sludge dose. Arylsulfasate was the most sensitive soil enzyme (in average, ED50=0.99), whereas urease activity showed the lowest inhibition (in average, ED50=7.87) after pyrite sludge addition. Our results showed that the ecological dose concept, applied to enzyme activities, was satisfactory to quantify the effect of a multi-metalic pollutant (pyrite sludge) on soil functionality, and would provide manageable data to establish permissible limits of trace elements in polluted soils. Additionally, we evaluate the recovery of enzyme activities after addition of sugar-beet lime (calcium carbonate) to each experimentally polluted soil. The amount of lime added to each soil was enough to raise the pH to the original value (equal to control soil

  2. Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sams, Terry L.

    2013-08-15

    Long Abstract. Full Text. The purpose of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation (DSGRE-AE) is to evaluate the postulated hypothesis that a hydrogen GRE may occur in Hanford tanks containing waste sludges at levels greater than previously experienced. There is a need to understand gas retention and release hazards in sludge beds which are 200 -300 inches deep. These sludge beds are deeper than historical Hanford sludge waste beds, and are created when waste is retrieved from older single-shell tanks (SST) and transferred to newer double-shell tanks (DST).Retrieval of waste from SSTs reduces the risk to the environment from leakage or potential leakage of waste into the ground from these tanks. However, the possibility of an energetic event (flammable gas accident) in the retrieval receiver DST is worse than slow leakage. Lines of inquiry, therefore, are (1) can sludge waste be stored safely in deep beds; (2) can gas release events (GRE) be prevented by periodically degassing the sludge (e.g., mixer pump); or (3) does the retrieval strategy need to be altered to limit sludge bed height by retrieving into additional DSTs? The scope of this effort is to provide expert advice on whether or not to move forward with the generation of deep beds of sludge through retrieval of C-Farm tanks. Evaluation of possible mitigation methods (e.g., using mixer pumps to release gas, retrieving into an additional DST) are being evaluated by a second team and are not discussed in this report. While available data and engineering judgment indicate that increased gas retention (retained gas fraction) in DST sludge at depths resulting from the completion of SST 241-C Tank Farm retrievals is not expected and, even if gas releases were to occur, they would be small and local, a positive USQ was declared (Occurrence Report EM-RP--WRPS-TANKFARM-2012-0014, "Potential Exists for a Large Spontaneous Gas Release Event in Deep Settled Waste Sludge"). The purpose of this technical

  3. Sludge Lagoons. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Ronald M.

    This lesson describes three different types of sludge lagoons: (1) drying lagoons; (2) facultative lagoons; and (3) anaerobic lagoons. Normal operating sequence and equipment are also described. The lesson is designed to be used in sequence with the complete Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166 or as an independent lesson. The instructor's…

  4. Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management

    SciTech Connect

    Danny M. McDonald; John A. Webb; Jeff Taylor

    2006-03-15

    To assess the chemical stability of sludges generated by neutralizing acid rock drainage (ARD) with alkaline reagents, synthetic ARD was treated with hydrated lime (batch and high-density sludge process), limestone, and two proprietary reagents (KB-1 and Bauxsol). The amorphous metal hydroxide sludge produced was leached using deionized water, U.S. EPA methods (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure), and the new strong acid leach test (SALT), which leaches the sludge with a series of sulfuric acid extractant solutions; the pH decreases by {approximately} 1 pH unit with each test, until the final pH is {approximately}2. Sludges precipitated by all reagents had very similar leachabilities except for KB-1 and Bauxsol, which released more aluminum. SALT showed that lowering the pH of the leaching solution mobilized more metals from the sludges. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc began to leach at pH 2.5-3, {approximately}4.5, {approximately}5.5, and 6-6.5, respectively. The leachability of ARD treatment sludges is determined by the final pH of the leachate. A higher neutralization potential (e.g., a greater content of unreacted neutralizing agent) makes sludges inherently more chemically stable. Thus, when ARD or any acidic metalliferous wastewater is treated, a choice must be made between efficient reagent use and resistance to acid attack. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Production of thermostable protease enzyme in wastewater sludge using thermophilic bacterial strains isolated from sludge.

    PubMed

    Chenel, J P; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2008-01-01

    The volume of sludge produced annually is very high and poses serious disposal problems. The traditional methods of sludge disposal produce secondary pollutants. Therefore, the alternate or suitable solution is reuse of sludge in an ecofriendly approach. Biotechnology is an interesting tool to add value to the processes involved in wastewater and wastewater sludge disposal/reuse. In this context, a study was carried out on thermophilic bacterial strains that produce thermostable proteases. The bacterial strains were first isolated from municipal wastewater sludge. In contrast to the conventional strains used in industries, like Bacillus sp., the new strains were Gram-Negative type. In semi-synthetic medium, a maximal protease activity of 5.25 IU/ml (International Unit per ml) was obtained at a pH of 8.2 and at a temperature of 60 degrees C, which is higher than the stability temperature of 37 degrees C for a similar protease obtained from the conventional producer Bacillus licheniformis. Moreover, growth and protease activity of the strains were tested in wastewater sludge. It is expected that the complexity of sludge could stimulate/enhance the protease production and their characteristics. In conclusion, reuse of wastewater sludge will help to reduce their quantity as well as the value-added products produced will replace chemical products used in industries.

  6. Sludge reduction and performance analysis of a modified sludge reduction process.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen; Qiao, Weimin; Xing, Can; Wang, Yingjun; Wang, Chunying; Wang, Yifang; Wang, Yiru; Wang, Luochun

    2014-01-01

    A modified sludge process reduction activated sludge (SPRAS) technology was developed by inserting a sludge process reduction (SPR) module, composed of an aeration tank and a settler, before the activated sludge system was proposed in this study. Compared with the anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic (AAO) process, the SPRAS resulted in a remarkable decrease in sludge production by 76.6%; sludge decay owing to lengthy solids retention time (about 121.5 d) could be the major cause. During the 217-day operation, the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) (from 54 to -198 mV) and pH (from 7.8 to 5.0) at the bottom of the SPR settler gradually decreased, and low ORP and pH were in favor of sludge reduction in the SPRAS system. The insertion of the SPR module improved the removal efficiencies of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and ammonium nitrogen, and total nitrogen concentration in the effluent was reduced from 23.89 ± 4.82 to 14.16 ± 3.98 mg/L by 50% influent bypassing the SPR module. These results indicated that the SPRAS process could produce much less excess sludge and guarantee better effluent quality than the AAO process.

  7. Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Danny M; Webb, John A; Taylor, Jeff

    2006-03-15

    To assess the chemical stability of sludges generated by neutralizing acid rock drainage (ARD) with alkaline reagents, synthetic ARD was treated with hydrated lime (batch and high-density sludge process), limestone, and two proprietary reagents (KB-1 and Bauxsol). The amorphous metal hydroxide sludge produced was leached using deionized water, U.S. EPA methods (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure), and the new strong acid leach test (SALT), which leaches the sludge with a series of sulfuric acid extractant solutions; the pH decreases by approximately 1 pH unit with each test, until the final pH is approximately 2. Sludges precipitated by all reagents had very similar leachabilities except for KB-1 and Bauxsol, which released more aluminum. SALT showed that lowering the pH of the leaching solution mobilized more metals from the sludges. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc began to leach at pH 2.5-3, approximately 4.5, approximately 5.5, and 6-6.5, respectively. The leachability of ARD treatment sludges is determined by the final pH of the leachate. A higher neutralization potential (e.g., a greater content of unreacted neutralizing agent) makes sludges inherently more chemically stable. Thus, when ARD or any acidic metalliferous wastewater is treated, a choice must be made between efficient reagent use and resistance to acid attack.

  8. Application of forward osmosis (FO) under ultrasonication on sludge thickening of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Nguyen, Hau Thi; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Nguyen, Nhat Thien; Li, Chi-Wang

    2015-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging process for dewatering solid-liquid stream which has the potential to be innovative and sustainable. However, the applications have still been hindered by low water flux and membrane fouling when activated sludge is used as the feed solution due to bound water from microbial cells. Hence, a novel strategy was designed to increase sludge thickening and reduce membrane fouling in the FO process under ultrasonic condition. The results from the ultrasound/FO hybrid system showed that the sludge concentration reached up to 20,400 and 28,400 mg/L from initial sludge concentrations of 3000 and 8000 mg/L with frequency of 40 kHz after 22 hours, while the system without ultrasound had to spend 26 hours to achieve the same sludge concentration. This identifies that the presence of ultrasound strongly affected sludge structure as well as sludge thickening of the FO process. Furthermore, the ultrasound/FO hybrid system could achieve NH4+-N removal efficiency of 96%, PO4(3-)-P of 98% and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of 99%. The overall performance demonstrates that the proposed ultrasound/FO system using seawater as a draw solution is promising for sludge thickening application.

  9. Sludge Dewatering in a Freezing Bed: A Pilot-Scale Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    Basically the bed consists of an in- WedgewPri o Sand 9OtOpe ground concrete basin with a drainage system for Smp removing meltwater during thaw...year 3. The performance was measured in terms of the depth of sludge frozen, the time required for freezing and thawing. the meltwater quality and the...and from the top downward. Meltwater seemed in Figure 4, the freezing period began on I December to drain away as quickly as it formed, and cracks

  10. The Removal Action Work Plan for CPP-603A Basin Facility

    SciTech Connect

    B. T. Richards

    2006-06-05

    This revised Removal Action Work Plan describes the actions to be taken under the non-time-critical removal action recommended in the Action Memorandum for the Non-Time Critical Removal Action at the CPP-603A Basins, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as evaluated in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the CPP-603A Basin Non-Time Critical Removal Action, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The regulatory framework outlined in this Removal Action Work Plan has been modified from the description provided in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (DOE/NE-ID-11140, Rev. 1, August 2004). The modification affects regulation of sludge removal, treatment, and disposal, but the end state and technical approaches have not changed. Revision of this document had been delayed until the basin sludge was successfully managed. This revision (Rev. 1) has been prepared to provide information that was not previously identified in Rev. 0 to describe the removal, treatment, and disposal of the basin water at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) CERCLA Disposal Facility evaporation ponds and fill the basins with grout/controlled low strength material (CLSM) was developed. The Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the CPP-603A Basin Non-Time Critical Removal Action, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center - conducted pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act - evaluated risks associated with deactivation of the basins and alternatives for addressing those risks. The decision to remove and dispose of the basin water debris not containing uranium grouted in place after the sludge has been removed and managed under the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act has been documented in the Act Memorandum for the Non-Time Critical Removal Action at the CPP-603A Basins, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center.

  11. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction fuel removal for 105-KE basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kamberg, L.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-11

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96 for the modifications, installation of new equipment, and fuel removal and sludge relocation activities at 105-KE Basin. The 105-K east reactor and its associated spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage basin (105-KE Basin) were constructed in the early 1950s and are located in the 100-K Area about 1,400 feet from the Columbia River. The 105-KE Basin contains 1,152 metric tons of SNF stored underwater in 3,673 open canisters. This SNF has been stored for varying periods of time ranging from 8 to 24 years. The 105-KE Basin is constructed of unlined concrete and contains approximately 1.3 million gallons of water with an asphaltic membrane beneath the pool. The fuel is corroding and an estimated 1,700 cubic feet of sludge, containing radionuclides and miscellaneous materials, have accumulated in the basin. The 105-KE Basin has leaked radiologically contaminated water to the soil beneath the basin in the past most likely at the construction joint between the foundation of the basin and the foundation of the reactor. The purpose of the activities described in this Notice of Construction (NOC) is to enable the retrieval and transport of the fuel to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). This NOC describes modifications, the installation of new equipment, and fuel removal and sludge relocation activities expected to be routine in the future. Debris removal activities described in this NOC will supersede the previously approved NOC (DOE/RL-95-65). The proposed modifications described are scheduled to begin in calendar year 1997.

  12. Final decision document for the interim response action at the lime settling basins, Rocky Mountain Arsenal, version 4.0

    SciTech Connect

    1990-03-01

    The objective of the interim response action at the lime settling basins is to mitigate the threat of releases from the basins. The proposed IRA consists of: (1) relocation of sludge material to the settling basin; (2) construction of a 360 degree subsurface barrier around the basins; (3) construction of a soil and vegetative cover over the material; and (4) installation of a ground water extraction system. This decision document provides summaries of: (1) alternative technologies considered, (2) significant events leading to the initiation of the IRA, (3) the IRA Project, and (4) applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements, standards, criteria, and limitations (ARAR`s) associated with the program.

  13. The comparison of the migration and transformation behavior of heavy metals during pyrolysis and liquefaction of municipal sewage sludge, paper mill sludge, and slaughterhouse sludge.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jianguang; Yuan, Xingzhong; Leng, Lijian; Huang, Huajun; Jiang, Longbo; Wang, Hou; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-12-01

    Municipal sewage sludge, paper mill sludge, and slaughterhouse sludge were pyrolyzed and liquefied for the production of bio-char. The migration and transformation behavior of Cu, Cr, and Zn during pyrolysis and liquefaction of these sludges were studied. Pyrolysis and liquefaction promoted mobile fraction (F1 and F2) to stable fraction (F3 and F4). The results showed that pyrolysis and liquefaction largely affected the redistribution of Cu and Zn in raw materials. The environmental risk assessment results indicated that the environmental risk levels of Cu and Zn were significantly reduced in bio-char, and risk level of Cr was slightly decreased after pyrolysis or liquefaction. Both pyrolysis and liquefaction were promising detoxification technologies for the three sludges in terms of the mitigation of heavy metals toxicity. It was suggested that dewatered sludge could be reduced toxicity/risk before utilization by pyrolysis or liquefaction technology, especially for Cu and Zn in slaughterhouse sludge.

  14. Application for Approval of Modification for the 105-KE Basin Encapsulation Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This application is being submitted to US EPA pursuant to Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61.07, amended. The encapsulation activity will consist of the activities necessary to complete encapsulation of the fuel elements and sludge in 105-KE basin, a storage basin for irradiated N Reactor fuel in Hanford 100-K Area; it currently stores 1,150 MTU of N Reactor irradiated fuel elements transferred to the basin from 1975 through 1989. The application presents the chemical and physical processes relating to the encapsulation activity, source term, expected annual emissions, radionuclide control and monitoring equipment, and projected dose to the maximally exposed individual.

  15. Changes in sediment-associated trace element concentrations in the Seine river basin (1994-2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meybeck, M.; Horowitz, A. J.; Grosbois, C.; Gueguen, Y.

    2003-05-01

    In the 1980's, based on the concentrations of particulate-associated Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn relative to very low natural background levels, the Seine River Basin was one of the most impacted in die world. Over the past 20years, there has been a general decline in these elevated concentrations that parallels declines in Paris sewage sludge trace element levels. Within the basin, marked differences in spatial and temporal geochemical patterns have been observed: (1) between major tributaries, (2) between trace elements, and (3) with stream order and population density, all of which illustrate the complexity of the geochemical processes ongoing in the basin.

  16. Changes in sediment-associated trace element concentrations in the Seine river basin (1994-2001)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meybeck, Michel; Horowitz, A.J.; Grosbois, C.; Gueguen, Y.; ,

    2003-01-01

    In the 1980's, based on the concentrations of particulate-associated Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn relative to very low natural background levels, the Seine River Basin was one of the most impacted in the world. Over the past 20 years, there has been a general decline in these elevated concentrations that parallels declines in Paris sewage sludge trace element levels. Within the basin, marked differences in spatial and temporal geochemical patterns have been observed: (1) between major tributaries, (2) between trace elements, and (3) with stream order and population density, all of which illustrate the complexity of the geochemical processes ongoing in the basin.

  17. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on higher plants.

    PubMed

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; Souza, Tatiana da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Sewage treatment yields sludge, which is often used as a soil amendment in agriculture and crop production. Although the sludge contains elevated concentrations of macro and micronutrients, high levels of inorganic and organic compounds with genotoxic and mutagenic properties are present in sludge. Application of sludge in agriculture is a pathway for direct contact of crops to toxic chemicals. The objective of this study was to compile information related to the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge in different plant species. In addition, data are presented on toxicological effects in animals fed with plants grown in soils supplemented with sewage sludge. Despite the benefits of using sewage sludge as organic fertilizer, the data showcased in this review suggest that this residue can induce genetic damage in plants. This review alerts potential risks to health outcomes after the intake of food cultivated in sewage sludge-amended soils.

  18. Processing anaerobic sludge for extended storage as anaerobic digester inoculum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiajia; Zicari, Steven M; Cui, Zongjun; Zhang, Ruihong

    2014-08-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic sludge was processed to reduce the volume and moisture content in order to reduce costs for storing and transporting the sludge as microbial inoculum for anaerobic digester startup. The moisture content of the sludge was reduced from 98.7% to 82.0% via centrifugation and further to 71.5% via vacuum evaporation. The processed sludge was stored for 2 and 4 months and compared with the fresh sludge for the biogas and methane production using food waste and non-fat dry milk as substrates. It was found that fresh unprocessed sludge had the highest methane yield and the yields of both unprocessed and processed sludges decreased during storage by 1-34%, however processed sludges seemed to regain some activity after 4 months of storage as compared to samples stored for only 2 months. Maximum methane production rates obtained from modified Gompertz model application also increased between the 2-month and 4-month processed samples.

  19. Agronomic characterisation of different types of sewage sludge: policy implications.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Muñoz-Ferreiro, N; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A

    2010-03-01

    Spain is one of the main municipal sewage sludge producers of Europe. This paper aims to agronomically characterise different types of sewage sludge stabilised by different methods (anaerobically digested, composted, and pelletised) and deliver policy recommendations from the results of this characterisation. Anaerobic sewage sludge quality is found to be better in plants with a lower volume of water processing. Composted sludge shows the best quality from a heavy metal point of view, but its low available nitrogen content increases the input of heavy metals when spread, as compared to digested or pelletised sludge. Pelletised sludge has higher heavy metal content than anaerobically digested sludge. Despite the good quality of the sludges, future regulations, especially with regard to Cd levels, will limit the use of this waste in agriculture.

  20. Effects of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on an aphid population

    SciTech Connect

    Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

    1986-12-01

    Survival and fecundity of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, were markedly reduced when they were fed on collard plants grown in pots of soil treated with chemically contaminated sewage sludge, as compared to populations on potted plants grown in uncontaminated sludge or on fertilized soil (control). Calculated demographic parameters differed significantly between the contaminated sludge and uncontaminated sludge populations and between the contaminated sludge and control populations. No significant differences were detected between the uncontaminated sludge and control populations. The ecological effects on the aphids suggest that plant uptake and translocation of chemicals from the contaminated sludge affected aphid fitness through direct toxicity and/or reduced nutritional value of the plant. These results indicate that phytophagous insects may be affected by chemical contaminants in sewage sludge used in agriculture.

  1. Including the effects of filamentous bulking sludge during the simulation of wastewater treatment plants using a risk assessment model.

    PubMed

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Comas, Joaquim; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Gernaey, Krist V; Rosen, Christian

    2009-10-01

    The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how including the occurrence of filamentous bulking sludge in a secondary clarifier model will affect the predicted process performance during the simulation of WWTPs. The IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) is hereby used as a simulation case study. Practically, the proposed approach includes a risk assessment model based on a knowledge-based decision tree to detect favourable conditions for the development of filamentous bulking sludge. Once such conditions are detected, the settling characteristics of the secondary clarifier model are automatically changed during the simulation by modifying the settling model parameters to mimic the effect of growth of filamentous bacteria. The simulation results demonstrate that including effects of filamentous bulking in the secondary clarifier model results in a more realistic plant performance. Particularly, during the periods when the conditions for the development of filamentous bulking sludge are favourable--leading to poor activated sludge compaction, low return and waste TSS concentrations and difficulties in maintaining the biomass in the aeration basins--a subsequent reduction in overall pollution removal efficiency is observed. Also, a scenario analysis is conducted to examine i) the influence of sludge retention time (SRT), the external recirculation flow rate (Q(r)) and the air flow rate in the bioreactor (modelled as k(L)a) as factors promoting bulking sludge, and ii) the effect on the model predictions when the settling properties are changed due to a possible proliferation of filamentous microorganisms. Finally, the potentially adverse effects of certain operational procedures are highlighted, since such effects are normally not considered by state-of-the-art models that do not include microbiology-related solids separation problems.

  2. The characteristics of organic sludge/sawdust derived fuel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing

    2011-05-01

    A fundamental study of the characteristics of a sludge refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and the combustion behaviors were done. The test data demonstrate good results for the development of energy recovery technology of organic sludge or waste. The ash deposit formation propensity has been based on pretreatment, temperature and the ratio of organic sludge to sawdust. The usage of organic sludge and waste as an alternative fuel is cost effective and has environmental benefits.

  3. San Mateo Creek Basin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  4. Vermistabilization of primary sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod

    2011-02-01

    An integrated composting-vermicomposting process has been developed for utilization of primary sewage sludge (PSS). Matured vermicompost was used as bulking material and a source of active microbial culture during aerobic activated composting (AAC). AAC resulted in sufficient enrichment of bulking material with organic matter after 20 cycles of recycling and mixing with PSS and produced materials acceptable for vermicomposting. Vermicomposting caused significant reduction in pH, volatile solids (VS), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), total organic carbon (TOC), C/N ratio and pathogens and substantial increase in electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) as compared to compost. Environmental conditions and stocking density have profound effects on vermicomposting. Temperature of 20°C with high humidity is favorable environmental condition for vermicomposting employing Eisenia fetida. Favorable stocking density range for vermiculture is 0.5-2.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 0.5 kg m(-2)) and for vermicomposting is 2.0-4.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 3.0 kg m(-2)), respectively.

  5. Phase Chemistry of Tank Sludge Residual Components

    SciTech Connect

    J.L. Krumhansl

    2002-04-02

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of high level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington and Savannah River, South Carolina. These tanks will eventually be emptied and decommissioned. This will leave a residue of sludge adhering to the interior tank surfaces that may contaminate nearby groundwaters with radionuclides and RCRA metals. Performance assessment (PA) calculations must be carried out prior to closing the tanks. This requires developing radionuclide release models from the sludges so that the PA calculations can be based on credible source terms. These efforts continued to be hindered by uncertainties regarding the actual nature of the tank contents and the distribution of radionuclides among the various phases. In particular, it is of vital importance to know what radionuclides are associated with solid sludge components. Experimentation on actual tank sludges can be difficult, dangerous and prohibitively expensive. The research funded under this grant for the past three years was intended to provide a cost-effective method for developing the needed radionuclide release models using non-radioactive artificial sludges. Insights gained from this work will also have more immediate applications in understanding the processes responsible for heel development in the tanks and in developing effective technologies for removing wastes from the tanks.

  6. Self-heating of dried wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Zerlottin, M; Refosco, D; Della Zassa, M; Biasin, A; Canu, P

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally studied the occurrence of spontaneous self-heating of sludge after drying, to understand its nature, course and remediation. The sludge originates from primary and biological treatment of both municipal and industrial wastewater, the latter largely dominant (approx. 90% total organic carbon, mainly from local tanneries). Dried sludge is collected into big-bags (approx. 1.5m(3)) and landfilled in a dedicated site. After several years of regular operation of the landfill, without any management or environmental issue, indications of local warming emerged, together with smoke and smelling emissions, and local subsidence. During a two year monitoring activity, temperatures locally as high as 80°C have been detected, 6-10 m deep. Experiments were carried out on large quantities of dried sludge (≈ 1t), monitoring the temperature of the samples over long periods of time (months), aiming to reproduce the spontaneous self-heating, under different conditions, to spot enhancing and damping factors. Results demonstrate that air is a key factor to trigger and modulate the self-heating. Water, in addition to air, supports and emphasizes the heating. Unusual drying operation was found to affect dramatically the self-heating activity, up to spontaneous combustion, while ordinary drying conditions yield a sludge with a moderate self-heating inclination. Temperature values as well as heating time scales suggest that the exothermic process nature is mainly chemical and physical, while microbiological activity might be a co-factor.

  7. Parasite ova in anaerobically digested sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Arther, R.G.; Fitzgerald, P.R.; Fox, J.C.

    1981-08-01

    The Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago produces anaerobically digested wastewater sludge from a 14-day continuous-flow process maintained at 35 degrees Celcius. Some of the sludge is ultimately applied to strip-mined lands in Central Illinois (Fulton County) as a soil conditioner and fertilizer. Parasitic nematode ova were isolated from freshly processed samples, as well as from samples collected from storage lagoons, using a system of continuous sucrose solution gradients. The mean number of ova per 100 g of dry sludge was 203 Ascaris spp., 173 Toxocara spp., 48 Toxascaris leonina, and 36 Trichuris spp. An assessment of the viability of these ova was determined by subjecting the ova to conditions favorable for embryonation. Recovered ova were placed in 1.5% formalin and aerated at 22 degrees Celcius for 21 to 28 days. Development of ova isolated from freshly digested sludge occurred in 64% of the Ascaris spp., 53% of the Toxocara, 63% of the Toxascaris leonina, and 20% of the Trichuris spp. Viability was also demonstrated in ova recovered from sludge samples held in storage lagoons for a period of up to 5 years; embryonation occurred in 24% of the Ascaris spp., 10% of the Toxocara spp., 43% of the Toxascaris leonina, and 6% of the Trichuris spp. (Refs. 24).

  8. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Virgil James; Pao, Jenn Hai; Demmer, Ricky Lynn; Tripp, Julia Lynn

    2002-02-01

    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to reduce the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building.

  9. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.J.; Pao, J.H.; Demmer, R.L.; Tripp, J.L.

    2002-01-17

    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to r educe the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building.

  10. Evaluation of aeration energy saving in two modified activated sludge processes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ingyu; Lim, Honglae; Jung, Byunghun; Colosimo, Mark F; Kim, Hyunook

    2015-12-01

    A variety of modified activated sludge processes are widely used in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing organics and nutrients (N and P). Since energy consumption in aeration basin accounts for the major part of the overall energy usage in WWTPs, efforts have been made to find ways to reduce aeration energy. In this study, two modified activated sludge processes in a pilot scale designed for nutrient removal were evaluated for the extent of energy saving: (1) ABA(2) process - adjusting air on/off period (i.e., with a temporal change); and (2) MB-A(2)O process - changing volume ratio of aerobic tank to anoxic tank (i.e., with a spatial change). For the 1st process, the air on/off period was fixed at 60min/45min with aerobic fraction being 0.57, while for the 2nd process, the aerobic/anoxic volume ratio was reduced from 0.58 to 0.42. The results demonstrate that the effluent COD, TN, NH4(+) and TP concentrations are acceptable while reduced aeration time/volume certainly saves significant energy consumption. To the best of our knowledge, this is 1st attempt to reduce the aeration period or aeration volume to save the aeration energy in these two modified activated sludge processes. The implication of these observations is further discussed.

  11. ACCIDENT ANALYSES & CONTROL OPTIONS IN SUPPORT OF THE SLUDGE WATER SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2003-11-15

    This report documents the accident analyses and nuclear safety control options for use in Revision 7 of HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, ''K Basins Safety Analysis Report'' and Revision 4 of HNF-SD-SNF-TSR-001, ''Technical Safety Requirements - 100 KE and 100 KW Fuel Storage Basins''. These documents will define the authorization basis for Sludge Water System (SWS) operations. This report follows the guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', for calculating onsite and offsite consequences. The accident analysis summary is shown in Table ES-1 below. While this document describes and discusses potential control options to either mitigate or prevent the accidents discussed herein, it should be made clear that the final control selection for any accident is determined and presented in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062.

  12. A COMPARISON OF CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH SLUDGE REMOVAL & TREATMENT & DISPOSAL AT SEVERAL SPENT FUEL STORAGE LOCATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    PERES, M.W.

    2007-01-09

    Challenges associated with the materials that remain in spent fuel storage pools are emerging as countries deal with issues related to storing and cleaning up nuclear fuel left over from weapons production. The K Basins at the Department of Energy's site at Hanford in southeastern Washington State are an example. Years of corrosion products and piles of discarded debris are intermingled in the bottom of these two pools that stored more 2,100 metric tons (2,300 tons) of spent fuel. Difficult, costly projects are underway to remove radioactive material from the K Basins. Similar challenges exist at other locations around the globe. This paper compares the challenges of handling and treating radioactive sludge at several locations storing spent nuclear fuel.

  13. Liquidization of dewatered organic sludge and anaerobic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sawayama, Shigeki; Inoue, Seiichi; Ogi, Tomoko

    1996-12-31

    Dewatered sewage sludge was thermochemically liquidized at 175 {degrees}C and the liquidized sludge was separated by centrifugation to 58% (w/w) supernatant and 42% precipitate. The amount of proteins in the liquidized sludge slightly decreased through the liquidization process, however, that of lipids increased. The supernatant separated from the sludge liquidized with dewatered sewage sludge was successfully anaerobically digested. Biogas yield from the supernatant from dewatered sewage sludge at organic loading concentrations of 1.9-2.2 g VS/l during 9 days incubation was 440 ml/g-added VS and digestion ratio was 66% (w/w). Biogas yield in the case of dewatered sewage sludge was 257 ml/g-added VS and digestion ratio was 45%. Similar results were obtained in the case of the anaerobically digested with sewage sludge and dewatered sludge. Anaerobic digestion of the supernatants from the liquidized sludges resulted in high biogas productivity and high digestion ratio compared with these of the original sludges. Moreover, the precipitates contained lower moisture, therefore, they can be incinerated easier than the respective original sludges.

  14. Apparatus for processing municipal solid waste and sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Harendza-harinxma, A. J.

    1980-08-12

    Sewage sludge and municipal solid waste are simultaneously processed by first dissolving a catalyst, such as sodium aluminate, in the sludge, then mixing the sludge-aluminate mixture with the municipal waste to form a carbonizing mixture. After dewatering and drying, the mixture is carbonized in a furnace heated by a mixture of city gas and pyrolysis gases given off by the furnace.

  15. Rheology of Savannah River Site Tank 51 HLW radioactive sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, B.C.

    1993-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 51 HLW radioactive sludge represents a major portion of the first batch of sludge to be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The rheological properties of Tank 51 sludge will determine if the waste sludge can be pumped by the current DWPF process cell pump design and the homogeneity of melter feed slurries. The rheological properties of Tank 51 sludge and sludge/frit slurries at various solids concentrations were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells Operations (SCO) at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using a modified Haake Rotovisco viscometer system. Rheological properties of Tank 51 radioactive sludge/Frit 202 slurries increased drastically when the solids content was above 41 wt %. The yield stresses of Tank 51 sludge and sludge/frit slurries fall within the limits of the DWPF equipment design basis. The apparent viscosities also fall within the DWPF design basis for sludge consistency. All the results indicate that Tank 51 waste sludge and sludge/frit slurries are pumpable throughout the DWPF processes based on the current process cell pump design, and should produce homogeneous melter feed slurries.

  16. Bioflocculant from pre-treated sludge and its applications in sludge dewatering and swine wastewater pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junyuan; Ma, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Potentials of alkaline-thermal (ALT) pre-treated sludge as a bioflocculant were studied in sludge dewatering and swine wastewater pretreatment. When incubated with this ALT pre-treated sludge, dry solids (DS) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of typical wastewater activated sludge reached 22.5% and 3.4×10(12)m/kg, respectively, which were much better than that obtained with conventional chemical flocculants. Sludge dewatering was further improved when both the bioflocculant and conventional polyaluminum chloride (PAC) were used simultaneously. Charge neutralization and inter-particle bridging were proposed as the reasons for the enhanced performance in the case of the combined use. With swine wastewater, the bioflocculant could remove COD, ammonium and turbidity by 45.2%, 41.8% and 74.6% when incubated with 20mg/L at pH 8.0. This study suggested that the ALT pre-treated sludge has a great potential as an alternative bioflocculant to conventional flocculants in sludge dewatering and swine wastewater pretreatment.

  17. EU policy on sewage sludge utilization and perspectives on new approaches of sludge management.

    PubMed

    Mininni, G; Blanch, A R; Lucena, F; Berselli, S

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the current sewage sludge legislation in Europe and expected developments regarding the coming directives on the application of the "End-of-waste" criteria and on fertilizers. Discussion on sludge production and processing is also included. The Directive 86/278 has regulated the use in agriculture of residual sludge from domestic and urban wastewater. After 1986, this directive was transposed in the different member state legislation and currently the national limit values on heavy metals, some organic micropollutants and pathogens are placed in a rather wide range. This seems the inevitable consequence of different attitudes towards sludge management practices in the member states. The discussion by the European Joint Research Center (JRC) in Seville regarding application of end-of-waste criteria for compost and digestate has produced a final document (IPTS 2014) where sludge was excluded from the organic wastes admitted for producing an end-of-waste compost. Sludge processing in Europe seems addressed to different goals: sludge minimization, full stabilization and hygienization by thermal hydrolysis processes before anaerobic digestion, and on-site incineration by fluidized bed furnace. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion was applied with success on the Prague WWTP with a preliminary lysimeter centrifugation. Coming techniques, like wet oxidation and pyrolysis, are applied only on very few plants.

  18. Efficiency of a pilot-scale integrated sludge thickening and digestion reactor in treating low-organic excess sludge.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Li, Jiang; Liu, Hongxia; Tang, Chuandong; de Koning, Jaap; Spanjers, Henri

    2012-06-01

    The sludge production from medium- and small-scale wastewater treatment plants in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region is low and non-stable; especially, the organic content in this sludge is low (near 40% of VS/TS). An integrated thickening and digestion (ISTD) reactor was developed to treat this low-organic excess sludge. After a flow test and start-up experiment of the reactor, a running experiment was used to investigate the excess sludge treatment efficiency under five different excess sludge inflows: 200, 300, 400, 500 and 400 L/d (a mixture of excess sludge and primary sludge in a volume ratio of 9:1). This trial was carried out in the wastewater treatment plant in Chongqing, which covers 80% of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, under the following conditions: (1) sludge was heated to 38-40 degrees C using an electrical heater to maintain anaerobic mesophilic digestion; (2) the biogas produced was recirculated to mix raw sludge with anaerobic sludge in the reactor under the flow rate of 12.5 L/min. There were three main results. Firstly, the flow pattern of the inner reactor was almost completely mixed under the air flow of 12.0 L/min using clear water. Secondly, under all the different sludge inflows, the water content in the outlet sludge was below 93%. Thirdly, the organic content in the outlet sludge was decreased from 37% to 30% and from 24% to 20%, whose removal ratio was in relation to the organic content of the inlet sludge. The excess sludge treatment capacity of the ISTD reactor was according to the organic content in the excess sludge.

  19. Up-to-date modification of the anaerobic sludge digestion process introducing a separate sludge digestion mode.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Ochi, S; Mizuochi, M

    2001-01-01

    Sewage treatment plants in Japan are subjected to advanced treatment to remove nutrients and hence control eutrophication problems in lakes and bays. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the separate digestion treatment mode for sludge generated from advanced wastewater treatment. In the separate digestion only primary sludge is digested and the excess activated sludge is directly dewatered. Separate digestion can reduce the return load of nutrients to approximately one third, and has major potential for the beneficial use of sludge.

  20. Relationship between enhanced dewaterability and structural properties of hydrothermal sludge after hydrothermal treatment of excess sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Li, Aimin; Chang, Yuzhi

    2017-04-01

    Hydrothermal treatment is an effective method to enhance the deep dewaterability of excess sludge with low energy consumption. In this study, an insight into the relationship between enhanced dewaterability and structural properties of the produced hydrothermal sludge was presented, aiming at better understanding the effect of hydrothermal process on excess sludge dewatering performance. The results indicated that hydrothermal effect induced the transformation of surface water to interstitial and free water by lowering the binding strength between adjacent water and solid particles and that free water became the main form for moisture existence in hydrothermal sludge as temperature was higher than 180 °C. Increase in temperature of hydrothermal treatment generated a significant size reduction of sludge flocs but treated sludge with a higher rigidity, which not only strengthened the network of hydrothermal sludge but also destroyed the binding of EPS with water. Hydrothermal process caused crevice and pore structures of excess sludge to disappear gradually, which was a main driving force of water removal as temperature was below 150 °C. With the temperature of hydrothermal treatment exceeding 180 °C, the morphology of hydrothermal sludge became rough which linked closely to the solid precipitation of condensation polymerization, and further became smooth at higher temperature (210 °C) due to the coal-like structures with higher aromaticities, indicating that hydrothermal reaction pathways began to play a main role in enhanced dewaterability. Hydrothermal treatment led to more alkyl and aromatic carbon, but lower O-alkyl, carboxyl and carbonyl carbon.

  1. Determining organic pollutants in automotive industry sludge.

    PubMed

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Wonghon, Audrey L; von Mühlen, Carin

    2012-12-01

    In Brazil, the policy for disposing industrial sludge is changing from an emphasis on using controlled landfills to other treatment or co-processing methods; however, the monitoring of organic pollutants is not mandatory. The present study evaluated two general screening methods for organic pollutants in sludge generated in an automotive industrial complex in southern Brazil. The screening was performed using Soxhlet and sonication extractions and Gas Chromatograph coupled with Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/qMS). It was concluded that both techniques were effective and that most of the compounds identified were alkanes, phenols and esters. Important pollutants were detected in the sludge, which confirms the necessity of monitoring this type of residue.

  2. Analysis of methane emissions from digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Schaum, C; Fundneider, T; Cornel, P

    2016-01-01

    The energetic use of sewage sludge is an important step in the generation of electricity and heat within a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). For a holistic approach, methane emissions derived from anaerobic treatment have to be considered. Measurements show that methane dissolved in digested sludge can be analyzed via the vacuum salting out degassing method. At different WWTPs, dissolved methane was measured, showing a concentration range of approximately 7-37 mg CH4/L. The average concentration of dissolved methane in mesophilic digested sludge was approximately 29 mg CH4/L, which corresponds to an estimated yearly specific load of approximately 14-21 g CH4 per population equivalent. Comparisons between continuous and discontinuous digester feeding show that a temporary rise in the volume load causes increased concentrations of dissolved methane. Investigations using an industrial-scale digestion plant, consisting of three digestion tank operated in series, show comparable results.

  3. Kinetic model of excess activated sludge thermohydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Imbierowicz, Mirosław; Chacuk, Andrzej

    2012-11-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of excess activated sludge suspensions was carried at temperatures ranging from 423 K to 523 K and under pressure 0.2-4.0 MPa. Changes of total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in a solid and liquid phase were measured during these studies. At the temperature 423 K, after 2 h of the process, TOC concentration in the reaction mixture decreased by 15-18% of the initial value. At 473 K total organic carbon removal from activated sludge suspension increased to 30%. It was also found that the solubilisation of particulate organic matter strongly depended on the process temperature. At 423 K the transfer of TOC from solid particles into liquid phase after 1 h of the process reached 25% of the initial value, however, at the temperature of 523 K the conversion degree of 'solid' TOC attained 50% just after 15 min of the process. In the article a lumped kinetic model of the process of activated sludge thermohydrolysis has been proposed. It was assumed that during heating of the activated sludge suspension to a temperature in the range of 423-523 K two parallel reactions occurred. One, connected with thermal destruction of activated sludge particles, caused solubilisation of organic carbon and an increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration in the liquid phase (hydrolysate). The parallel reaction led to a new kind of unsolvable solid phase, which was further decomposed into gaseous products (CO(2)). The collected experimental data were used to identify unknown parameters of the model, i.e. activation energies and pre-exponential factors of elementary reactions. The mathematical model of activated sludge thermohydrolysis appropriately describes the kinetics of reactions occurring in the studied system.

  4. Recovery of oil from oily sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Srivatsa, S.R.

    1983-05-17

    A process is provided for enhancing oil recovery from an oily sludge containing a solid phase, an oil phase and a water phase by adding a positively charged latex flocculant to such sludge and immediately thereafter adding a chemical emulsion breaker which is negatively charged or nonionic, while controlling the proportions of said flocculant and said emulsion breaker to cause the entrapped oil phase to detach from the floc surface of the adsorptive solids and go into the water phase, and mechanically separating the oil from the solids and water.

  5. SLUDGE BATCH 6 PHASE II FLOWSHEET SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Best, D.

    2010-03-30

    Two Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were used to demonstrate that a fairly wide window of acid stoichiometry was available for processing SB6 Phase II flowsheet simulant (Tank 40 simulant) while still meeting the dual goals of acceptable nitrate destruction and controlled hydrogen generation. Phase II was an intermediate flowsheet study for the projected composition of Tank 40 after transfer of SB6/Tank 51 sludge to the heel of SB5. The composition was based on August 2009 projections. A window of about 50% in total acid was found between acceptable nitrite destruction and excessive hydrogen generation.

  6. Metal chemistry differences between digested and undigested sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, R.J.; Angelidis, M.

    1988-01-01

    In a study of digested and undigested sludge chemical phases metal partitioning differences were found. The anaerobic digested sludges contained relatively more metals in the oxidizable phase but, in general, the chemical partitioning was similar for both the aerobic and anaerobic sludges. Conversely, the undigested sludge, although containing one-and-a-half times more organic carbon than the digested, did not contain a high metal concentration in the oxidizable phase as did the digested sludge. The microbial activity and physicochemical changes that occur during digestion were considered as the reasons for this difference.

  7. Sludge recycle and reuse in acid mine drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Keefer, G.B.; Sack, W.A.

    1983-03-01

    Neutralization of acid mine drainage produces vast quantities of iron-rich sludge, and large quantities of unused lime remain in the sludge after treatment. In a study in which sludge was recycled to increase lime utilization, sludge was mixed with raw acid mine drainage and settled out in an intermediate clarifier. The clarifier supernatant was then treated by lime addition, aeration and sedimentation. The low-pH sludge was withdrawn from the intermediate clarifier. The iron was recovered by acidification and used as wastewater coagulant. The recycle scheme resulted in a 30% decrease in lime requirements, and the resultant coagulant performed well when compared with stock iron coagulant solutions.

  8. Metal transfer in vermicomposting of sewage sludge and plant wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.; Klauck, C.; Stonefield, K.I.

    1983-12-01

    Sewage sludge is an urban waste that has a potential nutrient value for recycling into food production. A set of guidelines has been developed that prescribes the quality of sludge suitable for utilization on foodlands. A number of sewage sludges do not meet the criteria and are therefore not acceptable for direct foodland application. One of the options available for such sludges is the production of compost and one of these composting processes involves worms (vermicomposting). This study looks at a pilot vermicomposting operation and follows metal concentrations by batch lot from the sewage sludge to the final commercial product.

  9. [Bacteriological control of various methods of sewage sludge hygienization].

    PubMed

    Breer, C

    1983-09-01

    As a result of extensive parallel investigations in a water treatment plant it was found that the fresh sludge pasteurization or prepasteurization with ensuing sludge digestion gives a product which is unobjectionable from an epidemiological hygienic point of view. The result were confirmed by investigations in a second plant. Similarly satisfactory results were obtained with the composting of previously desiccated sludge, with the aerobic-thermophilic fermentation of liquid sludge or with the drying of sewage sludge. An alternative to these thermal processes is the application of gamma rays or accelerated electrons.

  10. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  11. Safety use of sewage sludge as soil conditioner.

    PubMed

    El-Naim, M A; El-Housseini, M; Naeem, M H

    2004-01-01

    A series of field and laboratory experiments were conducted during 1994-996 to study the seasonal changes in sewage sludge characteristics and to evaluate the effect of sludge treatment processes and their application to sandy soil on soil-plant heavy metal contents and the numbers of some pathogenic microorganisms in both treated sludge and sludge provided soils. Results of seasonal production of sludge showed wide variation in their chemical and microbiological characteristics. Lime application resulted in an increase in the pH values and temperature degrees. The maximal values of temperature and pH were obtained when sludge treated with 20% lime. No big difference was observed between the sludge treatments received lime at rates of 10, 15, and 20% lime. The 10% limed-sludge treatment was the best for reducing concentrations of heavy metals and numbers of bacterial pathogens in sludge. Stoping addition of sludge to soil for one cropping season after continuous sludge addition for four seasons sharply decreased the soil heavy metal contents and subsequently decreased their accumulation in the edible parts of plants.

  12. Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few

  13. A study of boron adsorption onto activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yuichiro; Hata, Takayosi; Nakamaru, Makoto; Iyo, Toru; Yoshino, Tsuneo; Shimamura, Tadashi

    2005-08-01

    Boron adsorption onto activated sludge was investigated using bench-scale reactors under simulated wastewater treatment conditions. Two experiments, continuous flow and batch, were performed. Boron concentrations were determined by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results of the continuous-flow experiment indicated that a small amount of boron accumulated on the activated sludge and its concentration in the sludge depended on the nature of the biota in the sludge. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm plots generated using the data from the batch experiment indicated that boron was adsorbed onto rather than absorbed into the sludge. The Freundlich constants, k and 1/n, were determined to be 26 mg/kg and 0.87. These values indicate that activated sludge has a limited capacity for boron adsorption and thus utilization of the excess sludge for farmland may not be toxic to plant at least boron concern.

  14. [Rheological measurement used as a tool to assess sludges settleability].

    PubMed

    Guibaud, G; Dollet, P; Tixier, N; Dagot, C; Baudu, M

    2004-06-01

    The activated sludge process is the most widely used biological wastewater treatment method. The measurement of some physico-chemical parameters in aeration tanks do not still allow to avoid clarification operation failure. This study focus on the ability to apply rheological measurements on activated sludge at standard concentrations in order to assess sludge settleability. Measurements in shear flow show a pseudonewtonian region which corresponds to the maximum dispersion of the suspensions that can be detected with the rotational system used. The Bingham's viscosity and shear stress are used to characterise activated sludge. Different shear sensitivities of flocs seem to result from various operational conditions of activated sludge process. Significant relationships with different parameters of settleability point out the ability of Bingham's shear stress to express the compressibility of the activated sludge. According to the protocol of measurement of the study, Bingham's shear stress may influence the nature of the sludge on its settleability.

  15. Rheology evolution of sludge through high-solid anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaohu; Gai, Xin; Dong, Bin

    2014-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the rheology evolution of sludge through high-solid anaerobic digestion (AD) and its dependency on sludge retention time (SRT) and temperature of AD reactor. The operation performance of high-solid AD reactors were also studied. The results showed that sludge became much more flowable after high-solid AD. It was found that the sludge from reactors with long SRT exhibited low levels of shear stress, viscosity, yield stress, consistency index, and high value of flow behaviour index. While the flowability of sludge from thermophilic AD reactors were better than that of sludge from mesophilic AD reactors though the solid content of the formers were higher than that of the latters, which could be attributed to the fact that the formers had more amount of free and interstitial moisture. It might be feasible to use sludge rheology as an AD process controlling parameter.

  16. Acceptance Test Plan for the Sludge Pickup Adaptor

    SciTech Connect

    PITNER, A.L.

    2000-03-29

    This test plan documents the acceptance testing of the sludge pickup adapter for potential use during PSI Phases 3 and 4 fuel cleanliness inspection activities. The adaptex is attached to the strainer tip of the vacuum wand and used to suction up residual sludge captured in a sludge collection tray. The material is vacuumed into a chamber of known volume in the sludge pickup adapter. The device serves as an aid in helping to determine whether the observed quantity of sludge is within allowable limits (1.4 cm{sup 3} per fuel assembly). This functionality test involves underwater testing in the 305 Building Cold Test Facility to verify that sludge can be successfully vacuumed from a collection tray. Ancillary activities in this acceptance test include demonstration that the sludge pickup adapter CM be successfully attached to and detached from the vacuum wand underwater.

  17. Release and control of hydrogen sulfide during sludge thermal drying

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Huanxin; Dai, Zhixin; Ji, Zhongqiang; Gao, Caixia; Liu, Chongxuan

    2015-04-15

    The release of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during sludge drying is a major environmental problem because of its toxicity to human health. A series of experiments were performed to investigate the mechanisms and factors controlling the H2S release. Results of this study show that: 1) the biomass and activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sludge were the major factors controlling the amount of H2S release, 2) the sludge drying temperature had an important effect on both the extent and the timing of H2S release from the sludge, and 3) decreasing sludge pH increased the H2S release. Based on the findings from this study, a new system that integrates sludge drying and H2S gas treatment was developed to reduce the amount of H2S released from sludge treatments.

  18. Draft final risk assessment lime settling basins. Version 2. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-25

    The preferred alternative Lime Settling Basins (LSB) Interim Response Action (IRA) selected to inhibit further migration of contaminants from the LSB included moving the stockpiled lime sludge adjacent to the LSB back into the LSB, the construction of a subsurface barrier (i.e., slurry wall), placement of a soil cap and vegative cover, and the installation of a groundwater extraction system. This IRA is expected to be completed in approximately 6 months. The LSB IRA Risk Assessment (RA) presents the methodologies, quantitative and qualitative results, and assumptions used to determine if a potential risk exists to humans and biota from the activities of the LSB IRA. The activities associated with the relocation of the lime sludge into the LSB and the installation of the slurry wall are the focus of this RA, since they include disturbance of soils identified as contaminated.

  19. Enhanced sludge properties and distribution study of sludge components in electrically-enhanced membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Giwa, Adewale; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Hasan, Shadi Wajih

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated the impact of electric field on the physicochemical and biological characteristics of sludge wasted from an electrically-enhanced membrane bioreactor treating medium-strength raw wastewater. This method offers a chemical-free electrokinetic technique to enhance sludge properties and remove heavy metals. For example, sludge volume index (SVI), time-to-filter (TTF), mean sludge particle diameter (PSD), viscosity, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of 21.7 mL/g, 7 min, 40.2 μm, 3.22 mPa s, and -4.9 mV were reported, respectively. Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses provided mechanisms for heavy metal removal so as to establish relevant pathways for nutrient recovery. Furthermore, variations in dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, viscosity, ORP, total suspended solids (MLSS), and volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) were interrelated to evaluate the quality of wasted sludge. A pathway study on the transport and chemical distribution of nutrients and metals in sludge showed great potential for metal removal and nutrient recovery.

  20. Additional paper waste in pulping sludge for biohydrogen production by heat-shocked sludge.

    PubMed

    Chairattanamanokorn, Prapaipid; Tapananont, Supachok; Detjaroen, Siriporn; Sangkhatim, Juthatip; Anurakpongsatorn, Patana; Sirirote, Pramote

    2012-01-01

    Dark anaerobic fermentation is an interesting alternative method for producing biohydrogen (H(2)) as a renewable fuel because of its low cost and various usable organic substrates. Pulping sludge from wastewater treatment containing plentiful cellulosic substrate could be feasibly utilized for H(2) production by dark fermentation. The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal proportion of pulping sludge to paper waste, the optimal initial pH, and the optimal ratio of carbon and nitrogen (C/N) for H(2) production by anaerobic seed sludge pretreated with heat. The pulping sludge was pretreated with NaOH solution at high temperature and further hydrolyzed with crude cellulase. Pretreatment of the pulping sludge with 3% NaOH solution under autoclave at 121 °C for 2 h, hydrolysis with 5 FPU crude cellulase at 50 °C, and pH 4.8 for 24 h provided the highest reducing sugar production yield (229.68 ± 2.09 mg/g(TVS)). An initial pH of 6 and a C/N ratio of 40 were optimal conditions for H(2) production. Moreover, the supplement of paper waste in the pulping sludge enhanced the cumulative H(2) production yield. The continuous hydrogen production was further conducted in a glass reactor with nylon pieces as supporting media and the maximum hydrogen production yield was 151.70 ml/g(TVS).

  1. Preparation of the sludge activated carbon with domestic sludge mixed agricultural straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Laifu; Wang, Yan; Lian, Jingyan

    2017-01-01

    Urban sewage sludge with complicated composition produce largely each year, pollution problem and resource utilization has increasingly become the focus of attention. Sewage sludge is utilized to prepare adsorbent that is a new type method. Agricultural stalks was added to material (urban sewage sludge) and activator (ZnCl2), calcined under the condition of no inert gas, and obtained domestic sludge activated carbon. The properties were measured by iodine adsorption value and BET, discussed influence factors of sludge activated carbon preparation, including activator concentration, solid-liquid ratio, calcific temperature and calcific time. The best process condition of orthogonal experiment had explored that activated time is 10 minutes, calcific temperature is 350°C, the activator concentration ZnCl2 is 3 mol/L and the mixing ratio of raw materials and activator is approximately 1:5. The iodine adsorption value and the optimal BET of as-obtained domestic sludge activated carbon is 445.06 mg/g, 525.31m2/g, respectively.

  2. Development of sludge filterability test to assess the solids removal potential of a sludge bed.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Nidal; Zandvoort, Marcel; van Lier, Jules; Zeeman, Grietje

    2006-12-01

    A qualitative sludge characterisation technique called "sludge filterability technique" has been developed. This technique enables the determination of the sludge potential for the physical removal of solids, weighing the effect of different process parameters on solids removal and identifying the mechanisms of solids removal in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed system. In this paper guidelines for conducting the test are given and a "standardised" set-up is presented. The experimental set-up and protocol are simple and the results can be obtained in a period as short as a few hours. A sludge sample is added to an upflow reactor incubated at 4 degrees C, to limit gas production, washed with an anaerobically pre-treated and suspended solids free wastewater to remove solids washed out from the sludge, and then fed with a model substrate, prepared from fish meal with a standard procedure. Several experimental runs were conducted to validate and optimise the technique. The results showed that the technique is reliable, workable and reproducible.

  3. Bacterial regrowth potential in alkaline sludges from open-sun and covered sludge drying beds.

    PubMed

    Alkan, U; Topaç, F O; Birden, B; Baskaya, H S

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the regrowth potentials of wastewater sludges dried in two pilot-scale drying processes namely, Open-Sun Sludge Drying Bed (OSDB) and Covered Sludge Drying Bed (CSDB). Quicklime and/or coal fly ash were added to raw sludge samples prior to drying processes in order to enhance bacterial inactivation. Following three drying cycles (March-April, June-July and August-October), sludge samples were taken from the beds for the regrowth experiments. Addition of alkaline materials prevented the regrowth of faecal coliforms in all rewetted samples except for the samples obtained after the rainfall events in OSDB. Rewetting of these samples in the regrowth experiments increased faecal coliform numbers by 3.5-7 log units. In contradiction, the observed bacterial numbers in rewetted alkaline samples from CSDB were below the EPA Class B criterion (2 million MPN g(-1) dry sludge). The combination of additional heat from solar collectors, protection from the rain and the unfavourable living conditions owing to alkaline materials appeared to inactivate bacteria more effectively in CSDB and hence eliminated regrowth potential more efficiently.

  4. Improvement of sludge dewaterability and removal of sludge-borne metals by bioleaching at optimum pH.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Lixiang; Zhou, Jun; Song, Xingwei; Wang, Dianzhan

    2012-06-30

    Bio-acidification caused by bio-oxidation of energy substances during bioleaching is widely known to play an important role in improving sludge-borne metals removal. Here we report that bioleaching also drastically enhances sludge dewaterability in a suitable pH level. To obtain the optimum initial concentrations of energy substances and pH values for sludge dewaterability during bioleaching, bio-oxidation of Fe(2+) and S(0) under co-inoculation with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans TS6 and Acidothiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5 and their effects on sludge dewaterability and metals removal during sludge bioleaching were investigated. Results indicated that the dosage of energy substances with 2g/L S(0) and 2g/L Fe(2+) could obtain bio-oxidation efficiencies of up to 100% for Fe(2+) and 50% for S(0) and were the optimal dosages for sludge bioleaching. The removal efficiencies of sludge-borne Cu and Cr could reach above 85% and 40%, respectively, and capillary suction time (CST) of bioleached sludge decreased to as low as ∼10s from initial 48.9s for fresh sludge when sludge pH declined to ∼2.4 through bioleaching. These results confirm the potential of bioleaching as a novel method for improving sludge dewaterability as well as removal of metals.

  5. A grit separation module for inorganic matter removal from activated sludge: investigation on characteristics of split sludge from the module.

    PubMed

    Chen, You-Peng; Guo, Jin-Song; Wang, Jing; Yan, Peng; Ji, Fang-Ying; Fang, Fang; Dong, Yang

    2016-12-01

    A grit separation module was developed to prevent the accumulation of inorganic solids in activated sludge systems, and it achieved effective separation of organic matter and inorganic solids. To provide technical and theoretical support for further comprehensive utilization of split sludge (underflow and overflow sludge from the separation module), the characteristics of split sludge were investigated. The settling and dewatering properties of the underflow sludge were excellent, and it had high inorganic matter content, whereas the overflow sludge had higher organic matter content. The most abundant inorganic constituent was SiO2 (59.34%), and SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 together accounted for 79.53% of the inorganic matter in the underflow sludge. The mass ratio of Fe2O3, CaO, and MgO to SiO2 and Al2O3 was 0.245 in the inorganic component of the underflow sludge. The underflow sludge had the beneficial characteristics of simple treatment and disposal, and it was suitable for use as a base raw material for ceramsite production. The overflow sludge with higher organic matter content was constantly returned from the separation module to the wastewater treatment system, gradually improving the volatile suspended solid/total suspended solid ratio of the activated sludge in the wastewater treatment system.

  6. Hydrogen Evolution and Sludge Suspension During the Preparation of the First Batch of Sludge at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.S.; Lee, E.D.

    1995-03-01

    The first batch of High Level Radioactive Sludge for the Defense Waste Processing Facility is being prepared in two 4.9 million liter waste tanks. The preparation involves removing water soluble salts by washing (water addition, sludge suspension, settling and decantation). Sludge suspension is accomplished using long shafted slurry pumps that are mounted on rotating turntables. During the sludge suspension runs in 1993 and 1994, the slurry pumps` cleaning radius was determined to be less than that expected from previous determinations using synthetic sludge in a full size waste tank mockup. Hydrogen concentrations in the tanks` vapor space were monitored during the sludge suspension activities. As expected, the initial agitation of the sludge increased the hydrogen concentration, however, with the controls in place the hydrogen concentration was maintained below seven percent of the lower flammability limit

  7. Valuation of OSA process and folic acid addition as excess sludge minimization alternatives applied in the activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Martins, C L; Velho, V F; Ramos, S R A; Pires, A S C D; Duarte, E C N F A; Costa, R H R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA)-process and the folic acid addition applied in the activated sludge process to reduce the excess sludge production. The study was monitored during two distinct periods: activated sludge system with OSA-process, and activated sludge system with folic acid addition. The observed sludge yields (Yobs) were 0.30 and 0.08 kgTSS kg(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), control phase and OSA-process (period 1); 0.33 and 0.18 kgTSS kg(-1) COD, control phase and folic acid addition (period 2). The Yobs decreased by 73 and 45% in phases with the OSA-process and folic acid addition, respectively, compared with the control phases. The sludge minimization alternatives result in a decrease in excess sludge production, without negatively affecting the performance of the effluent treatment.

  8. Oxidation of oily sludge in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Cui, Baochen; Cui, Fuyi; Jing, Guolin; Xu, Shengli; Huo, Weijing; Liu, Shuzhi

    2009-06-15

    The oxidation of oily sludge in supercritical water is performed in a batch reactor at reaction temperatures between 663 and 723 K, the reaction times between 1 and 10 min and pressure between 23 and 27 MPa. Effect of reaction parameters such as reaction time, temperature, pressure, O(2) excess and initial COD on oxidation of oily sludge is investigated. The results indicate that chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate of 92% can be reached in 10 min. COD removal rate increases as the reaction time, temperature and initial COD increase. Pressure and O(2) excess have no remarkable affect on reaction. By taking into account the dependence of reaction rate on COD concentration, a global power-law rate expression was regressed from experimental data. The resulting pre-exponential factor was 8.99 x 10(14)(mol L(-1))(-0.405)s(-1); the activation energy was 213.13+/-1.33 kJ/mol; and the reaction order for oily sludge (based on COD) is 1.405. It was concluded that supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a rapidly emerging oily sludge processing technology.

  9. Utilization of sludge in building material.

    PubMed

    Okuno, N; Ishikawa, Y; Shimizu, A; Yoshida, M

    2004-01-01

    Several thermal solidification processes have been developed mainly in Japan. They are lightweight aggregates, brick, interlocking tile, char, and slag. A full-scale plant of them has been successfully operated for more than 10 years. The quality of the end products is better than the traditional ones. They are all substitutive to existing ones. The Japanese experience proves that all the processes are technically feasible, but not economically. Their manufacturing cost is always higher than market price. In addition, they consume large amounts of energy. However, if they are identified for a process of sludge disposal, all of them are worth considering for a big city where there is no place for the sludge to go. The end products can be reused inside the city. A new alternative is "Portland cement". A Portland cement manufacturer accepts sewage sludge, if being paid some amount of money. An average payment is US$100 each 1,000 kg of ash or sludge cake. The Portland cement manufacturer accepts either cake or ash at the same price. It is about 50 to 30% of the energy cost of thermal solidification. The question is which is the better, dewatered cake or incinerated ash, for the Portland cement application. The answer is "it depends on the distance between the sewage plant and the Portland cement plant."

  10. Preliminary design review report - sludge offload system

    SciTech Connect

    Mcwethy, L.M. Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-05

    This report documents the conceptual design review of the sludge offload system for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The design description, drawings, available analysis, and safety analysis were reviewed by a peer group. The design review comments and resolutions are documented.

  11. Determination of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids in Sludge

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods were developed for the extraction from wastewater-treatment sludge and quantitation by LC/MS/MS of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs, C6 to C12), 7-3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (7-3 FTCA) and 8-2 fluorotelomer 2-unsaturated carboxylic acid (8-2 FTUCA) using LC/MS/MS.

  12. Synchronous municipal sewerage-sludge stabilization.

    PubMed

    Bukuru, Godefroid; Jian, Yang

    2005-01-01

    A study on a pilot plant accomplishing synchronous municipal sewerage-sludge stabilization was conducted at a municipal sewerage treatment plant. Stabilization of sewerage and sludge is achieved in three-step process: anaerobic reactor, roughing filter and a microbial-earthworm-ecofilter. The integrated ecofilter utilizes an artificial ecosystem to degrade and stabilize the sewerage and sludge. When the hydraulic retention time(HRT) of the anaerobic reactor is 6 h, the hydraulic load(HL) of the bio-filter is 16 m3/(m2 x d), the HL of the eco-filter is 5 m3/(m2 x d), the recycle ratio of nitrified liquor is 1.5, the removal efficiency is 83%-89% for COD(Cr), 94%-96% for BOD5, 96%-98% for SS, and 76%-95% for NH3-N. The whole system realizes the zero emission of sludge, and has the characteristics of saving energy consumption and operational costs.

  13. Complete survey of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Grabner, Angela; Adam, Christian

    2014-10-21

    The amount of sewage sludge produced worldwide is expected to further increase due to rising efforts in wastewater treatment. There is a growing concern against its direct use as fertilizer due to contamination of the sludge with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Incinerating the sludge degrades organic compounds almost completely and concentrates heavy metals and phosphorus. However, the sewage sludge ash (SSA) is almost completely disposed of and with it all resources are removed from the economic cycle. Comprehensive knowledge of the composition of SSA is crucial to assess the resource recovery potentials. We conducted a survey of all SSA emerging in Germany and determined the respective mass fractions of 57 elements over a period of one year. The median content of phosphorus was 7.9%, indicating an important recovery potential. Important trace elements were Zn (2.5 g/kg), Mn (1.3 g/kg), and Cu (0.9 g/kg). Mass fractions of technology metals such as V, Cr, Ga, Nb, and rare earths were comparatively low. Considering the possible use of SSA as secondary raw material for fertilizer production it should be noted that its Cd and U content (2.7 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg respectively) is significantly lower than that of rock phosphate based mineral fertilizers.

  14. Predicting the degradability of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard; Parker, Wayne; Zhu, Henry; Houweling, Dwight; Murthy, Sudhir

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify methods for estimating anaerobic digestibility of waste activated sludge (WAS). The WAS streams were generated in three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating municipal wastewater. The wastewater and WAS properties were initially determined through simulation of SBR operation with BioWin (EnviroSim Associates Ltd., Flamborough, Ontario, Canada). Samples of WAS from the SBRs were subsequently characterized through respirometry and batch anaerobic digestion. Respirometry was an effective tool for characterizing the active fraction of WAS and could be a suitable technique for determining sludge composition for input to anaerobic models. Anaerobic digestion of the WAS revealed decreasing methane production and lower chemical oxygen demand removals as the SRT of the sludge increased. BioWin was capable of accurately describing the digestion of the WAS samples for typical digester SRTs. For extended digestion times (i.e., greater than 30 days), some degradation of the endogenous decay products was assumed to achieve accurate simulations for all sludge SRTs.

  15. ISSUES WITH ALKALINE TREATMENT OF SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation begins with a discussion of the use of lime and other alkaline materials from the very earliest times to the present for killing bacteria, viruses and parasites and for controlling odors in wastewaters and sludge. It answers the question "How did EPA arrive at i...

  16. Development of Microbial Assays for Municipal Sludge

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following a review of the Federal regulations and the supporting science for land application of municipal sludge, The National Research Council (NRC) recommended that the analytical methods used for determining the density of microorganisms in biosolids be validated by multi-lab...

  17. Effect of operational parameters on the removal of particulate chemical oxygen demand in the activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Jose A; La Motta, Enrique J; Parker, Denny S

    2007-09-01

    The removal of particulate material in the aeration basin of the activated sludge process is mainly attributed to bioflocculation and hydrolysis of particulate substrate. The bioflocculation process in the aeration tank of the activated sludge process occurs only under favorable conditions in the system, and several common operational parameters affect its performance. The principal objective of this research was to observe the effect of mixed liquor suspended solids, solids retention time (SRT), and extracellular polymer substances on the removal of particulate substrate by bioflocculation. A first-order particulate removal expression, based on flocculation, accurately described the removal rates for supernatant suspended solids and colloidal chemical oxygen demand. Based on the results presented in this investigation, a mixed liquor concentration of approximately 2200 mg/L, an SRT of at least 3 days, and a contact time of 30 minutes are needed for relatively complete removal of the particulate substrate in a plug-flow reactor.

  18. SLUDGE BATCH 5 SIMULANT FLOWSHEET STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M; Bradley Pickenheim, B; David Best, D; David Koopman, D

    2008-10-03

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will transition from Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) processing to Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in early fiscal year 2009. Tests were conducted using non-radioactive simulants of the expected SB5 composition to determine the impact of varying the acid stoichiometry during the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) processes. The work was conducted to meet the Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2007-0007, Rev. 1 and followed the guidelines of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The flowsheet studies are performed to evaluate the potential chemical processing issues, hydrogen generation rates, and process slurry rheological properties as a function of acid stoichiometry. Initial SB5 flowsheet studies were conducted to guide decisions during the sludge batch preparation process. These studies were conducted with the estimated SB5 composition at the time of the study. The composition has changed slightly since these studies were completed due to changes in the washing plan to prepare SB5 and the estimated SB4 heel mass. Nine DWPF process simulations were completed in 4-L laboratory-scale equipment using both a batch simulant (Tank 51 simulant after washing is complete) and a blend simulant (Tank 40 simulant after Tank 51 transfer is complete). Each simulant had a set of four SRAT and SME simulations at varying acid stoichiometry levels (115%, 130%, 145% and 160%). One additional run was made using blend simulant at 130% acid that included additions of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) waste prior to acid addition and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) waste following SRAT dewatering. There are several parameters that are noteworthy concerning SB5 sludge: (1) This is the first batch DWPF will be processing that contains sludge that has had a significant fraction of aluminum removed through aluminum dissolution. (2) The sludge is high in mercury

  19. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, E. W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO/sub 3/ solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO/sub 3/ solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s (5.6 to 2.45 ft/s).

  20. Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Aurora; María Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option—such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface waters—a large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

  1. Characteristics of sewage sludge and distribution of heavy metal in plants with amendment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jia-yin; Chen, Ling; Zhao, Jian-fu; Ma, Na

    2006-01-01

    In order to better understand land application of sewage sludge, the characterization of heavy metals and organic pollutants were investigated in three different sewage sludges in Shanghai City, China. It was found that the total concentrations of Cd in all of sewage sludge and total concentrations of Zn in Jinshan sewage sludge, as well as those of Zn, Cu, and Ni in Taopu sludge are higher than Chinese regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. Leachability of Hg in all of studied samples and that of Cd in Taopu sewage sludge exceed the limit values of waste solid extraction standard in China legislation. Based on the characteristics for three kinds of sewage sludge, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amended with Quyang sewage sludge on the accumulation of heavy metal by Begonia semperflorens-hybr; Ophiopogon japonicus (L.F.) Ker-Gaw; Loropetalum chindense-var. rubrum; Dendranthema morifolium; Viola tricolor; A ntirrhinum majus; Buxus radicans Sieb; Viburnum macrocephalum; Osmanthus fragrans Lour; Cinnamomum camphora siebold and Ligustrum lucidum ait. Results showed that 8 species of plant survived in the amended soil, and moreover they flourished as well as those cultivated in the control soil. The heavy metal concentration in plants varied with species, As, Pb, Cd and Cr concentration being the highest in the four herbaceous species studied, particularly in the roots of D. morifolium. These plants, however, did not show accumulator of As, Pb, Cd and Cr. The highest concentration of Ni and Hg was found in the roots of D. morifolium, followed by the leaves of B. semperflorens-hybr. Levels of Zn and Cu were much higher in D. morifolium than in the other plant species. D. morifolium accumulated Ni, Hg, Cu and Zn, which may contribute to the decrease of heavy metal contents in the amended soil. Treatment with sewage sludge did not significantly affect the uptake of heavy metals by the L. chindense-var. rubrum

  2. Transformation of heavy metal speciation during sludge drying: mechanistic insights

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Huanxin; Ma, Xue-Wen; Fu, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Jin-Jun; Liu, Zan; Tian, Li-Xun; Liu, Chongxuan

    2014-01-30

    Speciation can fundamentally affect on the stability and toxicity of heavy metals in sludge from wastewater treatment plants. This research investigated the speciation of heavy metals in sludge from both municipal and industrial sources, and metal speciation change as a result of drying process to reduce sludge volume. The changes in sludge properties including sludge moisture content, temperature, density, and electrical conductivity were also monitored to provide insights into the mechanisms causing the change in heavy metal speciation. The results show that the drying process generally stabilized the Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb in sludge by transforming acid-soluble, reducible and oxidizable species into structurally stable forms. Such transformation and stabilization occurred regardless of the sludge source and type, and were primarily caused by the changes in sludge properties associated with decomposition of organic matter and sulfide. The results enhanced our understanding of the geochemical behavior of heavy metals in municipal sludge, and are useful for designing a treatment system for environment-friendly disposal of sludge.

  3. Heat inactivation of enteric viruses in dewatered wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Ward, R L; Ashley, C S

    1978-12-01

    The effect of moisture content on the rates of heat inactivation of enteric viruses in wastewater sludge was determined. The protective effect of raw sludge on poliovirus previously observed (R. L. Ward, C. S. Ashley, and R. H. Moseley, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32:339--346, 1976) was found to be greatly enhanced in sludge dewatered by evaporation. Other enteroviruses responded in a similar fashion. This effect did not appear to be due merely to the state of dryness of the sludge samples because in humus-deficient soil, a relatively inert material, the rate of poliovirus inactivation by heat was not significantly altered through dewatering. Instead, this effect appeared to have been caused by protective substances in the sludge, such as detergents, which are concentrated through dewatering. As reported previously (R. L. Ward and C. S. Ashley, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 34:681-688, 1977; R. L. Ward and C. S. Ashley, Appl. Environ. Microbiol 36:889--897, 1978) raw sludge is not protective of reovirus, but, instead, the ionic detergents in sludge cause the rate of heat inactivation of this virus to be accelerated. Dewatering of sludge, however, was found to partially reverse this virucidal effect. Evidence is presented indicating that this reversal is caused by an unidentified protective substance in sludge also concentrated through dewatering. Finally, it was shown that the effects of raw sludge on heat inactivation of poliovirus and reovirus are greatly reduced by composting, a result that correlated with the degradation of detergents.

  4. [Experimental study on stabilization of sewage sludge by MOC].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian-Li; Zhao, You-Cai; Niu, Dong-Jie; Chai, Xiao-Li

    2009-03-15

    Magnesium oxychloride cement (MOC) was used for the stability agent in the stabilization experiments of sewage sludge. It is found that MgCl2 in MOC is a kind of water-absorbent, water absorption of MgCl2 can be achieved at 1.55 mL/g (per 100 g sludge). Meanwhile, some water in sludge can be combined with MOC in the hydration reaction and sludge moisture content can be reduced efficaciously. The crystal structure of 3 phase and 5 phase, which occurred in the hydration process, makes the sludge compressive strength as high as 85.14 kg/cm2. The best ratio of MOC/sludge is 3/100, and MgO/MgCl2 is 3/1. Mg-Si-Al gel system is formed with Si2+, Al3+, Cu2+ in the sludge under alkaline condition, and it plays an important role in the stabilization of the heavy metals in sludge. Leaching experiments of sludge show that heavy metal concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, As in lixivium from sludge are lower than leachability standard.

  5. Optimization of dairy sludge for growth of Rhizobium cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Gauri; Gautam, Digvijay; Bedi, Manjinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    In this study dairy sludge was evaluated as an alternative cultivation medium for Rhizobium. Growth of bacterial strains at different concentrations of Dairy sludge was monitored. Maximum growth of all strains was observed at 60% Dairy sludge concentration. At 60% optical density (OD) values are 0.804 for Rhizobium trifolii (MTCC905), 0.825 for Rhizobium trifolii (MTCC906), and 0.793 for Rhizobium meliloti (MTCC100). Growth pattern of strains was observed at 60% Dairy sludge along with different synthetic media (tryptone yeast, Rhizobium minimal medium and yeast extract mannitol). Growth in 60% Dairy sludge was found to be superior to standard media used for Rhizobium. Media were optimized using 60% dairy sludge along with different concentrations of yeast extract (1-7 g/L) and mannitol (7-13 g/L) in terms of optical density at different time intervals, that is, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Maximum growth was observed in 6 g/L of yeast extract and 12 g/L of mannitol at 48-hour incubation period in all strains. The important environmental parameters such as pH were optimized using 60% dairy sludge, 60% dairy sludge +6 g/L yeast extract, and 60% dairy sludge +12 g/L mannitol. The maximum growth of all strains was found at pH 7.0. The present study recommends the use of 60% dairy sludge as a suitable growth medum for inoculant production.

  6. Evaluation of bangkok sewage sludge for possible agricultural use.

    PubMed

    Pasda, Nuanjun; Panichsakpatana, Supamard; Limtong, Pitayakon; Oliver, Robert; Montange, Denis

    2006-04-01

    Bangkok (Thailand) covers more than 1500 km2 and has 10 million inhabitants. The disposal of wastewater is creating huge problems of pollution. The estimated amount of sewage sludge was estimated to be around 108 tonnes dry matter (DM) per day in 2005. In order to find a lasting way of disposal for this sewage sludge, the suitability of the sludge produced from three waste-water treatment plants for use as fertilizing material was investigated. Monthly samplings and analysis of sewage sludge from each plant showed that the composition of sludge varied according to the area of collection and period of sampling, and there was no link to rainfall cycle. Plant nutrient content was high (i.e. total N from 19 to 38 g kg(-1) DM) whereas organic matter content was low. The concentrations of heavy metals varied between sludge samples, and were sometimes higher than the E.U. or U.S. regulations for sewage sludge use in agriculture. Faecal coliforms were present in the sludge from one of the plants, indicating a possible contamination by night soil. In order to decrease this potentially pathogenic population the sewage sludge should be heated by composting. As the C/N ratio of sewage sludge was low (around 6) some organic by-products with high carbon content could be added as structural material to enhance the composting.

  7. Identification of metal toxicity in sewage sludge leachate.

    PubMed

    Fjällborg, B; Ahlberg, G; Nilsson, E; Dave, G

    2005-01-01

    Sewage sludge is a source of organic matter and nutrients with the potential for being used as a fertilizer. However, metals in sewage sludge might accumulate in soil after repeated sludge applications, and metal concentrations might reach concentrations that are toxic to microorganisms, soil organisms and/or plants. This toxicity might change with time due to kinetic factors or abiotic factors such as freezing, drying or rainfall. The objective of this study was to determine toxicity of sewage sludge leachate from a lysimeter with 50 cm of sludge applied. Attempts were also made to identify the cause of toxicity of the sludge leachate by toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) techniques. Sludge leachate was collected monthly during 1 experimental year (August 2001 to August 2002). Metal concentrations were analysed, and the toxicity was determined with Daphnia magna (48-h immobility). The effect of EDTA or sodium thiosulphate addition, filtration through a CM-resin or a Millex-resin on toxicity was also tested. The results showed that toxicity of the sludge leachate apparently varied during the year, and that filtration through the CM-resin reduced most of the toxicity followed by the addition of EDTA. None of the other treatments reduced the toxicity of the sludge leachate. This indicated that one or more metals were responsible for the observed toxicity. Further calculations of toxic units (TU) suggested that Zn contributed most to the toxicity. Results also indicated that Ca concentrations in the sludge leachate reduced the toxicity of Zn.

  8. Fiscal year 1994 1/25-scale sludge mobilization testing

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, M.R.; Gates, C.M.; Hymas, C.R.; Sprecher, M.A.; Morter, N.J.

    1995-07-01

    There are 28 one-million-gallon double-shell radioactive waste tanks on the Hanford Reservation in southeastern Washington State. The waste in these tanks was generated during processing of nuclear materials. Solids-laden slurries were placed into many of the tanks. Over time, the waste solids have settled to form a layer of sludge in the bottom of these tanks. The sludge layer thickness varies from tank to tank with some having only a few centimeters or no sludge up to some tanks which have about 4.5 m (15 ft) of sludge. It is planned that the waste will be removed from these tanks as part of the overall Hanford site cleanup efforts. Jet mixer pumps are to be placed into the tanks to stir up (mobilize) the sludge and form a uniform slurry suitable for pumping to downstream processing facilities. These mixer pumps use powerful jets of tank fluid directed horizontally out of two, diametrically opposed nozzles near the tank bottom. These fluid jets impinge upon the sludge and stir it up. The amount of sludge mobilized by the mixer pump jets depends not only on the jet properties, but also on the ability of the sludge to resist the jets. It is the goal of the work described in this document to develop the ability to predict how much sludge will be mobilized by the mixer pumps based on the size and velocity of the mixer pump jets and the physical and chemical properties of the tank sludge.

  9. Transformation of heavy metal speciation during sludge drying: mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huan-Xin; Ma, Xue-Wen; Fu, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Jin-Jun; Liu, Zan; Tian, Li-Xun; Liu, Chongxuan

    2014-01-30

    Speciation can fundamentally affect on the stability and toxicity of heavy metals in sludge from wastewater treatment plants. This research investigated the speciation of heavy metals in sludge from both municipal and industrial sources, and metal speciation change as a result of drying process to reduce sludge volume. The changes in sludge properties including sludge moisture content, temperature, density, and electrical conductivity were also monitored to provide insights into the mechanisms causing the change in heavy metal speciation. The results show that the drying process generally stabilized Cr, Cu, Cd, and Pb in sludge by transforming acid-soluble, reducible, and oxidizable species into structurally stable forms. Such transformation and stabilization occurred regardless of the sludge source and type, and were primarily caused by the changes in sludge properties associated with decomposition of organic matter and sulfide. The results enhanced our understanding of the geochemical behavior of heavy metals in municipal sludge, and are useful for designing a treatment system for environment-friendly disposal of sludge.

  10. Optimization of Dairy Sludge for Growth of Rhizobium Cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Gauri; Gautam, Digvijay; Bedi, Manjinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    In this study dairy sludge was evaluated as an alternative cultivation medium for Rhizobium. Growth of bacterial strains at different concentrations of Dairy sludge was monitored. Maximum growth of all strains was observed at 60% Dairy sludge concentration. At 60% optical density (OD) values are 0.804 for Rhizobium trifolii (MTCC905), 0.825 for Rhizobium trifolii (MTCC906), and 0.793 for Rhizobium meliloti (MTCC100). Growth pattern of strains was observed at 60% Dairy sludge along with different synthetic media (tryptone yeast, Rhizobium minimal medium and yeast extract mannitol). Growth in 60% Dairy sludge was found to be superior to standard media used for Rhizobium. Media were optimized using 60% dairy sludge along with different concentrations of yeast extract (1–7 g/L) and mannitol (7–13 g/L) in terms of optical density at different time intervals, that is, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Maximum growth was observed in 6 g/L of yeast extract and 12 g/L of mannitol at 48-hour incubation period in all strains. The important environmental parameters such as pH were optimized using 60% dairy sludge, 60% dairy sludge +6 g/L yeast extract, and 60% dairy sludge +12 g/L mannitol. The maximum growth of all strains was found at pH 7.0. The present study recommends the use of 60% dairy sludge as a suitable growth medum for inoculant production. PMID:24089690

  11. Ecological stabilization of thickened wastewater sludge from CAST process.

    PubMed

    Cui, Y B; Wu, X H; Liu, Zh Sh; Liu, J Zh; Lin, Y Z

    2008-01-01

    Wastewater sludge ecological stabilization (WWSES) pilot scale experiments were conducted for thickening treatment and disposal of sludge which came from Cyclic Activated Sludge Technology (CAST) process. The study was performed over the periods from June to November 2005 and from May to November 2006, on a bed of 80 m2. The sludge loadings were stopped for the winter from December 2005 and resumed in May 2006. The results shows that dried sludge layer has higher permeation coefficients of 0.15-1.3 m/h. It is suggested that the percolate did not filtrate downwards evenly, part of percolate filtrates downwards along stems, roots and cracks existing in dried sludge which have lower flow resistance. The relationship of dried sludge thickness and operation time is in accord with quadratic equation under fluctuating sludge loadings. Linear regression equation can indicate dried sludge thickness variation under fixed sludge loading. In comparison with natural ones, coarse protein content of Phragmites australis roots in the system is twice as high, coarse fiber content of roots, coarse fat content of stems and leaf are obviously higher; and coarse protein content of Typha augustifolia in the system are obviously higher, while coarse fat and coarse fiber contents have no significant difference.

  12. An executive review of sludge pretreatment by sonication.

    PubMed

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasonication (US), which creates hydro-mechanical shear forces in cavitation, is an advanced technology in sludge pretreatment. However, there are many factors affecting the efficacy of cavitation and ultrasonication disintegration of sludge as a consequence. The objective of this work is to present an extensive review of evaluation approaches of sludge US pretreatment efficiency. Besides, optimization methodologies of related parameters, the differences of optimum values and the similarities of affecting trends on cavitation and sludge pretreatment efficiency were specifically pointed out, including ambient conditions, ultrasonic properties, and sludge characteristics. The research is a prerequisite for optimization of sludge US pretreatment efficiency in lab-scale and practical application. There is not-yet a comprehensive method to evaluate the efficiency of sludge US pretreatment, but some main parameters commonly used for this purpose are degree of sludge disintegration, proteins, particle size reduction, etc. Regarding US parameters, power input PUS, intensity IUS, and frequency FS seem to have significant effects. However, the magnitude of the effect of PUS and probe size in terms of IUS has not been clearly detailed. Investigating very low FS seems interesting but has not yet been taken into consideration. In addition, static pressure effect has been marginally studied only and investigation on the effect of pH prior to US process has been restricted. Their effects therefore should be varied separately and simultaneously with other related parameters, i.e. process conditions, ultrasonic properties, and sludge characteristics, to optimize sludge US pretreatment process.

  13. Struvite formation for enhanced dewaterability of digested wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Bergmans, B J C; Veltman, A M; van Loosdrecht, M C M; van Lier, J B; Rietveld, L C

    2014-01-01

    One of the main advantages of controlled struvite formation in digested sludge is an improvement in dewaterability of the digested sludge, which eventually leads to lower volumes of dewatered sludge that need to be transported. The effects of the control parameters for struvite formation, magnesium concentration and pH, on digested sludge dewaterability were investigated and are discussed in relation to the efficiency of struvite formation. Laboratory experiments with digested activated sludge were performed in a 20 L batch reactor. CO2 was stripped from the digested sludge using a bubble aerator and magnesium chloride was added to induce struvite formation. The dewaterability of the sludge was determined by gravity filtration tests. In the experiments, either the pH or the molar magnesium to phosphate ratio (Mg:PO4) was varied. The results confirm improved sludge dewaterability after struvite formation. Magnesium to phosphate ratios above 1.0 mol/mol did not further improve dewaterability. The addition of magnesium did not prevent the need for polymer addition for sludge dewatering. An increase in pH led to a deterioration in dewaterability. The best dewaterability results were found at the lowest pH value (pH = 7.0), while stirring the sludge instead of using the bubble aerator. At these settings, an orthophosphate removal of around 80% was achieved.

  14. Correlation of EPS content in activated sludge at different sludge retention times with membrane fouling phenomena.

    PubMed

    Al-Halbouni, Djamila; Traber, Jacqueline; Lyko, Sven; Wintgens, Thomas; Melin, Thomas; Tacke, Daniela; Janot, Andreas; Dott, Wolfgang; Hollender, Juliane

    2008-03-01

    In this study, activated sludge characteristics were studied with regard to membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for two pilot plants and one full-scale plant treating municipal wastewater. For the full-scale MBR, concentrations of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) bound to sludge flocs were shown to have seasonal variations from as low as 17mgg(-1) dry matter (DM) in summer up to 51mg(gDM)(-1) in winter, which correlated with an increased occurrence of filamentous bacteria in the colder season. Therefore, it was investigated at pilot-scale MBRs with different sludge retention times (SRTs) whether different EPS contents and corresponding sludge properties influence membrane fouling. Activated sludge from the pilot MBR with low SRT (23d) was found to have worse filterability, settleability and dewaterability. Photometric analysis of EPS extracts as well as LC-OCD measurements showed that it contained significantly higher concentrations of floc-bound EPS than sludge at higher SRT (40d) The formation of fouling layers on the membranes, characterised by SEM-EDX as well as photometric analysis of EPS extracts, was more distinct at lower SRT where concentrations of deposited EPS were 40-fold higher for proteins and 5-fold higher for carbohydrates compared with the membrane at higher SRT. Floc-bound EPS and metals were suggested to play a role in the fouling process at the full-scale MBR and this was confirmed by the pilot-scale study. However, despite the different sludge properties, the permeability of membranes was found to be similar.

  15. Production of carboxylates from high rate activated sludge through fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cagnetta, C; Coma, M; Vlaeminck, S E; Rabaey, K

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the key parameters affecting fermentation of high rate activated A-sludge to carboxylates, including pH, temperature, inoculum, sludge composition and iron content. The maximum volatile fatty acids production was 141mgCg(-1) VSSfed, at pH 7. Subsequently the potential for carboxylate and methane production for A-sludge from four different plants at pH 7 and 35°C were compared. Initial BOD of the sludge appeared to be key determining carboxylate yield from A-sludge. Whereas methanogenesis could be correlated linearly to the quantity of ferric used for coagulation, fermentation did not show a dependency on iron presence. This difference may enable a strategy whereby A-stage sludge is separated to achieve fermentation, and iron dosing for phosphate removal is only implemented at the B-stage.

  16. Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

  17. Impact of sludge retention time on sludge characteristics and microbial community in MBR.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuchun; Pan, Jill Ruhsing; Huang, Chihpin; Chang, Chialing

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the impact of sludge retention time (SRT) on sludge characteristics and microbial community and the effect on membrane fouling in membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. The results show that MBR with longer SRT has less fouling propensity, in agreement with other studies, despite the fact that the MBR with longer SRT contained higher MLSS and smaller particle size. However, much more soluble microbial products (SMPs) were released in MBR with shorter SRT. More slime on the membrane surface was observed in MBR with shorter SRT while sludge cakes formed on the membrane surface in MBR with longer SRT. The results show that SMP contributes to the severe fouling observed in MBR with shorter SRT, which is in agreement with other studies showing that SMPs were the major foulants in MBR. Under different SRTs of operation, the bacterial community structures of the sludge obtained by use of polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) were almost identical, but those on the membrane surface differed substantially. It suggests that, although SRT has impact on sludge characteristics, it doesn't affect the microbial community in the suspension.

  18. A systematic study of the gaseous emissions from biosolids composting: raw sludge versus anaerobically digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Maulini-Duran, Caterina; Artola, Adriana; Font, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni

    2013-11-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) and ammonia, that contribute to odor pollution, and methane and nitrous oxide, with an important greenhouse effect, are compounds present in gaseous emission from waste treatment installations, including composting plants. In this work, gaseous emissions from the composting of raw (RS) and anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) have been investigated and compared at pilot scale aiming to provide emission factors and to identify the different VOC families present. CH4 and N2O emissions were higher in ADS composting (0.73 and 0.55 kg Mg(-1) sludge, respectively) than in RS composting (0.01 kg Mg(-1) sludge for both CH4 and N2O). NH3 and VOCs emitted were higher during the RS composting process (19.37 and 0.21 kg Mg(-1) sludge, respectively) than in ADS composting (0.16 and 0.04 kg Mg(-1) sludge). Significant differences were found in the VOC compositions emitted in ADS and RS composting, being more diverse in RS than ADS composting.

  19. Characteristics of denitrifying granular sludge grown on nitrite medium in an upflow sludge blanket (USB) reactor.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xibiao; Wang, Feng; Liu, Guohong; Liu, Yongdi

    2012-01-01

    While inoculating pre-acclimatized floccular sludge, nitrite-denitrifying granular sludge was obtained after approximately 40 days of cultivation in a 10 L upflow sludge blanket (USB) reactor. The nitrite removal efficiency was approximately 95% when the nitrite concentration was 50 mg L(-1)at an influent flow rate of 20 L h(-1). The nitrite granular sludge had several notable features including good settleability (110 m h(-1)), high ash content (79%), and high density (1.248 g cm(-3)). The mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) of the sludge bed remained at 130.04 g L(-1), at a hydraulic upflow velocity of 2 m h(-1). These interesting characteristics were attributed to a high effluent pH (9.7) caused by the release of alkalinity during the nitrite denitrification process. The surfaces of the granules were dominated by cocci bacteria with a diameter of approximately 3 μm, which could be classified as Nitrosomonas-like species based on our analysis of 16 S rDNA sequences.

  20. Tumefactive Gallbladder Sludge at US: Prevalence and Clinical Importance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mimi; Kang, Tae Wook; Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Seong Hyun; Ha, Sang Yun; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Gu, Seonhye

    2016-11-15

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of tumefactive sludge of the gallbladder detected at ultrasonography (US) and to assess whether any clinical and imaging differences exist between benign and malignant tumefactive sludge. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. The requirement for informed consent was waived. The study included a cohort (n = 6898) of patients with gallbladder sludge drawn from all adults (n = 115 178) who underwent abdominal US between March 2001 and March 2015. Tumefactive sludge was identified according to the following US findings: (a) nonmovable mass-like lesion and (b) absence of posterior acoustic shadowing at B-mode US and vascularity at color Doppler US. Follow-up examinations were arranged to ascertain whether the results showed true sludge or gallbladder cancer. Risk factors for malignant tumefactive sludge based on clinical and US characteristics were identified with multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of gallbladder and tumefactive sludge at abdominal US during the observation period was 6.0% (6898 of 115 178) and 0.1% (135 of 115 178), respectively. Twenty-eight (20.7%) patients were lost to follow-up. Of the 107 with tumefactive sludge, 15 (14%) were confirmed to have malignant tumefactive sludge. The risk factors for malignant tumefactive sludge were old age (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; P = .035), female sex (OR, 5.48; P = .014), and absence of hyperechoic spots within the sludge (OR, 6.78; P = .008). Conclusion Although the prevalence of tumefactive sludge at US was rare, a considerable proportion of patients had a malignancy. Careful follow-up is essential, especially for older patients, women, and those with an absence of hyperechoic spots at US. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  1. Fenton peroxidation improves the drying performance of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Dewil, Raf; Baeyens, Jan; Neyens, Elisabeth

    2005-01-31

    Advanced sludge treatment processes (AST) reduce the amount of sludge produced and improve the dewaterability, thus probably also affecting the heat transfer properties and the drying characteristics of the sludge. This paper studies the influence of the Fenton peroxidation on the thermal conductivity of the sludge. Results demonstrate that the Fenton's peroxidation positively influences the sludge cake consistency and hence enhances the mechanical dewaterability and the drying characteristics of the dewatered sludge. For the two sludges used in this study, i.e. obtained from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) of Tienen and Sint-Niklaas--the dry solids content of the mechanically dewatered sludge increased from 22.5% to 40.3% and from 18.7% to 35.2%, respectively. The effective thermal conductivity k(e) of the untreated and the peroxidized sludges is measured and used to determine the heat transfer coefficient h(s). An average improvement for k(e) of 16.7% (Tienen) and 5.8% (Sint-Niklaas) was observed. Consequently the value of h(s) increased with 15.6% (Tienen) and 5.0% (Sint-Niklaas). This increased heat transfer coefficient in combination with the increased dewaterability has direct implications on the design of sludge dryers. A plate-to-plate calculation of a multiple hearth dryer illustrates that the number of plates required to dry the peroxidized sludge to 90% DS is less than half the number of plates needed to dry untreated sludge. This results in reduced dryer dimensions or a higher capacity for an existing dryer of given dimensions.

  2. Phase chemistry and radionuclide retention from simulated tank sludges

    SciTech Connect

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; LIU,J.; ARTHUR,SARA E.; HUTCHERSON,SHEILA K.; QIAN,MORRIS; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

    2000-05-19

    Decommissioning high level nuclear waste tanks will leave small amounts of residual sludge clinging to the walls and floor of the structures. The permissible amount of material left in the tanks depends on the radionuclide release characteristics of the sludge. At present, no systematic process exists for assessing how much of the remaining inventory will migrate, and which radioisotopes will remain relatively fixed. Working with actual sludges is both dangerous and prohibitively expensive. Consequently, methods were developed for preparing sludge simulants and doping them with nonradioactive surrogates for several radionuclides and RCRA metals of concern in actual sludges. The phase chemistry of these mixes was found to be a reasonable match for the main phases in actual sludges. Preliminary surrogate release characteristics for these sludges were assessed by lowering the ionic strength and pH of the sludges in the manner that would occur if normal groundwater gained access to a decommissioned tank. Most of the Se, Cs and Tc in the sludges will be released into the first pulse of groundwater passing through the sludge. A significant fraction of the other surrogates will be retained indefinitely by the sludges. This prolonged sequestration results from a combination coprecipitated and sorbed into or onto relatively insoluble phases such as apatite, hydrous oxides of Fe, Al, Bi and rare earth oxides and phosphates. The coprecipitated fraction cannot be released until the host phase dissolves or recrystallizes. The sorbed fraction can be released by ion exchange processes as the pore fluid chemistry changes. However, these releases can be predicted based on a knowledge of the fluid composition and the surface chemistry of the solids. In this regard, the behavior of the hydrous iron oxide component of most sludges will probably play a dominant role for many cationic radionuclides while the hydrous aluminum oxides may be more important in governing anion releases.

  3. Impact of sludge stabilization processes and sludge origin (urban or hospital) on the mobility of pharmaceutical compounds following sludge landspreading in laboratory soil-column experiments.

    PubMed

    Lachassagne, Delphine; Soubrand, Marilyne; Casellas, Magali; Gonzalez-Ospina, Adriana; Dagot, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of sludge stabilization treatments (liming and anaerobic digestion) on the mobility of different pharmaceutical compounds in soil amended by landspreading of treated sludge from different sources (urban and hospital). The sorption and desorption potential of the following pharmaceutical compounds: carbamazepine (CBZ), ciprofloxacin (CIP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), salicylic acid (SAL), ibuprofen (IBU), paracetamol (PAR), diclofenac (DIC), ketoprofen (KTP), econazole (ECZ), atenolol (ATN), and their solid-liquid distribution during sludge treatment (from thickening to stabilization) were investigated in the course of batch testing. The different sludge samples were then landspread at laboratory scale and leached with an artificial rain simulating 1 year of precipitation adapted to the surface area of the soil column used. The quality of the resulting leachate was investigated. Results showed that ibuprofen had the highest desorption potential for limed and digested urban and hospital sludge. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, diclofenac, and paracetamol were the only compounds found in amended soil leachates. Moreover, the leaching potential of these compounds and therefore the risk of groundwater contamination depend mainly on the origin of the sludge because ibuprofen and diclofenac were present in the leachates of soils amended with urban sludge, whereas paracetamol and salicylic acid were found only in the leachates of soils amended with hospital sludge. Although carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, ketoprofen, econazole, and atenolol were detected in some sludge, they were not present in any leachate. This reflects either an accumulation and/or (bio)degradation of these compounds (CBZ, CIP, SMX, KTP, ECZ, and ATN ), thus resulting in very low mobility in soil. Ecotoxicological risk assessment, evaluated by calculating the risk quotients for each studied pharmaceutical compound, revealed no high risk due to the

  4. Centrifuges help convert factory sludge into profit

    SciTech Connect

    Gressel, A.

    1994-09-01

    Most industrial facilities must determine what to do with used oil and oily wastewater or sludge. Constructing on-site treatment facilities requires a sizable capital investment. An alternative is to pay someone to haul away the sludge for treatment and disposal. In either case, generators still are responsible for disposing the material in compliance with regulations. The Cleveland facility of Research Oil Co., a waste oil and industrial wastewater processing company, processes more than 50 million gallons of industrial waste annually. Of this volume, no more than 20% is oil; the remaining portion is water. The company reclaims fuel oil and lubricants, and converts the remainder into clean, treated, dry solids and high-Btu organic fuel for cement kilns. High-phosphate solids are used in fertilizers; other solids are disposed in secure landfills.

  5. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoop, A. H.; Bakker, T. W.; Kramer, H. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by anaerobic bacteria, and how much cavitation increases the total biogas yield. An increase in yield is only the case if cavitation can further disrupt otherwise inaccessible cell membrane structures and long chain organic molecules. In this study the influence of hydrodynamic cavitation on sludge that was already digested for 30 days was investigated. The total biogas yield could indeed be increased. The effect of the backpressure behind the venturi tube on the yield could not yet be established.

  6. Sewage sludge disposal strategies for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Kacprzak, Małgorzata; Neczaj, Ewa; Fijałkowski, Krzysztof; Grobelak, Anna; Grosser, Anna; Worwag, Małgorzata; Rorat, Agnieszka; Brattebo, Helge; Almås, Åsgeir; Singh, Bal Ram

    2017-03-14

    The main objective of the present review is to compare the existing sewage sludge management solutions in terms of their environmental sustainability. The most commonly used strategies, that include treatment and disposal has been favored within the present state-of-art, considering existing legislation (at European and national level), characterization, ecotoxicology, waste management and actual routs used currently in particular European countries. Selected decision making tools, namely End-of-waste criteria and Life Cycle Assessment has been proposed in order to appropriately assess the possible environmental, economic and technical evaluation of different systems. Therefore, some basic criteria for the best suitable option selection has been described, in the circular economy "from waste to resources" sense. The importance of sewage sludge as a valuable source of matter and energy has been appreciated, as well as a potential risk related to the application of those strategies.

  7. Anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth and sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Biljetina, R.; Srivastava, V.J.; Chynoweth, D.P.; Hayes, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has been operating an experimental test unit (ETU) at the Walt Disney World (WDW) wastewater treatment plant to demonstrate the conversion of water hyacinth and sludge to methane in a solids concentrating (SOLCON) digester. Results from 2 years to operation have confirmed earlier laboratory observations that this digester achieves higher methane yields and solids conversion than those observed in continuous stirred tank reactors. Methane yields as high as 0.49 m/sup 3/ kg/sup -1/ (7.9 SCF/lb) volatile solids added have been obtained during steady-state operation on a blend of water hyacinth and sludge. 9 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Laboratory tests of sludge-control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Tatnall, R.E.

    1996-07-01

    Laboratory {open_quotes}jar{close_quotes} tests compared eleven different fuel oil and diesel fuel sludge-control additives. Factors studied included (1) ability to disperse and prevent buildup of sludge deposits on surfaces, (2) ability to protect steel from corrosion, (3) ability to inhibit growth and proliferation of bacteria, and (4) ability to disperse water. Results varied greatly, and it was found that many commercial products do not do what they claim. It is concluded that fuel retailers should not believe manufacturers` claims for their additive products, but rather should test such products themselves to be sure that the benefits of treatment are real. A simplified form of the procedure used here is proposed as one way for dealers to do such testing.

  9. Geothermal brines and sludges: a new resource

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Lian, H.; Miltenberger, R.P.

    1996-10-01

    Development of cost efficient biochemical processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges is the main thrust of a major R&D effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This effort has led to the design of an environmentally acceptable, technically and economically feasible new technology which converts geothermal wastes into products with significant commercial potential. These include valuable metals recovery with a metal extraction and recovery efficiency of better then 80% over short periods of time (5-25 hours). The new technology also yields valuable salts, such as potassium chloride and generates high quality pigment free silica. The basic technology is versatile and can, with slight modifications, be used in the treatment of hypersaline as well as low salinity brines and sludges. Concurrently traces of toxic metals, including radium are removed to levels which are within regulatory limits. The current status of the new biochemical technology will be discussed in this paper.

  10. Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

  11. Improving products of anaerobic sludge digestion by microaeration.

    PubMed

    Jenicek, P; Celis, C A; Krayzelova, L; Anferova, N; Pokorna, D

    2014-01-01

    Biogas, digested sludge and sludge liquor are the main products of anaerobic sludge digestion. Each of the products is influenced significantly by specific conditions of the digestion process. Therefore, any upgrade of the digestion technology must be considered with regard to quality changes in all products. Microaeration is one of the methods used for the improvement of biogas quality. Recently, microaeration has been proved to be a relatively simple and highly efficient biological method of sulfide removal in the anaerobic digestion of biosolids, but little attention has been paid to comparing the quality of digested sludge and sludge liquor in the anaerobic and microaerobic digestion and that is why this paper primarily deals with this area of research. The results of the long-term monitoring of digested sludge quality and sludge liquor quality in the anaerobic and microaerobic digesters suggest that products of both technologies are comparable. However, there are several parameters in which the 'microaerobic' products have a significantly better quality such as: sulfide (68% lower) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) (33% lower) concentrations in the sludge liquor and the lower foaming potential of the digested sludge.

  12. Role of indigenous iron in improving sludge dewaterability through peroxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xu; Jiang, Guangming; Wang, Qilin; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of sludge dewaterability is important for reducing the total costs for the treatment and disposal of sludge in wastewater treatment plants. In this study, we investigate the use of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing reagent for the conditioning of waste activated sludge. Significant improvement to sludge dewaterability was attained after the addition of hydrogen peroxide at 30 mg/g TS and 28 mg/g TS under acidic conditions (pH = 3.0), with the highest reduction of capillary suction time being 68% and 56%, respectively, for sludge containing an iron concentration of 56 mg Fe/g TS and 25 mg Fe/g TS, respectively. The observations were due to Fenton reactions between the iron contained in sludge (indigenous iron) and hydrogen peroxide. For the sludge with an insufficient level of indigenous iron, the addition of ferrous chloride was found to be able to improve the sludge dewaterability. The results firstly indicated that indigenous iron can be utilized similarly as the externally supplied iron salt to improve sludge dewaterability through catalyzing the Fenton reactions.

  13. Improvement of activated sludge bacteria growth by low intensity ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y. X.; Ding, J. Y.; Gao, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    Influence of low intensity ultrasound (US) on growth rate of bacteria separated from aerobic activated sludge was studied. In order to reveal the optimal ultrasonic conditions,specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) of activated sludge was first detected and results showed that the maximum SOUR was obtained (increased by 40%) at US intensity of 3 Wcm-2 and irradiation time of 10min. Under the optimal conditions, 2 species of bacteria isolated from activated sludge were sonicated and then cultivated for 36h, and increment of 6% and 10% of growth rate were detected for the 2 species of bacteria, respectively, indicating US irradiation of suitable parameters effectively improved activated sludge bacteria growth.

  14. Strategic environmental assessment of alternative sewage sludge management scenarios.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Hansen, Jens Aa

    2003-02-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) of sewage sludge management in a Danish municipality (Aalborg), with 160,000 inhabitants using alternative methods for aggregation of environmental impacts was performed. The purpose is to demonstrate the use of SEA in relation to sludge management and to improve SEA methodology. Six different scenarios for management of sewage sludge within the Aalborg municipality involving thermal treatment, composting and landfilling of sludge were evaluated. Environmental impact categories considered were global warming, non-renewable resources (nutrients and fossil fuels) and land use. Impact categories human health, ecotoxicity and soil quality were excluded as methodology for their assessment is not yet fully developed. Thermal sludge treatment with energy utilisation was shown to be a promising option for sewage sludge management in Aalborg. Sensitivity of the relative environmental impacts with respect to calculation methodology and input parameter values were evaluated to identify important parameters and calculation methods. The analysis showed that aggregation procedures, sludge biogas potential and sludge production were very important whereas sludge transport was not.

  15. Recovery of indigenous enteroviruses from raw and digested sewage sludges.

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, M R; Bates, J; Butler, M

    1981-01-01

    We examined different types of raw sewage sludge treatment, including consolidation, anaerobic mesophilic digestion with subsequent consolidation, and aerobic-thermophilic digestion. Of these, the most efficient reduction in infectious virus titer was achieved by mesophilic digestion with subsequent consolidation, although a pilot-scale aerobic-thermophilic digester was extremely time effective, producing sludges with similarly low virus titers in a small fraction of the time. Although none of the treatments examined consistently produced a sludge with undetectable virus levels, mesophilic digestion alone was found to be particularly unreliable in reducing the levels of infectious virus present in the raw sludge. PMID:6274258

  16. Digital image processing and analysis for activated sludge wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Lee, Xue Yong; Nisar, Humaira; Ng, Choon Aun; Yeap, Kim Ho; Malik, Aamir Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Activated sludge system is generally used in wastewater treatment plants for processing domestic influent. Conventionally the activated sludge wastewater treatment is monitored by measuring physico-chemical parameters like total suspended solids (TSSol), sludge volume index (SVI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) etc. For the measurement, tests are conducted in the laboratory, which take many hours to give the final measurement. Digital image processing and analysis offers a better alternative not only to monitor and characterize the current state of activated sludge but also to predict the future state. The characterization by image processing and analysis is done by correlating the time evolution of parameters extracted by image analysis of floc and filaments with the physico-chemical parameters. This chapter briefly reviews the activated sludge wastewater treatment; and, procedures of image acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation and analysis in the specific context of activated sludge wastewater treatment. In the latter part additional procedures like z-stacking, image stitching are introduced for wastewater image preprocessing, which are not previously used in the context of activated sludge. Different preprocessing and segmentation techniques are proposed, along with the survey of imaging procedures reported in the literature. Finally the image analysis based morphological parameters and correlation of the parameters with regard to monitoring and prediction of activated sludge are discussed. Hence it is observed that image analysis can play a very useful role in the monitoring of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants.

  17. Sludge reduction by lumbriculus variegatus in Ahvas wastewater treatment plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensive health hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm). The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1) and up to 6 mg/L (run 2) were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. The average sludge reductions were obtained as 32% (run 1) and 33% (run 2) in worm reactor and 16% (run 1) and 12% (run 2) in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blank conditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing. PMID:23369451

  18. Sludge reduction by lumbriculus variegatus in Ahvas wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Basim, Yalda; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Jaafarzadeh, Nematollah; Hendrickx, Tim

    2012-08-02

    Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensive health hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm). The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1) and up to 6 mg/L (run 2) were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. The average sludge reductions were obtained as 32% (run 1) and 33% (run 2) in worm reactor and 16% (run 1) and 12% (run 2) in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blank conditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing.

  19. Rheology of Savannah River site tank 42 HLW radioactive sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, B.C.

    1997-11-05

    Knowledge of the rheology of the radioactive sludge slurries at the Savannah River Site is necessary in order to ensure that they can be retrieved from waste tanks and processed for final disposal. At Savannah River Site, Tank 42 sludge represents on of the first HLW radioactive sludges to be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The rheological properties of unwashed Tank 42 sludge slurries at various solids concentrations were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells at the Savannah River Technology Center using a modified Haake Rotovisco viscometer.

  20. Properties of wastepaper sludge in geopolymer mortars for masonry applications.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shiqin; Sagoe-Crentsil, Kwesi

    2012-12-15

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the use of wastepaper sludge in geopolymer mortar systems for manufacturing construction products. The investigation was driven by the increasing demand for reuse options in paper-recycling industry. Both fresh and hardened geopolymer mortar properties are evaluated for samples incorporating dry wastepaper sludge, and the results indicate potential end-use benefits in building product manufacture. Addition of wastepaper sludge to geopolymer mortar reduces flow properties, primarily due to dry sludge absorbing water from the binder mix. The average 91-day compressive strength of mortar samples incorporating 2.5 wt% and 10 wt% wastepaper sludge respectively retained 92% and 52% of the reference mortar strength. However, contrary to the normal trend of increasing drying shrinkage with increasing paper sludge addition to Portland cement matrices, the corresponding geopolymer drying shrinkage decreased by 34% and 64%. Equally important, the water absorption of hardened geopolymer mortar decreased with increasing paper sludge content at ambient temperatures, providing good prospects of overall potential for wastepaper sludge incorporation in the production of building and masonry elements. The results indicate that, despite its high moisture absorbance due to the organic matter and residual cellulose fibre content, wastepaper sludge appears compatible with geopolymer chemistry, and hence serves as a potential supplementary additive to geopolymer cementitious masonry products.

  1. BASINS Technical Notes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has developed several technical notes that provide in depth information on a specific function in BASINS. Technical notes can be used to answer questions users may have, or to provide additional information on the application of features in BASINS.

  2. BASINS Tutorials and Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A series of lectures and exercises on how to use BASINS for water quality modeling and watershed assessment. The lectures follow sequentially. Companion exercises are provided for users to practice different BASINS water quality modeling techniques.

  3. Development and Design of Sludge Freezing Beds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Mathematical models for predicting the design depth were developed; values for the input parameters to the models were obtained from the literature or...those of ice. An analysis of the freezing and thawing models rqvvals that the design of a freezing bed will depend on the duration and intensity of the...also conducted with these sludges in the unfrozen state. Mathematical models were developed to predict the design depth based on the natural freezing

  4. Novel Actinomycete Isolated from Bulking Industrial Sludge

    PubMed Central

    White, Johanna M.; Labeda, David P.; Lechevalier, Mary P.; Owens, James R.; Jones, Daniel D.; Gauthier, Joseph J.

    1986-01-01

    A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Images PMID:16347238

  5. Modelling carbon oxidation in pulp mill activated sludge systems: calibration of Activated Sludge Model No 3.

    PubMed

    Barañao, P A; Hall, E R

    2004-01-01

    Activated Sludge Model No 3 (ASM3) was chosen to model an activated sludge system treating effluents from a mechanical pulp and paper mill. The high COD concentration and the high content of readily biodegradable substrates of the wastewater make this model appropriate for this system. ASM3 was calibrated based on batch respirometric tests using fresh wastewater and sludge from the treatment plant, and on analytical measurements of COD, TSS and VSS. The model, developed for municipal wastewater, was found suitable for fitting a variety of respirometric batch tests, performed at different temperatures and food to microorganism ratios (F/M). Therefore, a set of calibrated parameters, as well as the wastewater COD fractions, was estimated for this industrial wastewater. The majority of the calibrated parameters were in the range of those found in the literature.

  6. SLUDGE BATCH 7B QUALIFICATION ACTIVITIES WITH SRS TANK FARM SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-11-16

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest

  7. Adsorption behavior of hydrothermally treated municipal sludge & pulp and paper industry sludge.

    PubMed

    Alatalo, Sara-Maaria; Repo, Eveliina; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Vakkilainen, Esa; Sillanpää, Mika

    2013-11-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate how hydrothermal carbonization changes adsorption efficiency toward metal ions of typical sludges. Hydrothermal carbonization is a novel and green method of treating biomasses. Reactions take place in an aqueous environment at relatively mild temperature and high pressure resulting a different end biomass structure than obtained from traditional pyrolysis. Anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) and pulp and paper industry sludge (INS) were utilized as a feedstock. Adsorption behavior of ADS and INS was examined towards Pb(II), Cr(III), Cr(VI), As(III) and As(V). Both ADS and INS were found to remove Pb(II) effectively and followed Sips adsorption isotherm. Adsorption kinetics was fast and followed pseudo-second order model. Furthermore, intraparticle diffusion was observed to be partly responsible in the adsorption process. Hydrothermal carbonization indicated high potential for the production of novel carbonaceous materials for metal removal from waters.

  8. Effects of ultrasound on oily sludge deoiling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Wang, Wenxiang; Han, Pingfang; Lu, Xiaoping

    2009-11-15

    Oily sludge with an initial oil content of 0.130 g g(-1) (dry basis) was mixed with water and treated in an ultrasound cleaning tank. The oil was then separated from the oily sludge by air floatation. Experiments were carried out with and without 28 kHz ultrasonic irradiation at different temperatures. The results show that the minimum oil content, 0.055 g g(-1) (dry basis), was obtained at 40 degrees C after ultrasound irradiation, which was 55.6% less than without ultrasonic irradiation. In addition, this work clearly establishes that 28 kHz ultrasound is superior to 40 kHz ultrasound. The ultrasonic acoustic pressure amplitude with the 28kHz ultrasound was 0.085 MPa; the 28 kHz ultrasound also exhibited lower oil content than the 40 kHz ultrasound, which yielded 0.120 MPa acoustic pressure amplitude. It can also be concluded that sodium silicate obstructs ultrasound oily sludge deoiling.

  9. Electro-kinetic dewatering of oily sludges.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Nakhla, George; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2005-10-17

    An oily sludge from a rendering facility was treated using electro-kinetic (EK) techniques employing two different experimental designs. The bench scale used vertical electrodes under different operational conditions, i.e. varied electrode spacing at 4, 6 and 8 cm with electric potential of 10, 20 and 30 V, respectively. The highest water removal efficiency (56.3%) at bench scale was achieved at a 4 cm spacing and 30 V. Comparison of the water removal efficiency (51.9%) achieved at the 20 V at 4 cm spacing showed that power consumption at 30 V was 1.5 times larger than that at 20 V, suggesting a further increase of electric potential is unnecessary. The solids content increased from an initial 5 to 11.5 and 14.1% for 20 and 30 V, respectively. The removal of oil and grease (O&G) was not significant at this experimental design. Another larger scale experiment using a pair of horizontal electrodes in a cylinder with 15 cm i.d. was conducted at 60 V at an initial spacing of 22 cm. More than 40.0% of water was removed and a very efficient oil separation from the sludge was achieved indicating the viability of electro-kinetic recovery of oil from industrial sludge.

  10. Urban energy mining from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kwon, E E; Yi, H; Kwon, H H

    2013-01-01

    This work showed that sewage sludge could be a strong candidate for biodiesel production. High lipid content (18-20%) with C(16-18)-carbon range was experimentally identified and measured. These lipids from sewage sludge were converted into biodiesel via the transesterification reaction with MgO-CaO/Al(2)O(3) derived from magnesium slag, and biodiesel conversion was ~98%. The experimental work enabled explaining that temperature is the main driving force for the transesterification reaction, which can be enhanced in the presence of CO(2). This also enables combination of esterification of free fatty acids and transesterification of triglycerides into a single process within 1 min in the temperature range of 350-500°C. Sewage sludge residue after extracting lipids was also a good feedstock for recovering energy via thermo-chemical processes. The impact of CO(2) co-feed on the pyrolysis/gasification process of SS residue was also investigated in this work. The CO(2) injected into the thermo-chemical process remarkably increased the generation of CO by a factor of 2. Moreover, the introduction of CO(2) into the pyrolysis/gasification process enabled reducing condensable hydrocarbons (tar) by expediting cracking; thus, utilizing CO(2) as chemical feedstock for the gasification process not only leads to higher thermal efficiency but also has environmental benefits.

  11. Biogasification of water hyacinth and primary sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Biljetina, R.; Srivastava, V.J.; Hayes, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the results of research to evaluate the use of water hyacinth for wastewater treatment and subsequent conversion of hyacinth and sludge to methane by anaerobic digestion. Laboratory studies have been directed toward evaluating advanced biogasification concepts and establishing a data base for the design and operation of an experimental test unit (ETU). Kinetic experiments have been conducted using continuously stirred tank reactors and a novel non-mixed vertical flow reactor (NMVFR) receiving a hyacinth/sludge blend at retention times of 15 down to 2.1 days. The data suggest that the best performance is achieved in the NMVFR which has longer solids and organism retention. A larger-scale experimental test unit (4.5 m/sup 3/) was used to validate laboratory experiments and to evaluate larger-scale equipment used for chopping, slurry preparation, mixing, and effluent dewatering. The ETU is currently being operated on a 2:1 blend (dry wt basis) of water hyacinth and primary sludge. Performance is good without major operational problems. Results are presented. 12 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Microwave treatment of industrial waste water sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwill, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Steel mills in the US generate approximately 1 million tons of sludge annually. This is mainly a residue of cooling water, lubricating oils, and metallic fines from hot strip rolling mills and other operations. At present the separation of sludge from the liquid requires large settling tanks, takes several hours of time, and produces a residue that must be disposed of at high cost. The EPRI Center for Materials Production, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has supported development of a microwave based treatment system. This new process, developed by Carnegie Mellon Research Institute of Carnegie Mellon University, and patented by EPRI is 30 times faster, requires 90% less space, and eliminates land-filling by producing materials of value. Electricity usage is only 0.5 kWh per gallon. A review by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Waste Recycle Technology Task Force of this and various other approaches, concluded that further work on the microwave technology was justified. Subsequently additional work was undertaken toward optimizing the process for treating metallic waste sludges containing lime and polymers. This effort cofunded by EPRI and the AISI was successfully concluded in late 1994. Next a two phase program is being developed to commercialize the process. Phase 1 will demonstrate the technology in a large scale batch mode. Phase 2 will be a commercial scale continuous installation at a steel mill site projected for 1996.

  13. Microplastics in Sewage Sludge: Effects of Treatment.

    PubMed

    Mahon, A M; O'Connell, B; Healy, M G; O'Connor, I; Officer, R; Nash, R; Morrison, L

    2017-01-17

    Waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) are receptors for the cumulative loading of microplastics (MPs) derived from industry, landfill, domestic wastewater and stormwater. The partitioning of MPs through the settlement processes of wastewater treatment results in the majority becoming entrained in the sewage sludge. This study characterized MPs in sludge samples from seven WWTPs in Ireland which use anaerobic digestion (AD), thermal drying (TD), or lime stabilization (LS) treatment processes. Abundances ranged from 4196 to 15 385 particles kg(-1) (dry weight). Results of a general linear mixed model (GLMM) showed significantly higher abundances of MPs in smaller size classes in the LS samples, suggesting that the treatment process of LS shears MP particles. In contrast, lower abundances of MPs found in the AD samples suggests that this process may reduce MP abundances. Surface morphologies examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed characteristics of melting and blistering of TD MPs and shredding and flaking of LS MPs. This study highlights the potential for sewage sludge treatment processes to affect the risk of MP pollution prior to land spreading and may have implications for legislation governing the application of biosolids to agricultural land.

  14. Phosphate fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA).

    PubMed

    Franz, M

    2008-01-01

    Ashes from sewage sludge incineration are rich in phosphorus content, ranging between 4% and 9%. Due to the current methods of disposal used for these ashes, phosphorus, which is a valuable plant nutrient, is removed from biological cycling. This article proposes the possible three-stage processing of SSA, whereby more than 90% of phosphorus can be extracted to make an adequate phosphate fertilizer. SSA from two Swiss sewage sludge incinerators was used for laboratory investigations. In an initial step, SSA was leached with sulfuric acid using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2. The leaching time and pH required for high phosphorus dissolution were determined. Inevitably, dissolution of heavy metals takes place that would contaminate the fertilizer. Thus in a second step, leach solution has to be purified by having the heavy metals removed. Both ion exchange using chelating resins and sulfide precipitation turned out to be suitable for removing critical Cu, Ni and Cd. Thirdly, phosphates were precipitated as calcium phosphates with lime water. The resulting phosphate sludge was dewatered, dried and ground to get a powdery fertilizer whose efficacy was demonstrated by plant tests in a greenhouse. By measuring the weight of plants after 6 weeks of growth, fertilized in part with conventional phosphate fertilizer, fertilizer made from SSA was proven to be equal in its plant uptake efficiency.

  15. Microwave oxidation treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kwang V; Srinivasan, Asha; Liao, Ping H; Bailey, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-oxidation treatment of sewage sludge using various oxidants was studied. Two treatment schemes with a combination of hydrogen peroxide and ozone were examined: hydrogen peroxide and ozone were introduced into the sludge simultaneously, followed by microwave heating. The other involved the ozonation first, and then the resulting solution was subjected to microwave and hydrogen peroxide treatment. The set with ozonation followed by hydrogen peroxide plus microwave heating yielded higher soluble materials than those of the set with hydrogen peroxide plus ozone first and then microwave treatment. No settling was observed for all treatments in the batch operation, except ozone/microwave plus hydrogen peroxide set at 120°C. The pilot-scale continuous-flow 915 MHz microwave study has demonstrated that microwave-oxidation process is feasible for real-time industrial application. It would help in providing key data for the design of a full-scale system for treating sewage sludge and the formulation of operational protocols.

  16. Ammonia sanitisation of sewage sludge using urea.

    PubMed

    Fidjeland, Jørgen; Lalander, Cecilia; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a simple, low-cost treatment for sewage sludge using urea as a sanitising agent. Sewage sludge was spiked with Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella typhimurium, treated with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% w/w urea at laboratory scale, and the viability was monitored during 4 months of storage at 4, 10 and 22 °C (only 0.5%). A linear relationship was identified between Salmonella spp. inactivation rate and ammonia (NH3) concentration. Temperature had a positive impact on Salmonella spp. inactivation at higher temperatures, but in the range 4-10 °C temperature influenced this inactivation merely by its impact on the ammonia equilibrium. Enterococcus spp. was more persistent and a lag phase of up to 11 weeks was observed. Higher temperature and ammonia concentration reduced the lag phase duration significantly, and also had a clear effect on the inactivation rate for the treatments with 0.5% urea at 22 °C and 2% urea at 4 and 10 °C. Urea sanitisation of sewage sludge can give a 2 log10 reduction of Enterococcus spp. and more than a 5 log10 reduction of Salmonella spp. within 6 weeks with either 0.5% w/w urea at 22 °C or 2% urea at 10 °C.

  17. Supercritical water oxidation treatment of textile sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Shuzhong; Li, Yanhui; Lu, Jinling; Chen, Senlin; Luo, XingQi

    2016-10-17

    In this work, we studied the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of the textile sludge, the hydrothermal conversion of typical textile compounds and the corrosion properties of stainless steel 316. Moreover, the influence mechanisms of NaOH during these related processes were explored. The results show that decomposition efficiency for organic matter in liquid phase of the textile sludge was improved with the increment of reaction temperature or oxidation coefficient. However, the organic substance in solid phase can be oxidized completely in supercritical water. Serious coking occurred during the high pressure water at 250-450°C for the Reactive Orange 7, while at 300 and 350°C for the polyvinyl alcohol. The addition of NaOH not only accelerated the destruction of organic contaminants in the SCWO reactor, but effectively inhibited the dehydration conversion of textile compounds during the preheating process, which was favorable for the treatment system of textile sludge. The corrosion experiment results indicate that the stainless steel 316 could be competent for the body materials of the reactor and the heat exchangers. Furthermore, there was prominent enhancement of sodium hydroxide for the corrosion resistance of 316 in subcritical water. On the contrary the effect was almost none during SCWO.

  18. [Comparison of sludge filtration characteristics between a membrane bioreactor and a conventional activated sludge process].

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao-sheng; Zhang, Hai-feng; Qi, Geng-shen

    2006-02-01

    According to the filtration characteristics of sludge, a comparison between a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a conventional activated sludge process(CAS) was carried out under similar conditions. Experiment results show that the filtration resistance in MBR was 2 to approximately 3 times of that in CAS. The contribution of supernatant resistance to filtration resistance was about 90% both in CAS and in MBR. The test on resistance distribution showed the cake resistance made up 87.30% and 94.18% of total resistance in CAS and MBR, respectively.

  19. Assessment of the KE Basin Sand Filter Inventory In Support of Hazard Categorization

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Steven B.; Young, Jonathan

    2005-09-28

    In 1978, the water cleaning system for the KE Basin was upgraded by adding a sand filter and ion exchange columns. Basin water containing finely divided solids is collected by three surface skimmers and pumped to the sand filter. Filtrate from the sand filter is further treated in the ion exchange modules. The suspended solids accumulate in the sand until the pressure drop across the filter reaches established operating limits, at which time the sand filter is backwashed. The backwash is collected in the NLOP, where the solids are allowed to settle as sludge. Figure 2-1 shows a basic piping and instrumentation diagram depicting the relationship among the basin skimmers, sand filter, and NLOP. During the course of deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of the K-Basins, the sand filter and its media will need to be dispositioned. The isotopic distribution of the sludge in the sand filter has been estimated in KE Basin Sand Filter Monolith DQO (KBC-24705). This document estimates the sand filter contribution to the KE hazard categorization using the data from the DQO.

  20. Interpretation of the characteristics of ocean-dumped sewage sludge related to remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagoria, P. S.; Kuo, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Wastewater sludge characteristics in general, and characteristics of wastewater sludges generated by the City of Philadelphia in particular, were addressed. The types and sources of wastewater sludges, a description of sludge treatment and disposal processes, examination of sludge generation and management for the City of Philadelphia, and definition of characteristics for typical east coast sludges undergoing ocean disposal were discussed. Specific differences exist between the characteristics of primary and secondary wastewater sludges, especially with the nature and size distribution of the solids particles. The sludges from the City of Philadelphia monitored during remote sensing experiments were mixtures of various sludge types and lacked distinguishing characteristics. In particular, the anaerobic digestion process exerted the most significant influence on sludge characteristics for the City of Philadelphia. The sludges generated by the City of Philadelphia were found to be typical and harbor no unique features.

  1. Effects of ultrasonic disintegration of excess sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zielewicz, Ewa

    2016-10-01

    Breaking down sludge floc (sonodyspergation effect) and destruction of the cell membranes of microorganisms forming floc is a direct effect of ultrasonic disintegration of sludge excess. This results in release of organic material by liquid sludge (the sonolysis effect). Desired technological effects of the disintegration are: to shorten the hydrolytic phase of fermentation, to increase the production of biogas (source of renewable energy) and an increased mineralization (stability) of fermented sludge. The presented study demonstrates research covering thickened excess sludge of various physicochemical properties, collected from nine municipal sewage treatment plants. The sludge was subjected to ultrasonic disintegration using three differently constructed disintegrators and different proportions of sonification area. Direct effects of disintegration were monitored and recorded using selected indicators describing changes in the properties of sludge and increase of substance dispersed and dissolved in the supernatant liquid to be filtered. Studies have demonstrated that those (direct) effects of ultrasonic disintegration depend on the physicochemical properties of the sludge (foremost the concentration of dry solids) that determine their variable susceptibility to the disintegration methods. The direct effects also depend on optimal process conditions (which consist of the construction of the ultrasonic disintegrator), the geometric proportions of the sonication area and the operating parameters of disintegration (which could be appropriately matched to the characteristics of sludge). The most preferable results were obtained for ultrasonic disintegration of sludge with a dry matter concentration C 0 < 4.2 %. The highest effect of sonolysis-an almost 30-fold increase in the COD dissolved in the supernatant-was obtained for the sludge of lowest dry matter (C 0 = 2.0 %), which was sonicated in a reactor with a short transducer of the largest radiating surface

  2. Numerical and experimental evaluation of continuous ultrasonic sludge treatment system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cuihong; Huang, Xintong; Jin, Yanping; Li, Ge

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonic disintegration is a very promising sludge pretreatment method that leverages the cavitation effect to produce extreme physical environments characterized by high temperatures and high pressures. This process disintegrates sludge structure features, promotes sludge dewatering, and aides resource recovery. This paper presents a newly designed continuous ultrasonic sludge treatment device. The characteristics of the ultrasonic wave propagated in the activated sludge were simulated, with the results showing that at lower frequencies, the acoustic pressure energy distribution exhibits more local concentrations, whereas at 80kHz, the energy distribution is relatively uniform as a result of the interference of standing waves. Subsequently, activated sludge was ultrasonically treated with different exposure times and frequencies. The sludge's capillary suction time, particle size, and moisture content were measured. The results showed different trends for each of the investigated parameters. The dewatering performance was best when the exposure time was 5-10s. Finally, different substances were added to the ultrasonically treated sludge to analyze the effects of ultrasonic treatment on anaerobic digestion. The gas production rate was higher when glucose was the added substance than it was for yeast. The highest total concentration of produced gas, including both hydrogen and methane, was 34% for an ultrasonic input power of 200W at a 25kHz frequency, an exposure time of 20s, and with 30g of added glucose. The gas production rate was found to be higher at the lower frequency when frequency was the only variable. These experiments demonstrate that ultrasonic treatment can change the structure of sludge particles and the moisture content of the sludge, improving sludge dewatering performance. Furthermore, after ultrasonic treatment can improve gas production.

  3. Sewage sludge to landfill: some pertinent engineering properties.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, Brendan C

    2005-06-01

    More stringent controls on the quality of wastewater discharges have given rise to increasing volumes of sewage sludge for disposal, principally to land, using either land-spreading or sludge-to-landfill operations. Current sludge-to-landfill methods generally involve mixing the concentrated sludge with other solid waste in municipal landfills. However, stricter waste disposal legislation and higher landfill taxes are forcing the water industry to look for more efficient disposal strategies. Landfill operators are also increasingly reluctant to accept sludge material in the slurry state because of construction difficulties and the potential for instability of the landfill slopes. The engineering and drying properties of a municipal sewage sludge are presented and applied, in particular, to the design, construction, and performance of sewage sludge monofills. Sludge handling and landfill construction are most effectively conducted within the water content range of 85% water content, the optimum water content for standard proctor compaction, and 95% water content, the sticky limit of the sludge material. Standard proctor compaction of the sludge within this water content range also achieves the maximum dry density of approximately 0.56 tonne/m3, which maximizes the storage capacity and, hence, the operational life of the landfill site. Undrained shear strength-water content data (pertinent to the stability of the landfill body during construction) and effective stress-strength parameters, which take into account the landfill age and the effects of ongoing sludge digestion, are presented. Landfill subsidence, which occurs principally because of creep and decomposition of the solid organic particles, is significant and continues indefinitely but at progressively slower rates.

  4. [Effect of different sludge retention time (SRT) on municipal sewage sludge bioleaching continuous plug flow reaction system].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fen-Wu; Zhou, Li-Xiang; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Feng; Wang, Dian-Zhan

    2012-01-01

    A plug-flow bio-reactor of 700 L working volume for sludge bioleaching was used in this study. The reactor was divided into six sections along the direction of the sludge movement. Fourteen days of continuous operation of sludge bioleaching with different sludge retention time (SRT) under the condition of 1.2 m3 x h(-1) aeration amount and 4 g x L(-1) of microbial nutritional substance was conducted. During sludge bioleaching, the dynamic changes of pH, DO, dewaterability (specific resistance to filtration, SRF) of sewage sludge in different sections were investigated in the present study. The results showed that sludge pH were maintained at 5.00, 3.00, 2.90, 2.70, 2.60 and 2.40 from section 1 to section 6 and the SRF of sludge was drastically decreased from initial 0.64 x 10(13) m x kg(-1) to the final 0.33 x 10(13) m x kg(-1) when bioleaching system reached stable at hour 72 with SRT 2.5d. In addition, the sludge pH were maintained at 5.10, 4.10, 3.20, 2.90, 2.70 and 2.60, the DO value were 0.43, 1.47, 3.29, 4.76, 5.75 and 5.88 mg x L(-1) from section 1 to section 6, and the SRF of sludge was drastically decreased from initial 0.56 x 10(13) to the final 0.20 x 10(13) m x kg(-1) when bioleaching system reached stable at hour 120 with SRT 2 d. The pH value was increased to 3.00 at section 6 at hour 48 h with SRT 1.25 d. The bioleaching system imbalanced in this operation conditions because of the utilization efficiency of microbial nutritional substance by Acidibacillus spp. was decreased. The longer sludge retention time, the easier bioleaching system reached stable. 2 d could be used as the optimum sludge retention time in engineering application. The bioleached sludge was collected and dewatered by plate-and-frame filter press to the moisture content of dewatered sludge cake under 60%. This study would provide the necessary data to the engineering application on municipal sewage sludge bioleaching.

  5. Development of Sulfidogenic Sludge from Marine Sediments and Trichloroethylene Reduction in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Barajas, Claudia; Ordaz, Alberto; García-Solares, Selene Montserrat; Garibay-Orijel, Claudio; Bastida-González, Fernando; Zárate-Segura, Paola Berenice

    2015-10-15

    The importance of microbial sulfate reduction relies on the various applications that it offers in environmental biotechnology. Engineered sulfate reduction is used in industrial wastewater treatment to remove large concentrations of sulfate along with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and heavy metals. The most common approach to the process is with anaerobic bioreactors in which sulfidogenic sludge is obtained through adaptation of predominantly methanogenic granular sludge to sulfidogenesis. This process may take a long time and does not always eliminate the competition for substrate due to the presence of methanogens in the sludge. In this work, we propose a novel approach to obtain sulfidogenic sludge in which hydrothermal vents sediments are the original source of microorganisms. The microbial community developed in the presence of sulfate and volatile fatty acids is wide enough to sustain sulfate reduction over a long period of time without exhibiting inhibition due to sulfide. This protocol describes the procedure to generate the sludge from the sediments in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) type of reactor. Furthermore, the protocol presents the procedure to demonstrate the capability of the sludge to remove by reductive dechlorination a model of a highly toxic organic pollutant such as trichloroethylene (TCE). The protocol is divided in three stages: (1) the formation of the sludge and the determination of its sulfate reducing activity in the UASB, (2) the experiment to remove the TCE by the sludge, and (3) the identification of microorganisms in the sludge after the TCE reduction. Although in this case the sediments were taken from a site located in Mexico, the generation of a sulfidogenic sludge by using this procedure may work if a different source of sediments is taken since marine sediments are a natural pool of microorganisms that may be enriched in sulfate reducing bacteria.

  6. Reduction by sonication of excess sludge production in a conventional activated sludge system: continuous flow and lab-scale reactor.

    PubMed

    Vaxelaire, S; Gonze, E; Merlin, G; Gonthier, Y

    2008-12-01

    Conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants currently produce a large quantity of excess sludge. To reduce this sludge production and to improve sludge characteristics in view of their subsequent elimination, an ultrasonic cell disintegration process was studied. In a lab-scale continuous flow pilot plant, part of the return sludge was sonicated by low-frequency and high-powered ultrasound and then recycled to the aeration tank. Two parallel lines were used: one as a control and the other as an assay with ultrasonic treatment. The reactors were continuously fed with synthetic domestic wastewater with a COD (chemical oxygen demand) of approximately 0.5 g l(-) corresponding to a daily load of 0.35-0.50 kg COD kg(-1) TS d(-1). Removal efficiencies (carbon, particles), excess sludge production and sludge characteristics (particle size distribution, mineralization, respiration rate, biological component) were measured every day during the 56-day experiment. This study showed that whilst organic removal efficiency did not deteriorate, excess sludge production was decreased by about 25-30% by an ultrasonic treatment. Several hypotheses are advanced: (i) the treatment made a part of the organic matter soluble as a consequence of the floc disintegration, and optimised the conversion of the carbonaceous pollutants into carbon dioxide and (ii) the treatment modified the physical characteristics of sludge by a mechanical effect: floc size was reduced, increasing the exchange surface and sludge activity. The originality of this study is that experiments were conducted in a continuous-flow activated sludge reactor rather than in a batch reactor.

  7. Plant available nitrogen from anaerobically digested sludge and septic tank sludge applied to crops grown in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Sripanomtanakorn, S; Polprasert, C

    2002-04-01

    Agricultural land is an attractive alternative for the disposal of biosolids since it utilises the recyclable nutrients in the production of crops. In Thailand and other tropical regions, limited field-study information exists on the effect of biosolids management strategies on crop N utilisation and plant available N (PAN) of biosolids. A field study was conducted to quantify the PAN of the applied biosolids, and to evaluate the N uptake rates of some tropical crops. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were chosen in this study. Two types of biosolids used were: anaerobically digested sludge and septic tank sludge. The soil is acid sulfate and is classified as Sulfic Tropaquepts with heavy clay in texture. The anaerobically digested sludge applied rates were: 0, 156 and 312 kg N ha(-1) for the sunflower plots, and 0, 586, and 1172 kg N ha(-1) for the tomato plots. The septic tank sludge applied rates were: 0, 95 and 190 kg N ha(-1) for the sunflower plots, and 0, 354 and 708 kg N ha(-1) for the tomato plots, respectively. The results indicated the feasibility of applying biosolids to grow tropical crops. The applications of the anaerobically digested sludge and the septic tank sludge resulted in the yields of sunflower seeds and tomato fruits and the plant N uptakes comparable or better than that applied with only the chemical fertiliser. The estimated PAN of the anaerobically digested sludge was about 27-42% of the sludge organic N during the growing season. For the septic tank sludge, the PAN was about 15-58% of the sludge organic N. It is interesting to observe that an increase of the rate of septic tank sludge incorporated into this heavy clay soil under the cropping system resulted in the decrease of N mineralisation rate. This situation could cause the reduction of yield and N uptake of crops.

  8. Hanford K Basins spent nuclear fuels project update

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, F.G.

    1997-10-17

    Twenty one hundred metric tons of spent nuclear fuel are stored in two concrete pools on the Hanford Site, known as the K Basins, near the Columbia River. The deteriorating conditions of the fuel and the basins provide engineering and management challenges to assure safe current and future storage. DE and S Hanford, Inc., part of the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. lead team on the Project Hanford Management Contract, is constructing facilities and systems to move the fuel from current wet pool storage to a dry interim storage facility away from the Columbia River, and to treat and dispose of K Basins sludge, debris and water. The process starts in the K Basins where fuel elements will be removed from existing canisters, washed, and separated from sludge and scrap fuel pieces. Fuel elements will be placed in baskets and loaded into Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and into transportation casks. The MCO and cask will be transported into the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, where free water within the MCO will be removed under vacuum at slightly elevated temperatures. The MCOs will be sealed and transported via the transport cask to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in the 200 Area for staging prior to hot conditioning. The conditioning step to remove chemically bound water is performed by holding the MCO at 300 C under vacuum. This step is necessary to prevent excessive pressure buildup during interim storage that could be caused by corrosion. After conditioning, MCOs will remain in the CSB for interim storage until a national repository is completed.

  9. Performance of paper mill sludges as landfill capping material

    SciTech Connect

    Moo-Young, H.K. Jr.; Zimmie, T.F.

    1997-12-31

    The high cost of waste containment has sparked interest in low cost and effective strategies of containing wastes. Paper mill sludges have been effectively used as the impermeable barrier in landfill covers. Since paper mill sludges are viewed as a waste material, the sludge is given to the landfill owner at little or no cost. Thus, when a clay soil is not locally available to use as the impermeable barrier in a cover system, paper sludge barriers can save $20,000 to $50,000 per acre in construction costs. This study looks at the utilization and performance of blended and primary paper sludge as landfill capping material. To determine the effectiveness of paper sludge as an impermeable barrier layer, test pads were constructed to simulate a typical landfill cover with paper sludge and clay as the impermeable barrier and were monitored for infiltration rates for five years. Long-term hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the leachate generation rates of the test pads indicate that paper sludge provides an acceptable hydraulic barrier.

  10. Dewatering of floated oily sludge by treatment with rhamnolipid.

    PubMed

    Long, Xuwei; Zhang, Guoliang; Han, Li; Meng, Qin

    2013-09-01

    Oily sludge dewatering is practically needed prior to sludge treatments. However, the conventional use of physical treatments with or without chemical conditionings presented poor feasibility in industrial applications due to either poor cost-efficiency or lacking environmental friendliness. In this paper, biosurfactant rhamnolipid was for the first time applied for dewatering of oily sludge. Rhamnolipid treatments under the concentration of 300-1000 mg/L, pH of 5-7 and temperature of 10-60 °C could directly separate 50-80% of water from the stable oily sludge. And both mono-rhamnolipid and di-rhamnolipid were identified to be of equivalent dewatering ability, which is closely related to their equivalent performance in breaking the emulsified oil droplets. Demulsification was found to be involved in settling water from oily sludge. Furthermore, the effectiveness of rhamnolipid was further demonstrated at pilot scale (1000 L) treatment of oily sludge. After pilot treatment, the settled water with residual oil of 10 mg/L and soluble COD of about 800 mg/L could be directly effluxed into the biotreatment system while the concentrated oil sludge with a reduced volume by 60-80% can be pumped into coking tower, achieving completely harmless treatment. It seems that rhamnolipid as dewatering agent was of great prospects in the industrial dewatering of oily sludge.

  11. Lime FGD system and sludge disposal case study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.O.; Morgan, W.E.; Noland, J.W.; Quinlan, R.T.; Stresewski, J.E.; Swenson, D.O.

    1980-11-01

    Selecting and installing a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system and a sludge disposal system at a utility electric generation plant is no easy task. Approximately 21,000 MW of FGD and sludge disposal systems are presently operating with another 28,000 MW of FGD and sludge disposal systems under construction or planned. With the new EPA regulations requiring an FGD system on essentially every new coal-fired utility electric generation unit, the ability to decide on the most advantageous FGD and sludge disposal systems which are technically, economically, and environmentally acceptable can result in savings of $7.40/kW to the utility. This case study describes the step-by-step design decisions and equipment selections for a hypothetical lime FGD and sludge disposal system for a new 500 MW coal-fired electric generation unit. The hypothetical FGD and sludge disposal systems are based on actual installations. This case study demonstrates the methods by which utility personnel can effectively utilize the information contained in the Lime FGD Systems Data Book (FP-1030) and the FGD Sludge Disposal Manual (FP-977) to select the most advantageous lime FGD and sludge disposal systems.

  12. [Bioconversion of sewage sludge to biopesticide by Bacillus thuringiensis].

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming; Zhou, Shun-gui; Lu, Na; Ni, Jin-ren

    2006-07-01

    Feasibility of bioconversion of sewage sludge to biopesticide by Bacillus thuringiensis was studied using sewage sludge as a raw material. The fermentation was also compared with conventional medium. Results showed that without any pretreatment, the nutrients contained in sewage sludge were almost sufficient for Bacillus thuringiensis growth, even with a rapid multiplicational rate. Higher viable cells and viable spores values were obtained earlier at 24 h, with 9.48 x 10(8) CFU x mL(-1) and 8.51 x 10(8) CFU x mL(-1) respectively, which was 12 hours earlier and nearly 20 percent higher than conventional medium. SEM of 36 h samples gave a clear phenomenon that the metabolizability in sludge was much faster with spores and crystals spreading around. The crystals in sludge seemed rather bigger and more regular. Also a better crystal protein yield of 2.80 mg x mL(-1) was observed in sludge medium compared to conventional medium at the end of fermentation. Sludge fermentation for Bacillus thuringiensis reduces the producing cost, and gives better fermentation capabilities. It's expected to be a new method for sludge disposal.

  13. Sludge minimization using aerobic/anoxic treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.O. Jr.; Kalch, R.S.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate through a bench-scale study that using an aerobic/anoxic sequence to treat wastewater and biosolids could significantly reduce the production of biosolids (sludge). A bench-scale activated sludge reactor and anoxic digester were operated for approximately three months. The process train consisted of a completely-mixed aerobic reactor with wasting of biosolids to an anoxic digester for stabilization. The system was operated such that biomass produced in the aerobic activated sludge process was wasted to the anoxic digester; and biomass produced in the anoxic digester was wasted back to the activated sludge process. A synthetic wastewater consisting of bacto-peptone nutrient broth was fed to the liquid process train. Influent and effluent to the aerobic biological process train were analytically tested, as were the contents of mixed liquor in the aerobic reactor and anoxic digester. Overall removal efficiencies for the activated sludge process with regard to COD, TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, and alkalinity averaged 91, 89, 98, and 38%, respectively. The overall average sludge production for the aerobic/anoxic process was 24% less than the overall average sludge production from a conventional activated sludge bench-scale system fed the same substrate and operated under similar mean cell residence times.

  14. Application of forward osmosis on dewatering of high nutrient sludge.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Yang, Hung-Yin; Hau, Nguyen Thi

    2013-03-01

    A novel approach was designed to simultaneously apply low energy sludge dewatering and nutrient removal for activated sludge using forward osmosis (FO). In this study, the municipal wastewater sludge was spiked with different nutrient concentrations to evaluate FO dewatering performance. The results showed that sludge concentration reached 21,511 and 28,500mg/L after 28h from initial sludge concentration of 3000 and 8000mg/L with flow rate of 150mL/min. Moreover, nutrient and organic compounds in sludge solution were also successfully removed (around 96% of NH4(+)-N, 98% of PO4(3-)-P and 99% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) due to steric effect of FO membrane and multi barrier layer of sludge forming on membrane surface. Furthermore, the analysis from Scanning Electron Microscopy & Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) images recorded that FO membrane was fouled by cake layer of sludge in the active layer and NaCl in the support layer.

  15. Nitrogen removal from the saline sludge liquor by electrochemical denitrification.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z M; Li, X Y; Chan, K Y

    2006-01-01

    Sludge liquor from the sludge dewatering process has a high ammonia content. In the present study, a lab-scale electrochemical (EC) system with a pair of Ti electrode plates was used for treating the sludge centrate liquor of digested wastewater sludge with a NH4(+) - N content of around 500 mg/L. The sludge liquor had a high salinity due to seawater being used for toilet flushing in Hong Kong. The results show that the EC process is highly effective for denitrification of the saline sludge liquor. Complete nitrogen removal could be achieved within 1 hr or so. The rate of EC denitrification increased with the current intensity applied. The best current efficiency for nitrogen removal was obtained for a gap distance between the electrodes at 8 mm. Electro-chlorination was considered to be the major mechanism of EC denitrification. The formation of chlorination by-products (CBPs) appeared to be minimal with the total trihalomethanes (THM) detected at a level of 300 microg/L or lower. The power consumption for EC denitrification was around 23 kWh/kg N. Additional electro-flocculation with a pair of iron needle electrodes could enhance the flocculation and subsequent sedimentation of colloidal organics in the sludge liquor, increasing the organic removal from less than 30% to more than 70%. Therefore, the EC process including both electro-denitrification and electro-flocculation can be developed as the most cost-effective method for treatment of the saline sludge liquor.

  16. Engineering evaluation of solids/liquids separation processes applicable to sludge treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-08-25

    This engineering study looks at the solids/liquids separation unit operations after the acid dissolution of the K Basin sludge treatment. Unit operations considered were centrifugation, filtration (cartridge, cross flow, and high shear filtration) and gravity settling. The recommended unit operations for the solids/liquids separations are based upon the efficiency, complexity, and off-the-shelf availability and adaptability. The unit operations recommended were a Robatel DPC 900 centrifuge followed by a nuclearized 31WM cartridge filter. The Robatel DPC 900 has been successfully employed in the nuclear industry on a world wide scale. The 31WM cartridge filter has been employed for filtration campaigns in both the government and civilian nuclear arenas.

  17. The sludge loading rate regulates the growth and release of heterotrophic bacteria resistant to six types of antibiotics in wastewater activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Ting; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are considered as hot reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance. However, the fates of antibiotic-resistant bacteria during biological treatment processes and relevant influencing factors have not been fully understood. This study evaluated the effects of the sludge loading rate on the growth and release of six kinds of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in an activated sludge system. The results indicated that higher sludge loading rates amplified the growth of all six types of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The release of most antibiotic-resistant bacteria through both the effluent and biosolids was amplified with increased sludge loading rate. Biosolids were the main pattern for all antibiotic-resistant bacteria release in an activated sludge system, which was determined primarily by their growth in the activated sludge. A higher sludge loading rate reactor tended to retain more antibiotic resistance. An activated sludge system with lower sludge loading rates was considered more conducive to the control of antibiotic resistance.

  18. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysed sewage sludge char (PSSC).

    PubMed

    Kleemann, Rosanna; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Clift, Roland; Morse, Stephen; Pearce, Pete; Saroj, Devendra

    2017-02-01

    This research compares and contrasts the physical and chemical characteristics of incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysis sewage sludge char (PSSC) for the purposes of recovering phosphorus as a P-rich fertiliser. Interest in P recovery from PSSC is likely to increase as pyrolysis is becoming viewed as a more economical method of sewage sludge thermal treatment compared to incineration. The P contents of ISSA and PSSC are 7.2-7.5% and 5.6%, respectively. Relative to the sludge, P concentrations are increased about 8-fold in ISSA, compared to roughly 3-fold in PSSC. Both PSSC and ISSA contain whitlockite, an unusual form of calcium phosphate, with PSSC containing more whitlockite than ISSA. Acid leaching experiments indicate that a liquid/solid ratio of 10 with 30min contact time is optimal to release PO4-P into leachate for both ISSA and PSSC. The proportion of P extracted from PSSC is higher due to its higher whitlockite content. Heavy metals are less soluble from PSSC because they are more strongly incorporated in the particles. The results suggest there is potential for the development of a process to recover P from PSSC.

  19. Sludge Conditioning. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W.

    This lesson is an introduction to sludge conditioning. Topics covered include a brief explanation of colloidal systems, theory of chemical and heat conditioning, and conditioning aids. The lesson includes an instructor's guide and student workbook. The instructor's guide contains a description of the lesson, estimated presentation time,…

  20. Sludge Incineration. Multiple Hearth. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This lesson introduces the basics of sludge incineration and focuses on the multiple hearth furnace in accomplishing this task. Attention is given to component identification and function process control fundamentals, theory of incineration, safety, and other responsibilites of furnace operation. The material is rather technical and assumes an…

  1. Characterisation of adsorbents prepared by pyrolysis of sludge and sludge/disposal filter cake mix.

    PubMed

    Velghe, I; Carleer, R; Yperman, J; Schreurs, S; D'Haen, Jan

    2012-05-15

    Copper and zinc removal from water (pH = 5.0) using adsorbents produced from slow and fast pyrolysis of industrial sludge and industrial sludge mixed with a disposal filter cake (FC), post treated with HCl, is investigated in comparison with a commercial adsorbent F400. The results show that a pseudo-second order kinetics model is followed. The Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model is found to fit the data best. The capacity for heavy metal removal of studied adsorbents is generally better than that of commercial F400. The dominant heavy metal removal mechanism is cation exchange. Higher heavy metal removal capacity is associated with fast pyrolysis adsorbents and sludge/FC derived adsorbents, due to enhanced cation exchange. Improvement of Zn(2+) removal via 1 N HCl post-treatment is only effective when exchangeable cations of the adsorbent are substituted with H(+) ions, which boost the cation exchange capacity. Increase of temperature also enhances metal removal capacity. Fast pyrolysis sludge-based adsorbents can be reused after several adsorption-desorption cycles.

  2. Cometabolic degradation of organic wastewater micropollutants by activated sludge and sludge-inherent microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Klaus; Majewsky, Marius

    2014-08-01

    Municipal wastewaters contain a multitude of organic trace pollutants. Often, their biodegradability by activated sludge microorganisms is decisive for their elimination during wastewater treatment. Since the amounts of micropollutants seem too low to serve as growth substrate, cometabolism is supposed to be the dominating biodegradation process. Nevertheless, as many biodegradation studies were performed without the intention to discriminate between metabolic and cometabolic processes, the specific contribution of the latter to substance transformations is often not clarified. This minireview summarizes current knowledge about the cometabolic degradation of organic trace pollutants by activated sludge and sludge-inherent microorganisms. Due to their relevance for communal wastewater contamination, the focus is laid on pharmaceuticals, personal care products, antibiotics, estrogens, and nonylphenols. Wherever possible, reference is made to the molecular process level, i.e., cometabolic pathways, involved enzymes, and formed transformation products. Particular cometabolic capabilities of different activated sludge consortia and various microbial species are highlighted. Process conditions favoring cometabolic activities are emphasized. Finally, knowledge gaps are identified, and research perspectives are outlined.

  3. The effect of bioleaching on sewage sludge pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhihua; Hu, Mian; Cui, Baihui; Liu, Shiming; Guo, Dabin; Xiao, Bo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of bioleaching on sewage sludge pyrolysis were studied. Sewage sludge was treated by bioleaching with solid concentrations of 6% (w/v), 8% (w/v), 10% (w/v). Results showed that bioleaching treatment could modify the physicochemical properties of sewage sludge and enhance the metals removal. The optimum removal efficiencies of heavy metals were achieved with solid concentration of 6% (w/v) bioleaching treatment: Cu, 73.08%; Zn, 78.67%; Pb, 24.65%; Cd, 79.46%. The characterization results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the bioleached sewage sludge with a 6% (w/v) solid concentration treatment was the easiest to decompose. Pyrolytic experiments of bioleached sewage sludge were performed in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor. Results indicated that bioleaching treatment greatly influenced the product yields and gas composition.

  4. Improvement of dewatering capacity of a petrochemical sludge.

    PubMed

    Buyukkamaci, Nurdan; Kucukselek, Emrah

    2007-06-01

    Oily sludge produced from a petrochemical industry was used to investigate the improvement of its dewatering properties. The oil content (OC) and the dry solid content (DS) of the raw sludge were respectively, 15% and 3.6% by weight. The capillary suction time (CST) and the specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of the raw petrochemical industrial sludge were found to be 2000s and approximately 5.5x10(16)m/kg, respectively. Conventional chemical conditioners such as alum, lime, and polyelectrolyte, and less conventional ones like fly ash, gypsum, and bentonite were used in the sludge conditioning studies. Conventional chemical conditioners gave better results for the enhancement of the dewatering capacity of the sludge. The best result was obtained by using 0.9% cationic polyelectrolyte by weight, and a decrease of 99%-95% were achieved for CST and SRF, respectively, when this dosage of cationic polyelectrolyte was used.

  5. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  6. Enhancement of activated sludge disintegration and dewaterability by Fenton process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, G. C.; Isa, M. H.

    2016-06-01

    Municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of sludge. This excess sludge is an inevitable drawback inherent to the activated sludge process. In this study, the waste activated sludge was obtained from the campus wastewater treatment plant at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia. Fenton pretreatment was optimized by using the response surface methodology (RSM) to study the effects of three operating conditions including the dosage of H2O2 (g H2O2/kg TS), the molar ratio of H2O2/Fe2+ and reaction time. The optimum operating variables to achieve MLVSS removal 65%, CST reduction 28%, sCOD 11000 mg/L and EPS 500 mg/L were: 1000 g H2O2/kg TS, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 70 and reaction time 45 min. Fenton process was proved to be able to enhance the sludge disintegration and dewaterability.

  7. X-616 Chromium Sludge Lagoons pictorial overview, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant uses large quantities of water for process cooling. The X-616 Liquid Effluent Control Facility was placed in operation in December 1976 to treat recirculation cooling water blowdown from the process cooling system. A chromium-based corrosion inhibitor was used in the cooling water system. A chromium sludge was produced in a clarifier to control chromium levels in the water. Chromium sludge produced by this process was stored in two surface impoundments called the X-616 Chromium Sludge Lagoons. The sludge was toxic due to its chromium concentration and therefore required treatment. The sludge was treated, turning it into a sanitary waste, and buried in an Ohio EPA approved landfill. The plant's process cooling water system has changed to a more environmentally acceptable phosphate-based inhibitor. Closure activities at X-616 began in August 1990, with all construction activities completed in June 1991, at a total cost of $8.0 million.

  8. Artificial aggregate made from waste stone sludge and waste silt.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Lee, Ming-Yu; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Jyh-Dong

    2010-11-01

    In this research, waste stone sludge obtained from slab stone processing and waste silt from aggregate washing plants were recycled to manufacture artificial aggregate. Fine-powdered stone sludge was mixed with waste silt of larger particle size; vibratory compaction was applied for good water permeability, resulting in a smaller amount of solidifying agent being used. For the densified packing used in this study, the mix proportion of waste stone sludge to waste silt was 35:50, which produced artificial aggregate of more compact structure with water absorption rate below 0.1%. In addition, applying vibratory compaction of 33.3 Hz to the artificial aggregate and curing for 28 days doubled the compressive strength to above 29.4 MPa. Hence, recycling of waste stone sludge and waste silt for the production of artificial aggregate not only offers a feasible substitute for sand and stone, but also an ecological alternative to waste management of sludge and silt.

  9. Dewaterability characteristics of sludge conditioned with surfactants pretreatment by electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haiping; Zhu, Nanwen; Song, Fanyong

    2011-02-01

    The potential benefits of electrolysis-conditioned sludge dewaterability treatments with surfactants were investigated in this study. Capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance of filtration (SRF) were used to evaluate the sludge dewaterability. Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content, viscosity and zeta potential were determined in an attempt to explain the observed changes in the conditioning process. The results indicated that SDS (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate) and Triton X-100 have negative effect on the dewaterability of sludge pretreated both with and without electrolysis. However, with a combination of CTAB (Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide) and electrolysis pretreatment presented clear advantages over surfactant conditioning alone for improving sludge dewaterability. The optimal dosage of CTAB to give maximal dewaterability was found to be 2000 mg/L, which generated sludge with optimal EPS concentration (150-300 mg/L), viscosity (55-62 mpa s) and zeta potential (-2.12 to -1.19 mV).

  10. Solidification of low-volume power plant sludges. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, N.E.; Halverson, M.A.; Mercer, B.M.

    1981-12-01

    A literature review was conducted to obtain information on the status of hazardous waste solidification technology and application of this technology to low-volume power plant waste sludges. Because of scarcity of sludge composition data, anticipated major components were identified primarily by chemical reactions that are known to occur during treatment of specific wastewaters. Chemical and physical properties of these sludges were critically analyzed for compatibility with several types of commercially available solidification processes. The study pointed out the need for additional information on the nature of these sludges, especially leaching characteristics and the presence of substances that will interfere with solidification processes. Laboratory studies were recommended for evaluation of solidification process which have the greatest potential for converting hazardous low-volume sludges to non-hazardous waste forms.

  11. Stabilization of Mercury in High pH Tank Sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.; Barton, J.

    2003-02-24

    DOE complex contains many tank sludges contaminated with mercury. The high pH of these tank sludges typically fails to stabilize the mercury, resulting in these radioactive wastes also being characteristically hazardous or mixed waste. The traditional treatment for soluble inorganic mercury species is precipitation as insoluble mercuric sulfide. Sulfide treatment and a commercial mercury-stabilizing product were tested on surrogate sludges at various alkaline pH values. Neither the sulfide nor the commercial product stabilized the mercury sufficiently at the high pH of the tank sludges to pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) treatment standards of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The commercial product also failed to stabilize the mercury in samples of the actual tank sludges.

  12. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

    2009-12-03

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs

  13. Effect of sludge retention on UF membrane fouling: The significance of sludge crystallization and EPS increase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenzheng; Graham, Nigel; Yang, Yunjia; Zhou, Zhiqi; Campos, Luiza C

    2015-10-15

    This paper concerns a previously unreported mechanism of membrane ultrafiltration (UF) fouling when a UF process with coagulation pre-treatment is used in drinking water treatment. The significance of settled coagulant solids (sludge) with different age within the membrane tank on UF fouling has been investigated at laboratory-scale, using model micro-polluted surface water. The process of floc crystallization and increasing bacterial EPS with solids (sludge) retention time may be detrimental to UF operation by causing an increased rate of membrane fouling. In this study the performance of two alum pre-treated hollow-fibre UF units, operated in parallel but with different settled sludge retention times (1 and 7 days), was compared. The results showed that over 34 days of operation the extent of reversible and irreversible fouling was much greater for the 7-day solids retention time. This was attributed to the greater extent of bacterial activity and the presence of Al-nanoparticles, arising from sludge crystallization, at the longer retention time. In particular, greater quantities of organic matter, particularly EPS (proteins and polysaccharides), were found in the UF cake layer and pores for the 7-day retention time. The addition of chlorine later in the membrane run substantially reduced the rate of membrane fouling for both sludge retention times, and this corresponded to reduced quantities of organic substances, including EPS, in the cake layer and pores of both membranes. The results suggest that bacterial activity (and EPS production) is more important than the production of Al-nanoparticles from solids crystallization in causing membrane fouling. However, it is likely that both phenomena are interactive and possibly synergistic.

  14. SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not predictable

  15. TBT and TPhT persistence in a sludged soil.

    PubMed

    Marcic, Christophe; Le Hecho, Isabelle; Denaix, Laurence; Lespes, Gaëtane

    2006-12-01

    The persistence of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) in soils was studied, taking into consideration the quantity of sewage sludge, TBT and TPhT concentrations in soil as well as the soil pH. The organotin compounds (OTC) were introduced into the soil via a spiked urban sludge, simulating agricultural practise. OTC speciation was achieved after acidic extraction of soil samples followed by gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric analysis (GC-PFPD). Leaching tests conducted on a spiked sludge showed that more than 98% of TBT are sorbed on the sludge. TBT persistence in soil appeared to depend on its initial concentration in sludge. Thus, it was more important when concentration is over 1000 microg(Sn) kg(-1) of sludge. More than 50% of the initial TBT added into the soil were still present after 2 months, whatever the experimental conditions. The main degradation product appeared to be dibutyltin. About 90% of TPhT were initially sorbed on sludge, whatever the spiking concentration in sludge was. However, TPhT seemed to be quantitatively exchangeable at the solid/liquid interface, according to the leaching tests. It was also significantly degraded in sludged soil as only about 20% of TPhT remain present after 2 months, the monophenyltin being the main degradation product. pH had a significant positive effect on TBT and particularly TPhT persistence, according to the initial amounts introduced into the soil. Thus, at pH over 7 and triorganotin concentration over 100 microg(Sn) kg(-1), less than 10% of TBT but about 60% of TPhT were degraded. When the sludge was moderately contaminated by triorganotins (typically 50 microg(Sn) kg(-1) in our conditions) the pH had no effect on TBT and TPhT persistence.

  16. Polyphosphate Kinase from Activated Sludge Performing Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal†

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Katherine D.; Dojka, Michael A.; Pace, Norman R.; Jenkins, David; Keasling, Jay D.

    2002-01-01

    A novel polyphosphate kinase (PPK) was retrieved from an uncultivated organism in activated sludge carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Acetate-fed laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors were used to maintain sludge with a high phosphorus content (approximately 11% of the biomass). PCR-based clone libraries of small subunit rRNA genes and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to verify that the sludge was enriched in Rhodocyclus-like β-Proteobacteria known to be associated with sludges carrying out EBPR. These organisms comprised approximately 80% of total bacteria in the sludge, as assessed by FISH. Degenerate PCR primers were designed to retrieve fragments of putative ppk genes from a pure culture of Rhodocyclus tenuis and from organisms in the sludge. Four novel ppk homologs were found in the sludge, and two of these (types I and II) shared a high degree of amino acid similarity with R. tenuis PPK (86 and 87% similarity, respectively). Dot blot analysis of total RNA extracted from sludge demonstrated that the Type I ppk mRNA was present, indicating that this gene is expressed during EBPR. Inverse PCR was used to obtain the full Type I sequence from sludge DNA, and a full-length PPK was cloned, overexpressed, and purified to near homogeneity. The purified PPK has a specific activity comparable to that of other PPKs, has a requirement for Mg2+, and does not appear to operate in reverse. PPK activity was found mainly in the particulate fraction of lysed sludge microorganisms. PMID:12324346

  17. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to

  18. Predicting bioavailability of metals from sludge-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Golui, Debasis; Datta, S P; Rattan, R K; Dwivedi, B S; Meena, M C

    2014-12-01

    We attempted to develop a protocol for fixing the maximum permissible limit of sludge in agricultural lands based on transfer of metals from sludge-amended soils to human food chain. For this purpose, spinach was grown as a test crop on acid and alkaline soils with graded doses of sludge (0, 1.12, 2.24, 4.48, 8.96, 17.9, 35.8, 71.6, 142 and 285 g kg(-1) of soil) in a pot experiment. Biomass yield of spinach was increased due to sludge application in both acid and alkaline soils. Among the chemical extractants, EDTA extracted the highest amount of metals from sludge-amended soil followed by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and CaCl2. Elevated levels of Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cd and Pb in spinach were observed due to sludge application over control. Application of sludge was more effective in increasing metal content in spinach grown on acid soil than alkaline soil. Solubility-free ion activity model as a function of pH, organic carbon and extractable metal was far more effective in predicting metal uptake by spinach grown on sludge-amended soils as compared to that of chemical extractants. Risk in terms of hazard quotient (HQ) for intake of metals through consumption of spinach by humans grown on sludge-treated soils was computed for different metals separately. In a 90-day pot experiment, safe rates of sludge application were worked out as 4.48 and 71.6 g kg(-1) for acid and alkaline soils, respectively.

  19. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) sludge inoculation in a hybrid process scheme concept to assist overloaded conventional activated sludge (CAS) process operations.

    PubMed

    Fenu, A; Roels, J; Van Damme, S; Wambecq, T; Weemaes, M; Thoeye, C; De Gueldre, G; Van De Steene, B

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of inoculating membrane bioreactor (MBR) sludge in a parallel-operated overloaded conventional activated sludge (CAS) system. Modelling studies that showed the beneficial effect of this inoculation were confirmed though full scale tests. Total nitrogen (TN) removal in the CAS increased and higher nitrate formation rates were achieved. During MBR sludge inoculation, the TN removal in the CAS was proven to be dependent on MBR sludge loading. Special attention was given to the effect of inoculation on sludge quality. The MBR flocs, grown without selection pressure, were clearly distinct from the more compact flocs in the CAS system and also contained more filamentous bacteria. After inoculation the MBR flocs did not evolve into good-settling compact flocs, resulting in a decreasing sludge quality. During high flow conditions the effluent CAS contained more suspended solids. Sludge volume index, however, did not increase. Laboratory tests were held to determine the threshold volume of MBR sludge to be seeded into the CAS reactor. Above 16-30%, supernatant turbidity and scum formation increased markedly.

  20. Oxygen transfer dynamics and activated sludge floc structure under different sludge retention times at low dissolved oxygen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Fan, Haitao; Liu, Xiuhong; Wang, Hao; Han, Yunping; Qi, Lu; Wang, Hongchen

    2017-02-01

    In activated sludge systems, the aeration process consumes the most energy. The energy cost can be dramatically reduced by decreasing the operating dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. However, low DO may lead to incomplete nitrification and poor settling performance of activated sludge flocs (ASFs). This study investigates oxygen transfer dynamics and settling performances of activated sludge under different sludge retention times (SRTs) and DO conditions using microelectrodes and microscopic techniques. Our experimental results showed that with longer SRTs, treatment capacity and settling performances of activated sludge improved due to smaller floc size and less extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Long-term low DO conditions produced larger flocs and more EPS per unit sludge, which produced a more extensive anoxic area and led to low oxygen diffusion performance in flocs. Long SRTs mitigated the adverse effects of low DO. According to the microelectrode analysis and fractal dimension determination, smaller floc size and less EPS in the long SRT system led to high oxygen diffusion property and more compact floc structure that caused a drop in the sludge volume index (SVI). In summary, our results suggested that long SRTs of activated sludge can improve the operating performance under low DO conditions.

  1. Thermal hydraulics of steam generator sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ulke, A.

    1991-12-31

    The sludge deposits on top of the tubesheet in commercial steam generators create regions of high susceptibility to tube corrosion. It is believed that the corrosion occurs when the sludge deposit becomes too deep for the liquid to penetrate freely. This leads to liquid deficient regions with high chemical concentrations on the tube surface. A one-dimensional model of two-phase flow in porous media has been developed. The model considers a slab of porous medium on a horizontal non-porous surface, both under water. Heat is transferred from a vertical surface. The vapor, which is generated, flows vertically upward and the liquid is replenished by a counterflow. Under steady state conditions the mass flow rate of liquid equals that of vapor at every point along the flow path. The solution requires a minimum of five equations; continuity and momentum for the liquid and the vapor phases and energy. The momentum equations are extensions of the Darcy equation to the inertial flow regime in porous media. All five equations can be described as first order differential equations. They can be integrated with respect to distance into the sludge pile using the appropriate boundary conditions at the top of the porous slab and the transition point to ``dryout`` or at the bottom of the slab whichever comes first. The conservation of chemical species can be easily incorporated into the above system of equations. A FORTRAN computer program was developed to solve the above set of equations. The solution yields the distribution of the liquid and the vapor velocities and pressures, the heat flux, the liquid saturation and the chemical concentration.

  2. Wastewater and sludge reuse in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    The reuse of Municipal wastewaters (TMWW) for irrigation of crops, and of sludge for the amendment of soils, is a multidimensional disposal practice aiming at: (i) minimizing the environmental problems by releasing the pressure exerted by these two inputs on the environment, (ii) providing the growing plants with water and nutrients and (ii) improving soil fertility and productivity, The research work conducted in our University in relation to accomplishing a safe reuse has been focused on the study of the following aspects of reuse: (i) heavy metal accumulation in soils and plants with emphasis on their edible part. This aspect has been studied by conducting a series of experiments aiming at the study of the accumulation of heavy metals in soils, and in plant roots, stalks, leaves and fruits. The conclusions drawn so far with regard to the order of accumulation of heavy metals are: Roots>leaves>stalks>fruits ( edible parts) (ii) interactions between heavy metals, plant nutrients and soil chemical and physical properties. After the examinations of hundreds of interactions, and the development of a quantification of the interactions contribution, it was found that considerable quantities of heavy metals and nutrients are contributed to the soil and to various plant parts , emphasizing the important role of the elemental interactions in plants.(iii) assessment of soil pollution with heavy metals based on pollution indices, Three pollution Indices have been established by our research team and were proposed internationally for application in actual practice for the prediction of soil pollution due to long term reuse of wastewater and sludge. These indices are as follows: (a) Elemental pollution Index (EPI), (b) Heavy Metal Load (HML), and (c) Total Concentration Factor (TCF) and (iv) construction of a computer program for the control of the reuse of TMWW and sludge, and forecasting soil pollution due to accumulation of heavy metal by means of pollution indices.

  3. Poland petroleum refinery sludge lagoon demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, D.J.

    2000-05-05

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Area have been working together to develop mutually beneficial, cost-effective environmental remediation technologies such as the demonstration of bioremediation techniques for the clean up of acidic petroleum sludge impacted soils at an oil refinery in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization, treatability study, and a risk assessment study, a remediation strategy was devised. The waste material was composed primarily of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A biopile design which employed a combination of passive and active aeration in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant application as used to increase the biodegradation of the contaminants of concern.

  4. Removal of hexavalent chromium using distillery sludge.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, K; Manonmani, S; Pattabhi, S

    2003-09-01

    Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous and industrial effluent using distillery sludge. Effects of pH, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption of Cr(VI) were studied. The data obeyed Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The Langmuir adsorption capacity was found to be 5.7 mg/g. Freundlich constants K(f) and n were 2.05 [mg/g(L/mg)(n)] and 3.9, respectively. Desorption studies indicated the removal of 82% of the hexavalent chromium. The efficiency of adsorbent towards the removal of chromium was also tested using chromium-plating wastewater.

  5. Group-specific small-subunit rRNA hybridization probes to characterize filamentous foaming in activated sludge systems.

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes, F L; Ritter, W; Raskin, L

    1997-01-01

    Foaming in activated sludge systems is characterized by the formation of a thick, chocolate brown-colored scum that floats on the surface of aeration basins and secondary clarifiers. These viscous foams have been associated with the presence of filamentous mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes. To aid in evaluating the microbial representation in foam, we developed and characterized group-, genus-, and species-specific oligonucleotide probes targeting the small subunit rRNA of the Mycobacterium complex, Gordona spp., and Gordona (Nocardia) amarae, respectively. The use of a universal base analog, 5-nitroindole, in oligonucleotide probe design was evaluated by comparing the characteristics of two different versions of the Mycobacterium complex probe. The temperature of dissociation of each probe was determined. Probe specificity studies with a diverse collection of 67 target and nontarget rRNAs demonstrated the specificity of the probes to the target groups. Whole-cell hybridizations with fluorescein- and rhodamine-labeled probes were performed with pure cultures of various members of the Mycobacterium complex as well as with environmental samples from a full-scale activated sludge plant which experienced foaming. Quantitative membrane hybridizations with activated sludge and anaerobic digester foam showed that 15.0 to 18.3% of the total small-subunit rRNAs could be attributed to members of the Mycobacterium complex, of which a vast majority consisted of Gordona rRNA. Several G. amarae strains made up only a very small percentage of the Gordona strains present. We demonstrated that group-specific rRNA probes are useful tools for the in situ monitoring and identification of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge systems. PMID:9055425

  6. Testing the toxicity of influents to activated sludge plants with the Vibrio fischeri bioassay utilising a sludge matrix.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, C; Christofi, N

    2001-10-01

    To protect the bioceonosis within activated sludge, a method of predicting the toxic effect of influents to the biological treatment stage of waste water treatment plants, based on DIN method 38412 L 34, has been developed. A population of the luminescent marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri was incorporated into a sludge testing matrix derived from a model laboratory and real activated sludge plants. The sludge was challenged with different concentrations of pure toxicants and complex aqueous samples, and light output by V. fischeri monitored. The results were compared to toxicant testing in the absence of sludge (standard test). The modified method was found to be less sensitive for some toxicants tested than the standard DIN and other bioluminescent tests, but considered more realistic as it provides buffering and takes into account sorption which can affect the sensitivity of the test towards some compounds. The method is comparable in terms of ease of use, speed, reproducibility and cost effectiveness to standard V. fischeri luminescence methods.

  7. CFD analysis of sludge accumulation and hydraulic performance of a waste stabilization pond.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Andres; Sanchez, Esteban; Durazno, Galo; Vesvikar, Mehul; Nopens, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    Sludge management in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) is essential for safeguarding the system performance. Sludge accumulation patterns in WSPs are strongly influenced by the pond hydrodynamics. CFD modeling was applied to study the relation between velocity profiles and sludge deposition during 10 years of operation of the Ucubamba WSP in Cuenca (Ecuador). One tracer experiment was performed and three sludge accumulation scenarios based on bathymetric surveys were simulated. A residence time distribution (RTD) analysis illustrated the decrease of residence times due to sludge deposition. Sludge accumulation rates were calculated. The influence of flow pattern on the sludge deposition was studied, enabling better planning of future pond operation and desludging.

  8. Anaerobic co-digestion of grease sludge and sewage sludge: the effect of organic loading and grease sludge content.

    PubMed

    Noutsopoulos, C; Mamais, D; Antoniou, K; Avramides, C; Oikonomopoulos, P; Fountoulakis, I

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of co-digesting grease sludge (GS) originating from domestic wastewater along with sewage sludge (SS) and to assess the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and GS content on process performance. Three lab-scale semi-continuous fed mesophilic anaerobic digesters were operated under various OLRs and SS-GS mixtures. According to the results, addition of GS up to 60% of the total VS load of feed resulted in a 55% increase of biogas yield (700 vs. 452m(3)/tVSadded) for an OLR of 3.5kg VS/m(3)/d. A stable and satisfactory operation of anaerobic co-digestion units can be achieved for a GS-OLR up to 2.4kg VSGS/m(3)/d. For such values biogas yield is linearly proportional to the applied GS-OLR, whereas biogas yield is minimal for GS-OLR higher than this limit and acidification of the anaerobic digestion units is taking place.

  9. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate.

  10. Idaho Cleanup Project CPP-603A basin deactivation waste management 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Croson, D.V.; Davis, R.H.; Cooper, W.B.

    2007-07-01

    The CPP-603A basin facility is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL). CPP-603A operations are part of the Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) that is managed by CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC (CWI). Once the inventoried fuel was removed from the basins, they were no longer needed for fuel storage. However, they were still filled with water to provide shielding from high activity debris and contamination, and had to either be maintained so the basins did not present a threat to public or worker health and safety, or be isolated from the environment. The CPP-603A basins contained an estimated 50,000 kg (110,200 lbs) of sludge. The sludge was composed of desert sand, dust, precipitated corrosion products, and metal particles from past cutting operations. The sediment also contained hazardous constituents and radioactive contamination, including cadmium, lead, and U-235. An Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA), conducted pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), evaluated the risks associated with deactivation of the basins and the alternatives for addressing those risks. The recommended action identified in the Action Memorandum was to perform interim stabilization of the basins. The sludge in the basins was removed and treated in accordance with the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) and disposed at the INL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). A Non-Time Critical Removal Action (NTCRA) was conducted under CERCLA to reduce or eliminate other hazards associated with maintaining the facility. The CERCLA NTCRA included removing a small high-activity debris object (SHADO 1); consolidating and mapping the location of debris objects containing Co-60; removing, treating, and disposing of the basin water; and filling the basins with grout/controlled low strength material (CLSM

  11. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Amanda Billings, A; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-11-10

    Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) is predominantly a combination of H-modified (HM) sludge from Tank 11 that underwent aluminum dissolution in late 2007 to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and aluminum being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Purex sludge transferred from Tank 7. Following aluminum dissolution, the addition of Tank 7 sludge and excess Pu to Tank 51, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB5 qualification. SB5 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of a Pu/Be stream from H Canyon), DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass chemical durability evaluation. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernatant) and concentration (decanting of supernatant) of the Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF CPC simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. This includes a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid is added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and remove mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit is added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters for the CPC processing were based on work with a non radioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and Product Consistency Test (PCT) evaluation of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the initial slurry samples and samples after each phase of CPC processing. This work is controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) , and analyses are guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R

  12. Laboratory-scale study of possible use of residual sludge from glass sand beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, Richard; Weishauptova, Zuzana; Zach, Jaroslav; Kozlovcev, Petr

    2016-04-01

    Beneficiation of quartz sand from sedimentary deposits for glass sands results in significant amounts of under-size fraction, a sludge rich in clay minerals. This sludge is considered as a waste and is returned in mined-out spaces for a simple rehabilitation, which is also the case of one of the largest glass sand production areas in the Czech Republic. The amount of produced waste sludge in the studied area (glass sand works in Provodín area, Bohemian Cretaceous Basin) is about 20 kt per year. In the recent study, we have focused on possible employment of this waste material for three applications: (1) a clay component in a raw material mixture for making of hydraulic lime, (2) a kaolinite absorbent, and (3) a geotechnical material. The sampled sludge was primarily analysed for mineralogical and chemical composition, mechanical and physical properties, the specific surface area, and parameters of pore space. X-ray analysis proved the presence of kaolinite, illite (both WCI and PCI), quartz, and accessory microcline. According to silicate analysis, the material is composed of SiO2 (80.52 wt. %), Al2O3 (11.36 wt. %), and K2O (2.14 wt. %). For its potential use as an artificial admixture for hydraulic lime production, the studied material was mixed with pure limestone in ratio of 10, 15, 20, and/or 25 wt. %. The experimental mixtures were burnt in the temperature range from 850 to 1,200°C. XRD was employed for the detection of newly formed phases showing formation of hydraulic phase such as C2S, C3A, C4AF starting from the 1050°C burning temperature. Peak burning temperature significantly influenced amount of individual phases in the burnt product. Second possible mode of use of the investigated waste material focused on its application as a sorbent. Pore space and specific surface area characteristics (SBET 7.4 sq. m/g) range this material to the group of low grade kaolinite-dominated adsorbents. Thermal treatment (burning of raw waste material at temperatures of

  13. [Adsorption of a dye by sludges and the roles of extracellular polymeric substances].

    PubMed

    Kong, Wang-sheng; Liu, Yan

    2007-12-01

    This paper investigated the adsorption of a dye, acid turquoise blue A, by four kinds of sludges including activated sludge, anaerobic sludge, dried activated sludge, and dried anaerobic sludge, respectively. The roles of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) including the soluble EPS (SEPS) and bound EPS (BEPS) for the biosorption of activated sludge and anaerobic sludge were further studied. Results show that the relation between four kinds of sludge adsorption amount and remained concentration of the dye fitted well both Freundlich model (R2: 0.921-0.995) and Langmuir model (R2: 0.958-0.993), but not quite fitted BET model (R2: 0.07-0.863). The adsorption capability of dried anaerobic sludge ranked the highest, and dried activated sludge was the lowest. According to Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption amount of dried anaerobic, anaerobic, activated, and dried activated sludge was 104 mg/g, 86 mg/g, 65 mg/g, 20 mg/g, respectively. The amount of the dye found in EPS for both activated sludge and anaerobic sludge were over 50%, illustrating that EPS adsorption was predominant in adsorption of the dye by sludge. The amount of adsorbed dye by BEPS was greater than that by SEPS for anaerobic sludge, but for activated sludge the result was quite opposite. The amount of adsorbed dye by unit mass SEPS was much higher than the corresponding values of BEPS for both sludges. The average amount of adsorbed dye by unit mass SEPS was 52 times of the corresponding value of BEPS for activated sludge, and 10 times for anaerobic sludge. The relation between adsorption amount of dye by BEPS from anaerobic sludge and remained concentration of the dye in mixed liquor was best fitted to Langmuir model (R2: 0.9986).

  14. Safety evaluation of the ESP sludge washing baselines runs. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, M.K.

    1993-12-31

    Purpose is to provide the technical basis for evaluation of unreviewed safety question for the Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) Sludge Washing Baseline Runs, which are necessary to resolve technical questions associated with process control (sludge suspension, sludge settling, heat transfer, temperature control). The sludge is currently stored in below-ground tanks and will be prepared for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility as part of the Integrated Waste Removal Program for Savannah River Site.

  15. Effect of microwave pre-treatment of thickened waste activated sludge on biogas production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge and municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Ara, E; Sartaj, M; Kennedy, K

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, with thickened waste activated sludge and primary sludge has the potential to enhance biodegradation of solid waste, increase longevity of existing landfills and lead to more sustainable development by improving waste to energy production. This study reports on mesophilic batch and continuous studies using different concentrations and combinations (ratios) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge (microwave pre-treated and untreated) and primary sludge to assess the potential for improved biodegradability and specific biogas production. Improvements in specific biogas production for batch assays, with concomitant improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile solid removal, were obtained with organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge mixtures at a ratio of 50:25:25 (with and without thickened waste activated sludge microwave pre-treatment). This combination was used for continuous digester studies. At 15 d hydraulic retention times, the co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste:organic fraction of municipal solid waste:primary sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge resulted in a 1.38- and 1.46-fold increase in biogas production and concomitant waste stabilisation when compared with thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge (50:50) and thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge (50:50) digestion at the same hydraulic retention times and volumetric volatile solid loading rate, respectively. The digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste with primary sludge and thickened waste activated sludge provides beneficial effects that could be implemented at municipal wastewater treatment plants that are operating at loading rates of less than design capacity.

  16. Extending the use of dewatered alum sludge as a P-trapping material in effluent purification: Study on two separate water treatment sludges.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y Q; Yang, Y

    2010-08-01

    The generation of alum sludge from drinking water purification process remains inevitable when aluminium sulphate is used as primary coagulant for raw water coagulation. Sustainable managing such the sludge becomes an increasing concern in water industry. Its beneficial reuse is therefore highly desirable and has attracted considerable research efforts. In view of the novel development of alum sludge as a value-added raw material for beneficial reuse for wastewater treatment, this study examined the maximum phosphorus-adsorption capacity of two dewatered alum sludges sampled from two largest water treatment works in Dublin, Ireland. The objective lies in clarifying the change of alum sludge characteristics and its P-adsorption capacity over the location of the alum sludge produced and the raw water being treated. Experiments have demonstrated that the two alum sludges have the similar P adsorption capacity (14.3 mg P/g sludge for Ballymore-Eustace sludge and 13.1 mg P/g sludge for Leixlip sludge at pH 7.0). However, the study supports that alum sludge beneficial reuse as a low cost adsorbent for P immobilization should study its P-adsorption capacity before any decision of large application is made since the raw water quality will affect the sludge characteristics and therefore influence its adsorption ability.

  17. [Amelioration effects of wastewater sludge biochars on red soil acidity and their environmental risk].

    PubMed

    Lu, Zai-Liang; Li, Jiu-Yu; Jiang, Jun; Xu, Ren-Kou

    2012-10-01

    Biochars were prepared from wastewater sludge from two wastewater treatment plants in Nanjing using a pyrolysis method at 300, 500 and 700 degrees C. The properties of the biochars were measured, and their amelioration effects on the acidity of a red soil and environmental risk of application of sludge biochars were examined to evaluate the possibility of agricultural application of wastewater sludge biochars in red soils. Results indicated that incorporation of both sludge and sludge biochar increased soil pH due to the alkalinity of sludge and sludge biochar, and the mineralization of organic N and nitrification of ammonium N from wastewater sludge induced soil pH fluctuated during incubation. The amelioration effects of biochars generated at 500 and 700 degrees C on the soil were significantly greater than that of sludge significantly. Sludge and sludge biochar contain ample base cations of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+ and thus incorporation of sludge and sludge biochar increased the contents of soil exchangeable base cations and decreased soil exchangeable aluminum and H+. Contents of heavy metals in sludge biochars were greater than these in their feedstock sludge, while the contents of Cu, Pb, Ni and As in sludge biochars were lower than the standard values of heavy metals were wastewater sludge for agricultural use in acid soils in China except for Zn and Cd. The contents of available forms of heavy metals in the biochars generated from sludge from Chengdong wastewater treatment plant was lower than these in the corresponding sludge, suggesting that pyrolysis proceed decreased the activity of heavy metals in wastewater sludge. After 90-day incubation of the soil with sludge and sludge biochar, the differences in the contents of soil available heavy metals were not significant between the biochars and their feedstock sludge from Jiangxizhou wastewater treatment plant, and the contents in the treatments with biochars added was lower than these in the treatments with

  18. Pentachlorophenol dechlorination by an acidogenic sludge.

    PubMed

    Mun, Cheok Hong; He, Jianzhong; Ng, Wun Jern

    2008-08-01

    This study reports the feasibility of removing pentachlorophenol (PCP) by an acidogenic process in batch reactors. When the acidogenic sludge was first acclimated with 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and developed 2,4,6-TCP dechlorinating activity, PCP could be ortho-dechlorinated to 3,4,5,-trichlorophenol (3,4,5-TCP) via 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol as the intermediary. However, due to PCP's higher hydrophobicity and its higher expected Gibbs free energy yield, it was adsorbed to the sludge and dechlorinated preferentially to 2,4,6-TCP. This resulted in the inhibition of 2,4,6-TCP dechlorination. PCP removal under acidogenic condition was attributed to both reductive dechlorination and adsorption. At low PCP loads of 0.48micromoles/gMLVSS.d, dechlorination was the dominant removal mechanism (69% of total removal), while at the higher PCP load of 9.3micromoles/gMLVSS.d, adsorption was the main mechanism (82% of total removal). Attempts to induce meta or para position dechlorination of PCP failed when using meta position chlorophenols such as 2,3,6-TCP, 3,4,5-TCP and 3,5-DCP as the initial substrates. Overall, acidogenic biotreatment was an effective process in reducing PCP loads prior to downstream biological treatment.

  19. Microbiology of coke-plant activated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The biological treatment of coke-plant wastewater represents the most economical means of detoxification and contaminant removal, but little is known about the microbial ecology of this system. Research was therefore undertaken to determine the kinds of microorganisms that survive and function in this environment and to examine the growth patterns that influence treatment efficiency. The microbial flora of coke-plant activated sludge is predominated by populations of aerobic gram negative rods. The principle genera identified were Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium and Acinetobacter. The genera Bacillus, Nocardia and Micrococcus were also present at low levels. A single type of rotifer was present along with various protozoans. The ability of microorganisms in coke wastewater to grow on various organic compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy is more restrictive when compared with that of isolates obtained from activated sludge processes treating municipal wastes. The phenol degrading bacteria can be maintained in a continuous culture system with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of as long as 14 days. Under conditions of increasing HRT the average cell size decreased and the number of cells per milliter increased. As the HRT increased cell yields decreased. At long HRT's (7 to 14 days) cell yields remained constant.

  20. Supercritical water pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenchao; Du, Guiyue; Li, Jian; Fang, Yuanhao; Hou, Li'an; Chen, Guanyi; Ma, Degang

    2017-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge (SS) from wastewater treatment plant containing high water content (>85wt.%), lead to the difficulty of co-combustion with MSW or coal due to the high cost of drying. This study explores an alternative method by supercritical water (SCW) pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) in a high pressure reaction vessel. The effects of temperature and moisture content of SS on yield and composition of the products (bio-oil, bio char and non-condensable gas) were studied. A temperature of 385°C and moisture content of 85wt.% were found to be the optimum conditions for the maximum bio-oil production of 37.23wt.%, with a higher heating value of 31.08MJ/kg. In the optimum condition, the yields of aliphatic hydrocarbon and phenols were about 29.23wt.% and 12.51wt.%, respectively. The physical and chemical properties of bio-char were analyzed by using XRF and BET. Results of GC analyses of NCG showed that it has the maximum HHV of 13.39MJ/m(3) at 445°C and moisture content of 85wt.%. The reaction path from SS to bio-oil through SCW pyrolysis was given. Moreover, carbon balance was calculated for the optimal condition, and finding out that 64.27wt.% of the carbon content was transferred from SS to bio-oil. Finally, this work demonstrates that the SCW pyrolysis is a promising disposal method for SS.

  1. Behavior of radioactive materials and safety stock of contaminated sludge.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Ikuo

    2017-01-28

    The radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster in 2011 has flowed into and accumulated in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) via sewer systems; this has had a negative impact on WWTPs in eastern Japan. The behavior of radioactive materials was analyzed at four WWTPs in the Tohoku and Kanto regions to elucidate the mechanism by which radioactive materials are concentrated during the sludge treatment process from July 2011 to March 2013. Furthermore, numerical simulations were conducted to study the safe handling of contaminated sewage sludge stocked temporally in WWTPs. Finally, a dissolution test was conducted by using contaminated incinerated ash and melted slag derived from sewage sludge to better understand the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills. Measurements indicate that a large amount of radioactive material accumulates in aeration tanks and is becoming trapped in the concentrated sludge during the sludge condensation process. The numerical simulation indicates that a worker's exposure around contaminated sludge is less than 1 µSv/h when maintaining an isolation distance of more than 10 m, or when shielding with more than 20-cm-thick concrete. The radioactivity level of the eluate was undetectable in 9 out of 12 samples; in the remaining three samples, the dissolution rates were 0.5-2.7%.

  2. Ion exchange extraction of heavy metals from wastewater sludges.

    PubMed

    Al-Enezi, G; Hamoda, M F; Fawzi, N

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metals are common contaminants of some industrial wastewater. They find their way to municipal wastewaters due to industrial discharges into the sewerage system or through household chemicals. The most common heavy metals found in wastewaters are lead, copper, nickel, cadmium, zinc, mercury, arsenic, and chromium. Such metals are toxic and pose serious threats to the environment and public health. In recent years, the ion exchange process has been increasingly used for the removal of heavy metals or the recovery of precious metals. It is a versatile separation process with the potential for broad applications in the water and wastewater treatment field. This article summarizes the results obtained from a laboratory study on the removal of heavy metals from municipal wastewater sludges obtained from Ardhiya plant in Kuwait. Data on heavy metal content of the wastewater and sludge samples collected from the plant are presented. The results obtained from laboratory experiments using a commercially available ion exchange resin to remove heavy metals from sludge were discussed. A technique was developed to solubilize such heavy metals from the sludge for subsequent treatment by the ion exchange process. The results showed high efficiency of extraction, almost 99.9%, of heavy metals in the concentration range bound in wastewater effluents and sludges. Selective removal of heavy metals from a contaminated wastewater/sludge combines the benefits of being economically prudent and providing the possibility of reuse/recycle of the treated wastewater effluents and sludges.

  3. Sludge reduction using aquatic worms under different aeration regimes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lu; Gao, Ding; Wang, Kan; Liu, Hong-Tao; Wan, Xiao-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Adding aquatic worms to a wastewater treatment system can reduce sludge production through predation. The aeration level is crucial for success. To evaluate aeration impacts on sludge reduction and determine an optimal aeration regime, this study investigated the processes of in-situ sludge reduction, using aquatic worms exposed to different aeration levels. The experiment also compared treatment results between a conventional reactor and an aquatic worm reactor (WR). Results indicated that the recommended concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) was 2.5 mg L(-1). The removal rate of chemical oxygen demand remained steady at 80% when the DO concentration was higher than 2.5 mg L(-1), while the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen continued to moderately increase. Increasing the DO concentration to 5 mg L(-1) did not improve sludge reduction, and consumed more power. With a DO concentration of 2.5 mg L(-1) and a power of 0.19 kWh t(-1) water, the absolute sludge reduction and relative sludge reduction rates in the WR were 60.0% and 45.7%, respectively, and the daily aquatic worm growth rate was 0.150 d(-1) during the 17-d test. Therefore, at the recommended aeration regime, aquatic worms reduced the sludge without increasing the power consumption or deteriorating the effluent.

  4. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously generate electricity. Stable power generation (145 +/- 5 mW/m2, 470 omega) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The maximum power density reached 190 +/- 5 mW/m2. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency was 78.1 +/- 0.2% with initial TCOD of 49.7 g/L. The power generation of SMFC was depended on the sludge concentration, while dilution of the raw sludge resulted in higher power density. The maximum power density was saturated at sludge concentration of 17 g-TCOD/L, where 290 mw/m2 was achieved. When effluents from an anaerobic digester that was fed with raw sludge were used as substrate in the SMFC, a maximum power density of 318 mW/m2, and a final TCOD removal of 71.9 +/- 0.2% were achieved. These results have practical implications for development of an effective system to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously recover energy.

  5. Comparison between ozone and ultrasound disintegration on sludge anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Braguglia, C M; Gianico, A; Mininni, G

    2012-03-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of ultrasound (mechanical) and ozone (chemical) pre-treatment on the performances of excess sludge semi-continuous digestion. Sludge solubilisation has been investigated by varying specific energy input. For each pre-treatment, long anaerobic digestion tests were carried out by two parallel digesters: one reactor, as control unit, was fed with untreated waste activated sludge, and the other one was fed with disintegrated sludge. To evaluate and compare the efficacy of both pre-treatments, the specific energy was maintained approximately the same. The digestion tests were carried out to investigate the feasibility of anaerobic digestion performance (total biogas production, volatile solids removal, sludge dewaterability) and to assess the heat balance. Results obtained from the digestion of sonicated sludge at 4% disintegration degree (≈ 2500 kJ/kg TS) showed that the ultrasound pre-treatment may be effective both in increasing VS destruction (+19%) and cumulative biogas production (+26%). On the contrary, the digestion test with ozonized sludge (ozone dose of 0.05 g O(3)/g TS corresponding to ≈ 2000 kJ/kg TS) did not indicate a significant improvement on the digestion performances. By doubling the ozone dose an improvement in the organics removal and cumulative biogas production was observed. Relevant differences in terms of colloidal charge and filterability were discussed.

  6. Physiological adaptation of growth kinetics in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, M; Takács, I; Tränckner, J

    2015-11-15

    Physiological adaptation as it occurs in bacterial cells at variable environmental conditions influences characteristic properties of growth kinetics significantly. However, physiological adaptation to growth related parameters in activated sludge modelling is not yet recognised. Consequently these parameters are regarded to be constant. To investigate physiological adaptation in activated sludge the endogenous respiration in an aerobic degradation batch experiment and simultaneous to that the maximum possible respiration in an aerobic growth batch experiment was measured. The activated sludge samples were taken from full scale wastewater treatment plants with different sludge retention times (SRTs). It could be shown that the low SRT sludge adapts by growth optimisation (high maximum growth rate and high decay rate) to its particular environment where a high SRT sludge adapts by survival optimization (low maximum growth rate and low decay rate). Thereby, both the maximum specific growth rate and the decay rate vary in the same pattern and are strongly correlated to each other. To describe the physiological state of mixed cultures like activated sludge quantitatively a physiological state factor (PSF) is proposed as the ratio of the maximum specific growth rate and the decay rate. The PSF can be expressed as an exponential function with respect to the SRT.

  7. Digested sewage sludge solidification by converter slag for landfill cover.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eung-Ho; Cho, Jin-Kyu; Yim, Soobin

    2005-04-01

    A new technology for solidification of digested sewage sludge referred to as converter slag solidification (CSS) has been developed using converter slag as the solidifying agent and quick lime as the solidifying aid. The CSS technology was investigated by analyzing the physicochemical properties of solidified sludge and determining its microstructural characteristics. The feasibility of using solidified sludge as a landfill cover material was considered in the context of the economical recycling of waste. Sludge solidified using the CSS technology exhibited geotechnical properties that are appropriate for replacing currently used cover soil. Microscopic analyses using XRD, SEM and EDS revealed that the main hydrated product of solidification was CSH (CaO . SiO2 . nH2O), which may play an important role in the effective setting process. Negligible leaching of heavy metals from the solidified sludge was observed. The solidification process of the hydrated sludge, slag and quicklime eliminated the coliform bacteria. Recycled sewage sludge solidified using CCS technology could be used as an effective landfill cover.

  8. Comparing alkaline and thermal disintegration characteristics for mechanically dewatered sludge.

    PubMed

    Tunçal, Tolga

    2011-10-01

    Thermal drying is one of the advanced technologies ultimately providing an alternative method of sludge disposal. In this study, the drying kinetics of mechanically dewatered sludge (MDS) after alkaline and thermal disintegration have been studied. In addition, the effect of total organic carbon (TOC) on specific resistance to filtration and sludge bound water content were also investigated on freshly collected sludge samples. The combined effect of pH and TOC on the thermal sludge drying rate for MDS was modelled using the two-factorial experimental design method. Statistical assessment of the obtained results proposed that sludge drying potential has increased exponentially for both increasing temperature and lime dosage. Execution of curve fitting algorithms also implied that drying profiles for raw and alkaline-disintegrated sludge were well fitted to the Henderson and Pabis model. The activation energy of MDS decreased from 28.716 to 11.390 kJ mol(-1) after disintegration. Consequently, the unit power requirement for thermal drying decreased remarkably from 706 to 281 W g(-1) H2O.

  9. Treatment of sewage sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Célia R G; Benatti, Cláudia T; Dias Filho, Benedito P

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the performance of a cylindrical anaerobic digester in treating secondary sewage sludge. A series of three independent batch experiments was performed for a total operation time of 60 d. The system of anaerobic digestion showed stability conditions, with no noticeable scum or foaming problems. The chemical oxygen demand reduction reached 29,21, and 45% in sludge and 95,85, and 82% in supernatant for the three experiments, respectively. Total coliform bacteria levels in the digester ranged from 10(4) to 10(5) in influent sludge and from 10(4) to 10(3) in effluent sludge, with an average reduction of 90%. Fecal coliforms of the order of 10(4) were enumerated in influent sludge and those of the order of 10(0) were enumerated in effluent sludge, with an average reduction of 99.9%. The studied system had satisfactory results, showing that both organic matter and indicator bacteria levels substantially decrease when the sludge is submitted to anaerobic digestion.

  10. Co-digestion of pig slaughterhouse waste with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Sebastian; Kubacki, Przemysław

    2015-06-01

    Slaughterhouse wastes (SHW) are potentially very attractive substrates for biogas production. However, mono-digestion of these wastes creates great technological problems associated with the inhibitory effects of ammonia and fatty acids on methanogens as well as with the foaming in the digesters. In the following study, the co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes with sewage sludge (SS) was undertaken. Batch and semi-continuous experiments were performed at 35°C with municipal sewage sludge and pig SHW composed of meat tissue, intestines, bristles and post-flotation sludge. In batch assays, meat tissue and intestinal wastes gave the highest methane productions of 976 and 826 dm(3)/kg VS, respectively, whereas the methane yield from the sludge was only 370 dm(3)/kg VS. The co-digestion of sewage sludge with 50% SHW (weight basis) provided the methane yield exceeding 600 dm(3)/kg VS, which was more than twice as high as the methane production from sewage sludge alone. However, when the loading rate exceeded 4 kg VS/m(3) d, a slight inhibition of methanogenesis was observed, without affecting the digester stability. The experiments showed that the co-digestion of sewage sludge with large amount of slaughterhouse wastes is feasible, and the enhanced methane production does not affect the digester stability.

  11. Hydrothermal liquefaction of sewage sludge under isothermal and fast conditions.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lili; Wang, Shuzhong; Savage, Phillip E

    2017-02-08

    We investigated the effects of water loading, sludge moisture content, recovery solvent, and additives on the product yields and compositions from isothermal (673K, 60min) and fast (773K, 1min) hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of sewage sludge. The water loading (which affects pressure within the reactor) plays a small role in product yields. The sludge moisture content had a larger effect with the highest biocrude yields (26.8wt% from isothermal HTL and 27.5wt% from fast HTL) being produced from sludge that was 85wt% moisture. The HTL biocrude from sludge mainly contains long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbon moieties and aliphatic acids. Dichloromethane recovered more biocrude and energy content (∼50%) than did the other solvents tested. Added K2CO3, Na2CO3, HCOOH, CH3COOH, MoO3-CoO/γ-Al2O3 and Ru/C significantly decrease the biocrude yield when their loadings are 50wt% of the dried sludge. The additives, excepting carbonates, enhance gasification of sludge.

  12. CFD simulation of anaerobic digester with variable sewage sludge rheology.

    PubMed

    Craig, K J; Nieuwoudt, M N; Niemand, L J

    2013-09-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that evaluates mechanical mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester was developed to investigate the influence of sewage sludge rheology on the steady-state digester performance. Mechanical mixing is provided through an impeller located in a draft tube. Use is made of the Multiple Reference Frame model to incorporate the rotating impeller. The non-Newtonian sludge is modeled using the Hershel-Bulkley law because of the yield stress present in the fluid. Water is also used as modeling fluid to illustrate the significant non-Newtonian effects of sewage sludge on mixing patterns. The variation of the sewage sludge rheology as a result of the digestion process is considered to determine its influence on both the required impeller torque and digester mixing patterns. It was found that when modeling the fluid with the Hershel-Bulkley law, the high slope of the sewage stress-strain curve at high shear rates causes significant viscous torque on the impeller surface. Although the overall fluid shear stress property is reduced during digestion, this slope is increased with sludge age, causing an increase in impeller torque for digested sludge due to the high strain rates caused by the pumping impeller. Consideration should be given to using the Bingham law to deal with high strain rates. The overall mixing flow patterns of the digested sludge do however improve slightly.

  13. Alum recovery and wastewater sludge stabilization with sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, B; Martínez, M; Vaca, M

    2007-01-01

    Coagulation-flocculation is used to remove helminth ova from wastewater intended for agricultural reuse. Nevertheless, it has the drawback of producing a large amount of sludge which together with the chemicals used to treat the wastewater increases the operating cost. This can be overcome by recovering and recycling the aluminium contained in the sludge. This paper presents how an acid recovery process was applied to an Advanced Primary Treatment (APT) sludge to partially treat it and to reduce its quantity. This is a method applied several decades ago in water sludge that has not been used in secondary wastewater sludge to recover aluminium and to inactivate microorganisms. By adding sulphuric acid to a 6%TS sludge, more than 70% of the aluminium added during the coagulation flocculation process was recovered when a pH of 2 was maintained during 30 minutes and at 300 rpm of mixing conditions. This way the sludge was reduced by 45% in volume and by 63% by mass, inactivating 5 logs of faecal coliforms and 68% of helminth ova. Due to the lower alum consumption, the operating cost of the APT is reduced by 3.78 US$/1,000 m(3).

  14. Landfarming of municipal sewage sludge at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Tischler, M.L.; Pergler, C.; Wilson, M.; Mabry, D.; Stephenson, M.

    1995-12-01

    The City of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been applying municipal sanitary sludge to 9 sites comprising 90 ha on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) since 1983. Approximately 13,000,000 L are applied annually by spraying sludge (2 to 3% solids) under pressure from a tanker. Under an ongoing monitoring program, both the sludge and the soil in the application areas are analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radioactive parameters on a regular basis. Organic pollutants are analyzed in sludge on a semiannual basis and in the soil application areas on an annual basis. Inorganic parameters are analyzed daily (e.g., pH, total solids) or monthly (e.g., nitrogen, manganese) in sludge and annually in soil in application areas. Radionuclides (Co-60, Cs-137, I-131, Be-7, K-40, Ra-228, U-235, U-238) are scanned daily during application by the sewage treatment plant and analyzed weekly in composite sludge samples and annually in soil. Additionally, data on radioactive body burden for maximally exposed workers who apply the sludge show no detectable exposures. This monitoring program is comprehensive and is one of the few in the United States that analyzes radionuclides. Results from the monitoring program show heavy metals and radionuclides are not accumulating to levels in the soil application areas.

  15. Pretreatment of sludge with microwaves for pathogen destruction and improved anaerobic digestion performance.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung M; Park, Jae K; Teeradej, N; Lee, Y O; Cho, Y K; Park, C H

    2006-01-01

    A new way of generating Class A sludge using microwaves was evaluated through a series of laboratory-scale experiments. Microwaves provide rapid and uniform heating throughout the material. Other benefits of microwave treatment include instant and accurate control and selective and concentrated heating on materials, such as sludge, that have a high dielectric loss factor. Sludge was irradiated with 2450-MHz microwaves, and fecal coliforms were counted. Fecal coliforms were not detected at 65 degrees C for primary sludge and anaerobic digester sludge and at 85 degrees C for waste activated sludge when sludge was irradiated with 2450-MHz microwaves. During the bench-scale anaerobic digester operation, the highest average log reduction of fecal coliforms was achieved by the anaerobic digester fed with microwave-pretreated sludge (> or = 2.66 log removal). The anaerobic digester fed with microwave-irradiated sludge was more efficient in inactivation of fecal coliforms than the other two digesters fed with raw sludge and externally heated sludge, respectively. It took more than three hydraulic retention times for a bench-scale mesophilic anaerobic digester to meet Class A sludge requirements after feeding microwave-irradiated sludge. Class A sludge can be produced consistently with a continuously fed mesophilic anaerobic digester if sludge is pretreated with microwaves to reach 65 degrees C.

  16. Sludge Batch 2 (Marcobath 3) Flowsheet Studies with Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.C.

    2001-03-02

    Sludge-only process simulations of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle were conducted for the two most likely scenarios for Sludge Batch 2 (Macrobatch 3). The two scenarios are a roughly 50:50 blend of Tank 8 and Tank 40 washed sludge and Tank 40 washed sludge by itself. The testing used new simulants of Tank 8 and Tank 40 washed sludge prepared at the University of South Carolina. The washing endpoint was about 0.5 moles sodium per liter supernate. This report summarizes both the simulant preparation and process simulation activities. The rheology work requested in the Task Plan will be documented in a separate report. Two scoping SRAT simulations were conducted for Tank 40 sludge. This was followed by a complete SRAT and SME simulation using Sludge Batch 1B acid stoichiometry (137.5 percent). Four scoping SRAT simulations were conducted for the Tank 8/40 blend. Three complete SRAT and SME simulations using blended sludge were then performed. One was at the recommended acid stoichiometry of 125 percent. The second used identical acid stoichiometry with HM levels of noble metals. The final run was at worst case noble metals and assumed complete transfer of the Formic Acid Feed Tank. Testing was completed without any major incidents. Hydrogen flow rates in excess of the design bases (0.65 lbs./hr for the SRAT and 0.23 lbs./hr for the SME) are marked in bold. Full details on the noble metals concentrations can be found in the body of the report.

  17. Treating both wastewater and excess sludge with an innovative process.

    PubMed

    He, Sheng-bing; Wang, Bao-zhen; Wang, Lin; Jiang, Yi-feng

    2003-11-01

    The innovative process consists of biological unit for wastewater treatment and ozonation unit for excess sludge treatment. An aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) was used to remove organics and nitrogen, and an anaerobic reactor was added to the biological unit for the release of phosphorus contained at aerobic sludge to enhance the removal of phosphorus. For the excess sludge produced in the MBR, which was fed to ozone contact column and reacted with ozone, then the ozonated sludge was returned to the MBR for further biological treatment. Experimental results showed that this process could remove organics, nitrogen and phosphorus efficiently, and the removals for COD, NH3-N, TN and TP were 93.17%, 97.57%, 82.77% and 79.5%, respectively. Batch test indicated that the specific nitrification rate and specific denitrification rate of the MBR were 1.03 mg NH3-N/(gMLSS x h) and 0.56 mg NOx-N/(gMLSS x h), and denitrification seems to be the rate-limiting step. Under the test conditions, the sludge concentration in the MBR was kept at 5000-6000 mg/L, and the wasted sludge was ozonated at an ozone dosage of 0.10 kgO3/kgSS. During the experimental period of two months, no excess sludge was wasted, and a zero withdrawal of excess sludge was implemented. Through economic analysis, it was found that an additional ozonation operating cost for treatment of both wastewater and excess sludge was only 0.045 RMB Yuan (USD 0.0054)/m3 wastewater.

  18. [Quickly enrichment of carbon in wastewater by activated sludge].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Bo; Zhao, Fang; Wen, Xiang-Hua

    2011-10-01

    Pilot tests were carried out to investigate the absorption characteristics of the carbon source in urban wastewater by activated sludge and to analyze the carbon release from the carbon absorbed activated sludge in the settling process. The results indicated that carbon in wastewater could be quickly enriched by activated sludge. The absorption process of indissolvable organic matter could be finished as shortly as less than 10 min, while the absorption process of the dissolved organic matter was relatively slow and should consume up about 30 min. Moreover, carbon release was observed in the settling process of enriched sludge. In the period of 30-100 min, the release amount of total COD (TCOD) was 11.44 mg x g(-1), while in the period of 60-150 min, the release amount of dissolved COD (SCOD) was 6.24 mg x g(-1). Furthermore, based on the results of the bench-scale tests, a pilot-scale plant was built to investigate the absorption of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus by activated sludge and the settleability of enriched sludge. The results indicated that under continuously operation mode, 60% of COD, 75% of TP and 10% of TN in the wastewater could be removed by the absorption of activated sludge, and the enriched sludge with SVI of 34.2 mL x g(-1) presented good settleability. Carbon enrichment by activated sludge could not only reclaim the carbon source in wastewater, but also reduce the loading of organic matter and give low C/N for the following nitrification unit and improving the nitrification efficiency.

  19. Reclamation of coal refuse with a papermill sludge amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Li, R.S.; Daniels, W.L.

    1997-12-31

    Reclamation of coal refuse is difficult due to the harsh growing conditions resulting from the refuse`s unfavorable chemical and physical properties. This research program focused on the utilization potential of a papermill sludge produced by the Mead Paper Company in Kingsport, Tenn., which consisted primarily of a mixture of waste wood fiber, lime, kaolin, and traces of fly ash. A field experiment was initiated in 1992. Loading rates were 0, 112, 224 Mg ha{sup -1} for the papermill sludge and 0, 112, 224, and 336 kg ha{sup -1} for N. Our results suggest that the N-fertilizer additions gave a short-term boost to biomass production, suppressed legume growth, and resulted in a higher yield and thicker vegetation cover in the first year. From the second year on, however, the vegetation on the papermill sludge plots was superior to that on the 0 sludge plots across all N rates, suggesting that papermill sludge did not lead to excessive N-immobilization as expected. By contributing organic matter, acid-neutralization potential, and light color, the papermill sludge significantly improved the refuse pH, increased the available P, increased the water holding capacity, and decreased the refuse temperature during the summer; all of which were beneficial to establishment and maintenance of vegetation. The addition of papermill sludge also improved leachate quality. Thus, a proper combination of N-fertilizer and papermill sludge, for example, 112 kg ha{sup -1} and 112 Mg ha{sup -1} sludge, is recommended in addition to balanced P and K fertilization.

  20. The feasibility of planting on stabilized sludge-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.W.; Poon, C.S.

    1999-05-01

    The feasibility of growing plants on stabilized anaerobically-digested sludge from a local secondary sewage treatment plant (STP) and stabilized chemically-modified sludge from a pilot chemically-assisted primary treatment plant were studied. Apropyron elongatum (tall wheat grass) was used in this research study. A sandy soil obtained locally was amended by the addition of the lime/pulverized fuel ash (PFA) stabilized sewage sludge at the rates of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 g/kg. The total shoot yield of the grass harvested from the amended soil was significantly higher than that of the natural soil. The optimum application rates that achieved the highest yield for digested sludge and chemically-modified sludge-amended soils were 50 g/kg and 25 g/kg, respectively. Applying the stabilized digested sludge to the soil reduced Zn, Cr, and P but increased Cu, Cd, N, and K concentrations in the root tissues of the grass. The Ni, Cr, B, and K concentrations in the shoot were increased with the addition of stabilized digested sludge amended soil. For the chemically-modified sludge samples, the concentrations of the metal conaminants as well as the nutrient levels of the crops (both in the shoot and root tissues) grown in the stabilized amended soil were increased as compared to the control. However, all the trace metal concentrations in the crop were below stipulated toxicity levels. The experimental results indicate that it is feasible to plant on a mixture of natural soil and stabilized sewage sludge provided the dosage applied is carefully controlled.

  1. Diversity of microbial communities correlated to physiochemical parameters in a digestion basin of a zero-discharge mariculture system.

    PubMed

    Cytryn, Eddie; Gelfand, Ilya; Barak, Yoram; van Rijn, Jaap; Minz, Dror

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial community structure and physiochemical parameters were examined in a sedimentation basin of a zero-discharge mariculture system. The system consisted of an intensively stocked fish basin from which water was recirculated through two separate treatment loops. Surface water from the basin was pumped over a trickling filter in one loop while bottom-water was recirculated through a sedimentation basin followed by a fluidized bed reactor in the other. Ammonia oxidation to nitrate in the trickling filter and organic matter digestion together with nitrate reduction in the sedimentation basin and fluidized bed reactor, allowed zero-discharge operation of the system. Relatively high concentrations of oxygen, nitrate, sulphate and organic matter detected simultaneously in the digestion basin suggested the potential for a wide range of microbially-mediated transformation processes. In this study, physiochemical parameters were correlated to bacterial diversity and distribution in horizontal and vertical profiles within this basin in an effort to obtain a basic understanding of the chemical and microbial processes in this system. Chemical activity and microbial diversity, the latter measured by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified 16S rDNA fragments, were higher in the sludge layer than in the overlying aqueous layer of the basin. Chemical parameters in sludge samples close to the basin inlet suggested enhanced microbial activity relative to other sampling areas with evidence of both nitrate and sulphate reduction. Four of the nine DGGE bands identified in this zone were affiliated with the Bacteroidetes phylum. Detected sequences closely related to sequences of organisms involved in the sulphur cycle included Desulfovibrio, Dethiosulfovibrio and apparent sulphur oxidizers from the gamma-proteobacteria. In addition, a number of sequences from the beta and alpha-proteobacteria were identified.

  2. Origin of cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois Basin is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic basins remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  3. Increased biogas production at wastewater treatment plants through co-digestion of sewage sludge with grease trap sludge from a meat processing plant.

    PubMed

    Luostarinen, S; Luste, S; Sillanpää, M

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of co-digesting grease trap sludge from a meat-processing plant and sewage sludge was studied in batch and reactor experiments at 35 degrees C. Grease trap sludge had high methane production potential (918 m(3)/tVS(added)), but methane production started slowly. When mixed with sewage sludge, methane production started immediately and the potential increased with increasing grease trap sludge content. Semi-continuous co-digestion of the two materials was found feasible up to grease trap sludge addition of 46% of feed volatile solids (hydraulic retention time 16d; maximum organic loading rate 3.46 kgVS/m(3)d). Methane production was significantly higher and no effect on the characteristics of the digested material was noticed as compared to digesting sewage sludge alone. At higher grease trap sludge additions (55% and 71% of feed volatile solids), degradation was not complete and methane production either remained the same or decreased.

  4. Method for recovery of energy values of oily refinery sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.J. Jr.; Lafser, F.A. Jr.; Yonely, C.

    1992-01-07

    This patent describes a method for disposal of oil refinery sludges containing hydrocarbons, sediment, and at least about 5 percent water by weight in an operating rotary kiln comprising a heated, rotating cylinder containing in-process mineral matter, the rotary kiln having a firing zone in which fuel is ignited. It comprises analyzing the oily refinery sludge to determine its composition, providing the oily refinery sludge as a dried bulk granular material having an energy content of at least about 4,000 BTU per pound, and charging the dried granular material to the firing zone of the rotary kiln as a bulk material and burning the bulk material therein.

  5. Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes the development of a project involving the application of approximately 265,000 cubic meters of lagooned sewage sludge from a metropolitan area on privately-owned farm land in an adjacent, rural county. The sludge application project was initiated to enable use of the land occupied by the lagoons for expansion of the sewage treatment plant. The procedures developed will be valuable to those proposing to practice land disposal of stabilized sludge as part of the Nation`s resource conservation program.

  6. Gobar gas plant sludge is superior to farm yard manure

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnappa, A.M.; Ranganna, B.; Deshpande, P.B.; Venkatrao, B.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an investigation conducted to compare the efficiency of sludge from biogas plants with farm-yard manure are reported. With regard to nutrient content, the sludge is seen to have a higher content of moisture, nitrogen, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, K/sub 2/O and organic carbon, as well as a higher N/C ratio. Both materials were used to fertilize fields of potato and ragi. The yield for potato fertilized with sludge increased by 6% while that for ragi increased by 17%.

  7. Alum sludge land application and its effect on plant growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, J.B. ); Dillaha, T.A.; Reneau, R.B.; Novak, J.T.; Knocke, W.R. )

    1994-11-01

    These investigators conducted three greenhouse experiments to determine the impact of alum sludge from the Harwood's Mill water treatment plant, newport News, Va., on the growth and chemical composition of fescue grass. Fescue yields decreased with increased sludge addition, a trend that was attributed to reductions in plant-available phosphorus (P) at higher loadings. Supplemental P fertilization corrected this deficiency. Lime addition did not affect yield. The presence of manganese and copper in the sludge increased metal uptake by the plants but did not affect yield.

  8. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-08-05

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  9. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-07-29

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  10. Economics of the hydrolysis of cellulosic sludge to glucose.

    PubMed

    Mora, Sandeep; Banerjee, Sujit

    2013-08-01

    Cellulosic sludge from paper mills making bleached products can be enzymatically converted to glucose. A kinetic model that accounts for product inhibition was used to estimate the cost:benefits of the process. In the proposed scheme, the sludge is enzymatically hydrolyzed in a sequence of CSTRs, the ash separated, and the product glucose concentrated through reverse osmosis. The water recovered is mostly recycled. By far, the most important economic variable is the value of the glucose. However, even if the glucose is assumed to be of no value the avoided cost of sludge disposal approximately offsets the process costs. The approach should generate significant revenue if the glucose is valued at market.

  11. From municipal/industrial wastewater sludge and FOG to fertilizer: A proposal for economic sustainable sludge management.

    PubMed

    Bratina, Božidar; Šorgo, Andrej; Kramberger, Janez; Ajdnik, Urban; Zemljič, Lidija Fras; Ekart, Janez; Šafarič, Riko

    2016-12-01

    After a ban on the depositing of untreated sludge in landfills, the sludge from municipal and industrial water-treatment plants can be regarded as a problem. Waste products of the water treatment process can be a problem or an opportunity - a source for obtaining raw materials. In the European Union, raw sludge and fats, oil and grease (FOG) from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) cannot be deposited in any natural or controlled environment. For this reason, it must be processed (stabilized, dried) to be used later as a fertilizer, building material, or alternative fuel source suitable for co-incineration in high temperature furnaces (power plants or concrete plants). The processes of drying sludge, where heat and electricity are used, are energy consuming and economically unattractive. Beside energy efficiency, the main problem of sludge drying is in its variability of quality as a raw material. In addition to this, sludge can be contaminated by a number of organic and inorganic pollutants and organisms. Due to the presence or absence of pollutants, different end products can be economically interesting. For example, if the dried sludge contains coliform bacteria, viruses, helminths eggs or smaller quantities of heavy metals, it cannot be used as a fertilizer but can still be used as a fuel. The objectives of the current article is to present a batch-processing pilot device of sludge or digestate that allows the following: (1) low pressure and low temperature energy effective drying of from 10 to 40% remaining water content, (2) disinfection of pathogen (micro)organisms, (3) heavy metal reduction, (4) production of products of predetermined quality (e.g. containing different quantities of water; it can be used as a fertilizer, or if the percentage of water in the dry sludge is decreased to 10%, then the dried sludge can be used as a fuel with a calorific value similar to coal). An important feature is also the utilization of low

  12. Batchwise mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of secondary sludge from pulp and paper industry and municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Hagelqvist, Alina

    2013-04-01

    Residues from forest-industry wastewater-treatment systems are treated as waste at many pulp and paper mills. These organic substances have previously been shown to have potential for production of large quantities of biogas. There is concern, however, that the process would require expensive equipment because of the slow degradation of these substances. Pure non-fibrous sludge from forest industry showed lower specific methane production during mesophilic digestion for 19days, 53±26 Nml/g of volatile solids as compared to municipal sewage sludge, 84±24 Nml/g of volatile solids. This paper explores the possibility of using anaerobic co-digestion with municipal sewage sludge to enhance the potential of methane production from secondary sludge from a pulp and paper mill. It was seen in a batch anaerobic-digestion operation of 19 days that the specific methane production remained largely the same for municipal sewage sludge when up to 50% of the volatile solids were replaced with forest-industry secondary sludge. It was also shown that the solid residue from anaerobic digestion of the forest-industry sludge should be of suitable quality to use for improving soil quality on lands that are not used for food production.

  13. Addition of biochar to sewage sludge decreases freely dissolved PAHs content and toxicity of sewage sludge-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Stefaniuk, Magdalena; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-11-01

    Due to an increased content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently found in sewage sludges, it is necessary to find solutions that will reduce the environmental hazard associated with their presence. The aim of this study was to determine changes of total and freely dissolved concentration of PAHs in sewage sludge-biochar-amended soil. Two different sewage sludges and biochars with varying properties were tested. Biochars (BC) were produced from biogas residues at 400 °C or 600 °C and from willow at 600 °C. The freely dissolved PAH concentration was determined by means of passive sampling using polyoxymethylene (POM). Total and freely dissolved PAH concentration was monitored at the beginning of the experiment and after 90 days of aging of the sewage sludge with the biochar and soil. Apart from chemical evaluation, the effect of biochar addition on the toxicity of the tested materials on bacteria - Vibrio fischeri (Microtox(®)), plants - Lepidium sativum (Phytotestkit F, Phytotoxkit F), and Collembola - Folsomia candida (Collembolan test) was evaluated. The addition of biochar to the sewage sludges decreased the content of Cfree PAHs. A reduction from 11 to 43% of sewage sludge toxicity or positive effects on plants expressed by root growth stimulation from 6 to 25% to the control was also found. The range of reduction of Cfree PAHs and toxicity was dependent on the type of biochar. After 90 days of incubation of the biochars with the sewage sludge in the soil, Cfree PAHs and toxicity were found to further decrease compared to the soil with sewage sludge alone. The obtained results show that the addition of biochar to sewage sludges may significantly reduce the risk associated with their environmental use both in terms of PAH content and toxicity of the materials tested.

  14. [Effluent carbon source improvement and sludge reduction by hydrolysis reactor with enhanced sludge utilization].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ya; Wang, Qiang; Song, Ying-Hao; Zhu, Min; Lin, Xiu-Jun

    2013-07-01

    In order to strengthen the sludge hydrolysis and improve effluent carbon source, the structure of currently existing hydrolysis reactor was reformed. The new process combined separation of suspended solids in influent and hydrolysis of settled sludge. Experimental results show that the removal rate of SS was 81.4%, the average SS/BOD5 ratio of effluent was dropped to 0.4, far less than that of the influent ratios; SCOD/COD and COD(0.45-5)/COD ratio of the effluent increased by 35.4% and 17.7%, but the COD(> 100)/COD ratio reduced by 53.2%; BOD5/TN ratio increased from 3.7 to 4.7 and the BOD5/TP ratio from 23.8 to 36.4. The improvement of effluent carbon source was helpful for nitrogen and phosphorus removal in follow-up process. Meanwhile, the hydrolytic rate of sludge was up to 51.9%, realizing the reduction and resource-regeneration.

  15. Composting of anaerobic sludge: an economically feasible element of a sustainable sewage sludge management.

    PubMed

    Cukjati, N; Zupančič, G D; Roš, M; Grilc, V

    2012-09-15

    An investigation into the feasibility of anaerobic sludge composting, as a sustainable treatment of sewage sludge management, was carried out under actual Slovenian environmental conditions. In order to demonstrate successful composting, five pilot plant experiments were performed during the summer and winter conditions. The first three experiments were performed with pile aeration, while experiments 4 and 5 were carried out by pile turning. Anaerobic sludge to bulking agent ratios were set at 1-6.4:1. The composting was successful and thermophilic temperature being achieved in all cases. In winter conditions, the composting process was prolonged; and low ambient temperatures had a significant impact in pile turning experiments. During winter, a temperature drop of 30 °C during turning of the material doubled the necessary time for an adequate composting process. Five scenarios were considered within an economic feasibility study and in the most favourable scenario, where 60% of compost was commercialised and 40% was used as landfill cover. The payback period in this scenario was 2.9 years. The study of compost quality showed that it can be used in variety of civil engineering applications, especially as a landfill cover and for recultivation of degraded areas.

  16. OVERVIEW OF TESTING TO SUPPORT PROCESSING OF SLUDGE BATCH 4 IN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, C

    2006-09-20

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site began processing of its third sludge batch in March 2004. To avoid a feed outage in the facility, the next sludge batch will have to be prepared and ready for transfer to the DWPF by the end of 2006. The next sludge batch, Sludge Batch 4 (SB4), will consist of a significant volume of HM-type sludge. HM-type sludge is very high in aluminum compared to the mostly Purex-type sludges that have been processed to date. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with Liquid Waste Operations to define the sludge preparation plans and to perform testing to support qualification and processing of SB4. Significant challenges have arisen during SB4 preparation and testing to include poor sludge settling behavior and lower than desired projected melt rates. An overview of the testing activities is provided.

  17. Sludge application program at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J C; Lower, M W; Davis, C E

    1985-01-01

    Since 1980 a research program has been conducted at the Savannah River Plant to evaluate the use of domestic sewage sludge to enhance forest productivity. The objectives of the program have been to determine the cost effectiveness and environmental impact of using sewage sludge as a soil conditioner and slow-release fertilizer. The potential impacts of sludge application on nutrient cycling, organic carbon budgets, forest wildlife, and biomass production have been studied. Soil, soil water, groundwater, and stand biomass samples have been analyzed to monitor the availability and movement of nutrients and metals. Remote sensing techniques have been applied to the plots to see if they have large scale application to biomass determinations. Results of the study have been used to develop guidelines for land application of domestic sewage sludge.

  18. ENHANCED BIODEGRADATION OF IOPROMIDE AND TRIMETHOPRIM IN NITRIFYING ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iopromide and trimethoprim are frequently detected pharmaceuticals in effluents of wastewater treatment plants and in surface waters due to their persistence and high usage. Laboratory scale experiments showed that a significantly higher removal rate in nutrifying activated sludg...

  19. STABILIZATION AND TESTING OF MERCURY CONTAINING WASTES: BORDEN SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report details the stability assessment of a mercury containing sulfide treatment sludge. Information contained in this report will consist of background data submitted by the geneerator, landfill data supplied by EPA and characterization and leaching studies conducted by UC...

  20. Gall bladder sludge and stones in multitransfused Egyptian thalassaemic patients.

    PubMed

    el-Nawawy, A; Kassem, A S; Eissa, M; Abdel-Fattah, M; Safwat, M

    2001-01-01

    One hundred Egyptian beta-thalassaemic patients on a long-term transfusion/chelation programme were evaluated for the prevalence of gall bladder sludge and stones and the associated risk factors. Fifty healthy individuals served as controls. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed that 14% of the thalassaemic patients had gall bladder sludge or stones (6% stones and 8% sludge). The thalassaemic patients with this complication were older, had a higher prevalence of gall bladder symptoms, higher levels of pretransfusion haemoglobin, larger amounts of transfused red cells, and more were regularly transfused. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence that gall bladder symptoms and the amount of transfused red cells were the only significant predictors of the occurrence of gall bladder sludge or stones.

  1. Method for preventing the formation of sludge in crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Lane, J.L. Jr.

    1991-10-22

    This patent describes a method of increasing the permeability of a subterranean calcatreous formation containing a sludging crude oil while preventing the precipittion in the formation of slude, ferric compounds and calcium compounds.

  2. Evaluation of Control Parameters for the Activated Sludge Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stall, T. Ray; Sherrard, Josephy H.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the use of the parameters currently being used to design and operate the activated sludge process is presented. The advantages and disadvantages for the use of each parameter are discussed. (MR)

  3. Documentation of a decision framework to support enhanced sludge washing

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    This document describes a proposed decision model that, if developed to its fullest, can provide a wide range of analysis options and insights to pretreatment/sludge washing alternatives. A recent decision has been made to terminate this work

  4. Somatic coliphages as surrogates for enteroviruses in sludge hygienization treatments.

    PubMed

    Martín-Díaz, Julia; Casas-Mangas, Raquel; García-Aljaro, Cristina; Blanch, Anicet R; Lucena, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Conventional bacterial indicators present serious drawbacks giving information about viral pathogens persistence during sludge hygienization treatments. This calls for the search of alternative viral indicators. Somatic coliphages' (SOMCPH) ability for acting as surrogates for enteroviruses was assessed in 47 sludge samples subjected to novel treatment processes. SOMCPH, infectious enteroviruses and genome copies of enteroviruses were monitored. Only one of these groups, the bacteriophages, was present in the sludge at concentrations that allowed the evaluation of treatment's performance. An indicator/pathogen relationship of 4 log10 (PFU/g dw) was found between SOMCPH and infective enteroviruses and their detection accuracy was assessed. The obtained results and the existence of rapid and standardized methods encourage the inclusion of SOMCPH quantification in future sludge directives. In addition, an existing real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for enteroviruses was adapted and applied.

  5. New technology for recyclingmaterials from oily cold rollingmill sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Shen-gen; Tian, Jian-jun; Pan, De-an; Meng, Ling; Liu, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge is one of metallurgical industry solid wastes. The recycle of these wastes can not only protect the environment but also permit their reutilization. In this research, a new process of "hydrometallurgical treatment + hydrothermal synthesis" was investigated for the combined recovery of iron and organic materials from oily CRM sludge. Hydrometallurgical treatment, mainly including acid leaching, centrifugal separation, neutralization reaction, oxidizing, and preparation of hydrothermal reaction precursor, was first utilized for processing the sludge. Then, micaceous iron oxide (MIO) pigment powders were prepared through hydrothermal reaction of the obtained precursor in alkaline media. The separated organic materials can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock. The quality of the prepared MIO pigments is in accordance with the standards of MIO pigments for paints (ISO 10601-2007). This clean, effective, and economical technology offers a new way to recycle oily CRM sludge.

  6. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Celary, Piotr Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The possibility of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge was investigated. • Glass cullet was substituted with different wastes of mineral character. • Component ratio in the processed mixtures was optimized. • Environmental safety of the acquired vitrificates was verified. • An alternative management approach of usually landfilled waste was presented. - Abstract: Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with

  7. SLUDGE BATCH VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) in the summer of 2010. In support of processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 to process SB6. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB6 available at the time from the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of SB6, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB6. The durability models were assessed over the expected Frit 418-SB6 composition range. Seventeen glasses were selected for the variability study based on the sludge projections used in the frit recommendation. Five of the glasses are based on the centroid of the compositional region, spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 32 to 40%. The remaining twelve glasses are extreme vertices (EVs) of the sludge region of interest for SB6 combined with Frit 418 and are all at 36% WL. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). After initiating the SB6 variability study, the measured composition of the SB6 Tank 51 qualification glass produced at the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility indicated that thorium was present in the glass at an appreciable concentration (1.03 wt%), which made it a reportable element for SB6. This concentration of ThO{sub 2} resulted in a second phase of experimental studies. Five glasses were formulated that were based on the centroid of the new sludge compositional region combined with Frit 418, spanning a WL range of 32 to 40%. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis and the PCT. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses (with and without thorium) were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass

  8. [Biodiversity and Function Analyses of BIOLAK Activated Sludge Metagenome].

    PubMed

    Tian, Mei; Liu, Han-hu; Shen, Xin; Zhao, Fang-qing; Chen, Shuai; Yao, Yong-jia

    2015-05-01

    The BIOLAK is a multi-stage activated sludge process, which has been successfully promoted worldwide. However, the biological community and function of the BIOLAK activated sludge ( the core component in the process) have not been reported so far. In this study, taking Lianyungang Dapu Industrial Zone WWTP as an example, a large-scale metagenomic data (428 588 high-quality DNA sequences) of the BIOLAK activated sludge were obtained by means of a new generation of high-throughput sequencing technology. Amazing biodiversity was revealed in the BIOLAK activated sludge, which included 47 phyla, 872 genera and 1351 species. There were 33 phyla identified in the Bacteria domain (289 933 sequences). Proteohacteria was the most abundant phylum (62.54%), followed by Bacteroidetes (11.29%), Nitrospirae ( 5. 65%) and Planctomycetes (4.79%), suggesting that these groups played a key role in the BIOLAK wastewater treatment system. Among the 748 bacterial genera, Nitrospira (5.60%) was the most prevalent genus, which was a key group in the nitrogen cycle. Followed by Gemmatimonas (2.45%), which was an important genus in the biological phosphorus removal process. In Archaea domain (1019 sequences), three phyla and 39 genera were detected. In Eukaryota domain (1055 sequences), 60 genera and 10 phyla were identified, among which Ciliophora was the largest phylum (257 sequences). Meanwhile, 448 viral sequences were detected in the BIOLAK sludge metagenome, which were dominated by bacteriophages. The proportions of nitrogen, aromatic compounds and phosphorus metabolism in the BIOLAK sludge were 2.50%, 2.28% and 1.56%, respectively, which were higher than those in the sludge of United States and Australia. Among four processes of nitrogen metabolism, denitrification-related genes were most abundant (80.81%), followed by ammonification (12.78%), nitrification,(4.38%) and nitrogen fixation (2.04%). In conclusion, the BIOLAK activated sludge had amazing biodiversity, meanwhile

  9. Long-term effects of sludge application to land

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, W.S. ); Knocke, W.R.; Novak, J.T.; Dove, D. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term environmental effects of applying alum sludge to land. Investigations at the original field site included soil analysis, soil water monitoring, groundwater monitoring, and analysis of tissues from pine needles. No long-term (30 months) effects were observed, and the authors conclude that alum coagulant sludges can be applied to forest lands at loading rates of at least 1.5 to 2.5% by dry weight without adverse effect.

  10. Sludge Generation from Ferrous/Sulfide Chromium Treatment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    sodium bisulfite , sulfur dioxide, and sodium sulfide. While all these chemicals produce a satisfactory effluent, the quantity of sludge produced by the...34Treatment of Toxic Metal Wastewaters by Alkaline Ferrous Sulfate and Sodium Sulfied for Chromium Reduction, Precipitation and Coagulation," Pro... sodium sulfide and ferrous chloride (9:1 ratio) at pH 8.0 rapidly reduced hexavalent chromium and produced approximately one-fourth the sludge (on a

  11. Bioleaching of heavy metals from anaerobically digested sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Ashish; Dastidar, M G; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2008-03-01

    The effects of sulfur concentration, initial pH of the sludge and sludge solid content on metal bioleaching were examined using anaerobically digested sewage sludge procured from a typical sewage treatment plant in Delhi, the capital city of India. Experiments on effect of sulfur concentration were carried out using 0-4 g L(-1) of elemental sulfur to optimize the concentration of elemental sulfur for efficient bioleaching. For the type of sludge (20 g L(-1) solid content) used in the present study, 2 g L(-1) of elemental sulfur was found sufficient in metal bioleaching in the following order: Zn 86%, Cu 71.5%, Mn 70%, Ni 58.3% and Cr 43.8%. Changes in pH, sulfate concentration and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) as a function of time were experimentally monitored. A rapid change in the above parameters took place in 4-6 days followed by a slow change until the 10th day. The change in pH with time was observed to vary at different initial pH values (pH 7 to pH 3) of the sludge; however, there was not much difference in the final pH achieved and final metal solubilization which ranged from: Cu 83.6-94.2%, Ni 27.7-29.8%, Zn 89-94.8%, Mn 67.5-79% and Cr 34.1-44.1% The results of the present studies strongly indicate that using 2 g L(-1) elemental sulfur, indigenous sulfur oxidizing microorganisms can bring down pH to a value needed for significant metal solubilization. Also, bioleaching can be carried out successfully over a wide range of initial pH values of the sludge. Further, at higher sludge solid concentration than 20 g L(-1), lower metal solubilization was achieved due to the buffering capacity of the sludge.

  12. Aerobic Heterotrophic Bacterial Populations of Sewage and Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Prakasam, T. B. S.; Dondero, N. C.

    1970-01-01

    Two procedures, the confidence interval method and Mountford's index, were tested in analyses of the microbial populations of 11 laboratory activated sludges acclimated to aromatic compounds. The two methods gave somewhat different results but indicated that the populations were quite dissimilar. The activity of seven of the sludges correlated well with the population structure. Some considerations in analysis of microbial population structure are discussed. PMID:5418947

  13. Monitoring of biopile composting of oily sludge.

    PubMed

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Nammari, Diauddin

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes a bioreactor set-up used to simulate degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a static biopile. The large-scale test was performed in a 28 m(3) custom-designed reactor. Oily sludge (40% by weight, having 7% dry matter [DM], and hydrocarbons C(10)-C(40) 160,000 mg kg(-1) DM) was mixed with organic-rich amendments - mature oil-compost (40%) and garden waste compost (20%). Within the reactor, the temperature and soil gases were monitored continuously during 370 days via 24 measurement points. Also, moisture content was continuously recorded and airflow through compost mix occasionally measured. Three-dimensional ordinary kriging spatial models were created to describe the dynamic variations of temperature, air distribution, and hydrocarbon concentration. There were large temperature differences in horizontal and vertical sections during initial months of composting only. Water content of the mixture was uneven by layers, referring on relocation of moisture due to aeration and condensation. The air distribution through the whole reactor varied largely despite of continuous aeration, while the concentration of O(2) was never reduced less than 1-2% on average. The results showed that composting of sludge using force-aerated static biopile technology was justified during the first 3-4 months, after which the masses could be re-mixed and heaped for further maturation in low-tech compost windrows. After 370 days of treatment, the content of hydrocarbons (C( 10)-C(40)) in the compost mixture was reduced by 68.7%.

  14. Chemical inhibition of nitrification in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Kelly, R T; Henriques, I D S; Love, N G

    2004-03-20

    Conventional aerobic nitrification was adversely affected by single pulse inputs of six different classes of industrially relevant chemical toxins: an electrophilic solvent (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, CDNB), a heavy metal (cadmium), a hydrophobic chemical (1-octanol), an uncoupling agent (2,4-dinitrophenol, DNP), alkaline pH, and cyanide in its weak metal complexed form. The concentrations of each chemical source that caused 1 5, 25, and 50% respiratory inhibition of a nitrifying mixed liquor during a short-term assay were used to shock sequencing batch reactors containing nitrifying conventional activated sludge. The reactors were monitored for recovery over a period of 30 days or less. All shock conditions inhibited nitrification, but to different degrees. The nitrate generation rate (NGR) of the shocked reactors recovered overtime to control reactor levels and showed that it was a more sensitive indicator of nitrification inhibition than both initial respirometric tests conducted on unexposed biomass and effluent nitrogen species analyses. CDNB had the most severe impact on nitrification, followed by alkaline pH 11, cadmium, cyanide, octanol, and DNP. Based on effluent data, cadmium and octanol primarily inhibited ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) while CDNB, pH 11,and cyanide inhibited both AOB and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). DNP initially inhibited nitrification but quickly increased the NGR relative to the control and stimulated nitrification after several days in a manner reflective of oxidative uncoupling. The shocked mixed liquor showed trends toward recovery from inhibition for all chemicals tested, but in some cases this reversion was slow. These results contribute to our broader effort to identify relationships between chemical sources and the process effects they induce in activated sludge treatment systems.

  15. Co-conditioning of the anaerobic digested sludge of a municipal wastewater treatment plant with alum sludge: benefit of phosphorus reduction in reject water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Zhao, Y Q; Babatunde, A O; Kearney, P

    2007-12-01

    In this study, alum sludge was introduced to co-conditioning and dewatering with an anaerobic digested sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, to examine the role of the alum sludge in improving the dewaterbility of the mixed sludge and also in immobilizing phosphorus in the reject water. Experiments have demonstrated that the optimal mix ratio for the two sludges is 2:1 (anaerobic digested sludge:alum sludge: volume basis), and this can bring approximately 99% phosphorus reduction in the reject water through the adsorption of phosphorus by alum in the sludge. The phosphorus loading in wastewater treatment plants is itself derived from the recycling of reject water during the wastewater treatment process. Consequently, this co-conditioning and dewatering strategy can achieve a significant reduction in phosphorus loading in wastewater treatment plants. In addition, the use of the alum sludge has been shown to beneficially enhance the dewaterability of the resultant mixed sludge, by decreasing both the specific resistance to filtration and the capillary suction time. This is attributed to the alum sludge acting in charge neutralization and/or as adsorbent for phosphate in the aqueous phase of the sludge. Experiments have also demonstrated that the optimal polymer (Superfloc C2260, Cytec, Botlek, Netherlands) dose for the anaerobic digested sludge was 120 mg/L, while the optimal dose for the mixed sludge (mix ratio 2:1) was 15 mg/L, highlighting a huge savings in polymer addition. Therefore, from the technical perspective, the co-conditioning and dewatering strategy can be viewed as a "win-win" situation. However, for its full-scale application, integrated cost-effective analysis of process capabilities, sludge transport, increased cake disposal, additional administration, polymer saving, and so on, should be factored in.

  16. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, D.; Norville, C.

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  17. Improved sustainability of feedstock production with sludge and interacting mycorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Seleiman, Mahmoud F; Santanen, Arja; Kleemola, Jouko; Stoddard, Frederick L; Mäkelä, Pirjo S A

    2013-05-01

    Recycling nutrients saves energy and improves agricultural sustainability. Sewage sludge contains 2.6% P and 3.1% N, so the availability of these nutrients was investigated using four crops grown in either soil or sand. Further attention was paid to the role of mycorrhiza in improvement of nutrient availability. The content of heavy metals and metalloids in the feedstock was analyzed. Sewage sludge application resulted in greater biomass accumulation in ryegrass than comparable single applications of either synthetic fertilizer or digested sludge. Sewage sludge application resulted in more numerous mycorrhizal spores in soil and increased root colonization in comparison to synthetic fertilizer. All plants studied had mycorrhizal colonized roots, with the highest colonization rate in maize, followed by hemp. Sewage sludge application resulted in the highest P uptake in all soil-grown plants. In conclusion, sewage sludge application increased feedstock yield, provided beneficial use for organic wastes, and contributed to the sustainability of bioenergy feedstock production systems. It also improves the soil conditions and plant nutrition through colonization by mycorrhizal fungi as well as reducing leaching and need of synthetic fertilizers.

  18. Galvanic sludge metals recovery by pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Gustavo; Bernardes, Andréa Moura

    2006-04-17

    This paper reports a study, on laboratory scale, of sulphating roasting to perform a treatment for a selective recovery of valuable metals from galvanic sludge. The target metals were copper, zinc and nickel and the sulphating agent used was pyrite, from coal wastes. The particularity of this treatment is the use of two hazardous wastes as raw material. They are generated in large quantities at coal extraction sites (coal wastes) and at plating shops (galvanic sludge). The wastes were characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), particle size distribution and water contents. The chemical characterization showed sludges with high copper concentration, with more than 14% (dry base). In the roasting step, the galvanic sludge was mixed with pyritic waste and the parameters evaluated were galvanic sludge/pyrite ratio, roasting temperature and roasting time. After roasting, the product of reaction was leached with water in room temperature for 15 min. Considering that other studies have already demonstrated that the pyrometallurgical step determines the process efficiency, this paper only reports the influence of pyrometallurgical parameters. Hydrometallurgical processes will be better evaluated in further studies. The conditions that best reflect a compromise between the valuable metal recover and the economical viability of the process were achieved for 1:0.4 galvanic sludge/pyrite ratio, 90 min of roasting time and 550 degrees C of roasting temperature. These conditions lead to a recovery of 60% zinc, 43% nickel and 50% copper.

  19. Water Utility Lime Sludge Reuse – An Environmental Sorbent ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lime sludge can be used as an environmental sorbent to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) and acid gases, by the ultra-fine CaCO3 particles, and to sequester mercury and other heavy metals, by the Natural Organic Matter and residual activated carbon. The laboratory experimental set up included a simulated flue gas preparation unit, a lab-scale wet scrubber, and a mercury analyzer system. The influent mercury concentration was based on a range from 22 surveyed power plants. The reactivity of the lime sludge sample for acid neutralization was determined using a method similar to method ASTM C1318-95. Similar experiments were conducted using reagent calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate to obtain baseline data for comparing with the lime sludge test results. The project also evaluated the techno-economic feasibility and sustainable benefits of reusing lime softening sludge. If implemented on a large scale, this transformative approach for recycling waste materials from water treatment utilities at power generation utilities for environmental cleanup can save both water and power utilities millions of dollars. Huge amounts of lime sludge waste, generated from hundreds of water treatment utilities across the U.S., is currently disposed in landfills. This project evaluated a sustainable and economically-attractive approach to the use of lime sludge waste as a valuable resource for power generation utilities.

  20. Impact of sewage sludge applications on the biogeochemistry of soils.

    PubMed

    Devaney, D; Godley, A R; Hodson, M E; Purdy, K; Yamulki, S

    2008-01-01

    This report describes an investigation into the bioavailability and fate of trace metals and their subsequent impact on important soil microbiological functions such as nitrification, denitrification and methane oxidation in low and high Cu containing soils in the presence and absence of residual organic matter from sewage sludge additions made 10 years earlier. The soils being studied are part of long term sewage sludge trials and include a low Cu soil (13.3 mg Cu/kg soil, 4.18 LOI %), left un-amended to serve as a control soil, soil amended with a high Cu sewage sludge (278.3 mg Cu/kg soil, 6.52 LOI %) and soil amended with a low Cu sewage sludge (46.3 mg Cu/kg soil, 6.18 LOI %). Soil was also amended with inorganic metal salts (273.4 mg Cu/kg soil, 4.52 LOI %) to further investigate the impact of Cu in the absence of additional organic matter contained in applied sewage sludge. Data from the first two years of a project are presented which has included field-based studies at long term sewage sludge trials based in Watlington, Oxford, UK and laboratory based studies at the Institute of Grassland & Environmental Research, North Wyke, Devon, UK.

  1. Sludge pre-treatment with pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Kopplow, O; Barjenbruch, M; Heinz, V

    2004-01-01

    The anaerobic stabilization process depends - among other things - on the bio-availability of organic carbon. Through pre-treatment of the sludge which leads to the destruction of micro-organisms and to the setting-free of cell content substances (disintegration), the carbon can be microbially converted better and faster. Moreover, effects on the digestion are likely. However, only little experience is available in sludge treatment with pulsed electric fields. Laboratory-scale digestion tests have been run to analyse the influence of pulsed electric fields on the properties of sludge, anaerobic degradation, sludge water reload and foaming of digesters. The results will be compared with those of other disintegration methods (high pressure homogeniser, thermal treatment). The effect of pre-treatment on the sludge is shown by the COD release. Degrees of disintegration have been achieved up to 20%. The specific energy input was high. The energy consumption has been decreased by initial improvements (pre-heating to 55 degrees C). The filament bacteria were partially destroyed. The foam reduction in the digesters was marginal. The anaerobic degradation performance has been improved in every case. The degradation rate of organic matter increased about 9%. Due to the increase of degradation, there is a higher reload of the sludge-water with COD and nitrogen compounds.

  2. Starvation Improves Survival of Bacteria Introduced into Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Miyashita, Mariko; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2000-01-01

    A phenol-degrading bacterium, Ralstonia eutropha E2, was grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium or in an inorganic medium (called MP) supplemented with phenol and harvested at the late-exponential-growth phase. Phenol-acclimated activated sludge was inoculated with the E2 cells immediately after harvest or after starvation in MP for 2 or 7 days. The densities of the E2 populations in the activated sludge were then monitored by quantitative PCR. The E2 cells grown on phenol and starved for 2 days (P-2 cells) survived in the activated sludge better than those treated differently: the population density of the P-2 cells 7 days after their inoculation was 50 to 100 times higher than the population density of E2 cells without starvation or that with 7-day starvation. LB medium-grown cells either starved or nonstarved were rapidly eliminated from the sludge. The P-2 cells showed a high cell surface hydrophobicity and retained metabolic activities. Cells otherwise prepared did not have one of these two features. From these observations, it is assumed that hydrophobic cell surface and metabolic activities higher than certain levels were required for the inoculated bacteria to survive in the activated sludge. Reverse transcriptase PCR analyses showed that the P-2 cells initiated the expression of phenol hydroxylase within 1 day of their inoculation into the sludge. These results suggest the utility of a short starvation treatment for improving the efficacy of bioaugumentation. PMID:10966407

  3. ESBL-producing E. coli in Austrian sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Reinthaler, Franz Ferdinand; Feierl, Gebhard; Galler, Herbert; Haas, Doris; Leitner, Eva; Mascher, Franz; Melkes, Angelika; Posch, Josefa; Winter, Ingrid; Zarfel, Gernot; Marth, Egon

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of contamination of sewage sludge with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli strains and the effectiveness of different sewage sludge treatment methods. Monthly sewage sludge samples were collected between January and September 2009 in 5 different sewage treatment plants and tested for the presence of ESBL E. coli. In addition, the number of colony forming units (CFU) of E. coli and coliform bacteria before and after the different sludge treatment methods (aerobic/anaerobic digestion, lime stabilization, and thermal treatment) was investigated. Of the 72 sewage sludge samples investigated, ESBL-positive E. coli were found in 44 (61.1%) sewage sludge samples. The classification of beta-lactamase groups was carried out in 15 strains resulting in the detection of 2 different groups (CTX-M and TEM) of bla genes. All 15 of them had a CTX-M gene and 4 of these strains furthermore carried a TEM gene. With regard to the CFU of E. coli and coliform bacteria, thermal treatment and lime stabilization following dehydration sufficiently reduced pathogen concentrations. The plants using merely stabilization and dehydration showed an increase of E. coli and coliform bacteria and thus also an increase in ESBL-producing E. coli.

  4. Co-combustion of sludge with coal or wood

    SciTech Connect

    Leckner, B.; Aamand, L.-E.

    2004-07-01

    There are several options for co-combustion of biomass or waste with coal. In all cases the fuel properties are decisive for the success of the arrangement: contents of volatile matter and of potential emission precursors, such as sulphur, nitrogen, chlorine, and heavy metals. The content of alkali in the mineral substance of the fuel is important because of the danger of fouling and corrosion. Research activities at Chalmers University of Technology include several aspects of the related problems areas. An example is given concerning emissions from co-combustion in circulating fluidized beds with coal or wood as base fuels, and with sewage sludge as additional fuel. Two aspects of the properties of sludge are studied: emissions of nitrogen and sulphur oxides as well as of chlorine, because the contents of the precursors to these emissions are high. The possibility of utilizing the phosphorus in sludge as a fertilizer is also discussed. The results show that emissions can be kept below existing emission limits if the fraction of sludge is sufficiently small but the concentration of trace elements in the sludge ash prevents the sludge from being used as a fertilizer. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Prediction of the dewatering of selected inorganic sludges.

    PubMed

    Harbour, P J; Aziz, A A; Scales, P J; Dixon, D R

    2001-01-01

    There are a number of laboratory techniques traditionally used in the characterisation of sludges for the prediction of the efficient operation of dewatering processes such as centrifugation and filtration. In industry, capillary suction time and specific resistance to filtration measurements are common. Whilst useful in predicting trends, they do not assist in the design and optimisation of devices from first principles. Recent work in our laboratories has developed a technique for the fast measurement of the permeability and compressibility of sludge. This information, when coupled with first-principle models is useful for the prediction of the performance of solid-liquid separation devices. The work has shown that a single volume fraction dependent parameter, namely the solids diffusivity, calculated from permeability and compressibility, is able to fully characterise the dewaterability of sludge. This allows different sludges to be compared in an unequivocal fashion. Data will be presented for a range of sludges from different sources showing vastly different dewatering properties. The dewaterability of the different sludges is easily compared and the true role of flocculants in dewatering is highlighted.

  6. Heavy metals content of municipal wastewater and sludges in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al Enezi, G; Hamoda, M F; Fawzi, N

    2004-01-01

    Municipal wastewater may contain heavy metals, which are hazardous to the environment and humans. With stringent regulations concerning water reuse and sludge utilization in agriculture, there is a great need to determine levels of heavy metals in liquid wastes, sludges and agricultural crops. The state of Kuwait has programs to utilize waste sludge produced at wastewater treatment plants as soil conditioner and fertilizer for greenery and agricultural development projects and to reuse treated wastewater effluents in irrigation. The common metals found in Kuwait's raw wastewater and sludge are Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The effects of accumulation of heavy metals in soil are long lasting and even permanent. In this study, the variations in the concentration levels of heavy metals were measured in wastewater and sludge produced at Ardiya municipal wastewater treatment plant in Kuwait. A relationship was observed between the concentrations of heavy metals in treated wastewater and sludge used for agriculture and the level of accumulated heavy metals found in residual tissues of some crops.

  7. Biomanagement of petrochemical sludge using an exotic earthworm Eudrilus eugineae.

    PubMed

    Banu, J Rajesh; Esakkiraj, S; Nagendran, R; Logakanthi, S

    2005-01-01

    Petrochemical industry have severe problem in disposing effluent and semisolid sludge despite repeated recycling. It requires further treatment prior to disposal of sludge. In recent years biological treatment methods received much attention and considered as an efficient low-cost treatment. One such method is vermiculture treatment The end product of vermicompost is rich in essential micro and macronutrients along with microorganisms in a very simple form. Adding cast, not only improves the soil structure and fertility but also leads to improvement in overall plant growth and thus increase their yield. The present study was carried out to dispose the petrochemical sludge biologically using an exotic earthworm Eudrilus eugineae. The petrochemical sludge at various concentrations 25, 50 and 75% were subjected to vermicomposting treatment for a period of 60 days. During the period of study, data were collected on life form of earthworm and chemical analysis of the sludge before and after treatment. The microbial analysis was carried out fortnightly. The results indicate that 25 and 50% concentration of sludge was ideal for the vermicomposting, whereas the higher concentration inhibits the vermicomposting.

  8. Characterization of Settler Tank and KW Container Sludge Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Carolyn A.; Luna, Maria; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-05-12

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has specified base formulations for non-radioactive sludge simulants for use in the development and testing of equipment for sludge sampling, retrieval, transport, and processing. In general, the simulant formulations are based on the average or design-basis physical and chemical properties obtained by characterizing sludge samples. The simulants include surrogates for uranium metal, uranium oxides (agglomerates and fine particulate), and the predominant chemical phases (iron and aluminum hydroxides, sand). Specific surrogate components were selected to match the nominal particle-size distribution and particle-density data obtained from sludge sample analysis. Under contract to CHPRC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has performed physical and rheological characterization of simulants, and the results are reported here. Two base simulant types (dry) were prepared by STP staff at the Maintenance and Storage Facility and received by PNNL on February 12, 2009: Settler Tank Simulant and KW Container Sludge Simulant. The objectives of this simulant characterization effort were to provide baseline characterization data on simulants being used by STP for process development and equipment testing and provide a high-level comparison of the simulant characteristics to the targets used to formulate the simulants.

  9. Technical, economic and environmental assessment of sludge treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Uggetti, Enrica; Ferrer, Ivet; Molist, Jordi; García, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Sludge treatment wetlands (STW) emerge as a promising sustainable technology with low energy requirements and operational costs. In this study, technical, economic and environmental aspects of STW are investigated and compared with other alternatives for sludge management in small communities (<2000 population equivalent). The performance of full-scale STW was characterised during 2 years. Sludge dewatering increased total solids (TS) concentration by 25%, while sludge biodegradation lead to volatile solids around 45% TS and DRI(24h) between 1.1 and 1.4 gO(2)/kgTS h, suggesting a partial stabilisation of biosolids. In the economic and environmental assessment, four scenarios were considered for comparison: 1) STW with direct land application of biosolids, 2) STW with compost post-treatment, 3) centrifuge with compost post-treatment and 4) sludge transport to an intensive wastewater treatment plant. According to the results, STW with direct land application is the most cost-effective scenario, which is also characterised by the lowest environmental impact. The life cycle assessment highlights that global warming is a significant impact category in all scenarios, which is attributed to fossil fuel and electricity consumption; while greenhouse gas emissions from STW are insignificant. As a conclusion, STW are the most appropriate alternative for decentralised sludge management in small communities.

  10. Particleboard manufacturing: an innovative way to recycle paper sludge.

    PubMed

    Taramian, Asghar; Doosthoseini, Kazem; Mirshokraii, Sayyed Ahmad; Faezipour, Mehdei

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results on a study to use paper mill sludge for particleboard production. Single-layer board and three-layer board, with paper sludge on the surface, were fabricated. Four levels of mixing ratios of paper sludge to wood particles (0:100, 15:85, 30:70, and 45:55) were used. The boards were produced with 3% and 4% methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), and 10% and 12% urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesives. The bending and shear strengths, water absorption, and thickness swelling of the boards were investigated. The results indicated that the mechanical properties of the boards were negatively affected by the paper sludge amount. Overall, UF-bonded particleboards gave superior mechanical performance, water resistance, and thickness swell than MDI-bonded particleboards. The strengths of the UF-bonded board decreased much more than those of MDI-bonded board as paper sludge content increased. The three-layer boards made from 15% paper sludge with 12% UF satisfied fully the minimum requirements set by EN, ASTM D 1037-99, and ANSI A208.1 standards for general uses.

  11. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  12. South American sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Urien, C.M.

    1984-04-01

    More than 64 sedimentary basins have been identified on the South American continent. According to their regional structural character and tectonic setting, they are classified in 4 super groups. About 20 interior or intracratonic basins occur on South American cratons (Guayanas, Brazilian, and Patagonian). In most cases, their sedimentary fill is Paleozoic or early Mesozoic. Rift or transverse grabens resulting from incipient sea floor spreading extend towards the continental margin. Seventeen basins are located along the Atlantic stable margin, and consist primarily of half grabens with downfaulted seaward blocks. These rifts (or pull-apart basins) were separated as results of the migration of the African and American continental blocks. Therefore the sedimentation is chiefly Cretaceous and Tertiary. On the western edge of South American cratons, almost 20 basins of downwarped blocks extend from Orinoco down to the Malvinas plateau in a relatively uninterrupted chain of retroarc basins, bordered by the Andean orogen. They lie on a flexured Precambrian and Paleozoic basement, and are highly deformed in the west (Subandean belt) due to the action of compressional forces caused by the tectonic influence of the Mesozoic Andean batholith. Westward, the Pacific margin is bordered by 27 foreland and forearc basins, which alternate from north to south on an unstable or quasistable margin, fringed by a trench and slope complex where the ocean crust is subducted beneath the continental plate.

  13. Impact of sewage sludge conditioning and dewatering on the fate of nonylphenol in sludge-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Kouloumbos, V N; Schäffer, A; Corvini, P F-X

    2008-08-01

    The fate of (14)C-labelled p353-nonylphenol (NP) in soils amended with differently treated sludges originating from the same precursor sludge was assessed. The effects of commonly applied conditioning and dewatering techniques were investigated. Nonylphenol was degraded considerably faster in soils amended with liquid sludge, while a significant portion of it remained intact and extractable by organic solvents when sludge had been centrifuged before soil amendment. Mineralization was reduced or even inhibited when freeze-thaw or lime conditioning was applied, respectively. Flocculation by an acrylamide-based cationic polymer led to the formation of a nitro-addition product of nonylphenol in soil, as well to decreased mineralization rates after prolonged incubation times. Possible mechanisms underlying the observations are suggested and discussed.

  14. Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece.

    PubMed

    Samolada, M C; Zabaniotou, A A

    2014-02-01

    For a sustainable municipal sewage sludge management, not only the available technology, but also other parameters, such as policy regulations and socio-economic issues should be taken in account. In this study, the current status of both European and Greek Legislation on waste management, with a special insight in municipal sewage sludge, is presented. A SWOT analysis was further developed for comparison of pyrolysis with incineration and gasification and results are presented. Pyrolysis seems to be the optimal thermochemical treatment option compared to incineration and gasification. Sewage sludge pyrolysis is favorable for energy savings, material recovery and high added materials production, providing a 'zero waste' solution. Finally, identification of challenges and barriers for sewage sludge pyrolysis deployment in Greece was investigated.

  15. Revisiting a classification scheme for U.S.-Mexico alluvial basin-fill aquifers.

    PubMed

    Hibbs, Barry J; Darling, Bruce K

    2005-01-01

    Intermontane basins in the Trans-Pecos region of westernmost Texas and northern Chihuahua, Mexico, are target areas for disposal of interstate municipal sludge and have been identified as possible disposal sites for low-level radioactive waste. Understanding ground water movement within and between these basins is needed to assess potential contaminant fate and movement. Four associated basin aquifers are evaluated and classified; the Red Light Draw Aquifer, the Northwest Eagle Flat Aquifer, the Southeast Eagle Flat Aquifer, and the El Cuervo Aquifer. Encompassed on all but one side by mountains and local divides, the Red Light Draw Aquifer has the Rio Grande as an outlet for both surface drainage and ground water discharge. The river juxtaposed against its southern edge, the basin is classified as a topographically open, through-flowing basin. The Northwest Eagle Flat Aquifer is classified as a topographically closed and drained basin because surface drainage is to the interior of the basin and ground water discharge occurs by interbasin ground water flow. Mountains and ground water divides encompass this basin aquifer on all sides; yet, depth to ground water in the interior of the basin is commonly >500 feet. Negligible ground water discharge within the basin indicates that ground water discharges from the basin by vertical flow and underflow to a surrounding basin or basins. The most likely mode of discharge is by vertical, cross-formational flow to underlying Permian rocks that are more porous and permeable and subsequent flow along regional flowpaths beneath local ground water divides. The Southeast Eagle Flat Aquifer is classified as a topographically open and drained basin because surface drainage and ground water discharge are to the adjacent Wildhorse Flat area. Opposite the Eagle Flat and Red Light Draw aquifers is the El Cuervo Aquifer of northern Chihuahua, Mexico. The El Cuervo Aquifer has interior drainage to Laguna El Cuervo, which is a phreatic

  16. Copper stabilization in beneficial use of waterworks sludge and copper-laden electroplating sludge for ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Chan, Siu-Wai; Shih, Kaimin

    2014-06-01

    A promising strategy for effectively incorporating metal-containing waste materials into a variety of ceramic products was devised in this study. Elemental analysis confirmed that copper was the predominant metal component in the collected electroplating sludge, and aluminum was the predominant constituent of waterworks sludge collected in Hong Kong. The use of waterworks sludge as an aluminum-rich precursor material to facilitate copper stabilization under thermal conditions provides a promising waste-to-resource strategy. When sintering the mixture of copper sludge and the 900 °C calcined waterworks sludge, the CuAl2O4 spinel phase was first detected at 650 °C and became the predominant product phase at temperatures higher than 850 °C. Quantification of the XRD pattern using the Rietveld refinement method revealed that the weight of the CuAl2O4 spinel phase reached over 50% at 850 °C. The strong signals of the CuAl2O4 phase continued until the temperature reached 1150 °C, and further sintering initiated the generation of the other copper-hosting phases (CuAlO2, Cu2O, and CuO). The copper stabilization effect was evaluated by the copper leachability of the CuAl2O4 and CuO via the prolonged leaching experiments at a pH value of 4.9. The leaching results showed that the CuAl2O4 phase was superior to the CuAlO2 and CuO phases for immobilizing hazardous copper over longer leaching periods. The findings clearly indicate that spinel formation is the most crucial metal stabilization mechanism when sintering multiphase copper sludge with aluminum-rich waterworks sludge, and suggest a promising and reliable technique for reusing both types of sludge waste for ceramic materials.

  17. Ubiquity of activated sludge ferricyanide-mediated BOD methods: a comparison of sludge seeds across wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Mark A; Welsh, David T; Teasdale, Peter R

    2014-07-01

    Many studies have described alternatives to the BOD5 standard method, with substantial decreases in incubation time observed. However, most of these have not maintained the features that make the BOD5 assay so relevant - a high level of substrate bio-oxidation and use of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sludge as the biocatalyst. Two recently described ferricyanide-mediated (FM)-BOD assays, one for trade wastes and one for WWTP influents and treated effluents, satisfy these criteria and were investigated further here for their suitability for use with diverse biocatalysts. Both FM-BOD assays responded proportionately to increasing substrate concentration with sludges from 11 different WWTPs and temporally (months to years) using sludges from a single WWTP, confirming the broad applicability of both assays. Sludges from four WWTPs were selected as biocatalysts for each FM-BOD assay to compare FM-BOD equivalent values with BOD5 (three different sludge seeds) measurements for 12 real wastewater samples (six per assay). Strong and significant relationships were established for both FM-BOD assays. This study has demonstrated that sludge sourced from many WWTPs may be used as the biocatalyst in either FM-BOD assay, as it is in the BOD5 assay. The industry potential of these findings is substantial given the widespread use of the BOD5 assay, the dramatically decreased incubation period (3-6h) and the superior analytical range of both assays compared to the standard BOD5 assay.

  18. Emissions of CO2 and CH4 from sludge treatment reed beds depend on system management and sludge loading.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Linda; Dam Larsen, Julie; Ye, Siyuan; Brix, Hans

    2014-08-01

    Sludge treatment reed beds (STRB) are considered as eco-friendly and sustainable alternatives to conventional sludge treatment methods, although little is known about greenhouse gas emissions from such systems. We measured CO2 and CH4 emissions and substrate characteristics in a STRB, an occasionally loaded sludge depot (SD) and a natural reed wetland (NW). The aim was to compare (i) emissions among the sites in relation to substrate characteristics and (ii) emissions before and after sludge loading in the STRB. The STRB emitted twice as much CO2 (1200 mg m(-2) h(-1)) as the SD, whereas the SD emitted four times more CH4 (2 mg m(-2) h(-1)) than the STRB. The NW had the lowest emissions of both gases. The differences in gas emissions among the sites were primarily explained by differences in the availability of oxygen in the substrate. As a consequence of overloading and poor management, the SD had no vegetation and a poor dewatering capacity, which resulted in anaerobic conditions favoring CH4 emission. In contrast, the well-managed STRB had more aerobic conditions in the sludge residue resulting in low CH4 emission rates. We conclude that well-designed and well-managed STRBs have a low climate impact relative to conventional treatment alternatives, but that overloading and poor sludge management enhances the emissions of CH4.

  19. Phosphorus extraction and sludge dissolution by acid and alkali treatments of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) treated wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Ali, Toor Umair; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2016-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching characteristics of polyaluminium chlorides (PAC) treated wastewater sludge was investigated by wet chemicals (acid and alkali). Sludge fractionation showed non-apatite inorganic P was the dominant P (90.9% of TP) while apatite P only accounted for 3.7%. After 2h extraction with 1N NaOH or 2N HCl, 80.5% and 77.9% of total P was leached, while sludge dissolution reached 72.7% and 75.6%, respectively. Kinetic study with HCl and NaOH showed that P release and sludge dissolution follow first order reaction with rate constants of 0.50 and 0.35min(-1) (P release) and 0.47×10(-2) and 0.15×10(-2)min(-1) (sludge dissolution), respectively. Sequential extraction by NaOH/HCl leached 91.7% of the total P. This study will help in understanding the P release behavior of the PAC treated wastewater sludge.

  20. Self-heating co-pyrolysis of excessive activated sludge with waste biomass: energy balance and sludge reduction.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hong-Sheng; Jiang, Hong

    2013-04-01

    In this work, co-pyrolysis of sludge with sawdust or rice husk was investigated. The results showed that the co-pyrolysis technology could be used to dispose of the excessive activated sludge without external energy input. The results also demonstrated that no obvious synergistic effect occurred except for heat transfer in the co-pyrolysis if the co-feeding biomass and sludge had similar thermogravimetric characteristics. The experimental results combined with calculation showed that adding sawdust accounting for 49.6% of the total feedstock or rice husk accounting for 74.7% could produce bio-oil to keep the energy balance of the co-pyrolysis system and self-heat it. The sludge from solar drying bed can be further reduced by 38.6% and 35.1% by weight when co-pyrolyzed with rice husk and sawdust, respectively. This study indicates that sludge reduction without external heat supply through co-pyrolysis of sludge with waste biomass is practically feasible.