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Sample records for 188re 177lu 51cr

  1. Characteristics of Bremsstrahlung emissions of (177)Lu, (188)Re, and (90)Y for SPECT/CT quantification in radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Carlos F; Esquinas, Pedro L; Gonzalez, Marjorie; Celler, Anna

    2016-05-01

    Beta particles emitted by radioisotopes used in targeted radionuclide therapies (TRT) create Bremsstrahlung (BRS) which may affect SPECT quantification when imaging these isotopes. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the characteristics of Bremsstrahlung produced in tissue by three β-emitting radioisotopes used in TRT. Monte Carlo simulations of (177)Lu, (188)Re, and (90)Y sources placed in water filled cylinders were performed. BRS yields, mean energies and energy spectra for (a) all photons generated in the decays, (b) photons that were not absorbed and leave the cylinder, and (c) photons detected by the camera were analyzed. Next, the results of simulations were compared with those from experiments performed on a clinical SPECT camera using same acquisition conditions and phantom configurations as in simulations. Simulations reproduced relatively well the shapes of the measured spectra, except for (90)Y which showed an overestimation in the low energy range. Detailed analysis of the results allowed us to suggest best collimators and imaging conditions for each of the investigated isotopes. Finally, our simulations confirmed that the BRS contribution to the energy spectra in quantitative imaging of (177)Lu and (188)Re could be ignored. For (177)Lu and (188)Re, BRS contributes only marginally to the total spectra recorded by the camera. Our analysis shows that MELP and HE collimators are the best for imaging these two isotopes. For (90)Y, HE collimator should be used. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Beta-Absorbed Fractions in a Mouse Model for 90Y, 188Re, 166Ho, 149Pm, 64Cu, and 177Lu Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William H.; Hartmann-Siantar, Christine; Fisher, Darrell R.; Descalle, Marie-Anne; Daly, Tom; Lehmann, Joerg; Lewis, Michael R.; Hoffman, Timothy J.; Smith, Jeff; Situ, Peter D.; Volkert, Wynn A.

    2005-08-01

    Several short-lived, high-energy beta emitters are being proposed as the radionuclide components for molecular-targeted potential cancer therapeutic agents. The laboratory mice used to determine the efficacy of these new agents have organs that are relatively small compared to the ranges of these high-energy particles. The dosimetry model developed by Hui et al. was extended to provide realistic beta-dose estimates for organs in mice that received therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals containing 90Y, 188Re, 166Ho, 149Pm, 64Cu, and 177 Lu. Major organs in this model included the liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, heart, stomach, small and large bowel, thyroid, pancreas, bone, marrow, carcass, and a 0.025-g tumor. The study as reported in this paper verifies their results for 90Y and extends them by using their organ geometry factors combined with newly calculated organ self-absorbed fractions from PEREGRINE and MCNP. PEREGRINE and MCNP agree to within 8% for the worst-case organ with average differences (averaged over all organs) decreasing from 5% for 90Y to 1% for 177Lu. When used with typical biodistribution data, the three different models predict doses that are in agreement to within 5% for the worst-case organ. The beta-absorbed fractions and cross-organ-deposited energy provided in this paper can be used by researchers to predict mouse-organ doses and should contribute to an improved understanding of the relationship between dose and radiation toxicity in mouse models where use of these isotopes is favorable.

  3. Evaluation of beta-absorbed fractions in a mouse model for 90Y, 188Re, 166Ho, 149Pm, 64Cu, and 177Lu radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Miller, William H; Hartmann-Siantar, Christine; Fisher, Darrell; Descalle, Marie-Anne; Daly, Tom; Lehmann, Joerg; Lewis, Michael R; Hoffman, Timothy; Smith, Jeff; Situ, Peter D; Volkert, Wynn A

    2005-08-01

    Several short-lived, high-energy beta emitters are being proposed as the radionuclide components for molecular- targeted potential cancer therapeutic agents. The laboratory mice used to determine the efficacy of these new agents have organs that are relatively small compared to the ranges of these high-energy particles. The dosimetry model developed by Hui et al. was extended to provide realistic beta-dose estimates for organs in mice that received therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals containing (90)Y, (188)Re, (166)Ho, (149)Pm, (64)Cu, and (177)Lu. Major organs in this model included the liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, heart, stomach, small and large bowel, thyroid, pancreas, bone, marrow, carcass, and a 0.025-g tumor. The study as reported in this paper verifies their results for (90)Y and extends them by using their organ geometry factors combined with newly calculated organ self-absorbed fractions from PEREGRINE and MCNP. PEREGRINE and MCNP agree to within 8% for the worst-case organ with average differences (averaged over all organs) decreasing from 5% for (90)Y to 1% for (177)Lu. When used with typical biodistribution data, the three different models predict doses that are in agreement to within 5% for the worst-case organ. The beta-absorbed fractions and cross-organ-deposited energy provided in this paper can be used by researchers to predict mouse-organ doses and should contribute to an improved understanding of the relationship between dose and radiation toxicity in mouse models where use of these isotopes is favorable.

  4. Monte Carlo Calculation of Radioimmunotherapy with 90Y-, 177Lu-, 131I-, 124I-, and 188Re-Nanoobjects: Choice of the Best Radionuclide for Solid Tumour Treatment by Using TCP and NTCP Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, S.; Feron, O.; Gallez, B.; Masereel, B.; Michiels, C.; Vander Borght, T.

    2015-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy has shown that the use of monoclonal antibodies combined with a radioisotope like 131I or 90Y still remains ineffective for solid and radioresistant tumour treatment. Previous simulations have revealed that an increase in the number of 90Y labelled to each antibody or nanoobject could be a solution to improve treatment output. It now seems important to assess the treatment output and toxicity when radionuclides such as 90Y, 177Lu, 131I, 124I, and 188Re are used. Tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) curves versus the number of radionuclides per nanoobject were computed with MCNPX to evaluate treatment efficacy for solid tumours and to predict the incidence of surrounding side effects. Analyses were carried out for two solid tumour sizes of 0.5 and 1.0 cm radius and for nanoobject (i.e., a radiolabelled antibody) distributed uniformly or nonuniformly throughout a solid tumour (e.g., Non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC)). 90Y and 188Re are the best candidates for solid tumour treatment when only one radionuclide is coupled to one carrier. Furthermore, regardless of the radionuclide properties, high values of TCP can be reached without toxicity if the number of radionuclides per nanoobject increases. PMID:26136812

  5. Monte Carlo Calculation of Radioimmunotherapy with (90)Y-, (177)Lu-, (131)I-, (124)I-, and (188)Re-Nanoobjects: Choice of the Best Radionuclide for Solid Tumour Treatment by Using TCP and NTCP Concepts.

    PubMed

    Lucas, S; Feron, O; Gallez, B; Masereel, B; Michiels, C; Vander Borght, T

    2015-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy has shown that the use of monoclonal antibodies combined with a radioisotope like (131)I or (90)Y still remains ineffective for solid and radioresistant tumour treatment. Previous simulations have revealed that an increase in the number of (90)Y labelled to each antibody or nanoobject could be a solution to improve treatment output. It now seems important to assess the treatment output and toxicity when radionuclides such as (90)Y, (177)Lu, (131)I, (124)I, and (188)Re are used. Tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) curves versus the number of radionuclides per nanoobject were computed with MCNPX to evaluate treatment efficacy for solid tumours and to predict the incidence of surrounding side effects. Analyses were carried out for two solid tumour sizes of 0.5 and 1.0 cm radius and for nanoobject (i.e., a radiolabelled antibody) distributed uniformly or nonuniformly throughout a solid tumour (e.g., Non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC)). (90)Y and (188)Re are the best candidates for solid tumour treatment when only one radionuclide is coupled to one carrier. Furthermore, regardless of the radionuclide properties, high values of TCP can be reached without toxicity if the number of radionuclides per nanoobject increases.

  6. Quantitative SPECT/CT reconstruction for 177Lu and 177Lu/90Y targeted radionuclide therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbinin, S.; Piwowarska-Bilska, H.; Celler, A.; Birkenfeld, B.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the quantitative accuracy of SPECT/CT imaging studies as would be performed before and after targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) using phantom experiments with (i) 99mTc, (ii) 177Lu and (iii) 90Y/177Lu. While the experiment with 99mTc imitated a diagnostic scan, the experiments with 177Lu and 90Y/177Lu modeled post-therapy acquisitions. At the next stage, we reconstructed images from pre- and post-therapy patient studies. The data were first reconstructed using two methods with limited corrections for the physics effects. Then, to generate quantitatively accurate absolute activity distributions, we applied a hybrid (model-based and window-based) reconstruction strategy where some of the physics effects were accurately modeled while corrections for other effects were empirical and based on information obtained from the projection data. The accuracies of absolute activity recovered by the hybrid method from the six phantom experiments were very similar to each other and acceptable for potential use in TRT. When measured in identical regions of interest, the 99mTc activity was reconstructed with errors ranging between -3.3% and 2.9%, while the 177Lu activity was reconstructed from experiments with 177Lu and 90Y/177Lu with errors ranging between -1.6% and 1.6%. The reconstruction algorithms with limited corrections led to larger and case-specific errors as might have been expected. From a clinical prospective, our results showed that physics-based reconstructions improved resolution of images corresponding to both diagnostic scans with 99mTc and post-therapy scans with 177Lu. Our analysis of patient study demonstrated that lack of corrections led to overestimation of activities in organs and tumor by 29-39% for the diagnostic scan with 99mTc and by 105-218% for post-therapy scan with 177Lu.

  7. Absorbed dose assessment of 177Lu-zoledronate and 177Lu-EDTMP for human based on biodistribution data in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yousefnia, Hassan; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Jalilian, Amir Reza

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, several bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals including various bisphosphonate ligands and β-emitting radionuclides have been developed for bone pain palliation. Recently, 177Lu was successfully labeled with zoledronic acid (177Lu-ZLD) as a new generation potential bisphosphonate and demonstrated significant accumulation in bone tissue. In this work, the absorbed dose to each organ of human for 177Lu-ZLD and 177Lu-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid (177Lu-EDTMP;as the only clinically bone pain palliation agent) was investigated based on biodistribution data in rats by medical internal radiation dosimetry (MIRD) method. 177Lu-ZLD and 177Lu-EDTMP were prepared in high radiochemical purity (>99%, instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC)) at the optimized condition. The biodistribution of the complexes demonstrated fast blood clearance and major accumulation in the bone tissue. The highest absorbed dose for both 177Lu-ZLD and 177Lu-EDTMP is observed in trabecular bone surface with 12.173 and 10.019 mSv/MBq, respectively. The results showed that 177Lu-ZLD has better characteristics compared to 177Lu-EDTMP and can be a good candidate for bone pain palliation. PMID:26170557

  8. (177)Lu-PSMA Radioligand Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fendler, Wolfgang P; Rahbar, Kambiz; Herrmann, Ken; Kratochwil, Clemens; Eiber, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    (177)Lu-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) radioligand therapy (RLT) using inhibitors of PSMA is a novel therapeutic option in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The current literature suggests that this therapy is well tolerated and effective. On the basis of clinical need and current evidence, the therapy is being implemented in a growing number of centers worldwide. Here, we review important aspects of (177)Lu-PSMA RLT, including patient stratification, the therapy protocol, concomitant medication, and follow-up, to inform medical staff involved in the RLT and care of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  9. Method for preparing high specific activity 177Lu

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-04-06

    A method of separating lutetium from a solution containing Lu and Yb, particularly reactor-produced .sup.177 Lu and .sup.177 Yb, includes the steps of: providing a chromatographic separation apparatus containing LN resin; loading the apparatus with a solution containing Lu and Yb; and eluting the apparatus to chromatographically separate the Lu and the Yb in order to produce high-specific-activity .sup.177 Yb.

  10. 177Lu-labeled Gold Nanoparticles for Radiation Therapy of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yook, Simmyung

    Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) occurs in about 10-15% of patients diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) and 30% of these patients have triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) that are often epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive. The goal of the proposed research was design and evaluate preclinically a novel radiation nanomedicine for LABC composed of EGFR-targeted gold nanoparticles (AuNP) by covalently conjugating panitumumab and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) complexing 177Lu incorporated into a metal-chelating polymer (MCP) (177 Lu-T-AuNP) which could be used as a neoadjuvant treatment to improve the outcome of patients with LABC. 177Lu-T-AuNP were efficiently internalized by EGFR-positive BC cells and were significantly more effective than 177Lu-labeled and non-targeted (NT)-AuNP for killing these cells. For radiation treatment of EGFR-positive tumours, both 177Lu-T-AuNP and 177Lu-NT-AuNP were intratumourally (i.t.) injected into athymic mice with MDA-MB-468 BC xenografts for comparison. Biodistribution studies showed that 177Lu-T-AuNPs exhibited 2-fold higher tumour retention than 177Lu-NT-AuNPs following i.t. injection at 48 h p.i. Both forms of radiolabeled AuNP were highly effective for inhibiting tumour growth without normal organ toxicity due to local tumour retention of both form of AuNP. To minimize the displacement of 177Lu-labeled MCP from AuNP, polyethylene glycol (PEG) ligands presenting a disulfide [ 177Lu-DOTA-PEG-ortho-pyridyl disulfide (OPSS)], a lipoic acid (LA) [177Lu-DOTA-PEG-lipoic acid (LA)] or multi-LA [PEG- pGlu(177Lu-DOTA)8-LA4] for multivalent binding were synthesized and the stability of MCP-AuNP complexes determined. In vitro challenge study with thiol-containing molecules or human plasma, PEG-pGlu(DOTA)8-LA4-AuNP were most stable. In whole body elimination study, elimination of radioactivity due to displacement of 177Lu-MCP from AuNP in mice injected with 177Lu-DOTA-PEG-OPSS-AuNP was more

  11. Biodistribution and Dosimetry of 177Lu-tetulomab, a New Radioimmunoconjugate for Treatment of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Repetto-Llamazares, Ada H V; Larsen, Roy H; Mollatt, Camilla; Lassmann, Michael; Dahle, Jostein

    2013-01-01

    The biodistribution of the anti-CD37 radioimmunoconjugate 177Lu-tetraxetan-tetulomab (177Lu-DOTA-HH1) was evaluated. Biodistribution of 177Lu-tetraxetan-tetulomab was compared with 177Lu-tetraxetan-rituximab and free 177Lu in nude mice implanted with Daudi lymphoma xenografts. The data showed that 177Lu-tetulomab had a relevant stability and tumor targeting properties in the human lymphoma model. The half-life of 177Lu allowed significant tumor to normal tissue ratios to be obtained indicating that 177Lu-tetraxetan-tetulomab could be suitable for clinical testing. The biological and effective half-life in blood was higher for 177Lu-tetraxetan-tetulomab than for 177Lu-tetraxetan-rituximab. The biodistribution of 177Lu-tetraxetan-tetulomab did not change significantly when the protein dose was varied from 0.01 to 1 mg/kg. Dosimetry calculations showed that the absorbed radiation doses to normal tissues and tumor in mice were not significantly different for 177Lu-tetraxetan-tetuloma b and 177Lu-tetraxetan-rituximab. The absorbed radiation doses were extrapolated to human absorbed radiation doses. These extrapolated absorbed radiation doses to normal tissues for 177Lu-tetraxetan-tetulomab at an injection of 40 MBq/kg were significantly lower than the absorbed radiation doses for 15 MBq/kg Zevalin, suggesting that higher tumor radiation dose can be reached with 177Lu-tetraxetan-tetulomab in the clinic. PMID:23256748

  12. Consequences of meta-stable (177m)Lu admixture in (177)Lu for patient dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Konijnenberg, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    Lutetium-177 ((177)Lu) is a rare earth metal in the lanthanides series which decays by beta emission with a half life of 6.647 days to three excited states and the ground state of (177)Hf. When (177)Lu is produced by neutron capture in (176)Lu, inevitably an admixture is formed of the long-lived isomer (177)mLu. As its half-life of 160.4 days is so much longer than that of (177)Lu, concerns are raised on its possible enhancement in radiation dose to the patient treated with (177)Lu-DOTA-octreotate. This report evaluates this possible enhancement of the absorbed dose, based on the published pharmacokinetic profile of (177)Lu-DOTA-octreotate and assuming an admixture of 1 kBq (177)mLu /MBq (177)Lu (0.1%).

  13. Optimization of irradiation conditions for {sup 177}Lu production at the LVR-15 research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lahodova, Z.; Viererbl, L.; Klupak, V.; Srank, J.

    2012-07-01

    The use of lutetium in medicine has been increasing over the last few years. The {sup 177}Lu radionuclide is commercially available for research and test purposes as a diagnostic and radiotherapy agent in the treatment of several malignant tumours. The yield of {sup 177}Lu from the {sup 176}Lu(n,{gamma}){sup 177}Lu nuclear reaction depends significantly on the thermal neutron fluence rate. The capture cross-sections of both reaction {sup 176}Lu(n,{gamma}){sup 177}Lu and reaction {sup 177}Lu(n,{gamma}){sup 178}Lu are very high. Therefore a burn-up of target and product nuclides should be taken into account when calculating {sup 177}Lu activity. The maximum irradiation time, when the activity of the {sup 177}Lu radionuclide begins to decline, was found for different fluence rates. Two vertical irradiation channels at the LVR-15 nuclear research reactor were compared in order to choose the channel with better irradiation conditions, such as a higher thermal neutron fluence rate in the irradiation volume. In this experiment, lutetium was irradiated in a titanium capsule. The influence of the Ti capsule on the neutron spectrum was monitored using activation detectors. The choice of detectors was based on requirements for irradiation time and accurate determination of thermal neutrons. The following activation detectors were selected for measurement of the neutron spectrum: Ti, Fe, Ni, Co, Ag and W. (authors)

  14. Tumoral fibrosis effect on the radiation absorbed dose of (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate and (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate conjugated to gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Azorín-Vega, E P; Zambrano-Ramírez, O D; Rojas-Calderón, E L; Ocampo-García, B E; Ferro-Flores, G

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the tumoral fibrosis effect on the radiation absorbed dose of the radiopharmaceuticals (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate (monomeric) and (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate-gold nanoparticles (multimeric) using an experimental HeLa cells tumoral model and the Monte Carlo PENELOPE code. Experimental and computer micro-environment models with or without fibrosis were constructed. Results showed that fibrosis increases up to 33% the tumor radiation absorbed dose, although the major effect on the dose was produced by the type of radiopharmaceutical (112Gy-multimeric vs. 43Gy-monomeric).

  15. Thermal neutron capture cross section for the K isomer {sup 177}Lu{sup m}

    SciTech Connect

    Belier, G.; Roig, O.; Daugas, J.-M.; Giarmana, O.; Meot, V.; Letourneau, A.; Marie, F.; Foucher, Y.; Aupiais, J.; Abt, D.; Jutier, Ch.; Le Petit, G.; Bettoni, C.; Gaudry, A.; Veyssiere, Ch.; Barat, E.; Dautremer, T.; Trama, J.-Ch.

    2006-01-15

    The thermal neutron radiative capture cross section for the K isomeric state in {sup 177}Lu has been measured for the first time. Several {sup 177}Lu{sup m} targets have been prepared and irradiated in various neutron fluxes at the Lauee Langevin Institute in Grenoble and at the CEA reactors OSIRIS and ORPHEE in Saclay. The method consists of measuring the {sup 178}Lu activity by {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. The values obtained in four different neutron spectra have been used to calculate the resonance integral of the radiative capture cross section for {sup 177}Lu{sup m}. In addition, an indirect method leads to the determination of the {sup 177}Lu{sup g} neutron radiative capture cross section.

  16. A potencial theranostic agent for EGF-R expression tumors: (177)Lu-DOTA-nimotuzumab.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Victoria; Zhang, Xiuli; Fernandez, Marcelo; Diaz-Miqueli, Arlhee; Iznaga-Escobar, Normando; Deutscher, Susan L; Balter, Henia; Quinn, Thomas P; Cabral, Pablo

    2012-10-01

    In this work Nimotuzumab (monoclonal antibody, recognizes the EGF-R) was radiolabeled with (177)Lu as a potential cancer therapy radiopharmaceutical. In-vitro cell binding studies and in-vivo biodistribution and imaging studies were performed to determine the radiochemical stability, targeting specificity and pharmacokinetics of the (177)Lu-labeled antibody. Nimotuzumab was derivatized with DOTA-NHS at room temperature for 2 hours. DOTA-Nimotuzumab was radiolabeled with (177)LuCl3 (15 MBq/mg) at 37°C for 1 h. The radiochemical purity was assessed by ITLC, silica gel and by RP-HPLC. Binding specificity studies were performed with EGF-R positive A431 human epithelial carcinoma and EGF-R negative MDA-MB-435 breast carcinoma cells. Biodistribution studies were performed in healthy female CD-1 mice at 1 h, 4 h, 24 h, and A431 xenografted nude mice at 10 min, 1 h, 4 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 96 h. SPECT-CT imaging studies were performed in A431 xenografted mice at 24 h post injection. DOTA-Nimotuzumab was efficiently labeled with (177) LuCl(3) at 37°C. The in vitro stability of labeled product was optimal over 24 h in buffered saline and mouse serum. Specific recognition of EGF-R by (177)Lu-DOTA-Nimotuzumab was observed in A431 cell binding studies. Biodistribution studies demonstrated increasing tumor uptake of (177)Lu-DOTA-Nimotuzumab over time, with tumor to muscle ratios of 6.26, 10.68, and 18.82 at 4 h, 24 h, and 96 h post injection. Imaging of A431 xenografted mice showed high uptake in the tumor. (177)Lu-DOTA-Nimotuzumab has the potential to be a promising therapy agent, which may be useful in the treatment of patients with EGF-R positive cancer.

  17. Phase 3 Trial of (177)Lu-Dotatate for Midgut Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Strosberg, Jonathan; El-Haddad, Ghassan; Wolin, Edward; Hendifar, Andrew; Yao, James; Chasen, Beth; Mittra, Erik; Kunz, Pamela L; Kulke, Matthew H; Jacene, Heather; Bushnell, David; O'Dorisio, Thomas M; Baum, Richard P; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Caplin, Martyn; Lebtahi, Rachida; Hobday, Timothy; Delpassand, Ebrahim; Van Cutsem, Eric; Benson, Al; Srirajaskanthan, Rajaventhan; Pavel, Marianne; Mora, Jaime; Berlin, Jordan; Grande, Enrique; Reed, Nicholas; Seregni, Ettore; Öberg, Kjell; Lopera Sierra, Maribel; Santoro, Paola; Thevenet, Thomas; Erion, Jack L; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Kwekkeboom, Dik; Krenning, Eric

    2017-01-12

    Background Patients with advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors who have had disease progression during first-line somatostatin analogue therapy have limited therapeutic options. This randomized, controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of lutetium-177 ((177)Lu)-Dotatate in patients with advanced, progressive, somatostatin-receptor-positive midgut neuroendocrine tumors. Methods We randomly assigned 229 patients who had well-differentiated, metastatic midgut neuroendocrine tumors to receive either (177)Lu-Dotatate (116 patients) at a dose of 7.4 GBq every 8 weeks (four intravenous infusions, plus best supportive care including octreotide long-acting repeatable [LAR] administered intramuscularly at a dose of 30 mg) ((177)Lu-Dotatate group) or octreotide LAR alone (113 patients) administered intramuscularly at a dose of 60 mg every 4 weeks (control group). The primary end point was progression-free survival. Secondary end points included the objective response rate, overall survival, safety, and the side-effect profile. The final analysis of overall survival will be conducted in the future as specified in the protocol; a prespecified interim analysis of overall survival was conducted and is reported here. Results At the data-cutoff date for the primary analysis, the estimated rate of progression-free survival at month 20 was 65.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.0 to 76.8) in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group and 10.8% (95% CI, 3.5 to 23.0) in the control group. The response rate was 18% in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group versus 3% in the control group (P<0.001). In the planned interim analysis of overall survival, 14 deaths occurred in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group and 26 in the control group (P=0.004). Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and lymphopenia occurred in 1%, 2%, and 9%, respectively, of patients in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group as compared with no patients in the control group, with no evidence of renal toxic effects during the observed time frame

  18. Evidence for inelastic neutron acceleration by the {sup 177}Lu isomer

    SciTech Connect

    Roig, O.; Belier, G.; Meot, V.; Daugas, J.-M.

    2006-11-15

    The neutron burnup cross section {sigma}{sub burnup}{sup m} on the long-lived metastable state of {sup 177}Lu has been measured from a specially designed isomeric target. The Maxwellian averaged cross section obtained for this reaction on {sup 177}Lu{sup m}(J{sup {pi}}=23/2{sup -}) is {sigma}{sub burnup}{sup m}=626{+-}45 b at the reactor temperature T=323 K. The difference between the burnup cross section and the previously measured capture cross section {sigma}{sub n,{gamma}} clearly shows a possible existence of {sup 177}Lu{sup m} deexcitation via (n,n{sup '}) inelastic neutron acceleration channels. The results are interpreted in terms of a statistical approach using parameters from a deformed optical potential calculation.

  19. Theranostic Radiopharmaceuticals Based on Gold Nanoparticles Labeled with (177)Lu and Conjugated to Peptides.

    PubMed

    Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Ocampo-García, Blanca E; Santos-Cuevas, Clara L; de María Ramírez, Flor; Azorín-Vega, Erika P; Meléndez-Alafort, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been proposed for a variety of medical applications such as localized heat sources for cancer treatment and drug delivery systems. The conjugation of peptides to AuNPs produces stable multimeric systems with target-specific molecular recognition. Lutetium- 177 ((177)Lu) has been successfully used in peptide radionuclide therapy. Recently, (177)Lu-AuNPs conjugated to different peptides have been proposed as a new class of theranostic radiopharmaceuticals. These radioconjugates may function simultaneously as molecular imaging agents, radiotherapy systems and thermal-ablation systems. This article covers advancements in the design, synthesis, physicochemical characterization, molecular recognition assessment and preclinical therapeutic efficacy of gold nanoparticles radiolabeled with (177)Lu and conjugated to RGD (-Arg-Gly-Asp-), Lys(3)-Bombesin and Tat(49-57) peptides.

  20. Evaluation of two intraoperative gamma detectors for assessment of (177)Lu activity concentration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sandblom, Viktor; Ståhl, Ingun; Olofsson Bagge, Roger; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2017-12-01

    Patients with somatostatin receptor-expressing neuroendocrine tumours can be treated with intravenously administered (177)Lu-octreotate. Few patients are cured with the present protocol due to the current dose limitation of normal organs at risk, such as the kidneys. By locally administering (177)Lu-octreotate to the liver for the purpose of treating liver metastases, a substantially reduced absorbed dose to organs at risk could be achieved. The development of such a technique requires the capability of measuring the (177)Lu activity concentration in tissues in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate different performance parameters of two commercially available intraoperative gamma detectors in order to investigate whether intraoperative gamma detector measurements could be used to determine (177)Lu activity concentration in vivo. Measurements were made using different sources containing (177)Lu. Response linearity, sensitivity, spatial resolution and its depth dependence, organ thickness dependence of the measured count rate and tumour detectability were assessed for two intraoperative gamma detectors. The two detectors (a scintillation and a semiconductor detector) showed differences in technical performance. For example, the sensitivity was higher for the scintillation detector, while the spatial resolution was better for the semiconductor detector. Regarding organ thickness dependence and tumour detectability, similar results were obtained for both detectors, and even relatively small simulated tumours of low tumour-to-background activity concentration ratios could be detected. Acceptable results were obtained for both detectors, although the semiconductor detector proved more advantageous for our purpose. The measurements demonstrated factors that must be corrected for, such as organ thickness or dead-time effects. Altogether, intraoperative gamma detector measurements could be used to determine (177)Lu activity concentration in vivo.

  1. [177Lu]Bz-DTPA-EGF: Preclinical characterization of a potential radionuclide targeting agent against glioma.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Asa Liljegren; Gedda, Lars; Orlova, Anna; Bruskin, Alexander; Blomquist, Erik; Carlsson, Jörgen; Tolmachev, Vladimir

    2004-04-01

    Patients with glioblastoma multiforme have a poor prognosis due to recurrences originating from spread cells. The use of radionuclide targeting might increase the chance of inactivating single tumor cells with minimal damage to surrounding healthy tissue. As a target, overexpressed epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) may be used. A natural ligand to EGFR, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an attractive targeting agent due to its low molecular weight (6 kDa) and high affinity for EGFR. 177Lu (T(1/2) = 6.7 days) is a radionuclide well suited for treatment of small tumor cell clusters, since it emits relatively low-energy beta particles. The goal of this study was to prepare and preclinically evaluate both in vitro and in vivo the [177Lu]Bz-DTPA-EGF conjugate. The conjugate was characterized in vitro for its cell-binding properties, and in vivo for its pharmacokinetics and ability to target EGFR. [177Lu]Bz-DTPA-EGF bound to cultured U343 glioblastoma cells with an affinity of 1.9 nM. Interaction with EGFR led to rapid internalization, and more than 70% of the cell-associated radioactivity was internalized after 30 minutes of incubation. The retention of radioactivity was good, with more than 65% of the 177Lu still cell-associated after 2 days. Biodistribution studies of i.v. injected [177Lu]Bz-DTPA-EGF in NMRI mice demonstrated a rapid blood clearance. Most of the radioactivity was found in the liver and kidneys. The liver uptake was receptor-mediated, since it could be significantly reduced by preinjection of unlabeled EGF. In conclusion, [177Lu]Bz-DTPA-EGF seems to be a promising candidate for locoregional treatment of glioblastoma due to its high binding affinity, low molecular weight, and ability to target EGFR in vivo.

  2. External beam radiotherapy synergizes 188Re-liposome against human esophageal cancer xenograft and modulates 188Re-liposome pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hsien; Liu, Shin-Yi; Chi, Chih-Wen; Yu, Hsiang-Lin; Chang, Tsui-Jung; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Lee, Te-Wei; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) treats gross tumors and local microscopic diseases. Radionuclide therapy by radioisotopes can eradicate tumors systemically. Rhenium 188 (188Re)-liposome, a nanoparticle undergoing clinical trials, emits gamma rays for imaging validation and beta rays for therapy, with biodistribution profiles preferential to tumors. We designed a combinatory treatment and examined its effects on human esophageal cancer xenografts, a malignancy with potential treatment resistance and poor prognosis. Human esophageal cancer cell lines BE-3 (adenocarcinoma) and CE81T/VGH (squamous cell carcinoma) were implanted and compared. The radiochemical purity of 188Re-liposome exceeded 95%. Molecular imaging by NanoSPECT/CT showed that BE-3, but not CE81T/VGH, xenografts could uptake the 188Re-liposome. The combination of EBRT and 188Re-liposome inhibited tumor regrowth greater than each treatment alone, as the tumor growth inhibition rate was 30% with EBRT, 25% with 188Re-liposome, and 53% with the combination treatment at 21 days postinjection. Combinatory treatment had no additive adverse effects and significant biological toxicities on white blood cell counts, body weight, or liver and renal functions. EBRT significantly enhanced the excretion of 188Re-liposome into feces and urine. In conclusion, the combination of EBRT with 188Re-liposome might be a potential treatment modality for esophageal cancer. PMID:26056445

  3. Esthesioneuroblastoma (olfactory neuroblastoma) treated with 111In-octreotide and 177Lu-DOTATATE PRRT.

    PubMed

    Makis, William; McCann, Karey; McEwan, Alexander J B

    2015-04-01

    A 51-year-old man with a recurrent metastatic esthesioneuroblastoma (olfactory neuroblastoma) was referred for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). He received 4 treatments of 111In-octreotide over 8 months and 3 treatments of 177Lu-DOTATATE over 4 months, which helped alleviate his symptoms and improved his quality of life; however, the tumor ultimately progressed and he passed away shortly thereafter. PRRT with 111In-octreotide or 177Lu-DOTATATE could play a role in the management of esthesioneuroblastoma.

  4. 188Re(V) Nitrido Radiopharmaceuticals for Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Boschi, Alessandra; Martini, Petra; Uccelli, Licia

    2017-01-01

    The favorable nuclear properties of rhenium-188 for therapeutic application are described, together with new methods for the preparation of high yield and stable 188Re radiopharmaceuticals characterized by the presence of the nitride rhenium core in their final chemical structure. 188Re is readily available from an 188W/188Re generator system and a parallelism between the general synthetic procedures applied for the preparation of nitride technetium-99m and rhenium-188 theranostics radiopharmaceuticals is reported. Although some differences between the chemical characteristics of the two metallic nitrido fragments are highlighted, it is apparent that the same general procedures developed for the labelling of biologically active molecules with technetium-99m can be applied to rhenium-188 with minor modification. The availability of these chemical strategies, that allow the obtainment, in very high yield and in physiological condition, of 188Re radiopharmaceuticals, gives a new attractive prospective to employ this radionuclide for therapeutic applications. PMID:28106830

  5. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of melanin-binding decapeptide 4B4 radiolabeled with 177Lu, 166Ho, and 153Sm radiolanthanides for the purpose of targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Beau; Jiang, Zewei; Soll, Clifford E; Revskaya, Ekaterina; Cutler, Cathy S; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Francesconi, Lynn C

    2011-10-01

    Melanoma is a malignancy with increasing incidence. Although primary tumors that are localized to the skin can be successfully treated by surgical removal, there is no satisfactory treatment for metastatic melanoma, a condition that has currently an estimated 5-year survival of just 6%. During the last decade, β- or α-emitter-radiolabeled peptides that bind to different receptors on a variety of tumors have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents in both the preclinical and clinical settings with encouraging results. A recent study demonstrated that 188-Rhenium ((188)Re)-labeled, via HYNIC ligand, fungal melanin-binding decapeptide 4B4 was effective against experimental MNT1 human melanoma and was safe to normal melanized tissues. The availability of radiolanthanides with diverse nuclear emission schemes and half-lives provides an opportunity to expand the repertoire of peptides for radionuclide therapy of melanoma. The melanin-binding decapeptide 4B4 was radiolabeled with (177)Lu, (166)Ho, and (153)Sm via a DO3A chelate. The stability studies of Ln*-DO3A-4B4 in phosphate-buffered saline, serum, and a hydroxyapatite assay demonstrated that (177)Lu-labeled peptide was more stable than (166)Ho- and (153)Sm-labeled peptides, most likely because of the smallest ionic radius of the former allowing for better complexation with DO3A. Binding of Ln*-DO3A-4B4 to the lysed highly melanized MNT1 melanoma cells demonstrated the specificity of peptides binding to melanin. In vivo biodistribution data for (177)Lu-DO3A-4B4 given by intraperitoneal administration to lightly pigmented human metastatic A2058 melanoma-bearing mice demonstrated very high uptake in the kidneys and low tumor uptake. Intravenous administration did not improve the tumor uptake. The plausible explanation of low tumor uptake of (177)Lu-DO3A-4B4 could be its decreased ability to bind to melanin during in vitro binding studies in comparison with (188)Re-HYNIC-4B4, exacerbated by the very fast

  6. Camptothecin Enhances Cell Death Induced by (177)Lu-EDTMP in Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Chandan; Vats, Kusum; Lohar, Sharad P; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace

    2014-10-01

    Lutetium-177 is an assured therapeutic radionuclide with favorable half-life and suitable β(-) energy. Radiolabeled (177)Lu-EDTMP (Ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid) is by and large used for bone pain palliation in cancer patients. In vitro cell studies are carried out in osteosarcoma cells MG-63 to evaluate the combined effect of anticancer drug camptothecin (CPT) and (177)Lu-EDTMP. Two concentrations of (177)Lu-EDTMP (3.7 and 37 MBq) were incubated with MG63 cell line for 48 hours with and without pretreatment of CPT (10 nM) for 1 hour. After completion of incubation, the cells were harvested and cellular toxicity was estimated by LDH, MTT, and trypan blue dye. Apoptotic DNA fragmentation was estimated by ELISA kit. The expression of proteins such as bcl2, PARP, and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) that were related to apoptotic signaling pathways was assessed by western blotting. The results indicated that cellular toxicity and apoptosis were relatively higher in MG63 cells that were treated with CPT prior to treating with (177)Lu-EDTMP in comparison with the corresponding individual controls.

  7. A Randomized Phase 2 Trial of 177Lu Radiolabeled Anti-PSMA Biochemically Monoclonal Antibody J591 in Patients with High-Risk Castrate, Biochemically Relapsed Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    hypothesis is that the addition of 177Lu- J591 to ketoconazole will improve time to radiographically apparent metastases in men with biochemically...endpoint will be to compare the percentage of men with metastases at 18 months receiving ketoconazole plus 177Lu-J591 vs ketoconazole plus trace...phase II trial of 177lu radiolabeled monoclonal antibody J591 (177Lu-J591) and ketoconazole in patients (pts) with high-risk castrate biochemically

  8. Reducing renal uptake of 90Y- and 177Lu-labeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yubin; Fisher, Darrell R.; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2006-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to improve the tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios of 90Y- and 177Lu-[1,2,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-Re-Cys,D-Phe,Arg]alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (DOTA-RE(Arg)CCMSH), through coupling a negatively charged glutamic acid (Glu) to the peptide sequence. A new peptide of DOTA-Re(Glu,Arg)CCMSH was designed, synthesized and labeled with 90Y and 177Lu. Pharmacokinetics of 90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-RE(Glu,Arg)CCNSH were determined in B16/F1 murine melanoma-bearing C57 mice. Both exhibited significantly less renal uptake than 90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg)CCMSH at 30 min and at 2, 3, and 24 h after dose administration. The renal uptake values of 90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu,Arg)CCMSH were 28.16% and 28.81% of those of 90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-RE(Arg)CCMSH, respectively, at 4 hr post-injection. We also showed higher tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios 2.28 and 1.69 times that of 90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg)CCMSH, respectively, at 4 h post-injection. The90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu,Arg)CCMSH activity accumulation was low in normal organs except for kidneys. Coupling a negatively charged amino acid (Glu) to the CCMSH peptide sequence dramatically reduced the renal uptake values and increased the tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios of 90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu,Arg)CCMSH, facilitating their potential applications as radiopharmaceuticals for targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma.

  9. Direct evidence for inelastic neutron 'acceleration' by {sup 177}Lu{sup m}

    SciTech Connect

    Roig, O.; Meot, V.; Rosse, B.; Belier, G.; Daugas, J.-M.; Morel, P.; Letourneau, A.; Menelle, A.

    2011-06-15

    The inelastic neutron acceleration cross section on the long-lived metastable state of {sup 177}Lu has been measured using a direct method. High-energy neutrons have been detected using a specially designed setup placed on a cold neutron beam extracted from the ORPHEE reactor in Saclay. The 146{+-}19 b inelastic neutron acceleration cross section in the ORPHEE cold neutron flux confirms the high cross section for this process on the {sup 177}Lu{sup m} isomer. The deviation from the 258{+-}58 b previously published obtained for a Maxwellian neutron flux at a 323 K temperature could be explained by the presence of a low energy resonance. Resonance parameters are deduced and discussed.

  10. Quantitative (177)Lu SPECT imaging using advanced correction algorithms in non-reference geometry.

    PubMed

    D'Arienzo, M; Cozzella, M L; Fazio, A; De Felice, P; Iaccarino, G; D'Andrea, M; Ungania, S; Cazzato, M; Schmidt, K; Kimiaei, S; Strigari, L

    2016-12-01

    Peptide receptor therapy with (177)Lu-labelled somatostatin analogues is a promising tool in the management of patients with inoperable or metastasized neuroendocrine tumours. The aim of this work was to perform accurate activity quantification of (177)Lu in complex anthropomorphic geometry using advanced correction algorithms. Acquisitions were performed on the higher (177)Lu photopeak (208keV) using a Philips IRIX gamma camera provided with medium-energy collimators. System calibration was performed using a 16mL Jaszczak sphere surrounded by non-radioactive water. Attenuation correction was performed using μ-maps derived from CT data, while scatter and septal penetration corrections were performed using the transmission-dependent convolution-subtraction method. SPECT acquisitions were finally corrected for dead time and partial volume effects. Image analysis was performed using the commercial QSPECT software. The quantitative SPECT approach was validated on an anthropomorphic phantom provided with a home-made insert simulating a hepatic lesion. Quantitative accuracy was studied using three tumour-to-background activity concentration ratios (6:1, 9:1, 14:1). For all acquisitions, the recovered total activity was within 12% of the calibrated activity both in the background region and in the tumour. Using a 6:1 tumour-to-background ratio the recovered total activity was within 2% in the tumour and within 5% in the background. Partial volume effects, if not properly accounted for, can lead to significant activity underestimations in clinical conditions. In conclusion, accurate activity quantification of (177)Lu can be obtained if activity measurements are performed with equipment traceable to primary standards, advanced correction algorithms are used and acquisitions are performed at the 208keV photopeak using medium-energy collimators. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In Vivo Measurement and Characterization of a Novel Formulation of [177Lu]-DOTA-Octreotate

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Dale L; Hennessy, Thomas M; Willowson, Kathy P; Henry, E Courtney; Chan, David LH; Aslani, Alireza; Roach, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Lutetium-177 can be made with high specific activity and with no other isotopes of lutetium present, referred to as “No Carrier Added” (NCA) 177Lu. We have radiolabelled DOTA-conjugated peptide DOTA-(Tyr3)-octreotate with NCA 177Lu (“NCA-LuTATE”) and used it in nearly 40 therapeutic administrations for subjects with neuroendocrine tumours or meningiomas. In this paper, we report on our initial studies on aspects of the biodistribution and dosimetry of NCA-LuTATE from gamma camera 2D whole body (WB) and quantitative 3D SPECT (qSPECT) 177Lu imaging. Methods: Thirteen patients received 39 NCA-LuTATE injections. Extensive WB planar and qSPECT imaging was acquired at approximately 0.5, 4, 24 and 96 h to permit estimates of clearance and radiation dose estimation using MIRD-based methodology (OLINDA-EXM). Results: The average amount of NCA-Lutate administered per cycle was 7839±520 MBq. Bi-exponential modelling of whole body clearance showed half lives for the fast & slow components of t½=2.1±0.6 h and t½=58.1±6.6 h respectively. The average effective dose to kidneys was 3.1±1.0 Gy per cycle. In eight patients completing all treatment cycles the average total dose to kidneys was 11.7±3.6 Gy. Conclusions: We have shown that NCA-LuTATE has an acceptable radiation safety profile and is a suitable alternative to Carrier-Added 177Lu formulations. The fast component of the radiopharmaceutical clearance was closely correlated with baseline renal glomerular filtration rate, and this had an impact on radiation dose to the kidneys. In addition, it has less radioactive waste issues and requires less peptide per treatment. PMID:27904871

  12. Standardization and measurement of gamma-ray probability per decay of 177Lu.

    PubMed

    Dias, Mauro S; Silva, Fabrício F V; Koskinas, Marina F

    2010-01-01

    The procedure followed by the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (LMN), at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), for the primary standardization of (177)Lu is described. This radionuclide is widely used in radiopharmacy due to its convenient half-life and emitted beta ray energies. The (177)Lu solution was supplied during an international comparison sponsored by BIPM in 2009 and the primary standardization has been accomplished by the 4pibeta-gamma coincidence method using a proportional counter in 4pi geometry coupled with two NaI(Tl) scintillation counters. The beta efficiency was varied by placing Collodion and aluminum absorbers over and under the radioactive source. The (177)Lu calibrated sources were also measured in a previously calibrated HPGe spectrometer, in order to obtain the emission probability per decay for the selected gamma-ray transitions. The experimental extrapolation curves were also compared with Monte Carlo simulations by means of code ESQUEMA developed at the LMN. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. (177)Lu-DOTATATE treatment in neuroendocrine tumours. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hervás, I; Bello, P; Falgas, M; Del Olmo, M I; Torres, I; Olivas, C; Vera, V; Oliván, P; Yepes, A M

    Therapy with radiolabelled somatostatin analogue peptides is a promising new therapy to treat neuroendocrine tumours. The aim of this preliminary study is to present our experience with (177)Lu-DOTATATE therapy, and evaluate tolerability and short-term efficacy in patients with tumours expressing somatostatin receptors. A total of 7 patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumours were treated, each with 4 doses of (177)Lu-DOTATATE. The treatment response was evaluated in the form of biochemical response (tumour markers), imaging methods (somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance), and functional and quality of life responses using the Karnofsky performance status scale. Treatment toxicity was also evaluated. The results obtained were as follows: Biochemical response: 60% of patients showed tumour marker levels returning to normal, while they decreased significantly in the remaining 40%. Imaging response: 85.7% had a partial response, while 14.3% showed stable disease. All (100%) patients showed a significant improvement in quality of life, with increased Karnofsky scale scores. No patient had acute or chronic toxicity, and subacute transient haematological toxicity was observed in 42.8% of patients. Despite being a preliminary study, it was found that treatment with (177)Lu-DOTATATE is a safe treatment with few side effects, and an objective response was achieved in most patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiolabeling of monoclonal anti-CD105 with (177)Lu for potential use in radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Young; Hong, Young-Don; Felipe, Penelope M; Pyun, Mi-Sun; Choi, Sun-Ju

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we carried out a radioimmunoconjugation using (177)Lu with anti-CD105 (endoglin) monoclonal antibody for an angiogenesis targeting. CD105 has been shown to be a more useful marker to identify proliferating endothelium involved in tumor angiogenesis than panendothelial markers. We optimized the labeling of the anti-CD105 monoclonal antibody with (177)Lu by using cysteine derivative isothiocyanatobenzyl-DTPA (DTPA-NCS) as BFCA. Under the optimal conditions, labeling yield was greater than 99%. Immunoactivity of the radioimmunoconjugate was investigated using combinations of radioanalytical and bioanalytical techniques (ITLC-SG, Cyclone phosphorimager, SDS-PAGE and ELISA). For the biological evaluations we carried out a cell binding assay and a biodistribution study using mice bearing Calu6 lung cancer cell xenografts. The tumor-to-blood ratio was 11.16:1 24h post-injection. In conclusion, the anti-CD105 monoclonal antibody for an angiogenesis targeting was effectively radioconjugated with (177)Lu. And the biodistribution study showed a high specificity for accumulating in tumor tissues. This radioimmunoconjugate is applicable to detect angiogenesis sites in various diseases and to treat tumors.

  15. [177Lu-PSMA-617 therapy, dosimetry and follow-up in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Fendler, Wolfgang P; Kratochwil, Clemens; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Rahbar, Kambiz; Baum, Richard P; Schmidt, Matthias; Pfestroff, Andreas; Lützen, Ulf; Prasad, Vikas; Heinzel, Alexander; Heuschkel, Martin; Ruf, Juri; Bartenstein, Peter; Krause, Bernd J

    2016-06-28

    Radioligand therapy (RLT) using 177Lu labelled inhibitors of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (177Lu-PSMA) is performed in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) after exhaustion of other options. German University Clinics offer RLT since 2013 on a compassionate use basis. The present consensus document includes recommendations for RLT with 177Lu-PSMA-617. These consensus statements were developed by an expert panel formed by the German Society of Nuclear Medicine (DGN) in December 2015. Statements include recommendations for indication, baseline tests, therapy protocol, concomitant therapy, dosimetry, and follow-up. Consensus recommendations aim to inform the attending medical staff, standardize 177Lu-PSMA-617 RLT, and improve quality of individual patient care.

  16. Half-life measurement of the medical radioisotope 177Lu produced from the 176Yb(n,γ) reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, K. M.; Collins, S. M.; Fenwick, A. J.

    2017-09-01

    177Lu is a medium energy beta-emitter commonly used in Nuclear Medicine for radiotherapeutic applications. In this work, the half-life of 177Lu has been measured using a re-entrant ionisation chamber over a period of 82 days (approximately 12 half-lives). Unlike the majority of previous studies, the material used in this work was produced via the 176Yb(n,γ)177Yb reaction followed by the β-decay to 177Lu, producing insignificant quantities of 177mLu. This has resulted in the most precise half-life measurement of 177Lu to date. A half-life of 6.6430 (11) days has been determined. This value is in statistical agreement with the currently recommended half-life of 6.6463 (15) days (z-score = 1.8).

  17. Internal radiotherapy and dosimetric study for 111In/ 177Lu-pegylated liposomes conjugates in tumor-bearing mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsin-Ell; Yu, Hung-Man; Lu, Yi-Ching; Heish, Ning-Ning; Tseng, Yun-Long; Huang, Kuang-Liang; Chuang, Kuo-Tang; Chen, Chin-Hsiung; Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Ting, Gann; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Deng, Win-Ping

    2006-12-01

    In vivo characterization and dosimetric analysis has been performed to evaluate the potential of pegylated liposomes as carriers of radionuclides in tumor internal radiotherapy. MethodsThe DTPA/PEG-liposomes were synthesized with a medium size of 110 nm, conjugated with 111In/ 177Lu-(oxine) 3 to afford 111In/ 177Lu-liposome. The stability of 111In/ 177Lu-liposome in serum was investigated. The biodistribution, scintigraphic imaging and pharmacokinetics of 111In/ 177Lu-liposomes after intravenous(i.v.) injection into C-26 tumor-bearing BALB/cByJ mice were studied. Radiation dose was estimated by MIRD-III program. ResultsThe incorporation efficiency of 111In/ 177Lu into liposomes was 95%. After incubation at 37 °C for 72 h in serum, more than 83% of radioactivity was still retained in the intact 111In/ 177Lu-liposomes. The biodistribution of 111In-liposomes showed that the radioactivity in the blood decreased from 23.14±8.16%ID/g at 1 h to 0.02±0.00%ID/g at 72 h post-injection (p.i.), while reaching its maximum accumulation in tumors at 48 h p.i., with half-life in blood of 10.2 h. The results were supported by that of 177Lu-liposomes. Scintigraphic imaging with 111In-liposomes showed unambiguous tumor images at 48 h p.i. Dose estimation showed that the absorbed dose in tumor from 177Lu-liposomes was 5.74×10 -5 Gy/MBq. ConclusionsThis study provides an in vivo characterization and dosimetric evaluation for the use of liposome systems as carriers in targeted radionuclide therapy. The results suggest that adequate tumor targeting as well as dose delivered to tumors could be achieved by the use of radionuclide targeted liposomes.

  18. Somatostatin-based radiopeptide therapy with [177Lu-DOTA]-TOC versus [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Romer, A; Seiler, D; Marincek, N; Brunner, P; Koller, M T; Ng, Q K T; Maecke, H R; Müller-Brand, J; Rochlitz, C; Briel, M; Schindler, C; Walter, M A

    2014-02-01

    Somatostatin-based radiopeptide treatment is generally performed using the β-emitting radionuclides (90)Y or (177)Lu. The present study aimed at comparing benefits and harms of both therapeutic approaches. In a comparative cohort study, patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumours underwent repeated cycles of [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC or [(177)Lu-DOTA]-TOC until progression of disease or permanent adverse events. Multivariable Cox regression and competing risks regression were employed to examine predictors of survival and adverse events for both treatment groups. Overall, 910 patients underwent 1,804 cycles of [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC and 141 patients underwent 259 cycles of [(177)Lu-DOTA]-TOC. The median survival after [(177)Lu-DOTA]-TOC and after [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC was comparable (45.5 months versus 35.9 months, hazard ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.63-1.30, p = 0.49). Subgroup analyses revealed a significantly longer survival for [(177)Lu-DOTA]-TOC over [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with low tumour uptake, solitary lesions and extra-hepatic lesions. The rate of severe transient haematotoxicities was lower after [(177)Lu-DOTA]-TOC treatment (1.4 vs 10.1%, p = 0.001), while the rate of severe permanent renal toxicities was similar in both treatment groups (9.2 vs 7.8%, p = 0.32). The present results revealed no difference in median overall survival after [(177)Lu-DOTA]-TOC and [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC. Furthermore, [(177)Lu-DOTA]-TOC was less haematotoxic than [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC.

  19. Gamma camera calibration and validation for quantitative SPECT imaging with (177)Lu.

    PubMed

    D'Arienzo, M; Cazzato, M; Cozzella, M L; Cox, M; D'Andrea, M; Fazio, A; Fenwick, A; Iaccarino, G; Johansson, L; Strigari, L; Ungania, S; De Felice, P

    2016-06-01

    Over the last years (177)Lu has received considerable attention from the clinical nuclear medicine community thanks to its wide range of applications in molecular radiotherapy, especially in peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). In addition to short-range beta particles, (177)Lu emits low energy gamma radiation of 113keV and 208keV that allows gamma camera quantitative imaging. Despite quantitative cancer imaging in molecular radiotherapy having been proven to be a key instrument for the assessment of therapeutic response, at present no general clinically accepted quantitative imaging protocol exists and absolute quantification studies are usually based on individual initiatives. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate an approach to gamma camera calibration for absolute quantification in tomographic imaging with (177)Lu. We assessed the gamma camera calibration factors for a Philips IRIX and Philips AXIS gamma camera system using various reference geometries, both in air and in water. Images were corrected for the major effects that contribute to image degradation, i.e. attenuation, scatter and dead- time. We validated our method in non-reference geometry using an anthropomorphic torso phantom provided with the liver cavity uniformly filled with (177)LuCl3. Our results showed that calibration factors depend on the particular reference condition. In general, acquisitions performed with the IRIX gamma camera provided good results at 208keV, with agreement within 5% for all geometries. The use of a Jaszczak 16mL hollow sphere in water provided calibration factors capable of recovering the activity in anthropomorphic geometry within 1% for the 208keV peak, for both gamma cameras. The point source provided the poorest results, most likely because scatter and attenuation correction are not incorporated in the calibration factor. However, for both gamma cameras all geometries provided calibration factors capable of recovering the activity in

  20. Specific radioactivity of neutron induced radioisotopes: assessment methods and application for medically useful 177Lu production as a case.

    PubMed

    Le, Van So

    2011-01-19

    The conventional reaction yield evaluation for radioisotope production is not sufficient to set up the optimal conditions for producing radionuclide products of the desired radiochemical quality. Alternatively, the specific radioactivity (SA) assessment, dealing with the relationship between the affecting factors and the inherent properties of the target and impurities, offers a way to optimally perform the irradiation for production of the best quality radioisotopes for various applications, especially for targeting radiopharmaceutical preparation. Neutron-capture characteristics, target impurity, side nuclear reactions, target burn-up and post-irradiation processing/cooling time are the main parameters affecting the SA of the radioisotope product. These parameters have been incorporated into the format of mathematical equations for the reaction yield and SA assessment. As a method demonstration, the SA assessment of 177Lu produced based on two different reactions, 176Lu (n,γ)177Lu and 176Yb (n,γ) 177Yb (β- decay) 177Lu, were performed. The irradiation time required for achieving a maximum yield and maximum SA value was evaluated for production based on the 176Lu (n,γ)177Lu reaction. The effect of several factors (such as elemental Lu and isotopic impurities) on the 177Lu SA degradation was evaluated for production based on the 176Yb (n,γ) 177Yb (β- decay) 177Lu reaction. The method of SA assessment of a mixture of several radioactive sources was developed for the radioisotope produced in a reactor from different targets.

  1. [beta-Radiation exposure with (188)Re-labelled pharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Andreeff, M; Wunderlich, G; Behge, K; Schönmuth, Th; Kotzerke, J

    2005-01-01

    The number of therapies with radiopharmaceuticals labelled with (188)Re is increasing requiring the documentation of the beta radiation exposure Hp(0.07) of the staff at all working and production sites and during the application and follow-up of the patient according to the new German Radiation Protection Law (StrlSchV). However, data for beta-radiation exposure are rare. Therefore, we determined the personal dose Hp(0.07) of the skin of the hands handling (188)Re radiopharmaceuticals to identify steps of high radiation exposure and to optimize working conditions. Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD 100) were fixed to the fingertips of the radiochemist, the physician and the nurse and compared to official ring dosimeters. In addition, to monitor radiation exposure continuously readable electronic beta- and gamma dosimeters EPD (Siemens) were used. At eight days in which therapies were performed these readings were evaluated. Considering one therapy with a (188)Re-labelled radiopharmaceutical the middle finger of the radiochemist (production) and the physician (application) showed a radiation burden of 894 and 664 muSv/GBq, respectively. The cumulative dose of the fingertips after eight days of therapy was 249 and 110 mSv for the radiochemist and physician, respectively. A cumulative finger dose after eight days of therapy of 17 and 38 muSv/GBq was found for physician and nurse leading to a Hp(0.07) of 3 and 6 mSv, respectively. Preparing the radiopharmaceutical labelled with 20GBq of (188)Re the reading of the personal electronic dosimeter of the radiochemist showed a gamma-dose rate Hp(10) of 55 muSv/h and a beta-dose rate Hp(0.07) of 663 muSv/h which are obviously not representative for the true radiation dose to the skin of the fingertips. During therapy with (188)Re-labelled radiopharmaceuticals the true radiation dose to the skin of the finger tips exceeds by far the readings of the official ring dosimeters as well as the continuously readable beta- and gamma

  2. Biodistribution, Pharmacokinetics, and Dosimetry of (177)Lu-, (90)Y-, and (111)In-Labeled Somatostatin Receptor Antagonist OPS201 in Comparison to the Agonist (177)Lu-DOTATATE: The Mass Effect.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Guillaume P; Mansi, Rosalba; McDougall, Lisa; Kaufmann, Jens; Bouterfa, Hakim; Wild, Damian; Fani, Melpomeni

    2017-09-01

    Radiolabeled somatostatin receptor (SSTR) antagonists have shown in vivo higher uptake in SSTR-expressing tumors than agonists. In this preclinical study, the SSTR2 antagonist OPS201 (DOTA-JR11; DOTA-[Cpa-c(DCys-Aph(Hor)-DAph(Cbm)-Lys-Thr-Cys)-DTyr-NH2]) labeled with (177)Lu, (90)Y, and (111)In was compared with the SSTR2 agonist (177)Lu-DOTATATE. Methods: Biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, SPECT/CT, and dosimetry studies were performed to assess the bioequivalence of all radiotracers. Use of escalated peptide mass and nephroprotective agents were systematically investigated. Results: The tumor residence time was 15.6 h (13.4-17.7) for (177)Lu-OPS201 (10 pmol) and 6.4 h (5.4-7.3) for (177)Lu-DOTATATE, resulting in a 2.5-times-higher tumor dose for the antagonist than for the agonist (0.854 vs. 0.333 mGy/MBq for a 4-cm tumor). The overall tumor-to-kidney dose ratio was approximately 24% and 32% higher for (177)Lu-OPS201 than for (90)Y-OPS201 and (177)Lu-DOTATATE, respectively. (111)In-OPS201 had a biodistribution significantly different from (90)Y-OPS201 and is therefore not a surrogate for (90)Y-OPS201 dosimetry studies. Importantly, and in contrast to (177)Lu-DOTATATE, injection of 10, 200, and 2,000 pmol of (177)Lu-OPS201 did not cause any relevant tumor saturation, with tumor uptake 4 h after injection: 23.9, 24.9, and 18.8 percentage of injected activity per gram of tissue (%IA/g), respectively, for the antagonist (P > 0.05), as compared with 17.8, 12.0, and 9.9 %IA/g for the agonist (P < 0.05). Increasing the peptide mass of (177)Lu-OPS201 from 10 to 200 pmol drastically decreased the effective dose from 0.0908 to 0.0184 mSv/MBq and decreased the uptake in the liver, bone marrow, and all SSTR2-expressing organs; thus, the therapeutic index improved considerably. Lysine and succinylated gelatine, alone or in combination, significantly reduced the renal dose of (177)Lu-OPS201 compared with the control group, by 45%, 25%, and 40%, respectively (P < 0.05). The

  3. 177Lu-labeled HPMA Copolymers Utilizing Cathepsin B and S Cleavable Linkers: Synthesis, Characterization and Preliminary In Vivo Investigation in a Pancreatic Cancer Model

    PubMed Central

    Ogbomo, Sunny M.; Shi, Wen; Wagh, Nilesh K; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Brusnahan, Susan K.; Garrison, Jered C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A major barrier to the advancement of therapeutic nanomedicines has been the non-target toxicity caused by the accumulation of the drug delivery systems in organs associated with the reticuloendothelial system, particularly the liver and spleen. Herein, we report the development of peptide based metabolically active linkers (MALs) that are enzymatically cleaved by cysteine cathepsin B and S, two proteases highly expressed in the liver and spleen. The overall goal of this approach is to utilize the MALs to lower the non-target retention and toxicity of radiolabeled drug delivery systems, thus resulting in higher diagnostic and radiotherapeutic efficacy. Methods In this study three MALs (MAL0, MAL1 and MAL2) were investigated. MAL1 and MAL2 are composed of known substrates of cathepsin B and S, respectively, while MAL0 is a non-cleavable control. Both MAL1 and MAL2 were shown to undergo enzymatic cleavage with the appropriate cathepsin protease. Subsequent to conjugation to the HPMA copolymer and radiolabeling with 177Lu, the peptide-polymer conjugates were renamed 177Lu- metabolically active copolymers (177Lu-MACs) with the corresponding designation 177Lu-MAC0, 177Lu-MAC1 and 177Lu-MAC2. Results In vivo evaluation of the 177Lu-MACs was performed in a HPAC human pancreatic cancer xenograft mouse model. 177Lu-MAC1 and 177Lu-MAC2 demonstrated 3.1 and 2.1 fold lower liver retention, respectively, compared to control (177Lu-MAC0) at 72 h post-injection. With regard to spleen retention, 177Lu-MAC1 and 177Lu-MAC2 each exhibited a nearly fourfold lower retention, relative to control, at the 72 h time point. However, the tumor accumulation of the 177Lu-MAC0 was two to three times greater than 177Lu-MAC1 and 177Lu-MAC2 at the same time point. The MAL approach demonstrated the capability of substantially reducing the non-target retention of the 177Lu-labeled HPMA copolymers. Conclusions While further studies are needed to optimize the pharmacokinetics of the 177Lu

  4. Improving quantitative dosimetry in (177)Lu-DOTATATE SPECT by energy window-based scatter corrections.

    PubMed

    de Nijs, Robin; Lagerburg, Vera; Klausen, Thomas L; Holm, Søren

    2014-05-01

    Patient-specific dosimetry of lutetium-177 ((177)Lu)-DOTATATE treatment in neuroendocrine tumours is important, because uptake differs across patients. Single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT)-based dosimetry requires a conversion factor between the obtained counts and the activity, which depends on the collimator type, the utilized energy windows and the applied scatter correction techniques. In this study, energy window subtraction-based scatter correction methods are compared experimentally and quantitatively. (177)Lu SPECT images of a phantom with known activity concentration ratio between the uniform background and filled hollow spheres were acquired for three different collimators: low-energy high resolution (LEHR), low-energy general purpose (LEGP) and medium-energy general purpose (MEGP). Counts were collected in several energy windows, and scatter correction was performed by applying different methods such as effective scatter source estimation (ESSE), triple-energy and dual-energy window, double-photopeak window and downscatter correction. The intensity ratio between the spheres and the background was measured and corrected for the partial volume effect and used to compare the performance of the methods. Low-energy collimators combined with 208 keV energy windows give rise to artefacts. For the 113 keV energy window, large differences were observed in the ratios for the spheres. For MEGP collimators with the ESSE correction technique, the measured ratio was close to the real ratio, and the differences between spheres were small. For quantitative (177)Lu imaging MEGP collimators are advised. Both energy peaks can be utilized when the ESSE correction technique is applied. The difference between the calculated and the real ratio is less than 10% for both energy windows.

  5. Improving quantitative dosimetry in 177Lu-DOTATATE SPECT by energy window-based scatter corrections

    PubMed Central

    Lagerburg, Vera; Klausen, Thomas L.; Holm, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Patient-specific dosimetry of lutetium-177 (177Lu)-DOTATATE treatment in neuroendocrine tumours is important, because uptake differs across patients. Single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT)-based dosimetry requires a conversion factor between the obtained counts and the activity, which depends on the collimator type, the utilized energy windows and the applied scatter correction techniques. In this study, energy window subtraction-based scatter correction methods are compared experimentally and quantitatively. Materials and methods 177Lu SPECT images of a phantom with known activity concentration ratio between the uniform background and filled hollow spheres were acquired for three different collimators: low-energy high resolution (LEHR), low-energy general purpose (LEGP) and medium-energy general purpose (MEGP). Counts were collected in several energy windows, and scatter correction was performed by applying different methods such as effective scatter source estimation (ESSE), triple-energy and dual-energy window, double-photopeak window and downscatter correction. The intensity ratio between the spheres and the background was measured and corrected for the partial volume effect and used to compare the performance of the methods. Results Low-energy collimators combined with 208 keV energy windows give rise to artefacts. For the 113 keV energy window, large differences were observed in the ratios for the spheres. For MEGP collimators with the ESSE correction technique, the measured ratio was close to the real ratio, and the differences between spheres were small. Conclusion For quantitative 177Lu imaging MEGP collimators are advised. Both energy peaks can be utilized when the ESSE correction technique is applied. The difference between the calculated and the real ratio is less than 10% for both energy windows. PMID:24525900

  6. German Multicenter Study Investigating 177Lu-PSMA-617 Radioligand Therapy in Advanced Prostate Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Kambiz; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Kratochwil, Clemens; Haberkorn, Uwe; Schäfers, Michael; Essler, Markus; Baum, Richard P; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Schmidt, Matthias; Drzezga, Alexander; Bartenstein, Peter; Pfestroff, Andreas; Luster, Markus; Lützen, Ulf; Marx, Marlies; Prasad, Vikas; Brenner, Winfried; Heinzel, Alexander; Mottaghy, Felix M; Ruf, Juri; Meyer, Philipp Tobias; Heuschkel, Martin; Eveslage, Maria; Bögemann, Martin; Fendler, Wolfgang Peter; Krause, Bernd Joachim

    2017-01-01

    (177)Lu-labeled PSMA-617 is a promising new therapeutic agent for radioligand therapy (RLT) of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Initiated by the German Society of Nuclear Medicine, a retrospective multicenter data analysis was started in 2015 to evaluate efficacy and safety of (177)Lu-PSMA-617 in a large cohort of patients. One hundred forty-five patients (median age, 73 y; range, 43-88 y) with mCRPC were treated with (177)Lu-PSMA-617 in 12 therapy centers between February 2014 and July 2015 with 1-4 therapy cycles and an activity range of 2-8 GBq per cycle. Toxicity was categorized by the common toxicity criteria for adverse events (version 4.0) on the basis of serial blood tests and the attending physician's report. The primary endpoint for efficacy was biochemical response as defined by a prostate-specific antigen decline ≥ 50% from baseline to at least 2 wk after the start of RLT. A total of 248 therapy cycles were performed in 145 patients. Data for biochemical response in 99 patients as well as data for physician-reported and laboratory-based toxicity in 145 and 121 patients, respectively, were available. The median follow-up was 16 wk (range, 2-30 wk). Nineteen patients died during the observation period. Grade 3-4 hematotoxicity occurred in 18 patients: 10%, 4%, and 3% of the patients experienced anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia, respectively. Xerostomia occurred in 8%. The overall biochemical response rate was 45% after all therapy cycles, whereas 40% of patients already responded after a single cycle. Elevated alkaline phosphatase and the presence of visceral metastases were negative predictors and the total number of therapy cycles positive predictors of biochemical response. The present retrospective multicenter study of (177)Lu-PSMA-617 RLT demonstrates favorable safety and high efficacy exceeding those of other third-line systemic therapies in mCRPC patients. Future phase II/III studies are warranted to

  7. Synthesis and Evaluation of a New Bifunctional NETA Chelate for Molecular Targeted Radiotherapy Using 90Y or 177Lu

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chi Soo; Chen, Yunwei; Lee, Hyunbeom; Liu, Dijie; Sun, Xiang; Kweon, Junghun; Lewis, Michael R.; Chong, Hyun-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Therapeutic potential of β-emitting cytotoxic radionuclides 90Y and 177Lu have been demonstrated in numerous preclinical and clinical trials. A bifunctional chelate that can effectively complex with the radioisotopes is a critical component for molecular targeted radiotherapy 90Y and 177Lu. A new bifunctional chelate 5p-C-NETA with a relatively long alkyl spacer between the chelating backbone and the functional unit for conjugation to a tumor targeting moiety was synthesized. 5p-C-NETA was conjugated to a model targeting moiety, a cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys (RGDyK) peptide binding integrin αvβ3 protein overexpressed on various cancers. 5p-C-NETA was conjugated to c(RGDyK) peptide and evaluated for potential use in molecular targeted radiotherapy of 90Y and 177Lu. Methods 5p-C-NETA conjugated with c(RGDyK) was evaluated in vitro for radiolabeling, serum stability, binding affinity, and the result of the in vitro studies of 5p-C-NETA-c(RGDyK) was compared to that of 3p-CNETA-c(RGDyK). 177Lu-5p-C-NETA-c(RGDyK) was further evaluated for in vivo biodistribution using gliobastoma bearing mice. Result The new chelate rapidly and tightly bound to a cytotoxic radioisotope for cancer therapy, 90Y or 177Lu with excellent radiolabeling efficiency and maximum specific activity under mild condition (>99%, RT, <1 min). 90Y- and 177Lu-radiolabeled complexes of the new chelator remained stable in human serum without any loss of the radiolanthanide for 14 days. Introduction of the tumor targeting RGD moiety to the new chelator made little impact on complexation kinetics and stability with 90Y or 177Lu. 177Lu-radiolabeled 5p-C-NETA-c(RGDyK) conjugate was shown to target tumors in mice and produced a favorable in vivo stability profile. Conclusion The results of in vitro and in vivo evaluation suggest that 5p-C-NETA is an effective bifunctional chelate of 90Y and 177Lu that can be applied for generation of versatile molecular targeted radiopharmaceuticals. PMID

  8. Comparative Efficacy of 177Lu and 90Y for Anti-CD20 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in Murine Lymphoma Xenograft Models

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Miller, Brian W.; Orozco, Johnnie J.; Booth, Garrett C.; Hylarides, Mark D.; Lin, Yukang; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Pagel, John M.; Bäck, Tom A.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Press, Oliver W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) is a multi-step method of selectively delivering high doses of radiotherapy to tumor cells while minimizing exposure to surrounding tissues. Yttrium-90 (90Y) and lutetium-177 (177Lu) are two of the most promising beta-particle emitting radionuclides used for radioimmunotherapy, which despite having similar chemistries differ distinctly in terms of radiophysical features. These differences may have important consequences for the absorbed dose to tumors and normal organs. Whereas 90Y has been successfully applied in a number of preclinical and clinical radioimmunotherapy settings, there have been few published pretargeting studies with 177Lu. We therefore compared the therapeutic potential of targeting either 90Y or 177Lu to human B-cell lymphoma xenografts in mice. Methods Parallel experiments evaluating the biodistribution, imaging, dosimetry, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity were performed in female athymic nude mice bearing either Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma) or Granta (mantle cell lymphoma) xenografts, utilizing an anti-CD20 antibody-streptavidin conjugate (1F5-SA) and an 90Y- or 177Lu-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-biotin second step reagent. Results The two radionuclides displayed comparable biodistributions in tumors and normal organs; however, the absorbed radiation dose delivered to tumor was more than twice as high for 90Y (1.3 Gy/MBq) as for 177Lu (0.6 Gy/MBq). More importantly, therapy with 90Y-DOTA-biotin was dramatically more effective than with 177Lu-DOTA-biotin, with 100% of Ramos xenograft-bearing mice cured with 37 MBq 90Y, whereas 0% were cured using identical amounts of 177Lu-DOTA-biotin. Similar results were observed in mice bearing Granta xenografts, with 80% of the mice cured with 90Y-PRIT and 0% cured with 177Lu-PRIT. Toxicities were comparable with both isotopes. Conclusion 90Y was therapeutically superior to 177Lu for streptavidin-biotin PRIT approaches in

  9. Comparative efficacy of 177Lu and 90Y for Anti-CD20 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in Murine Lymphoma Xenograft Models

    DOE PAGES

    Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Miller, Brian W.; ...

    2015-03-18

    Purpose Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) is a multi-step method of selectively delivering high doses of radiotherapy to tumor cells while minimizing exposure to surrounding tissues. Yttrium-90 (90Y) and lutetium-177 (177Lu) are two of the most promising beta-particle emitting radionuclides used for radioimmunotherapy, which despite having similar chemistries differ distinctly in terms of radiophysical features. These differences may have important consequences for the absorbed dose to tumors and normal organs. Whereas 90Y has been successfully applied in a number of preclinical and clinical radioimmunotherapy settings, there have been few published pretargeting studies with 177Lu. We therefore compared the therapeutic potential of targetingmore » either 90Y or 177Lu to human B-cell lymphoma xenografts in mice. Methods Parallel experiments evaluating the biodistribution, imaging, dosimetry, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity were performed in female athymic nude mice bearing either Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma) or Granta (mantle cell lymphoma) xenografts, utilizing an anti-CD20 antibodystreptavidin conjugate (1F5-SA) and an 90Y- or 177Lu-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-biotin second step reagent. Results The two radionuclides displayed comparable biodistributions in tumors and normal organs; however, the absorbed radiation dose delivered to tumor was more than twice as high for 90Y (1.3 Gy/MBq) as for 177Lu (0.6 Gy/MBq). More importantly, therapy with 90Y-DOTAbiotin was dramatically more effective than with 177Lu-DOTA-biotin, with 100% of Ramos xenograft-bearing mice cured with 37 MBq 90Y, whereas 0% were cured using identical amounts of 177Lu-DOTA-biotin. Similar results were observed in mice bearing Granta xenografts, with 80% of the mice cured with 90Y-PRIT and 0% cured with 177Lu-PRIT. Toxicities were comparable with both isotopes. Conclusion 90Y was therapeutically superior to 177Lu for streptavidin-biotin PRIT

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of a new bifunctional NETA chelate for molecular targeted radiotherapy using(90)Y or(177)Lu.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chi Soo; Chen, Yunwei; Lee, Hyunbeom; Liu, Dijie; Sun, Xiang; Kweon, Junghun; Lewis, Michael R; Chong, Hyun-Soon

    2015-03-01

    Therapeutic potential of β-emitting cytotoxic radionuclides (90)Y and (177)Lu has been demonstrated in numerous preclinical and clinical trials. A bifunctional chelate that can effectively complex with the radioisotopes is a critical component for molecular targeted radiotherapy (90)Y and (177)Lu. A new bifunctional chelate 5p-C-NETA with a relatively long alkyl spacer between the chelating backbone and the functional unit for conjugation to a tumor targeting moiety was synthesized. 5p-C-NETA was conjugated to a model targeting moiety, a cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys (RGDyK) peptide binding integrin αvβ3 protein overexpressed on various cancers. 5p-C-NETA was conjugated to c(RGDyK) peptide and evaluated for potential use in molecular targeted radiotherapy of (90)Y and (177)Lu. 5p-C-NETA conjugated with c(RGDyK) was evaluated in vitro for radiolabeling, serum stability, binding affinity, and the result of the in vitro studies of 5p-C-NETA-c(RGDyK) was compared to that of 3p-C-NETA-c(RGDyK). (177)Lu-5p-C-NETA-c(RGDyK) was further evaluated for in vivo biodistribution using gliobastoma bearing mice. The new chelate rapidly and tightly bound to a cytotoxic radioisotope for cancer therapy, (90)Y or (177)Lu with excellent radiolabeling efficiency and maximum specific activity under mild condition (>99%, RT, <1 min). (90)Y- and (177)Lu-radiolabeled complexes of the new chelator remained stable in human serum without any loss of the radiolanthanide for 14 days. Introduction of the tumor targeting RGD moiety to the new chelator made little impact on complexation kinetics and stability with (90)Y or (177)Lu. (177)Lu-radiolabeled 5p-C-NETA-c(RGDyK) conjugate was shown to target tumors in mice and produced a favorable in vivo stability profile. The results of in vitro and in vivo evaluation suggest that 5p-C-NETA is an effective bifunctional chelate of (90)Y and (177)Lu that can be applied for generation of versatile molecular targeted radiopharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014

  11. Comparative efficacy of 177Lu and 90Y for anti-CD20 pretargeted radioimmunotherapy in murine lymphoma xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Frost, Sofia H L; Frayo, Shani L; Miller, Brian W; Orozco, Johnnie J; Booth, Garrett C; Hylarides, Mark D; Lin, Yukang; Green, Damian J; Gopal, Ajay K; Pagel, John M; Bäck, Tom A; Fisher, Darrell R; Press, Oliver W

    2015-01-01

    Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) is a multi-step method of selectively delivering high doses of radiotherapy to tumor cells while minimizing exposure to surrounding tissues. Yttrium-90 (90Y) and lutetium-177 (177Lu) are two of the most promising beta-particle emitting radionuclides used for radioimmunotherapy, which despite having similar chemistries differ distinctly in terms of radiophysical features. These differences may have important consequences for the absorbed dose to tumors and normal organs. Whereas 90Y has been successfully applied in a number of preclinical and clinical radioimmunotherapy settings, there have been few published pretargeting studies with 177Lu. We therefore compared the therapeutic potential of targeting either 90Y or 177Lu to human B-cell lymphoma xenografts in mice. Parallel experiments evaluating the biodistribution, imaging, dosimetry, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity were performed in female athymic nude mice bearing either Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma) or Granta (mantle cell lymphoma) xenografts, utilizing an anti-CD20 antibody-streptavidin conjugate (1F5-SA) and an 90Y- or 177Lu-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-biotin second step reagent. The two radionuclides displayed comparable biodistributions in tumors and normal organs; however, the absorbed radiation dose delivered to tumor was more than twice as high for 90Y (1.3 Gy/MBq) as for 177Lu (0.6 Gy/MBq). More importantly, therapy with 90Y-DOTA-biotin was dramatically more effective than with 177Lu-DOTA-biotin, with 100% of Ramos xenograft-bearing mice cured with 37 MBq 90Y, whereas 0% were cured using identical amounts of 177Lu-DOTA-biotin. Similar results were observed in mice bearing Granta xenografts, with 80% of the mice cured with 90Y-PRIT and 0% cured with 177Lu-PRIT. Toxicities were comparable with both isotopes. 90Y was therapeutically superior to 177Lu for streptavidin-biotin PRIT approaches in these human lymphoma xenograft

  12. H4octapa-Trastuzumab: Versatile Acyclic Chelate System for 111In and 177Lu Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Price, Eric W.; Zeglis, Brian M.; Cawthray, Jacqueline F.; Ramogida, Caterina F.; Ramos, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    A bifunctional derivative of the versatile acyclic chelator H4octapa, p-SCNBn- H4octapa, has been synthesized for the first time. The chelator was conjugated to the HER2/neu-targeting antibody trastuzumab and labeled in high radiochemical purity and specific activity with the radioisotopes 111In and 177Lu. The in vivo behavior of the resulting radioimmunoconjugates was investigated in mice bearing ovarian cancer xenografts and compared to analogous radioimmunoconjugates employing the ubiquitous chelator DOTA. The H4octapa-trastuzumab conjugates displayed faster radiolabeling kinetics with more reproducible yields under milder conditions (15 min, RT, ~94–95%) than those based on DOTA-trastuzumab (60 min, 37 °C ~50–88%). Further, antibody integrity was better preserved in the 111In- and 177Lu-octapatrastuzumab constructs, with immunoreactive fractions of 0.99 for each compared to 0.93–0.95 for 111In- and 177Lu-DOTA-trastuzumab. These results translated to improved in vivo biodistribution profiles and SPECT imaging results for 111In- and 177Lu-octapa-trastuzumab compared to 111In- and 177Lu-DOTA-trastuzumab, with increased tumor uptake and higher tumor-to-tissue activity ratios. PMID:23901833

  13. [(177)Lu-PSMA therapy : Current evidence for use in the treatment of patients with metastatic prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Boegemann, M; Schrader, A J; Rahbar, K

    2017-10-06

    Despite significant progress in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in recent years (including agents targeting androgen receptor signaling, chemotherapy, and (223)Ra), most of these patients still succumb to prostate cancer. Recently, (177)lutetium prostate-specific membrane antigen radioligand therapy ((177)Lu-PSMA-RLT) has been increasingly used within compassionate use provisions in these patients in Germany and showed promising efficacy. Establishment of the current position of (177)Lu-PSMA-RLT in mCRPC in 2017. Presentation of the therapy landscape in mCRPC and the current challenges within treatment and survey of the available data on (177)Lu-PSMA-RLT after PubMed-based research. In several larger retrospective studies, (177)Lu-PSMA-RLT seems to be an encouraging new option with the potential to extend overall survival while displaying a favorable toxicity profile. Prospective trials are urgently needed to confirm these encouraging results found in retrospective analyses with (177)Lu-PSMA-RLT in the treatment of mCRPC.

  14. 177Lu-DOTA-HH1, a Novel Anti-CD37 Radio-Immunoconjugate: A Study of Toxicity in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Repetto-Llamazares, Ada H. V.; Larsen, Roy H.; Giusti, Anna Maria; Riccardi, Elena; Bruland, Øyvind S.; Selbo, Pål Kristian; Dahle, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Background CD37 is an internalizing B-cell antigen expressed on Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells (CLL). The anti-CD37 monoclonal antibody HH1 was conjugated to the bifunctional chelator p-SCN-Bn-DOTA and labelled with the beta-particle emitting radionuclide 177Lu creating the radio-immunoconjugate (RIC) 177Lu-DOTA-HH1 (177Lu-HH1, trade name Betalutin). The present toxicity study was performed prior to initiation of clinical studieswith 177Lu-HH1. Methodology/Principal Findings Nude mice with or without tumor xenografts were treated with 50 to 1000 MBq/kg 177Lu- HH1 and followed for clinical signs of toxicity up to ten months. Acute, life threatening bone marrow toxicity was observed in animals receiving 800 and 1000 MBq/kg 177Lu-HH1. Significant changes in serum concentrations of liver enzymes were evident for treatment with 1000 MBq/kg 177Lu-HH1. Lymphoid depletion, liver necrosis and atrophy, and interstitial cell hyperplasia of the ovaries were also observed for mice in this dose group. Conclusions/Significance 177Lu-DOTA-HH1 was well tolerated at dosages about 10 times above those considered relevant for radioimmunotherapy in patients with B-cell derived malignancies.The toxicity profile was as expected for RICs. Our experimental results have paved the way for clinical evaluation of 177Lu-HH1 in NHL patients. PMID:25068508

  15. Realistic multi-cellular dosimetry for 177Lu-labelled antibodies: model and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcatili, S.; Pichard, A.; Courteau, A.; Ladjohounlou, R.; Navarro-Teulon, I.; Repetto-Llamazares, A.; Heyerdahl, H.; Dahle, J.; Pouget, J. P.; Bardiès, M.

    2016-10-01

    Current preclinical dosimetric models often fail to take account of the complex nature of absorbed dose distribution typical of in vitro clonogenic experiments in targeted radionuclide therapy. For this reason, clonogenic survival is often expressed as a function of added activity rather than the absorbed dose delivered to cells/cell nuclei. We designed a multi-cellular dosimetry model that takes into account the realistic distributions of cells in the Petri dish, for the establishment of survival curves as a function of the absorbed dose. General-purpose software tools were used for the generation of realistic, randomised 3D cell culture geometries based on experimentally determined parameters (cell size, cell density, cluster density, average cluster size, cell cumulated activity). A mixture of Monte Carlo and analytical approaches was implemented in order to achieve as accurate as possible results while reducing calculation time. The model was here applied to clonogenic survival experiments carried out to compare the efficacy of Betalutin®, a novel 177Lu-labelled antibody radionuclide conjugate for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, to that of 177Lu-labelled CD20-specific (rituximab) and non-specific antibodies (Erbitux) on lymphocyte B cells. The 3D cellular model developed allowed a better understanding of the radiative and non-radiative processes associated with cellular death. Our approach is generic and can also be applied to other radiopharmaceuticals and cell distributions.

  16. Uncertainty propagation for SPECT/CT-based renal dosimetry in 177Lu peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Johan; Brolin, Gustav; Cox, Maurice; Ljungberg, Michael; Johansson, Lena; Sjögreen Gleisner, Katarina

    2015-11-01

    A computer model of a patient-specific clinical 177Lu-DOTATATE therapy dosimetry system is constructed and used for investigating the variability of renal absorbed dose and biologically effective dose (BED) estimates. As patient models, three anthropomorphic computer phantoms coupled to a pharmacokinetic model of 177Lu-DOTATATE are used. Aspects included in the dosimetry-process model are the gamma-camera calibration via measurement of the system sensitivity, selection of imaging time points, generation of mass-density maps from CT, SPECT imaging, volume-of-interest delineation, calculation of absorbed-dose rate via a combination of local energy deposition for electrons and Monte Carlo simulations of photons, curve fitting and integration to absorbed dose and BED. By introducing variabilities in these steps the combined uncertainty in the output quantity is determined. The importance of different sources of uncertainty is assessed by observing the decrease in standard deviation when removing a particular source. The obtained absorbed dose and BED standard deviations are approximately 6% and slightly higher if considering the root mean square error. The most important sources of variability are the compensation for partial volume effects via a recovery coefficient and the gamma-camera calibration via the system sensitivity.

  17. Realistic multi-cellular dosimetry for (177)Lu-labelled antibodies: model and application.

    PubMed

    Marcatili, S; Pichard, A; Courteau, A; Ladjohounlou, R; Navarro-Teulon, I; Repetto-Llamazares, A; Heyerdahl, H; Dahle, J; Pouget, J P; Bardiès, M

    2016-10-07

    Current preclinical dosimetric models often fail to take account of the complex nature of absorbed dose distribution typical of in vitro clonogenic experiments in targeted radionuclide therapy. For this reason, clonogenic survival is often expressed as a function of added activity rather than the absorbed dose delivered to cells/cell nuclei. We designed a multi-cellular dosimetry model that takes into account the realistic distributions of cells in the Petri dish, for the establishment of survival curves as a function of the absorbed dose. General-purpose software tools were used for the generation of realistic, randomised 3D cell culture geometries based on experimentally determined parameters (cell size, cell density, cluster density, average cluster size, cell cumulated activity). A mixture of Monte Carlo and analytical approaches was implemented in order to achieve as accurate as possible results while reducing calculation time. The model was here applied to clonogenic survival experiments carried out to compare the efficacy of Betalutin(®), a novel (177)Lu-labelled antibody radionuclide conjugate for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, to that of (177)Lu-labelled CD20-specific (rituximab) and non-specific antibodies (Erbitux) on lymphocyte B cells. The 3D cellular model developed allowed a better understanding of the radiative and non-radiative processes associated with cellular death. Our approach is generic and can also be applied to other radiopharmaceuticals and cell distributions.

  18. Comparative Efficacy of 177Lu and 90Y for Anti-CD20 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in Murine Lymphoma Xenograft Models

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, Sophia; Frayo, Shani; Miller, Brian W.; Orozco, Johnnie J.; Booth, Garrett C.; Hylarides, Mark; Lin, Yukang; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Pagel, John M.; Back, Tom; Fisher, Darrell R.; Press, Oliver W.

    2015-03-01

    Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) is a multi-step method of selectively delivering high doses of radiotherapy to tumor cells while minimizing exposure to surrounding tissues. Yttrium-90 (90Y) and lutetium-177 (177Lu) are two of the most promising beta-particle emitting radionuclides used for radioimmunotherapy, which despite having similar chemistries differ distinctly in terms of radiophysical features. These differences may have important consequences for the absorbed dose to tumors and normal organs. Whereas 90Y has been successfully applied in a number of preclinical and clinical radioimmunotherapy settings, there have been few published pretargeting studies with 177Lu. We therefore compared the therapeutic potential of targeting either 90Y or 177Lu to human B-cell lymphoma xenografts in mice.

  19. Evaluation of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Bevacizumab as a radioimmunotherapy agent targeting VEGF expressing cancers.

    PubMed

    Kameswaran, Mythili; Pandey, Usha; Gamre, Naresh; Vimalnath, K V; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at the preparation and evaluation of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Bevacizumab for targeting VEGF over-expressing cancers. Bevacizumab conjugated to p-NCS-Bn-CHX-A''-DTPA was radiolabeled with (177)Lu. The radioimmunoconjugate characterized by SE-HPLC exhibited radiochemical purity of 98.0±0.6%. In vitro stability was retained upto 4 days at 37°C. In vitro cell binding studies showed good uptake by VEGF expressing U937 tumor cells. Biodistribution studies in melanoma model showed significant uptake and retention of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Bevacizumab in tumor with reduction in uptake in presence of cold Bevacizumab confirming its specificity to VEGF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparation and Evaluation of (177)Lu-Labeled Gemcitabine: An Effort Toward Developing Radiolabeled Chemotherapeutics for Targeted Therapy Applications.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subhajit; Das, Tapas; Sarma, Haladhar D; Dash, Ashutosh

    2017-09-06

    Gemcitabine, a nucleoside analogue, is used as a chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of a wide variety of cancers. Therefore, radiolabeled gemcitabine may have potential as a radiotherapeutic agent for the treatment of various types of cancers. In the present work, an attempt has been made to radiolabel gemcitabine with (177)Lu and study the preliminary biological behavior of (177)Lu-labeled gemcitabine in tumor-bearing animal model. Gemcitabine was coupled with p-NCS-benzyl-DOTA, a bifunctional chelating agent, to facilitate radiolabeling with (177)Lu. The p-NCS-benzyl-DOTA-gemcitabine conjugate was radiolabeled with (177)Lu, produced in-house and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography. Tumor targeting potential of the radiolabeled agent was determined by biodistribution studies in Swiss mice bearing fibrosarcoma tumors. (177)Lu-gemcitabine was prepared with a radiochemical purity of 95.7% ± 0.3% under the optimized reaction conditions. The radiolabeled agent showed adequate in vitro stability in normal saline as well as in human blood serum. Preliminary biological studies revealed rapid and significant accumulation of the radiotracer in the tumorous lesions along with fast clearance of activity from blood and other vital organs/tissue. Although tumor uptake gradually reduced with time, tumor to blood and tumor to muscle ratios were improved due to the comparatively faster clearance of activity from the nontarget organs/tissue. The present study demonstrates the preliminary potential of (177)Lu-gemcitabine for targeted radiotherapy. However, further studies are warranted to assess its potential for radiotherapeutic applications.

  1. Synthesis and comparative biological evaluation of bifunctional ligands for radiotherapy applications of (90)Y and (177)Lu.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hyun-Soon; Sun, Xiang; Chen, Yunwei; Sin, Inseok; Kang, Chi Soo; Lewis, Michael R; Liu, Dijie; Ruthengael, Varyanna C; Zhong, Yongliang; Wu, Ningjie; Song, Hyun A

    2015-03-01

    Zevalin® is an antibody-drug conjugate radiolabeled with a cytotoxic radioisotope ((90)Y) that was approved for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. A bifunctional ligand that displays favorable complexation kinetics and in vivo stability is required for effective RIT. New bifunctional ligands 3p-C-DE4TA and 3p-C-NE3TA for potential use in RIT were efficiently prepared by the synthetic route based on regiospecific ring opening of aziridinium ions with prealkylated triaza- or tetraaza-backboned macrocycles. The new bifunctional ligands 3p-C-DE4TA and 3p-C-NE3TA along with the known bimodal ligands 3p-C-NETA and 3p-C-DEPA were comparatively evaluated for potential use in targeted radiotherapy using β-emitting radionuclides (90)Y and (177)Lu. The bifunctional ligands were evaluated for radiolabeling kinetics with (90)Y and (177)Lu, and the corresponding (90)Y or (177)Lu-radiolabeled complexes were studied for in vitro stability in human serum and in vivo biodistribution in mice. The results of the comparative complexation kinetic and stability studies indicate that size of macrocyclic cavity, ligand denticity, and bimodality of donor groups have a substantial impact on complexation of the bifunctional ligands with the radiolanthanides. The new promising bifunctional chelates in the DE4TA and NE3TA series were rapid in binding (90)Y and (177)Lu, and the corresponding (90)Y- and (177)Lu-radiolabeled complexes remained inert in human serum or in mice. The in vitro and in vivo data show that 3p-C-DE4TA and 3p-C-NE3TA are promising bifunctional ligands for targeted radiotherapy applications of (90)Y and (177)Lu. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and Comparative Biological Evalution of Bifunctional Ligands for Radiotherapy Applications of 90Y and 177Lu

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Hyun-Soon; Sun, Xiang; Chen, Yunwei; Sin, Inseok; Kang, Chi Soo; Lewis, Michael R.; Liu, Dijie; Ruthengael, Varyanna C.; Zhong, Yongliang; Wu, Ningjie; Song, Hyun A

    2015-01-01

    Zevalin® is an antibody-drug conjugate radiolabeled with a cytotoxic radioisotope (90Y) that was approved for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. A bifunctional ligand that displays favorable complexation kinetics and in vivo stability is required for effective RIT. New bifunctional ligands 3p-C-DE4TA and 3p-C-NE3TA for potential use in RIT were efficiently prepared by the synthetic route based on regiospecific ring opening of aziridinium ions with prealkylated triaza- or tetraaza-backboned macrocycles. The new bifunctional ligands 3p-C-DE4TA and 3p-C-NE3TA along with the known bimodal ligands 3p-C-NETA and 3p-C-DEPA were comparatively evaluated for potential use in targeted radiotherapy using β-emitting radionuclides 90Y and 177Lu. The bifunctional ligands were evaluated for radiolabeling kinetics with 90Y and 177Lu, and the corresponding 90Y or 177Lu-radiolabeled complexes were studied for in vitro stability in human serum and in vivo biodistribution in mice. The results of the comparative complexation kinetic and stability studies indicate that size of macrocyclic cavity, ligand denticity, and bimodality of donor groups have a substantial impact on complexation of the bifunctional ligands with the radiolanthanides. The new promising bifunctional chelates in the DE4TA and NE3TA series were rapid in binding 90Y and 177Lu, and the corresponding 90Y- and 177Lu-radiolabeled complexes remained inert in human serum or in mice. The in vitro and in vivo data show that 3p-C-DE4TA and 3p-C-NE3TA are promising bifunctional ligands for targeted radiotherapy applications of 90Y and 177Lu. PMID:25648683

  3. Preparation of (188Re) Re-AEDP and its biodistribution studies.

    PubMed

    Qingnuan, L; Xiaodong, Z; Rong, S; Wenxin, L

    2000-12-01

    The synthesis of the Re (V) complex and preparation of 188Re-AEDP are described using 188Re which was obtained from the alumina-based 188W/188Re generator. Dependence of the radiolabeling yields of 188Re-AEDP on reducing agent concentration, AEDP concentration, pH and addition of carrier was examined. In the case of optimum conditions, the radiolabeling yields of 188Re-AEDP were 92-93% for carrier-free 188Re and 95-98% for carrier-added 188Re. The stability of 188Re-AEDP at pH approximately 6 was studied and it is found that the carrier has a significant effect on the stability of 188Re-AEDP. The biodistribution of carrier-free and carrier-added 188Re-labelled compounds in rats was also measured. The results show that 188Re (carrier-added)-AEDP is a potential bone palliation radiopharmaceutical due to its high skeletal uptake, rapid blood clearance and relatively low soft tissue absorption.

  4. Intratumoral Injection of 188Re labeled Cationic Polyethylenimine Conjugates: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Heo, Young-Jun; Moon, Hyung-Bae; Bom, Hee-Seung; Kim, Chang-Guhn

    2004-01-01

    188Re(Rhenium) is easily obtained from an in-house 188W/188Re generator that is similar to the current 99Mo/99mTc generator, making it very convenient for clinical use. This characteristic makes this radionuclide a promising candidate as a therapeutic agent. Polyethylenimine (PEI) is a cationic polymer and has been used as a gene delivery vector. Positively charged materials interact with cellular blood components, vascular endothelium, and plasma proteins. In this study, the authors investigated whether intratumoral injection of 188Re labeled transferrin (Tf)-PEI conjugates exert the effect of radionuclide therapy against the tumor cells. When the diameters of the Ramos lymphoma (human Burkitt's lymphoma) xenografted tumors reached approximately 1 cm, 3 kinds of 188Re bound compounds (HYNIC-PEI-Tf, HYNIC-PEI, 188Re perrhenate) were injected directly into the tumors. There were increases in the retention of 188Re inside the tumor when PEI was incorporated with 188Re compared to the use of free 188Re. The 188Re HYNIC-Tf-PEI showed the most retention inside the tumor (retention rate=approximately 97%). H&E stain of isolated tumor tissues showed that 188Re labeled HYNIC-PEI-Tf caused extensive tumor necrosis. These results support 188Re HYNIC-PEI-Tf as being a useful radiopharmaceutical agent to treat tumors when delievered by intratumoral injection. PMID:15483337

  5. Potential Biomarkers for Radiation-Induced Renal Toxicity following 177Lu-Octreotate Administration in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schüler, Emil; Larsson, Maria; Parris, Toshima Z.; Johansson, Martin E.; Helou, Khalil; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The kidneys are one of the main dose-limiting organs in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy and due to large inter-individual variations in renal toxicity, biomarkers are urgently needed in order to optimize therapy and reduce renal tissue damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional, functional, and morphological effects on renal tissue after 177Lu-octreotate administration in normal mice, and to identify biomarkers for radiation induced renal toxicity. Methods C57BL/6N mice were i.v. injected with 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, or 150 MBq 177Lu-octreotate (0, 16, 29, 40, 48, and 54 Gy to the kidneys). At 4, 8, and 12 months after administration, radiation-induced effects were evaluated in relation to (a) global transcriptional variations in kidney tissues, (b) morphological changes in the kidneys, (c) changes in white and red blood cell count as well as blood levels of urea, and (d) changes in renal function using 99mTc-DTPA/99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy. Results In general, the highest number of differentially regulated transcripts was observed at 12 months after administration. The Cdkn1a, C3, Dbp, Lcn2, and Per2 genes displayed a distinct dose-dependent regulation, with increased expression level with increasing absorbed dose. Ifng, Tnf, and Il1B were identified as primary up-stream regulators of the recurrently regulated transcripts. Furthermore, previously proposed biomarkers for kidney injury and radiation damage were also observed. The functional investigation revealed reduced excretion of 99mTc-DTPA after 150 MBq, an increased uptake of 99mTc-DMSA at all dose levels compared with the controls, and markedly increased urea level in blood after 150 MBq at 12 months. Conclusion Distinct dose-response relationships were found for several of the regulated transcripts. The Cdkn1a, Dbp, Lcn2, and Per2 genes are proposed as biomarkers for 177Lu-octreotate exposure of kidney. Correlations to functional and morphological effects further confirm

  6. A Randomized Phase 2 Trial of 177Lu Radiolabeled Anti-PSMA Monoclonal Antibody J591 in Patients with High-Risk Castrate, Biochemically Relapsed Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    hypothesis is that the addition of 177Lu-J591 to ketoconazole will improve time to radiographically apparent metastases in men with biochemically...primary endpoint will be to compare the percentage of men with metastases at 18 months receiving ketoconazole plus 177Lu-J591 vs ketoconazole plus trace

  7. A Randomized Phase 2 Trial of 177Lu Radiolabeled Anti-PSMA Monoclonal Antibody J591 in Patients With High-Risk Castrate Biochemically Relapsed Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    modalities). The hypothesis is that the addition of 177Lu-J591 to ketoconazole will improve time to radiographically apparent metastases in men with...The primary endpoint will be to compare the percentage of men with metastases at 18 months receiving ketoconazole plus 177Lu-J591 vs ketoconazole plus

  8. A systematic study on the utility of CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS and NOTA-NCS as bifunctional chelators for (177)Lu radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Usha; Gamre, Naresh; Lohar, Sharad Pandurang; Dash, Ashutosh

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of [(R)-2-Amino-3-(4-isothiocyanatophenyl)propyl]-trans-(S,S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine-pentaacetic acid (CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS) and 2-S-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA-NCS) as bifunctional chelators for (177)Lu. While (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS could be obtained in high yields at equimolar ratios of lutetium to CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS, >95% yield of (177)Lu-NOTA-NCS could be achieved at 1:2M ratio of lutetium to NOTA-NCS. Trace metals reduced the yields of (177)Lu-NOTA-NCS significantly as compared to (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS. In vitro stability of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS was also superior to (177)Lu-NOTA-NCS. It could be concluded from this study that among the two chelators evaluated, CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS is more appropriate for preparation of (177)Lu radiopharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of amplified spontaneous emission on selectivity of laser photoionisation of the 177Lu radioisotope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'yachkov, A. B.; Gorkunov, A. A.; Labozin, A. V.; Mironov, S. M.; Panchenko, V. Ya; Firsov, V. A.; Tsvetkov, G. O.

    2016-06-01

    A significant deselecting effect of amplified spontaneous emission has been observed in the experiments on selective laser photoionisation of the 177Lu radioisotope according to the scheme 5d6s2 2D3/2 → 5d6s6p 4Fo5/2 (18505 cm-1) → 5d6s7s 4D3/2(37194 cm-1) → autoionisation state (53375 cm-1). The effect is conditioned by involvement of non-target isotopes from the lower metastable level 5d6s2 2D5/2(1994 cm-1) into the ionisation process. Spectral filtering of spontaneous emission has allowed us to significantly increase the selectivity of the photoionisation process of the radioisotope and to attain a selectivity value of 105 when using saturating light intensities.

  10. Use of (177)Lu-dotatate in the treatment of iodine refractory thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Oliván-Sasot, P; Falgás-Lacueva, M; García-Sánchez, J; Vera-Pinto, V; Olivas-Arroyo, C; Bello-Arques, P

    In a patient with a differentiated thyroid cancer the standard treatment protocol to be followed is surgery, ablation of thyroid remnants with (131)Iodine ((131)I), and TSH suppression. However, the treatment with (131)I is not effective in some cases, and it no longer becomes a therapeutic option due to cell de-differentiation with loss of (131)I uptake. Systemic treatment can be used as other options, although patients are not always responsive; thus, the disease may progress and therapeutic options may run out. Endocrine tumours may express somatostatin receptors,and this characteristic has been used, not only for diagnosis, but also for their treatment through somatostatin analogue labelling with radioactive isotopes. This was the case of a patient suffering from iodine-refractory follicular thyroid carcinoma, with somatostatin receptors expression, treated with (177)Lu-DOTATATE, showing an excellent clinical and analytical response.

  11. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy with A 177Lu-labeled Anti-HER2 Nanobody

    PubMed Central

    D'Huyvetter, Matthias; Vincke, Cécile; Xavier, Catarina; Aerts, An; Impens, Nathalie; Baatout, Sarah; De Raeve, Hendrik; Muyldermans, Serge; Caveliers, Vicky; Devoogdt, Nick; Lahoutte, Tony

    2014-01-01

    RIT has become an attractive strategy in cancer treatment, but still faces important drawbacks due to poor tumor penetration and undesirable pharmacokinetics of the targeting vehicles. Smaller radiolabeled antibody fragments and peptides feature highly specific target accumulation, resulting in low accumulation in healthy tissue, except for the kidneys. Nanobodies are the smallest (MW < 15 kDa) functional antigen-binding fragments that are derived from heavy chain-only camelid antibodies. Here, we show that the extend of kidney retention of nanobodies is predominantly dictated by the number of polar residues in the C-terminal amino acid tag. Three nanobodies were produced with different C-terminal amino-acid tag sequences (Myc-His-tagged, His-tagged, and untagged). Dynamic planar imaging of Wistar rats with 111In-DTPA-nanobodies revealed that untagged nanobodies showed a 70 % drop in kidney accumulation compared to Myc-His-tagged nanobodies at 50 min p.i.. In addition, coinfusion of untagged nanobodies with the plasma expander Gelofusin led to a final reduction of 90 %. Similar findings were obtained with different 177Lu-DTPA-2Rs15d nanobody constructs in HER2pos tumor xenografted mice at 1 h p.i.. Kidney accumulation decreased 88 % when comparing Myc-His-tagged to untagged 2Rs15d nanobody, and 95 % with a coinfusion of Gelofusin, without affecting the tumor targeting capacity. Consequently, we identified a generic method to reduce kidney retention of radiolabeled nanobodies. Dosimetry calculations of Gelofusin-coinfused, untagged 177Lu-DTPA-2Rs15d revealed a dose of 0.90 Gy/MBq that was delivered to both tumor and kidneys and extremely low doses to healthy tissues. In a comparative study, 177Lu-DTPA-Trastuzumab supplied 6 times more radiation to the tumor than untagged 177Lu-DTPA-2Rs15d, but concomitantly also a 155, 34, 80, 26 and 4180 fold higher radioactivity burden to lung, liver, spleen, bone and blood. Most importantly, nanobody-based targeted radionuclide

  12. Targeted radionuclide therapy with A 177Lu-labeled anti-HER2 nanobody.

    PubMed

    D'Huyvetter, Matthias; Vincke, Cécile; Xavier, Catarina; Aerts, An; Impens, Nathalie; Baatout, Sarah; De Raeve, Hendrik; Muyldermans, Serge; Caveliers, Vicky; Devoogdt, Nick; Lahoutte, Tony

    2014-01-01

    RIT has become an attractive strategy in cancer treatment, but still faces important drawbacks due to poor tumor penetration and undesirable pharmacokinetics of the targeting vehicles. Smaller radiolabeled antibody fragments and peptides feature highly specific target accumulation, resulting in low accumulation in healthy tissue, except for the kidneys. Nanobodies are the smallest (MW<15 kDa) functional antigen-binding fragments that are derived from heavy chain-only camelid antibodies. Here, we show that the extend of kidney retention of nanobodies is predominantly dictated by the number of polar residues in the C-terminal amino acid tag. Three nanobodies were produced with different C-terminal amino-acid tag sequences (Myc-His-tagged, His-tagged, and untagged). Dynamic planar imaging of Wistar rats with 111In-DTPA-nanobodies revealed that untagged nanobodies showed a 70% drop in kidney accumulation compared to Myc-His-tagged nanobodies at 50 min p.i.. In addition, coinfusion of untagged nanobodies with the plasma expander Gelofusin led to a final reduction of 90%. Similar findings were obtained with different 177Lu-DTPA-2Rs15d nanobody constructs in HER2pos tumor xenografted mice at 1 h p.i.. Kidney accumulation decreased 88% when comparing Myc-His-tagged to untagged 2Rs15d nanobody, and 95% with a coinfusion of Gelofusin, without affecting the tumor targeting capacity. Consequently, we identified a generic method to reduce kidney retention of radiolabeled nanobodies. Dosimetry calculations of Gelofusin-coinfused, untagged 177Lu-DTPA-2Rs15d revealed a dose of 0.90 Gy/MBq that was delivered to both tumor and kidneys and extremely low doses to healthy tissues. In a comparative study, 177Lu-DTPA-Trastuzumab supplied 6 times more radiation to the tumor than untagged 177Lu-DTPA-2Rs15d, but concomitantly also a 155, 34, 80, 26 and 4180 fold higher radioactivity burden to lung, liver, spleen, bone and blood. Most importantly, nanobody-based targeted radionuclide therapy

  13. Aminocarboxylate complexes and octreotide complexes with no carrier added 177Lu, 166Ho and 149Pm.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen Ping; Smith, C Jeff; Cutler, Cathy S; Hoffman, Timothy J; Ketring, Alan R; Jurisson, Silvia S

    2003-04-01

    Several aminocarboxylate complexes of the "no carrier added" (NCA) radiolanthanides (149)Pm, (166)Ho and (177)Lu were evaluated using our in vitro hydroxyapatite and serum stability model and in vivo in normal CF-1 mice [10]. The aminocarboxylate chelates evaluated with the NCA radiolanthanides for in vitro stability were EDTA, CDTA, DTPA, MA-DTPA and DOTA. In addition, the NCA radiolanthanide complexes with DTPA-octreotide (DTPA-OCT) were synthesized and evaluated, as a model for a peptide conjugated aminocarboxylate complex. The biodistribution studies of the NCA complexes with DTPA, DOTA and DTPA-OCT showed that the in vitro model correctly predicted the in vivo stability of the radiolanthanide complexes, with Ln-DOTA > Ln-DTPA > Ln-DTPA-OCT.

  14. Assessment of cell death mechanisms triggered by (177)Lu-anti-CD20 in lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Azorín-Vega, E; Rojas-Calderón, E; Martínez-Ventura, B; Ramos-Bernal, J; Serrano-Espinoza, L; Jiménez-Mancilla, N; Ordaz-Rosado, D; Ferro-Flores, G

    2017-04-12

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the cell cycle redistribution and activation of early and late apoptotic pathways in lymphoma cells after treatment with (177)Lu-anti-CD20. Experimental and computer models were used to calculate the radiation absorbed dose to cancer cell nuclei. The computer model (Monte Carlo, PENELOPE) consisted of twenty spheres representing cells with an inner sphere (cell nucleus) embedded in culture media. Radiation emissions of the radiopharmaceutical located in cell membranes and in culture media were considered for nuclei dose calculations. Flow cytometric analyses demonstrated that doses as low as 4.8Gy are enough to induce cell cycle arrest and activate late apoptotic pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of reaction kinetics of [(177)Lu]Lu-DOTA-TATE using a microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Schaap, K S; Ballemans, L; de Zanger, R; de Blois, E; Rohde, M; Oehlke, E

    2017-09-12

    Microfluidic synthesis techniques can offer improvement over batch syntheses which are currently used for radiopharmaceutical production. These improvements are, for example, better mixing of reactants, more efficient energy transfer, less radiolysis, faster reaction optimization, and overall improved reaction control. However, scale-up challenges hinder the routine clinical use, so the main advantage is currently the ability to optimize reactions rapidly and with low reactant consumption. Translating those results to clinical systems could be done based on calculations, if kinetic constants and diffusion coefficients were known. This study describes a microfluidic system with which it was possible to determine the kinetic association rate constants for the formation of [(177)Lu]Lu-DOTA-TATE under conditions currently used for clinical production. The kinetic rate constants showed a temperature dependence that followed the Arrhenius equation, allowing the determination of Arrhenius parameters for a Lu-DOTA conjugate (A = 1.24 ± 0.05 × 10(19) M(-1) s(-1), EA = 109.5 ± 0.1 × 10(3) J mol(-1)) for the first time. The required reaction time for the formation of [(177)Lu]Lu-DOTA-TATE (99% yield) at 80 °C was 44 s in a microfluidic channel (100 μm). Simulations done with COMSOL Multiphysics® indicated that processing clinical amounts (3 mL reaction solution) in less than 12 min is possible in a micro- or milli-fluidic system, if the diameter of the reaction channel is increased to over 500 μm. These results show that a continuous, microfluidic system can become a viable alternative to the conventional, batch-wise radiolabelling technique.

  16. Predictors of Response to Radioligand Therapy of Metastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer with 177Lu-PSMA-617.

    PubMed

    Ferdinandus, Justin; Eppard, Elisabeth; Gaertner, Florian C; Kürpig, Stefan; Fimmers, Rolf; Yordanova, Anna; Hauser, Stefan; Feldmann, Georg; Essler, Markus; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat

    2017-02-01

    Radioligand therapy (RLT) with (177)Lu-PSMA-617 (PSMA is prostate-specific membrane antigen) is a novel targeted therapy for metastatic prostate cancer. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different pretherapeutic parameters on the therapeutic response measured by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 2 mo after RLT.

  17. Anti-EGFRvIII monoclonal antibody armed with 177Lu: in vivo comparison of macrocyclic and acyclic ligands

    PubMed Central

    Hens, Marc; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Zhao, Xiao-Guang; Bigner, Darell D.; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Monoclonal antibody (mAb) L8A4 binds specifically to the epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) that is present on gliomas but not normal tissues, and is internalized rapidly after receptor binding. Because of the short range of its β-emissions, labeling this mAb with177Lu would be an attractive approach for the treatment of residual tumor margins remaining after surgical debulking of brain tumors. Materials and Methods L8A4 mAb was labeled with 177Lu using the acyclic ligands [(R)-2-Amino-3-(4-isothiocyanatophenyl)propyl]-trans-(S,S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine- pentaacetic acid (CHX-A″-DTPA) and 2-(4-Isothiocyanatobenzyl)-6-methyldiethylene- triaminepentaacetic acid (1B4M-DTPA), and the macrocyclic ligands S-2-(4- Isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid (C-DOTA) and α-(5-isothiocyanato-2-methoxyphenyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10- tetraacetic acid (MeO-DOTA). Paired-label tissue distribution experiments were performed in athymic mice bearing subcutaneous EGFRvIII-expressing U87.)EGFR glioma xenografts over a period of 1 to 8 days to directly compare 177Lu-labeled L8A4 to L8A4 labeled with 125I using N-succinimidyl 4-guanidinomethyl-3-[125I]iodobenzoate ([125I]SGMIB). Results Except with C-DOTA, tumor uptake for the 177Lu-labeled mAb was significantly higher than the co-administered radioiodinated preparation; however, this was also the case for spleen, liver, bone and kidneys. Tumor:normal tissue ratios for 177Lu-1B4M-DTPA-L8A4 and to an even greater extent, 177Lu-MeO-DOTA-L8A4, were higher than those for [125I]SGMIB-L8A4 in most other tissues. Conclusions Tumor and normal tissue distribution patterns for this anti-EGFRvIII mAb were dependent on the nature of the bifunctional chelate used for 177Lu labeling. Optimal results were obtained with 1B4M-DTPA and MeO-DOTA, suggesting no clear advantage for acyclic vs. macrocyclic ligands for this application. PMID:20870149

  18. Therapeutic efficacy of 177Lu-CHX-A″-DTPA-hu3S193 radioimmunotherapy in prostate cancer is enhanced by EGFR inhibition or docetaxel chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Marcus P; Lee, Sze Ting; Lee, F-T; Smyth, Fiona E; Davis, Ian D.; Brechbiel, Martin W; Scott, Andrew M

    2008-01-01

    Background This study investigated the biodistribution and therapeutic efficacy of Lutetium-177 (177Lu) radiolabeled anti-Lewis Y monoclonal antibody hu3S193 radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in mice bearing prostate cancer xenografts. The ability of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478 and docetaxel chemotherapy to enhance the efficacy of RIT was also assessed in vivo. Methods The in vitro cytotoxicity of 177Lu labeled hu3S193 on Ley positive DU145 prostate cancer cells was assessed using proliferation assays, with induction of apoptosis measured by ELISA. The in vivo biodistribution and tumor localization of 177Lu-hu3S193 was assessed in mice bearing established DU145 tumor xenografts. The efficacy and maximum tolerated dose of 177Lu-hu3S193 RIT in vivo was determined by a dose escalation study. EGFR inhibitor AG1478 or docetaxel chemotherapy was administered at sub-therapeutic doses in conjunction with RIT in vivo. Results 177Lu-hu3S193 mediated significant induction of cytotoxicity and apoptosis in vitro. In vivo analysis of 177Lu-hu3S193 biodistribution demonstrated specific targeting of DU145 prostate cancer xenografts, with maximal tumor uptake of 33.2 ± 3.9 %ID/g observed at 120 hr post injection. In RIT studies, 177Lu-hu3S193 caused specific and dose-dependent inhibition of prostate cancer tumor growth. A maximum tolerated dose of 350μCi was determined for 177Lu-hu3S193. Combination of 177Lu-hu3S193 RIT with EGFR inhibitor AG1478 or docetaxel chemotherapy both significantly improved efficacy. Conclusions 177Lu-hu3S193 RIT is effective as a single agent in the treatment of Ley positive prostate cancer models. The enhancement of RIT by AG1478 or docetaxel indicates the promise of combined modality strategies. PMID:18942092

  19. Preclinical evaluation of (177)lu-nimotuzumab: a potential tool for radioimmunotherapy of epidermal growth factor receptor-overexpressing tumors.

    PubMed

    Vera, Denis Rolando Beckford; Eigner, Sebastian; Beran, Milos; Henke, Katerina Eigner; Laznickova, Alice; Laznicek, Milan; Melichar, Frantisek; Chinol, Marco

    2011-06-01

    The humanized monoclonal antibody Nimotuzumab (h-R3) has demonstrated an exceptional and better clinical profile than other monoclonal antibodies for immunotherapy of epidermal growth factor receptor-overexpressing tumors. This work deals with the preparation and radiolabeling optimization of (177)Lu-Nimotuzumab and their preclinical evaluation. Nimotuzumab was conjugated with S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-DOTA), testing different molar ratios. The immunoconjugates were characterized. The radiolabeling with (177)Lu was optimized. Radioimmunoconjugates stability was tested in 2-[bis[2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]ethyl]amino]acetic acid (DTPA) excess and human serum. In vitro studies were performed in tumor model cell lines. Receptor-specific binding was tested by competitive inhibition. (177)Lu-Nimotuzumab in vivo studies were conducted in healthy and xenograft animals. Nimotuzumab conjugates were obtained with high purity. Radiolabeling yield and specific activities ranged from 63.6% to 94.5% and from 748 to 1142 MBq/mg, respectively. The stability in DTPA excess and human serum was 95.9% and 93.2% after 10 days, respectively. The radioimmunoconjugate showed specific receptor binding in tumor cell lines. Biodistribution in healthy animals showed the typical behavior of the immunoconjugates based on monoclonal antibodies. The study in xenografts mice demonstrated uptake of (177)Lu-Nimotuzumab in the tumor and reticuloendothelial organs. (177)Lu-Nimotuzumab was obtained with high purity and specific activities under optimal conditions without significant loss in immunoreactivity and might be a potential radioimmunoconjugate for radioimmunotherapy of tumors with epidermal growth factor receptor overexpression.

  20. Biodistribution and dosimetry results from a phase 1 trial of (177)Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan antibody-radionuclide conjugate therapy.

    PubMed

    Blakkisrud, Johan; Holtedahl, Jon Erik; Løndalen, Ayca; Dahle, Jostein; Bach-Gansmo, Tore; Holte, Harald; Nygaard, Stine; Kolstad, Arne; Stokke, Caroline

    2017-08-28

    (177)Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan is a novel antibody radionuclide conjugate (ARC) currently in a phase 1/2a first-in-human dosage escalation trial for patients with relapsed CD37+ indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The aim of this study was to investigate biodistribution and absorbed doses to organs at risk. Methods: A total of seven patients treated with (177)Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan were included for dosimetry. Patients were grouped based on two different pre-dosing regimens (with and without pre-dosing with 40 mg lilotomab) and were treated with different levels of activity per body weight (10, 15 and 20 MBq/kg). All patients were pre-treated with rituximab. Serial planar and SPECT/CT-images were used to determine time activity curves and patient specific masses for organs with (177)Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan uptake. Doses were calculated with OLINDA/EXM. Results: Organs with distinct uptake of (177)Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan, in addition to red bone marrow and tumors, were liver, spleen and kidneys. Largest uptake was found in the spleen, where doses ranged from 1.54 to 3.60 mGy/MBq. The liver received 0.70 to 1.15 mGy/MBq. The kidneys received the lowest dose of the source organs investigated; 0.16 to 0.79 mGy/MBq. No statistical significant differences in soft tissue absorbed doses for the two pre-dosing regimens were found. Whole body dose ranged from 0.08 to 0.17 mGy/MBq. Conclusion: The biodistribution study for patients treated with (177)Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan revealed highest physiological uptake in liver and spleen, besides red marrow. For all dosage levels investigated, doses were found modest when compared to commonly assumed tolerance limits. Copyright © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  1. An assessment tumor targeting ability of (177)Lu labeled cyclic CCK analogue peptide by binding with cholecystokinin receptor.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun-Ha; Lim, Jae Cheong; Lee, So-Young; Jung, Sung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    The cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor is known as a receptor that is overexpressed in many human tumors. The present study was designed to investigate the targeting ability of cyclic CCK analogue in AR42J pancreatic cells. The CCK analogues, DOTA-K(glucose)-Gly-Trp-Nle-Asp-Phe (DOTA-glucose-CCK) and DOTA-Nle-cyclo(Glu-Trp-Nle-Asp-Phe-Lys-NH2) (DOTA-[Nle]-cCCK), were synthesized and radiolabeled with (177)Lu, and competitive binding was evaluated. The binding appearance of synthesized peptide with AR42J cells was evaluated by confocal microscopy. And bio-distribution was performed in AR42J xenografted mice. Synthesized peptides were prepared by a solid phase synthesis method, and their purity was over 98%. DOTA is the chelating agent for (177)Lu-labeling, in which the peptides were radiolabeled with (177)Lu by a high radiolabeling yield. A competitive displacement of (125)I-CCK8 on the AR42J cells revealed that the 50% inhibitory concentration value (IC50) was 12.3 nM of DOTA-glucose-CCK and 1.7 nM of DOTA-[Nle]-cCCK. Radio-labeled peptides were accumulated in AR42J tumor in vivo, and %ID/g of the tumor was 0.4 and 0.9 at 2 h p.i. It was concluded that (177)Lu-DOTA-[Nle]-cCCK has higher binding affinity than (177)Lu-DOTA-glucose-CCK and can be a potential candidate as a targeting modality for a CCK receptor over-expressing tumors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation Nanomedicine for EGFR-Positive Breast Cancer: Panitumumab-Modified Gold Nanoparticles Complexed to the β-Particle-Emitter, (177)Lu.

    PubMed

    Yook, Simmyung; Cai, Zhongli; Lu, Yijie; Winnik, Mitchell A; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Reilly, Raymond M

    2015-11-02

    Our objective was to construct a novel radiation nanomedicine for treatment of breast cancer (BC) expressing epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR), particularly triple-negative tumors (TNBC). Gold nanoparticles (AuNP; 30 nm) were modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains (4 kDa) derivatized with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelators for complexing the β-emitter, (177)Lu and with PEG chains (5 kDa) linked to panitumumab for targeting BC cells expressing EGFR. The AuNP were further coated with PEG chains (2 kDa) to stabilize the particles to aggregation. The binding and internalization of EGFR-targeted AuNP ((177)Lu-T-AuNP) into BC cells was studied and compared to nontargeted (177)Lu-NT-AuNP. The cytotoxicity of (177)Lu-T-AuNP and (177)Lu-NT-AuNP was measured in clonogenic assays using BC cells with widely different EGFR densities: MDA-MB-468 (10(6) receptors/cell), MDA-MB-231 (10(5) receptors/cell), and MCF-7 cells (10(4) receptors/cell). Radiation absorbed doses to the cell nucleus of MDA-MB-468 cells were estimated based on subcellular distribution. Darkfield and fluorescence microscopy as well as radioligand binding assays revealed that (177)Lu-T-AuNP were specifically bound by BC cells dependent on their EGFR density whereas the binding and internalization of (177)Lu-NT-AuNP was significantly lower. The affinity of binding of (177)Lu-T-AuNP to MDA-MB-468 cells was reduced by 2-fold compared to (123)I-labeled panitumumab (KD = 1.3 ± 0.2 nM vs 0.7 ± 0.4 nM, respectively). The cytotoxicity of (177)Lu-T-AuNP was dependent on the amount of radioactivity incubated with BC cells, their EGFR density and the radiosensitivity of the cells. The clonogenic survival (CS) of MDA-MB-468 cells overexpressing EGFR was reduced to <0.001% at the highest amount of (177)Lu-T-AuNP tested (4.5 MBq; 6 × 10(11) AuNP per 2.5 × 10(4)-1.2 × 10(5) cells). (177)Lu-T-AuNP were less effective for killing MDA-MB-231 cells or MCF-7 cells with

  3. Fast voxel-level dosimetry for 177Lu labelled peptide treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippeläinen, E.; Tenhunen, M.; Sohlberg, A.

    2015-09-01

    In peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), voxel-level radiation absorbed dose calculations can be performed using several different methods. Each method has it strengths and weaknesses; however, Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is presently considered the most accurate method at providing absorbed dose distributions. Unfortunately MC simulation is time-consuming and often impractical to carry out in a clinical practice. In this work, a fast semi-Monte Carlo (sMC) absorbed dose calculation method for 177Lu PRRT dosimetry is presented. The sMC method is based on a local electron absorption assumption and fast photon MC simulations. The sMC method is compared against full MC simulation code built on PENELOPE (vxlPen) using digital phantoms to assess the accuracy of these assumptions. Due to the local electron absorption assumption of sMC, the potential errors in cross-fire dose from electrons and photons emitted by 177Lu were first evaluated using an ellipsoidal kidney model by comparing vxlPen and sMC. The photon cross-fire dose from background to kidney and kidney to background with varying kidney-to-background activity concentration ratios were calculated. In addition, kidney to kidney photon and electron cross-dose with different kidney to kidney distances were studied. Second, extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms were created with liver lesions and with realistic activity distributions and tissue densities. The XCAT phantoms were used to simulate SPECT projections and 3D activity distribution images were reconstructed using an OSEM algorithm. Image-based dose rate distributions were calculated using vxlPen and sMC. Total doses and dose rate volume histograms (DrVH) produced by the two methods were compared. The photon cross-fire dose from the kidney increased the background’s absorbed dose by 5% or more up to 5.8 cm distance with 20 : 1 kidney to background activity concentration ratio. On the other hand, the photon cross-fire dose from the background to

  4. Fast voxel-level dosimetry for (177)Lu labelled peptide treatments.

    PubMed

    Hippeläinen, E; Tenhunen, M; Sohlberg, A

    2015-09-07

    In peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), voxel-level radiation absorbed dose calculations can be performed using several different methods. Each method has it strengths and weaknesses; however, Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is presently considered the most accurate method at providing absorbed dose distributions. Unfortunately MC simulation is time-consuming and often impractical to carry out in a clinical practice. In this work, a fast semi-Monte Carlo (sMC) absorbed dose calculation method for (177)Lu PRRT dosimetry is presented. The sMC method is based on a local electron absorption assumption and fast photon MC simulations. The sMC method is compared against full MC simulation code built on PENELOPE (vxlPen) using digital phantoms to assess the accuracy of these assumptions.Due to the local electron absorption assumption of sMC, the potential errors in cross-fire dose from electrons and photons emitted by (177)Lu were first evaluated using an ellipsoidal kidney model by comparing vxlPen and sMC. The photon cross-fire dose from background to kidney and kidney to background with varying kidney-to-background activity concentration ratios were calculated. In addition, kidney to kidney photon and electron cross-dose with different kidney to kidney distances were studied. Second, extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms were created with liver lesions and with realistic activity distributions and tissue densities. The XCAT phantoms were used to simulate SPECT projections and 3D activity distribution images were reconstructed using an OSEM algorithm. Image-based dose rate distributions were calculated using vxlPen and sMC. Total doses and dose rate volume histograms (DrVH) produced by the two methods were compared.The photon cross-fire dose from the kidney increased the background's absorbed dose by 5% or more up to 5.8 cm distance with 20 : 1 kidney to background activity concentration ratio. On the other hand, the photon cross-fire dose from the background to

  5. Exploitation of nano alumina for the chromatographic separation of clinical grade 188Re from 188W: a renaissance of the 188W/188Re generator technology.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Shukla, Rakesh; Ram, Ramu; Venkatesh, Meera; Tyagi, Avesh Kumar; Dash, Ashutosh

    2011-08-15

    The (188)W/(188)Re generator using an acidic alumina column for chromatographic separation of (188)Re has remained the most popular procedure world over. The capacity of bulk alumina for taking up tungstate ions is limited (∼50 mg W/g) necessitating the use of very high specific activity (188)W (185-370 GBq/g), which can be produced only in very few high flux reactors available in the world. In this context, the use of high-capacity sorbents would not only mitigate the requirement of high specific activity (188)W but also facilitate easy access to (188)Re. A solid state mechanochemical approach to synthesize nanocrystalline γ-Al(2)O(3) possessing very high W-sorption capacity (500 mg W/g) was developed. The structural and other investigations of the material were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area analysis, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The synthesized material had an average crystallite size of ∼5 nm and surface area of 252 ± 10 m(2)/g. Sorption characteristics such as distribution ratios (K(d)), capacity, breakthrough profile, and elution behavior were investigated to ensure quantitative uptake of (188)W and selective elution of (188)Re. A 11.1 GBq (300 mCi) (188)W/(188)Re generator was developed using nanocrystalline γ-Al(2)O(3), and its performance was evaluated for a period of 6 months. The overall yield of (188)Re was >80%, with >99.999% radionuclidic purity and >99% radiochemical purity. The eluted (188)Re possessed appreciably high radioactive concentration and was compatible for the preparation of (188)Re labeled radiopharmaceuticals.

  6. Comparison of the Therapeutic Response to Treatment with a 177Lu-Labeled Somatostatin Receptor Agonist and Antagonist in Preclinical Models.

    PubMed

    Dalm, Simone U; Nonnekens, Julie; Doeswijk, Gabriela N; de Blois, Erik; van Gent, Dik C; Konijnenberg, Mark W; de Jong, Marion

    2016-02-01

    Peptide receptor scintigraphy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using radiolabeled somatostatin receptor (SSTR) agonists are successfully used in the clinic for imaging and treatment of neuroendocrine tumors. Contrary to the paradigm that internalization and the resulting accumulation of radiotracers in cells is necessary for efficient tumor targeting, recent studies have demonstrated the superiority of radiolabeled SSTR antagonists for imaging purposes, despite little to no internalization in cells. However, studies comparing the therapeutic antitumor effects of radiolabeled SSTR agonists versus antagonists are lacking. The aim of this study was to directly compare the therapeutic effect of (177)Lu-DOTA-octreotate, an SSTR agonist, and (177)Lu-DOTA-JR11, an SSTR antagonist. We analyzed radiotracer uptake (both membrane-bound and internalized fractions) and the produced DNA double-strand breaks, by determining the number of p53 binding protein 1 foci, after incubating SSTR2-positive cells with (177)Lu-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid, (177)Lu-DOTA-octreotate, or (177)Lu-DOTA-JR11. Also, biodistribution studies were performed in tumor-xenografted mice to determine the optimal dose for therapy experiments. Afterward, in vivo therapy experiments comparing the effect of (177)Lu-DOTA-octreotate and (177)Lu-DOTA-JR11 were performed in this same animal model. We found a 5-times-higher uptake of (177)Lu-DOTA-JR11 than of (177)Lu-DOTA-octreotate. The major part (88% ± 1%) of the antagonist uptake was membrane-bound, whereas 74% ± 3% of the total receptor agonist uptake was internalized. Cells treated with (177)Lu-DOTA-JR11 showed 2 times more p53-binding protein 1 foci than cells treated with (177)Lu-DOTA-octreotate. Biodistribution studies with (177)Lu-DOTA-JR11 (0.5 μg/30 MBq) resulted in the highest tumor radiation dose of 1.8 ± 0.7 Gy/MBq, 4.4 times higher than the highest tumor radiation dose found for (177)Lu-DOTA-octreotate. In vivo therapy studies

  7. Formation of medical radioisotopes 111In, 117 m Sn, 124Sb, and 177Lu in photonuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danagulyan, A. S.; Hovhannisyan, G. H.; Bakhshiyan, T. M.; Avagyan, R. H.; Avetisyan, A. E.; Kerobyan, I. A.; Dallakyan, R. K.

    2015-06-01

    The possibility of the photonuclear production of radioisotopes 111In, 117 m Sn, 124Sb, and 177Lu is discussed. Reaction yields were measured by the gamma-activation method. The enriched tin isotopes 112, 118Sn and Te and HfO2 of natural isotopic composition were used as targets. The targets were irradiated at the linear electron accelerator of Alikhanian National Science Laboratory (Yerevan) at the energy of 40 MeV. The experimental results obtained in this way reveal that the yield and purity of radioisotopes 111In and 117 mSn are acceptable for their production via photonuclear reactions. Reactions proceeding on targets from Te and HfO2 of natural isotopic composition and leading to the formation of 124Sb and 177Lu have small yields and are hardly appropriate for the photoproduction of these radioisotopes even in the case of enriched targets.

  8. Distinct microRNA Expression Profiles in Mouse Renal Cortical Tissue after 177Lu-octreotate Administration

    PubMed Central

    Schüler, Emil; Parris, Toshima Z.; Helou, Khalil; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the variation of the miRNA expression levels in normal renal cortical tissue after 177Lu-octreotate administration, a radiopharmaceutical used for treatment of neuroendocrine cancers. Methods Female BALB/c nude mice were i.v. injected with 1.3, 3.6, 14, 45, or 140 MBq 177Lu-octreotate, while control animals received saline. The animals were killed at 24 h after injection and total RNA, including miRNA, was extracted from the renal cortical tissue and hybridized to the Mouse miRNA Oligo chip 4plex to identify differentially regulated miRNAs between exposed and control samples. Results In total, 57 specific miRNAs were differentially regulated in the exposed renal cortical tissues with 1, 29, 21, 27, and 31 miRNAs identified per dose-level (0.13, 0.34, 1.3, 4.3, and 13 Gy, respectively). No miRNAs were commonly regulated at all dose levels. miR-194, miR-107, miR-3090, and miR-3077 were commonly regulated at 0.34, 1.3, 4.3, and 13 Gy. Strong effects on cellular mechanisms ranging from immune response to p53 signaling and cancer-related pathways were observed at the highest absorbed dose. Thirty-nine of the 57 differentially regulated miRNAs identified in the present study have previously been associated with response to ionizing radiation, indicating common radiation responsive pathways. Conclusion In conclusion, the 177Lu-octreotate associated miRNA signatures were generally dose-specific, thereby illustrating transcriptional regulation of radiation responsive miRNAs. Taken together, these results imply the importance of miRNAs in early immunological responses in the kidneys following 177Lu-octreotate administration. PMID:25386939

  9. Hydroxyapatite Based 99Mo - 99Tc and 188W - 188Re Generator Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp Jr, Russ F; Monroy-Guzman, F.; Badillo, V. E.; Cosgrove, John M; De La Torre, J.A. Flores

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes studies evaluating the use of hydroxyapatite as the adsorbent material for both {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator systems. Hydroxyapatite is an insoluble solid with anion exchange properties. A study of the sorption behaviour of {sup 99}Mo, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 188}W and {sup 188}Re on hydroxyapatite in NaCl medium was evaluated by batch experiments. The results demonstrated that while {sup 99}Mo, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re are not adsorbed by the hydroxyapatite in NaCl solutions (Kd <5), {sup 188}W is strongly adsorbed (Kd >500). On the basis of these measurements, hydroxyapatite {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator systems were then constructed and eluted in NaCl solutions. The hydroxyapatite based {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator performances are presented.

  10. [177Lu-DOTA]0-D-Phe1-Tyr3-Octreotide (177Lu-DOTATOC) For Peptide Receptor Radiotherapy in Patients with Advanced Neuroendocrine Tumours: A Phase-II Study

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Richard P.; Kluge, Andreas W.; Kulkarni, Harshad; Schorr-Neufing, Ulrike; Niepsch, Karin; Bitterlich, Norman; van Echteld, Cees J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To characterise efficacy and safety of 177Lu-DOTATOC as agent for peptide receptor radiotherapy (PRRT) of advanced neuroendocrine tumours (NET). Patients and methods: Fifty-six subjects with metastasized and progressive NET (50% gastroenteral, 26.8% pancreatic, 23.2% other primary sites) treated consecutively with 177Lu-DOTATOC were analysed retrospectively. Subjects were administered 177Lu-DOTATOC (mean 2.1 cycles; range 1-4) as 7.0GBq (median) doses at three-monthly intervals. Efficacy was analysed using CT and/or MRI according to RECIST 1.1 criteria and results were stratified for the number of administered cycles and the primary tumour origin. Results: In the total NET population (A), median progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 17.4 and 34.2 months, respectively, assessed in a follow-up time (mean ± SD) of 16.1 ± 12.4 months. In patients receiving more than one cycle, mean follow-up time was 22.4 ± 11.0 months for all NETs (B) and PFS was 32.0 months for all NETs (B), 34.5 months for GEP-NET (C), and 11.9 months for other NETs (D). Objective response rates (Complete/Partial Responses) were 33.9%, 40.6%, 54.2%, and 0% for A, B, C, and D groups, respectively, while disease control rates in the same were 66.1%, 93.8%, 100%, and 75%. Complete responses (16.1%, 18.8% and 25.0% for groups A, B and C) were high, 78% of which were maintained throughout the follow up. There were no serious adverse events. One case of self-limiting grade 3 myelotoxicity was reported. Although 20% of patients had mild renal insufficiency at baseline, there was no evidence of exacerbated or de novo renal toxicity after treatment. Conclusion: 177Lu-DOTATOC is a novel agent for PRRT with major potential to induce objective tumour responses and sustained disease control in progressive neuroendocrine tumours, even when administered in moderate activities. The observed safety profile suggests a particularly favourable therapeutic index, including in patients with

  11. Biokinetics and dosimetry with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic mice with induced pancreatic malignant tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Cortés, J.; de Murphy, C. Arteaga; Ferro-Flores, Ge; Pedraza-López, M.; Murphy-Stack, E.

    Malignant pancreatic tumours induced in athymic mice are a good model for peptide receptor targeted radiotherapy. The objective of this research was to determine biokinetic parameters in mice, in order to estimate the induced pancreatic tumour absorbed doses and to evaluate an `in house' 177Lu-DOTA-TATE radiopharmaceutical as part of preclinical studies for targeted therapy in humans. AR42J murine pancreas cancer cells expressing somatostatin receptors, were implanted in athymic mice (nD22) to obtain biokinetic and dosimetric data of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE. The mean tumour uptake 2 h post injection was 14.76±1.9% I.A./g; kidney and pancreas uptake, at the same time, were 7.27±1.1% I.A./g (1.71±0.90%/organ) and 4.20±0.98% I.A./g (0.42±0.03%/organ), respectively. The mean absorbed dose to tumour, kidney and pancreas was 0.58±0.02 Gy/MBq; 0.23±0.01 Gy/MBq and 0.14±0.01 Gy/MBq, respectively. These studies justify further dosimetric estimations to ensure that 177Lu-DOTA-TATE will act as expected in humans.

  12. Pharmacokinetic digital phantoms for accuracy assessment of image-based dosimetry in (177)Lu-DOTATATE peptide receptor radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Brolin, Gustav; Gustafsson, Johan; Ljungberg, Michael; Gleisner, Katarina Sjögreen

    2015-08-07

    Patient-specific image-based dosimetry is considered to be a useful tool to limit toxicity associated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). To facilitate the establishment and reliability of absorbed-dose response relationships, it is essential to assess the accuracy of dosimetry in clinically realistic scenarios. To this end, we developed pharmacokinetic digital phantoms corresponding to patients treated with (177)Lu-DOTATATE. Three individual voxel phantoms from the XCAT population were generated and assigned a dynamic activity distribution based on a compartment model for (177)Lu-DOTATATE, designed specifically for this purpose. The compartment model was fitted to time-activity data from 10 patients, primarily acquired using quantitative scintillation camera imaging. S values for all phantom source-target combinations were calculated based on Monte-Carlo simulations. Combining the S values and time-activity curves, reference values of the absorbed dose to the phantom kidneys, liver, spleen, tumours and whole-body were calculated. The phantoms were used in a virtual dosimetry study, using Monte-Carlo simulated gamma-camera images and conventional methods for absorbed-dose calculations. The characteristics of the SPECT and WB planar images were found to well represent those of real patient images, capturing the difficulties present in image-based dosimetry. The phantoms are expected to be useful for further studies and optimisation of clinical dosimetry in (177)Lu PRRT.

  13. Pharmacokinetic digital phantoms for accuracy assessment of image-based dosimetry in 177Lu-DOTATATE peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brolin, Gustav; Gustafsson, Johan; Ljungberg, Michael; Sjögreen Gleisner, Katarina

    2015-08-01

    Patient-specific image-based dosimetry is considered to be a useful tool to limit toxicity associated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). To facilitate the establishment and reliability of absorbed-dose response relationships, it is essential to assess the accuracy of dosimetry in clinically realistic scenarios. To this end, we developed pharmacokinetic digital phantoms corresponding to patients treated with 177Lu-DOTATATE. Three individual voxel phantoms from the XCAT population were generated and assigned a dynamic activity distribution based on a compartment model for 177Lu-DOTATATE, designed specifically for this purpose. The compartment model was fitted to time-activity data from 10 patients, primarily acquired using quantitative scintillation camera imaging. S values for all phantom source-target combinations were calculated based on Monte-Carlo simulations. Combining the S values and time-activity curves, reference values of the absorbed dose to the phantom kidneys, liver, spleen, tumours and whole-body were calculated. The phantoms were used in a virtual dosimetry study, using Monte-Carlo simulated gamma-camera images and conventional methods for absorbed-dose calculations. The characteristics of the SPECT and WB planar images were found to well represent those of real patient images, capturing the difficulties present in image-based dosimetry. The phantoms are expected to be useful for further studies and optimisation of clinical dosimetry in 177Lu PRRT.

  14. Encapsulation of a radiolabeled cluster inside a fullerene cage, (177)Lu(x)Lu((3-x))N@C(80): an interleukin-13-conjugated radiolabeled metallofullerene platform.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Michael D; Duchamp, James C; Wilson, John D; Shu, Chun-Ying; Ge, Jiechao; Zhang, Jianyuan; Gibson, Harry W; Fillmore, Helen L; Hirsch, Jerry I; Dorn, Harry C; Fatouros, Panos P

    2010-04-14

    In this communication, we describe the successful encapsulation of (177)Lu into the endohedral metallofullerene (177)Lu(x)Lu(3-x)N@C(80) (x = 1-3) starting with (177)LuCl(3) in a modified quartz Kraschmer-Huffman electric generator. We demonstrate that the (177)Lu (beta-emitter) in this fullerene cage is not significantly released for a period of up to at least one-half-life (6.7 days). We also demonstrate that this agent can be conjugated with an interleukin-13 peptide that is designed to target an overexpressed receptor in glioblastoma multiforme tumors. This nanoparticle delivery platform provides flexibility for a wide range of radiotherapeutic and radiodiagnostic multimodal applications.

  15. A Randomized Phase 2 Trial of 177Lu Radiolabeled Anti-PSMA Monoclonal Antibody J591in Patients with High-Risk Castrate, Biochemically Relapsed Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    The hypothesis is that the addition of 177Lu-J591 to ketoconazole will improve time to radiographically apparent metastases in men with...primary endpoint will be to compare the percentage of men with metastases at 18 months receiving ketoconazole plus 177Lu-J591 vs ketoconazole plus...J951 vs 111In-J591 (control) and undergo planar gamma camera imaging with SPECT following infusion. All pts receive ketoconazole plus hydrocortisone

  16. Therapeutic efficacy of a 177Lu-labeled DOTA conjugated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptide in a murine melanoma-bearing mouse model.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yubin; Shelton, Tiffani; Quinn, Thomas P

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic efficacy of (177)Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg(11))CCMSH in the B16/F1 murine melanoma-bearing mouse model. (177)Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg(11))CCMSH was prepared in 0.5 M NH(4)OAc at a pH of 5.4. Two (2) treatment groups of 10 melanoma-bearing C57 mice were administrated with 2 x 18.5 MBq and 1 x 37.0 MBq of (177)Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg(11))CCMSH through the tail vein, respectively. One (1) group of 10 melanoma-bearing C57 mice was injected with saline placebos as untreated melanoma-bearing controls. In contrast to the untreated melanoma-bearing control group, (177)Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg(11))CCMSH administration yielded rapid and lasting therapeutic effects in the treatment groups. (177)Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg(11))CCMSH treatment decreased the tumor growth rate and significantly (p > 0.05) prolonged the survival time of melanoma-bearing C57 mice. Treatment with 2 x 18.5 MBq or 1 x 37.0 MBq of (177)Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg(11))CCMSH significantly extended the mean survival of tumor-bearing mice from 13.3 to 15.1 and 16.2 days, respectively. (177)Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg(11))CCMSH treatment produced no observed acute renal toxicity. The therapy study results revealed that (177)Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg(11))CCMSH yielded quantitative therapeutic effects in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing mice and appeared to be a promising radiolabeled peptide for the targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma.

  17. H6phospa-Trastuzumab: Bifunctional Methylenephosphonate-based Chelator with 89Zr, 111In and 177Lu

    PubMed Central

    Price, Eric W.; Zeglis, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    The acyclic chelator H6phospa and the bifunctional derivative p-SCN-Bn-H6phospa have been synthesized using nosyl protection chemistry and evaluated with 89Zr, 111In, and 177Lu. The p-SCN-Bn-H6phospa derivative was successfully conjugated to trastuzumab with isotopic dilution assays indicating 3.3 ± 0.1 chelates per antibody and in vitro cellular binding assays indicating an immunoreactivity value of 97.9 ± 2.6%. Radiolabeling of the H6phospa-trastuzumab immunoconjugate was achieved with 111In in 70–90% yields at room temperature in 30 minutes, while 177Lu under the same conditions produced more inconsistent yields of 40–80%. Stability experiments in human serum revealed the 111In-phospa-trastuzumab complex to be 52.0 ± 5.3% intact after 5 days at 37 °C, while the 177Lu-phospa-trastuzumab to be only 2.0 ± 0.3% intact. Small animal SPECT/CT imaging using mice bearing subcutaneous SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts was performed, and it was found that 111In-phospa-trastuzumab successfully identified and delineated small (~2 mm in diameter) tumors from surrounding tissues, despite visible uptake in the kidneys and bone due to moderate chelate instability. As predicted from stability assays in serum, the 177Lu-phospa-trastuzumab conjugate served as a negative control and displayed no tumor uptake, with high uptake in bones indicating rapid and complete radiometal dissociation and suggesting a potential application of H6phospa in transient lanthanide chelation for bone-delivery. Radiolabeling with 89Zr was attempted, but even with elevated temperatures of 37 °C, the maximum observed radiometal incorporation over 18 hours was 12%. It can be concluded from this work that H6phospa is not superior to the previously studied H4octapa for use with 111In and 177Lu, but improvements in 89Zr radiolabeling were observed over H4octapa, suggesting H6phospa to be an excellent starting point for elaboration of 89Zr-based radiopharmaceutical development. To our knowledge, H6

  18. Indirect Production of No Carrier Added (NCA) (177)Lu from Irradiation of Enriched (176)Yb: Options for Ytterbium/Lutetium Separation.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ashutosh; Chakravarty, Rubel; Knapp, Furn F Russ; Pillai, Ambikalmajan M R

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a concise review of the production of no-carrier-added (NCA) (177)Lu by the 'indirect' route by irradiating ytterbium-176 ((176)Yb)-enriched targets. The success of this production method depends on the ability to separate the microscopic amounts of NCA (177)Lu from bulk irradiated ytterbium targets. The presence of Yb(+3) from the target in the final processed (177)Lu will adversely affect the quality of (177)Lu by decreasing the specific activity and competing with Lu(+3) complexation since ytterbium will follow the same coordination chemistry. Ytterbium and lutetium are adjacent members of the lanthanide family with very similar chemical properties which makes the separation of one from the other a challenging task. This review provides a summary of the methods developed for the separation and purification of NCA (177)Lu from neutron irradiated (176)Yb-enriched targets, a critical assessment of recent developments and a discussion of the current status of this (177)Lu production method.

  19. Rhenium-188: Availability from the W-188/Re-188 Generator and Status of Current Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, M R A; Dash, A; Knapp Jr, Russ F

    2012-01-01

    Rhenium-188 is one of the most readily available generator derived and useful radionuclides for therapy emitting - particles (2.12 MeV, 71.1% and 1.965 MeV, 25.6%) and imageable gammas (155 KeV, 15.1%). The 188W/188Re generator is an ideal source for the long term (4-6 months) continuous availability of no carrier added (nca) 188Re suitable for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for radionuclide therapy. The challenges associated with the double neutron capture route of production of the parent 188W radionuclide have been a major impediment in the progress of application of 188Re. Tungsten-188 of adequate specific activity can be prepared only in 2-3 of the high flux reactors operating in the World. Several useful technologies have been developed for the preparation of clinical grade 188W/188Re generator. Since the specific activity of 188W used in the generator is relatively low (<5 Ci/g), the eluted 188ReO4- can have low radioactive concentration often insufficient for radiopharmaceutical preparation. However, several efficient post elution concentration techniques have been developed that yield clinically useful 188ReO4-. Rhenium-188 has been used for the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for the management of diseases such as bone metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis and primary cancers. Several early phase clinical studies using radiopharmaceuticals based on 188Re-labeled phosphonates, antibodies, peptides, lipiodol and particulates have been reported. This article reviews the availability, and use of188Re including a discussion of why broader use of 188Re has not progressed as ecpected as a popular radionuclide for therapy.

  20. Rhenium-188: availability from the (188)W/(188)Re generator and status of current applications.

    PubMed

    Pillai, M R A; Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, F F

    2012-07-01

    Rhenium-188 is one of the most readily available generator derived and useful radionuclides for therapy emitting β(-) particles (2.12 MeV, 71.1% and 1.965 MeV, 25.6%) and imageable gammas (155 keV, 15.1%). The (188)W/(188)Re generator is an ideal source for the long term (4-6 months) continuous availability of no carrier added (nca) (188)Re suitable for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for radionuclide therapy. The challenges associated with the double neutron capture route of production of the parent (188)W radionuclide have been a major impediment in the progress of application of (188)Re. Tungsten-188 of adequate specific activity can be prepared only in 2-3 of the high flux reactors operating in the World. Several useful technologies have been developed for the preparation of clinical grade (188)W/(188)Re generators. Since the specific activity of (188)W used in the generator is relatively low 185 GBq( < 5 Ci)/g], the eluted (188)ReO(4)(-) can have low radioactive concentration often insufficient for radiopharmaceutical preparation. However, several efficient post elution concentration techniques have been developed that yield clinically useful (188)ReO(4)(-) solutions. Rhenium-188 has been used for the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for the management of diseases such as bone metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis and primary cancers. Several early phase clinical studies using radiopharmaceuticals based on (188)Re-labeled phosphonates, antibodies, peptides, lipiodol and particulates have been reported. This article reviews the availability and use of (188)Re including a discussion of why broader use of (188)Re has not progressed as expected as a popular radionuclide for therapy.

  1. Intratumorally Injected 177Lu-Labeled Gold Nanoparticles: Gold Nanoseed Brachytherapy with Application for Neoadjuvant Treatment of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yook, Simmyung; Cai, Zhongli; Lu, Yijie; Winnik, Mitchell A; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Reilly, Raymond M

    2016-06-01

    Improvements in the treatment of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) are needed. Our objective was to study a radiation nanomedicine (gold nanoseeds) composed of 30-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP) modified with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) chains linked to DOTA for complexing the β-particle emitter (177)Lu and to panitumumab for targeting epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) ((177)Lu-T-AuNP) as a novel neoadjuvant brachytherapy for LABC. Nontargeted gold nanoseeds ((177)Lu-NT-AuNP) were constructed without panitumumab for comparison. (177)Lu-T-AuNP or (177)Lu-NT-AuNP was injected intratumorally in CD-1 athymic mice bearing subcutaneous EGFR-positive MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer tumors. Biodistribution and small-animal SPECT/CT imaging studies were performed to evaluate tumor and normal organ localization. A short-term (15 d) study was conducted to select the most effective amount of (177)Lu-T-AuNP or (177)Lu-NT-AuNP for treatment with long-term observation (90-120 d). Normal organ toxicities were assessed by monitoring body weight, blood cell counts, and serum alanine aminotransferase and creatinine. Radiation-absorbed doses in the tumor and normal organs were estimated by Monte Carlo N-Particle version 5.0 modeling. Tumor radioactivity concentrations were high at 1 h after injection (>300-400 percentage injected dose per gram [%ID/g]) but decreased by 2-3-fold at 48 h after injection. Normal organ uptake was low (<0.5 %ID/g) except for the liver and spleen (<3 %ID/g), increasing by 2-5-fold at 48 h after injection. Treatment with 4.5 MBq (6 × 10(11) AuNP) of (177)Lu-T-AuNP or (177)Lu-NT-AuNP arrested tumor growth over 90 d without normal organ toxicity, whereas tumors continued to grow in mice treated with unlabeled T-AuNP or (177)Lu-labeled PEG polymer not linked to AuNP. Survival was prolonged up to 120 d in mice treated with (177)Lu-T-AuNP or (177)Lu-NT-AuNP. Radiation-absorbed doses to the tumor were 30 and 22 Gy for (177)Lu-T-AuNP and (177)Lu

  2. Pharmacokinetics of radioimmunotherapeutic agent of direct labeling mAb 188Re-HAb18

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Chao; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Bian, Hui-Jie; Li, Jie; Zhou, Shou-Bo

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To label anti-hepatoma monoclonal antibody (mAb) fragment HAb18 F(ab’)2 was labeled with 188Re for the pharmacokinetic model of 188Re-HAb18 F(ab’)2 and to evaluate its pharmacokinetic parameters in hepatoma-bearing nude mice. METHODS: HAb18 F(ab’)2 was directly labeled with 188Re using 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) as reducing agents. Labeling efficiency and immunoreactivity of 188Re-HAb18 F(ab’)2 were evaluated by Whatman 3MM paper chromatography and live cell assay, respectively. Biodistribution analysis was also conducted in nude mice bearing human hepatoma in which animals were sacrificed at different time points (1, 4, 18, 24 and 24 h) after 188Re-HAb18 F (ab’)2 was injected through tail-vein into hepatoma-bearing nude mice. The blood and radioactivity of organs and mass were measured. The concentrations of 188Re-HAb18 F(ab’)2 were evaluated with apharmacokinetic 3P97 software. RESULTS: The optimum labeling efficiency and immunoreactive fraction were 91.7% and 0.78% respectively. The parameters of 188Re-HAb18 F(ab’)2 were: T1/2, 2.29 h; Vd,1.49 × 10-9 L·Bq-1; AUC, 20. 49 × 109 Bq·h·L-1;CL, 0.45 × 10-3 L·h-1. 188Re-HAb18 F(ab’)2 could locate specially in hepatoma with high selective reactivity of HAb18 F(ab’)2. 188Re-HAb18 F(ab’)2 was mainly eliminated by kidney. The maximal tumor to blood ratio was at 48 h, and maximal tumor to liver ratio was at 18 h. CONCLUTION: The pharmacokinetics of 188Re-HAb18 F (ab’)2 fital-compartment model.188Re-HAb18 F(ab’)2 can be uptaken selectively at the hepatoma site. PMID:11833074

  3. 177Lu-antibody conjugates for single-cell kill of B-lymphoma cells in vitro and for therapy of micrometastases in vivo.

    PubMed

    Michel, Rosana B; Andrews, Philip M; Rosario, Adriane V; Goldenberg, David M; Mattes, M Jules

    2005-04-01

    Antibodies (Abs) conjugated to 177Lu, a relatively low-energy beta-particle emitter, were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic activity and in vivo for their therapeutic activity against disseminated B-cell lymphoma xenografts in SCID mice. 177Lu was compared with other beta-particle emitters ((131)I and 90Y), and also with emitters of low-energy electrons (LEEs, meaning Auger and conversion electrons of < 50 keV). The Abs used reacted with CD20, CD74 or HLA-DR, and the target cell was the Raji B lymphoma. Like the other beta-particle emitters, 177Lu was a potent and specific toxic agent in vitro, when conjugated to Abs recognizing high-density antigens. It appeared to be slightly less potent than (131)I per decay, but this difference was relatively small, and would not be a major factor in the selection of the optimal radionuclide for clinical use. The nonspecific toxicity from 177Lu was less than from 90Y, but 177Lu still produced greater nonspecific toxicity in vitro than LEE emitters. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 177Lu-anti-CD74 in SCID mice was 1.81 MBq (49 microCi)/mouse. When this dose was administered on day 5 after tumor inoculation, significant protection was obtained, but considerably less than the protection obtained in previous experiments with LEE emitters (111)In and 67Ga. In conclusion, 177Lu has advantages over other available beta-particle emitters as a therapeutic agent, but its efficacy in the treatment of micrometastases seems to be less than that of LEE emitters, due to greater nonspecific toxicity. This conclusion, however, may not apply to therapy of macroscopic tumors.

  4. The low-energy β(-) and electron emitter (161)Tb as an alternative to (177)Lu for targeted radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Lehenberger, Silvia; Barkhausen, Christoph; Cohrs, Susan; Fischer, Eliane; Grünberg, Jürgen; Hohn, Alexander; Köster, Ulli; Schibli, Roger; Türler, Andreas; Zhernosekov, Konstantin

    2011-08-01

    The low-energy β(-) emitter (161)Tb is very similar to (177)Lu with respect to half-life, beta energy and chemical properties. However, (161)Tb also emits a significant amount of conversion and Auger electrons. Greater therapeutic effect can therefore be expected in comparison to (177)Lu. It also emits low-energy photons that are useful for gamma camera imaging. The (160)Gd(n,γ)(161)Gd→(161)Tb production route was used to produce (161)Tb by neutron irradiation of massive (160)Gd targets (up to 40 mg) in nuclear reactors. A semiautomated procedure based on cation exchange chromatography was developed and applied to isolate no carrier added (n.c.a.) (161)Tb from the bulk of the (160)Gd target and from its stable decay product (161)Dy. (161)Tb was used for radiolabeling DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate; the radiolabeling profile was compared to the commercially available n.c.a. (177)Lu. A (161)Tb Derenzo phantom was imaged using a small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography camera. Up to 15 GBq of (161)Tb was produced by long-term irradiation of Gd targets. Using a cation exchange resin, we obtained 80%-90% of the available (161)Tb with high specific activity, radionuclide and chemical purity and in quantities sufficient for therapeutic applications. The (161)Tb obtained was of the quality required to prepare (161)Tb-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate. We were able to produce (161)Tb in n.c.a. form by irradiating highly enriched (160)Gd targets; it can be obtained in the quantity and quality required for the preparation of (161)Tb-labeled therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. MIRD Pamphlet No. 26: Joint EANM/MIRD Guidelines for Quantitative 177Lu SPECT Applied for Dosimetry of Radiopharmaceutical Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ljungberg, Michael; Celler, Anna; Konijnenberg, Mark W; Eckerman, Keith F; Dewaraja, Yuni K; Sjögreen-Gleisner, Katarina; Bolch, Wesley E; Brill, A Bertrand; Fahey, Frederic; Fisher, Darrell R; Hobbs, Robert; Howell, Roger W; Meredith, Ruby F; Sgouros, George; Zanzonico, Pat; Bacher, Klaus; Chiesa, Carlo; Flux, Glenn; Lassmann, Michael; Strigari, Lidia; Walrand, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of absorbed dose calculations in personalized internal radionuclide therapy is directly related to the accuracy of the activity (or activity concentration) estimates obtained at each of the imaging time points. MIRD Pamphlet no. 23 presented a general overview of methods that are required for quantitative SPECT imaging. The present document is next in a series of isotope-specific guidelines and recommendations that follow the general information that was provided in MIRD 23. This paper focuses on (177)Lu (lutetium) and its application in radiopharmaceutical therapy. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  6. Dose Mapping after Endoradiotherapy with (177)Lu-DOTATATE/-TOC by One Single Measurement after Four Days.

    PubMed

    Hänscheid, Heribert; Lapa, Constantin; Buck, Andreas K; Lassmann, Michael; Werner, Rudolf A

    2017-06-06

    Dosimetry of organs and tumors helps to assess risks and benefit of treatment with (177)Lu-DOTATATE/ TOC. However, it is often not performed in clinical routine because of additional efforts, the complexity of data collection and analysis, and the additional burden for the patients. Aiming at a simplification of dosimetry, we analyzed the accuracy of a theoretically substantiated approximation, which allows to calculate absorbed doses from a single measurement of the abdominal activity distribution. Methods: Activity kinetics were retrospectively assessed from planar images in 29 patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET, n = 21) or meningioma (n = 8) after the administration of (177)Lu-DOTATATE (n = 22) or (177)Lu-DOTATOC (n = 7). Mono- or bi-exponential functions were fitted to measured data in 54 kidneys, 25 livers, 27 spleens, and 30 NET lesions. It was evaluated for each fit function how well the integral over time was represented by an approximation calculated as the product of the time tl of a single measurement, the expected reading at time tl, and the factor 2/ln(2). Tissue specific deviations of the approximation from the time integral were calculated for time points tl = 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 hours. Results: Correlation between time integral and approximation improved with increasing time tl. Pearson's r exceeded 0.95 for tl ≥ 96 hours in all tissues. Lowest maximum errors were observed at tl = 96 hours with deviations of the approximation from the time integral of median +5% (range, -9% to +17%) for kidneys, +6% (range, -7% to +12%) for livers, +8% (range, +2% to +20%) for spleens, and +6% (range, -11% to +16%) for NET lesions. Accuracy is reduced for measurements after 72 or 120 hours. For measurements after 24, 48, and 144 hours, the approximation leads to large deviations for some of the patients, in particular unacceptable underestimates of the absorbed dose to the kidneys. Conclusion: A single quantitative measurement of the abdominal

  7. Evaluation of affibody molecule-based PNA-mediated radionuclide pretargeting: Development of an optimized conjugation protocol and (177)Lu labeling.

    PubMed

    Altai, Mohamed; Westerlund, Kristina; Velletta, Justin; Mitran, Bogdan; Honarvar, Hadis; Karlström, Amelie Eriksson

    2017-07-12

    We have previously developed a pretargeting approach for affibody-mediated cancer therapy based on PNA-PNA hybridization. In this article we have further developed this approach by optimizing the production of the primary agent, ZHER2:342-SR-HP1, and labeling the secondary agent, HP2, with the therapeutic radionuclide (177)Lu. We also studied the biodistribution profile of (177)Lu-HP2 in mice, and evaluated pretargeting with (177)Lu-HP2 in vitro and in vivo. The biodistribution profile of (177)Lu-HP2 was evaluated in NMRI mice and compared to the previously studied (111)In-HP2. Pretargeting using (177)Lu-HP2 was studied in vitro using the HER2-expressing cell lines BT-474 and SKOV-3, and in vivo in mice bearing SKOV-3 xenografts. Using an optimized production protocol for ZHER2:342-SR-HP1 the ligation time was reduced from 15h to 30min, and the yield increased from 45% to 70%. (177)Lu-labeled HP2 binds specifically in vitro to BT474 and SKOV-3 cells pre-treated with ZHER2:342-SR-HP1. (177)Lu-HP2 was shown to have a more rapid blood clearance compared to (111)In-HP2 in NMRI mice, and the measured radioactivity in blood was 0.22±0.1 and 0.68±0.07%ID/g for (177)Lu- and (111)In-HP2, respectively, at 1h p.i. In contrast, no significant difference in kidney uptake was observed (4.47±1.17 and 3.94±0.58%ID/g for (177)Lu- and (111)In-HP2, respectively, at 1h p.i.). Co-injection with either Gelofusine or lysine significantly reduced the kidney uptake for (177)Lu-HP2 (1.0±0.1 and 1.6±0.2, respectively, vs. 2.97±0.87%ID/g in controls at 4h p.i.). (177)Lu-HP2 accumulated in SKOV-3 xenografts in BALB/C nu/nu mice when administered after injection of ZHER2:342-SR-HP1. Without pre-injection of ZHER2:342-SR-HP1, the uptake of (177)Lu-HP2 was about 90-fold lower in tumor (0.23±0.08 vs. 20.7±3.5%ID/g). The tumor-to-kidney radioactivity accumulation ratio was almost 5-fold higher in the group of mice pre-injected with ZHER2:342-SR-HP1. In conclusion, (177)Lu-HP2 was shown to

  8. Radiolanthanide-labeled monoclonal antibody CC49 for radioimmunotherapy of cancer: biological comparison of DOTA conjugates and 149Pm, 166Ho, and 177Lu.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Huma; Jia, Fang; Sivaguru, Geethapriya; Hudson, Michael J; Shelton, Tiffani D; Hoffman, Timothy J; Cutler, Cathy S; Ketring, Alan R; Athey, Phillip S; Simón, Jaime; Frank, R Keith; Jurisson, Silvia S; Lewis, Michael R

    2006-01-01

    The radiolanthanides 149Pm, 166Ho, and 177Lu have decay characteristics suitable for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of cancer. N-Hydroxysulfosuccinimidyl DOTA (DOTA-OSSu) and methoxy-DOTA (MeO-DOTA) were conjugated to the anti-TAG-72 monoclonal antibody CC49 for radiolabeling with 149Pm, 166Ho, and 177Lu. While both DOTA conjugates could be labeled to high specific activity with 177Lu, MeO-DOTA afforded superior conjugate stability, radiolabeling, and radiochemical purity. Pilot biodistributions in nude mice bearing LS174T human colon carcinoma xenografts demonstrated that MeO-DOTA afforded higher tumor uptake and lower kidney retention of 177Lu than DOTA-OSSu. The in vitro stability of 149Pm-, 166Ho-, and 177Lu-MeO-DOTA-CC49 was evaluated using serum and hydroxyapatite assays. Serum stability of radiolanthanide-labeled MeO-DOTA-CC49 followed a trend based on the coordination energies of the radiometals, with 177Lu showing the highest stability after 96 to 168 h at 37 C. In contrast, MeO-DOTA-CC49 labeled with all three radiolanthanides was >92% stable to hydroxyapatite challenge for 168 h at 37 C. Comprehensive biodistributions of 149Pm-, 166Ho-, and 177Lu-MeO-DOTA-CC49 were obtained in LS174T-bearing nude mice. Maximum tumor uptakes were 100.0% ID/g for 149Pm at 96 h, 69.5% ID/g for 166Ho at 96 h, and 132.4% ID/g for 177Lu at 168 h. Normal organ uptakes were generally low, except in the liver, spleen, and kidney at early time points. By 96 to 168 h postinjection, nontarget organ uptake decreased to approximately 7% ID/g (kidney), 12% ID/g (spleen), and 20% ID/g (liver) for each radiolanthanide. When labeled with 149Pm, 166Ho, and 177Lu, MeO-DOTA-CC49 has potential for RIT of colorectal cancer and other carcinomas.

  9. Preparation and therapeutic evaluation of 188Re-thermogelling emulsion in rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Ying-Hsia; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Peng, Cheng-Liang; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Luo, Tsai-Yueh

    2014-01-01

    Radiolabeled Lipiodol® (Guerbet, Villepinte, France) is routinely used in hepatoma therapy. The temperature-sensitive hydrogel polyethylene glycol-b-poly-DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid-b-polyethylene glycol triblock copolymer is used as an embolic agent and sustained drug release system. This study attempted to combine the polyethylene glycol-b-poly-DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid-b-polyethylene glycol hydrogel and radio-labeled Lipiodol to form a new radio-thermogelling emulsion, rhenium-188–N,N’-1,2-ethanediylbis-L-cysteine diethyl-ester dihydrochloride–Lipiodol/hydrogel (188Re-ELH). The therapeutic potential of 188Re-ELH was evaluated in a rodent hepatoma model. Rhenium-188 chelated with N,N’-1,2-ethanediylbis-L-cysteine diethyl-ester dihydrochloride was extracted with Lipiodol to obtain rhenium-188–N,N’-1,2-ethanediylbis-L-cysteine diethyl-ester dihydrochloride–Lipiodol (188Re-EL), which was blended with the hydrogel in equal volumes to develop 188Re-ELH. The 188Re-ELH phase stability was evaluated at different temperatures. Biodistribution patterns and micro-single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images in Sprague Dawley rats implanted with the rat hepatoma cell line N1-S1 were observed after in situ tumoral injection of ~3.7 MBq 188Re-ELH. The therapeutic potential of 188Re-EL (48.58±3.86 MBq/0.1 mL, n=12) was evaluated in a 2-month survival study using the same animal model. The therapeutic effects of 188Re-ELH (25.52±4.64 MBq/0.1 mL, n=12) were evaluated and compared with those of 188Re-EL. The responses were assessed by changes in tumor size and survival rates. The 188Re-ELH emulsion was stable in the gel form at 25°C–35°C for >52 hours. Biodistribution data and micro-single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images of the 188Re-ELH group indicated that most activity was selectively observed in hepatomas. Long-term 188Re-ELH studies have demonstrated protracted reductions in tumor volumes

  10. Preparation and therapeutic evaluation of (188)Re-thermogelling emulsion in rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ying-Hsia; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Peng, Cheng-Liang; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Luo, Tsai-Yueh

    2014-01-01

    Radiolabeled Lipiodol(®) (Guerbet, Villepinte, France) is routinely used in hepatoma therapy. The temperature-sensitive hydrogel polyethylene glycol-b-poly-DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid-b-polyethylene glycol triblock copolymer is used as an embolic agent and sustained drug release system. This study attempted to combine the polyethylene glycol-b-poly-DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid-b-polyethylene glycol hydrogel and radio-labeled Lipiodol to form a new radio-thermogelling emulsion, rhenium-188-N,N'-1,2-ethanediylbis-L-cysteine diethyl-ester dihydrochloride-Lipiodol/hydrogel ((188)Re-ELH). The therapeutic potential of (188)Re-ELH was evaluated in a rodent hepatoma model. Rhenium-188 chelated with N,N'-1,2-ethanediylbis-L-cysteine diethyl-ester dihydrochloride was extracted with Lipiodol to obtain rhenium-188-N,N'-1,2-ethanediylbis-L-cysteine diethyl-ester dihydrochloride-Lipiodol ((188)Re-EL), which was blended with the hydrogel in equal volumes to develop (188)Re-ELH. The (188)Re-ELH phase stability was evaluated at different temperatures. Biodistribution patterns and micro-single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images in Sprague Dawley rats implanted with the rat hepatoma cell line N1-S1 were observed after in situ tumoral injection of ~3.7 MBq (188)Re-ELH. The therapeutic potential of (188)Re-EL (48.58±3.86 MBq/0.1 mL, n=12) was evaluated in a 2-month survival study using the same animal model. The therapeutic effects of (188)Re-ELH (25.52±4.64 MBq/0.1 mL, n=12) were evaluated and compared with those of (188)Re-EL. The responses were assessed by changes in tumor size and survival rates. The (188)Re-ELH emulsion was stable in the gel form at 25°C-35°C for >52 hours. Biodistribution data and micro-single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images of the (188)Re-ELH group indicated that most activity was selectively observed in hepatomas. Long-term (188)Re-ELH studies have demonstrated protracted reductions in tumor

  11. Evaluation of 188Re-DTPA-deoxyglucose as a potential cancer radiopharmaceutical.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Xiong, Qing-Feng; Yang, Xi-Qun; He, Ling; Huang, Zhan-Wen

    2010-03-01

    We aimed to synthesize diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-deoxyglucose (DTPA-DG) radiolabeled with (188)Re and to evaluate its biologic characteristics using mammary tumor-bearing mice. The biodistribution of the radiolabeled compound was determined by tissue counting at 3, 12, and 24 hours after injection in experimental animals. Scintigraphic examinations of nude mice bearing breast cancer (MCF-7 cells) were performed after (188)Re-DTPA-DG (18.5 MBq) was injected in the tail vein. For the tumor inhibitory portion of this work, tumor volumes were measured and recorded every 3 days until the 21st day after injection. The radiochemical purity of (188)Re-DTPA-DG was 95.0%. Based on biodistribution measurements, (188)Re-DTPA-DG was taken up at high levels by the tumor. The mean tumoral percent injected dosages per gram (% ID/g) were 1.98 +/- 0.29 (SD), 2.89 +/- 0.43, and 0.42 +/- 0.06 % ID/g at 3, 12, and 24 hours, respectively, after injection. In the (188)Re-DTPA-DG scintigraphic examinations, the tumors were clearly delineated on the images recorded 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after injection. In the tumor inhibitory evaluations, the tumor volume of the (188)Re-DTPA-DG-treated group increased more slowly than that of the control groups, which were treated with (188)Re-perrhenate or saline (p < 0.01). Rhenium-188-DTPA-DG showed excellent tumor targeting and tumor growth suppression properties on MCF-7 tumor cells. Rhenium-188-DTPA-DG may be a potential agent for the diagnosis and radiotherapy of tumors.

  12. Extended acute toxicity study of (188) Re-liposome in rats.

    PubMed

    Chi-Mou, Liu; Chia-Che, Tsai; Chia-Yu, Yu; Wan-Chi, Lee; Chung-Li, Ho; Tsui-Jung, Chang; Chih-Hsien, Chang; Te-Wei, Lee

    2013-09-01

    Liposomes can selectively target cancer sites and carry payloads, thereby improving diagnostic and therapeutic effectiveness as well as reducing toxicity. To evaluate therapeutic strategies, it is essential to use animal models reflecting important safety aspects before clinical application. As our previous study found that a high dosage (185 of MBq) of (188) Re-N,N-bis (2-mercaptoethyl)-N',N'-diethylethylenediamine-labeled pegylated liposomes ((188) Re-liposome) induced a decrease in white blood cell (WBC) count in Sprague-Dawley rats 7 days postinjection, the objective of the present study was to investigate extended acute radiotoxicity of (188) Re-liposome. Rats were administered via intravenous (i.v.) injection with (188) Re-liposome (185, 55.5 and 18.5 MBq), normal saline as a blank control or non-radioactive liposome as a vehicle control. Mortality, clinical signs, food consumption, body weights, urinary, biochemical and hematological analyzes were examined. In addition, gross necropsy and histopathological examinations were also performed at the end of the follow-up period. None of the rats died and no clinical sign was observed during the 28-day study period. Only male rats receiving (188) Re-liposome at a high dosage (185 MBq) displayed a slight weight loss compared with the control rats. In both male and female rats, the WBC counts of both high-dose and medium-dose (55.5 MBq) groups reduced significantly 7 days postinjection, but recovered to the normal range on Study Day 29. There was no significant difference in urinary analyzes, biochemical parameters and histopathological assessments between the (188) Re-liposome-treated and control groups. The information generated from the present study on extended acute toxicity of (188) Re-liposome will serve as a safety reference for radiopharmaceuticals in early-phase clinical trials.

  13. Dosimetry for (177)Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617: a new radiopharmaceutical for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Delker, Andreas; Fendler, Wolfgang Peter; Kratochwil, Clemens; Brunegraf, Anika; Gosewisch, Astrid; Gildehaus, Franz Josef; Tritschler, Stefan; Stief, Christian Georg; Kopka, Klaus; Haberkorn, Uwe; Bartenstein, Peter; Böning, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Dosimetry is critical to achieve the optimal therapeutic effect of radioligand therapy (RLT) with limited side effects. Our aim was to perform image-based absorbed dose calculation for the new PSMA ligand (177)Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617 in support of its use for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Whole-body planar images and SPECT/CT images of the abdomen were acquired in five patients (mean age 68 years) for during two treatment cycles at approximately 1, 24, 48 and 72 h after administration of 3.6 GBq (range 3.4 to 3.9 GBq) (177)Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617. Quantitative 3D SPECT OSEM reconstruction was performed with corrections for photon scatter, photon attenuation and detector blurring. A camera-specific calibration factor derived from phantom measurements was used for quantitation. Absorbed doses were calculated for various organs from the images using a combination of linear approximation, exponential fit, and target-specific S values, in accordance with the MIRD scheme. Absorbed doses to bone marrow were estimated from planar and SPECT images and with consideration of the blood sampling method according to the EANM guidelines. The average (± SD) absorbed doses per cycle were 2.2 ± 0.6 Gy for the kidneys (0.6 Gy/GBq), 5.1 ± 1.8 Gy for the salivary glands (1.4 Gy/GBq), 0.4 ± 0.2 Gy for the liver (0.1 Gy/GBq), 0.4 ± 0.1 Gy for the spleen (0.1 Gy/GBq), and 44 ± 19 mGy for the bone marrow (0.012 Gy/GBq). The organ absorbed doses did not differ significantly between cycles. The critical absorbed dose reported for the kidneys (23 Gy) was not reached in any patient. At 24 h there was increased uptake in the colon with 50 - 70 % overlap to the kidneys on planar images. Absorbed doses for tumour lesions ranged between 1.2 and 47.5 Gy (13.1 Gy/GBq) per cycle. The salivary glands and kidneys showed high, but not critical, absorbed doses after RLT with (177)Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617. We suggest that (177)Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617 is suitable for

  14. [Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE: Experience of the Portuguese Institute of Oncology in Porto].

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Inês Lucena; Luiz, Henrique Vara; Violante, Liliana Sobral; Santos, Ana Paula; Antunes, Luís; Torres, Isabel; Sanches, Cristina; Azevedo, Isabel; Duarte, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    Introdução: O objetivo deste artigo é rever a experiência do Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto na terapêutica de tumores neuroendócrinos gastroenteropancreáticos com 177Lu-DOTA-TATE, tendo como principais pontos de análise a segurança e eficáciaterapêutica. Material e Métodos: Foi realizada uma análise retrospetiva dos processos clínicos de doentes com tumores neuroendócrinos gastroenteropancreáticos, submetidos a terapêutica com 177Lu-DOTA-TATE entre abril de 2011 e novembro de 2013. Resultados: Dos 36 casos revistos, 30 completaram os três ciclos de 177Lu-DOTA-TATE (83,3%). Nesses doentes foram registados: efeitos colaterais agudos em 8,9% dos ciclos; toxicidade hepática grau 3 CTCAE em 13,3% dos doentes (todos com alterações prévias da função hepática); ausência de toxicidade renal ou hematológica significativa; melhoria sintomática em 71,4% dos doentes; tempo mediano global desde o início da terapêutica até progressão de doença de 25,6 meses; tempo mediano global de sobrevivência desde o diagnóstico de 121,7 meses. Verificou-se um maior tempo livre de progressão de doença e de sobrevivência nos doentes com expressão elevada de recetores da somatostatina (p < 0,05). Discussão: A peptide receptor radionuclide therapy com 177Lu-DOTA-TATE apresenta respostas clínicas favoráveis com segurança e boa tolerabilidade terapêutica, conforme evidenciado no nosso estudo pelos seguintes achados: melhoria dos sintomas na maioria dos doentes e aumento significativo do tempo livre de progressão de doença e da sobrevivência (sobretudo nos doentes com expressão elevada de sstr), com efeitos colaterais agudos e subagudos/crónicos significativos numa minoria de doentes. Conclusão: A peptide receptor radionuclide therapy com 177Lu-DOTA-TATE é uma terapêutica promissora, com benefícios reais em termos de eficácia e segurança nos doentes com tumores neuroendócrinos gastroenteropancreáticos.

  15. Mechanisms of Cell Killing Response from Low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Radiation Originating from 177Lu Radioimmunotherapy Targeting Disseminated Intraperitoneal Tumor Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Kwon Joong; Milenic, Diane E.; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2016-01-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies (mAbs) provide efficient tools for cancer therapy. The combination of low energy β−-emissions (500 keVmax; 130 keVave) along with a γ-emission for imaging makes 177Lu (T1/2 = 6.7 day) a suitable radionuclide for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of tumor burdens possibly too large to treat with α-particle radiation. RIT with 177Lu-trastuzumab has proven to be effective for treatment of disseminated HER2 positive peritoneal disease in a pre-clinical model. To elucidate mechanisms originating from this RIT therapy at the molecular level, tumor bearing mice (LS-174T intraperitoneal xenografts) were treated with 177Lu-trastuzumab comparatively to animals treated with a non-specific control, 177Lu-HuIgG, and then to prior published results obtained using 212Pb-trastuzumab, an α-particle RIT agent. 177Lu-trastuzumab induced cell death via DNA double strand breaks (DSB), caspase-3 apoptosis, and interfered with DNA-PK expression, which is associated with the repair of DNA non-homologous end joining damage. This contrasts to prior results, wherein 212Pb-trastuzumab was found to down-regulate RAD51, which is involved with homologous recombination DNA damage repair. 177Lu-trastuzumab therapy was associated with significant chromosomal disruption and up-regulation of genes in the apoptotic process. These results suggest an inhibition of the repair mechanism specific to the type of radiation damage being inflicted by either high or low linear energy transfer radiation. Understanding the mechanisms of action of β−- and α-particle RIT comparatively through an in vivo tumor environment offers real information suitable to enhance combination therapy regimens involving α- and β−-particle RIT for the management of intraperitoneal disease. PMID:27196891

  16. Immuno-PET Imaging and Radioimmunotherapy of 64Cu-/177Lu-Labeled Anti-EGFR Antibody in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Model.

    PubMed

    Song, In Ho; Lee, Tae Sup; Park, Yong Serk; Lee, Jin Sook; Lee, Byung Chul; Moon, Byung Seok; An, Gwang Il; Lee, Hae Won; Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Yong Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lim, Sang Moo

    2016-07-01

    Immuno-PET provides valuable information about tumor location, phenotype, susceptibility to therapy, and treatment response, especially to targeted radioimmunotherapy. In this study, we prepared antiepidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody via identical chelator, 3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]-pentadeca-1(15),11,13-trience-3,6,9,-triacetic acid (PCTA), labeled with (64)Cu or (177)Lu to evaluate the EGFR expression levels using immuno-PET and the feasibility of radioimmunotherapy in an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) model. Cetuximab was conjugated with p-SCN-Bn-PCTA and radiolabeled with (64)Cu or (177)Lu. In vitro EGFR expression levels were determined and compared using flow cytometry and cell binding assay. In vivo EGFR expression levels were evaluated via immuno-PET imaging of (64)Cu-cetuximab and biodistribution analysis. Micro-SPECT/CT imaging, biodistribution, and radioimmunotherapy studies of (177)Lu-cetuximab were performed in the ESCC model. Therapeutic responses were monitored using (18)F-FDG PET and immunohistochemical staining. (64)Cu- or (177)Lu-labeled antibodies showed high radiolabeling yield (>98%), stability (>90%), and favorable immunoreactivity. In vitro EGFR status measured by cell binding assay was correlated with the flow cytometry data. Immuno-PET, micro-SPECT/CT, and biodistribution demonstrated specific uptake in ESCC tumors depending on the EGFR expression levels. Tumor accumulation of (64)Cu- and (177)Lu-cetuximab was peaked at 48 and 120 h, respectively. Radioimmunotherapy with (177)Lu-cetuximab showed significant inhibition of tumor growth (P < 0.01) and marked reduction of (18)F-FDG SUV compared with that of control (P < 0.05). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling positivity and Ki-67 staining indices increased and decreased, respectively, in the radioimmunotherapy group compared with other groups (P < 0.01). (64)Cu-cetuximab immuno-PET represented EGFR expression levels in ESCC tumors, and

  17. A Randomized Phase 2 Trial of 177Lu Radiolabeled Anti-PSMA Monoclonal Antibody J591 in Patients with High-Risk Castrate Biochemically Relapsed Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    3 mm tumors (those not seen on standard imaging modalities). The hypothesis is that the addition of 177Lu-J591 to ketoconazole will improve time...receiving ketoconazole plus 177Lu-J591 vs ketoconazole plus trace-labeled 111In-J591 (i.e. placebo). Secondary endpoints include PSA response...receive ketoconazole plus hydrocortisone. The primary endpoint of the study is 18-month met-free survival. 140 pts will be treated to allow 80% power with

  18. Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy of Prostate Cancer with an Anti-TROP-2×Anti-HSG Bispecific Antibody and a 177Lu-Labeled Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Frielink, Cathelijne; Goldenberg, David M.; Sharkey, Robert M.; Lütje, Susanne; McBride, William J.; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Boerman, Otto C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract TROP-2 is a pancarcinoma marker that is expressed at high levels in many epithelial cancers, including prostate cancer (PC). The trivalent bispecific antibody TF12 (anti-TROP2×anti-HSG [histamine-succinyl-glycine]) has shown to effectively target PC. In this study, the efficacy of pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) with multiple cycles of TF12 and 177Lu-labeled diHSG-peptide (IMP288) in mice with s.c. PC3 tumors was investigated and compared with that of conventional RIT with 177Lu-labeled anti-TROP-2 mAb hRS7. Methods: The potential of one, two, and three cycles of PRIT using the TF12 pretargeted 177Lu-IMP288 (41 MBq per cycle) was determined in mice with s.c. PC3 tumors, and compared with the efficacy and toxicity of RIT with 177Lu-hRS7 dosed at the maximum tolerated dose (11 MBq). Results: PRIT of two and three cycles showed significantly higher median survival (>150 days) compared with PRIT of one cycle of TF12 and 177Lu-IMP288 (111 days, p<0.001) or the controls (76 days, p<0.0001). All mice treated with the mAb 177Lu-hRS7 survived at the end of the experiment (150 days), compared with 80% in the mice that were treated with three cycles of PRIT and 70% in the group that received two cycles of PRIT. Clinically significant hematologic toxicity was found only in the groups that received either three cycles of PRIT (p<0.0009) or RIT (p<0.0001). Conclusions: TROP-2-expressing PC can be targeted efficiently with TF12 and radiolabeled IMP288. 177Lu-IMP288 accumulated rapidly in the tumors. PRIT of multiple cycles inhibited the growth of s.c. PC3 tumors. Clinically relevant hematological toxicity was observed in the group that received three cycles of PRIT; however, conventional RIT with the parent mAb 177Lu-hRS7 was at least as effective with similar toxicity. PMID:25226447

  19. (177)Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617 therapy in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer: safety, efficacy, and quality of life assessment.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Madhav Prasad; Ballal, Sanjana; Tripathi, Madhavi; Damle, Nishikant Avinash; Sahoo, Ranjit Kumar; Seth, Amlesh; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel theranostic agent, (177)Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617 therapy in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Thirty-one mCRPC patients with progressive disease despite second-line hormonal therapy and/or docetaxel chemotherapy were recruited for the study. All patients underwent diagnostic(68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CCPET/CT, prior to inclusion for therapy. Included patients then underwent quarterly (177)Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617 therapy. Hematological, kidney function, liver function tests, and serum PSA levels were recorded before and after therapy at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 3 month intervals. Biochemical response was assessed with trend in serum PSA levels. Metabolic response was assessed by PERCIST 1 criteria. Clinical response was assessed by visual analogue score (VASmax) analgesic score (AS), Karanofsky performance status (KPS), and ttoxicity and response criteria of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) criteria. The mean age of patients was 65.93 ± 9.77 years (range: 38-81 years). The mean activity administered in the 31 patients was 5069 ± 1845 MBq ranging from one to four cycles. There was a decline in the mean serum PSA levels from the baseline (baseline: 275 ng/mL, post 1st cycle therapy: 141.75 ng/mL). Based on biochemical response criteria 2/31, 20/31, 3/31, and 6/31 had complete response (CR), partial response(PR), stable disease (SD), and progressive disease (PD), respectively. Metabolic response revealed 2/6 patients with CR, and the remaining 3/6 patients with PR and 1/6 patients with SD. The mean VASmax score decreased from 7.5 to 3. The mean analgesic score decreased from 2.5 to 1.8 after therapy. The mean KPS score improved from 50.32 to 65.42 after therapies. The mean ECOG performance status improved from 2.54 to 1.78 after therapy. Two patients experienced grade I and grade II hemoglobin toxicity each. None of the patients experienced nephrotoxicity or

  20. PSMA-Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer with 177Lu-Labeled PSMA-617.

    PubMed

    Kratochwil, Clemens; Giesel, Frederik L; Stefanova, Melsa; Benešová, Martina; Bronzel, Marcus; Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Mier, Walter; Eder, Matthias; Kopka, Klaus; Haberkorn, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an excellent target for radionuclide therapy of metastasized castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Besides high affinity and long tumor retention, the DOTA-conjugated ligand PSMA-617 has low kidney uptake, making it an excellent choice for therapeutic application. We retrospectively report our experience with (177)Lu-PSMA-617-targeted radionuclide therapy in a case series of mCRPC patients resistant to other treatments. Patients with PSMA-positive tumor phenotypes were selected by molecular imaging. Thirty patients received 1-3 cycles of (177)Lu-PSMA-617. During therapy, pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry were evaluated. Blood cell count was checked every 2 wk after the first and every 4 wk after succeeding cycles. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was determined every 4 wk. Radiologic restaging was performed after 3 cycles. Twenty-one of 30 patients had a PSA response; in 13 of 30 the PSA decreased more than 50%. After 3 cycles, 8 of 11 patients achieved a sustained PSA response (>50%) for over 24 wk, which also correlated with radiologic response (decreased lesion number and size). Normally, acute hematotoxicity was mild. Diffuse bone marrow involvement was a risk factor for higher grade myelosuppression but could be identified by PSMA imaging in advance. Xerostomia, nausea, and fatigue occurred sporadically (<10%). Clearance of non-tumor-bound tracer was predominantly renal and widely completed by 48 h. Safety dosimetry revealed kidney doses of approximately 0.75 Gy/GBq, red marrow doses of 0.03 Gy/GBq, and salivary gland doses of 1.4 Gy/GBq, irrespective of tumor burden and consistent on subsequent cycles. Mean tumor-absorbed dose ranged from 6 to 22 Gy/GBq during cycle 1. (177)Lu-PSMA-617 is a promising new option for therapy of mCRPC and deserves more attention in larger prospective trials. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  1. Dose response of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors treated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using 177Lu-DOTATATE.

    PubMed

    Ilan, Ezgi; Sandström, Mattias; Wassberg, Cecilia; Sundin, Anders; Garske-Román, Ulrike; Eriksson, Barbro; Granberg, Dan; Lubberink, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a promising treatment for patients with neuroendocrine tumors, giving rise to improved survival. Dosimetric calculations in relation to PRRT have been concentrated to normal organ dosimetry in order to limit side effects. However, the relation between the absorbed dose to the tumor and treatment response has so far not been established. Better knowledge in this respect may improve the understanding of treatment effects, allow for improved selection of those patients who are expected to benefit from PRRT, and avoid unnecessary treatments. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the dose-response relationship for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors treated with PRRT using (177)Lu-DOTATATE. Tumor-absorbed dose calculations were performed for 24 lesions in 24 patients with metastasized pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors treated with repeated cycles of (177)Lu-DOTATATE at 8-wk intervals. The absorbed dose calculations relied on sequential SPECT/CT imaging at 24, 96, and 168 h after infusion of (177)Lu-DOTATATE. The unit density sphere model from OLINDA was used for absorbed dose calculations. The absorbed doses were corrected for partial-volume effect based on phantom measurements. On the basis of these results, only tumors larger than 2.2 cm in diameter at any time during the treatment were included for analysis. To further decrease the effect of partial-volume effect, a subgroup of tumors (>4.0 cm) was analyzed separately. Tumor response was evaluated by CT using Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors. Tumor-absorbed doses until best response ranged approximately from 10 to 340 Gy. A 2-parameter sigmoid fit was fitted to the data, and a significant correlation between the absorbed dose and tumor reduction was found, with a Pearson correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.64 for tumors larger than 2.2 cm and 0.91 for the subgroup of tumors larger than 4.0 cm. The largest tumor reduction was 57% after a total absorbed dose

  2. (177)Lu-PSMA-617 radioligand therapy and outcome in patients with metastasized castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bräuer, Axel; Grubert, Lena Sophie; Roll, Wolfgang; Schrader, Andres Jan; Schäfers, Michael; Bögemann, Martin; Rahbar, Kambiz

    2017-09-01

    Radioligand therapies targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been established for the treatment of metastasized castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in the last decade and show promising response rates and a favourable toxicity profile. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall survival (OS) and to identify parameters predicting outcome in mCRPC patients treated with (177)Lu-PSMA-617. Between December 2014 and January 2017, 59 consecutive patients (median age 72 years; interquartile range, (IQR, 66-76 years) with mCRPC, who had been treated with at least one next-generation antihormonal drug as well as chemotherapy, were included in this study. Biochemical response was evaluated using Prostate Cancer Working Group 3 (PCWG3) criteria. Survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox regression proportional hazards model. Toxicity was assessed using Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). The study was approved by the local ethics committee. The 59 patients were treated with a total of 159 cycles (median 3 cycles, range 1-7) of (177)Lu-PSMA-617 (median dose 6.11 GBq, IQR 5.9-6.3 GBq). The median follow-up was 24 weeks (IQR 15-36 weeks). Follow-up data for at least 12 weeks (PCWG3) were available in 76% (45) of the patients. For outcome results data from all patients treated with at least one cycle were analysed. A decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of ≥50% occurred in 53%, and a decline in PSA of any amount in 91% of patients. The estimated median OS was 32 weeks. An initial alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level <220 U/L and a PSA decline after the first cycle were associated with a longer OS (56 vs. 28 weeks, p < 0.01, and 56 vs. 29 weeks, p = 0.04, respectively). The median estimated PSA progression-free survival (PPFS) was 18 weeks. Only ALP level <220 U/L was significantly associated with a longer PPFS (41 vs. 18 weeks, p < 0.01). A PSA decline after the first cycle of (177)Lu

  3. Organ doses from hepatic radioembolization with 90Y, 153Sm, 166Ho and 177Lu: A Monte Carlo simulation study using Geant4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashikin, N. A. A.; Yeong, C. H.; Guatelli, S.; Abdullah, B. J. J.; Ng, K. H.; Malaroda, A.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Perkins, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    90Y-radioembolization is a palliative treatment for liver cancer. 90Y decays via beta emission, making imaging difficult due to absence of gamma radiation. Since post-procedure imaging is crucial, several theranostic radionuclides have been explored as alternatives. However, exposures to gamma radiation throughout the treatment caused concern for the organs near the liver. Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation using MIRD Pamphlet 5 reference phantom was carried out. A spherical tumour with 4.3cm radius was modelled within the liver. 1.82GBq of 90Y sources were isotropically distributed within the tumour, with no extrahepatic shunting. The simulation was repeated with 153Sm, 166Ho and 177Lu. The estimated tumour doses for all radionuclides were 262.9Gy. Tumour dose equivalent to 1.82GBq 90Y can be achieved with 8.32, 5.83, and 4.44GBq for 153Sm, 166Ho and 177Lu, respectively. Normal liver doses by the other radionuclides were lower than 90Y, hence beneficial for normal tissue sparing. The organ doses from 153Sm and 177Lu were relatively higher due to higher gamma energy, but were still well below 1Gy. 166Ho, 177Lu and 153Sm offer useful gamma emission for post-procedure imaging. They show potential as 90Y substitutes, delivering comparable tumour doses, lower normal liver doses and other organs doses far below the tolerance limit.

  4. Preparation of clinical-scale (177) Lu-Rituximab: Optimization of protocols for conjugation, radiolabeling and freeze-dried kit formulation.

    PubMed

    Guleria, Mohini; Das, Tapas; Kumar, Chandan; Amirdhanayagam, Jeyachitra; Sarma, Haladhar D; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2017-02-08

    Rituximab is a monoclonal chimeric antibody which has been approved by US FDA for immunotherapy of Non-Hodgkins' lymphoma (NHL). Bexxar and Zevalin are the two other approved radiolabeled antibodies for radioimmunotherapy of NHL; however the fact that they are of murine origin reduces their treatment efficacy. To circumvent this, efforts have been made to radiolabel Rituximab with various therapeutic radioisotopes. In the present study, an effort has been made to optimize the conjugation (BFCA and antibody) and radiolabeling procedures for the preparation of clinical-scale (177) Lu-labeled Rituximab. An attempt was also made to prepare the freeze-dried Rituximab kit for the easy and convenient clinical translation of the agent. Clinical-scale (177) Lu-Rituximab (40 mCi, 1.48 GBq) was prepared with >95% radiochemical purity using the kit. Biological evaluation of (177) Lu-Rituximab was carried out by in-vitro cell binding studies in Raji cell lines, which showed satisfactory binding at 4 and 37 °C. Pharmacokinetic behaviour of the agent, evaluated by biodistribution studies in normal Swiss mice, revealed high blood and liver uptake at the initial time points; although it exhibited slow and gradual clearance with time. The study indicates that clinical-scale (177) Lu-Rituximab could be conveniently formulated using the methodology described in the present article.

  5. Sequential radioimmunotherapy with 177Lu- and 211At-labeled monoclonal antibody BR96 in a syngeneic rat colon carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Sophie E; Elgström, Erika; Bäck, Tom; Ohlsson, Tomas; Jensen, Holger; Nilsson, Rune; Lindegren, Sture; Tennvall, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Alpha-particle emitters, such as astatine-211 (211At), are generally considered suitable for the treatment of small cell clusters due to their short path length, while beta-particle emitters, for example, Lutetium-177 (177Lu), have a longer path length and are considered better for small, established tumors. A combination of such radionuclides may be successful in regimens of radioimmunotherapy. In this study, rats were treated by sequential administration of first a 177Lu-labeled antibody, followed by a 211At-labeled antibody 25 days later. Rats bearing solid colon carcinoma tumors were treated with 400 MBq/kg body weight 177Lu-BR96. After 25 days, three groups of animals were given either 5 or 10 MBq/kg body weight of 211At-BR96 simultaneously with or without a blocking agent reducing halogen uptake in normal tissues. Control animals were not given any 211At-BR96. Myelotoxicity, body weight, tumor size, and development of metastases were monitored for 120 days. Tumors were undetectable in 90% of the animals on day 25, independent of treatment. Additional treatment with 211At-labeled antibodies did not reduce the proportion of animals developing metastases. The rats suffered from reversible myelotoxicity after treatment. Sequential administration of 177Lu-BR96 and 211At-BR96 resulted in tolerable toxicity providing halogen blocking but did not enhance the therapeutic effect.

  6. Preliminary study of metabolic radiotherapy with 188Re via small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoccia, A.; Baldazzi, G.; Bello, M.; Bernardini, D.; Boccaccio, P.; Bollini, D.; de Notaristefani, F.; Garibaldi, F.; Hull, G.; Mazzi, U.; Moschini, G.; Muciaccio, A.; Navarria, F.-L.; Orsolini Cencelli, V.; Pancaldi, G.; Pani, R.; Perrotta, A.; Riondato, M.; Rosato, A.; Sgura, A.; Tanzarella, C.; Uzunov, N.; Zuffa, M.

    2006-01-01

    188Re is a β ( Emax=2.12 MeV) and γ (155 keV) emitter. Since its chemistry is similar to that of the largely employed tracer, 99 mTc, molecules of hyaluronic acid (HA) have been labelled with 188Re to produce a target specific radiopharmaceutical. The radiolabeled compound, i.v. injected in healthy mice, is able to accumulate into the liver after a few minutes. To study the effect of metabolic radiotherapy in mice, we have built a small gamma camera based on a matrix of YAP:Ce crystals, with 0.6×0.6×10 mm pixels, read out by a R2486 Hamamatsu PSPMT. A high-sensitivity 20 mm thick lead parallel-hole collimator, with hole diameter 1.5 mm and septa of 0.18 mm, is placed in front of the YAP matrix. Preliminary results obtained with various phantoms containing a solution of 188Re and with C57 black mice injected with the 188Re-HA solution are presented. To increase the space resolution and to obtain two orthogonal projections simultaneously we are building in parallel two new cameras to be positioned at 90 degrees. They use a CsI(Tl) matrix with 1×1×5 mm pixels read out by H8500 Hamamatsu Flat panel PMT.

  7. Development of a thermosensitive hydrogel system for local delivery of (188)Re colloid drugs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng-Yun; Huang, Ling-Kuen; Lin, Wan-Yu; Luo, Tsai-Yueh; Tsai, Chang-Shu; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung

    2009-01-01

    A novel internal radiation therapy (IRT) mode intended for controlled local delivery of (188)Re-Tin colloid was developed by using chitosan-based thermosensitive hydrogel. Chitosan (C) and beta-glycerophosphate (beta-GP) were used to prepare the thermosensitive hydrogel (C/GP). The prepared C/GP hydrogel featured a rapid sol-gel transition within 5min after it was brought into an environment of 37 degrees C. (188)Re-Tin colloid was prepared with labeling efficiency of 93.9+/-0.6%, and could be increased to more than 98% following centrifugation. The average particle size of (188)Re-Tin colloid was 12.1+/-1.2microm, with only 7.2+/-1.5% less than 1microm. Scintigraphic study showed that (188)Re-Tin colloid contained in the C/GP hydrogel was localized (>91%) around the injection site for up to 48h post injection, verifying the intended function of the IRT design. The developed novel form of IRT in this study could be an effective treatment mode for regional radiotherapy.

  8. Biodistributions of 177Lu- and 111In- labeled 7E11 Antibodies to Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen in Xenograft Model of Prostate Cancer and Potential Use of 111In-7E11 as a Pretherapeutic Agent for 177Lu-7E11 Radioimmunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Mei-Hsiu; Gao, Dong-Wei; Feng, Jinjin; He, Jiang; Seo, Youngho; Tedesco, John; Wolodzko, John G.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Franc, Benjamin L.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane glycoprotein highly expressed in many prostate cancers, and can be targeted with radiolabeled antibodies for diagnosis and treatment of this disease. To serve as a radioimmunotherapeutic agent, a kinetically inert conjugate is desired to maximize tumor uptake and tumor radiation dose with minimal nonspecific exposure to bone marrow and other major organs. In this study, we assessed the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the 7E11 monoclonal antibody (MAb) radiolabeled with the lutetium-177 (177Lu) - tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetic acid (DOTA) conjugate system (177Lu-7E11) versus those of the 7E11 MAb radiolabeled with the indium-111 (111In) – glycyl-tyrosyl-(N,-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-lysine hydrochloride (DTPA) conjugate system (111In-7E11, also known as ProstaScint®), to determine the feasibility of using 111In-7E11 as a pretherapeutic agent for 177Lu-7E11 radioimmunotherapy. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies of 177Lu-7E11 in LNCaP xenograft mice were performed at 2, 8, 12, 24, 72, and 168 hours after radiopharmaceutical administration. For 111In-7E11, pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were performed at 8, 24, and 72 hours. Parallel studies of 177Lu-7E11 in nontumor bearing mice at 8, 24, and 72 hours postinjection served as controls. Gamma scintigraphy was performed, followed by autoradiography and tissue counting to demonstrate and quantify the distributions of radioconjugated MAb in the tumor and normal tissues. Both 177Lu- and 111In- 7E11 conjugates demonstrated an early blood pool phase in which uptake was dominated by the blood, lung, spleen and liver, followed by uptake and retention of the radiolabeled antibody in the tumor which was most prominent at 24 h. Total accumulation of radioconjugated MAb in tumor at 24 h was greater in the case of 177Lu-7E11 in comparison to that of 111In-7E11. Continued accumulation in tumor was observed for the entire time

  9. Formulation, preclinical evaluation, and preliminary clinical investigation of an in-house freeze-dried EDTMP kit suitable for the preparation of 177Lu-EDTMP.

    PubMed

    Das, Tapas; Sarma, Haladhar D; Shinto, Ajit; Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai K; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop a freeze-dried ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) kit, suitable for the convenient and single-step preparation of (177)Lu-EDTMP, which is currently being evaluated as a promising radiopharmaceutical for providing palliative care to patients suffering from skeletal metastases and to assess the potential of the agent in human patients. Lyophilized EDTMP kits having identical composition with Quadramet(®) were prepared using EDTMP, NaOH, and anhydrous CaCO3. The (177)Lu-EDTMP patient dose was prepared by incubating the kit materials dissolved in 1 mL of water for injection and (177)LuCl3, produced in-house, at room temperature for 15 minutes. Pharmacokinetic behavior of the agent was studied by carrying out biodistribution and scintigraphic imaging studies in normal Wistar rats. Clinical studies were performed by administering the preparation in patients suffering from disseminated skeletal metastases. Five batches of freeze-dried EDTMP kits with 50 kit vials in each batch were prepared. Each kit vial comprised a lyophilized mixture of 35 mg EDTMP, 14.1 mg NaOH, and 5.8 mg of CaCO3. The (177)Lu-EDTMP complex was prepared with excellent radiochemical purity (>99%) and high stability (>98% until 9 days postpreparation) using these kits. Radiochemical studies showed that this kit could be used within a pH range of 6-9 and with (177)Lu having specific activity as low as 925 GBq · g(-1) (25 Ci · g(-1)) for the preparation of up to 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) of (177)Lu-EDTMP. Biodistribution studies in animals revealed selective accumulation of the agent in skeleton (∼ 60% of the injected activity) with major renal clearance. Preliminary clinical studies in 10 patients exhibited selective accumulation of the radiotracer in skeletal lesions and provided significant pain relief thereby improving the quality of life of the patients. Freeze-dried EDTMP kits, suitable for the preparation of patient doses of (177)Lu

  10. Targeted antisense radiotherapy and dose fractionation using a (177)Lu-labeled anti-bcl-2 peptide nucleic acid-peptide conjugate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dijie; Balkin, Ethan R; Jia, Fang; Ruthengael, Varyanna C; Smith, C Jeffrey; Lewis, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    The overall goal of these studies was to test the hypothesis that simultaneous down-regulation of a tumor survival gene and delivery of internally emitted cytotoxic radiation will be more effective than either treatment modality alone. The objectives were to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of a (177)Lu-labeled anti-bcl-2-PNA-Tyr(3)-octreotate antisense conjugate in a mouse model bearing human non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) tumor xenografts and to optimize targeted antisense radiotherapy by dose fractionation. In the initial therapy studies, tumor-bearing mice were given saline, nonradioactive DOTA-anti-bcl-2-PNA-Tyr(3)-octreotate, (177)Lu-DOTA-Tyr(3)-octreotate, (177)Lu-DOTA-PNA-peptide alone, or (177)Lu-DOTA-PNA-peptide followed by a chase dose of nonradioactive PNA-peptide. The MTD of (177)Lu-DOTA-anti-bcl-2-PNA-Tyr(3)-octreotate was then determined. Subsequently single dose MTD and four weekly fractionated doses were directly compared, followed by histopathologic evaluation. Antisense radiotherapy using 4.44 MBq of the (177)Lu-DOTA-PNA-peptide followed by nonradioactive PNA-peptide was significantly more effective than other low dose treatment regimens. A dose of 18.5 MBq of (177)Lu-DOTA-PNA-peptide was determined to be the approximate maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The median times to progression to a 1cm(3) tumor volume were 32 and 49 days for single dose MTD and fractionated dose (4 × 4.63 MBq) groups, respectively. Histopathology revealed metastases in the single dose groups, but not in the dose fractionation group. Targeted antisense radiotherapy using (177)Lu-DOTA-anti-bcl-2-PNA-Tyr(3)-octreotate and DOTA-PNA-peptide conjugate effectively inhibited tumor progression in a mouse model of NHL. Furthermore, a dose fractionation regimen had a significant advantage over a single high dose, in terms of tumor growth inhibition and prevention of metastasis. Down-regulating bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic proto-oncogene, is a mechanism to reverse chemotherapy resistance or

  11. Clinical Efficacy and Safety Comparison of 177Lu-EDTMP with 153Sm-EDTMP on an Equidose Basis in Patients with Painful Skeletal Metastases.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Pradeep; Nikam, Dilip; Das, Tapas; Sonawane, Geeta; Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Basu, Sandip

    2015-10-01

    This prospective study compared 177Lu-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate (EDTMP) with 153Sm-EDTMP for painful skeletal metastases. Half of the 32 patients were treated with 177Lu-EDTMP and half with 153Sm-EDTMP, at 37 MBq/kg of body weight. Analgesic, pain, and quality-of-life scores (EORTC, Karnofsky, ECOG) and bone proliferation marker were used to examine efficacy. Hematologic toxicity was evaluated using NCI-CTCAE and compared between groups at baseline and each month till 3 mo after therapy. Pain relief was categorized as complete, partial, minimal, or none. Pain relief with 177Lu-EDTMP was 80%: 50% complete, 41.67% partial, and 8.33% minimal. Pain relief with 153Sm-EDTMP was 75%: 33.33% complete, 58.33% partial, and 8.33% minimal. The difference was not significant (P=1.000). Quality of life at 3 mo after therapy improved significantly in both groups as per ECOG score (P=0.014 and 0.005 for 177Lu-EDTMP and 153Sm-EDTMP, respectively), Karnofsky index (P=0.007 and 0.023 for 177Lu-EDTMP and 153Sm-EDTMP, respectively), and EORTC score (P=0.004 and <0.001 for 177Lu-EDTMP and 153Sm-EDTMP, respectively). Bone proliferation marker in responders of both groups dropped significantly (P=0.008 for 177Lu-EDTMP and P=0.019 for 153Sm-EDTMP), parallel to clinical response. For 177Lu-EDTMP, anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia were nonserious (grade I/II) in 46.67%, 46.67%, and 20%, respectively, and serious (grade III/IV) in 20%, 6.67%, and 0%, respectively. For 153Sm-EDTMP, anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia were nonserious (grade I/II) in 62.5%, 31.25%, and 18.75%, respectively, and serious (grade III/IV) in 18.75%, 0%, and 6.25%, respectively. One patient treated with 153Sm-EDTMP had grade IV thrombocytopenia but required no blood transfusion. Differences between groups were not significant for either nonserious or serious toxicity. For 177Lu-EDTMP, 3 of 12 responders experienced the flare phenomenon on the third day after therapy and one on the fifth

  12. Dosimetry of [177Lu]-DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 – impact on the feasibility of insulinoma internal radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Velikyan, Irina; Bulenga, Thomas N; Selvaraju, Ramkumar; Lubberink, Mark; Espes, Daniel; Rosenström, Ulrika; Eriksson, Olof

    2015-01-01

    [68Ga]-DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 has been shown to be a promising imaging candidate for targeting glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R). In the light of radiotheranostics and personalized medicine the 177Lu-labelled analogue is of paramount interest. In this study we have investigated the organ distribution of [177Lu]-DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 in rat and calculated human dosimetry parameters in order to estimate the maximal acceptable administered radioactivity, and thus potential applicability of [177Lu]-DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 for internal radiotherapy of insulinomas. Nine male and nine female Lewis rats were injected with [177Lu]-DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 for ex vivo organ distribution study at nine time points. The estimation of human organ/total body absorbed and total effective doses was performed using Organ Level Internal Dose Assessment Code software (OLINDA/EXM 1.1). Six more rats (male: n = 3; female: n = 3) were scanned by single photon emission tomography and computed tomography (SPECT-CT). The renal function and potential cell dysfunction were monitored by creatinine ISTAT and glucose levels. The fine uptake structure of kidney and pancreas was investigated by ex vivo autoradiography. Blood clearance and washout from most of the organs was fast. The kidney was the dose-limiting organ with absorbed dose of 5.88 and 6.04 mGy/MBq, respectively for female and male. Pancreatic beta cells demonstrated radioactivity accumulation. Renal function and beta cell function remained unaffected by radiation. The absorbed dose of [177Lu]-DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 to kidneys may limit the clinical application of the agent. However, hypothetically, kidney protection and peptidase inhibition may allow reduction of kidney absorbed dose and amplification of tumour absorbed doses. PMID:25973333

  13. Standardization of Procedures for the Preparation of (177)Lu- and (90)Y-labeled DOTA-Rituximab Based on the Freeze-dried Kit Formulation.

    PubMed

    Wojdowska, Wioletta; Karczmarczyk, Urszula; Maurin, Michal; Garnuszek, Piotr; Mikołajczak, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Rituximab when radiolabelled with (177)Lu or (90)Y has been investigated for the treatment of patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. In this study, we optimized the preparation of antibody conjugates with chelating agent in the freeze-dried kit. It shortens procedures needed for the successful radiolabeling with lutetium-177 and yttrium-90 and assures reproducible labelling yields. Various molar ratios of Rituximab:DOTA (from 1:5 to 1:100) were used at the conjugation step and different purification method to remove unbound DOTA were investigated (size-exclusion chromatography, dialysis, ultrafiltration). The final monoclonal antibody concentration was quantified by Bradford method, and the number of DOTA molecules was determined by radiolabeling assay using (64)Cu. The specific activity of (177)Lu-DOTA-Rituximab and (90)Y-DOTA-Rituximab were optimized using various amounts of radiometal. Quality control (SE-HPLC, ITLC) and stability study were performed. An average of 4.2 ± 0.8 p-SCN-Bz-DOTA molecules could be randomly conjugated to a single molecule of Rituximab. The ultrafiltration system was the most efficient for purification and resulted in the highest recovery efficiency (77.2%). At optimized conditions the (177)Lu-DOTARituximab and (90)Y-DOTA-Rituximab were obtained with radiochemical purity >99% and specific activity ca. 600 MBq/mg. The radioimmunoconjugates were stable in human serum and 0.9% NaCl. After 72 h of incubation the radiochemical purity of (177)Lu-DOTA-Rituximab decreased to 94% but it was still more than 88% for (90)Y-DOTA-Rituximab. The radioimmunoconjugate showed stability after six months storage at 2 - 8(0)C, as a lyophilized formulation. Our study shows that Rituximab-DOTA can be efficiently radiolabeled with (177)Lu and (90)Y via p-SCN-Bn-DOTA using a freezedried kit.

  14. Theranostic Studies of Human Sodium Iodide Symporter Imaging and Therapy Using 188Re: A Human Glioma Study in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, M.; Xi, Yun; Ma, Yufei; Liang, Sheng; Shi, Shuo; Miao, Ying; Li, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of 188Re in human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) theranostic gene-mediated human glioma imaging and therapy in model mice. Methods The human glioma cell line U87 was transfected with recombinant lentivirus encoding the hNIS gene under the control of cytomegalovirus promoter (U87-hNIS). The uptake and efflux of 188Re were determined after incubating the cells with 188Re. 188Re uptake experiments in the presence of various concentrations of sodium perchlorate were carried out. In vitro cell killing tests with 188Re were performed. U87-hNIS mediated 188Re distribution, imaging and therapy in nude mice were also tested. Results U87-hNIS cell line was successfully established. The uptake of 188Re in U87-hNIS cells increased up to 26-fold compared to control cells, but was released rapidly with a half-life of approximately 4 minutes. Sodium perchlorate reduced hNIS-mediated 188Re uptake to levels of control cell lines. U87-hNIS cells were selectively killed following exposure to 188Re, with a survival of 21.4%, while control cells had a survival of 92.1%. Unlike in vitro studies, U87-hNIS tumor showed a markedly increased 188Re retention even 48 hours after 188Re injection. In the therapy study, there was a significant difference in tumor size between U87-hNIS mice (317±67 mm3) and control mice (861±153 mm3) treated with 188Re for 4 weeks (P<0.01). Conclusion The results indicate that inserting the hNIS gene into U87 cells is sufficient to induce specific 188Re uptake, which has a cell killing effect both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, our study, based on the function of hNIS as a theranostic gene allowing noninvasive imaging of hNIS expression by 188Re scintigraphy, provides detailed characterization of in vivo vector biodistribution and level, localization, essential prerequisites for precise planning and monitoring of clinical gene therapy that aims to individualize gene therapy concept. PMID:25000403

  15. Bone marrow dosimetry in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with [177Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate.

    PubMed

    Forrer, Flavio; Krenning, Eric P; Kooij, Peter P; Bernard, Bert F; Konijnenberg, Mark; Bakker, Willem H; Teunissen, Jaap J M; de Jong, Marion; van Lom, Kirsten; de Herder, Wouter W; Kwekkeboom, Dik J

    2009-07-01

    Adequate dosimetry is mandatory for effective and safe peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Besides the kidneys, the bone marrow is a potentially dose-limiting organ. The radiation dose to the bone marrow is usually calculated according to the MIRD scheme, where the accumulated activity in the bone marrow is calculated from the accumulated radioactivity of the radiopharmaceutical in the blood. This may underestimate the absorbed dose since stem cells express somatostatin receptors. We verified the blood-based method by comparing the activity in the blood with the radioactivity in bone marrow aspirates. Also, we evaluated the absorbed cross-dose from the source organs (liver, spleen, kidneys and blood), tumours and the so-called "remainder of the body" to the bone marrow. Bone marrow aspirates were drawn in 15 patients after treatment with [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate. Radioactivity in the bone marrow was compared with radioactivity in the blood drawn simultaneously. The nucleated cell fraction was isolated from the bone marrow aspirate and radioactivity was measured. The absorbed dose to the bone marrow was calculated. The results were correlated to the change in platelet counts 6 weeks after treatment. A strong linear correlation and high agreement between the measured radioactivities in the bone marrow aspirates and in the blood was found (r=0.914, p<0.001). No correlation between the calculated absorbed dose in the bone marrow and the change in platelets was found. There was a considerable contribution from other organs and the remainder of the body to the bone marrow absorbed dose. (1) After PRRT with [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate, the radioactivity concentration in the bone marrow is identical to that in the blood; (2) There is no significant binding of the radiopharmaceutical to bone marrow precursor stem cells; (3) The contribution of the cross dose from source organs and tumours to the bone marrow dose is significant; and (4) There is

  16. 177Lu-DO3A-HSA-Z EGFR:1907: characterization as a potential radiopharmaceutical for radionuclide therapy of EGFR-expressing head and neck carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, Susan; Qi, Shibo; Miao, Zheng; Liu, Hongguang; Jiang, Han; Cutler, Cathy S; Bao, Ande; Cheng, Zhen

    2012-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR) is an attractive target for radionuclide therapy of head and neck carcinomas. Affibody molecules against EGFR (Z(EGFR)) show excellent tumor localizations in imaging studies. However, one major drawback is that radiometal-labeled Affibody molecules display extremely high uptakes in the radiosensitive kidneys which may impact their use as radiotherapeutic agents. The purpose of this study is to further explore whether radiometal-labeled human serum albumin (HSA)-Z(EFGR) bioconjugates display desirable profiles for the use in radionuclide therapy of EGFR-positive head and neck carcinomas. The Z(EFGR) analog, Ac-Cys-Z(EGFR:1907), was site-specifically conjugated with HSA. The resulting bioconjugate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (DO3A)-HSA-Z(EGFR:1907) was then radiolabeled with either (64)Cu or (177)Lu and subjected to in vitro cell uptake and internalization studies using the human oral squamous carcinoma cell line SAS. Positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and biodistribution studies were conducted using SAS-tumor-bearing mice. Cell studies revealed a high (8.43 ± 0.55 % at 4 h) and specific (0.95 ± 0.09 % at 4 h) uptake of (177)Lu-DO3A-HSA-Z(EGFR:1907) as determined by blocking with nonradioactive Z(EGFR:1907). The internalization of (177)Lu-DO3A-HSA-Z(EGFR:1907) was verified in vitro and found to be significantly higher than that of (177)Lu-labeled Z(EFGR) at 2-24 h of incubation. PET and SPECT studies showed good tumor imaging contrasts. The biodistribution of (177)Lu-DO3A-HSA-Z(EGFR:1907) in SAS-tumor-bearing mice displayed high tumor uptake (5.1 ± 0.44 % ID/g) and liver uptake (31.5 ± 7.66 % ID/g) and moderate kidney uptake (8.5 ± 1.08 % ID/g) at 72 h after injection. (177)Lu-DO3A-HSA-Z(EGFR:1907) shows promising in vivo profiles and may be a potential radiopharmaceutical for radionuclide therapy of EGFR-expressing head and neck carcinomas.

  17. DOTA conjugate with an albumin-binding entity enables the first folic acid-targeted 177Lu-radionuclide tumor therapy in mice.

    PubMed

    Müller, Cristina; Struthers, Harriet; Winiger, Christian; Zhernosekov, Konstantin; Schibli, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The folate receptor (FR) has proven a valuable target for nuclear imaging using folic acid radioconjugates. However, using folate-based radiopharmaceuticals for therapy has long been regarded as an unattainable goal because of their considerable renal accumulation. Herein, we present a novel strategy in which a DOTA-folate conjugate with an albumin-binding entity (cm09) was designed with the aim of prolonging circulation in the blood and therewith potentially improving tumor-to-kidney ratios. The folate conjugate cm09 was radiolabeled with (177)LuCl(3), and stability experiments were performed in plasma. Cell uptake studies were performed on FR-positive KB tumor cells, and an ultrafiltration assay was used to determine the plasma protein-binding properties of (177)Lu-cm09. In vivo, (177)Lu-cm09 was tested in KB tumor-bearing mice using SPECT/CT. The therapeutic anticancer effect of (177)Lu-cm09 (20 MBq) applied as a single injection or as fractionated injections was investigated in different groups of mice (n = 5) by monitoring tumor size and the survival time of treated mice, compared with untreated controls. Compound cm09 was radiolabeled at a specific activity of 40 MBq/nmol, a radiochemical yield of more than 98%, and a stability of more than 99% over 5 d in plasma. Ultrafiltration revealed significant binding of (177)Lu-cm09 to serum proteins (∼91%) in plasma, compared with folate radioconjugate without an albumin-binding entity. Cell uptake and internalization of (177)Lu-cm09 was FR-specific and comparable to other folate radioconjugates. In vivo studies resulted in high tumor uptake (17.56 percentage injected dose per gram [%ID/g] at 4 h after injection), which was almost completely retained for at least 72 h. Renal accumulation was significantly reduced (28 %ID/g at 4 h after injection), compared with folate conjugates that lack an albumin-binding entity (∼70 %ID/g at 4 h after injection). These circumstances enabled SPECT imaging of excellent quality

  18. Radiolabeling of rituximab with (188)Re and (99m)Tc using the tricarbonyl technology.

    PubMed

    Dias, Carla Roberta; Jeger, Simone; Osso, João Alberto; Müller, Cristina; De Pasquale, Christine; Hohn, Alexander; Waibel, Robert; Schibli, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The most successful clinical studies of immunotherapy in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) use the antibody rituximab (RTX) targeting CD20(+) B-cell tumors. Rituximab radiolabeled with β(-) emitters could potentiate the therapeutic efficacy of the antibody by virtue of the particle radiation. Here, we report on a direct radiolabeling approach of rituximab with the (99m)Tc- and (188)Re-tricarbonyl core (IsoLink technology). The native format of the antibody (RTX(wt)) as well as a reduced form (RTX(red)) was labeled with (99m)Tc/(188)Re(CO)(3). The partial reduction of the disulfide bonds to produce free sulfhydryl groups (-SH) was achieved with 2-mercaptoethanol. Radiolabeling efficiency, in vitro human plasma stability as well as transchelation toward cysteine and histidine was investigated. The immunoreactivity and binding affinity were determined on Ramos and/or Raji cells expressing CD20. Biodistribution was performed in mice bearing subcutaneous Ramos lymphoma xenografts. The radiolabeling efficiency and kinetics of RTX(red) were superior to that of RTX(wt) ((99m)Tc: 98% after 3 h for RTX(red) vs. 70% after 24 h for RTX(wt)). (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-RTX(red) was used without purification for in vitro and in vivo studies whereas (188)Re(CO)(3)-RTX(red) was purified to eliminate free (188)Re-precursor. Both radioimmunoconjugates were stable in human plasma for 24 h at 37 °C. In contrast, displacement experiments with excess cysteine/histidine showed significant transchelation in the case of (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-RTX(red) but not with pre-purified (188)Re(CO)(3)-RTX(red). Both conjugates revealed high binding affinity to the CD20 antigen (K(d) = 5-6 nM). Tumor uptake of (188)Re(CO)(3)-RTX(red) was 2.5 %ID/g and 0.8 %ID/g for (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-RTX(red) 48 h after injection. The values for other organs and tissues were similar for both compounds, for example the tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-liver ratios were 0.4 and 0.3 for (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-RTX(red) and for (188)Re(CO)(3)-RTX

  19. Evaluation of a Proposed Biodegradable 188Re Source for Brachytherapy Application

    PubMed Central

    Khorshidi, Abdollah; Ahmadinejad, Marjan; Hamed Hosseini, S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate dosimetric characteristics based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for a proposed beta emitter bioglass 188Re seed for internal radiotherapy applications. The bioactive glass seed has been developed using the sol-gel technique. The simulations were performed for the seed using MC radiation transport code to investigate the dosimetric factors recommended by the AAPM Task Group 60 (TG-60). Dose distributions due to the beta and photon radiation were predicted at different radial distances surrounding the source. The dose rate in water at the reference point was calculated to be 7.43 ± 0.5 cGy/h/μCi. The dosimetric factors consisting of the reference point dose rate, D(r0,θ0), the radial dose function, g(r), the 2-dimensional anisotropy function, F(r,θ), the 1-dimensional anisotropy function, φan(r), and the R90 quantity were estimated and compared with several available beta-emitting sources. The element 188Re incorporated in bioactive glasses produced by the sol-gel technique provides a suitable solution for producing new materials for seed implants applied to brachytherapy applications in prostate and liver cancers treatment. Dose distribution of 188Re seed was greater isotropic than other commercially attainable encapsulated seeds, since it has no end weld to attenuate radiation. The beta radiation-emitting 188Re source provides high doses of local radiation to the tumor tissue and the short range of the beta particles limit damage to the adjacent normal tissue. PMID:26181543

  20. Applied radioactivity in radiation synovectomy with [188Re]rhenium sulfide suspension.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyong; Yu, Junfeng; Chen, Gang; Jiang, Xufeng; Tang, Zhonghua; Chen, Suyun; Jiang, Lei; Tang, Lin; Yin, Duanzhi

    2006-08-01

    Early experience demonstrated absorbed dose in radiation synovectomy is about 100 Gy. For reaching this dose, the applied radioactivity should be calculated. Twenty-nine synovitic models of rabbit were treated by intra-articular injection of [(188)Re]rhenium sulfide and histological changes of synovium and cartilage were examined. The applied radioactivity was calculated by method of absorbed dose factor. In clinical, eleven haemophilic patients with haemarthrosis were performed radiation synovectomy with treated [(188)Re]rhenium sulfide. The synovial thickness was evaluated by MR and its value was used to calculate the applied radioactivity. After radiation synovectomy, all patients were followed up by synovial thickness, regional inflammation, and clinical course including bleeding frequency. In rabbit models, the synovitic membrane can be eliminated by calculated radioactivity as planed without damaging the joint cartilage. In patients study, all patients exhibited significant reductions in synovial thickness and inflammation after radiation synovectomy with the planed radioactivities of [(188)Re]rhenium sulfide. Post-procedure bleeding frequency reduction in excellent and good reached to 63.6% by 18 months. In the cases of joint bleeding, the need for antihaemophilic factor treatment decreased immensely. Most of the recurrent episodes of bleeding were mild, subsiding with local means. The applied radioactivity in radiation synovectomy could be calculated according to thickness of inflamed synovium. Further study including comparison therapeutic results from calculated individual activities with results from fixed activities and long-term follow-up is warranted.

  1. Experimental limits for heavy neutrino admixture deduced from 177Lu β decay and constraints on the life time of a radiative neutrino decay mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönert, S.; Oberauer, L.; Hagner, C.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Schreckenbach, K.; Declais, Y.; Mayerhofer, U.

    1996-05-01

    From cosmological constraints, the requirement for stable neutrinos is to have masses less than 30 eV. In the case that neutrino masses exceed this bound, neutrinos must decay sufficiently fast in order to satisfy the presently observed energy density of the universe. The experiments presented in this contribution consist of the complementary search for heavy neutrino admixture in nuclear beta decay of 177Lu and of the search for a radiative neutrino decay mode at the nuclear power station in Bugey, France. The data obtained from the 177Lu beta decay restrict the mixing probability of a heavy neutrino to the electron | U eh| 2 < 0.2 - 0.3% (90% Cl) for neutrino masses between 10 and 95 keV. The radiative lifetime is constrained to exceed t/ m > 180 × | U eh| 2 sec/eV which is one order of magnitude more restrictive than previous laboratory limits.

  2. Imaging, Autoradiography, and Biodistribution of 188Re-Labeled PEGylated Nanoliposome in Orthotopic Glioma Bearing Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Feng-Yun J.; Lee, Te-Wei; Kao, Chih-Hao K.; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Zhang, Xiaoning; Lee, Wan-Yu; Chen, Wan-Jou; Wang, Shu-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The 188Re-labeled pegylated nanoliposome (abbreviated as 188Re-Liposome) was prepared and evaluated for its potential as a theragnostic agent for glioma. 188Re-BMEDA complex was loaded into the pegylated liposome core with pH 5.5 ammonium sulfate gradient to produce 188Re-Liposome. Orthotopic Fischer344/F98 glioma tumor-bearing rats were prepared and intravenously injected with 188Re-Liposome. Biodistribution, pharmacokinetic study, autoradiography (ARG), histopathology, and nano-SPECT/CT imaging were conducted for the animal model. The result showed that 188Re-Liposome accumulated in the brain tumor of the animal model from 0.28%±0.09% injected dose (ID)/g (n=3) at 1 hour to a maximum of 1.95%±0.35% ID/g (n=3) at 24 hours postinjection. The tumor-to-normal brain uptake ratio (T/N ratio) increased from 3.5 at 1 hour to 32.5 at 24 hours. Both ARG and histopathological images clearly showed corresponding tumor regions with high T/N ratios. Nano-SPECT/CT detected a very clear tumor image from 4 hours till 48 hours. This study reveals the potential of 188Re-Liposome as a theragnostic agent for brain glioma. PMID:22145660

  3. Up-regulation of somatostatin receptor density on rat CA20948 tumors escaped from low dose [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate therapy.

    PubMed

    Melis, M; Forrer, F; Capello, A; Bijster, M; Bernard, B F; Reubi, J C; Krenning, E P; De Jong, M

    2007-12-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using the somatostatin analogue [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate is a convincing treatment modality for metastasized neuroendocrine tumors. Therapeutic doses are administered in 4 cycles with 6-10 week intervals. A high somatostatin receptor density on tumor cells is a prerequisite at every administration to enable effective therapy. In this study, the density of the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2) was investigated in the rat CA20948 pancreatic tumor model after low dose [(177)Lu-DOTA(0), Tyr(3)]octreotate administration resulting in approximately 20 Gy tumor radiation absorbed dose, whereas 60 Gy is needed to induce complete tumor regression in these and the majority of tumors. Sixteen days after inoculation of the CA20948 tumor, male Lewis rats were injected with 185 MBq [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate to initiate a decline in tumor size. Approximately 40 days after injection, tumors re-grew progressively after initial response. Quantification of sst2 expression was performed using in vitro autoradiography on frozen sections of three groups: control (not-treated) tumors, tumors in regression and tumors in re-growth. Histology and proliferation were determined using HE- and anti-Ki-67-staining. The sst2 expression on CA20948 tumor cells decreased significantly after therapy to 5% of control level. However, tumors escaping from therapy showed an up-regulated sst2 level of 2-5 times higher sst2 density compared to control tumors. After a suboptimal therapeutic dose of [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate, escape of tumors is likely to occur. Since these cells show an up-regulated sst2 receptor density, a next therapeutic administration of radiolabelled sst2 analogue can be expected to be highly effective.

  4. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 03: irtGPUMCD: a new GPU-calculated dosimetry code for {sup 177}Lu-octreotate radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Montégiani, Jean-François; Gaudin, Émilie; Després, Philippe; Jackson, Price A.; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu

    2014-08-15

    In peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), huge inter-patient variability in absorbed radiation doses per administered activity mandates the utilization of individualized dosimetry to evaluate therapeutic efficacy and toxicity. We created a reliable GPU-calculated dosimetry code (irtGPUMCD) and assessed {sup 177}Lu-octreotate renal dosimetry in eight patients (4 cycles of approximately 7.4 GBq). irtGPUMCD was derived from a brachytherapy dosimetry code (bGPUMCD), which was adapted to {sup 177}Lu PRRT dosimetry. Serial quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were obtained from three SPECT/CT acquisitions performed at 4, 24 and 72 hours after {sup 177}Lu-octreotate administration, and registered with non-rigid deformation of CT volumes, to obtain {sup 177}Lu-octreotate 4D quantitative biodistribution. Local energy deposition from the β disintegrations was assumed. Using Monte Carlo gamma photon transportation, irtGPUMCD computed dose rate at each time point. Average kidney absorbed dose was obtained from 1-cm{sup 3} VOI dose rate samples on each cortex, subjected to a biexponential curve fit. Integration of the latter time-dose rate curve yielded the renal absorbed dose. The mean renal dose per administered activity was 0.48 ± 0.13 Gy/GBq (range: 0.30–0.71 Gy/GBq). Comparison to another PRRT dosimetry code (VRAK: Voxelized Registration and Kinetics) showed fair accordance with irtGPUMCD (11.4 ± 6.8 %, range: 3.3–26.2%). These results suggest the possibility to use the irtGPUMCD code in order to personalize administered activity in PRRT. This could allow improving clinical outcomes by maximizing per-cycle tumor doses, without exceeding the tolerable renal dose.

  5. 177Lu-octreotate, alone or with radiosensitising chemotherapy, is safe in neuroendocrine tumour patients previously treated with high-activity 111In-octreotide.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Daniel; Kong, Grace; Michael, Michael; Johnson, Val; Ramdave, Shakher; Hicks, Rodney John

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether patients with previous peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using high-activity (111)In-pentetreotide can be safely treated with (177)Lu-octreotate and whether addition of radiosensitising chemotherapy increases the toxicity of this agent. Records of 27 patients (aged 17-75) who received 69 (median 3 per patient) (177)Lu-octreotate administrations, including 29 in conjunction with radiosensitising infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (n = 27), or capecitabine (n = 2), between October 2005 and July 2007 subsequent to 1-8 prior cycles of (111)In-pentetreotide therapy were analysed. Toxicity was assessed during and at 8-12 weeks post-treatment, with further long-term assessments including survival status reviewed till death or study close-out date of 1 November 2009. Reduction in blood counts was most marked following the first dose of (177)Lu-octreotate but at early follow-up the only major haematological toxicity was a single case of grade 4 lymphopaenia. Both the presence of bone metastases and the administration of chemotherapy tended to result in greater reduction in blood counts, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. On long-term follow-up, 16 patients (59%) are alive with median overall survival of 36 months (32-44 months from first (177)Lu-octreotate therapy). None of the recorded deaths was directly related to treatment toxicity. One patient had late grade 4 anaemia and thrombocytopaenia secondary to bone marrow failure from progressive infiltration by tumour. No other significant long-term haematological toxicities were recorded and no leukaemia was observed. No renal toxicity was observed on serial serum creatinine or radionuclide glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determination on initial or long-term follow-up. (177)Lu-octreotate is a safe and well-tolerated therapy for patients who have previously been treated with (111)In-pentetreotide and can be safely combined with

  6. NOTE: Monte Carlo microdosimetry of 188Re- and 131I-labelled anti-CD20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-García, E.; Garnica-Garza, H. M.; Ferro-Flores, G.

    2006-10-01

    The radiolabelled monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 has the property of binding to the CD20 antigen expressed on the cell surface of B-lymphocytes, thus making it a useful tool in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In this work, the event-by-event Monte Carlo code NOREC is used to calculate the single-event distribution function f1(z) in the cell nucleus using the beta spectra of the 188Re and 131I radionuclides. The simulated geometry consists of two concentric spheres representing the nucleus and the cell surface embedded in a semi-infinite water medium. An isotropic point source was placed on the cell surface to simulate the binding of the anti-CD20 labelled with either 188Re or 131I. The simulations were carried out for two combinations of cell surface and nucleus radii. A method was devised that allows one to calculate the contribution of betas of energy greater than 1 MeV, which cannot be simulated by the NOREC code, to the single-event distribution function. It is shown that disregarding this contribution leads to an overestimation of the frequency-mean specific energy of the order of 9 12%. In general, the antibody radiolabelled with 131I produces single-event distribution functions that yield higher frequency-mean specific energies.

  7. Monte Carlo microdosimetry of 188Re- and 131I-labelled anti-CD20.

    PubMed

    Torres-García, E; Garnica-Garza, H M; Ferro-Flores, G

    2006-10-07

    The radiolabelled monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 has the property of binding to the CD20 antigen expressed on the cell surface of B-lymphocytes, thus making it a useful tool in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In this work, the event-by-event Monte Carlo code NOREC is used to calculate the single-event distribution function f(1)(z) in the cell nucleus using the beta spectra of the (188)Re and (131)I radionuclides. The simulated geometry consists of two concentric spheres representing the nucleus and the cell surface embedded in a semi-infinite water medium. An isotropic point source was placed on the cell surface to simulate the binding of the anti-CD20 labelled with either (188)Re or (131)I. The simulations were carried out for two combinations of cell surface and nucleus radii. A method was devised that allows one to calculate the contribution of betas of energy greater than 1 MeV, which cannot be simulated by the NOREC code, to the single-event distribution function. It is shown that disregarding this contribution leads to an overestimation of the frequency-mean specific energy of the order of 9-12%. In general, the antibody radiolabelled with (131)I produces single-event distribution functions that yield higher frequency-mean specific energies.

  8. 188Re-loaded lipid nanocapsules as a promising radiopharmaceutical carrier for internal radiotherapy of malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Allard, Emilie; Hindré, François; Passirani, Catherine; Lemaire, Laurent; Lepareur, Nicolas; Noiret, Nicolas; Menei, Philippe; Benoit, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Lipid nanocapsules (LNC) entrapping lipophilic complexes of 188Re (188Re(S3CPh)2(S2CPh) [188Re-SSS]) were investigated as a novel radiopharmaceutical carrier for internal radiation therapy of malignant gliomas. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of intracerebral administration of 188Re-SSS LNC by means of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) on a 9L rat brain tumour model. Methods Female Fischer rats with 9L glioma were treated with a single injection of 188Re-SSS LNC by CED 6 days after cell implantation. Rats were put into random groups according to the dose infused: 12, 10, 8, and 3 Gy in comparison with blank LNC, perrhenate solution (4Gy) and non-treated animals. The radionuclide brain retention level was evaluated by measuring 188Re elimination in faeces and urine over 72h after the CED injection. The therapeutic effect of 188Re-SSS LNC was assessed based on animal survival. Results CED of 188Re perrhenate solution resulted in rapid drug clearance with a brain T1/2 of 7h. In contrast, when administered in LNC, 188Re tissue retention was greatly prolonged, with only 10% of the injected dose being eliminated at 72h. Rat median survival was significantly improved for the group treated with 8Gy 188Re-SSS LNC compared to the control group and blank-LNC treated animals. The increase in the median survival time (ISTmedian) was about 80% compared to the control group; 33% of the animals were long-term survivors. The dose of 8Gy proved to be a very effective dose, between toxic (10–12Gy) and ineffective (3–4Gy) doses. Conclusions These findings show that CED of Rhenium-188-loaded lipid nanocapsules is a safe and potent antitumour system for treating malignant gliomas. Our data are the first to show the in vivo efficacy of Rhenium-188 internal radiotherapy for the treatment of brain malignancy. PMID:18465130

  9. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate in combination with RAD001 treatment: further investigations on tumor metastasis and response in the rat pancreatic CA20948 tumor model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previously, we reported on the unexpected development of distant metastases in the subcutaneous rat pancreas CA20948 tumor model after 4.5 weeks of treatment with RAD001-only or in combination with [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (177Lu-DOTATATE) (Cancer Res. 73:12-8, 2013). Moreover, the combination therapy was less effective compared to 177Lu-DOTATATE-only. In the current study, we address the following questions: (1) Why was the combination therapy less effective? Is 177Lu-DOTATATE tumor uptake affected by pretreatment with RAD001? (2) Could sudden cessation of RAD001 therapy cause the development of distant metastases? (3) Is 177Lu-DOTATATE an effective treatment option for these metastases? Methods Lewis rats (HanHsd or SsNHsd substrain with a slight difference in immune response) bearing subcutaneous CA20948 tumors were treated with either 125 or 275 MBq 177Lu-DOTATATE, RAD001, or their combination. RAD001 was given twice a week for 4.5 or 12 weeks, whereas 177Lu-DOTATATE was given as a single injection. When combined, RAD001 was started either 3 days prior to or 3 days post administration of 177Lu-DOTATATE. SPECT/CT was performed to quantify 177Lu-DOTATATE tumor uptake. Where indicated, primary tumors were surgically removed when tumor size is >6,000 mm3 to enable monitoring for possible metastasis. If metastases were suspected, an 111In-DTPA-octreotide SPECT/CT scan was performed. Seven rats with metastases were treated with 400 MBq 177Lu-DOTATATE. Results Lu-DOTATATE tumor uptake was not significantly affected by RAD001 pretreatment. The occurrence of metastases after RAD001 treatment was not dose dependent in the dose range tested, nor was it related to the duration of RAD001 treatment. In the experiment in which the LEW/SsNsd substrain was used, only 12.5% of RAD001-treated rats showed complete response (CR), compared to 50% tumor regression in the control group. Re-treatment with a high dose of 177Lu-DOTATATE resulted in CR in only two

  10. Multimodal Somatostatin Receptor Theranostics Using [64Cu]Cu-/[177Lu]Lu-DOTA-(Tyr3)octreotate and AN-238 in a Mouse Pheochromocytoma Model

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Martin; Bergmann, Ralf; Peitzsch, Mirko; Zenker, Erik F.; Cartellieri, Marc; Bachmann, Michael; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika; Block, Norman L.; Schally, Andrew V.; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Pietzsch, Jens; Ziegler, Christian G.

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and extra-adrenal paragangliomas (PHEO/PGLs) are rare catecholamine-producing chromaffin cell tumors. For metastatic disease, no effective therapy is available. Overexpression of somatostatin type 2 receptors (SSTR2) in PHEO/PGLs promotes interest in applying therapies using somatostatin analogs linked to radionuclides and/or cytotoxic compounds, such as [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-(Tyr3)octreotate (DOTATATE) and AN-238. Systematic evaluation of such therapies for the treatment of PHEO/PGLs requires sophisticated animal models. In this study, the mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC)-mCherry allograft model showed high tumor densities of murine SSTR2 (mSSTR2) and high tumor uptake of [64Cu]Cu-DOTATATE. Using tumor sections, we assessed mSSTR2-specific binding of DOTATATE, AN-238, and somatostatin-14. Therapeutic studies showed substantial reduction of tumor growth and tumor-related renal monoamine excretion in tumor-bearing mice after treatment with [177Lu]Lu-DOTATATE compared to AN-238 and doxorubicin. Analyses did not show agonist-dependent receptor downregulation after single mSSTR2-targeting therapies. This study demonstrates that the MPC-mCherry model is a uniquely powerful tool for the preclinical evaluation of SSTR2-targeting theranostic applications in vivo. Our findings highlight the therapeutic potential of somatostatin analogs, especially of [177Lu]Lu-DOTATATE, for the treatment of metastatic PHEO/PGLs. Repeated treatment cycles, fractionated combinations of SSTR2-targeting radionuclide and cytotoxic therapies, and other adjuvant compounds addressing additional mechanisms may further enhance therapeutic outcome. PMID:27022413

  11. Effectiveness of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues ((90)Y-DOTATOC and (177)Lu-DOTATATE) in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumours: a single centre experience in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Medina-Ornelas, S S; García-Pérez, F O

    To determine the effectiveness of therapy with the radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, (90)Y-DOTATOC and (177)Lu-DOTATATE, in the treatment of metastatic neuroendocrine tumours with progression to first-line treatment. A study was conducted on 30 patients diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumours (gastroenteropancreatic, bronchopulmonary, MEN2A, MEN2B, phaeochromocytoma, and paraganglioma) with metastatic disease diagnosed by the pathology department, with progression to first-line treatment, and recruited from December 2014 to February 2016. Efficacy was analysed using computed tomography (CT) according RECIST 1.1 criteria, and the molecular changes using the SUVmax of PET/CT with (68)Ga-DOTATOC. Safety was carried out with a renal scan with (99m)Tc-MAG3. The 30 patients received a total of 49 cycles (90)Y-DOTATOC (21 doses) and (177) Lu-DOTATATE (28 doses), with a mean of 1.5 cycles per patient. Of these, 17 (56.7%) showed a partial morphological response, 22 (73.3%) molecular and biochemical response, and 23 (76.6%) clinical response. One patient died during the median follow-up of 13 months. The median overall survival from diagnosis was 54 months (95% CI; 31.18-76.81), and median progression-free survival was 32 months (95% CI; 15.00-48.99). Therapy with (90)Y-DOTATOC and (177)Lu-DOTATATE is a promising therapy for patients with well and moderately differentiated neuroendocrine tumours. The efficacy is better the larger the number of cycles administered, inversely proportional to the number of metastases (<10), and is associated with the level of uptake according to the SUVmax by the metastases, regardless of metabolically active tumour volume. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  12. Multimodal Somatostatin Receptor Theranostics Using [(64)Cu]Cu-/[(177)Lu]Lu-DOTA-(Tyr(3))octreotate and AN-238 in a Mouse Pheochromocytoma Model.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Martin; Bergmann, Ralf; Peitzsch, Mirko; Zenker, Erik F; Cartellieri, Marc; Bachmann, Michael; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika; Block, Norman L; Schally, Andrew V; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Bornstein, Stefan R; Pietzsch, Jens; Ziegler, Christian G

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and extra-adrenal paragangliomas (PHEO/PGLs) are rare catecholamine-producing chromaffin cell tumors. For metastatic disease, no effective therapy is available. Overexpression of somatostatin type 2 receptors (SSTR2) in PHEO/PGLs promotes interest in applying therapies using somatostatin analogs linked to radionuclides and/or cytotoxic compounds, such as [(177)Lu]Lu-DOTA-(Tyr(3))octreotate (DOTATATE) and AN-238. Systematic evaluation of such therapies for the treatment of PHEO/PGLs requires sophisticated animal models. In this study, the mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC)-mCherry allograft model showed high tumor densities of murine SSTR2 (mSSTR2) and high tumor uptake of [(64)Cu]Cu-DOTATATE. Using tumor sections, we assessed mSSTR2-specific binding of DOTATATE, AN-238, and somatostatin-14. Therapeutic studies showed substantial reduction of tumor growth and tumor-related renal monoamine excretion in tumor-bearing mice after treatment with [(177)Lu]Lu-DOTATATE compared to AN-238 and doxorubicin. Analyses did not show agonist-dependent receptor downregulation after single mSSTR2-targeting therapies. This study demonstrates that the MPC-mCherry model is a uniquely powerful tool for the preclinical evaluation of SSTR2-targeting theranostic applications in vivo. Our findings highlight the therapeutic potential of somatostatin analogs, especially of [(177)Lu]Lu-DOTATATE, for the treatment of metastatic PHEO/PGLs. Repeated treatment cycles, fractionated combinations of SSTR2-targeting radionuclide and cytotoxic therapies, and other adjuvant compounds addressing additional mechanisms may further enhance therapeutic outcome.

  13. Radiation Pneumopathy in the Rat After Intravenous Application of {sup 188}Re-Labeled Microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Liepe, Knut; Faulhaber, Diana; Wunderlich, Gerd; Andreeff, Michael; Haase, Michael; Jung, Roland; Oehme, Liane; Doerr, Wolfgang; Kotzerke, Joerg

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the dose dependence and kinetics of pneumopathy after systemic administration of rhenium-188 ({sup 188}Re)-labeled microspheres in a rat model. Methods and Materials: {sup 188}Re-microspheres were injected intravenously into adult Wistar rats (n = 54, age, 8 {+-} 2 months). The rats were divided into 6 groups according to the intended absorbed dose in the lung (maximum 60 Gy). Gamma camera scans were used to estimate the individual whole lung doses. One control group (n = 5) received nonlabeled microspheres. The breathing rate was measured before and weekly after the treatment using whole body plethysmography until 24 weeks. An increase in the breathing rate by 20% compared with the individual pretreatment control value was defined as the quantal endpoint for dose-effect analyses. Results: A biphasic increase in the breathing rate was observed. The first impairment of lung function occurred in Weeks 3-6. For late changes, the interval to onset was clearly dose dependent and was 17 weeks (10-30 Gy) and 10 weeks (50-60 Gy), respectively. The incidence of the response was highly dependent on the estimated lung dose. The median effective dose for an early and late response was virtually identical (19.9 {+-} 0.6 Gy and 20.4 {+-} 3.1 Gy, respectively). A significant correlation was found between the occurrence of an early and a late effect in the same rat, suggesting a strong consequential component. Conclusions: The effects of radiolabeled microspheres can be studied longitudinally in a rat model, using changes in the breathing rate as the functional, clinically relevant response. The isoeffective doses from the present study using radionuclide administration and those from published investigations of homogeneous external beam radiotherapy are almost similar.

  14. Selection of an optimal cysteine-containing peptide-based chelator for labeling of affibody molecules with (188)Re.

    PubMed

    Altai, Mohamed; Honarvar, Hadis; Wållberg, Helena; Strand, Joanna; Varasteh, Zohreh; Rosestedt, Maria; Orlova, Anna; Dunås, Finn; Sandström, Mattias; Löfblom, John; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Ståhl, Stefan

    2014-11-24

    Affibody molecules constitute a class of small (7 kDa) scaffold proteins that can be engineered to have excellent tumor targeting properties. High reabsorption in kidneys complicates development of affibody molecules for radionuclide therapy. In this study, we evaluated the influence of the composition of cysteine-containing C-terminal peptide-based chelators on the biodistribution and renal retention of (188)Re-labeled anti-HER2 affibody molecules. Biodistribution of affibody molecules containing GGXC or GXGC peptide chelators (where X is G, S, E or K) was compared with biodistribution of a parental affibody molecule ZHER2:2395 having a KVDC peptide chelator. All constructs retained low picomolar affinity to HER2-expressing cells after labeling. The biodistribution of all (188)Re-labeled affibody molecules was in general comparable, with the main observed difference found in the uptake and retention of radioactivity in excretory organs. The (188)Re-ZHER2:V2 affibody molecule with a GGGC chelator provided the lowest uptake in all organs and tissues. The renal retention of (188)Re-ZHER2:V2 (3.1 ± 0.5 %ID/g at 4 h after injection) was 55-fold lower than retention of the parental (188)Re-ZHER2:2395 (172 ± 32 %ID/g). We show that engineering of cysteine-containing peptide-based chelators can be used for significant improvement of biodistribution of (188)Re-labeled scaffold proteins, particularly reduction of their uptake in excretory organs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiolabeling of monoclonal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR 1) with (177)Lu for potential use in radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Young; Hong, Young-Don; Pyun, Mi-Sun; Felipe, Penelope M; Choi, Sun-Ju

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to optimize the radioimmunoconjugation of monoclonal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR 1) with (177)Lu as a potential angiogenic molecular tracer for radioimmunotherapy (RIT). For a successful radiolabeling, we chose cysteine derivative DTPA-NCS as the bifunctional chelating agent and optimized radiolabeling condition with modifications on the factors such as the reaction time and molar ratio which are known to be very critical in radiolabeling. Under the optimized conditions, radiolabeling yield was greater than 99%. Immunoactivity of the radioimmunoconjugate was investigated using combinations of radioanalytical and bioanalytical techniques (ITLC-SG, Cyclone phosphorimager, and SDS-PAGE). For biological evaluations we carried out the cell binding assay and biodistribution study using mice bearing Calu6 non-small cell lung cancer xenografts. The biodistribution study showed high specificity in accumulating in tumor tissues where the tumor-to-blood ratio was 3.25:1 24h post-injection. In conclusion, the anti-VEGFR1 monoclonal antibody for angiogenesis targeting was effectively radioconjugated with (177)Lu. This radioimmunoconjugate is applicable to detect of angiogenesis sites in various diseases and treat tumors overexpressing VEGFR 1.

  16. Preclinical evaluation of a diabody-based (177)Lu-radioimmunoconjugate for CD22-directed radioimmunotherapy in a non-Hodgkin lymphoma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Weber, Tobias; Bötticher, Benedikt; Arndt, Michaela A E; Mier, Walter; Sauter, Max; Exner, Evelyn; Keller, Armin; Krämer, Susanne; Leotta, Karin; Wischnjow, Artjom; Grosse-Hovest, Ludger; Strumberg, Dirk; Jäger, Dirk; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Haberkorn, Uwe; Brem, Gottfried; Krauss, Jürgen

    2016-10-28

    Radioimmunotherapy is considered as treatment option in recurrent and/or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). To overcome the dose limiting bone marrow toxicity of IgG-based radioimmunoconjugates (RICs), we modified a humanized diabody with 5-, 10-, or 20-kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) for CD22-targeted radioimmunotherapy using the low-energy β-emitter lutetium-177 ((177)Lu). A favorable pharmacokinetic profile was observed for the 10-kDa-PEG-diabody in nude mice being xenografted with subcutaneous human Burkitt lymphoma. Even at high doses of 16 MBq this diabody RIC was well tolerated by NOD Rag1(null) IL2rγ(null) (NRG) mice and did not reveal signs of organ long-term toxicity 80 days post injection. Combination therapy of the diabody RIC with unconjugated anti-CD20 Rituximab demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in established disseminated mantle cell lymphoma xenograft models. When compared with the combination of the IgG formatted (177)Lu anti-CD22 antibody and Rituximab, dual targeted therapy with the diabody RIC achieved an improved reduction of disease burden in the first nine days following treatment. The data indicate that the PEGylated anti-CD22 diabody may have potential for extending the repertoire of radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of patients with B-NHL.

  17. Formation of medical radioisotopes {sup 111}In, {sup 117m}Sn, {sup 124}Sb, and {sup 177}Lu in photonuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Danagulyan, A. S.; Hovhannisyan, G. H. Bakhshiyan, T. M.; Avagyan, R. H.; Avetisyan, A. E.; Kerobyan, I. A.; Dallakyan, R. K.

    2015-06-15

    The possibility of the photonuclear production of radioisotopes {sup 111}In, {sup 117m}Sn, {sup 124}Sb, and {sup 177}Lu is discussed. Reaction yields were measured by the gamma-activation method. The enriched tin isotopes {sup 112,} {sup 118}Sn and Te and HfO{sub 2} of natural isotopic composition were used as targets. The targets were irradiated at the linear electron accelerator of Alikhanian National Science Laboratory (Yerevan) at the energy of 40 MeV. The experimental results obtained in this way reveal that the yield and purity of radioisotopes {sup 111}In and {sup 117}mSn are acceptable for their production via photonuclear reactions. Reactions proceeding on targets from Te and HfO{sub 2} of natural isotopic composition and leading to the formation of {sup 124}Sb and {sup 177}Lu have small yields and are hardly appropriate for the photoproduction of these radioisotopes even in the case of enriched targets.

  18. Biological comparison of 149Pm-, 166Ho-, and 177Lu-DOTA-biotin pretargeted by CC49 scFv-streptavidin fusion protein in xenograft-bearing nude mice.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael R; Zhang, Jiuli; Jia, Fang; Owen, Nellie K; Cutler, Cathy S; Embree, Mary F; Schultz, Jody; Theodore, Louis J; Ketring, Alan R; Jurisson, Silvia S; Axworthy, Donald B

    2004-02-01

    The radiolanthanides (149)Pm, (166)Ho, and (177)Lu possess a range of half-lives and alpha(-) beta(-) energies for targeted radiotherapy of cancer. (149)Pm-, (166)Ho-, and (177)Lu-DOTA-biotin were pretargeted to LS174T colorectal tumors in nude mice with CC49 scFvSA antibody-streptavidin fusion protein. Tumor uptakes of (149)Pm (22.9% ID/g), (166)Ho (30.2% ID/g), and (177)Lu (35.4% ID/g) peaked at 1-4 h. Rapid blood disappearance was accompanied by urinary excretion of 59-66% ID within 1 h. Biodistributions of these agents show promise for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy of cancer.

  19. Multifunctional targeted therapy system based on (99m) Tc/(177) Lu-labeled gold nanoparticles-Tat(49-57)-Lys(3) -bombesin internalized in nuclei of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Mancilla, Nallely; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Santos-Cuevas, Clara; Ocampo-García, Blanca; Luna-Gutiérrez, Myrna; Azorín-Vega, Erika; Isaac-Olivé, Keila; Camacho-López, Miguel; Torres-García, Eugenio

    2013-11-01

    Radiolabeled gold nanoparticles may function simultaneously as radiotherapy and thermal ablation systems. The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-r) is overexpressed in prostate cancer, and Lys(3) -bombesin is a peptide that binds with high affinity to the GRP-r. HIV Tat(49-57) is a cell-penetrating peptide that reaches the DNA. In cancer cells, (177) Lu shows efficient crossfire effect, whereas (99m) Tc that is internalized in the cancer cell nuclei acts as an effective system of targeted radiotherapy because of the biological Auger effect. The aim of this research was to evaluate the in vitro potential of (99m) Tc-labeled and (177) Lu-labeled gold nanoparticles conjugated to Tat(49-57)-Lys(3) -bombesin peptides ((99m) Tc/(177) Lu-AuNP-Tat-BN) as a plasmonic photothermal therapy and targeted radiotherapy system in PC3 prostate cancer cells. Peptides were conjugated to AuNPs (5 nm) by spontaneous reaction with the thiol group of cysteine (Cys). The effect on PC3 cell viability after laser heating of the AuNP-Tat-BN incubated with the cancer cells was conducted using an Nd:YAG laser pulsed for 5 ns at 532 nm (0.65 W/cm(2) ). For the (99m) Tc/(177) Lu-AuNP-Tat-BN to be obtained, the (177) Lu-DOTA-Gly-Gly-Cys and (99m) Tc-HYNIC-octreotide radiopeptides were first prepared and added simultaneously to a solution of AuNP-Tat-BN. (99m) Tc/(177) Lu-AuNP-Tat-BN (20 Bq/cell) was incubated with PC3 cells, and the effect on the cell proliferation was evaluated after 3 days. Fluorescence images of (99m) Tc/(177) Lu-AuNP-Tat-BN internalized in nuclei of PC3 were also obtained. After laser irradiation, the presence of AuNP-Tat-BN caused a significant increase in the temperature of the medium (46.4 vs 39.5 °C of that without AuNP) resulting in a significant decrease in PC3 cell viability down to 1.3%. After treatment with (99m) Tc/(177) Lu-AuNP-Tat-BN, the PC3 cell proliferation was inhibited. The nanosystem exhibited properties suitable for plasmonic

  20. Specific energy from Auger and conversion electrons of 131I, 188Re-anti-CD20 to a lymphocyte's nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-García, E.; Carrillo-Cazares, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    The typical radionuclides used to label anti-CD20 in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are 90Y, 131I, and 188Re, with the emission of beta particles, Auger electrons, and conversion electrons for the latter two. The aim of the present work was to calculate the contribution of high linear energy transfer radiation as Auger electrons (AE) and conversion electrons (CE) of 131I and 188Re-anti-CD20 to mean specific energy into the cell nucleus by Monte Carlo simulation (MCS), so as to infer therapeutic effectiveness on a dosimetric basis. MCS was used to quantify the frequency-mean specific energy into the cell nucleus, where the cell was modeled by two concentric spheres, considering two cell models. The results showed that 10% and 33% of the mean-specific energies (z¯) per disintegration imparted to the cell nucleus for both geometries are due to AE and CE; on the other hand, if the hit of AE and CE occurs, the contribution to (z¯) is about 64% and 86% for 131I and 188Re, respectively. According to the amount of specific energy from AE and CE into the cell nucleus by positive event, they can cause catastrophic effects in the nuclear DNA in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with 131I, 188Re-anti-CD20.

  1. Comparison of clonogenic cell survival and DNA damage induced by (188)Re and X-rays in rat thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Runge, Roswitha; Arlt, Jana; Oehme, Liane; Freudenberg, Robert; Kotzerke, Jörg

    2017-02-14

    Ionizing radiation produces DNA lesions among which DNA double strand breaks (DSB) are the most critical events. Radiation of various energy types might differ in their biological effectiveness. Here, we compared cell survival and DNA damage induced by (188)Re and X-rays using γH2AX foci as a measure of DSB. The correlation between survival and residual foci was also analyzed. PCCl3 cells were irradiated with 200 kV X-rays (1.2 Gy/min) or 0.5-25 MBq/ml (188)Re (1 h irradiation) achieving doses up to 10 Gy. By blocking of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) essentially extracellular activity could be guaranteed. Survival fractions (SF) were detected by colony forming assay. Initial and residual γH2AX foci (15 min and 24 h after irradiation) were assessed by immunostaining. The relationship between SF and residual radiation induced γH2AX foci (RIF) was evaluated by Spearman and Pearson correlation tests. We did not find significant differences between the survival curves in terms of the radiation quality. The D37 values were 4.6 Gy and 4.2 Gy for (188)Re or X-ray, respectively. The initial foci numbers were in the same range for (188)Re and X-ray, but higher levels of residual foci persisted after X-rays in comparison to (188)Re (1 GyX-ray 6.5 ± 0.2; 1 GyRe-188 4.8 ± 0.2 RIF). Accordingly, for (188)Re a higher extent of DSB repair was found. The Spearman test revealed a significant (p < 0.01) correlation between SF and residual RIF for both radiation modalities. No differences in terms of radiation were found for SF and initial foci. However, residual foci were lower for (188)Re than for X-rays. A prediction of SF by residual foci should consider the properties of the radiation qualities that influence foci removal and DSB repair.

  2. Non-carrier-added 186, 188Re labeled 17a-ethynylestradiol : a potential breast cancer imaging and therapy agent

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, M. E.; Phillips, Dennis R.; Peterson, E. J.; Ott, K. C.; Arterburn, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    Receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals constitute potential agents for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of diagnosed cancer in women in the United States, and it accounts for the second highest number of cases of cancer fatalities (1). In Approximately two-thirds of the breast tumors, estrogen and progesterone steroid hormone receptors can be found. Such tumors can often be treated successfully with anti-estrogen hormone therapy (2). Hence, the ability to determine the estrogen receptor (ER) contend of the breast tumor is essential for making the most appropriate choice of treatment for the patient. Along with this diagnostic aspect, steroid-based radiopharmaceuticals with high specific activity offer an encouraging prospect for therapeutic applications: {sup 186,188}Re labeled steroids binding to receptors expressed by cancer cells appear to be potential agents for the irradiation of small to medium-sized tumors. {sup 186}Re has been regarded as an ideal radionuclide for radiotherapy due to its appropriate half-live of 90 h and {beta}-energy of 1.07 MeV. Moreover, the {gamma}-emission of 137 keV that allows in vivo imaging while in therapy is an additional bonus. {sup 188}Re is obtained from a {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re radionuclide generator system, representing an advantage for availability at radiopharmacy laboratory by daily elution. In addition, {sup 188}Re emits high energy beta particles with an average energy of 769 keV, and the emission of the 155 keV allows simultaneous imaging for biodistribution evaluation in vivo. In order to avoid competitive saturation of the binding sites of the ligand receptor, Re labeled steroids with high specific activity are required, and the removal of all excess unlabeled ligands is mandatory. {sup 188}Re is eluted from a {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator produced and provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (3). This paper outlines the solid phase-supported preparation of an n

  3. Response and Tolerability of a Single Dose of 177Lu-PSMA-617 in Patients with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Multicenter Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Kambiz; Schmidt, Matthias; Heinzel, Alexander; Eppard, Elisabeth; Bode, Axel; Yordanova, Anna; Claesener, Michael; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat

    2016-09-01

    Radiolabeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligands represent a true theranostic concept for diagnosis and therapy in patients with relapsed or metastatic prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to and tolerability of a single dose of (177)Lu-PSMA-617 in a large cohort of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The data of 82 consecutive patients (median age, 73 y; range, 43-87 y) with mCRPC who received a single dose of (177)Lu-PSMA-617 (mean, 5.9 ± 0.5 GBq) were retrospectively analyzed. Data were collected at baseline and 8 wk after therapy. (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT was performed on all patients to verify sufficient PSMA expression. Bone, lymph node, liver, and lung metastases were present in 99%, 65%, 17%, and 11% of the patients, respectively. Tolerability and response were evaluated using hematologic parameters, renal scintigraphy, clinical data, and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at baseline and 8 wk after therapy application. Six patients died, and 2 patients dropped out because they were not willing to continue therapy and follow-up. The complete dataset of 74 patients was available for analysis. Forty-seven patients (64%) showed a PSA decline, including 23 (31%) with a decline by more than 50%. Thirty-five patients (47%) had stable disease: the change in their PSA level ranged from less than a 50% decline to less than a 25% rise. Seventeen patients (23%) had progressive disease: their PSA level rose by more than 25%. There were no significant changes in hemoglobin, white blood cells, creatinine, or tubular extraction rates indicative of toxicity. There was a significant but mild decrease in platelets, but the median value was still within the reference range. This retrospective multicenter analysis suggests that radioligand therapy with (177)Lu-PSMA-617 is safe and well tolerated and has a considerable effect on PSA level. Therefore, it offers an additional therapeutic option

  4. Investigating the Effect of Ligand Amount and Injected Therapeutic Activity: A Simulation Study for 177Lu-Labeled PSMA-Targeting Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Schuchardt, Christiane; Kulkarni, Harshad R.; Shahinfar, Mostafa; Singh, Aviral; Glatting, Gerhard; Baum, Richard P.; Beer, Ambros J.

    2016-01-01

    In molecular radiotherapy with 177Lu-labeled prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) peptides, kidney and/or salivary glands doses limit the activity which can be administered. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of the ligand amount and injected activity on the tumor-to-normal tissue biologically effective dose (BED) ratio for 177Lu-labeled PSMA peptides. For this retrospective study, a recently developed physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was adapted for PSMA targeting peptides. General physiological parameters were taken from the literature. Individual parameters were fitted to planar gamma camera measurements (177Lu-PSMA I&T) of five patients with metastasizing prostate cancer. Based on the estimated parameters, the pharmacokinetics of tumor, salivary glands, kidneys, total body and red marrow was simulated and time-integrated activity coefficients were calculated for different peptide amounts. Based on these simulations, the absorbed doses and BEDs for normal tissue and tumor were calculated for all activities leading to a maximal tolerable kidney BED of 10 Gy2.5/cycle, a maximal salivary gland absorbed dose of 7.5 Gy/cycle and a maximal red marrow BED of 0.25 Gy15/cycle. The fits yielded coefficients of determination > 0.85, acceptable relative standard errors and low parameter correlations. All estimated parameters were in a physiologically reasonable range. The amounts (for 25−29 nmol) and pertaining activities leading to a maximal tumor dose, considering the defined maximal tolerable doses to organs of risk, were calculated to be 272±253 nmol (452±420 μg) and 7.3±5.1 GBq. Using the actually injected amount (235±155 μg) and the same maximal tolerable doses, the potential improvement for the tumor BED was 1–3 fold. The results suggest that currently given amounts for therapy are in the appropriate order of magnitude for many lesions. However, for lesions with high binding site density or lower perfusion, optimizing the

  5. 177 Lu-Labeled Phosphoramidate-Based PSMA Inhibitors: The Effect of an Albumin Binder on Biodistribution and Therapeutic Efficacy in Prostate Tumor-Bearing Mice

    DOE PAGES

    Choy, Cindy J.; Ling, Xiaoxi; Geruntho, Jonathan J.; ...

    2017-04-27

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) continues to be an active biomarker for small-molecule PSMA-targeted imaging and therapeutic agents for prostate cancer and various non-prostatic tumors that are characterized by PSMA expression on their neovasculature. One of the challenges for small-molecule PSMA inhibitors with respect to delivering therapeutic payloads is their rapid renal clearance. In order to overcome this pharmacokinetic challenge, we outfitted a 177Lu-labeled phosphoramidate-based PSMA inhibitor (CTT1298) with an albumin-binding motif (CTT1403) and compared its in vivo performance with that of an analogous compound lacking the albumin-binding motif (CTT1401). The radiolabeling of CTT1401 and CTT1403 was achieved using click chemistrymore » to connect 177Lu-DOTA-N3 to the dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO)-bearing CTT1298 inhibitor cores. A direct comparison in vitro and in vivo performance was made for CTT1401 and CTT1403; the specificity and efficacy by means of cellular uptake and internalization, biodistribution, and therapeutic efficacy were determined for both compounds. And while both compounds displayed excellent uptake and rapid internalization in PSMA+ PC3-PIP cells, the albumin binding moiety in CTT1403 conferred clear advantages to the PSMA-inhibitor scaffold including increased circulating half-life and prostate tumor uptake that continued to increase up to 168 h post-injection. This then increased tumor uptake translated into superior therapeutic efficacy of CTT1403 in PSMA+ PC3-PIP human xenograft tumors.« less

  6. An approach for conjugation of 177Lu- DOTA-SCN- Rituximab (BioSim) & its evaluation for radioimmunotherapy of relapsed & refractory B-cell non Hodgkins lymphoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Thakral, Parul; Singla, Suhas; Yadav, Madhav Prasad; Vasisht, Atul; Sharma, Atul; Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Bal, C.S.; Snehlata; Malhotra, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: The prerequisite of radioimmunotherapy is stable binding of a radionuclide to monoclonal antibodies, which are specific to the tumour-associated antigen. Most B-cell lymphomas express CD20 antigen on the surface of the tumour cells, making it a suitable target for therapeutic radioactive monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, the immunoconjugate of biosimilar Rituximab (Reditux™) and macrocyclic chelator, p-SCN-Bz-DOTA, was prepared and radiolabelled with Lutetium-177 followed by quality control procedures. Methods: Rituximab(BioSim) was desalted with sodium bicarbonate (0.1M, pH 9.0) and incubated with DOTA-SCN (1:50). The effectiveness of the conjugation was evaluated by determining the number of chelators per antibody molecule. This conjugate was radiolabelled with Lutetium-177 and purified using PD10 column. The quality control parameters like pH, clarity, radiochemical purity, in vitro stability and sterility were studied. Immunoreactivity of 177Lu-DOTA-Rituximab (BioSim) was assessed using RAMOS cells. The radioimmunoconjugate (RIC) after stringent quality assurance was injected in three patients and the biodistribution profile was analysed. Results: An average of 4.25 ± 1.04 p-SCN-Bz-DOTA molecules could be randomly conjugated to a single molecule of Rituximab (BioSim). The radiochemical purity of the labelled antibody was > 95 per cent with preserved affinity for CD20 antigen. The final preparation was stable up to about 120 h when tested under different conditions. A favourable biodistribution profile was observed with liver showing the maximum uptake of the RIC. Interpretation & conclusions: A favourable radiochemical purity, stability and biodistribution of the radiolabelled immunoconjugate indicate that clinical trials for evaluation of toxicity and efficacy of 177Lu-DOTA-antiCD20 antibody-Rituximab (BioSim) in patients of relapsed and refractory non Hodgkin's lymphoma can be considered. PMID:24927340

  7. An approach for conjugation of (177) Lu- DOTA-SCN- Rituximab (BioSim) & its evaluation for radioimmunotherapy of relapsed & refractory B-cell non Hodgkins lymphoma patients.

    PubMed

    Thakral, Parul; Singla, Suhas; Yadav, Madhav Prasad; Vasisht, Atul; Sharma, Atul; Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Bal, C S; Malhotra, Arun

    2014-04-01

    The prerequisite of radioimmunotherapy is stable binding of a radionuclide to monoclonal antibodies, which are specific to the tumour-associated antigen. Most B-cell lymphomas express CD20 antigen on the surface of the tumour cells, making it a suitable target for therapeutic radioactive monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, the immunoconjugate of biosimilar Rituximab (Reditux™) and macrocyclic chelator, p-SCN-Bz-DOTA, was prepared and radiolabelled with Lutetium-177 followed by quality control procedures. Rituximab(BioSim) was desalted with sodium bicarbonate (0.1M, pH 9.0) and incubated with DOTA-SCN (1:50). The effectiveness of the conjugation was evaluated by determining the number of chelators per antibody molecule. This conjugate was radiolabelled with Lutetium-177 and purified using PD10 column. The quality control parameters like pH, clarity, radiochemical purity, in vitro stability and sterility were studied. Immunoreactivity of 177 Lu-DOTA-Rituximab (BioSim) was assessed using RAMOS cells. The radioimmunoconjugate (RIC) after stringent quality assurance was injected in three patients and the biodistribution profile was analysed. An average of 4.25 ± 1.04 p-SCN-Bz-DOTA molecules could be randomly conjugated to a single molecule of Rituximab (BioSim).The radiochemical purity of the labelled antibody was > 95 per cent with preserved affinity for CD20 antigen. The final preparation was stable up to about 120 h when tested under different conditions. A favourable biodistribution profile was observed with liver showing the maximum uptake of the RIC. A favourable radiochemical purity, stability and biodistribution of the radiolabelled immunoconjugate indicate that clinical trials for evaluation of toxicity and efficacy of 177 Lu-DOTA-antiCD20 antibody-Rituximab (BioSim) in patients of relapsed and refractory non Hodgkin's lymphoma can be considered.

  8. Dosimetric evaluation of 153Sm-EDTMP, 177Lu-EDTMP and 166Ho-EDTMP for systemic radiation therapy: Influence of type and energy of radiation and half-life of radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, Hassan; Ghannadi-Maragheh, Mohammad; Bahrami-Samani, Ali; Beiki, Davood

    2015-03-01

    In radiopharmaceutical therapy, delivered doses to critical organs must be below a certain threshold therefore internal radiation dosimetry of radiopharmaceuticals is essential. Advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides with different characteristics were evaluated for selection of appropriate radionuclide. The Monte Carlo MCNPX simulation program was used to obtain radial dose and cumulative dose of 153Sm, 177Lu and 166Ho used in radiotherapy of bone metastases. A cylindrical geometry with constant density materials was supposed for simulation of femur bone. The radius of bone marrow, bone, and surrounding soft tissue was considered 0.6 cm, 1.3 cm and 4 cm, respectively. It was assumed that the radionuclides were uniformly distributed throughout the tumor. "continuous energy spectrum" of beta particle was used instead of mean beta energy. Our simulations show that absorbed dose in target organ (bone) is greater than other organs and 166Ho gives a higher dose to the critical organ of bone marrow than either 153Sm or 177Lu. Absorbed dose versus time demonstrate faster dose delivery for the short half-life radionuclides (153Sm and 166Ho). These results are in good agreement with clinical observations which show a pain relief within 1 week after intravenous administration of 153Sm-EDTMP, whereas it occurs within 2 week in the case of 177Lu-EDTMP. According to the results, combination of different radionuclides with different characteristics such as 153Sm-EDTMP and 177Lu-EDTMP could be more advantageous to patients with painful bone metastasis.

  9. Therapeutic Efficacy of a {sup 188}Re-Labeled {alpha}-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Peptide Analog in Murine and Human Melanoma-Bearing Mouse Models

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yubin; Owen, Nellie K.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Hoffman, Timothy J.; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic efficacy of {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH in the B16/F1 murine melanoma and TXM13 human melanoma bearing mouse models. Method: (Arg11)CCMSH was synthesized and labeled with {sup 188}Re to form {sup 188}Re-(Agr{sup 11})CCMSH. B16/F1 melanoma tumor bearing mice were administrated with 200 Ci, 600 Ci and 2x400 Ci of {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH via the tail vein, respectively. TXM13 melanoma tumor hearing mice were separately injected with 600 Ci, 2x400 Ci and 1000 Ci of 100Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH through the tail vein. Two groups of 10 mice bearing either B16/F1 or TXM13 tumors were injected with saline as untreated controls. Results: In contrast to the untreated control group, {sup 188}Re(Arg11)CCMSH yielded rapid and lasting therapeutic effects in the treatment groups with either B16/F1 or TXM13 tumors. The tumor growth rate was reduced and the survival rate was prolonged in the treatment groups. Treatment with 2x400 Ci of {sup 188}Re-Arg{sup 11}CCMSH significantly extended the mean life of B16/F1 tumor mice (p<0.05), while the mean life of TXm13 tumor mice was significantly prolonged after treatment with 600 Ci and 1000 Ci doses of {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH (p<0.05 High-dose {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11}))CCMSH produced no observed normal-tissue toxicity. Conclusions: The therapy study results revealed that {sup 188}Re-Arg11 CCMSH yielded significant therapeutic effects in both B16/F1 murine melanoma and TXM13 human melanoma bearing mouse models. {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH appears to be a promising radiolabeled peptide for targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma.

  10. Determination of activity of 51Cr on gamma radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, V. V.; Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A method of determining the activity of intensive distributed -sources on the measurement of the continuous spectrum of radiation, for example the internal bremsstrahlung, is developed. The recurrent formula for reconstructing of a continuous spectrum, registered in a Ge detector, at distorting it in the detector. The method of precise measurements of the spectrum of 51Cr internal bremsstrahlung using two point sources of low activity is described.

  11. The somatostatin analog 188Re-P2045 inhibits the growth of AR42J pancreatic tumor xenografts.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Carol A; Azure, Michael T; Adams, Christopher T; Zinn, Kurt R

    2014-12-01

    P2045 is a peptide analog of somatostatin with picomolar affinity for the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) upregulated in some pancreatic tumors. Studies were conducted in rat AR42J pancreatic tumor xenograft mice to determine whether (188)Re-P2045 could inhibit the growth of pancreatic cancer in an animal model. (188)Re-P2045 was intravenously administered every 3 d for 16 d to nude mice with AR42J tumor xenografts that were approximately 20 mm(3) at study initiation. Tumor volumes were recorded throughout the dosing period. At necropsy, all tissues were assessed for levels of radioactivity and evaluated for histologic abnormalities. Clinical chemistry and hematology parameters were determined from terminal blood samples. The affinity of nonradioactive (185/187)Re-P2045 for somatostatin receptors was compared in human NCI-H69 and rat AR42J tumor cell membranes expressing predominantly SSTR2. In the 1.85- and 5.55-MBq groups, tumor growth was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion. In the 11.1-MBq group, tumor growth was completely inhibited throughout the dosing period and for 12 d after the last administered dose. The radioactivity level in tumors 4 h after injection was 10 percentage injected dose per gram, which was 2-fold higher than in the kidneys. (188)Re-P2045 was well tolerated in all dose groups, with no adverse clinical, histologic, or hematologic findings. The nonradioactive (185/187)Re-P2045 bound more avidly (0.2 nM) to SSTR2 in human than rat tumor membranes, suggesting that these studies are relevant to human studies. (188)Re-P2045 is a promising therapeutic candidate for patients with somatostatin receptor-positive cancer. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  12. Radiopharmacokinetic and dosimetric parameters of 188Re-lanreotide in athymic mice with induced human cancer tumors.

    PubMed

    Molina-Trinidad, Eva M; de Murphy, Consuelo Arteaga; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Murphy-Stack, Eduardo; Jung-Cook, Helgi

    2006-03-09

    Radiolabeled peptides, like the somatostatin analogs, have been used for peptide receptor-mediated radionuclide therapy (PRMRT) in metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. The eight amino acid peptide 3-(2-naphthalenyl)-D-alanyl-L-cysteinyl-L-tyrosyl-D-tryptophyl-L-lysyl-L-valyl-L-cysteinyl-L-threoninamide,cyclic(2-->7)-disulfide (9Cl) (lanreotide) was found to bind to the five somatostatin tumor receptors. Lanreotide has been labeled via the bifunctional chelating agent, DOTA, to (111)In, and (90)Y. A direct labeling method was used to label lanreotide with (188)Re. Athymic mice with implanted human cancer tumors (uterine-cervix, renal, and neuroblastoma) were injected with radiochemically pure (188)Re-lanreotide (1.11 MBq). The percent injected activity (%IA/g) from serial blood samples was the input data for the WinNonlin computer program to obtain radiopharmacokinetic parameters. The organs' percent injected activity per gram of tissue (%IA/g) was extrapolated to the weights of a 70 kg male model organs and the number of nuclear transitions (N) were the input for the OLINDA/EXM program to obtain dosimetry estimates. Induced uterine-cervix tumors (HeLa cells) show a mean 2.4 %IA/g uptake up to 24 h and the tumor/blood ratio was over 1.85 (1.5-24 h post-injection) confirming (188)Re-lanreotide remains bound to the tumor. The estimated tumor absorbed dose was 460 mGy/MBq. Human effective dose was 0.0182 mSv/MBq. Therefore, (188)Re-lanreotide is a good candidate for PRMRT and a clinical trial is being planned in order to acquire individual dosimetric data.

  13. Rhenium-188 Production in Hospitals, by W-188/Re-188 Generator, for Easy Use in Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Argyrou, Maria; Valassi, Alexia; Andreou, Maria; Lyra, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Rhenium-188 (Re-188) is a high energy β-emitting radioisotope obtained from the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 (W-188/Re-188) generator, which has shown utility for a variety of therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine, oncology, and interventional radiology/cardiology. Re-188 decay is accompanied by a 155 keV predominant energy γ-emission, which could be detected by γ-cameras, for imaging, biodistribution, or absorbed radiation dose studies. Its attractive physical properties and its potential low cost associated with a long-lived parent make it an interesting option for clinical use. The setup and daily use of W-188/Re-188 generator in hospital nuclear medicine departments are discussed in detail. The clinical efficacy, for several therapeutic applications, of a variety of Re-188-labeled agents is demonstrated. The high energy of the β-emission of Re-188 is particularly well suited for effective penetration in solid tumours. Its total radiation dose delivered to tissues is comparable to other radionuclides used in therapy. Furthermore, radiation safety and shielding requirements are an important subject of matter. In the case of bone metastases treatment, therapeutic ratios are presented in order to describe the efficacy of Re-188 usage. PMID:23653859

  14. Reduction of β-radiation exposure during preparation of 188Re-labelled Lipiodol for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Lepareur, Nicolas; Laffont, Sophie; Ardisson, Valérie; Noiret, Nicolas; Garin, Etienne

    2012-02-01

    Rhenium-188 (188Re) is of widespread interest for treating various diseases because of its attractive physical and chemical properties. The routine preparation of therapeutic doses of 188Re-labelled tracers can result in significant radiation exposure to the operator. We studied the impact of automating the preparation of 188Re-Lipiodol on the radiochemist's exposure, as well as the importance of the model of syringe shielding. To monitor radiation exposure continuously readable electronic personal dosimeters were used. Thermoluminescence dosimeters were fixed to the probable most exposed fingers of the radiochemist during preparation of the radiotracer and during the syringing. Dose rates were measured using a Babyline. Automation of the synthesis reduced personal dose equivalents from 2.60±4.35 to 1.61±1.20 µSv/GBq [Hp(10)] and from 38.37±55.28 to 21.84±16.14 µSv/GBq [Hp(0.07)]. Dose to the extremities was also reduced (-80% for the right hand; -58% for the left one). The Lemer-Pax PSWG syringe shield led to a slightly lower dose to the hands compared with the Medisystem (1.1±0.27 vs. 1.34±0.6 mSv/GBq for the right finger). Automation of the synthesis leads to a significant decrease in radiation exposure to the operator. The Lemer-Pax PSWG syringe shield provides better hand protection than the smaller Medisystem Mediclic.

  15. 188Re-labelled gemcitabine/bisphosphonate (Gem/BP): a multi-functional, bone-specific agent as a potential treatment for bone metastases.

    PubMed

    El-Mabhouh, Amal A; Mercer, John R

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the bone-binding affinity and biodistribution of a (188)Re-labelled gemcitabine/bisphosphonate (Gem/BP) conjugate, a multi-functional drug designed to deliver tumour-specific combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy to the bone using the high bone-binding affinity of the bisphosphonate group. The Gem/BP conjugate was labelled at high radiochemical purity with (188)Re. The bone-binding affinity of the (188)Re-Gem/BP was studied in vitro in purified hydroxyapatite emulsion and powdered bovine bone. In vivo biodistribution studies were carried out in normal BALB/c mice. (188)Re-Gem/BP demonstrated strong and stable binding in both in vitro systems. In vivo (188)Re-Gem/BP showed bone uptake, rapid blood clearance and rapid elimination of unbound activity. The bone tissue demonstrated the highest concentration of bound radioactivity exempting the kidneys. Approximately 67% of retained whole-body activity was bound to the bone at 8 h after (188)Re-Gem/BP administration. (188)Re-Gem/BP demonstrated high, selective and persistent bone binding and can be considered as a model compound for multi-functional bone-specific therapy for bone metastases.

  16. Intraperitoneal (188)Re-Liposome delivery switches ovarian cancer metabolism from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation and effectively controls ovarian tumour growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yao An; Lan, Keng Li; Chang, Chih Hsien; Lin, Liang Ting; He, Chun Lin; Chen, Po Hung; Lee, Te Wei; Lee, Yi Jang; Chuang, Chi Mu

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem cells exhibit distinctive cellular metabolism compared with the more differentiated counterparts or normal cells. We aimed to investigate the impact of a novel radionuclide anti-cancer agent (188)Re-Liposome on stemness markers' expression and cellular metabolism in an ovarian cancer model. A 2×2 factorial experiment was designed in which factor 1 represented the drug treatment comparing (188)Re-BMEDA, a free form of (188)Re, with (188)Re-Liposome, a nanoparticle-encapsulated form of (188)Re. Factor 2 represented the delivery route, comparing intravenous with intraperitoneal delivery. Intraperitoneal delivery of (188)Re-Liposome predominantly killed the CSCs-like cells in tumours and switched metabolism from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation. Further, intraperitoneal delivery of (188)Re-Liposome treatment was able to block epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and reactivate p53 function. Collectively, these molecular changes led to a striking tumour-killing effect. Radionuclides encapsulated in liposomes may represent a novel treatment for ovarian cancer when delivered intraperitoneally (a type of loco-regional delivery). In the future, this concept may be further extended for the treatment of several relevant cancers that have been proved to be suitable for loco-regional delivery of therapeutic agents, such as colon cancer, gastric cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation Dosimetry for (177)Lu-PSMA I&T in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Absorbed Dose in Normal Organs and Tumor Lesions.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shozo; Thieme, Anne; Allmann, Jakob; D'Alessandria, Calogero; Maurer, Tobias; Retz, Margitta; Tauber, Robert; Heck, Matthias M; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Tamaki, Nagara; Fendler, Wolfgang P; Herrmann, Ken; Pfob, Christian H; Scheidhauer, Klemens; Schwaiger, Markus; Ziegler, Sibylle; Eiber, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted radioligand therapy is increasingly used in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. We aimed to estimate the absorbed doses for normal organs and tumor lesions using (177)Lu-PSMA I&T (I&T is imaging and therapy) in patients undergoing up to 4 cycles of radioligand therapy. Results were compared with pretherapeutic Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys-(Ahx)-[(68)Ga(HBEDCC)] ((68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC) PET. Methods: A total of 34 cycles in 18 patients were analyzed retrospectively. In 15 patients the first, in 9 the second, in 5 the third, and in 5 the fourth cycle was analyzed, respectively. Whole-body scintigraphy was performed at least between 30-120 min, 24 h, and 6-8 d after administration. Regions of interest covering the whole body, organs, and up to 4 tumor lesions were drawn. Organ and tumor masses were derived from pretherapeutic (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT. Absorbed doses for individual cycles were calculated using OLINDA/EXM. SUVs from pretherapeutic PET were compared with absorbed doses and with change of SUV. Results: The mean whole-body effective dose for all cycles was 0.06 ± 0.03 Sv/GBq. The mean absorbed organ doses were 0.72 ± 0.21 Gy/GBq for the kidneys; 0.12 ± 0.06 Gy/GBq for the liver; and 0.55 ± 0.14 Gy/GBq for the parotid, 0.64 ± 0.40 Gy/GBq for the submandibular, and 3.8 ± 1.4 Gy/GBq for the lacrimal glands. Absorbed organ doses were relatively constant among the 4 different cycles. Tumor lesions received a mean absorbed dose per cycle of 3.2 ± 2.6 Gy/GBq (range, 0.22-12 Gy/GBq). Doses to tumor lesions gradually decreased, with 3.5 ± 2.9 Gy/GBq for the first, 3.3 ± 2.5 Gy/GBq for the second, 2.7 ± 2.3 Gy/GBq for the third, and 2.4 ± 2.2 Gy/GBq for the fourth cycle. SUVs of pretherapeutic PET moderately correlated with absorbed dose (r = 0.44, P < 0.001 for SUVmax; r = 0.43, P < 0.001 for SUVmean) and moderately correlated with the change of SUV (r = 0.478, P < 0.001 for SUVmax, and r = 0.50, P < 0

  18. The intratumoral distribution of radiolabeled 177Lu-BR96 monoclonal antibodies changes in relation to tumor histology over time in a syngeneic rat colon carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Örbom, Anders; Eriksson, Sophie E; Elgström, Erika; Ohlsson, Tomas; Nilsson, Rune; Tennvall, Jan; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2013-08-01

    The therapeutic effect of radioimmunotherapy depends on the distribution of the absorbed dose in relation to viable cancer cells within the tumor, which in turn is a function of the activity distribution. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of (177)Lu-DOTA-BR96 monoclonal antibodies targeting the Lewis Y antigen over 7 d using a syngeneic rat model of colon carcinoma. Thirty-eight tumor-bearing rats were intravenously given 25 or 50 MBq of (177)Lu-DOTA-BR96 per kilogram of body weight and were sacrificed 2, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, or 168 h after injection, with activity measured in blood and tumor samples. Adjacent cryosections of each tumor were analyzed in 3 ways: imaging using a silicon-strip detector for digital autoradiography, staining for histologic characterization, or staining to determine the distribution of the antigen, vasculature, and proliferating cells using immunohistochemistry. Absorbed-dose rate distribution images at the moment of sacrifice were calculated using the activity distribution and a point-dose kernel. The correlations between antigen expression and both activity uptake and absorbed-dose rate were calculated for several regions of interest in each tumor. Nine additional animals with tumors were given unlabeled antibody to evaluate possible immunologic effects. At 2-8 h after injection, activity was found in the tumor margins; at 24 h, in viable antigen-expressing areas within the tumor; and at 48 h and later, increasingly in antigen-negative areas of granulation tissue. The correlation between antigen expression and both the mean activity and the absorbed-dose rate in regions of interest changed from positive to negative after 24 h after injection. Antigen-negative areas also increased over time in animals injected with unlabeled BR96, compared with untreated tumors. The results indicate that viable Lewis Y-expressing tumor cells are most efficiently treated during the initial uptake period. The activity then seems

  19. (44)Sc-PSMA-617 for radiotheragnostics in tandem with (177)Lu-PSMA-617-preclinical investigations in comparison with (68)Ga-PSMA-11 and (68)Ga-PSMA-617.

    PubMed

    Umbricht, Christoph A; Benešová, Martina; Schmid, Raffaella M; Türler, Andreas; Schibli, Roger; van der Meulen, Nicholas P; Müller, Cristina

    2017-12-01

    The targeting of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is of particular interest for radiotheragnostic purposes of prostate cancer. Radiolabeled PSMA-617, a 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-functionalized PSMA ligand, revealed favorable kinetics with high tumor uptake, enabling its successful application for PET imaging ((68)Ga) and radionuclide therapy ((177)Lu) in the clinics. In this study, PSMA-617 was labeled with cyclotron-produced (44)Sc (T 1/2 = 4.04 h) and investigated preclinically for its use as a diagnostic match to (177)Lu-PSMA-617. (44)Sc was produced at the research cyclotron at PSI by irradiation of enriched (44)Ca targets, followed by chromatographic separation. (44)Sc-PSMA-617 was prepared under standard labeling conditions at elevated temperature resulting in a radiochemical purity of >97% at a specific activity of up to 10 MBq/nmol. (44)Sc-PSMA-617 was evaluated in vitro and compared to the (177)Lu- and (68)Ga-labeled match, as well as (68)Ga-PSMA-11 using PSMA-positive PC-3 PIP and PSMA-negative PC-3 flu prostate cancer cells. In these experiments it revealed similar in vitro properties to that of (177)Lu- and (68)Ga-labeled PSMA-617. Moreover, (44)Sc-PSMA-617 bound specifically to PSMA-expressing PC-3 PIP tumor cells, while unspecific binding to PC-3 flu cells was not observed. The radioligands were investigated with regard to their in vivo properties in PC-3 PIP/flu tumor-bearing mice. (44)Sc-PSMA-617 showed high tumor uptake and a fast renal excretion. The overall tissue distribution of (44)Sc-PSMA-617 resembled that of (177)Lu-PSMA-617 most closely, while the (68)Ga-labeled ligands, in particular (68)Ga-PSMA-11, showed different distribution kinetics. (44)Sc-PSMA-617 enabled distinct visualization of PC-3 PIP tumor xenografts shortly after injection, with increasing tumor-to-background contrast over time while unspecific uptake in the PC-3 flu tumors was not observed. The in vitro

  20. Calorimetric method for determination of 51Cr neutrino source activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veretenkin, E. P.; Gavrin, V. N.; Danshin, S. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Mirmov, I. N.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental study of nonstandard neutrino properties using high-intensity artificial neutrino sources requires the activity of the sources to be determined with high accuracy. In the BEST project, a calorimetric system for measurement of the activity of high-intensity (a few MCi) neutrino sources based on 51Cr with an accuracy of 0.5-1% is created. In the paper, the main factors affecting the accuracy of determining the neutrino source activity are discussed. The calorimetric system design and the calibration results using a thermal simulator of the source are presented.

  1. Therapeutic response and side effects of repeated radioligand therapy with 177Lu-PSMA-DKFZ-617 of castrate-resistant metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Eppard, Elisabeth; Kürpig, Stefan; Fimmers, Rolf; Yordanova, Anna; Schlenkhoff, Carl Diedrich; Gärtner, Florian; Rogenhofer, Sebastian; Essler, Markus

    2016-03-15

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly expressed on prostate epithelial cells and strongly up-regulated in prostate cancer (PC), making it an optimal target for the treatment of metastasized PC. Radioligand therapy (RLT) with 177Lu-PSMA-DKFZ-617 (Lu-PSMA) is a targeted therapy for metastatic PC. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the side effects and the response rate of 24 hormone and/or chemorefractory PC patients with a mean age of 75.2 years (range: 64-82) with distant metastases and progressive disease according to the PSA level, who were treated with Lu-PSMA. Median PSA was 522 ng/ml (range: 17-2360). Forty-six cycles of Lu-PSMA were performed. Of the 24 patients, 22 received two cycles. Eight weeks after the first cycle of Lu-PSMA therapy 79.1% experienced a decline in PSA level. Eight weeks after the second cycle of Lu-PSMA therapy 68.2% experienced a decline in PSA relative to the baseline value. Apart from two cases of grade 3 anemia, there was no relevant hemato- or nephrotoxicity (grade 3 or 4). These results confirmed that Lu-PSMA is a safe treatment option for metastatic PC patients and has a low toxicity profile. A positive response to therapy in terms of decline in PSA occurs in about 70% of patients.

  2. Therapeutic response and side effects of repeated radioligand therapy with 177Lu-PSMA-DKFZ-617 of castrate-resistant metastatic prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Eppard, Elisabeth; Kürpig, Stefan; Fimmers, Rolf; Yordanova, Anna; Schlenkhoff, Carl Diedrich; Gärtner, Florian; Rogenhofer, Sebastian; Essler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly expressed on prostate epithelial cells and strongly up-regulated in prostate cancer (PC), making it an optimal target for the treatment of metastasized PC. Radioligand therapy (RLT) with 177Lu-PSMA-DKFZ-617 (Lu-PSMA) is a targeted therapy for metastatic PC. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the side effects and the response rate of 24 hormone and/or chemorefractory PC patients with a mean age of 75.2 years (range: 64–82) with distant metastases and progressive disease according to the PSA level, who were treated with Lu-PSMA. Median PSA was 522 ng/ml (range: 17–2360). Forty-six cycles of Lu-PSMA were performed. Of the 24 patients, 22 received two cycles. Eight weeks after the first cycle of Lu-PSMA therapy 79.1% experienced a decline in PSA level. Eight weeks after the second cycle of Lu-PSMA therapy 68.2% experienced a decline in PSA relative to the baseline value. Apart from two cases of grade 3 anemia, there was no relevant hemato- or nephrotoxicity (grade 3 or 4). These results confirmed that Lu-PSMA is a safe treatment option for metastatic PC patients and has a low toxicity profile. A positive response to therapy in terms of decline in PSA occurs in about 70% of patients. PMID:26871285

  3. Optimization of GATE simulations for whole-body planar scintigraphic acquisitions using the XCAT male phantom with (177)Lu-DOTATATE biokinetics in a Siemens Symbia T2.

    PubMed

    Costa, G C A; Bonifácio, D A B; Sarrut, D; Cajgfinger, T; Bardiès, M

    2017-07-20

    Simulations of planar whole body acquisitions in therapeutic procedures are often extensively time-consuming and therefore rarely used. However, optimising tools and variance reduction techniques can be employed to overcome this problem. In this paper, a variety of features available in GATE are explored and their capabilities to reduce simulation time are evaluated. For this purpose, the male XCAT phantom was used as a virtual patient with (177)Lu-DOTATATE pharmacokinetic for whole body planar acquisition simulations in a Siemens Symbia T2 model. Activity distribution was divided into 8 compartments that were simulated separately. GATE optimization techniques included reducing the amount of time spent in both voxel and detector tracking. Some acceleration techniques led to a decrease of CPU-time by a factor of 167, while image statistics were kept constant. In that context, the simulation of therapeutic procedure imaging would still require 46days on a single CPU, but this could be reduced to hours on a dedicated cluster. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Synthesis of the first radiolabeled 188Re N-heterocyclic carbene complex and initial studies on its potential use in radiopharmaceutical applications

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Thomas; Zeglis, Brian M.; Groveman, Sam; Hille, Claudia; Pöthig, Alexander; Francesconi, Lynn C.; Herrmann, Wolfgang A.; Kühn, Fritz E.; Reiner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach towards the synthesis of radiolabeled organometallic rhenium complexes is presented. We successfully synthesized and analyzed the first 188Re-labeled N-heterocyclic biscarbene complex, trans-dioxobis(1,1′-methylene-bis(3,3′-diisopropylimidazolium-2-ylidene))188rhenium(V) hexafluorophosphate (188Re-4) via transmetalation using an air-stable and moisture-stable silver(I) biscarbene complex. In order to assess the viability of this complex as a potential lead structure for in vivo applications, the stability of the 188Re-NHC complex was tested in physiologically relevant media. Ultimately, our studies illustrate that the complex we synthesized dissociates rapidly and is therefore unsuitable for use in radiopharmaceuticals. However, it is clear that the transmetalation approach we have developed is a rapid, robust, and mild method for the synthesis of new 188Re-labeled carbene complexes. PMID:24889257

  5. Determination of the {sup 51}Cr source strength at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Boger, J.; Hahn, R.L.; Chu, Y.Y.

    1995-11-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) and {gamma}-ray counting have been used to measure the activity of 24 samples removed from the GALLEX radioactive Cr neutrino source. In 9.86% of the disintegrations, {sup 51}Cr decays with the emission of a 320-keV {gamma}-ray. Counting this {gamma}-ray provides a direct means to obtain the disintegration rates of the Cr samples. Based upon these disintegration rates, the authors obtain a strength of 63.1 {+-} 1.0 PBq for the entire Cr source. The Cr source activity has also been obtained through measuring the {sup 51}V content of each sample by means of NAA. {sup 51}V is the decay daughter for all decay modes of {sup 51}Cr. Through neutron bombardment, radioactive {sup 52}V is produced, which decays with the emission of a 1,434-keV {gamma}-ray. By counting this {gamma}-ray from NAA, they obtain a disintegration rate of 62.1 {+-} 1.0 PBq for the entire source. These values are consistent with all other measurements of the source strength done at other GALLEX Laboratories.

  6. Cohort study of somatostatin-based radiopeptide therapy with [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC versus [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC plus [(177)Lu-DOTA]-TOC in neuroendocrine cancers.

    PubMed

    Villard, Linda; Romer, Anna; Marincek, Nicolas; Brunner, Philippe; Koller, Michael T; Schindler, Christian; Ng, Quinn K T; Mäcke, Helmut R; Müller-Brand, Jan; Rochlitz, Christoph; Briel, Matthias; Walter, Martin A

    2012-04-01

    Radiopeptide therapy is commonly performed with a single radioisotope. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of somatostatin-based radiopeptide therapy with a single versus a combination of radioisotopes. In a cohort study, patients with metastasized neuroendocrine cancer were treated with repeated cycles of (90)yttrium-labeled tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid modified Tyr-octreotide ([(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC) or with cycles alternating between [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC and (177)lutetium-labeled DOTA-TOC ([(177)Lu-DOTA]-TOC) until tumor progression or permanent toxicity. Multivariable Cox regression and competing risk regression were used to study predictors of survival and renal toxicity in patients completing three or more treatment cycles. A total of 486 patients completed three or more treatment cycles; 237 patients received [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC and 249 patients received [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC + [(177)Lu-DOTA]-TOC. Patients receiving [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC + [(177)Lu-DOTA]-TOC had a significantly longer survival than patients receiving [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC alone (5.51 v 3.96 years; hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.88; P = .006). The rates of severe hematologic toxicities (6.3% v 4.4%; P = .25) and severe renal toxicity (8.9% v 11.2%; P = .47) were comparable in both groups. [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC + [(177)Lu-DOTA]-TOC was associated with improved overall survival compared with [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC alone in patients completing three or more cycles of treatment. Contrary to the current practice in radiopeptide therapy, our results suggest an advantage of using a combination of radioisotopes.

  7. First-in-Human Experience of CXCR4-Directed Endoradiotherapy with 177Lu- and 90Y-Labeled Pentixather in Advanced-Stage Multiple Myeloma with Extensive Intra- and Extramedullary Disease.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Ken; Schottelius, Margret; Lapa, Constantin; Osl, Theresa; Poschenrieder, Andreas; Hänscheid, Heribert; Lückerath, Katharina; Schreder, Martin; Bluemel, Christina; Knott, Markus; Keller, Ulrich; Schirbel, Andreas; Samnick, Samuel; Lassmann, Michael; Kropf, Saskia; Buck, Andreas K; Einsele, Hermann; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Knop, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a key factor for tumor growth and metastasis in several types of human cancer. Based on promising experiences with a radiolabeled CXCR4 ligand ((68)Ga-pentixafor) for diagnostic receptor targeting, (177)Lu- and (90)Y-pentixather were recently developed as endoradiotherapeutic vectors. Here, we summarize the first-in-human experience in 3 heavily pretreated patients with intramedullary and extensive extramedullary manifestations of multiple myeloma undergoing CXCR4-directed endoradiotherapy. CXCR4 target expression was demonstrated by baseline (68)Ga-pentixafor PET. Each treatment was approved by the clinical ethics committee. Pretherapeutic (177)Lu-pentixather dosimetry was performed before (177)Lu-pentixather or (90)Y-pentixather treatment. Subsequently, patients underwent additional chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for bone marrow rescue. A remarkable therapeutic effect was visualized in 2 patients, who showed a significant reduction in (18)F-FDG uptake. CXCR4-targeted radiotherapy with pentixather appears to be a promising novel treatment option in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation, especially for patients with advanced multiple myeloma. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  8. Evaluation of 188Re-labeled PEGylated nanoliposome as a radionuclide therapeutic agent in an orthotopic glioma-bearing rat model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng-Yun J; Lee, Te-Wei; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Hsu, Wei-Hsin; Chang, Chien-Wen; Lo, Jem-Mau

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the (188)Re-labeled PEGylated nanoliposome ((188)Re-liposome) was prepared and evaluated as a therapeutic agent for glioma. The reporter cell line, F98(luc) was prepared via Lentivector expression kit system and used to set up the orthotopic glioma-bearing rat model for non-invasive bioluminescent imaging. The maximum tolerated dose applicable in Fischer344 rats was explored via body weight monitoring of the rats after single intravenous injection of (188)Re-liposome with varying dosages before the treatment study. The OLINDA/EXM 1.1 software was utilized for estimating the radiation dosimetry. To assess the therapeutic efficacy, tumor-bearing rats were intravenously administered (188)Re-liposome or normal saline followed by monitoring of the tumor growth and animal survival time. In addition, the histopathological examinations of tumors were conducted on the (188)Re-liposome-treated rats. By using bioluminescent imaging, the well-established reporter cell line (F98(luc)) showed a high relationship between cell number and its bioluminescent intensity (R(2)=0.99) in vitro; furthermore, it could also provide clear tumor imaging for monitoring tumor growth in vivo. The maximum tolerated dose of (188)Re-liposome in Fischer344 rats was estimated to be 333 MBq. According to the dosimetry results, higher equivalent doses were observed in spleen and kidneys while very less were in normal brain, red marrow, and thyroid. For therapeutic efficacy study, the progression of tumor growth in terms of tumor volume and/or tumor weight was significantly slower for the (188)Re-liposome-treated group than the control group (P<0.05). As a result, the lifespan of glioma-bearing rats treated with (188)Re-liposome was prolonged 10.67% compared to the control group. The radiotherapeutic evaluation by dosimetry and survival studies have demonstrated that passive targeting (188)Re-liposome via systemic administration can significantly prolong the lifespan of orthotopic glioma

  9. Evaluation of 188Re-labeled PEGylated nanoliposome as a radionuclide therapeutic agent in an orthotopic glioma-bearing rat model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Feng-Yun J; Lee, Te-Wei; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Hsu, Wei-Hsin; Chang, Chien-Wen; Lo, Jem-Mau

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the 188Re-labeled PEGylated nanoliposome (188Re-liposome) was prepared and evaluated as a therapeutic agent for glioma. Materials and methods The reporter cell line, F98luc was prepared via Lentivector expression kit system and used to set up the orthotopic glioma-bearing rat model for non-invasive bioluminescent imaging. The maximum tolerated dose applicable in Fischer344 rats was explored via body weight monitoring of the rats after single intravenous injection of 188Re-liposome with varying dosages before the treatment study. The OLINDA/EXM 1.1 software was utilized for estimating the radiation dosimetry. To assess the therapeutic efficacy, tumor-bearing rats were intravenously administered 188Re-liposome or normal saline followed by monitoring of the tumor growth and animal survival time. In addition, the histopathological examinations of tumors were conducted on the 188Re-liposome-treated rats. Results By using bioluminescent imaging, the well-established reporter cell line (F98luc) showed a high relationship between cell number and its bioluminescent intensity (R2=0.99) in vitro; furthermore, it could also provide clear tumor imaging for monitoring tumor growth in vivo. The maximum tolerated dose of 188Re-liposome in Fischer344 rats was estimated to be 333 MBq. According to the dosimetry results, higher equivalent doses were observed in spleen and kidneys while very less were in normal brain, red marrow, and thyroid. For therapeutic efficacy study, the progression of tumor growth in terms of tumor volume and/or tumor weight was significantly slower for the 188Re-liposome-treated group than the control group (P<0.05). As a result, the lifespan of glioma-bearing rats treated with 188Re-liposome was prolonged 10.67% compared to the control group. Conclusion The radiotherapeutic evaluation by dosimetry and survival studies have demonstrated that passive targeting 188Re-liposome via systemic administration can significantly prolong the

  10. The impact of 177Lu-octreotide therapy on 99mTc-MAG3 clearance is not predictive for late nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Werner, Rudolf A; Beykan, Seval; Higuchi, Takahiro; Lückerath, Katharina; Weich, Alexander; Scheurlen, Michael; Bluemel, Christina; Herrmann, Ken; Buck, Andreas K; Lassmann, Michael; Lapa, Constantin; Hänscheid, Heribert

    2016-07-05

    Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors may lead to kidney deterioration. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc--MAG3) clearance for the early detection of PRRT-induced changes on tubular extraction (TE). TE rate (TER) was measured prior to 128 PRRT cycles (7.6±0.4 GBq 177Lu-octreotate/octreotide each) in 32 patients. TER reduction during PRRT was corrected for age-related decrease and analyzed for the potential to predict loss of glomerular filtration (GF). The GF rate (GFR) as measure for renal function was derived from serum creatinine. The mean TER was 234 ± 53 ml/min/1.73 m² before PRRT (baseline) and 221 ± 45 ml/min/1.73 m² after a median follow-up of 370 days. The age-corrected decrease (mean: -3%, range: -27% to +19%) did not reach significance (p=0.09) but significantly correlated with the baseline TER (Spearman p=-0.62, p<0.001). Patients with low baseline TER showed an improved TER after PRRT, high decreases were only observed in individuals with high baseline TER. Pre-therapeutic TER data were inferior to plasma creatinine-derived GFR estimates in predicting late nephropathy. TER assessed by 99mTc-MAG3-clearance prior to and during PRRT is not suitable as early predictor of renal injury and an increased risk for late nephropathy.

  11. Influence of biological assay conditions on stability assessment of radiometal-labelled peptides exemplified using a 177Lu-DOTA-minigastrin derivative.

    PubMed

    Ocak, Meltem; Helbok, Anna; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Ozsoy, Y; Kabasakal, Levent; Kremser, Leopold; Decristoforo, Clemens

    2011-02-01

    Lack of correlation between in vitro and in vivo stability is a general problem for the development of radiopeptides especially in the case of minigastrin derivatives for therapeutic applications. In this study, we compared the influence of experimental conditions on radiopeptide stability results in vitro using a model Minigastrin (MG) analogue labelled with Lu-177. Additionally, we attempted to characterize the main serum enzymatic cleavage sites by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. In vitro stability of a DOTA-minigastrin derivative ((177)Lu-DOTA-His-His-Glu-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Trp-NIe-Asp-Phe-NH(2)) was tested in serum, rat tissue homogenates and two different standardised enzymatic mixtures. Quantification of the metabolised radiopeptides at different time intervals was performed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Metabolites were characterised by MALDI-TOF-MS. Urine was collected after 15 min p.i. into the mice and compared with in vitro metabolites by RP-HPLC. Faster degradation of the radiopeptide was found in blood in comparison with plasma and serum incubation and in components from rats faster than from human origin. Fast degradation was observed in kidney and liver homogenates as well as in standardised enzymatic mixtures, also revealing variations in the metabolic profile. In urine, no intact peptide was detected already 5 min post injection. MALDI-TOF-MS revealed major cleavage sites at the carboxy terminus of the peptide. Very variable results may be found when different kind of incubation media for testing radiopeptide stabilities is used. Serum incubation studies may overestimate stability; therefore, results should be interpreted with care and combined with alternative in vitro and in vivo investigations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of 177Lu-octreotide therapy on 99mTc-MAG3 clearance is not predictive for late nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Rudolf A.; Beykan, Seval; Higuchi, Takahiro; Lückerath, Katharina; Weich, Alexander; Scheurlen, Michael; Bluemel, Christina; Herrmann, Ken; Buck, Andreas K.; Lassmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors may lead to kidney deterioration. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc­-MAG3) clearance for the early detection of PRRT-induced changes on tubular extraction (TE). TE rate (TER) was measured prior to 128 PRRT cycles (7.6±0.4 GBq 177Lu-octreotate/octreotide each) in 32 patients. TER reduction during PRRT was corrected for age-related decrease and analyzed for the potential to predict loss of glomerular filtration (GF). The GF rate (GFR) as measure for renal function was derived from serum creatinine. The mean TER was 234 ± 53 ml/min/1.73 m2 before PRRT (baseline) and 221 ± 45 ml/min/1.73 m2 after a median follow-up of 370 days. The age-corrected decrease (mean: −3%, range: −27% to +19%) did not reach significance (p=0.09) but significantly correlated with the baseline TER (Spearman p=−0.62, p<0.001). Patients with low baseline TER showed an improved TER after PRRT, high decreases were only observed in individuals with high baseline TER. Pre-therapeutic TER data were inferior to plasma creatinine-derived GFR estimates in predicting late nephropathy. TER assessed by 99mTc-MAG3­clearance prior to and during PRRT is not suitable as early predictor of renal injury and an increased risk for late nephropathy. PMID:27259246

  13. Novel series of (177)Lu-labeled bombesin derivatives with amino acidic spacers for selective targeting of human PC-3 prostate tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Pujatti, P B; Santos, J S; Couto, R M; Melero, L T U H; Suzuki, M F; Soares, C R J; Grallert, S R M; Mengatti, J; De Araújo, E B

    2011-06-01

    Bombesin (BBN) has demonstrated the ability to bind with high affinity and specificity to GRP receptor, overexpressed on human prostate cancer. A large number of BBN derivatives have been synthesized for this purpose but most of them exhibit high abdominal accumulation, which may represent a problem in their clinical use due to serious side effects to patients. In this study we describe the results of radiolabeling with lutetium-177, stability and in vivo studies of novel phenyl-glycine-extended bombesin derivatives. The spacers were inserted to improve bombesin in vivo properties and to reduce its target to non-tumor sites. Preliminary studies were done to establish the ideal conditions for labeling bombesin derivatives. Chromatography systems were applied to determine free lutetium and the stability of the preparations was evaluated either after storing at 2-8 ºC or incubation in human serum at 37 ºC. In vivo experiments included biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and SPECT images and were performed in Balb-c and Nude mice bearing PC-3 xenografts. The derivatives were labeled with high yield and kept stable at 2-8 ºC and are metabolized by human serum enzymes. In vivo studies showed fast blood clearance of labeled peptides and rapid excretion, performed mainly by renal pathway. In addition, biodistribution and imaging studies showed low abdominal accumulation and significant and specific tumor uptake of (177)Lu-labeled derivatives. The derivative with longer spacer holds a higher potential as radiopharmaceutical for prostate tumor diagnosis and the derivatives with shorter spacers are potential radiopharmaceuticals for prostate tumor treatment.

  14. Influence of cations on the complexation yield of DOTATATE with yttrium and lutetium: a perspective study for enhancing the 90Y and 177Lu labeling conditions.

    PubMed

    Asti, Mattia; Tegoni, Matteo; Farioli, Daniela; Iori, Michele; Guidotti, Claudio; Cutler, Cathy S; Mayer, Pat; Versari, Annibale; Salvo, Diana

    2012-05-01

    The DOTA macrocyclic ligand can form stable complexes with many cations besides yttrium and lutetium. For this reason, the presence of competing cationic metals in yttrium-90 and lutetium-177 chloride solutions can dramatically influence the radiolabeling yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the coordination yield of yttrium- and lutetium-DOTATATE complexes when the reaction is performed in the presence of varying amounts of competing cationic impurities. In the first set of experiments, the preparation of the samples was performed by using natural yttrium and lutetium (20.4 nmol). The molar ratio between DOTATATE and these metals was 1 to 1. Metal competitors (Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Al(3+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), Cr(3+)) were added separately to obtain samples with varying molar ratio with respect to yttrium or lutetium (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 10). The final solutions were analyzed through ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with an UV detector. In the second set of experiments, an amount of (90)Y or (177)Lu chloride (6 MBq corresponding to 3.3 and 45 pmol, respectively) was added to the samples, and a radio-thin layer chromatography analysis was carried out. The coordination of Y(3+) and Lu(3+) was dramatically influenced by low levels of Zn(2+), Cu(2+) and Co(2+). Pb(2+) and Ni(2+) were also shown to be strong competitors at higher concentrations. Fe(3+) was expected to be a strong competitor, but the effect on the incorporation was only partly dependent on its concentration. Al(3+) and Cr(3+) did not compete with Y(3+) and Lu(3+) in the formation of DOTATATE complexes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of (188)Re-labeled NGR-VEGI protein for radioimaging and radiotherapy in mice bearing human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 xenografts.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenhui; Shao, Yahui; Yang, Weidong; Li, Guiyu; Zhang, Yingqi; Zhang, Mingru; Zuo, Changjing; Chen, Kai; Wang, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) is an anti-angiogenic protein, which includes three isoforms: VEGI-174, VEGI-192, and VEGI-251. The NGR (asparagine-glycine-arginine)-containing peptides can specifically bind to CD13 (Aminopeptidase N) receptor which is overexpressed in angiogenic blood vessels and tumor cells. In this study, a novel NGR-VEGI fusion protein was prepared and labeled with (188)Re for radioimaging and radiotherapy in mice bearing human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 xenografts. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging results revealed that (188)Re-NGR-VEGI exhibits good tumor-to-background contrast in CD13-positive HT-1080 tumor xenografts. The CD13 specificity of (188)Re-NGR-VEGI was further verified by significant reduction of tumor uptake in HT-1080 tumor xenografts with co-injection of the non-radiolabeled NGR-VEGI protein. The biodistribution results demonstrated good tumor-to-muscle ratio (4.98 ± 0.25) of (188)Re-NGR-VEGI at 24 h, which is consistent with the results from SPECT imaging. For radiotherapy, 18.5 MBq of (188)Re-NGR-VEGI showed excellent tumor inhibition effect in HT-1080 tumor xenografts with no observable toxicity, which was confirmed by the tumor size change and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of major mouse organs. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that (188)Re-NGR-VEGI has the potential as a theranostic agent for CD13-targeted tumor imaging and therapy.

  16. Radiosynovectomy of Painful Synovitis of Knee Joints Due to Rheumatoid Arthritis by Intra-Articular Administration of (177)Lu-Labeled Hydroxyapatite Particulates: First Human Study and Initial Indian Experience.

    PubMed

    Shinto, Ajit S; Kamaleshwaran, K K; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Vyshakh, K; Thirumalaisamy, S G; Karthik, S; Nagaprabhu, V N; Vimalnath, K V; Das, Tapas; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of Radiosynovectomy (RSV) using (177)Lu-labeled hydroxyapatite ((177)Lu-HA) in the treatment of painful synovitis and recurrent joint effusion of knee joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Ten patients, diagnosed with RA and suffering from chronic painful resistant synovitis of the knee joints were referred for RSV. The joints were treated with 333 ± 46 MBq of (177)Lu-HA particles administered intra-articularly. Monitoring of activity distribution was performed by static imaging of knee joint and whole-body gamma imaging. The patients were evaluated clinically before RSV and at 6 months after the treatment by considering the pain improvement from baseline values in terms of a 100-point visual analog scale (VAS), the improvement of knee flexibility and the pain remission during the night. RSV response was classified as poor (VAS < 25), fair (VAS ≥ 25-50), good (VAS ≥ 50-75) and excellent (VAS ≥ 75), with excellent and good results considered to be success, while fair and poor as failure and also by range of motion. Three phase bone scan (BS) was repeated after 6 months and changes in the second phase of BS3 were assessed visually, using a four-degree scale and in the third phase, semiquantitatively with J/B ratio to see the response. Biochemical analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen was repeated after 48 h, 4 and 24 weeks. In all 10 patients, no leakage of administered activity to nontarget organs was visible in the whole-body scan. Static scans of the joint at 1 month revealed complete retention of (177)Lu-HA in the joints. All patients showed decreased joint swelling and pains, resulting in increased joint motion after 6 months. The percentage of VAS improvement from baseline values was 79.5 ± 20.0% 6 months after RS and found to be significantly related to patients' age (P = 0.01) and duration of the disease (P = 0.03). Knees with Steinbrocker's Grades 0 and I responded better than those

  17. Radiosynovectomy of Painful Synovitis of Knee Joints Due to Rheumatoid Arthritis by Intra-Articular Administration of 177Lu-Labeled Hydroxyapatite Particulates: First Human Study and Initial Indian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Shinto, Ajit S.; Kamaleshwaran, K. K.; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Vyshakh, K.; Thirumalaisamy, S. G.; Karthik, S.; Nagaprabhu, V. N.; Vimalnath, K. V.; Das, Tapas; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of Radiosynovectomy (RSV) using 177Lu-labeled hydroxyapatite (177Lu-HA) in the treatment of painful synovitis and recurrent joint effusion of knee joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Ten patients, diagnosed with RA and suffering from chronic painful resistant synovitis of the knee joints were referred for RSV. The joints were treated with 333 ± 46 MBq of 177Lu-HA particles administered intra-articularly. Monitoring of activity distribution was performed by static imaging of knee joint and whole-body gamma imaging. The patients were evaluated clinically before RSV and at 6 months after the treatment by considering the pain improvement from baseline values in terms of a 100-point visual analog scale (VAS), the improvement of knee flexibility and the pain remission during the night. RSV response was classified as poor (VAS < 25), fair (VAS ≥ 25-50), good (VAS ≥ 50-75) and excellent (VAS ≥ 75), with excellent and good results considered to be success, while fair and poor as failure and also by range of motion. Three phase bone scan (BS) was repeated after 6 months and changes in the second phase of BS3 were assessed visually, using a four-degree scale and in the third phase, semiquantitatively with J/B ratio to see the response. Biochemical analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen was repeated after 48 h, 4 and 24 weeks. In all 10 patients, no leakage of administered activity to nontarget organs was visible in the whole-body scan. Static scans of the joint at 1 month revealed complete retention of 177Lu-HA in the joints. All patients showed decreased joint swelling and pains, resulting in increased joint motion after 6 months. The percentage of VAS improvement from baseline values was 79.5 ± 20.0% 6 months after RS and found to be significantly related to patients' age (P = 0.01) and duration of the disease (P = 0.03). Knees with Steinbrocker's Grades 0 and I responded better than those with more

  18. Pre-therapeutic dosimetry of normal organs and tissues of (177)Lu-PSMA-617 prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) inhibitor in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kabasakal, Levent; AbuQbeitah, Mohammad; Aygün, Aslan; Yeyin, Nami; Ocak, Meltem; Demirci, Emre; Toklu, Turkay

    2015-12-01

    (177)Lu-617-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligand seems to be a promising tracer for radionuclide therapy of progressive prostate cancer. However, there are no published data regarding the radiation dose given to the normal tissues. The aim of the present study was to estimate the pretreatment radiation doses in patients who will undergo radiometabolic therapy using a tracer amount of (177)Lu-labeled PSMA ligand. The study included seven patients with progressive prostate cancer with a mean age of 63.9 ± 3.9 years. All patients had prior PSMA positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and had intense tracer uptake at the lesions. The injected (177)Lu-PSMA-617 activity ranged from 185 to 210 MBq with a mean of 192.6 ± 11.0 MBq. To evaluate bone marrow absorbed dose 2-cc blood samples were withdrawn in short variable times (3, 15, 30, 60, and 180 min and 24, 48, and 120 h) after injection. Whole-body images were obtained at 4, 24, 48, and 120 h post-injection (p.i.). The geometric mean of anterior and posterior counts was determined through region of interest (ROI) analysis. Attenuation correction was applied using PSMA PET/CT images. The OLINDA/EXM dosimetry program was used for curve fitting, residence time calculation, and absorbed dose calculations. The calculated radiation-absorbed doses for each organ showed substantial variation. The highest radiation estimated doses were calculated for parotid glands and kidneys. Calculated radiation-absorbed doses per megabecquerel were 1.17 ± 0.31 mGy for parotid glands and 0.88 ± 0.40 mGy for kidneys. The radiation dose given to the bone marrow was significantly lower than those of kidney and parotid glands (p < 0.05). The calculated radiation dose to bone marrow was 0.03 ± 0.01 mGy/MBq. Our first results suggested that (177)Lu-PSMA-617 therapy seems to be a safe method. The dose-limiting organ seems to be the parotid glands rather than kidneys and bone marrow. The lesion

  19. Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumor with Extensive Bone Marrow Involvement at Diagnosis: Evaluation of Response and Hematological Toxicity Profile of PRRT with (177)Lu-DOTATATE.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sandip; Ranade, Rohit; Thapa, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response and hematological toxicity in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with lutetium ((177)Lu)-DOTA-octreotate (DOTATATE) in metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with extensive bone marrow metastasis at the initial diagnosis. A retrospective evaluation was undertaken for this purpose: Patients with NET with extensive diffuse bone marrow involvement at diagnosis who had received at least three cycles of PRRT with (177)Lu-DOTATATE were considered for the analysis. The selected patients were analyzed for the following: (i) Patient and lesional characteristics, (ii) associated metastatic burden, (iii) hematological parameters at diagnosis and during the course of therapy, (iv) response to PRRT (using a 3-parameter assessment: Symptomatic including Karnofsky/Lansky performance score, biochemical finding, and scan finding), (v) dual tracer imaging features [with somatostatin receptor imaging (SRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT)]. Based on the visual grading, tracer uptake in somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive bone marrow lesions were graded by a 4-point scale into four categories (0-III) in comparison with the hepatic uptake on the scan: 0 - no uptake; I - clear focus but less than liver uptake; II - equal to liver uptake; and III - higher than liver uptake]. Hematological toxicity was evaluated using National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0 score. A total of five patients (age range: 26-62 years; three males and two females) with diffuse bone marrow involvement at the diagnosis was encountered following analysis of the entire patient population of 250 patients. Based on the site of the primary, three had thoracic NET (two patients bronchial carcinoid and one pulmonary NET) and two gastroenteropancreatic NET (one in the duodenum and one patient of unknown primary with liver metastasis). Associated sites

  20. Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumor with Extensive Bone Marrow Involvement at Diagnosis: Evaluation of Response and Hematological Toxicity Profile of PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sandip; Ranade, Rohit; Thapa, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response and hematological toxicity in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with lutetium (177Lu)-DOTA-octreotate (DOTATATE) in metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with extensive bone marrow metastasis at the initial diagnosis. A retrospective evaluation was undertaken for this purpose: Patients with NET with extensive diffuse bone marrow involvement at diagnosis who had received at least three cycles of PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE were considered for the analysis. The selected patients were analyzed for the following: (i) Patient and lesional characteristics, (ii) associated metastatic burden, (iii) hematological parameters at diagnosis and during the course of therapy, (iv) response to PRRT (using a 3-parameter assessment: Symptomatic including Karnofsky/Lansky performance score, biochemical finding, and scan finding), (v) dual tracer imaging features [with somatostatin receptor imaging (SRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT)]. Based on the visual grading, tracer uptake in somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive bone marrow lesions were graded by a 4-point scale into four categories (0-III) in comparison with the hepatic uptake on the scan: 0 - no uptake; I - clear focus but less than liver uptake; II - equal to liver uptake; and III - higher than liver uptake]. Hematological toxicity was evaluated using National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0 score. A total of five patients (age range: 26-62 years; three males and two females) with diffuse bone marrow involvement at the diagnosis was encountered following analysis of the entire patient population of 250 patients. Based on the site of the primary, three had thoracic NET (two patients bronchial carcinoid and one pulmonary NET) and two gastroenteropancreatic NET (one in the duodenum and one patient of unknown primary with liver metastasis). Associated sites of

  1. Three-dimensional personalized dosimetry for 188Re liver selective internal radiation therapy based on quantitative post-treatment SPECT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbinin, S.; Grimes, J.; Bator, A.; Cwikla, J. B.; Celler, A.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that accurate patient-specific distributions of microspheres labeled with 188Re and resulting absorbed doses can be obtained from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies performed after 188Re selective internal radiation therapy when accurate correction methods are employed in image reconstruction. Our quantitative image reconstruction algorithm includes corrections for attenuation, resolution degradations and scatter as well as a window-based compensation for contamination. The procedure has been validated using four phantom experiments containing an 18 ml cylindrical source (82-93 MBq of 188Re activity) simulating a liver tumor. In addition, we applied our approach to post-therapy SPECT studies of ten patients with progressive primary or metastatic liver carcinomas. Our quantitative algorithm accurately (within 9%) recovered 188Re activity from four phantom experiments. In addition, for two patients that received three scans, deviations remained consistent between the measured and the reconstructed activities that were determined from studies with differing severity of the dead-time effect. The analysis of absorbed doses for patient studies allowed us to hypothesize that D90 (the minimum dose received by 90% of the tumor volume) may be a reliable metric relating therapy outcomes to the calculated doses. Among several considered metrics, only D90 showed statistically significant correlation with the overall survival.

  2. Cellular metabolic responses of PET radiotracers to (188)Re radiation in an MCF7 cell line containing dominant-negative mutant p53.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Gi Jeong; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Choi, Jung-A; Lee, Su-Jae; Ahn, Soon-Hyuk; Lee, Tae-Sup; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo

    2007-05-01

    We investigated the relations between the cell uptakes of metabolic radiotracers and beta-radiation pretreatment using a dominant mutant p53 (p53mt) cell line to evaluate the effects of p53 genes on (18)F labeled positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer uptakes. pCMV-Neo-Bam (control), which contains a neo-resistance marker, and p53 dominant-negative mutant expression constructs were stably transfected into MCF7 cell line. Cells were plated in 24-well plates at 1.0x10(5) cells for 18 h. Rhenium-188 ((188)Re) (a beta emitter) was added to the medium (3.7, 18.5, 37 MBq) and incubated for 24 h. We performed gamma-counting to determine the cellular uptakes of 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG), o-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine (FET) and 2'-[(18)F]fluoro-2'-deoxythymidine (FLT) (370 kBq, 60 min). Cell viabilities were determined by trypan blue staining and flow cytometry. p53mt cells showed 1.5-2-fold higher FDG uptake than wild-type p53 cells in basal condition, and the difference of FDG uptake was greater after (188)Re treatment (P<.01). FET uptake increased with (188)Re dose without a significant difference between p53 statuses. p53mt cells showed lower FLT uptake than wild-type p53 cells in basal condition, and the difference of FLT uptake was greater after (188)Re treatment. By cell viability testing and FACS analysis, p53mt cells showed lower viability and a larger apoptotic fraction (sub-G1) than wild-type p53 cells after (188)Re treatment. We speculate that p53 dysfunction increases glucose and decreases thymidine metabolism in cancer cells and that this may be exaggerated by (188)Re beta-radiation. Our findings suggest that FDG could reflect tumor viability and malignant potential after (188)Re beta-radiation treatment, whereas FLT could be a more useful PET radiotracer for assessing therapeutic response to beta-radiation, especially in cancer cells with an altered function of p53.

  3. Biological evaluation of (177)Lu-labeled DOTA-Ala(SO3H)-Aminooctanoyl-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-N methyl Gly-His-Statine-Leu-NH2 for gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-positive prostate tumor targeting.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae Cheong; Cho, Eun Ha; Kim, Jin Joo; Choi, Sang Mu; Lee, So young; Nam, Sung Soo; Park, Ul Jae; Park, Soo Hyun

    2015-02-01

    Bombesin binds with selectivity and high affinity to a Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), which is highly overexpressed in prostate cancer cells. The present study describes the in vitro and in vivo biological characteristics of DOTA-Ala(SO3H)-Aminooctanoyl-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-N methyl Gly-His-Statine-Leu-NH2 (DOTA-sBBNA), an antagonist analogue of bombesin peptide for the targeting of GRPR. DOTA-sBBNA was synthesized and labeled with (177)Lu as previously published. A saturation assay on PC-3 human prostate cancer cells revealed that the Kd value of the radiolabeled peptide was 1.88 nM with a maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of 289.3 fmol/10(6) cells. The radio-peptide slowly internalized, and 24.4±0.5% of the total binding was internalized in 4hr. Biodistribution studies were conducted in healthy and PC-3 xenografted balb/c mice, which showed high uptake and retention of tumor-associated radioactivity in PC-3 xenografted mice. The tumor-to-blood ratio was 126.02±9.36 at 1.5hr p.i., and was increased to 216.33±61.58 at 24hr p.i., which means that the radiolabeled peptide was highly accumulated in a tumor and rapidly cleared from the blood pool. The GRPR is also over-expressed in Korean prostate cancer patients. These results suggest that this (177)Lu-labeled peptide has promising characteristics for application in nuclear medicine, namely for the diagnosis and treatment of GRPR over-expressing prostate tumors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intestinal permeability to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA in children with Crohn's disease and celiac disease

    SciTech Connect

    Turck, D.; Ythier, H.; Maquet, E.; Deveaux, M.; Marchandise, X.; Farriaux, J.P.; Fontaine, G.

    1987-07-01

    (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was used as a probe molecule to assess intestinal permeability in 7 healthy control adults, 11 control children, 17 children with Crohn's disease, and 6 children with untreated celiac disease. After subjects fasted overnight, 75 kBq/kg (= 2 microCi/kg) /sup 51/Cr-labeled EDTA was given by mouth; 24-h urinary excretion of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was measured and expressed as a percentage of the total oral dose. Mean and SD were as follows: control adults 1.47 +/- 0.62, control children 1.59 +/- 0.55, and patients with Crohn's disease or celiac disease 5.35 +/- 1.94. The difference between control children and patients was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). These results show that intestinal permeability to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA is increased among children with active or inactive Crohn's disease affecting small bowel only or small bowel and colon, and with untreated celiac disease. The (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA permeability test could facilitate the decision to perform more extensive investigations in children suspected of small bowel disease who have atypical or poor clinical and biological symptomatology.

  5. 188Re-ZHER2:V2, a promising affibody-based targeting agent against HER2-expressing tumors: preclinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Altai, Mohamed; Wållberg, Helena; Honarvar, Hadis; Strand, Joanna; Orlova, Anna; Varasteh, Zohreh; Sandström, Mattias; Löfblom, John; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Lubberink, Mark; Ståhl, Stefan; Tolmachev, Vladimir

    2014-11-01

    Affibody molecules are small (7 kDa) nonimmunoglobulin scaffold proteins with favorable tumor-targeting properties. Studies concerning the influence of chelators on biodistribution of (99m)Tc-labeled Affibody molecules demonstrated that the variant with a C-terminal glycyl-glycyl-glycyl-cysteine peptide-based chelator (designated ZHER2:V2) has the best biodistribution profile in vivo and the lowest renal retention of radioactivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate (188)Re-ZHER2:V2 as a potential candidate for radionuclide therapy of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-expressing tumors. ZHER2:V2 was labeled with (188)Re using a gluconate-containing kit. Targeting of HER2-overexpressing SKOV-3 ovarian carcinoma xenografts in nude mice was studied for a dosimetry assessment. Binding of (188)Re-ZHER2:V2 to living SKOV-3 cells was demonstrated to be specific, with an affinity of 6.4 ± 0.4 pM. The biodistribution study showed a rapid blood clearance (1.4 ± 0.1 percentage injected activity per gram [%ID/g] at 1 h after injection). The tumor uptake was 14 ± 2, 12 ± 2, 5 ± 2, and 1.8 ± 0.5 %IA/g at 1, 4, 24, and 48 h after injection, respectively. The in vivo targeting of HER2-expressing xenografts was specific. Already at 4 h after injection, tumor uptake exceeded kidney uptake (2.1 ± 0.2 %IA/g). Scintillation-camera imaging showed that tumor xenografts were the only sites with prominent accumulation of radioactivity at 4 h after injection. Based on the biokinetics, a dosimetry evaluation for humans suggests that (188)Re-ZHER2:V2 would provide an absorbed dose to tumor of 79 Gy without exceeding absorbed doses of 23 Gy to kidneys and 2 Gy to bone marrow. This indicates that future human radiotherapy studies may be feasible. (188)Re-ZHER2:V2 can deliver high absorbed doses to tumors without exceeding kidney and bone marrow toxicity limits. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  6. (51Cr)EDTA intestinal permeability in children with cow's milk intolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Schrander, J.J.; Unsalan-Hooyen, R.W.; Forget, P.P.; Jansen, J. )

    1990-02-01

    Making use of ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA as a permeability marker, we measured intestinal permeability in a group of 20 children with proven cow's milk intolerance (CMI), a group of 17 children with similar complaints where CMI was excluded (sick controls), and a group of 12 control children. ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA test results (mean +/- SD) were 6.85 +/- 3.64%, 3.42 +/- 0.94%, and 2.61 +/- 0.67% in the group with CMI, the sick control, and the control group, respectively. When compared to both control groups, patients with cow's milk intolerance (CMI) showed a significantly increased small bowel permeability. We conclude that the ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA test can be helpful for the diagnosis of cow's milk intolerance.

  7. /sup 51/Cr-EDTA: a marker of early intestinal rejection in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, D.; Lamont, D.; Zhong, R.; Garcia, B.; Wang, P.; Stiller, C.; Duff, J.

    1989-05-01

    Intestinal permeability was studied after accessory intestinal transplantation in Lewis rats. Five groups were evaluated: Group 1--isografts (N = 6); Group 2--Lewis X Brown Norway F1 (LBN-F1) allografts (N = 6); Group 3--isografts treated with CsA 2 mg/kg/day X 10 days (N = 6); Group 4--LBN-F1 allografts treated with CsA 2 mg/kg/day X 10 days (N = 6); Group 5--LBN-F1 allografts treated with CsA 4 mg/kg/day X 28 days (N = 6). Chromium-labeled ethylenedimianetetraacetate (/sup 51/Cr-EDTA) was given through the proximal stoma of the graft. Renal clearance of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA and mucosal biopsies were followed post-transplant. The biopsies of the intestinal graft showed no rejection in Groups 1, 3, and 5; fulminant rejection in Group 2; and mild atypical rejection in Group 4. /sup 51/Cr-EDTA clearance was elevated in all groups during the first 7 days post-transplant. Thereafter, /sup 51/Cr-EDTA excretion fell to lower levels in the animals with histologically normal grafts (Groups 1, 3, and 5). /sup 51/Cr-EDTA excretion in Group 4 was increased with the first histological evidence of rejection on Day 14 and remained elevated until sacrifice (P less than 0.02 compared to Groups 3 and 5). A transient permeability defect occurs after intestinal grafting. Once the graft has recovered from this injury, /sup 51/Cr-EDTA is a sensitive marker for intestinal rejection.

  8. Initial Study of Radiological and Clinical Efficacy Radioembolization Using 188Re-Human Serum Albumin (HSA) Microspheres in Patients with Progressive, Unresectable Primary or Secondary Liver Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Mirosław L.; Ćwikła, Jarosław B.; Sankowski, Artur J.; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Grimes, Josh; Celler, Anna; Buscombe, John R.; Bator, Andrzej; Pech, Maciej; Mikołajczak, Renata; Pawlak, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this initial study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological effectiveness of radioembolization (RE) using 188Re-Human Serum Albumin (HSA) microspheres in patients with advanced, progressive, unresectable primary or secondary liver cancers, not suitable to any other form of therapy. Material/Methods Overall, we included 13 patients with 20 therapy sessions. Clinical and radiological responses were assessed at 6 weeks after therapy, and then every 3 months. The objective radiological response was classified according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) v.1.0 by sequential MRI. Adverse events were evaluated using NCI CTCAE v.4.03. Results There were 4 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 6 with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), 2 with neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), and 1 patient with ovarian carcinoma. Mean administered activity of 188Re HSA was 7.24 GBq (range 3.8–12.4) A high microspheres labeling efficacy of over 97±2.1% and low urinary excretion of 188Re (6.5±2.3%) during first 48-h follow-up. Median overall survival (OS) for all patients was 7.1 months (CI 6.2–13.3) and progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.1 months (CI 2.4–9.9). In those patients who had a clinical partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), and disease progression (DP) as assessed 6 weeks after therapy, the median OS was 9/5/4 months, respectively, and PFS was 5/2/0 months, respectively. The treatment adverse events (toxicity) were at an acceptable level. Initially and after 6 weeks, the CTC AE was grade 2, while after 3 months it increased to grade 3 in 4 subjects. This effect was mostly related to rapid cancer progression in this patient subgroup. Conclusions The results of this preliminary study indicate that RE using 188Re HSA is feasible and a viable option for palliative therapy in patients with extensive progressive liver cancer. It was well tolerated by most patients, with a low level of toxicity during the 3 months of

  9. Measuring the activity of a 51Cr neutrino source based on the gamma-radiation spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, V. V.; Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    A technique for the measurement of activities of intense β sources by measuring the continuous gamma-radiation (internal bremsstrahlung) spectra is developed. A method for reconstructing the spectrum recorded by a germanium semiconductor detector is described. A method for the absolute measurement of the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of 51Cr is presented.

  10. 68Ga and 188Re Starch-Based Microparticles as Theranostic Tool for the Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Radiolabeling and Preliminary In Vivo Rat Studies

    PubMed Central

    Drion, Pierre; Meffre, Geneviève; Bernard, Claire; Duwez, Luc; Lepareur, Nicolas; Couturier, Olivier; Hindré, François

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This work aims to develop, validate and optimize the radiolabeling of Starch-Based Microparticles (SBMP) by 188Re and 68Ga in the form of ready-to-use radiolabeling kits, the ultimate goal being to obtain a unique theranostic vector for the treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Methods Optimal labeling conditions and composition of freeze-dried kits were defined by monitoring the radiochemical purity while varying several parameters. In vitro stability studies were carried out, as well as an in vivo biodistribution as a preliminary approach with the intra-arterial injection of 68Ga radiolabeled SBMP into the hepatic artery of DENA-induced rats followed by PET/CT imaging. Results Kits were optimized for 188Re and 68Ga with high and stable radiochemical purity (>95% and >98% respectively). The in vivo preliminary study was successful with more than 95% of activity found in the liver and mostly in the tumorous part. Conclusion SBMP are a promising theranostic agent for the Selective Internal Radiation Therapy of Hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27741267

  11. Intestinal permeability to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA in children with cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Leclercq-Foucart, J.; Forget, P.; Sodoyez-Goffaux, F.; Zappitelli, A.

    1986-05-01

    Intestinal permeability was investigated in 14 children with cystic fibrosis making use of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA as probe molecule. Ten normal young adults and 11 children served as controls. After oral administration of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA, 24 h urine was collected. Urinary radioactivity was calculated and results expressed as percentage of oral dose excreted in 24 h urine. Mean and SEM were as follows: 2.51 +/- 0.21, 2.35 +/- 0.24, and 13.19 +/- 1.72 for control children, normal adults, and cystic fibrosis patients, respectively. The permeability differences between cystic fibrosis patients and either control children or control adults are significant (p less than 0.001).

  12. Absorption, excretion and retention of 51Cr from labelled Cr-(III)-picolinate in rats.

    PubMed

    Kottwitz, Karin; Laschinsky, Niels; Fischer, Roland; Nielsen, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The bioavailability of chromium from Cr-picolinate (CrPic(3)) and Cr-chloride (CrCl(3)) was studied in rats using (51)Cr-labelled compounds and whole-body-counting. The intestinal absorption of Cr was twice as high from CrPic(3) (1.16% vs 0.55%) than from CrCl(3), however most of the absorbed (51)Cr from CrPic(3) was excreted into the urine within 24 h. After i.v. or i.p. injection, the whole-body retention curves fitted well to a multiexponential function, demonstrating that plasma chromium is in equilibrium with three pools. For CrPic(3), a large pool exists with a very rapid exchange (T (1/2) = <0.5 days), suggesting that CrPic(3) is absorbed as intact molecule, from which the main part is directly excreted by the kidney before degradation of the chromium complex in the liver can occur. CrCl(3) is less well absorbed but the rapid exchange pool is much smaller, resulting in even higher Cr concentrations in tissue such as muscle and fat. However, 1-3 days after application, the relative distribution of (51)Cr from both compounds was similar in all tissues studied, indicating that both compounds contribute to the same storage pool. In summary, the bioavailability of CrPic(3) in rats is not superior compared to CrCl(3).

  13. Differences in immunoglobulin subclasses between dye exclusion and 51Cr release complement-dependent lymphocytotoxicity assays

    SciTech Connect

    McConnachie, P.R.; Denegri, J.F.; Lower, F.E.; Torry, D.S.; McIntyre, J.A.

    1986-08-01

    Paradoxical differences previously noted between lymphocytotoxicity detected by dye exclusion at room temperature (CDCE) or by /sup 51/Cr release (CDC/sup 51/Cr) at 37/sup 0/C in maternal antipaternal complement-dependent lymphocytotoxicity have suggested that CDCE and CDC/sup 51/Cr at 37/sup 0/C, but not at 20 degrees C, may detect different immunological antibody-antigen interactions. Reactions in the two test systems against the same target cells were compared in sera from known immune dialysis patients, secondary aborting women, and refractory platelet recipients before and after heat treatment of sera, absorption with solid-phase heparin, anti-light-chain augmentation, and the addition of murine monoclonal anti-IgG subclass antibodies. The results demonstrate significant differences between the two tests using the same target and sera. Further, the results imply the presence of an inhibitor and an inhibitor of inhibitor in sera. The involvement of different immunoglobulin subclasses was shown in the two tests. These data demonstrate the necessity for further study of the nature of the differences in the mechanisms of these clinically important antibody-detecting systems.

  14. Studies with nonradioisotopic sodium chromate. II. Single- and double-label sup 52 Cr/ sup 51 Cr posttransfusion recovery estimations

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, W.A.; Keegan, T.; Hanbury, C.M.; Holme, S.; Pleban, P. )

    1989-10-01

    A recently developed nonradioisotopic 52Cr technique was used to measure either red cell volume or posttransfusion recovery of stored red cells. The experimental method uses Zeeman electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry to measure red cell chromium. Results from the 52Cr method were compared with those from 51Cr single-label and 125I-albumin/51Cr double-label procedures using 49-day AS-1 red cell concentrates drawn and prepared according to standard procedures. In the first group of five donors, red cell volume was estimated concurrently with both 52Cr-labeled fresh red cells and 125I-albumin. The latter measured plasma volume from which red cell volume was estimated on the basis of the hematocrit (125I red cell volume). 51Cr-labeled stored red cells were transfused to measure posttransfusion recoveries. The correlation between 52Cr and 125I red cell volumes was significant (r = 0.68, p less than 0.01), and, in this group, the differences were not significant (p less than 0.05). Twenty-four-hour posttransfusion recoveries of 51Cr-labeled stored red cells averaged 66 +/- 5 percent when measured with the 125I/51Cr technique and 69 +/- 8 percent when measured with the 52Cr/51Cr method. In the second group of five donors, red cell volume was estimated by the 125I-albumin technique, and the posttransfusion recovery of stored red cells was quantitated by 51Cr- and 52Cr-labeled stored cells simultaneously. In this group, posttransfusion recoveries with 125I/51Cr averaged 73 +/- 7 percent; with 125I/52Cr, they averaged 75 +/- 10 percent. Using the single-label method of calculation, recoveries averaged 76 +/- 7 and 75 +/- 10 percent for the 51Cr and 52Cr methods, respectively.

  15. 166Ho and 90Y labeled 6D2 monoclonal antibody for targeted radiotherapy of melanoma: comparison with 188Re radiolabel

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, S.; Ballard, B.; Jiang, Z.; Revskaya, E.; Sisay, N.; Miller, W.H.; Cutler, C. S.; Dadachova, E.; Francesconi, L.C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction An approach to radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of metastatic melanoma is the targeting of melanin pigment with monoclonal antibodies to melanin radiolabeled with therapeutic radionuclides. The proof of principle experiments were performed using a melanin-binding antibody 6D2 of IgM isotype radiolabeled with a β emitter 188Re and demonstrated the inhibition of tumor growth. In this study we investigated the efficacy 6D2 antibody radiolabeled with two other longer lived β emitters 90Y and 166Ho in treatment of experimental melanoma, with the objective to find a possible correlation between the efficacy and half-life of the radioisotopes which possess the same high energy β emission properties. Methods 6D2 was radiolabeled with two other longer lived β emitters 90Y and 166Ho in treatment of experimental melanoma in A2058 melanoma tumor-bearing nude mice, with the objective to find a possible correlation between the efficacy and half-life of the radioisotopes which possess the same high energy β emission properties. Results When labeled with the longer lived 90Y radionuclide – the 6D2 mAb did not produce any therapeutic effect in tumor bearing mice and while the slowing down of the tumor growth by 166Ho-6D2 was very similar to the previously reported therapy results for 188Re-6D2. In addition, 166Ho-labeled mAb produced the therapeutic effect on the tumor without any toxic effects while the administration of the 90Y-labeled radioconjugate was toxic to mice with no appreciable anti-tumor effect. Conclusions We concluded that it is very important to match the serum half-life of the carrier antibody with the physical half-life of the radionuclide to deliver the tumoricidal absorbed dose to the tumor. PMID:24533987

  16. 188Re- and 99mTc-MAG3 as prosthetic groups for labeling amines and peptides: approaches with pre- and postconjugate labeling.

    PubMed

    Guhlke, S; Schaffland, A; Zamora, P O; Sartor, J; Diekmann, D; Bender, H; Knapp, F F; Biersack, H J

    1998-10-01

    Either radiolabeled Tc-99m- or Re-188-labeled MAG3-4-nitrophenylester or unlabeled Bz-MAG3-4-nitrophenylester was reacted with amines and peptides to follow a pre- or a postconjugate radiolabeling route, respectively. The model compounds were N'-t-butyloxycarbonyl-1,6-diaminohexane (DH-Boc) and a Lys-protected derivative of the somatostatin analog RC-160 (cyclic D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Cys-Trp-NH2). In the case of labeling DH-Boc, both the preconjugate labeling and the postconjugate labeling were found by using analytical HPLC to provide identical radiolabeled compounds regardless whether Re-188 or Tc-99m was used. The results are supported by infrared and mass-spectral data obtained from compounds synthesized using stable rhenium. The 188Re- or 99mTc-MAG3-RC-160 somatostatin analog were synthesized following the preconjugate labeling route and subsequent removal of the protecting group. Biodistributions of 188Re-and 99mTc-MAG3-RC-160 were evaluated in normal and tumor-bearing mice, and were similar to those of radioiodinated 131-RC-160. All radiolabeled analogs of RC-160 were rapidly cleared from the blood and were excreted through the hepatobiliary system with very little normal organ uptake. The tumor uptake (PC-3, human prostate adenocarcinoma) of systemically administered Re-188-MAG3-RC160 was very low, and it reached only 0.28% injected dose/g (%IDg) at 24 h postinjection, similar to what was obtained with I-131-RC-160. Intratumor injections resulted in significant tumor retentions (9.3% ID/g at 24 h).

  17. Calorimetric system for high-precision determination of activity of the 51Cr neutrino source in the BEST experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veretenkin, E. P.; Gavrin, V. N.; Danshin, S. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalashnikova, A. A.; Kozlova, J. P.; Martynov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The calorimetric system based on mass-flow calorimeter for high-precision determination of neutrino flux from 51Cr source with activity 3MCi and higher is created for experiment BEST. The achieved heat release uncertainties are less than 0.25% in the whole range of the heat power and less than 0.1% in the range of 250-500 W. Total value the uncertainty considering the uncertainty of the energy release in the 51Cr decay (0.23%) shows that the activity of 3MCi 51Cr neutrino source can be determined with accuracy better than 0.5%.

  18. A Monte Carlo approach to small-scale dosimetry of solid tumour microvasculature for nuclear medicine therapies with (223)Ra-, (131)I-, (177)Lu- and (111)In-labelled radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Amato, Ernesto; Leotta, Salvatore; Italiano, Antonio; Baldari, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    The small-scale dosimetry of radionuclides in solid-tumours is directly related to the intra-tumoral distribution of the administered radiopharmaceutical, which is affected by its egress from the vasculature and dispersion within the tumour. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the combined dosimetric effects of radiopharmaceutical distribution and range of the emitted radiation in a model of tumour microvasculature. We developed a computational model of solid-tumour microenvironment around a blood capillary vessel, and we simulated the transport of radiation emitted by (223)Ra, (111)In, (131)I and (177)Lu using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo. For each nuclide, several models of radiopharmaceutical dispersion throughout the capillary vessel were considered. Radial dose profiles around the capillary vessel, the Initial Radioactivity (IR) necessary to deposit 100 Gy of dose at the edge of the viable tumour-cell region, the Endothelial Cell Mean Dose (ECMD) and the Tumour Edge Mean Dose (TEMD), i.e. the mean dose imparted at the 250-μm layer of tissue, were computed. The results for beta and Auger emitters demonstrate that the photon dose is about three to four orders of magnitude lower than that deposited by electrons. For (223)Ra, the beta emissions of its progeny deliver a dose about three orders of magnitude lower than that delivered by the alpha emissions. Such results may help to characterize the dose inhomogeneities in solid tumour therapies with radiopharmaceuticals, taking into account the interplay between drug distribution from vasculature and range of ionizing radiations.

  19. Current status of new SAGE project with 51Cr neutrino source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrin, V.; Cleveland, B.; Danshin, S.; Elliott, S.; Gorbachev, V.; Ibragimova, T.; Kalikhov, A.; Knodel, T.; Kozlova, Yu.; Malyshkin, Yu.; Matveev, V.; Mirmov, I.; Nico, J.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Shikhin, A.; Sinclair, D.; Veretenkin, E.; Wilkerson, J.

    2015-03-01

    A very short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment with an intense 51Cr neutrino source is currently under construction at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory of the Institute for Nuclear Research RAS (BNO). The experiment, which is based on the existing SAGE experiment, will use an upgraded Gallium-Germanium Neutrino Telescope (GGNT) and an artificial 51Cr neutrino source with activity ˜3 MCi to search for transitions of active neutrinos to sterile states with Δ m 2 ˜1 eV2. The neutrino source will be placed in the center of a liquid Ga metal target that is divided into two concentric zones, internal and external. The average path length of neutrinos in each zone will be the same and the neutrino capture rate will be measured separately in each zone. The oscillation signature, which comes from the ratio of events in the near and far gallium volumes, will be largely free of systematic errors, such as may occur from cross section and source strength uncertainties, and will provide a clean signal of electron neutrino disappearance into a sterile state at baselines of about 0.6 and 2.0 m. The sensitivity to the disappearance of electron neutrinos is expected to be a few percent. Construction of this set of new facilities, including a two-zone tank for irradiation of 50 tons of Ga metal with the intense 51Cr source, as well as additional modules of the GGNT counting and extraction systems, is close to completion. To check the new facilities they will first be used for SAGE solar neutrino measurements.

  20. Calorimetric method for determination of {sup 51}Cr neutrino source activity

    SciTech Connect

    Veretenkin, E. P. Gavrin, V. N.; Danshin, S. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Mirmov, I. N.

    2015-12-15

    Experimental study of nonstandard neutrino properties using high-intensity artificial neutrino sources requires the activity of the sources to be determined with high accuracy. In the BEST project, a calorimetric system for measurement of the activity of high-intensity (a few MCi) neutrino sources based on {sup 51}Cr with an accuracy of 0.5–1% is created. In the paper, the main factors affecting the accuracy of determining the neutrino source activity are discussed. The calorimetric system design and the calibration results using a thermal simulator of the source are presented.

  1. First results from the 51Cr neutrino source experiment with the GALLEX detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmann, P.; Fockenbrock, R.; Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Pernicka, E.; Pezzoni, S.; Rönn, U.; Sann, M.; Spielker, F.; Wink, R.; Wójcik, M.; Ammon, R. V.; Ebert, K. H.; Fritsch, T.; Heidt, D.; Henrich, E.; Schlosser, C.; Stieglitz, L.; Weirich, F.; Balata, M.; Lalla, H.; Bellotti, E.; Cattadori, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Ferrari, N.; Fiorini, E.; Zanotti, L.; Altmann, M.; Feilitzsch, F. V.; Mößbauer, R.; Schanda, U.; Berthomieu, G.; Schatzman, E.; Carmi, I.; Dostrovsky, I.; Bacci, C.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Paoluzi, L.; Bevilacqua, A.; Charbit, S.; Cribier, M.; Dupont, G.; Gosset, L.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Tao, C.; Vignaud, D.; Boger, J.; Hahn, R. L.; Hartmann, F. X.; Rowley, J. K.; Stoenner, R. W.; Weneser, J.; GALLEX Collaboration

    1995-02-01

    The radiochemical GALLEX experiment, which has been measuring the solar neutrino flux since May 1991, has performed an investigation with an intense man-made 51Cr neutrino source (61.9 ± 1.2 PBq). The source, produced via neutron irradiation of ≈ 36 kg of chromium enriched in 50Cr, primarily emits 746 keV neutrinos. It was placed for a period of 3.5 months in the reentrant tube in the GALLEX tank, to expose the gallium chloride target to a known neutrino flux. This experiment provides the ratio, R, of the production rate of Cr-produced 71Ge measured in these source exposures to the rate expected from the known source activity: R = 1.04 ± 0.12. This result not only constitutes the first observation of low-energy neutrinos from a terrestrial source, but also (a) provides an overall check of GALLEX, indicating that there are no significant experimental artifacts or unknown errors at the 10% level that are comparable to the 40% deficit in observed solar neutrino signal, and (b) directly demonstrates for the first time, using a man-made neutrino source, the validity of the basic principles of radiochemical methods used to detect rare events (at the level of 10 atoms or less). Because of the close similarity in neutrino energy spectra from 51Cr and from the solar 7Be branch, this source experiment also shows that the gallium detector is sensitive to 7Be neutrinos with full efficiency.

  2. Reversibility of increased intestinal permeability to 51Cr-EDTA in patients with gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.T.; Jones, D.B.; Goodacre, R.L.; Collins, S.M.; Coates, G.; Hunt, R.H.; Bienenstock, J.

    1987-11-01

    Intestinal permeability in adults with inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases was investigated by measuring the 24-h urinary excretion of orally administered /sup 51/Cr-EDTA. Eighty controls along with 100 patients with Crohn's disease, 46 patients with ulcerative colitis, 20 patients with gluten-sensitive enteropathy, and 18 patients with other diseases were studied. In controls, the median 24-h excretion was 1.34%/24 h of the oral dose. Patients with Crohn's disease (median 2.96%/24 h), ulcerative colitis (median 2.12%/24 h), and untreated gluten-sensitive enteropathy (median 3.56%/24 h) had significantly elevated urinary excretion of the probe compared to controls (p less than 0.0001). Increased 24-h urinary excretion of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA had a high association with intestinal inflammation (p less than 0.0001). Test specificity and sensitivity were 96% and 57%, respectively. A positive test has a 96% probability of correctly diagnosing the presence of intestinal inflammation, whereas a negative test has a 50% probability of predicting the absence of disease.

  3. Use of a /sup 51/Cr technique to detect gastrointestinal microbleeding associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Lussier, A.; Arsenault, A.; Varady, J.; de Medicis, R.; Lussier, Y.; LeBel, E.

    1987-02-01

    Of techniques used to evaluate gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, use of radiochromium (/sup 51/Cr)-tagged erythrocytes is the most quantitative and scientifically acceptable method. The value of this technique as well as systematic errors possible with its use are discussed. The medical literature concerning /sup 51/Cr evaluation of GI microbleeding with naproxen therapy is critically reviewed. We suggest that future studies using this technique be parallel, randomized, double-blind, and include a 1-week placebo baseline phase for all subjects. Treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should last 3 to 4 weeks. A parallel group of subjects should receive placebo throughout the study. For valid statistical analyses, randomization must achieve baseline comparability of weight, height, age, and sex in the treatment groups. Data transformations may be necessary to satisfy the assumptions of the statistical model. Following these guidelines will enable investigators to better evaluate GI microbleeding during treatment with naproxen or other NSAIDs, and, hopefully, to establish the safety profiles of these drugs.37 references.

  4. The effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on the induction of DNA strand breaks in plasmid DNA and colony formation of PC Cl3 mammalian cells by alpha-, beta-, and Auger electron emitters (223)Ra, (188)Re, and (99m)Tc.

    PubMed

    Runge, Roswitha; Oehme, Liane; Kotzerke, Jörg; Freudenberg, Robert

    2016-12-01

    DNA damage occurs as a consequence of both direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiation. The severity of DNA damage depends on the physical characteristics of the radiation quality, e.g., the linear energy transfer (LET). There are still contrary findings regarding direct or indirect interactions of high-LET emitters with DNA. Our aim is to determine DNA damage and the effect on cellular survival induced by (223)Ra compared to (188)Re and (99m)Tc modulated by the radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Radioactive solutions of (223)Ra, (188)Re, or (99m)Tc were added to either plasmid DNA or to PC Cl3 cells in the absence or presence of DMSO. Following irradiation, single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) in plasmid DNA were analyzed by gel electrophoresis. To determine the radiosensitivity of the rat thyroid cell line (PC Cl3), survival curves were performed using the colony formation assay. Exposure to 120 Gy of (223)Ra, (188)Re, or (99m)Tc leads to maximal yields of SSB (80 %) in plasmid DNA. Irradiation with 540 Gy (223)Ra and 500 Gy (188)Re or (99m)Tc induced 40, 28, and 64 % linear plasmid conformations, respectively. DMSO prevented the SSB and DSB in a similar way for all radionuclides. However, with the α-emitter (223)Ra, a low level of DSB could not be prevented by DMSO. Irradiation of PC Cl3 cells with (223)Ra, (188)Re, and (99m)Tc pre-incubated with DMSO revealed enhanced survival fractions (SF) in comparison to treatment without DMSO. Protection factors (PF) were calculated using the fitted survival curves. These factors are 1.23 ± 0.04, 1.20 ± 0.19, and 1.34 ± 0.05 for (223)Ra, (188)Re, and (99m)Tc, respectively. For (223)Ra, as well as for (188)Re and (99m)Tc, dose-dependent radiation effects were found applicable for plasmid DNA and PC Cl3 cells. The radioprotection by DMSO was in the same range for high- and low-LET emitter. Overall, the results indicate the contribution of mainly indirect radiation

  5. Bioaccumulation of 51Cr, 63Ni and 14C in Baltic Sea benthos.

    PubMed

    Kumblad, L; Bradshaw, C; Gilek, M

    2005-03-01

    The Baltic Sea is a species-poor, semi-enclosed, brackish sea, whose sediments contain a wide range of contaminants, including sediment-associated metals and radionuclides. In this study, we have examined and compared bioaccumulation kinetics and assimilation efficiencies of sediment-associated (51)Cr, (63)Ni and (14)C in three key benthic invertebrates (the deposit-feeding Monoporeia affinis, the facultative deposit-feeding Macoma baltica, and the omnivorous Halicryptus spinulosus). Our results demonstrate that (i) all radionuclides were accumulated, (ii) the different radionuclides were accumulated to various extents, (iii) small changes in organic carbon concentration can influence the accumulation, and (iv) the degree of accumulation differed only slightly between species. These processes, together with sediment resuspension and bioturbation, may remobilise trace metals from the sediment to the water and to higher trophic levels, and therefore should be taken into account in exposure models and ERAs.

  6. Measuring the activity of a {sup 51}Cr neutrino source based on the gamma-radiation spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbachev, V. V. Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2015-12-15

    A technique for the measurement of activities of intense β sources by measuring the continuous gamma-radiation (internal bremsstrahlung) spectra is developed. A method for reconstructing the spectrum recorded by a germanium semiconductor detector is described. A method for the absolute measurement of the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of {sup 51}Cr is presented.

  7. Final results of the 51Cr neutrino source experiments in GALLEX.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Pernicka, E.; Rau, W.; Roenn, U.; Schlosser, C.; Wojcik, M.; von Ammon, R.; Ebert, K. H.; Fritsch, T.; Heidt, D.; Henrich, E.; Stieglitz, L.; Weirich, F.; Balata, M.; Hartmann, F. X.; Sann, M.; Bellotti, E.; Cattadori, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Ferrari, N.; Fiorini, E.; Zanotti, L.; Altmann, M.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Moessbauer, R.; Berthomieu, G.; Schatzman, E.; Carmi, I.; Dostrovsky, I.; Bacci, C.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Paoluzi, L.; Bevilacqua, A.; Cribier, M.; Gosset, L.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Tao, C.; Vignaud, D.; Boger, J.; Hahn, R. L.; Rowley, J. K.; Stoenner, R. W.; Weneser, J.

    1998-02-01

    The radiochemical GALLEX experiment, which has been measuring the solar neutrino flux since May 1991, has performed an investigation with two intense 51Cr neutrino sources that were produced in the Siloé nuclear reactor and used at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, one between June and October 1994, and the second between October 95 and February 96. The ratio, R, of the the neutrino source strength derived from the measured rate of 71Ge production, divided by the directly determined source strength is R = 1.01 (-0.11, +0.12) for the first source and R = 0.84 (-0.11, +0.12) for the second one. The combined value of R for the two source experiments is R = 0.93±0.08. It shows that the >40% deficit of solar neutrino flux observed by GALLEX cannot be attributed to experimental artifacts and demonstrates the absence of any significant unexpected systematic errors at the 10% level.

  8. Final results of the 51Cr neutrino source experiments in GALLEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GALLEX Collaboration; Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Pernicka, E.; Rau, W.; Rönn, U.; Schlosser, C.; Wójcik, M.; Ammon, R. V.; Ebert, K. H.; Fritsch, T.; Heidt, D.; Henrich, E.; Stieglitz, L.; Weirich, F.; Balata, M.; Hartmann, F. X.; Sann, M.; Bellotti, E.; Cattadori, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Ferrari, N.; Fiorini, E.; Zanotti, L.; Altmann, M.; Feilitzsch, F. V.; Mößbauer, R.; Berthomieu, G.; Schatzman, E.; Carmi, I.; Dostrovsky, I.; Bacci, C.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Paoluzi, L.; Bevilacqua, A.; Cribier, M.; Gosset, L.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Tao, C.; Vignaud, D.; Boger, J.; Hahn, R. L.; Rowley, J. K.; Stoenner, R. W.; Weneser, J.

    1998-02-01

    The radiochemical GALLEX experiment, which has been measuring the solar neutrino flux since May 1991, has performed an investigation with two intense 51Cr neutrino sources (>60 PBq) that were produced in the Siloé nuclear reactor and used at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, one between June and October 1994, and the second between October 95 and February 96. The ratio, R, of the the neutrino source strength derived from the measured rate of 71Ge production, divided by the directly determined source strength is R=1.01 +0.12-0.11 for the first source and R=0.84 +0.12-0.11 for the second one. The combined value of R for the two source experiments is R=0.93 +/- 0.08. It shows that the > 40 % deficit of solar neutrino flux observed by GALLEX cannot be attributed to experimental artifacts and demonstrates the absence of any significant unexpected systematic errors at the 10 % level.

  9. The use of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC and 18F-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of duodenal neuroendocrine tumor with atypical and extensive metastasis responding dramatically to a single fraction of PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sandip; Abhyankar, Amit

    2014-12-01

    This report describes a case of extensive diffuse bone marrow involvement with bilateral breast metastases from duodenal neuroendocrine tumor giving rise to a superscan-like appearance on somatostatin receptor-targeted (99m)Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide-TOC scintigraphy. The metastatic lesions demonstrated partial concordance with (18)F-FDG PET/CT findings, signifying varying tumor biology and heterogeneity among metastatic lesions in the same individual, as illustrated with a dual-tracer approach. There was a dramatic symptomatic and biochemical response and better health-related quality of life with a single fraction of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with (177)Lu-DOTATATE, and radiologically there was stable disease at that point. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  10. Permeability of the small intestine to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA in children with acute gastroenteritis or eczema

    SciTech Connect

    Forget, P.; Sodoyez-Goffaux, F.; Zappitelli, A.

    1985-06-01

    Increased gut permeability to macromolecules is thought to be an important factor in the development of food hypersensitivity. The latter can develop in the course of acute gastroenteritis and could play a role in infantile eczema. The authors studied gut permeability in 10 normal adults, 11 control children, 7 children with acute gastroenteritis, and 8 patients with infantile eczema, making use of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA as probe molecule. (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was given orally (50-100 microCi); 24-h urinary excretion of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was measured and expressed as a percentage of the oral dose. Mean and standard error were 2.35 +/- 0.24, 2.51 +/- 0.21, 9.96 +/- 3.44, and 10.90 +/- 2.05 in normal adults, control children, and gastroenteritis and eczema patients, respectively. Differences between controls and either gastroenteritis (p less than 0.001) or eczema (p less than 0.001) patients are significant. The results support the hypothesis that increased gut permeability could play a role in food hypersensitivity.

  11. Experimental pretargeting studies of cancer with a humanized anti-CEA x murine anti-[In-DTPA] bispecific antibody construct and a (99m)Tc-/(188)Re-labeled peptide.

    PubMed

    Karacay, H; McBride, W J; Griffiths, G L; Sharkey, R M; Barbet, J; Hansen, H J; Goldenberg, D M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to localize (99m)Tc and (188)Re radionuclides to tumors, using a bispecific antibody (bsMAb) in a two-step approach where the radionuclides are attached to novel peptides incorporating moieties recognized by one arm of the bsMAb. A chemically cross-linked human/murine bsMAb, hMN-14 x 734 (Fab' x Fab'), anti-carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA] x anti-indium-DTPA was prepared as a prelude to constructing a fully humanized bsMAb for future clinical application. N,N'-o-Phenylenedimaleimide was used to cross-link the Fab' fragments of the two antibodies at their hinge regions. This construct was shown to be >92% pure and fully reactive with CEA and a divalent (indium)DTPA-peptide. For pretargeting purposes, a peptide, IMP-192 [Ac-Lys(In-DTPA)-Tyr-Lys(In-DTPA)-Lys(TscG-Cys-)-NH(2) ¿TscG = 3-thiosemicarbazonylglyoxyl¿], with two indium-DTPAs and a chelate for selectively binding (99m)Tc or (188)Re, was synthesized. IMP-192 was formulated in a "single dose" kit and later radiolabeled with (99m)Tc (94-99%) at up to 1836 Ci/mmol and with (188)Re (97%) at 459-945 Ci/mmol of peptide. [(99m)Tc]IMP-192 was shown to be stable by extensive in vitro and in vivo testing and had no specific uptake in the tumor with minimal renal uptake. The biodistribution of the hMN-14 x murine 734 bsMAb was compared alone and in a pretargeting setting to a fully murine anti-CEA (F6) x 734 bsMAb that was reported previously [Gautherot, E., Bouhou, J., LeDoussal, J.-M., Manetti, C., Martin, M., Rouvier, E., and Barbet, J. (1997) Therapy for colon carcinoma xenografts with bispecific antibody-targeted, iodine-131-labeled bivalent hapten. Cancer 80 (Suppl.), 2618-2623]. Both bsMAbs maintained their integrity and dual binding specificity in vivo, but the hMN-14 x m734 was cleared more rapidly from the blood. This coincided with an increased uptake of the hMN-14 x m734 bsMAb in the liver and spleen, suggesting an active reticuloendothelial cell recognition mechanism of this mixed

  12. Radiolabeled red cell viability. I. Comparison of /sup 51/Cr, /sup 99m/Tc, and /sup 111/In for measuring the viability of autologous stored red cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, C.S.; Myhre, B.A.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.; Demianew, S.H.

    1987-09-01

    The simultaneous determination of autologous /sup 99m/Tc red cell (RBC) and /sup 51/Cr RBC viability at 24 hours was measured in 19 normal volunteers whose RBCs had been stored in additive media (Nutracel) for 42 or 49 days. The ratio of the /sup 51/Cr:/sup 99m/Tc value was 1.23. In this experiment we also calculated /sup 51/Cr RBC viability by both the single-isotope method (extrapolation) and the double-isotope method (using /sup 125/I human serum albumin for an independent plasma volume) in the same volunteers. The corresponding viability values were not significantly different. The simultaneous determination of autologous /sup 111/In-oxine RBC and /sup 51/Cr RBC viability at 24 hours was measured in 19 other normal volunteers whose RBCs had been stored in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA-1) for 1 or 15 days. The ratio of the /sup 51/Cr:/sup 111/In value was 1.1. Use of these 24-hour viability ratios as conversion factors permits direct comparison of /sup 99m/Tc or /sup 111/In RBC viability with a /sup 51/Cr standard, and therefore expands the application of these newer RBC radiolabels.

  13. Platelet turnover and kinetics in immune thrombocytopenic purpura: results with autologous 111In-labeled platelets and homologous 51Cr-labeled platelets differ

    SciTech Connect

    Heyns A du, P.; Badenhorst, P.N.; Loetter, M.G.P.; Pieters, H.; Wessels, P.; Kotze, H.F.

    1986-01-01

    Mean platelet survival and turnover were simultaneously determined with autologous 111In-labeled platelets (111In-AP) and homologous 51Cr-labeled platelets (51Cr-HP) in ten patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). In vivo redistribution of the 111In-AP was quantitated with a scintillation camera and computer-assisted image analysis. The patients were divided into two groups: those with splenic platelet sequestration (spleen-liver 111In activity ratio greater than 1.4), and those with diffuse sequestration in the reticuloendothelial system. The latter patients had more severe ITP reflected by pronounced thrombocytopenia, decreased platelet turnover, and prominent early hepatic platelet sequestration. Mean platelet life span estimated with 51Cr-HP was consistently shorter than that of 111In-AP. Platelet turnover determined with 51Cr-HP was thus over-estimated. The difference in results with the two isotope labels was apparently due to greater in vivo elution of 51Cr. Although the limitations of the techniques should be taken into account, these findings indicate that platelet turnover is not always normal or increased in ITP, but is low in severe disease. We suggest that this may be ascribed to damage to megakaryocytes by antiplatelet antibody. The physical characteristics in 111In clearly make this radionuclide superior to 51Cr for the study of platelet kinetics in ITP.

  14. Mannitol clearance for the determination of glomerular filtration rate-a validation against clearance of (51) Cr-EDTA.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Katalin; Molnár, Miklós; Söndergaard, Sören; Molnár, Gyula; Ricksten, Sven-Erik

    2016-06-03

    We studied the agreement between plasma clearance of mannitol and the reference method, plasma clearance of (51) Cr-EDTA in outpatients with normal to moderately impaired renal function. Forty-one patients with a serum creatinine <200 μmol l(-1) entered the study. (51) Cr-EDTA clearance was measured with the standard bolus injection technique and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated by the single-sample method described by Jacobsson. Mannitol, 0·25 g kg(-1) body weight (150 mg ml(-1) ), was infused for 4-14 min and blood samples taken at 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-h (n = 24) or 2-, 3-, 3·5- and 4-h after infusion (n = 17). Mannitol in serum was measured by an enzymatic method. Plasma clearance for mannitol and its apparent volume of distribution (Vd) were calculated according to Brøchner-Mortensen. Mean plasma clearance (±SD) for (51) Cr-EDTA was 59·7 ± 18·8 ml min(-1) . The mean plasma clearance for mannitol ranged between 57·0 ± 20·1 and 61·1 ± 16·7 ml min(-1) and Vd was 21·3 ± 6·2% per kg b.w. The between-method bias ranged between -0·23 and 2·73 ml min(-1) , the percentage error between 26·7 and 39·5% and the limits of agreement between -14·3/17·2 and -25·3/19·9 ml min(-1) . The best agreement was seen when three- or four-sample measurements of plasma mannitol were obtained and when sampling started 60 min after injection. Furthermore, accuracy of plasma clearance determinations was 88-96% (P30) and 41-63% (P10) and was highest when three- or four-sample measurements of plasma mannitol were obtained, including the first hour after the bolus dose. We conclude that there is a good agreement between plasma clearances of mannitol and (51) Cr-EDTA for the assessment of GFR.

  15. Use of /sup 51/Cr-labeled mononuclear cells for measuring the cellular immune response in mouse lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkower, A.; Scheuchenzuber, W.J.; Ferguson, F.G.

    1981-02-01

    Spleen cells labeled with /sup 51/Cr were used in sensitized syngeneic mice to measure the degree of mononuclear cell infiltration into antigen-challenged tissues. With this method, increased cellular infiltration was found after footpad challenge of mice sensitized with sheep erythrocyte, Escherichia coli, and BCG antigens. Cellular response also was determined by using this technique in the lungs of mice sensitized with sheep erythrocytes and BCG. This procedure offers the opportunity to measure cellular infiltration, whether due to cellular or humoral influences, in tissues not easily accessible to conventional immunological manipulation.

  16. Use of 51Cr-labeled mononuclear cells for measuring the cellular immune response in mouse lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkower, A.; Scheuchenzuber, W.J.; Ferguson, F.G.

    1981-02-01

    Spleen cells labeled with 51Cr were used in sensitized syngeneic mice to measure the degree of mononuclear cell infiltration into antigen-challenged tissues. With this method, increased cellular infiltration was found after footpad challenge of mice sensitized with sheep erythrocyte, Escherichia coli, and BCG antigens. Cellular response also was determined by using this technique in the lungs of mice sensitized with sheep erythrocytes and BCG. This procedure offers the opportunity to measure cellular infiltration, whether due to cellular or humoral influences, in tissues not easily accessible to conventional immunological manipulation.

  17. Use of Monte Carlo simulations with a realistic rat phantom for examining the correlation between hematopoietic system response and red marrow absorbed dose in Brown Norway rats undergoing radionuclide therapy with {sup 177}Lu- and {sup 90}Y-BR96 mAbs

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, Erik; Ljungberg, Michael; Martensson, Linda; Nilsson, Rune; Tennvall, Jan; Strand, Sven-Erik; Joensson, Bo-Anders

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Biokinetic and dosimetry studies in laboratory animals often precede clinical radionuclide therapies in humans. A reliable evaluation of therapeutic efficacy is essential and should be based on accurate dosimetry data from a realistic dosimetry model. The aim of this study was to develop an anatomically realistic dosimetry model for Brown Norway rats to calculate S factors for use in evaluating correlations between absorbed dose and biological effects in a preclinical therapy study. Methods: A realistic rat phantom (Roby) was used, which has some flexibility that allows for a redefinition of organ sizes. The phantom was modified to represent the anatomic geometry of a Brown Norway rat, which was used for Monte Carlo calculations of S factors. Kinetic data for radiolabeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies were used to calculate the absorbed dose. Biological data were gathered from an activity escalation study with {sup 90}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-labeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies, in which blood cell counts and bodyweight were examined up to 2 months follow-up after injection. Reductions in white blood cell and platelet counts and declines in bodyweight were quantified by four methods and compared to the calculated absorbed dose to the bone marrow or the total body. Results: A red marrow absorbed dose-dependent effect on hematological parameters was observed, which could be evaluated by a decrease in blood cell counts. The absorbed dose to the bone marrow, corresponding to the maximal tolerable activity that could safely be administered, was determined to 8.3 Gy for {sup 177}Lu and 12.5 Gy for {sup 90}Y. Conclusions: There was a clear correlation between the hematological effects, quantified with some of the studied parameters, and the calculated red marrow absorbed doses. The decline in body weight was stronger correlated to the total body absorbed dose, rather than the red marrow absorbed dose. Finally, when considering a constant activity concentration, the phantom

  18. Evaluation of S-values and dose distributions for {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 166}Ho, and {sup 188}Re in seven lobes of the rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Tianwu; Liu Qian; Zaidi, Habib

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Rats have been widely used in radionuclide therapy research for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This has created the need to assess rat liver absorbed radiation dose. In most dose estimation studies, the rat liver is considered as a homogeneous integrated target organ with a tissue composition assumed to be similar to that of human liver tissue. However, the rat liver is composed of several lobes having different anatomical and chemical characteristics. To assess the overall impact on rat liver dose calculation, the authors use a new voxel-based rat model with identified suborgan regions of the liver. Methods: The liver in the original cryosectional color images was manually segmented into seven individual lobes and subsequently integrated into a voxel-based computational rat model. Photon and electron particle transport was simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate absorbed fractions and S-values for {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 166}Ho, and {sup 188}Re for the seven liver lobes. The effect of chemical composition on organ-specific absorbed dose was investigated by changing the chemical composition of the voxel filling liver material. Radionuclide-specific absorbed doses at the voxel level were further assessed for a small spherical hepatic tumor. Results: The self-absorbed dose for different liver lobes varied depending on their respective masses. A maximum difference of 3.5% was observed for the liver self-absorbed fraction between rat and human tissues for photon energies below 100 keV. {sup 166}Ho and {sup 188}Re produce a uniformly distributed high dose in the tumor and relatively low absorbed dose for surrounding tissues. Conclusions: The authors evaluated rat liver radiation doses from various radionuclides used in HCC treatments using a realistic computational rat model. This work contributes to a better understanding of all aspects influencing radiation transport in organ-specific radiation dose evaluation for

  19. The influence of proteasome inhibitor MG132, external radiation, and unlabeled antibody on the tumor uptake and biodistribution of (188)re-labeled anti-E6 C1P5 antibody in cervical cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Phaeton, Rébécca; Wang, Xing Guo; Einstein, Mark H; Goldberg, Gary L; Casadevall, Arturo; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2010-02-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered a necessary step for the development of cervical cancer, and >95% of all cervical cancers have detectable HPV sequences. The authors of this report recently demonstrated the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) targeting viral oncoprotein E6 in the treatment of experimental cervical cancer. They hypothesized that the pretreatment of tumor cells with various agents that cause cell death and/or elevation of E6 levels would increase the accumulation of radiolabeled antibodies to E6 in cervical tumors. HPV type 16 (HPV-16)-positive CasKi cells were treated in vitro with up to 6 grays of external radiation, or with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132, or with unlabeled anti-E6 antibody C1P5; and cell death was assessed. The biodistribution of (188)Re-labeled C1P5 antibody was determined in both control and radiation MG-132-treated CasKi tumor-bearing nude mice. (188)Re-C1P5 antibody demonstrated tumor specificity, very low uptake, and fast clearance from the major organs. The amount of tumor uptake was enhanced by MG-132 but was unaffected by pretreatment with radiation. In addition, in vitro studies demonstrated an unanticipated effect of unlabeled antibody on the amount of cell death, a finding that was suggested by the authors' previous in vivo studies in a CasKi tumor model. The current results indicated that pretreatment of cervical tumors with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 and with unlabeled antibody to E6 can serve as a means to generate nonviable cancer cells and to elevate the levels of target oncoproteins in the cells for increasing the accumulation of targeted radiolabeled antibodies in tumors. These results favor the further development of RIT for cervical cancers targeting viral antigens. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  20. The influence of proteasome inhibitor MG132, external radiation and unlabeled antibody on the tumor uptake and biodistribution of 188Re-labeled anti-E6 C1P5 antibody in cervical cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Phaeton, Rébécca; Wang, Xing Guo; Einstein, Mark H.; Goldberg, Gary L.; Casadevall, Arturo; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2009-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered a necessary step for the development of cervical cancer and >95% of all cervical cancers have detectable HPV sequences. We have recently demonstrated the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) which targeted viral oncoprotein E6 in treatment of experimental cervical cancer We hypothesized that pre-treatment of tumor cells with various agents which cause cell death and/or elevation of E6 levels would increase the accumulation of radiolabeled antibodies to E6 in cervical tumors. Methods HPV-16 positive CasKi cells were treated in vitro with up to 6 Gy of external radiation, or proteasome inhibitor MG-132 or unlabeled anti-E6 antibody C1P5 and cell death was assessed. Biodistribution of 188Rhenium (188Re)-labeled C1P5 antibody was performed in both control and radiation MG-132 treated CasKi tumor-bearing nude mice. Results . 188Re-C1P5 antibody demonstrated tumor specificity and very low uptake and fast clearance from the major organs. The amount of tumor uptake was enhanced by MG-132 but was unaffected by pre-treatment with radiation. In addition, in vitro studies demonstrated an unanticipated effect of unlabeled antibody on the amount of cell death, a finding that was suggested by our previous in vivo studies in CasKi tumor model. Conclusion We demonstrated that pre-treatment of cervical tumors with proteasome inhibitor MG-132 and with unlabeled antibody to E6 can serve as a means to generate non-viable cancer cells and to elevate the levels of target oncoproteins in the cells for increasing the accumulation of targeted radiolabeled antibodies in tumors. These results favor further development of RIT of cervical cancers targeting viral antigens. PMID:20127955

  1. Comparative gastrointestinal blood loss associated with placebo, aspirin, and nabumetone as assessed by radiochromium (/sup 51/Cr)

    SciTech Connect

    Lussier, A.; Davis, A.; Lussier, Y.; Lebel, E.

    1989-03-01

    Nabumetone differs from most other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is presented to the gut as a nonacidic prodrug, and is metabolized to its active form after absorption. Studies in animals and humans suggest it is less irritating to the gastrointestinal mucosa. This study compared the gastrointestinal microbleeding induced by nabumetone to aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA), and placebo in a double blind parallel study using chromium /sup 51/Cr labelled red cells to quantitate fecal blood loss (FBL) in healthy volunteers. Thirty subjects were randomized to treatment with nabumetone (2000 mg), ASA (3.6 g) or placebo for 21 days following a 7 day placebo period. Six subjects served as untreated controls. FBL in nabumetone treated subjects was not significantly different to placebo or untreated subjects. In contrast, ASA-treated subjects exhibited significantly increased FBL than the other 3 groups (P less than .0001).

  2. Comparison of whole body and tissue blood volumes in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) with 125I bovine serum albumin and 51Cr-erythrocyte tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Total, packed cell and, plasma volume estimates were made for the whole body and selected tissues of rainbow trout by the simultaneous injection of radiolabelled trout erythrocyte (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodinated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA) tracers. Blood volumes were estimated with both markers separately by the tracer-hematocrit method and as the combination of the 51Cr-RBC packed cell and 125I-BSA plasma volumes. Mean whole body blood volume was significantly less when calculated from the 51Cr-RBC tracer data (3.52±0.78 ml/100 g; ±SD) than when calculated with the 125I-BSA tracer (5.06±0.86 ml/100 g) or as the sum of the two volumes combined (4.49±0.60 ml/100 g). The whole body hematocrit (28±5%), estimated as the quotient of the 51Cr-RBC volume divided by the sum of the 125I-BSA and the 51Cr-RBC volumes, also was significantly less than the dorsal aortic microhematocrit (36±4%). Estimates of total blood volumes in most tissues were significantly smaller when calculated from the51Cr-RBC data than when calculated by the other two methods. Tissue blood volumes were greatest in highly vascularized and well perfused tissues and least in poorly vascularized tissues. The relative degree of vascularization among tissues generally remained the same regardless of whether the red cell or the plasma tracer was used to calculated blood volume. It is not clear whether the expanded plasma volume is the result of the distribution of erythrocyte-poor blood into the secondary circulation or the result of extravascular exchange of plasma proteins.

  3. Activation cross sections for 190Os( n, p) 190m,gRe, 188Os( n, p) 188Re and 190Os( n, n') 190mOs reactions from 13.5 to 14.8 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junhua; Zhang, Zhirong; Tian, Weisong; Tuo, Fei; Kong, Xiangzhong; Liu, Rong; Jiang, Li

    2009-04-01

    Cross sections for ( n, p) and ( n, n') reactions have been measured on osmium isotopes at the neutron energies from 13.5 to 14.8 MeV using the activation technique in combination with high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Neutrons were produced via the 3H( d, n) 4He reaction using solid TiT. The neutron fluences were determined using the monitor reaction 93Nb( n,2 n) 92mNb. Data are reported for the following reactions: 190Os( n, p) 190mRe, 190Os( n, p) 190gRe, 190Os( n, p) 190Re, 188Os( n, p) 188Re and 190Os( n, n') 190mOs. Nuclear model calculations using the code HFTT, which employs the Hauser-Feshbach (statistical model) and exciton model (precompound effects) formalisms, were undertaken to describe the formation of the products. The cross sections were discussed and compared with experimental data found in the literature, with values of model calculations including the pre-equilibrium contribution, and with evaluation data of JEFF-3.1/A.

  4. Beta emitters rhenium-188 and lutetium-177 are equally effective in radioimmunotherapy of HPV-positive experimental cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Phaeton, Rebecca; Jiang, Zewei; Revskaya, Ekaterina; Fisher, Darrell R; Goldberg, Gary L; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer caused by the infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) remains the fourth leading killer of women worldwide. Therefore, more efficacious treatments are needed. We are developing radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of HPV-positive cervical cancers by targeting E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins expressed by the cancer cells with the radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). To investigate the influence of different radionuclides on the RIT efficacy-we performed RIT of experimental cervical cancer with Rhenium-188 ((188) Re) and Lutetium-177 ((177) Lu)-labeled mAb C1P5 to E6. The biodistribution of (188) Re- and (177) Lu-labeled C1P5 was performed in nude female mice bearing CasKi cervical cancer xenografts and the radiation dosimetry calculations for the tumors and organs were carried out. For RIT the mice were treated with 7.4 MBq of either (188) Re-C1P5 or (177) Lu-C1P5 or left untreated, and observed for their tumor size for 28 days. The levels of (188) Re- and (177) Lu-C1P5 mAbs-induced double-strand breaks in CasKi tumors were compared on days 5 and 10 post treatment by staining with anti-gamma H2AX antibody. The radiation doses to the heart and lungs were similar for both (177) Lu-C1P5 and (188) Re-C1P5. The dose to the liver was five times higher for (177) Lu-C1P5. The doses to the tumor were 259 and 181 cGy for (177) Lu-C1P5 and (188) Re-C1P5, respectively. RIT with either (177) Lu-C1P5 or (188) Re-C1P5 was equally effective in inhibiting tumor growth when each was compared to the untreated controls (P = 0.001). On day 5 there was a pronounced staining for gamma H2AX foci in (177) Lu-C1P5 group only and on day 10 it was observed in both (177) Lu-C1P5 and (188) Re-C1P5 groups. (188) Re- and (177) Lu-labeled mAbs were equally effective in arresting the growth of CasKi cervical tumors. Thus, both of these radionuclides are candidates for the clinical trials of this approach in patients with advanced, recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer. © 2015 The

  5. Clinical evaluation of a /sup 51/Cr-labeled red blood cell survival test for in vivo blood compatibility testing

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, A.A.; Dharkar, D.D.; Wahner, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Modified red blood cell survival studies with use of 51Cr were performed in three groups of subjects. Group 1 consisted of normal subjects who were given labeled autologous blood, group 2 were subjects in need of blood transfusions and given labeled ABO and Rh crossmatch-compatible blood, and group 3 were patients in need of blood transfusion but in whom problems arose in finding compatible blood. The results of the studies suggest that for patients with blood compatibility problems, normal red blood cell survival values at 1 hour do not exclude the possibility of severe hemolysis 24 hours later. Thus, if a 1-hour test result is normal, the procedure should be extended routinely to 24 hours. Moreover, the test can be used to evaluate the clinical importance of antibodies. We showed that anti-Yka and anti-Lan were clinically significant, but high-titer, low-avidity antibodies, anti-Kna, anti-I, and anti-HI were clinically insignificant in the cases studied. This finding emphasizes the importance of an in vivo test for the final compatibility evaluation in complicated blood replacement problems.

  6. Elution of Re-188 from W-188/Re-188 generators with salts of weak acids permits efficient concentration to low volumes using a new tandem cation/anion exchange system

    SciTech Connect

    Guhlke, S. |; Beets, A.L.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    Re-188, available from a W-188/Re-188 generator, is an important therapeutic radioisotope for bone pain palliation, cancer therapy and intravascular brachytherapy, etc. Because of the relatively low specific activity of reactor-produced W-188 (ORNL HFIR, 296-370 MBq mCi/mg W-186 for 2 cycles), methods of concentrating the Re-188 bolus (10-12 mL) from clinical scale (18.5-37 BGq W-188) generators (5-6 gm alumina) are thus very important. We demonstrate for the first time a new strategy of generator elution with salts of weak acids and specific perrhenate anion {open_quotes}trapping{close_quotes} with QMA anion columns. Re-188 perrhenate is efficiently eluted (65-75%) from the alumina-based generator with 0.15-0.3 M ammonium acetate. An acetic acid solution of Re-188 perrhenic acid is obtained by subsequent on-line passage of the generator eluant through a DOWEX AG 50Wx8 (200-400 mesh, H{sup +} form) column. Since acetic acid is not ionized (< 0.001%) at this pH (< pK{sub a} = 4.76) the perrhenate anion is then specifically trapped on a QMA {open_quotes}Light{close_quotes} anion extraction column. QMA elution with 0.9% NaCl, provides Re-188 perrhenate solution in <1 mL. Concentration of 10-20 mL of Re-188 solution (> 15 BGq) in <1 mL has been demonstrated using this simple new approach, which is also effective for concentration of Tc-99m from low specific activity Mo-99 (n,y) generators. The cation/anion tandem system is inexpensive and disposable and use can be easily automated. The availability of this very simple, efficient system is important for broad use of rhenium-188.

  7. Chemistry and bifunctional chelating agents for binding (177)Lu.

    PubMed

    Parus, Józef L; Pawlak, Dariusz; Mikolajczak, Renata; Duatti, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    A short overview of fundamental chemistry of lutetium and of structural characteristics of lutetium coordination complexes, as relevant for understanding the properties of lutetium-177 radiopharmaceuticals, is presented. This includes basic concepts on lutetium electronic structure, lanthanide contraction, coordination geometries, behavior in aqueous solution and thermodynamic stability. An illustration of the structure and binding properties of the most important chelating agents for the Lu(3+) ion in aqueous solution is also reported with specific focus on coordination complexes formed with linear and macrocyclic polydentate amino-carboxylate donor ligands.

  8. Experimental and theoretical study for the production of 51Cr using p, d, 3He and 4He projectiles on V, Ti and Cr targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solieman, A. H. M.; Al-Abyad, M.; Ditroi, F.; Saleh, Z. A.

    2016-01-01

    Production of 51Cr (T1/2 = 27.7 d) have been studied experimentally through the reaction of proton and 3He on natV and natTi targets respectively by using a variable energy cyclotrons. Reaction cross sections were obtained at different energies using the stacked-foil technique. High resolution gamma ray spectrometers were used for measuring the γ-ray spectra. Comparison between the present experimental results and the previously reported data has been carried out and discussed. The possibility of producing 51Cr with reasonable yield using different projectiles and different natural targets was studied and reported. Excitation functions for the reactions of proton, deuteron, 3He and 4He particles on natural vanadium, titanium and chromium targets have been evaluated using two theoretical codes TALYS-1.6 and EMPIRE-3.1. The recommended cross-sections and the integral yields as well were obtained.

  9. Glomerular Filtration Rate Measured by 51Cr-EDTA Clearance: Evaluation of Captopril-Induced Changes in Hypertensive Patients with and without Renal Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Anna Alice Rolim; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Praxedes, Jose Nery; Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Renal artery stenosis can lead to renovascular hypertension; however, the detection of stenosis alone does not guarantee the presence of renovascular hypertension. Renovascular hypertension depends on activation of the renin-angiotensin system, which can be detected by functional tests such as captopril renal scintigraphy. A method that allows direct measurement of the baseline and post-captopril glomerular filtration rate using chromium-51 labeled ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA) could add valuable information to the investigation of hypertensive patients with renal artery stenosis. The purposes of this study were to create a protocol to measure the baseline and post-captopril glomerular filtration rate using 51Cr-EDTA, and to verify whether changes in the glomerular filtration rate permit differentiation between hypertensive patients with and without renal artery stenosis. METHODS: This prospective study included 41 consecutive patients with poorly controlled severe hypertension. All patients had undergone a radiological investigation of renal artery stenosis within the month prior to their inclusion. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with (n=21) and without renal artery stenosis, (n=20). In vitro glomerular filtration rate analysis (51Cr-EDTA) and 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy were performed before and after captopril administration in all patients. RESULTS: The mean baseline glomerular filtration rate was 48.6±21.8 ml/kg/1.73 m2 in the group wuth renal artery stenosis, which was significantly lower than the GFR of 65.1±28.7 ml/kg/1.73m2 in the group without renal artery stenosis (p=0.04). Captopril induced a significant reduction of the glomerular filtration rate in the group with renal artery stenosis (to 32.6±14.8 ml/ kg/1.73m2, p=0.001) and an insignificant change in the group without RAS (to 62.2±23.6 ml/kg/1.73m2, p=0.68). Scintigraphy with technetium-99m dimercapto-succinic acid (DMSA) did not show significant

  10. Dietary absorption of sediment-bound fluoranthene by a deposit-feeding gastropod using the {sup 14}C:{sup 51}Cr dual-labeling method

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, V.E.; Forbes, T.L.

    1997-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) constitute a broad class of toxic, environmentally persistent, particle-reactive organic compounds that are ubiquitous in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This study was designed to measure ingestion and dietary absorption of the PAH, fluoranthene, by two genotypes of a deposit-feeding gastropod using the {sup 14}C:{sup 51}Cr dual-labeling method. Sediment processing rate, fluoranthene ingestion rate, selective ingestion of fluoranthene-containing particles, and fluoranthene absorption rate varied as a function of snail body size and genotype. Absorption efficiency of sediment-bound fluoranthene did not vary as a function of body size but differed between genotypes, averaging 42 to 46% for Clone A and 22 to 36% for Clone B. The authors could detect no significant metabolism of ingested fluoranthene to dissolved organic carbon or CO{sub 2} during 24 h following its ingestion. The {sup 14}C:{sup 51}Cr dual-labeling method provides a powerful approach for investigating the dietary absorption of sediment-bound contaminants by (1) allowing the calculation of ingestion selectivity, sediment processing rate, contaminant ingestion rate, and absorption efficiency in individual, small invertebrates; (2) permitting estimation of the fraction of ingested/absorbed contaminant that is metabolized and released via different routes following its ingestion; and (3) facilitating evaluation of the relative importance of porewater versus ingested sediment as routes of contaminant uptake by animals.

  11. Experience with a gastrointestinal marker (51CrCl3) in a combined study of ileal function using 75SeHCAT and 58CoB12 measured by whole body counting.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, T; Bjarnason, I

    1990-01-01

    Introduction of a radioactive gastrointestinal marker (51CrCl3) into a combined study (75SeHCAT + 58CoB12) of ileal function by whole body counting has been undertaken. The technique was assessed in 23 subjects (15 patients with inflammatory bowel disease, six on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for rheumatoid arthritis, and two normal subjects). Mean (SD) 51CrCl3 retention was only 4.1 (6.0)% on day 4, and was similar on day 7 in subjects given a second dose of 51CrCl3 on day 4. Only one subject had more than 20% of 51CrCl3 retention after four days. A 51CrCl3 correction method adequately corrected for colonic hold up of 58CoB12, when compared with final equilibrium values of 58CoB12 retention. Use of the non-absorbed 58CoB12 fraction as a gastrointestinal marker gave good agreement with the 51CrCl3 method in correcting 75SeHCAT values. In all subjects studied, corrections for colonic retention of 75SeHCAT on day 4, were small (less than 7% of dose) and did not affect the assessment of any subject. In conclusion, an additional gastrointestinal marker such as 51CrCl3 is unnecessary in our combined study since that role can be effected, when indicated by the non-absorbed 58CoB12 fraction. PMID:2128070

  12. Bioelimination of /sup 51/Cr and /sup 85/Sr by cockroaches, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Orthoptera: Blaberidae), as affected by mites, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi (parasitiformes: laelapidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Schowalter, T.D.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes rates of Chromium-51 and Strontium-85 assimilation and bioelimination by the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Schaum), when the symbiotic mite, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi Till, was present or removed. Mite-infested cockroaches had significantly higher rates of /sup 51/Cr elimination relative to mite-free cockroaches, implying more rapid gut clearance times. We did not find a significant mite effect on /sup 85/Sr elimination by the host, but mite effects could have been masked by the apparently unique process of nutrient assimilation and elimination by G. portentosa. Conventional models of radioactive tracer bioelimination predict a rapid initial loss of tracer due to gut clearance, followed by a slower loss due to excretion of assimilated tracer. Our results indicated that assimilated /sup 85/Sr was eliminated earlier than unassimilated /sup 85/Sr was lost by defecation.

  13. Bioelimination of /sup 51/Cr and /sup 85/Sr by cockroaches, Gromphadorhina portentosa (orthoptera: blaberidae), as affected by mites, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi (parasitiformes: laelapidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Schowalter, T.D.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1982-03-01

    The rates of Chromium-51 and Strontium-85 assimilation and bioelimination by the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Schaum) are described when the symbiotic mite, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi Till, was present or removed. Mite-infested cockroaches had significantly higher rates of /sup 51/Cr elimination relative to mite-free cockroaches, implying more rapid gut clearance times. The authors did not find a significant mite effect on /sup 85/Sr elimination by the host, but mite effects could have been masked by the apparently unique process of nutrient assimilation and elimination by G. portentosa. Conventional models of radioactive tracer bioelimination predict a rapid initial loss of tracer due to gut clearance, followed by a slower loss due to excretion of assimilated tracer. The results indicated that assimilated /sup 85/Sr was eliminated earlier than unassimilated /sup 85/Sr, which was lost by defecation.

  14. Experimental bacterial pneumonia in rabbits: polymorphonuclear leukocyte margination and sequestration in rabbit lungs and quantitation and kinetics of /sup 51/Cr-labeled polymorphonuclear leukocytes in E. coli-induced lung lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Cybulsky, M.I.; Movat, H.Z.

    1982-12-01

    A relationship between the circulating and marginal polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) pools was documented using /sup 51/Cr-labeled leukocytes as a marker. /sup 51/Cr-leukocytes marginating in the lungs were found to decrease following a first-order exponential decline, while /sup 51/Cr radioactivity accumulated in the liver and the spleen. Intravenously administered endotoxin caused a rapid selective disappearance of PMNs from the circulation. The percentage of infused /sup 51/Cr cells disappearing was equal to the percentage of disappearance of host cells. The PMNs were found to sequester in the lungs, with peak sequestration of labeled cells occurring 5 min after an endotoxin challenge. Over the next 25 min the /sup 51/Cr radioactivity in the lungs declined. Large numbers of PMNs, probably newly derived from the bone marrow, were observed histologically to be sequestered in the lung vasculature 90 min after an endotoxin dose, while the early sequestration of circulating leukocytes could not be assessed histologically. Pulmonary inflammatory lesions were induced selectively with Escherichia coli in the left lower lobes of rabbits, leaving the right lower lobes as intrinsic controls. PMN-accumulation into the lesions was quantitated using /sup 51/Cr-labeled blood leukocytes. With the aid of /sup 125/I-labeled E. coli, a logarithmic dose-response relationship was found between the number of E. coli and of PMNs. Over a 6-hr period circulating PMNs were found to accumulate in a lesion in the left lower lobe, whereas in the control right lower lobe, leukocyte radioactivity declined. These findings were confirmed with the aid of lavages of the right and left lungs. Two peaks of PMN-accumulation were found by studying leukocyte kinetics: a larger peak between 0 and 6 hr and a smaller peak 18-24 hr after instillation of the microorganisms. Histologic studies confirmed the accumulation of leukocytes, and by 3 weeks showed a complete resolution of the lesions.

  15. Cross sections of the 56Fe(n ,α ) 53Cr and 54Fe(n ,α ) 51Cr reactions in the MeV region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhimin; Fan, Xiao; Zhang, Luyu; Bai, Huaiyong; Chen, Jinxiang; Zhang, Guohui; Gledenov, Yu. M.; Sedysheva, M. V.; Krupa, L.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.

    2015-10-01

    Cross sections of the 56Fe(n ,α ) 53Cr and 54Fe(n ,α )51Cr reactions were measured at En=5.5 and 6.5 MeV and En=4.0 ,4.5 ,5.5 ,and 6.5 MeV , respectively, using a double-section gridded ionization chamber as the α -particle detector. Natural iron and enriched 56Fe and 54Fe foil samples were prepared. A deuterium gas target was used to produce monoenergetic neutrons through the 2H(d ,n )3He reaction. Two rounds of experiments were performed at the 4.5-MV Van de Graaff Accelerator of Peking University. The foreground and background were measured in separate runs. The neutron flux was monitored by a B F3 long counter, and the cross sections of the 238U(n ,f ) reaction were used as the standard. Present results are compared with those of the talys-1.6 code calculations, existing measurements, and evaluations.

  16. Renal distribution volumes of indocyanine green, ( 51 Cr)EDTA, and 24 Na in man during acute renal failure after shock. Implications for the pathogenesis of anuria.

    PubMed

    Reubi, F C; Vorburger, C; Tuckman, J

    1973-02-01

    The mechanism responsible for the anuria in acute renal failure after shock is still controversial. Suppressed glomerular filtration and/or tubular back-diffusion of the filtrate are major possible causes. In the present investigation, seven patients with acute anuria, three of these seven again in the polyuric phase, six patients with moderate renal impairment, four patients with chronic renal failure, and eight subjects with normal renal function were studied by a multiple indicator-dilution method in which the total renal blood flow and renal distribution volumes of indocyanine green, [(51)Cr]EDTA, and (24)Na were determined. In normal subjects the average values for one kidney were 582 ml/min, 42 ml, 92 ml, and 139 ml, respectively. The measurements in the patients with moderate renal impairment were similar to those in the normal subjects, but were decreased in chronic renal failure. In acute anuria, the average values were 269 ml/min, 40 ml, 101 ml, and 114 ml and the kidney volume, estimated radiographically, was increased by 40%. When expressed as milliliters per milliliters kidney, the average distribution volume of (24)Na was decreased from 0.64 to 0.38. This decrease is consistent with the hypothesis that suppressed filtration is largely responsible for the anuria and that back-diffusion is, at most, a contributory factor. The apparent contradiction between the relatively well-preserved total blood flow and the suppressed filtration may be due to a combination of afferent vasoconstriction and efferent vasodilatation. This view is supported by the observation that low filtration fractions were found in clearance measurements performed during the polyuric phase.

  17. Renal Distribution Volumes of Indocyanine Green, [51Cr]EDTA, and 24Na in Man during Acute Renal Failure after Shock. IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PATHOGENESIS OF ANURIA

    PubMed Central

    Reubi, F. C.; Vorburger, C.; Tuckman, J.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for the anuria in acute renal failure after shock is still controversial. Suppressed glomerular filtration and/or tubular back-diffusion of the filtrate are major possible causes. In the present investigation, seven patients with acute anuria, three of these seven again in the polyuric phase, six patients with moderate renal impairment, four patients with chronic renal failure, and eight subjects with normal renal function were studied by a multiple indicator-dilution method in which the total renal blood flow and renal distribution volumes of indocyanine green, [51Cr]EDTA, and 24Na were determined. In normal subjects the average values for one kidney were 582 ml/min, 42 ml, 92 ml, and 139 ml, respectively. The measurements in the patients with moderate renal impairment were similar to those in the normal subjects, but were decreased in chronic renal failure. In acute anuria, the average values were 269 ml/min, 40 ml, 101 ml, and 114 ml and the kidney volume, estimated radiographically, was increased by 40%. When expressed as milliliters per milliliters kidney, the average distribution volume of 24Na was decreased from 0.64 to 0.38. This decrease is consistent with the hypothesis that suppressed filtration is largely responsible for the anuria and that back-diffusion is, at most, a contributory factor. The apparent contradiction between the relatively well-preserved total blood flow and the suppressed filtration may be due to a combination of afferent vasoconstriction and efferent vasodilatation. This view is supported by the observation that low filtration fractions were found in clearance measurements performed during the polyuric phase. PMID:4630601

  18. Cocktail Therapy of 177Lu-PSMA-617 and 177Lu-EDTMP in Patients With mCRPC: A Proof-of-Principle Application.

    PubMed

    Bal, Chandrasekhar; Yadav, Madhav Prasad; Ballal, Sanjana

    2016-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common primary tumor affecting men worldwide. Among them, 10-20% develop castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Ga-PSMA-PET/CT is an important theranostic agent for the evaluation of CRPC to assess the feasibility of treatment with Lu-PSMA-617 which is a novel therapeutic agent. Interestingly, in certain cases, we have observed non-PSMA-avid lesions despite raised sPSA levels. In this regard, we present a case of cocktail therapy applied using Lu-PSMA-617 and Lu-EDTMP therapy in a 38-year-old male CRPC patient with both soft tissue and extensive skeletal metastases.

  19. Production of 177Lu, a potential radionuclide for diagnostic and therapeutic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Haba, Hiromitsu; Kassim, Hasan Abu

    2015-04-01

    177gLu (T1/2=6.647d; Eβ-max=498.3 KeV, Iβ-total=100 % ; Eγ = 112.9498 keV, Iγ = 6.17%; Eγ = 208.3662 keV, I γ = 10.36%) is widely used in many clinical procedures due to its excellent decay characteristics. Production cross-sections of the natYb(d,x)177gLu reactions have been measured from a 24-MeV deuteron energy down to the threshold by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. An overall good agreement is found with some of the earlier measurements, whereas a partial agreement is obtained with the theoretical data extracted from the TENDL-2013 library. Physical thick target yield for the 177gLu radionuclide was deduced using the measured cross-sections. The deduced yield curves indicate that a low energy (<11 MeV) cyclotron and a highly enriched 176Yb target could be used to obtain 177gLu with negligible impurity from 177mLu.

  20. Production of {sup 177}Lu, a potential radionuclide for diagnostic and therapeutic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Haba, Hiromitsu

    2015-04-24

    {sup 177g}Lu (T{sub 1/2}=6.647d; E{sub β{sup −max}}=498.3KeV, I{sub β{sup −total}}=100%; E{sub γ} = 112.9498 keV, I{sub γ} = 6.17%; E{sub γ} = 208.3662 keV, I {sub γ} = 10.36%) is widely used in many clinical procedures due to its excellent decay characteristics. Production cross-sections of the {sup nat}Yb(d,x){sup 177g}Lu reactions have been measured from a 24-MeV deuteron energy down to the threshold by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. An overall good agreement is found with some of the earlier measurements, whereas a partial agreement is obtained with the theoretical data extracted from the TENDL-2013 library. Physical thick target yield for the {sup 177g}Lu radionuclide was deduced using the measured cross-sections. The deduced yield curves indicate that a low energy (<11 MeV) cyclotron and a highly enriched {sup 176}Yb target could be used to obtain {sup 177g}Lu with negligible impurity from {sup 177m}Lu.

  1. Excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk following administration of /sup 125/I-fibrinogen, /sup 99/Tc/sup m/-MAA and /sup 51/Cr-EDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.; Nosslin, B.; Ahlgren, L.

    1981-06-01

    Very few biokinetic and dosimetric data for estimating the absorbed dose to a breast-feeding child are available in the literature. The few available are usually case reports. We have measured the activity concentration in breast milk from one patient after administration of /sup 125/I-fibrinogen, from two patients after administration of /sup 99/Tc/sup m/-macroaggregated albumin, and from one patient after administration of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA. We have compared our data with earlier published results and estimated the absorbed dose to the breast-feeding child using biokinetic data presented in this work and recently published S-values for new-born children.

  2. Effects of cryopreservation on effector cells for antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and natural killer (NK) cell activity in (51)Cr-release and CD107a assays.

    PubMed

    Mata, Mariana M; Mahmood, Fareeha; Sowell, Ryan T; Baum, Linda L

    2014-04-01

    Freshly isolated PBMC are broadly used as effector cells in functional assays that evaluate antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and NK activity; however, they introduce natural-individual donor-to-donor variability. Cryopreserved PBMC provide a more consistent source of effectors than fresh cells in cytotoxicity assays. Our objective was to determine the effects of cryopreservation of effector PBMC on cell frequency, and on the magnitude and specificity of ADCC and NK activity. Fresh, frozen/overnight rested and frozen/not rested PBMC were used as effector cells in (51)Cr-release and CD107a degranulation assays. Frozen/overnight rested PBMC had higher ADCC and NK activity in both assays when compared to fresh PBMC; however, when using frozen/not rested PBMC, ADCC and NK activities were significantly lower than fresh PBMC. Background CD107a degranulation in the absence of target cell stimulation was greater in PBMC that were frozen/not rested when compared to fresh PBMC or PBMC that were frozen overnight and rested. The percentages of CD16(+)CD56(dim) NK cells and CD14(+) monocytes were lower in PBMC that were frozen and rested overnight than in fresh PBMC. CD16 expression on CD56(dim) NK cells was similar for all PBMC treatments. PBMC that were frozen and rested overnight were comparable to fresh PBMC effectors. PBMC that were frozen and used immediately when evaluating ADCC or NK activity using either a (51)Cr-release assay or a CD107a degranulation assay had the lowest activity. Clinical studies of antibodies that mediate ADCC would benefit from using effector cells that have been frozen, thawed and rested overnight prior to assay.

  3. Exaggerated natriuretic response to isotonic volume expansion in hypertensive renal transplant recipients: evaluation of proximal and distal tubular reabsorption by simultaneous determination of renal plasma clearance of lithium and 51Cr-EDTA.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A H; Knudsen, F; Danielsen, H; Pedersen, E B; Fjeldborg, P; Madsen, M; Brøchner-Mortensen, J; Kornerup, H J

    1987-02-01

    In fourteen hypertensive and fourteen normotensive renal transplant recipients, and in a group of thirteen healthy controls, changes in natriuresis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and tubular reabsorption of sodium were determined in relation to intravenous infusion of 2 mmol isotonic sodium chloride per kg body weight. An exaggerated natriuresis was demonstrated in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients. This new finding indicates that the augmented natriuresis following plasma volume expansion, which is a characteristic finding in subjects with arterial hypertension, is not mediated by the renal nerves. Investigation of the tubular reabsorption rates of sodium by simultaneous determination of the renal clearance of 51Cr-EDTA and lithium showed that in the hypertensives the changes in tubular handling of sodium were different from those registered in the normotensive subjects. The increased sodium excretion in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients was caused by an increased output of sodium from the proximal tubules which was not fully compensated for by an increased distal reabsorption. Whether this increased delivery of sodium to the distal segments was caused by changes in GFR or in the proximal tubular reabsorption of sodium could not be clarified in the present study and warrants further investigations.

  4. Positive Influence of 177Lu PSMA-617 Therapy on Bone Marrow Depression Caused by Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schlenkhoff, Carl Diedrich; Gaertner, Florian; Essler, Markus; Schmidt, Matthias; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat

    2016-06-01

    A 75-year-old man with castrate-resistant prostate cancer and increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level developed severe bone marrow depression during Ra radionuclide therapy. Because of this, he was treated with Lu-PSMA in compassionate use for this not-yet-approved therapy. At the beginning of Lu-PSMA therapy, repeated blood transfusions (BT) were necessary. Six months after the last BT, after 3 cycles of Lu-PSMA, his blood count stabilized. He required no further BTs and his PSA level remained lowered.

  5. Successful Treatment of Hepatic Metastases of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer Using Radioligand Therapy With 177Lu-PSMA-617.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao; Schlenkhoff, Carl; Sopora, Claudia; Essler, Markus; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat

    2016-11-01

    An 81-year-old castrate-resistant prostate cancer man with multiple lymph node, bone, and hepatic metastases received four cycles of Lu-PSMA-617 treatments at our department from May to December 2015. All of his liver metastases showed PSMA expression in Ga-PSMA PET performed before the first cycle. Under this therapy, all of the metastases showed significant regression in size and PSMA expression over time.

  6. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with (177)Lu DOTATATE in a case of recurrent carotid body paraganglioma with spinal metastases.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Singla, Suhas; Karunanithi, Sellam; Damle, Nishikant; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2014-05-01

    Paragangliomas are rare benign neuroendocrine tumors, and 80% of all paragangliomas are either carotid body tumors or glomus jugulare tumors. We present a case of recurrent unresectable carotid body paraganglioma with nodal and T7 vertebral metastases in a 30-year-old man 6 years postsurgery detected with Ga DOTANOC PET/CT and was administered with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using Lu DOTATATE. After 5 cycles of Lu DOTATATE (total cumulative activity of 750 mCi [27 GBq]), significant response at the primary site on Ga DOTANOC PET/CT and complete disappearance of nodal and T7 vertebral metastases were noted.

  7. Does the pretherapeutic tumor SUV in 68Ga DOTATOC PET predict the absorbed dose of 177Lu octreotate?

    PubMed

    Ezziddin, Samer; Lohmar, Jonas; Yong-Hing, Charlotte J; Sabet, Amir; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Kukuk, Guido; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen; Guhlke, Stefan; Reichmann, Karl

    2012-06-01

    Selection of candidates for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is increasingly based on receptor positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, including the common tracer 68Ga DOTATOC. However, no studies have yet compared standardized uptake values (SUVs) and absorbed doses in this field. We retrospectively analyzed a consecutive cohort of 21 patients with 61 evaluable tumor lesions undergoing both pretherapeutic 68Ga DOTATOC-PET/CT (Biograph Duo [Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany]; PET acquisition, 75.3 ± 15.4 minutes postinjection; 117.3 ± 33.9 MBq 68Ga DOTATOC) and PRRT with Lu octreotate (7.47 ± 1.39 GBq; intratherapeutic tumor dosimetry with serial whole-body scans; 1, 2, and 4 days postinjection) at our institution. SUVs were compared with the tumor-absorbed doses per injected activity (D/A0) of the subsequent first treatment cycle. The correlation of SUV and D/A0 was r = 0.72 (SUVmean) and r = 0.71 (SUVmax), both P < 0.001. Pancreatic origin and hepatic localization were associated with higher D/A0, and chromogranin A level and Ki-67 index had no influence on SUV or D/A0. High-SUV lesions (SUVmean >15; SUVmax >25) resulted in high D/A0 (>10 Gy/GBq) in 66.7% to 70.8% and low D/A0 (<5 Gy/GBq) in only 8.3% to 12.5% on subsequent PRRT. The mentioned low D/A0 range, on the other hand, was achieved by all lesions with SUVmean <7 or SUVmax <9. Somatostatin receptor PET imaging may predict tumor-absorbed doses. The ability to indicate insufficient target irradiation by a low SUV could aid in selection of appropriate candidates for PRRT. However, larger series are needed to confirm and validate these initial findings.

  8. Skin dose saving of the staff in 90Y/177Lu peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with the automatic dose dispenser.

    PubMed

    Fioroni, Federica; Grassi, Elisa; Giorgia, Cavatorta; Sara, Rubagotti; Piccagli, Vando; Filice, Angelina; Mostacci, Domiziano; Versari, Annibale; Iori, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    When handling Y-labelled and Lu-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, skin exposure is mainly due to β-particles. This study aimed to investigate the equivalent dose saving of the staff when changing from an essentially manual radiolabelling procedure to an automatic dose dispenser (ADD). The chemist and physician were asked to wear thermoluminescence dosimeters on their fingertips to evaluate the quantity of Hp(0.07) on the skin. Data collected were divided into two groups: before introducing ADD (no ADD) and after introducing ADD. For the chemist, the mean values (95th percentile) of Hp(0.07) for no ADD and ADD are 0.030 (0.099) and 0.019 (0.076) mSv/GBq, respectively, for Y, and 0.022 (0.037) and 0.007 (0.023) mSv/GBq, respectively, for Lu. The reduction for ADD was significant (t-test with P<0.05) for both isotopes. The relative differences before and after ADD collected for every finger were treated using the Wilcoxon test, proving a significantly higher reduction in extremity dose to each fingertip for Lu than for Y (P<0.05). For the medical staff, the mean values of Hp(0.07) (95th percentile) for no ADD and ADD are 0.021 (0.0762) and 0.0143 (0.0565) mSv/GBq, respectively, for Y, and 0.0011 (0.00196) and 0.0009 (0.00263) mSv/GBq, respectively, for Lu. The t-test provided a P-value less than 0.05 for both isotopes, making the difference between ADD and no ADD significant. ADD positively affects the dose saving of the chemist in handling both isotopes. For the medical staff not directly involved with the introduction of the ADD system, the analysis shows a learning curve of the workers over a 5-year period. Specific devices and procedures allow staff skin dose to be limited.

  9. Endovascular Brachytherapy in the Femoropopliteal Segment Using {sup 192}Ir and {sup 188}Re

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, Walter A.; Leissner, Giesbert; Wengenmair, Hermann; Bohndorf, Klaus; Kirchhof, Klaus

    2008-07-15

    This report presents a review of the literature on endovascular brachytherapy (EVBT) after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in the femoropopliteal segment. We summarize the pathophysiological changes induced by PTA and EVBT within the vessel wall, technical considerations regarding various radiation sources and their application, the impact of stents on the radial dose profile, recommendations for dosimetry of beta and gamma sources, results of experimental and clinical trials, and the medication required before, during, and after EVBT. We aim to help to identify patients who are eligible for EVBT, to choose an appropriate technical approach, and to initiate adequate antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy.

  10. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) Dose-Escalation Studies in Prostate Cancer Using Anti-PSMA Antibody 177Lu-J591: RIT Alone and RIT in Combination with Docetaxel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    count < 15,000 > 7 days or need for > 3 plt transfusions in 30 days • Gr 4 neutropenia > 7 days • Febrile neutropenia • Attributable Gr > 3...11% No febrile neutropenia (no growth factor use) • Transaminitis Transient Gr 1 AST 29% (1 Gr 2) Need for transfusions 6 pts...No pts had significant bleeding; 2 received plt transfusions (cohort 6) • Neutropenia Gr 0 = 40%; Gr 1-2 = 32%; Gr 3 = 29%; Gr 4

  11. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) Dose-Escalation Studies in Prostate Cancer Using Anti-PSMA Antibody 177Lu-J591: RIT Alone and RIT in Combination with Docetaxel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    for > 3 platelet transfusion in 30 days • Gr 4 neutropenia • Febrile neutropenia • Attributable Gr > 3 non-hematologic toxicity (excluding infusion...0% No febrile neutropenia (no growth factor use) • Transaminitis (n=12 evaluable) Transient Gr 1 17% (no Gr > 1) Figure-1...therapies and 36% progressed on 1-4 lines of chemotherapy including docetaxel. No DLT’s have been seen. 2 pts experienced reversible Gr 3 neutropenia

  12. Post-therapeutic dosimetry of 177Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617 in the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Madhav P; Ballal, Sanjana; Tripathi, Madhavi; Damle, Nishikant A; Sahoo, Ranjit K; Seth, Amlesh; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2017-01-01

    Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617, a urea-based compound, binds to the extracellular domain of prostate-specific membrane antigen, thus providing an effective target for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Before its therapeutic use, it is necessary that the radiation dosimetry of this radiopharmaceutical be studied to determine the safe activity that can be administered in patients to prevent haematological, renal and liver toxicity. The present study thus aimed to assess the pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617 in CRPC patients. After obtaining ethical clearance from the institute ethics review board, we enrolled mCRPC patients who were positive on a Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys-(Ahx)-[Ga(HBED-CC)] PET/CT scan. For kidney protection, a cocktail of lysine and arginine diluted in 2 litres of normal saline was infused, starting from 30 to 60 min before Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617 infusion. The mean administered activity in the overall population was 2.52±1.3 GBq. For the purpose of dosimetry, each patient underwent nine planar whole-body scans along with blood and urine sample collection at 0.5, 3.5, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 h, respectively. SPECT/CT was performed to derive the volume of salivary glands (parotid and submandibular glands) and tumour. Dosimetric evaluation was carried out using the OLINDA/EXM 1.0 software. A total of 26 mCRPC patients with a mean age of 66.30±9.95 years (range: 38-81 years) were recruited. Normal physiological uptake was observed in all the patients in the lacrimal glands, salivary glands (parotid glands and submandibular glands), liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines and urinary bladder. Organs with the highest absorbed doses were the salivary glands, followed by the kidneys, receiving 1.24±0.26 and 0.99±0.31 mGy/MBq, respectively. The mean absorbed doses to the liver, urinary bladder and red marrow were 0.36±0.10, 0.243±0.09 and 0.048±0.05 mGy/MBq, respectively. The mean whole-body dose was 0.016±0.003 mGy/MBq. Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617 therapy is a safe option in the treatment of mCRPC patients.

  13. The Influence of Linker Length on the Properties of Cathepsin S Cleavable 177Lu-labeled HPMA Copolymers for Pancreatic Cancer Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wen; Wagh, Nilesh K.; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Jia, Yinnong; Brusnahan, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers have shown promise for application in the detection and staging of cancer. However, non-target accumulation, particularly in the liver and spleen, hinders the detection of resident or nearby metastatic lesions thereby decreasing diagnostic effectiveness. Our laboratory has pursued the development of cathepsin S susceptible linkers (CSLs) to reduce the non-target accumulation of diagnostic/radiotherapeutic HPMA copolymers. In this study, we ascertain if the length of the linking group impacts the cleavage and clearance kinetics, relative to each other and a non-cleavable control, due to a reduction in steric inhibition. Three different CSLs with linking groups of various lengths (0, 6 and 13 atoms) were conjugated to HPMA copolymers. In vitro cleavage studies revealed that the longest linking group (13 atoms) led to more rapid cleavage when challenged with cathepsin S. The CSL incorporated HPMA copolymers demonstrated significantly higher levels of excretion and a significant decrease in long-term hepatic and splenic retention relative to the non-cleavable control. Contrary to in vitro observations, the length of the linking group did not substantially impact the non-target in vivo clearance. In the case of HPAC tumor retention, the CSL with the null (0 atom) linker demonstrated significantly higher levels of retention relative to the other CSLs. Given these results, we find that the length of the linking group of the CSLs did not substantially impact non-target clearance, but did influence tumor retention. Overall, these results demonstrate that the CSLs can substantially improve the non-target clearance of HPMA copolymers thereby enhancing clinical potential. PMID:24755528

  14. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with Y-DOTATOC and (177)Lu-DOTATOC in advanced neuroendocrine tumors: results from a Danish cohort treated in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Andreas Klaus; Gregersen, Tine; Grønbæk, Henning; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs; Müller-Brand, Jan; Herskind Bruun, Karin; Krogh, Klaus; Kjær, Andreas; Knigge, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Limited therapeutic options have highlighted the demand for new treatment modalities for patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Promising results of initial studies have warranted the implementation of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in clinical practice. However, this treatment option still needs clinical evaluation. In this study, we evaluated the PRRT treatment response of 69 Danish patients with NET mainly originating from the gastroenteropancreatic system. Fifty-six patients (81%) were referred for PRRT to the Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Switzerland, between 2004 and 2008 due to progression assessed by the referring physicians. However, when retrospectively evaluated, only 42 of the 69 patients (61%) had progression according to RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors). Most patients were treated with ⁹⁰Y-DOTATOC. Based on RECIST, a complete response was observed in 5 patients (7.4%), a partial response in 11 patients (16.2%) and stable disease in 42 patients (61.8%). Progressive disease after completed therapy was observed in 10 patients (14.7%). The median progression-free survival was 29 months (95% CI: 22-36 months). Pancreatic NET seemed to respond better to PRRT than small intestinal carcinoid tumors (p = 0.03). The overall frequency of serious adverse events was low. Implementation of PRRT in clinical routine has provided a valuable new therapeutic option for the treatment of advanced NET. We suggest that PRRT may advance from second- or third-line to first- or second-line therapy in inoperable/unresectable NET patients. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Combination of 177Lu-PSMA-617 and External Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Cerebral Metastases in Patients With Castration-Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao; Schlenkhoff, Carl; Schwarz, Bettina; Essler, Markus; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat

    2017-09-01

    Two castration-resistant prostate cancer patients, both with cerebral and visceral and lymphatic metastases, received multiple cycles of Lu-PSMA-617 treatments. The prognosis of both cases is dependent on brain metastases. Between Lu-PSMA-617 treatment cycles, local radiotherapy was also applied to the brain metastases. Prior to the combined therapy, all systemic metastases, including cerebral lesions, showed PSMA expression using Ga-PSMA PET/CT. Under the combined therapy, all the metastases, particularly the cerebral lesions, showed significant regression in size and PSMA expression over time.

  16. Effectiveness of quenchers to reduce radiolysis of (111)In- or (177)Lu-labelled methionine-containing regulatory peptides. Maintaining radiochemical purity as measured by HPLC.

    PubMed

    de Blois, Erik; Chan, Ho Sze; Konijnenberg, Mark; de Zanger, Rory; Breeman, Wouter A P

    2012-01-01

    An overview how to measure and to quantify radiolysis by the addition of quenchers and to maintain Radio-Chemical Purity (RCP) of vulnerable methionine-containing regulatory peptides is presented. High RCP was only achieved with a combination of quenchers. However, quantification of RCP is not standardized, and therefore comparison of radiolabelling and RCP of regulatory peptides between different HPLC-systems and between laboratories is cumbersome. Therefore we suggest a set of standardized requirements to quantify RCP by HPLC for radiolabelled DTPA- or DOTA-peptides. Moreover, a dosimetry model was developed to calculate the doses in the reaction vials during radiolabelling and storage of the radiopeptides, and to predict RCP in the presence and absence of quenchers. RCP was measured by HPLC, and a relation between radiation dose and radiolysis of RCP was established. The here described quenchers are tested individually as ƒ(concentration) to investigate efficacy to reduce radiolysis of radiolabelled methionine-containing regulatory peptides.

  17. (99m)Tc HYNIC-TOC imaging and 177Lu DOTA-octreotate treatment in non-iodine-concentrating dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma metastases: an unusual alternative diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sandip; Joshi, Amit

    2014-07-01

    The value of Tc HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy clarifying skeletal and hepatic-predominant metastatic disease in a 55-year-old woman (diagnosed earlier to have papillary carcinoma thyroid and had undergone total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation) is illustrated. The whole-body radioiodine scan and battery of serum tumor markers were normal. Multiple metastatic foci in the liver and skeleton were Tc HYNIC-TOC avid. Serum chromogranin A level was substantially elevated (1771.60 ng/mL). This represents an unusual alternative diagnosis signified by a highly positive scan in the setting of apparent non-iodine-concentrating metastatic disease in a patient of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  18. Fibrin glue system for adjuvant brachytherapy of brain tumors with 188Re and 186Re-labeled microspheres.

    PubMed

    Häfeli, Urs O; Pauer, Gayle J; Unnithan, Jaya; Prayson, Richard A

    2007-03-01

    Brain tumors such as glioblastoma reappear in their original location in almost 50% of cases. To prevent this recurrence, we developed a radiopharmaceutical system that consists of a gel applied immediately after surgical resection of a brain tumor to deliver local radiation booster doses. The gel, which strongly adheres to tissue in the treatment area, consists of fibrin glue containing the beta-emitters rhenium-188 and rhenium-186 in microsphere-bound form. Such microspheres can be prepared by short (2 h or less) neutron activation even in low neutron flux reactors, yielding a mixture of the two beta-emitters rhenium-188 (E(max)=2.1 MeV, half life=17 h) and rhenium-186 (E(max)=1.1 MeV, half life=90.6h). The dosimetry of this rhenium-188/rhenium-186 fibrin glue system was determined using gafchromic film measurements. The treatment efficacy of the radioactive fibrin glue was measured in a 9L-glioblastoma rat model. All animals receiving the non-radioactive fibrin glue died within 17+/-3 days, whereas 60% of the treated animals survived 36 days, the final length of the experiment. Control animals that were treated with the same amount of radioactive fibrin glue, but had not received a previous tumor cell injection, showed no toxic effects over one year. The beta-radiation emitting rhenium-188/rhenium-186-based gel thus provides an effective method of delivering high doses of local radiation to tumor tissue, particularly to wet areas where high adhesive strength and long-term radiation (with or without drug) delivery are needed.

  19. Comparative analysis of 11 different radioisotopes for palliative treatment of bone metastases by computational methods

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra Liberal, Francisco D. C. E-mail: adriana-tavares@msn.com; Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S. E-mail: adriana-tavares@msn.com; Tavares, João Manuel R. S.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Throughout the years, the palliative treatment of bone metastases using bone seeking radiotracers has been part of the therapeutic resources used in oncology, but the choice of which bone seeking agent to use is not consensual across sites and limited data are available comparing the characteristics of each radioisotope. Computational simulation is a simple and practical method to study and to compare a variety of radioisotopes for different medical applications, including the palliative treatment of bone metastases. This study aims to evaluate and compare 11 different radioisotopes currently in use or under research for the palliative treatment of bone metastases using computational methods. Methods: Computational models were used to estimate the percentage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage (fast Monte Carlo damage algorithm), the probability of correct DNA repair (Monte Carlo excision repair algorithm), and the radiation-induced cellular effects (virtual cell radiobiology algorithm) post-irradiation with selected particles emitted by phosphorus-32 ({sup 32}P), strontium-89 ({sup 89}Sr), yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y ), tin-117 ({sup 117m}Sn), samarium-153 ({sup 153}Sm), holmium-166 ({sup 166}Ho), thulium-170 ({sup 170}Tm), lutetium-177 ({sup 177}Lu), rhenium-186 ({sup 186}Re), rhenium-188 ({sup 188}Re), and radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra). Results: {sup 223}Ra alpha particles, {sup 177}Lu beta minus particles, and {sup 170}Tm beta minus particles induced the highest cell death of all investigated particles and radioisotopes. The cell survival fraction measured post-irradiation with beta minus particles emitted by {sup 89}Sr and {sup 153}Sm, two of the most frequently used radionuclides in the palliative treatment of bone metastases in clinical routine practice, was higher than {sup 177}Lu beta minus particles and {sup 223}Ra alpha particles. Conclusions: {sup 223}Ra and {sup 177}Lu hold the highest potential for palliative treatment of bone metastases of all

  20. Targeted Cancer Therapy with a Novel Anti-CD37 Beta-Particle Emitting Radioimmunoconjugate for Treatment of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Repetto-Llamazares, Ada H. V.; Larsen, Roy H.; Patzke, Sebastian; Fleten, Karianne G.; Didierlaurent, David; Pichard, Alexandre; Pouget, Jean Pierre; Dahle, Jostein

    2015-01-01

    177Lu-DOTA-HH1 (177Lu-HH1) is a novel anti-CD37 radioimmunoconjugate developed to treat non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mice with subcutaneous Ramos xenografts were treated with different activities of 177Lu-HH1, 177Lu-DOTA-rituximab (177Lu-rituximab) and non-specific 177Lu-DOTA-IgG1 (177Lu-IgG1) and therapeutic effect and toxicity of the treatment were monitored. Significant tumor growth delay and increased survival of mice were observed in mice treated with 530 MBq/kg 177Lu-HH1 as compared with mice treated with similar activities of 177Lu-rituximab or non-specific 177Lu-IgG1, 0.9% NaCl or unlabeled HH1. All mice injected with 530 MBq/kg of 177Lu-HH1 tolerated the treatment well. In contrast, 6 out of 10 mice treated with 530 MBq/kg 177Lu-rituximab experienced severe radiation toxicity. The retention of 177Lu-rituximab in organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system was longer than for 177Lu-HH1, which explains the higher toxicity observed in mice treated with 177Lu-rituximab. In vitro internalization studies showed that 177Lu-HH1 internalizes faster and to a higher extent than 177Lu-rituximab which might be the reason for the better therapeutic effect of 177Lu-HH1. PMID:26066655

  1. Peptide-Targeted Radionuclide Therapy for Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yubin; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R) and melanin are two attractive melanoma-specific targets for peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma. Radiolabeled peptides targeting MC1-R/melanin can selectively and specifically target cytotoxic radiation generated from therapeutic radionuclides to melanoma cells for cell killing, while sparing the normal tissues and organs. This review highlights the recent advances of peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma targeting MC1R and melanin. The promising therapeutic efficacies of 188Re-(Arg11)CCMSH (188Re-[Cys3,4,10, d-Phe7, Arg11]-α-MSH3-13), 177Lu- and 212Pb-labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-[ReO-(Cys3,4,10, d-Phe7, Arg11)]-α-MSH3-13) and 188Re-HYNIC-4B4 (188Re-hydrazinonicotinamide-Tyr-Glu-Arg-Lys-Phe-Trp-His-Gly-Arg-His) in preclinical melanoma-bearing models demonstrate an optimistic outlook for peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma. Peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma will likely contribute in an adjuvant setting, once the primary tumor has been surgically removed, to treat metastatic deposits and for treatment of end-stage disease. The lack of effective treatments for metastatic melanoma and end stage disease underscores the necessity to develop and implement new treatment strategies, such as peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy. PMID:18387816

  2. Quantitative estimation of hemorrhage in chronic subdural hematoma using the /sup 51/Cr erythrocyte labeling method

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Saito, K.; Ikeda, K.; Hisada, K.

    1987-06-01

    Red cell survival studies using an infusion of chromium-51-labeled erythrocytes were performed to quantitatively estimate hemorrhage in the chronic subdural hematoma cavity of 50 patients. The amount of hemorrhage was determined during craniotomy. Between 6 and 24 hours after infusion of the labeled red cells, hemorrhage accounted for a mean of 6.7% of the hematoma content, indicating continuous or intermittent hemorrhage into the cavity. The clinical state of the patients and the density of the chronic subdural hematoma on computerized tomography scans were related to the amount of hemorrhage. Chronic subdural hematomas with a greater amount of hemorrhage frequently consisted of clots rather than fluid.

  3. An in vitro assay for uni-directional migration inhibition employing 51Cr-labelled macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Noronha-Blob, L; Huang, S W

    1980-01-01

    An improved in vitro technique to assay for migration inhibitory factor is presented. The method employs chromium-51-radiolabelled guinea-pig macrophages and offers significant advantages including (1) elimination of observer to observer variation and tedious measurements resulting in an objective and technically simple assay, (2) the requirement for small numbers of immune lymphocytes, (3) good sensitivity and reproducibility between successive assays performed on different days, and (4) a means of obtaining relative estimates of the 'strength' (concentration) of the factor so that comparisons with healthy individuals can be made. PMID:6998620

  4. Comparison of 111In-[DTPA0]Octreotide Versus Non Carrier Added 177Lu- [DOTA0,Tyr3]-Octreotate Efficacy in Patients With GEP-NET Treated Intra-arterially for Liver Metastases.

    PubMed

    Limouris, G S; Poulantzas, V; Trompoukis, N; Karfis, I; Chondrogiannis, S; Triantafyllou, N; Gennimata, V; Moulopoulou, L-E; Patsouris, E; Nikou, G; Michalaki, V; Fragulidis, G; Paphiti, M; McCready, R V; Colletti, P M; Cook, G J; Rubello, D

    2016-03-01

    In patients with progressive, metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NET), intra-arterial radionuclide infusions with high activities of In-[DTPA]-octreotide and more recently with non-carrier added (nca) Lu-[DOTA,Tyr]-octreotate have been performed with encouraging results. However, the affinity profiles (IC50) of these radiopeptides for human sst2 receptors are markedly different (In-[DTPA]-octreotide, 22 ± 3.6 nM and nca Lu-[DOTA,Tyr]-octreotate, 1.5 ± 4.0 nM). The total administered activity is determined by organ dose limits (kidneys and bone marrow), and our aim therefore was to compare and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of both radiopeptides in metastatic NETs. Thirty patients with gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) somatostatin-positive NETs with liver metastases confirmed on biopsy and In-pentetreotide scan were included. They were treated with In-[DTPA]-octreotide (n = 17) or nca Lu-[DOTA,Tyr]-octreotate (n = 13). Blood samples were collected 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours postadministration to calculate residence time in blood and in red marrow. The maximum percentage uptake in organs and tumors was estimated by region of interest analysis, and tumor dosimetry calculations were performed using OLINDA/EXM/ 1.0 software. ncaLu-[DOTA,Tyr3]-octreotate blood radioactivity, expressed as a percentage of the injected dose, was significantly lower than In-[DTPA]-octreotide (P < 0.05), as clearly depicted from the time-activity curves; the background-corrected tumor uptake was significantly higher than In-[DTPA]-octreotide but without any significant difference in other organs (spleen, kidneys, and liver). Using Lu-[DOTA,Tyr]-octreotate, a 3-fold higher absorbed dose to tumor tissue was achieved compared with In-[DTPA] octreotide. Residence time of nca Lu-[DOTA,Tyr]-octreotate results in a significantly higher absorbed dose to bone marrow compared with In-[DTPA]-octreotide. However, a drawback of In-[DTPA]-octreotide therapy is that the number of administrations would need to be almost doubled to achieve an equal therapeutic outcome as compared with Lu-[DOTA,Tyr]-octreotate.

  5. Excellent Response to 177Lu-PSMA-617 Radioligand Therapy in a Patient With Advanced Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer Evaluated by 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Roll, Wolfgang; Bode, Axel; Weckesser, Matthias; Bögemann, Martin; Rahbar, Kambiz

    2017-02-01

    Recently radiolabeled ligands targeting prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been introduced for diagnostics and treatment of prostate cancer. Labeled with Lutetium, PSMA radioligand therapy (RLT) is one of the most promising new treatments of metastatic castration refractory prostate cancer. We present images of Ga-PSMA PET/CT and parameters of response of a 75-year-old heavily pretreated metastatic castration refractory prostate cancer patient with extended bone metastases, showing an extraordinary biochemical response in PSA-levels concordant to SUV decline in bone metastases. Furthermore, this case shows that CT is of no use in assessing response in bone metastases of prostate cancer.

  6. BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Lu-177 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 177Lu for the NPL (UK) and the IRMM (EU), with linked results for the comparison CCRI(II)-K2.Lu-177

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Johansson, L.; Keightley, J.; Arinc, A.; Bakhshandeiar, E.; Pommé, S.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Paepen, J.; Van Ammel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Two new participations in the comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Lu-177 have been added to the previous results and this has produced a revised value for the key comparison reference value (KCRV), calculated using the power-moderated weighted mean. A link has been made to the comparison CCRI(II)-K2.Lu-177 held in 2009 through the NPL and IRMM who participated in both comparisons. Two NMIs used the K2 comparison to update their degree of equivalence. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the International Reference System (SIR) and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table for the remaining two NMIs in the comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Lu-177 and the nine other participants in the comparison CCRI(II)-K2.Lu-177. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Radioisotope research, production, and processing at the University of Missouri Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrhardt, G.J.; Ketring, A.R.; Ja, Wei; Ma, D.; Zinn, K.; Lanigan, J.

    1995-12-31

    The University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) is a 10 MW, light-water-cooled and moderated research reactor which first achieved criticality in 1996 and is currently the highest powered university-owned research reactor in the U.S. For many years a major supplier of reactor-produced isotopes for research and commercial purposes, in the last 15 years MURR has concentrated on development of reactor-produced beta-particle emitters for experimental use in nuclear medicine therapy of cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. MURR has played a major role in the development of bone cancer pain palliation with the agents {sup 153}Sm EDTMP and {sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re HEDP, as well as in the use of {sup 186}Re, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 166}Ho, and {sup 105}Rh for radioimmunotherapy and receptor-agent-guided radiotherapy. MURR is also responsible for the development of therapeutic, {sup 90}Y-labeled glass microspheres for the treatment of liver tumors, a product ({sup 90}Y Therasphere{trademark}) which is currently an approved drug in Canada. MURR has also pioneered the development of {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re and {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc gel generators, which make the use of low specific activity {sup 188}W and {sup 99}Mo practical for such isotope generators.

  8. Matching chelators to radiometals for radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Price, Eric W; Orvig, Chris

    2014-01-07

    Radiometals comprise many useful radioactive isotopes of various metallic elements. When properly harnessed, these have valuable emission properties that can be used for diagnostic imaging techniques, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, e.g.(67)Ga, (99m)Tc, (111)In, (177)Lu) and positron emission tomography (PET, e.g.(68)Ga, (64)Cu, (44)Sc, (86)Y, (89)Zr), as well as therapeutic applications (e.g.(47)Sc, (114m)In, (177)Lu, (90)Y, (212/213)Bi, (212)Pb, (225)Ac, (186/188)Re). A fundamental critical component of a radiometal-based radiopharmaceutical is the chelator, the ligand system that binds the radiometal ion in a tight stable coordination complex so that it can be properly directed to a desirable molecular target in vivo. This article is a guide for selecting the optimal match between chelator and radiometal for use in these systems. The article briefly introduces a selection of relevant and high impact radiometals, and their potential utility to the fields of radiochemistry, nuclear medicine, and molecular imaging. A description of radiometal-based radiopharmaceuticals is provided, and several key design considerations are discussed. The experimental methods by which chelators are assessed for their suitability with a variety of radiometal ions is explained, and a large selection of the most common and most promising chelators are evaluated and discussed for their potential use with a variety of radiometals. Comprehensive tables have been assembled to provide a convenient and accessible overview of the field of radiometal chelating agents.

  9. Product speciation and aquation after the reaction of 51Cr(VI) with concentrated HCl or H2SO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzin, S. H.; Archundia, C.; Collins, K. E.; Collins, C. H.

    2000-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the reaction of Cr(VI) in concentrated hydrochloric acid or concentrated sulfuric acid, as well as to evaluate the products formed when complexing anions are present during the reaction. The results show that trace level Cr(VI) is rapidly reduced to Cr(III) in both 37% HCI and 98% H2SO4 in the absence of conventional reducing agents and that the initial products are, respectively, CrCl3(H2O)3 and Cr(H2O)2(SO4) 2 - }, which undergo slow aquation reactions at pH 1, giving Cr(H2O) 6 3+ .

  10. Phagocytosis-induced 51Cr release from activated macrophages and blood mononuclears. Effect of colchicine and antioxidants

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, M.P.; Hale, A.H.

    1981-09-01

    The chromium-release test was adapted to the measurement of the cellular injury induced when activated macrophages phagocytose particulates. Macrophages obtained from rabbit lungs undergoing BCG-induced chronic inflammation released more chromium when incubated in the presence of phagocytosable particles than when incubated under resting conditions. Blood mononuclear cells, 40-60% monocytes, procured from the same BCG-injected animals, were less susceptible to phagocytosis-induced injury than the macrophages obtained from the lungs. The amount of chromium released by the activated macrophages was proportional to the number of particles present during incubation. In the presence of catalase, the amounts of chromium released by phagocytosing and resting macrophages were similar; in the presence of superoxide dismutase and cytochrome c, the amount of chromium released by phagocytosing macrophages was 13-35% less than the amount of chromium released by macrophages incubated without the antioxidants. In addition, colchicine, an inhibitor of degranulation also exerted partial inhibition of the chromium release. These results suggest that oxygen radicals and lysosomal contents contribute to the cellular injury that results from phagocytosis.

  11. Posttransfusion Survival and Distribution of 51-CR Labeled Fresh and Liquid Preserved Syngeneic Mouse Red Blood Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    LABORATORY BOSTON UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE 615 ALBANY STREET BOSTON, MA 02118 CO 3 JUNE 1991 ZQ CO o Reproduction in whole or in part is...Distribution unlimited. 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (ol Cha abotract ontotod In Block 20, II dlltoranl bom Report) 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS...transfusion of nonviable red blood cells (RBC) inhibits the reticuloendothelial system. The study reported here examines the in vivo distribution of

  12. Palliative treatment of metastatic bone pain with radiopharmaceuticals: A perspective beyond Strontium-89 and Samarium-153.

    PubMed

    Guerra Liberal, Francisco D C; Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2016-04-01

    The present review article aims to provide an overview of the available radionuclides for palliative treatment of bone metastases beyond (89)Sr and (153)Sm. In addition, it aims to review and summarize the clinical outcomes associated with the palliative treatment of bone metastases using different radiopharmaceuticals. A literature search was conducted on Science Direct and PubMed databases (1990 - 2015). The following search terms were combined in order to obtain relevant results: "bone", "metastases", "palliative", "care", "therapy", "treatment", "radiotherapy", "review", "radiopharmaceutical", "phosphorus-32", "strontium-89", "yttrium-90", "tin-117m", "samarium-153", "holmium-166", "thulium-170", "lutetium-177", "rhenium-186", "rhenium-188" and "radium-223". Studies were included if they provided information regarding the clinical outcomes. A comparative analysis of the measured therapeutic response of different radiopharmaceuticals, based on previously published data, suggests that there is a lack of substantial differences in palliative efficacy among radiopharmaceuticals. However, when the comparative analysis adds factors such as patient's life expectancy, radionuclides' physical characteristics (e.g. tissue penetration range and half-life) and health economics to guide the rational selection of a radiopharmaceutical for palliative treatment of bone metastases, (177)Lu and (188)Re-labeled radiopharmaceuticals appear to be the most suitable radiopharmaceuticals for treatment of small and medium/large size bone lesions, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of Bone Surface Absorbed Dose in Treatment of Bone Metastases via Selected Radiopharmaceuticals: Using MCNP4C Code and Available Experimental Data.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Reza; Afarideh, Hossein; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi; Shirmardi, Seyed Pezhman; Samani, Ali Bahrami

    2015-05-01

    Bone metastases are major clinical concern that can cause severe problems for patients. Currently, various beta emitters are used for bone pain palliation. This study, describes the process for absorbed dose prediction of selected bone surface and volume-seeking beta emitter radiopharmaceuticals such as (32)P, (89)SrCl2,(90)Y-EDTMP,(153)Sm-EDTMP, (166)Ho-DOTMP, (177)Lu-EDTMP,(186)Re-HEDP, and (188)Re-HEDP in human bone, using MCNP code. Three coaxial sub-cylinders 5 cm in height and 1.2, 2.6, and 7.6 cm in diameter were used for bone marrow, bone, and muscle simulation respectively. The *F8 tally was employed to calculate absorbed dose in the MCNP4C simulations. Results show that with injection of 1 MBq of these radiopharmaceuticals given to a 70 kg adult man, (32)P, (89)SrCl2, and (90)Y-EDTMP radiopharmaceuticals will have the highest amount of bone surface absorbed dose, where beta particles will have the greatest proportion in absorbed dose of bone surface in comparison with gamma radiation. These results demonstrate moderate agreement with available experimental data.

  14. A critical quantum chemical and experimental study of the potentiality of direct labeling of the CN group with [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)](+) or [(186/188)Re(CO)(3)](+) in CN containing biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Safi, Benasser; Mertens, John; Kersemans, Ken; Geerlings, Paul

    2008-10-01

    It was determined recently that [(99m)Tc(OH(2))(2)(X(-))(CO(3))(3)] could strongly bind to the CN group, allowing direct labeling of CN in vitamin B(12) despite the presence of a benzimidazole group. The aim of this paper was to perform a critical study of this potentiality, coupling quantum chemical calculations to experimental evidence. Computational methods: Within the density functional theory calculations, the 6-31+G basis set (C, H, O, N atoms) and the LANL2DZ basis set (Tc,Re) were used. Stability calculations of the [RCNM(CO)(3)](+)) (M=Tc,Re) complexes were performed with the Gaussian 03 suite of programs, while for the evaluation of relative stability substitution reactions were used. Radiochemistry: Vitamin B(12), 4-hydroxy-benzylcyanide and 4-methoxy-benzonitrile were labeled at 100 degrees C during 30 min. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis was performed using radioactive and UV detection. Computational methods: The influence of different ligands on the stability yielded a sequence: imidazole>tBuCN>NH(3) approximately CH(3)CN>HCN (mimicking the best CoCN)>H(2)O. The transmetalation reaction indicates that all ligands prefer Re to Tc. The preference for the nitrogen atom of imidazole to the cyanide nitrogen atom for complex formation with [Tc(CO)(3)(H(2)O)(3)](+) is interpreted in terms of the hard and soft acid and base properties principle. Radiochemistry: 4-Hydroxy-benzylcyanide and 4-methoxy-benzonitrile did not show any labeling. An excess of acetonitrile did not inhibit the labeling of vitamin B(12) as expected if the CN group should be involved, indicating that the labeling occurs on a stronger complexing group present like benzimidazole. Both theory and experiments prove that [CN-Tc(CO)(3)(H(2)O)((2-x))L(x)](+) complexes are weak and that in vitamin B(12) most probably the benzimidazole group is involved.

  15. Melanoma Therapy with Rhenium-Cyclized Alpha Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Peptide Analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas P Quinn

    2005-11-22

    Malignant melanoma is the 6th most commonly diagnosed cancer with increasing incidence in the United States. It is estimated that 54,200 cases of malignant melanoma will be newly diagnosed and 7,600 cases of death will occur in the United States in the year 2003 (1). At the present time, more than 1.3% of Americans will develop malignant melanoma during their lifetime (2). The average survival for patients with metastatic melanoma is about 6-9 months (3). Moreover, metastatic melanoma deposits are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy (3). Systematic chemotherapy is the primary therapeutic approach to treat patients with metastatic melanoma. Dacarbazine is the only single chemotherapy agent approved by FDA for metastatic melanoma treatment (5). However, the response rate to Dacarbazine is only approximately 20% (6). Therefore, there is a great need to develop novel treatment approaches for metastatic melanoma. The global goal of this research program is the rational design, characterization and validation of melanoma imaging and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Significant progress has been made in the design and characterization of metal-cyclized radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptides. Therapy studies with {sup 188}Re-CCMSH demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of the receptor-targeted treatment in murine and human melanoma bearing mice (previous progress report). Dosimetry calculations, based on biodistribution data, indicated that a significant dose was delivered to the tumor. However, {sup 188}Re is a very energetic beta-particle emitter. The longer-range beta-particles theoretically would be better for larger tumors. In the treatment of melanoma, the larger primary tumor is usually surgically removed leaving metastatic disease as the focus of targeted radiotherapy. Isotopes with lower beta-energies and/or shorter particle lengths should be better suited for targeting metastases. The {sup 177}Lu

  16. A dose point kernel database using GATE Monte Carlo simulation toolkit for nuclear medicine applications: Comparison with other Monte Carlo codes

    SciTech Connect

    Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Loudos, George; Nikiforidis, George C.; Kagadis, George C.

    2012-08-15

    , which allowed us to produce a unique DPKs dataset using GATE. The dataset contains the total DPKs for {sup 67}Ga, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 90}Y, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I, {sup 124}I, {sup 125}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 177}Lu {sup 186}Re, and {sup 188}Re generated in water, bone, and lung. Conclusions: In this study, the authors have checked GATE's reliability for absorbed dose calculation when transporting different kind of particles, which indicates its robustness for dosimetry applications. A novel dataset of DPKs is provided, which can be applied in patient-specific dosimetry using analytical point kernel convolution algorithms.

  17. Differences in 3D dose distributions due to calculation method of voxel S-values and the influence of image blurring in SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacilio, Massimiliano; Amato, Ernesto; Lanconelli, Nico; Basile, Chiara; Torres, Leonel Alberto; Botta, Francesca; Ferrari, Mahila; Cornejo Diaz, Nestor; Coca Perez, Marco; Fernández, María; Lassmann, Michael; Vergara Gil, Alex; Cremonesi, Marta

    2015-03-01

    This study compares 3D dose distributions obtained with voxel S values (VSVs) for soft tissue, calculated by several methods at their current state-of-the-art, varying the degree of image blurring. The methods were: 1) convolution of Dose Point Kernel (DPK) for water, using a scaling factor method; 2) an analytical model (AM), fitting the deposited energy as a function of the source-target distance; 3) a rescaling method (RSM) based on a set of high-resolution VSVs for each isotope; 4) local energy deposition (LED). VSVs calculated by direct Monte Carlo simulations were assumed as reference. Dose distributions were calculated considering spheroidal clusters with various sizes (251, 1237 and 4139 voxels of 3 mm size), uniformly filled with 131I, 177Lu, 188Re or 90Y. The activity distributions were blurred with Gaussian filters of various widths (6, 8 and 12 mm). Moreover, 3D-dosimetry was performed for 10 treatments with 90Y derivatives. Cumulative Dose Volume Histograms (cDVHs) were compared, studying the differences in D95%, D50% or Dmax (ΔD95%, ΔD50% and ΔDmax) and dose profiles. For unblurred spheroidal clusters, ΔD95%, ΔD50% and ΔDmax were mostly within some percents, slightly higher for 177Lu with DPK (8%) and RSM (12%) and considerably higher for LED (ΔD95% up to 59%). Increasing the blurring, differences decreased and also LED yielded very similar results, but D95% and D50% underestimations between 30-60% and 15-50%, respectively (with respect to 3D-dosimetry with unblurred distributions), were evidenced. Also for clinical images (affected by blurring as well), cDVHs differences for most methods were within few percents, except for slightly higher differences with LED, and almost systematic for dose profiles with DPK (-1.2%), AM (-3.0%) and RSM (4.5%), whereas showed an oscillating trend with LED. The major concern for 3D-dosimetry on clinical SPECT images is more strongly represented by image blurring than by differences among the VSVs

  18. A dose point kernel database using GATE Monte Carlo simulation toolkit for nuclear medicine applications: comparison with other Monte Carlo codes.

    PubMed

    Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Loudos, George; Nikiforidis, George C; Kagadis, George C

    2012-08-01

    GATE. The dataset contains the total DPKs for (67)Ga, (68)Ga, (90)Y, (99m)Tc, (111)In, (123)I, (124)I, (125)I, (131)I, (153)Sm, (177)Lu (186)Re, and (188)Re generated in water, bone, and lung. In this study, the authors have checked GATE's reliability for absorbed dose calculation when transporting different kind of particles, which indicates its robustness for dosimetry applications. A novel dataset of DPKs is provided, which can be applied in patient-specific dosimetry using analytical point kernel convolution algorithms.

  19. Differences in 3D dose distributions due to calculation method of voxel S-values and the influence of image blurring in SPECT.

    PubMed

    Pacilio, Massimiliano; Amato, Ernesto; Lanconelli, Nico; Basile, Chiara; Torres, Leonel Alberto; Botta, Francesca; Ferrari, Mahila; Diaz, Nestor Cornejo; Perez, Marco Coca; Fernández, María; Lassmann, Michael; Gil, Alex Vergara; Cremonesi, Marta

    2015-03-07

    This study compares 3D dose distributions obtained with voxel S values (VSVs) for soft tissue, calculated by several methods at their current state-of-the-art, varying the degree of image blurring. The methods were: 1) convolution of Dose Point Kernel (DPK) for water, using a scaling factor method; 2) an analytical model (AM), fitting the deposited energy as a function of the source-target distance; 3) a rescaling method (RSM) based on a set of high-resolution VSVs for each isotope; 4) local energy deposition (LED). VSVs calculated by direct Monte Carlo simulations were assumed as reference. Dose distributions were calculated considering spheroidal clusters with various sizes (251, 1237 and 4139 voxels of 3 mm size), uniformly filled with (131)I, (177)Lu, (188)Re or (90)Y. The activity distributions were blurred with Gaussian filters of various widths (6, 8 and 12 mm). Moreover, 3D-dosimetry was performed for 10 treatments with (90)Y derivatives. Cumulative Dose Volume Histograms (cDVHs) were compared, studying the differences in D95%, D50% or Dmax (ΔD95%, ΔD50% and ΔDmax) and dose profiles.For unblurred spheroidal clusters, ΔD95%, ΔD50% and ΔDmax were mostly within some percents, slightly higher for (177)Lu with DPK (8%) and RSM (12%) and considerably higher for LED (ΔD95% up to 59%). Increasing the blurring, differences decreased and also LED yielded very similar results, but D95% and D50% underestimations between 30-60% and 15-50%, respectively (with respect to 3D-dosimetry with unblurred distributions), were evidenced. Also for clinical images (affected by blurring as well), cDVHs differences for most methods were within few percents, except for slightly higher differences with LED, and almost systematic for dose profiles with DPK (-1.2%), AM (-3.0%) and RSM (4.5%), whereas showed an oscillating trend with LED.The major concern for 3D-dosimetry on clinical SPECT images is more strongly represented by image blurring than by differences among the VSVs

  20. Estimation of Whole Body Radiation Exposure to Nuclear Medicine Personnel During Synthesis of (177)Lutetium-labeled Radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Arora, Geetanjali; Mishra, Rajesh; Kumar, Praveen; Yadav, Madhav; Ballal, Sanjana; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Damle, Nishikant Avinash

    2017-01-01

    With rapid development in the field of nuclear medicine therapy, radiation safety of the personnel involved in synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals has become imperative. Few studies have been done on estimating the radiation exposure of personnel involved in the radio labeling of (177)Lu-compounds in western countries. However, data from the Indian subcontinent are limited. We have estimated whole body radiation exposure to the radiopharmacist involved in the labeling of: (177)Lu-DOTATATE, (177)Lu-PSMA-617, and (177)Lu-EDTMP. Background radiation was measured by keeping a pocket dosimeter around the workbench when no radioactive work was conducted. The same pocket dosimeter was given to the radiopharmacist performing the labeling of (177)Lu-compounds. All radiopharmaceuticals were synthesized by the same radiopharmacist with 3, 1 and 3 year experience, respectively, in radiolabeling the above compounds. One Curie (1 Ci) of (177)Lu was received fortnightly by our department. Data were collected for 12 syntheses of (177)Lu-DOTATATE, 8 syntheses of (177)Lu-PSMA-617, and 3 syntheses of (177)Lu-EDTMP. Mean time required to complete the synthesis was 0.81, 0.65, and 0.58 h, respectively. Mean whole body radiation exposure was 0.023 ± 0.01 mSv, 0.01 ± 0.002 mSv, and 0.002 ± 0.0006 mSv, respectively. Overall mean radiation dose for all the three (177)Lu-compounds was 0.014 mSv. Highest exposure was obtained during the synthesis of (177)Lu-DOTATATE. Our data suggest that the manual radiolabeling of (177)Lu compounds is safe, and the whole body radiation exposure to the involved personnel is well within prescribed limits.

  1. Evolving Important Role of Lutetium-177 for Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Ambikalmajan M R; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-01-01

    Lutetium-177 ((177)Lu) is a late entrant into the nuclear medicine therapy arena but is expected to become one of the most widely used therapeutic radionuclides. This paper analyses the reason for the increasing preference of (177)Lu as a therapeutic radionuclide. While the radionuclidic properties favor its use for several therapeutic applications, the potential for large scale production of (177)Lu is also an important aspect for its acceptability as a therapeutic radionuclide. This introductory discussion also summarizes some developing clinical uses and suggested future directions for applications of (177)Lu.

  2. Theranostic Applications of Lutetium-177 in Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Das, Tapas; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    Lutetium-177 has been widely discussed as a radioisotope of choice for targeted radionuclide therapy. The simultaneous emission of imageable gamma photons [208 keV (11%) and 113 keV (6.4%)] along with particulate β(-) emission [β(max) = 497 keV] makes it a theranostically desirable radioisotope. In the present article, the possibility of using two 177Lu-based agents viz. 177Lu-EDTMP and 177Lu-DOTATATE for theranostic applications in metastatic bone pain palliation (MBPP) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), have been explored. In the case of 177Lu-EDTMP, the whole-body images obtained are compared with those recorded using 99mTc-MDP in the same patient. On the other hand, pre-therapy images acquired with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE are compared with similar images obtained with standard agents, such as 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC (SPECT) and 68Ga-DOTA-TOC (PET) in the same patient. The advantage of the long physical half-life (T1/2) of 177Lu has been utilized in mapping the pharmacokinetics of two additional agents, 177Lu-labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) in radiation synovectomy of knee joints and 177Lu-HA for therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Results of these multiple studies conclusively document the potential of 177Lu as a theranostic radioisotope.

  3. Clinical limitations of the estimation of glomerular filtration rate from height/plasma creatinine ratio: a comparison with simultaneous 51Cr edetic acid slope clearance.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, J G; Taylor, C M; White, R H; Marshall, T

    1982-01-01

    A retrospective comparison of single determinations of glomerular filtration rate measured by 51chromium-edetic acid slope clearance (CEDTA) and height/plasma creatinine ratio (Ht/PC) was undertaken in 199 children aged between 3 and 16 years. Analysis of the data indicated that only if Ht/PC less than or equal to 1.2 cm/mumol per 1 was the relationship between Ht/PC and CEDTA linear. Over this range where renal function is significantly impaired the confidence limits for individual prediction of glomerular filtration rate were so wide that a definitive measurement of renal function would be necessary in clinical practice. Where Ht/PC greater than or equal to 1.2 the relationship was non-linear and the predictive confidence limits very wide. To apply the technique as a screening test for normal renal function (CEDTA greater than or equal to 80 ml/min per 1.73 m2) the Ht/PC would need to exceed 2.16. In our study this would have detected 57 out of 131 patients who had normal glomerular filtration rates and erroneously included 2 out of 68 with subnormal renal function. PMID:6810766

  4. Gastrointestinal absorption of metals (51Cr, 65Zn, 95mTc, 109Cd, 113Sn, 147Pm, and 238Pu) by rats and swine.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M F; Miller, B M; Goebel, J C

    1984-12-01

    Adult and neonatal rats and neonatal pigs were gavaged with solutions of metal radionuclides to determine gastrointestinal absorption. Zinc-65 and technetium-95m were well-absorbed by both age groups; chromium-51, cadmium-109, tin-113, promethium-147, and plutonium-238 were not. The quantities of the poorly absorbed metals that were absorbed by neonates were between 4 and 100 times higher than those absorbed by adult rats. Autoradiograms prepared from the entire small intestine of the neonatal rat showed that 109Cd was retained in the duodenum. In contrast, measurements in the piglets showed much higher 109Cd retention in the ileum than in the duodenum. Autoradiograms and radiochemical measurements of 147Pm and 238Pu in both neonatal rats and swine showed the highest level of retention in the ileum. The results indicate that, for most of the metals studied, absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is substantially higher for neonatal than for adult rats.

  5. Use of the GEANT4 Monte Carlo to determine three-dimensional dose factors for radionuclide dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Ernesto; Italiano, Antonio; Minutoli, Fabio; Baldari, Sergio

    2013-04-01

    The voxel-level dosimetry is the most simple and common approach to internal dosimetry of nonuniform distributions of activity within the human body. Aim of this work was to obtain the dose "S" factors (mGy/MBqs) at the voxel level for eight beta and beta-gamma emitting radionuclides commonly used in nuclear medicine diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. We developed a Monte Carlo simulation in GEANT4 of a region of soft tissue as defined by the ICRP, divided into 11×11×11 cubic voxels, 3 mm in side. The simulation used the parameterizations of the electromagnetic interaction optimized for low energy (EEDL, EPDL). The decay of each radionuclide (32P, 90Y, 99mTc, 177Lu, 131I, 153Sm, 186Re, 188Re) were simulated homogeneously distributed within the central voxel (0,0,0), and the energy deposited in the surrounding voxels was mediated on the 8 octants of the three dimensional space, for reasons of symmetry. The results obtained were compared with those available in the literature. While the iodine deviations remain within 16%, for phosphorus, a pure beta emitter, the agreement is very good for self-dose (0,0,0) and good for the dose to first neighbors, while differences are observed ranging from -60% to +100% for voxels far distant from the source. The existence of significant differences in the percentage calculation of the voxel S factors, especially for pure beta emitters such as 32P or 90Y, has already been highlighted by other authors. These data can usefully extend the dosimetric approach based on the voxel to other radionuclides not covered in the available literature.

  6. ¹⁷⁷Lu-Labeled Agents for Neuroendocrine Tumor Therapy and Bone Pain Palliation in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Balter, Henia; Victoria, Trindade; Mariella, Terán; Javier, Gaudiano; Rodolfo, Ferrando; Andrea, Paolino; Graciela, Rodriguez; Juan, Hermida; Eugenia, De Marco; Patricia, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Lutetium-177 is an emerging radionuclide due its convenient chemical and nuclear properties. In this paper we describe the development and evaluation in Uruguay of the targeted 177Lu labelled radiopharmaceuticals EDTMP (for bone pain palliation) and DOTA-TATE (neuroendocrine tumors). We optimized the preparation of these 177Lu radiopharmaceuticals including radiolabelling, quality control methods, in vitro and in vivo stability and their therapeutic application in patients. Radiation dosimetry aspects of 177Lu are also included. Nine male patients with prostate cancer and four female patients with breast carcinoma with multiple bone metastatic lesions were treated with 177Lu-EDTMP. Four patients with gastroentheropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) and one patient with bronchial NET were treated with 1- 3 cycles with a cumulative dose of 4.44-22.2 GBq of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE. Scintigraphic images of the patients treated with 177Lu-EDTMP evidenced high and rapid uptake in bone metastasis, remaining after 7 days post administration. Images allow skeletal visualization with high definition and demonstrate increased uptake in bone metastases. For 177Lu-DOTA-TATE, partial remissions were obtained in 4 patients and the remaining patient did not show significant progression 3 months after the second cycle. No serious adverse effects were registered, even in two patients with confirmed renal disease and high risk for renal disease Dosimetry assessments confirm the predictive value of the personalized therapy with radiolabelled peptides. We found it is possible to accumulate high therapeutic doses in tumours in sequential administrations of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE, increasing the probability of biological response without significant impairment of the renal function in patients with risk factors. These results demonstrate the attractive therapeutic properties of these two 177Lu labelled agents and the feasibility of this metabolic therapy in regions far away from 177Lu producing

  7. Lutetium-labelled peptides for therapy of neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Kam, B L R; Teunissen, J J M; Krenning, E P; de Herder, W W; Khan, S; van Vliet, E I; Kwekkeboom, D J

    2012-02-01

    Treatment with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues is a promising new tool in the management of patients with inoperable or metastasized neuroendocrine tumours. Symptomatic improvement may occur with (177)Lu-labelled somatostatin analogues that have been used for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). The results obtained with (177)Lu-[DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate (DOTATATE) are very encouraging in terms of tumour regression. Dosimetry studies with (177)Lu-DOTATATE as well as the limited side effects with additional cycles of (177)Lu-DOTATATE suggest that more cycles of (177)Lu-DOTATATE can be safely given. Also, if kidney-protective agents are used, the side effects of this therapy are few and mild and less than those from the use of (90)Y-[DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotide (DOTATOC). Besides objective tumour responses, the median progression-free survival is more than 40 months. The patients' self-assessed quality of life increases significantly after treatment with (177)Lu-DOTATATE. Lastly, compared to historical controls, there is a benefit in overall survival of several years from the time of diagnosis in patients treated with (177)Lu-DOTATATE. These findings compare favourably with the limited number of alternative therapeutic approaches. If more widespread use of PRRT can be guaranteed, such therapy may well become the therapy of first choice in patients with metastasized or inoperable neuroendocrine tumours.

  8. Discrete beta dose kernel matrices for nuclides applied in targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) calculated with MCNP5

    SciTech Connect

    Reiner, Dora; Blaickner, Matthias; Rattay, Frank

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Radiopharmaceuticals administered in targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) rely to a great extent not only on beta-emitting nuclides but also on emitters of monoenergetic electrons. Recent advances like combined PET/CT devices, the consequential coregistration of both data, the concept of using beta couples for diagnosis and therapy, respectively, as well as the development of voxel models offer a great potential for developing TRT dose calculation systems similar to those available for external beam treatment planning. The deterministic algorithms in question for this task are based on the convolution of three-dimensional matrices, one representing the activity distribution and the other the dose point kernel. This study aims to report on three-dimensional kernel matrices for various nuclides used in TRT. Methods: The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 was used to calculate discrete dose kernels of beta particles including the contributions from their respective secondary radiation in soft tissue for the following nuclides: {sup 32}P, {sup 33}P, {sup 67}Cu, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Y, {sup 103}Rh{sup m}, {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 186}Re, and {sup 188}Re. For each nuclide a kernel cube of 10x10x10 mm{sup 3} was calculated, the dimensions of a voxel being 1 mm{sup 3}. Additional kernels with voxel sizes of 3x3x3 mm{sup 3} were simulated. Results: Comparison with the S-value data regarding {sup 32}P, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Y, and {sup 131}I of the MIRD committee which were calculated with the EGS4 code showed a very good agreement, the secondary particle transport of {sup 90}Y being the only exception. Documented analytical kernels on the other side show deviations very close and very far to the source. Conclusions: The good accordance with the only discrete dose kernels published up to date justifies the method chosen. Together with the additional six nuclides, this report provides a considerable database for three-dimensional kernel matrices with regard to beta

  9. A new approach for radiosynoviorthesis: A dose-optimized planning method based on Monte Carlo simulation and synovial measurement using 3D slicer and MRI.

    PubMed

    Torres Berdeguez, Mirta Bárbara; Thomas, Sylvia; Rafful, Patricia; Arruda Sanchez, Tiago; Medeiros Oliveira Ramos, Susie; Souza Albernaz, Marta; Vasconcellos de Sá, Lidia; Lopes de Souza, Sergio Augusto; Mas Milian, Felix; Silva, Ademir Xavier da

    2017-07-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in a methodology for dose planning in radiosynoviorthesis to substitute fixed activity. Clinical practice based on fixed activity frequently does not embrace radiopharmaceutical dose optimization in patients. The aim of this paper is to propose and discuss a dose planning methodology considering the radiological findings of interest obtained by three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging combined with Monte Carlo simulation in radiosynoviorthesis treatment applied to hemophilic arthropathy. The parameters analyzed were: surface area of the synovial membrane (synovial size), synovial thickness and joint effusion obtained by 3D MRI of nine knees from nine patients on a SIEMENS AVANTO 1.5 T scanner using a knee coil. The 3D Slicer software performed both the semiautomatic segmentation and quantitation of these radiological findings. A Lucite phantom 3D MRI validated the quantitation methodology. The study used Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code version 2.6 for calculating the S-values required to set up the injected activity to deliver a 100 Gy absorbed dose at a determined synovial thickness. The radionuclides assessed were: 90Y, 32P, 188Re, 186Re, 153Sm, and 177Lu, and the present study shows their effective treatment ranges. The quantitation methodology was successfully tested, with an error below 5% for different materials. S-values calculated could provide data on the activity to be injected into the joint, considering no extra-articular leakage from joint cavity. Calculation of effective treatment range could assist with the therapeutic decision, with an optimized protocol for dose prescription in RSO. Using 3D Slicer software, this study focused on segmentation and quantitation of radiological features such as joint effusion, synovial size, and thickness, all obtained by 3D MRI in patients' knees with hemophilic arthropathy. The combination of synovial size and thickness with the parameters obtained by Monte Carlo

  10. Accounting for beta-particle energy loss to cortical bone via paired-image radiation transport (PIRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Amish P.; Rajon, Didier A.; Patton, Phillip W.; Jokisch, Derek W.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2005-05-01

    Current methods of skeletal dose assessment in both medical physics (radionuclide therapy) and health physics (dose reconstruction and risk assessment) rely heavily on a single set of bone and marrow cavity chord-length distributions in which particle energy deposition is tracked within an infinite extent of trabecular spongiosa, with no allowance for particle escape to cortical bone. In the present study, we introduce a paired-image radiation transport (PIRT) model which provides a more realistic three-dimensional (3D) geometry for particle transport in the skeletal site at both microscopic and macroscopic levels of its histology. Ex vivo CT scans were acquired of the pelvis, cranial cap, and individual ribs excised from a 66-year male cadaver (BMI of 22.7 kg m{sup -2}). For the three skeletal sites, regions of trabecular spongiosa and cortical bone were identified and segmented. Physical sections of interior spongiosa were taken and subjected to microCT imaging. Voxels within the resulting microCT images were then segmented and labeled as regions of bone trabeculae, endosteum, active marrow, and inactive marrow through application of image processing algorithms. The PIRT methodology was then implemented within the EGSNRC radiation transport code whereby electrons of various initial energies are simultaneously tracked within both the ex vivo CT macroimage and the CT microimage of the skeletal site. At initial electron energies greater than 50-200 keV, a divergence in absorbed fractions to active marrow are noted between PIRT model simulations and those estimated under existing techniques of infinite spongiosa transport. Calculations of radionuclide S values under both methodologies imply that current chord-based models may overestimate the absorbed dose to active bone marrow in these skeletal sites by 0% to 27% for low-energy beta emitters ({sup 33}P, {sup 169}Er, and {sup 177}Lu), by {approx}4% to 49% for intermediate-energy beta emitters ({sup 153}Sm, {sup 186

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of Lys¹(α,γ-Folate)Lys³(¹⁷⁷Lu-DOTA)-Bombesin(1-14) as a potential theranostic radiopharmaceutical for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Aranda-Lara, Liliana; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Azorín-Vega, Erika; Ramírez, Flor de María; Jiménez-Mancilla, Nallely; Ocampo-García, Blanca; Santos-Cuevas, Clara; Isaac-Olivé, Keila

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize Lys(1)(α,γ-Folate)-Lys(3)((177)Lu-DOTA)-Bombesin (1-14) ((177)Lu-Folate-BN), as well as to assess its potential for molecular imaging and targeted radiotherapy of breast tumors expressing folate receptors (FR) and gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPR). Radiation absorbed doses of (177)Lu-Folate-BN (74 MBq, i.v.) estimated in athymic mice with T47D-induced breast tumors (positive to FR and GRPR), showed tumor doses of 23.9±2.1 Gy. T47D-tumors were clearly visible (Micro-SPECT/CT images). (177)Lu-Folate-BN demonstrated properties suitable as a theranostic radiopharmaceutical.

  12. Studies on the Labeling of Ethylenediaminetetramethylene Phosphonic Acid, Methylene Diphosphonate, Sodium Pyrophosphate and Hydroxyapatite with Lutetium-177 for use in Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Imtiaz Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    For the treatment of skeletal metastasis, a therapeutic radionuclide tagged with a bone seeking ligand is required, while for radiation synovectomy (RS), a therapeutic radionuclide irreversibly attached to pre-formed particles of appropriate size is required. Radio lanthanides are mostly therapeutic, and ligands containing phosphate groups are predominantly bone seekers. Exploiting these facts, number of new therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals could be developed. Labeling of four phosphate containing materials was pursued in the present study. It was hypothesized that various 177Lu-labeled bone-seeking complexes such as 177Lu-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP), 177Lu-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and 177Lu-pyrophosphate (PYP) could be developed as agents for palliative radiotherapy of bone pain due to skeletal metastases, and 177Lu-Hydroxyapatite (HA) could be developed as an agent for radiosynovectomy of small joints. Lyophilized kit vials of EDTMP, MDP and sodium pyrophosphate (Na-PYP) were formulated. HA particles were synthesized locally and purity was checked by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 177Lu was labeled with EDTMP, MDP, PYP, and HA and the behavior of all was studied by radio-thin layer chromatography (TLC) radio-HPLC and radio-electrophoresis. Radio-TLC confirmed the labeling. HPLC analysis too verified the labeling. Radio-electrophoresis results depicted peaks for 177Lu-MDP, 177Lu-EDTMP and 177Lu-PYP at 3.37 ± 0.06 cm, 5.53 ± 0.15 cm and 7.03 ± 0.06 cm respectively confirming negative charge on each specie as all migrated toward positive anode. All 3 methods verified the labeling. The study demonstrated that EDTMP, MDP and PYP form stable complexes with 177Lu in injectable solution form. HA particulates could too be labeled with 177Lu with high radiochemical yields (>98%) in suspension form. Former three could be utilized as bone-pain palliation agents for the treatment of bone metastases, and the later could be

  13. Studies on the Labeling of Ethylenediaminetetramethylene Phosphonic Acid, Methylene Diphosphonate, Sodium Pyrophosphate and Hydroxyapatite with Lutetium-177 for use in Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Imtiaz Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    For the treatment of skeletal metastasis, a therapeutic radionuclide tagged with a bone seeking ligand is required, while for radiation synovectomy (RS), a therapeutic radionuclide irreversibly attached to pre-formed particles of appropriate size is required. Radio lanthanides are mostly therapeutic, and ligands containing phosphate groups are predominantly bone seekers. Exploiting these facts, number of new therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals could be developed. Labeling of four phosphate containing materials was pursued in the present study. It was hypothesized that various (177)Lu-labeled bone-seeking complexes such as (177)Lu-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP), (177)Lu-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and (177)Lu-pyrophosphate (PYP) could be developed as agents for palliative radiotherapy of bone pain due to skeletal metastases, and (177)Lu-Hydroxyapatite (HA) could be developed as an agent for radiosynovectomy of small joints. Lyophilized kit vials of EDTMP, MDP and sodium pyrophosphate (Na-PYP) were formulated. HA particles were synthesized locally and purity was checked by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (177)Lu was labeled with EDTMP, MDP, PYP, and HA and the behavior of all was studied by radio-thin layer chromatography (TLC) radio-HPLC and radio-electrophoresis. Radio-TLC confirmed the labeling. HPLC analysis too verified the labeling. Radio-electrophoresis results depicted peaks for (177)Lu-MDP, (177)Lu-EDTMP and (177)Lu-PYP at 3.37 ± 0.06 cm, 5.53 ± 0.15 cm and 7.03 ± 0.06 cm respectively confirming negative charge on each specie as all migrated toward positive anode. All 3 methods verified the labeling. The study demonstrated that EDTMP, MDP and PYP form stable complexes with (177)Lu in injectable solution form. HA particulates could too be labeled with (177)Lu with high radiochemical yields (>98%) in suspension form. Former three could be utilized as bone-pain palliation agents for the treatment of bone metastases, and

  14. T cell-mediated hepatitis in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Liver cell destruction by H-2 class I-restricted virus-specific cytotoxic T cells as a physiological correlate of the /sup 51/Cr-release assay

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkernagel, R.M.; Haenseler, E.; Leist, T.; Cerny, A.; Hengartner, H.; Althage, A.

    1986-10-01

    A model for immunologically T cell-mediated hepatitis was established in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The severity of hepatitis was monitored histologically and by determination of changes in serum levels of the enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), and alkaline phosphatase (AP). Kinetics of histological disease manifestations, increases of liver enzyme levels in the serum, and cytotoxic T cell activities in livers and spleens all correlated and were dependent upon several parameters: LCMV-isolate; LCMV-WE caused extensive hepatitis, LCMV-Armstrong virtually none. Virus dose. Route of infection; i.v. or i.p. infection caused hepatitis, whereas infection into the footpad did not. The general genetic background of the murine host; of the strains tested, Swiss mice and A-strain mice were more susceptible than C57BL or CBA mice; BALB/c and DBA/2 mice were least susceptible. The degree of immunocompetence of the murine host; T cell deficient nu/nu mice never developed hepatitis, whereas nu/+ or +/+ mice always did. B cell-depleted anti-IgM-treated mice developed immune-mediated hepatitis comparably or even more extensively than control mice. Local cytotoxic T cell activity; mononuclear cells isolated from livers during the period of overt hepatitis were two to five times more active than equal numbers of spleen cells. Adoptive transfer of nylon wool-nonadherent anti-Thy-1.2 and anti-Lyt-2 plus C-sensitive, anti-L3T4 plus C-resistant lymphocytes into irradiated mice preinfected with LCMV-WE caused a rapid time- and dose-dependent linear increase of serum enzyme levels. This increase was caused by adoptive transfer of lymphocytes if immune cell donors and recipient mice shared class I, but not when they shared class II histocompatibility antigens.

  15. Separation of nuclear isomers for cancer therapeutic radionuclides based on nuclear decay after-effects.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, R; van der Meer, A; Das, S K; de Bruin, M; Gascon, J; Wolterbeek, H T; Denkova, A G; Serra-Crespo, P

    2017-03-13

    (177)Lu has sprung as a promising radionuclide for targeted therapy. The low soft tissue penetration of its β(-) emission results in very efficient energy deposition in small-size tumours. Because of this, (177)Lu is used in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours and is also clinically approved for prostate cancer therapy. In this work, we report a separation method that achieves the challenging separation of the physically and chemically identical nuclear isomers, (177m)Lu and (177)Lu. The separation method combines the nuclear after-effects of the nuclear decay, the use of a very stable chemical complex and a chromatographic separation. Based on this separation concept, a new type of radionuclide generator has been devised, in which the parent and the daughter radionuclides are the same elements. The (177m)Lu/(177)Lu radionuclide generator provides a new production route for the therapeutic radionuclide (177)Lu and can bring significant growth in the research and development of (177)Lu based pharmaceuticals.

  16. Separation of nuclear isomers for cancer therapeutic radionuclides based on nuclear decay after-effects

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, R.; van der Meer, A.; Das, S. K.; de Bruin, M.; Gascon, J.; Wolterbeek, H. T.; Denkova, A. G.; Serra-Crespo, P.

    2017-01-01

    177Lu has sprung as a promising radionuclide for targeted therapy. The low soft tissue penetration of its β− emission results in very efficient energy deposition in small-size tumours. Because of this, 177Lu is used in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours and is also clinically approved for prostate cancer therapy. In this work, we report a separation method that achieves the challenging separation of the physically and chemically identical nuclear isomers, 177mLu and 177Lu. The separation method combines the nuclear after-effects of the nuclear decay, the use of a very stable chemical complex and a chromatographic separation. Based on this separation concept, a new type of radionuclide generator has been devised, in which the parent and the daughter radionuclides are the same elements. The 177mLu/177Lu radionuclide generator provides a new production route for the therapeutic radionuclide 177Lu and can bring significant growth in the research and development of 177Lu based pharmaceuticals. PMID:28287131

  17. Separation of nuclear isomers for cancer therapeutic radionuclides based on nuclear decay after-effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, R.; van der Meer, A.; Das, S. K.; de Bruin, M.; Gascon, J.; Wolterbeek, H. T.; Denkova, A. G.; Serra-Crespo, P.

    2017-03-01

    177Lu has sprung as a promising radionuclide for targeted therapy. The low soft tissue penetration of its β‑ emission results in very efficient energy deposition in small-size tumours. Because of this, 177Lu is used in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours and is also clinically approved for prostate cancer therapy. In this work, we report a separation method that achieves the challenging separation of the physically and chemically identical nuclear isomers, 177mLu and 177Lu. The separation method combines the nuclear after-effects of the nuclear decay, the use of a very stable chemical complex and a chromatographic separation. Based on this separation concept, a new type of radionuclide generator has been devised, in which the parent and the daughter radionuclides are the same elements. The 177mLu/177Lu radionuclide generator provides a new production route for the therapeutic radionuclide 177Lu and can bring significant growth in the research and development of 177Lu based pharmaceuticals.

  18. Involvement of let-7 microRNA for the therapeutic effects of Rhenium-188-embedded liposomal nanoparticles on orthotopic human head and neck cancer model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Ting; Chang, Chun-Yuan; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Lee, Te-Wei; Lee, Yi-Jang

    2016-10-04

    Human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is usually treated by surgical resection with adjuvant radio-chemotherapy. In this study, we examined whether the radiopharmaceutical 188Re-liposome could suppress the growth of HNSCC followed by an investigation of molecular mechanisms. The orthotopic HNSCC tumor model was established by human hypopharyngeal FaDu carcinoma cells harboring multiple reporter genes. The drug targeting and therapeutic efficacy of 188Re-liposome were examined using in vivo imaging, bio-distribution, pharmacokinetics, and dosimetry. The results showed that 188Re-liposome significantly accumulated in the tumor lesion compared to free 188Re. The circulation time and tumor targeting of 188Re-liposome were also longer than that of free 188Re in tumor-bearing mice. The tumor growth was suppressed by 188Re-liposome up to three weeks using a single dose treatment. Subsequently, microarray analysis followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) showed that tumor suppressor let-7 microRNA could be an upstream regulator induced by 188Re-liposome to regulate downstream genes. Additionally, inhibition of let-7i could reduce the effects of 188Re-liposome on suppression of tumor growth, suggesting that let-7 family was involved in 188Re-liposome mediated suppression of tumor growth in vivo. Our data suggest that 188Re-liposome could be a novel strategy for targeting HNSCC partially via induction of let-7 microRNA.

  19. Involvement of let-7 microRNA for the therapeutic effects of Rhenium-188-embedded liposomal nanoparticles on orthotopic human head and neck cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang-Ting; Chang, Chun-Yuan; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Lee, Te-Wei; Lee, Yi-Jang

    2016-01-01

    Human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is usually treated by surgical resection with adjuvant radio-chemotherapy. In this study, we examined whether the radiopharmaceutical 188Re-liposome could suppress the growth of HNSCC followed by an investigation of molecular mechanisms. The orthotopic HNSCC tumor model was established by human hypopharyngeal FaDu carcinoma cells harboring multiple reporter genes. The drug targeting and therapeutic efficacy of 188Re-liposome were examined using in vivo imaging, bio-distribution, pharmacokinetics, and dosimetry. The results showed that 188Re-liposome significantly accumulated in the tumor lesion compared to free 188Re. The circulation time and tumor targeting of 188Re-liposome were also longer than that of free 188Re in tumor-bearing mice. The tumor growth was suppressed by 188Re-liposome up to three weeks using a single dose treatment. Subsequently, microarray analysis followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) showed that tumor suppressor let-7 microRNA could be an upstream regulator induced by 188Re-liposome to regulate downstream genes. Additionally, inhibition of let-7i could reduce the effects of 188Re-liposome on suppression of tumor growth, suggesting that let-7 family was involved in 188Re-liposome mediated suppression of tumor growth in vivo. Our data suggest that 188Re-liposome could be a novel strategy for targeting HNSCC partially via induction of let-7 microRNA. PMID:27588466

  20. A comparison of high- versus low-linear energy transfer somatostatin receptor targeted radionuclide therapy in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Tapan; Norenberg, Jeffrey; Anderson, Tamara; Atcher, Robert

    2005-02-01

    The somatostatin analog [DOTA(0)-Tyr(3)]-octreotide (DOTATOC) has been widely used to target somatostatin receptor expressing tumors for therapy using radionuclides such as (90)Y or (177)Lu. This aim of this study was to compare the effects of DOTATOC labeled to high linear energy transfer (LET) alpha-emitter (213)Bi and low-LET beta-emitter (177)Lu in vitro. Somatostatin receptor (sstr)-positive cell line Capan-2 and sstr-negative control cell line A549 were used for the experiments. The effects of two exposure times using different radiation doses of high-LET alpha-emitter (213)Bi and low-LET beta-emitter (177)Lu were investigated using cell survival assay. The apoptotic effects were investigated using Cell Death Detection ELISA(PLUS)10x. The cumulated activity and the mean absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity were calculated using MIRD cellular Svalues. (213)Bi-DOTATOC had an approximately four times greater induction of apoptosis than (177)Lu-DOTATOC and a 100 times greater induction of apoptosis than nonradiolabeled DOTATOC. Nonspecific radiolabeled tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid (DOTA) had a less pronounced effect on the cell survival and apoptosis, as compared to the sstr-specific radiolabeled DOTATOC. (213)Bi-DOTATOC is significantly more potent than (177)Lu-DOTATOC in vitro because of its high-LET alpha-emission.(213)Bi-DOTATOC shows enhanced effects on mitotic and apoptotic cell deaths.

  1. Advantage of lutetium-177 versus radioiodine immunoconjugate in targeted radionuclide therapy of b-cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Repetto-Llamazares, Ada; Abbas, Nasir; Bruland, Øyvind S; Dahle, Jostein; Larsen, Roy H

    2014-07-01

    We herein report a comparison of the radiolabels 177Lu and 125I bound to the monoclonal antibody HH1 that targets the CD37 antigen expressed on non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas. Mixtures of 177Lu and 125I-labeled HH1 antibody were co-injected into nude mice carrying Ramos xenografts and the biodistribution using the paired label format allowing tracer comparisons in each individual mouse. Products of the two radionuclides had very similar immunoractivity in vitro but showed different properties in vivo. Both products had relevant stability in blood and most normal tissues in nude mice carrying subcutaneous Ramos xenografts. However, both the tumor uptake and retention were significantly higher for 177Lu vs. 125I labeled HH1. The tumor to normal tissue ratios were several-fold improved for 177Lu compared to radioiodine labeled antibodies. The data presented herein support the evaluation of CD37 as a target for clinical 177Lu-based radioimmunotherapy against b-cell malignancies. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Development and biological studies of ¹⁷⁷Lu-DOTA-rituximab for the treatment of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Massicano, Adriana V F; Pujatti, Priscilla B; Alcarde, Lais F; Suzuki, Miriam F; Spencer, Patrick J; Araújo, Elaine B

    2016-01-01

    The optimization of DOTA-NHS-ester conjugation to Rituximab using different Ab:DOTA molar ratios (1:10, 1:20, 1:50 and 1:100) was studied. High radiochemical yield, in vitro stability and immunoreactive fraction were obtained for the Rituximab conjugated at 1:50 molar ratio, resulting in the incorporation of an average number of 4.9 ± 1.1 DOTA per Rituximab molecule. Labeling with 177Lu was performed in high specific activity with great in vitro stability. Biodistribution in healthy and xenographed mice showed tumor uptake and high in vivo stability as evidenced by low uptake in bone. The properties of 177Lu-DOTA-Rituximab prepared from DOTA-NHS-ester suggest the potential for the application of the 177Lu-labeled antibody in preliminary clinical studies.

  3. Synthesis, Radiolabeling, and Characterization of Plasma Protein-Binding Ligands: Potential Tools for Modulation of the Pharmacokinetic Properties of (Radio)Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Müller, Cristina; Farkas, Renáta; Borgna, Francesca; Schmid, Raffaella M; Benešová, Martina; Schibli, Roger

    2017-09-12

    The development of (radio)pharmaceuticals with favorable pharmacokinetic profiles is crucial for allowing the optimization of the imaging or therapeutic potential and the minimization of undesired side effects. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate and compare three different plasma protein binders (PPB-01, PPB-02, and PPB-03) that are potentially useful in combination with (radio)pharmaceuticals to enhance their half-life in the blood. The entities were functionalized with a 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelator via a l-lysine and β-alanine linker moiety using solid-phase peptide chemistry and labeled with (177)Lu (T1/2 = 6.65 days), a clinically established radiometal. The binding capacities of these radioligands and (177)Lu-DOTA were evaluated using human plasma and solutions of human serum albumin (HSA), human α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), and human transthyretin (hTTR) by applying an ultrafiltration assay. (177)Lu-DOTA-PPB-01 and (177)Lu-DOTA-PPB-02 bound to a high and moderate extent to human plasma proteins (>90% and ∼70%, respectively), whereas the binding to hTTR was considered negligible (<10%). (177)Lu-DOTA-PPB-03 showed almost complete binding to human plasma proteins (>90%) with a high fraction bound to hTTR (∼50%). Plasma protein binding of the (177)Lu-DOTA complex, which was used as a control, was not observed (<1%). (177)Lu-DOTA-PPB-01 and (177)Lu-DOTA-PPB-02 were both displaced (>80%) from HSA by ibuprofen, specific for Sudlow's binding site II and coherent with the aromatic structures, and >80% by their respective binding entities. (177)Lu-DOTA-PPB-03 was displaced from hTTR by the site-marker l-thyroxine (>60%) and by its binding entity PPB-03* (>80%). All three radioligands were investigated with regard to the in vivo blood clearance in normal mice. (177)Lu-DOTA-PPB-01 showed the slowest blood clearance (T1/2,β: >15 h) followed by (177)Lu-DOTA-PPB-03 (T1/2,β: ∼2.33 h) and (177)Lu

  4. Semiautomated labelling and fractionation of yttrium-90 and lutetium-177 somatostatin analogues using disposable syringes and vials.

    PubMed

    Asti, Mattia; Atti, Giulia; Iori, Michele; Farioli, Daniela; Filice, Angelina; Versari, Annibale

    2012-11-01

    The treatment of tumours expressing somatostatin receptors with yttrium-90 (90Y)-labelled and lutetium-177 (177Lu)-labelled somatostatin analogues is one of the most interesting therapeutic approaches adopted in nuclear medicine in recent years. However, the process of synthesis and fractionation of these radiopharmaceuticals is still mainly carried out manually despite the high radiation exposure to the operators and the need to comply with good manufacturing practices. In this study a semiautomatic synthesizer [automatic dose dispenser (ADD-2)] using only disposable syringes and vials has been presented. Small-scale syntheses (185-555 MBq) of 90Y/177Lu-DOTATATE were performed by adding the appropriate amount of peptide to a 90Y/177Lu chloride solution (n=10). The radionuclide/peptide molar ratio was 1 : 17 and 1 : 2 for 90Y and 177Lu, respectively. The solutions were buffered to 4.6 pH by ascorbate buffer and heated at 90°C for 30 min. Radiochemical purity was assessed by two independent radio-thin-layer chromatography systems. The solutions were fractioned to mimic the preparation of patient doses. All synthesis and fractionation steps were performed using ADD-2. The radiochemical yield was 92 ± 3% for 90Y and 97 ± 1% for 177Lu labelling. Radiochemical purity was more than 99.5%. The accuracy and reproducibility of the instrument in transferring and fractionating radioactive solutions were high (maximal error ≈ 5%). ADD-2 appears suitable for use in clinical preparations of 90Y/177Lu-DOTATATE with therapeutic amounts of precursors (20-30 GBq). The operator's exposure to radiation by using ADD-2 in comparison with manual preparations is under investigation.

  5. Lutetium-177 DOTATATE Production with an Automated Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis System.

    PubMed

    Aslani, Alireza; Snowdon, Graeme M; Bailey, Dale L; Schembri, Geoffrey P; Bailey, Elizabeth A; Pavlakis, Nick; Roach, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) with yttrium-90 ((90)Y) and lutetium-177 ((177)Lu)-labelled SST analogues are now therapy option for patients who have failed to respond to conventional medical therapy. In-house production with automated PRRT synthesis systems have clear advantages over manual methods resulting in increasing use in hospital-based radiopharmacies. We report on our one year experience with an automated radiopharmaceutical synthesis system. All syntheses were carried out using the Eckert & Ziegler Eurotope's Modular-Lab Pharm Tracer® automated synthesis system. All materials and methods used were followed as instructed by the manufacturer of the system (Eckert & Ziegler Eurotope, Berlin, Germany). Sterile, GMP-certified, no-carrier added (NCA) (177)Lu was used with GMP-certified peptide. An audit trail was also produced and saved by the system. The quality of the final product was assessed after each synthesis by ITLC-SG and HPLC methods. A total of 17 [(177)Lu]-DOTATATE syntheses were performed between August 2013 and December 2014. The amount of radioactive [(177)Lu]-DOTATATE produced by each synthesis varied between 10-40 GBq and was dependant on the number of patients being treated on a given day. Thirteen individuals received a total of 37 individual treatment administrations in this period. There were no issues and failures with the system or the synthesis cassettes. The average radiochemical purity as determined by ITLC was above 99% (99.8 ± 0.05%) and the average radiochemical purity as determined by HPLC technique was above 97% (97.3 ± 1.5%) for this period. The automated synthesis of [(177)Lu]-DOTATATE using Eckert & Ziegler Eurotope's Modular-Lab Pharm Tracer® system is a robust, convenient and high yield approach to the radiolabelling of DOTATATE peptide benefiting from the use of NCA (177)Lu and almost negligible radiation exposure of the operators.

  6. Polish experience in Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Kunikowska, Jolanta; Królicki, Leszek; Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Pawlak, Dariusz; Mikolajczak, Renata; Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Szaluś, Norbert; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Cwikla, Jaroslaw; Jakuciński, Maciej; Lukiewicz, Anna; Kowalska, Aldona; Gut, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    During the period from April 2004 to December 2010, 358 patients underwent peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) ((90)Y-DOTATATE, (177)Lu-DOTATATE, and (90)Y/(177)Lu-DOTATATE) in Poland. The majority of patients underwent (90)Y-DOTATATE therapy (n = 177) with progression-free survival (PFS)/time to progression (TTP) of 17-44 months and overall survival (OS) of 22-34.2 months. Twelve-month follow-up revealed stable disease (SD) in 46-60%, disease regression (RD) in 16-35%, disease progression (PD) in 7-17%, and complete remission (CR) in 3% of patients. In patients treated with (90)Y/(177)Lu-DOTATATE (n = 44), PFS/TTP was 24.2-28.3 months and OS was 49.8-52.8 months. Twelve-month follow-up showed SD in 62-70%, RD in 15-20%, and PD in 10-12% of patients. The treatment was well tolerated. No severe adverse events occurred. Grade 3 toxicity [in leucocytes (WBC) and thrombocytes (PLT)] was seen in 6-20% of patients treated with (90)Y-DOTATATE. In that group, renal toxicity grade 3 was seen in 5-12% and grade 4 in 3-8%. In patients treated with tandem therapy with (90)Y/(177)Lu-DOTATATE or (177)Lu-DOTATATE alone, hematological and renal toxicity grade 3 or 4 was not observed. The results indicate that PRRT with the procedures and isotopes used is an effective and safe therapy option for patients with metastatic or inoperable neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Our results suggest that tandem therapy with (90)Y/(177)Lu-DOTATATE provides longer overall survival than single-isotope treatment. Hematological toxicity was rare in all treated patients. Renal toxicity grade 3 and 4 was observed only in the group treated with (90)Y-DOTATATE.

  7. Anti-L1CAM radioimmunotherapy is more effective with the radiolanthanide terbium-161 compared to lutetium-177 in an ovarian cancer model.

    PubMed

    Grünberg, Jürgen; Lindenblatt, Dennis; Dorrer, Holger; Cohrs, Susan; Zhernosekov, Konstantin; Köster, Ulli; Türler, Andreas; Fischer, Eliane; Schibli, Roger

    2014-10-01

    The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is considered a valuable target for therapeutic intervention in different types of cancer. Recent studies have shown that anti-L1CAM radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with (67)Cu- and (177)Lu-labelled internalising monoclonal antibody (mAb) chCE7 was effective in the treatment of human ovarian cancer xenografts. In this study, we directly compared the therapeutic efficacy of anti-L1CAM RIT against human ovarian cancer under equitoxic conditions with the radiolanthanide (177)Lu and the potential alternative (161)Tb in an ovarian cancer therapy model. Tb was produced by neutron bombardment of enriched (160)Gd targets. (161)Tb and (177)Lu were used for radiolabelling of DOTA-conjugated antibodies. The in vivo behaviour of the radioimmunoconjugates (RICs) was assessed in IGROV1 tumour-bearing nude mice using biodistribution experiments and SPECT/CT imaging. After ascertaining the maximal tolerated doses (MTD) the therapeutic impact of 50 % MTD of (177)Lu- and (161)Tb-DOTA-chCE7 was evaluated in groups of ten mice by monitoring the tumour size of subcutaneous IGROV1 tumours. The average number of DOTA ligands per antibody was 2.5 and maximum specific activities of 600 MBq/mg were achieved under identical radiolabelling conditions. RICs were stable in human plasma for at least 48 h. (177)Lu- and (161)Tb-DOTA-chCE7 showed high tumour uptake (37.8-39.0 %IA/g, 144 h p.i.) with low levels in off-target organs. SPECT/CT images confirmed the biodistribution data. (161)Tb-labelled chCE7 revealed a higher radiotoxicity in nude mice (MTD: 10 MBq) than the (177)Lu-labelled counterpart (MTD: 12 MBq). In a comparative therapy study with equitoxic doses, tumour growth inhibition was better by 82.6 % for the (161)Tb-DOTA-chCE7 than the (177)Lu-DOTA-chCE7 RIT. Our study is the first to show that anti-L1CAM (161)Tb RIT is more effective compared to (177)Lu RIT in ovarian cancer xenografts. These results suggest that (161)Tb is a promising candidate for

  8. A preclinical simulated dataset of S-values and investigation of the impact of rescaled organ masses using the MOBY phantom.

    PubMed

    Kostou, Theodora; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Loudos, George; Kagadis, George C

    2016-03-21

    Nuclear medicine and radiation therapy, although well established, are still rapidly evolving, by exploiting animal models, aiming to define precise dosimetry in molecular imaging protocols. The purpose of the present study was to create a dataset based on the MOBY phantom for the calculation of organ-to-organ S-values of commonly used radionuclides. S-values of most crucial organs were calculated using specific biodistributions with a whole-body heterogeneous source. In order to determine the impact of the varying organs' size on the S-values, and based on the fact that the anatomic properties of the organs are correlated with S-values, dosimetric calculations were performed by simulating the MOBY-version 2 model with different whole-body masses. The GATE Monte Carlo simulation toolkit was used for all simulations. Two mouse models of different body masses were developed to calculate the S-values of eight commonly used radioisotopes in nuclear imaging studies, namely (18)F, (68)Ga, (131)I, (111)In, (177)Lu, and (99m)Tc, (90)Y and (188)Re. The impact of modified mass of the source organs in S-values was investigated with (18)F, and (90)Y in five different scalings of the source organs. Based on realistic preclinical exams, three mouse models, 22, 28 and 34 g, were used as input in the GATE simulator based on realistic preclinical exams to calculate the S-values of the six radioisotopes used. Whole body activity distributions were used as the source organ. The simulation procedure was validated in terms of extracting individual organ-to-organ S-values, and consequently in calculating the new S-values using a heterogeneous activity distribution as a source. The calculation was validated with (18)F source in a 30 g mouse model. For the generation of the new S-values with heterogeneous activity sources, four organs were used for the calculation of a single S-value. The absorbed doses per organ were compared with previously published reports. The validation procedure of

  9. Radiolabeled peptides in oncology: role in diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Ronald E; Thakur, Mathew L

    2005-01-01

    results in clinical trials in humans. Radiolabelled peptide therapy is usually indicated for patients with widespread disease that is not amenable to focused radiation therapy or is refractory to chemotherapy. Phase I/II studies using various radiolabelled peptides (including (111)In-pentetreotide, Yttrium-90 [90Y]-DOTA-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide, 90Y-DOTA-lanreotide, and Lutetium-177 [177Lu]-DOTA-octreotate) for the treatment of patients with neuroendocrine malignancy are in progress. Over 400 patients have been treated, and the response rate has ranged from 60% to 75%, although few patients have had a complete response. Patients have been given individual doses ranging from 2 to 11 GBq with a slow infusion every 4-8 weeks (up to 12 times). The kidney is the dose-limiting organ and most patients experience a transient decline in blood cell counts. A concomitant infusion of an amino acid mixture can reduce kidney toxicity and increase the effective tumor dose. Other peptides currently under investigation, some of which have shown promising results, include Rhenium-188 (188Re)-P2045 and 90Y-alpha(v)beta3 antagonist.

  10. Current Status of Nuclear Medicine Practice in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Paez, Diana; Becic, Tarik; Bhonsle, Uday; Jalilian, Amir R; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; Osso, Joao Alberto

    2016-07-01

    availability of (68)Ge-(68)Ga generators is increasing and studies involving prostate-specific membrane antigen or DOTA-chelated peptides or both are performed in at least seven countries. Although therapeutic radionuclide agents are mostly imported from outside the region, this does not limit the availability of therapies with (90)Y, (153)Sm, (177)Lu, (131)I, (188)Re, and (89)Sr. Nevertheless, therapies based on alpha particle emitters are still largely not available in the region and are currently only available in Israel and Turkey. Regarding human resources, according to the data provided there are 1157 NM physicians, 1953 technologists, 586 medical physicists, and 173 radiopharmacists or radiochemists in the region. Approximately half of all available human resources are accounted for by Turkey. The region has great potential for expanding the applications of NM; this becomes especially important in view of the high prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Further increasing awareness of the clinical applications of NM in healthcare and strengthening technical and human capacities including the establishment of training programs for all professionals and disciplines in the field are recognized as key components in advancing the practice of NM in the Middle East. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with FLUKA Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy.

    PubMed

    Botta, F; Mairani, A; Battistoni, G; Cremonesi, M; Di Dia, A; Fassò, A; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, M; Paganelli, G; Pedroli, G; Valente, M

    2011-07-01

    The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, FLUKA Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, FLUKA has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one. FLUKA DPKS have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10-3 MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy (89Sr, 90Y, 131I 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, and 188Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. FLUKA outcomes have been compared to PENELOPE v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (ETRAN, GEANT4, MCNPX) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8.RCSDA and 0.9.RCSDA for monoenergetic electrons (RCSDA being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8.X90 and 0.9.X90 for isotopes (X90 being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9.RCSDA and 0.9.X90 for electrons and isotopes, respectively. Concerning monoenergetic electrons, within 0.8.RCSDA (where 90%-97% of the particle energy is deposed), FLUKA and PENELOPE agree mostly within 7%, except for 10 and 20 keV electrons (12% in water, 8.3% in bone). The

  12. A preclinical simulated dataset of S-values and investigation of the impact of rescaled organ masses using the MOBY phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostou, Theodora; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Loudos, George; Kagadis, George C.

    2016-03-01

    Nuclear medicine and radiation therapy, although well established, are still rapidly evolving, by exploiting animal models, aiming to define precise dosimetry in molecular imaging protocols. The purpose of the present study was to create a dataset based on the MOBY phantom for the calculation of organ-to-organ S-values of commonly used radionuclides. S-values of most crucial organs were calculated using specific biodistributions with a whole-body heterogeneous source. In order to determine the impact of the varying organs’ size on the S-values, and based on the fact that the anatomic properties of the organs are correlated with S-values, dosimetric calculations were performed by simulating the MOBY-version 2 model with different whole-body masses. The GATE Monte Carlo simulation toolkit was used for all simulations. Two mouse models of different body masses were developed to calculate the S-values of eight commonly used radioisotopes in nuclear imaging studies, namely 18F, 68Ga, 131I, 111In, 177Lu, and 99mTc, 90Y and 188Re. The impact of modified mass of the source organs in S-values was investigated with 18F, and 90Y in five different scalings of the source organs. Based on realistic preclinical exams, three mouse models, 22, 28 and 34 g, were used as input in the GATE simulator based on realistic preclinical exams to calculate the S-values of the six radioisotopes used. Whole body activity distributions were used as the source organ. The simulation procedure was validated in terms of extracting individual organ-to-organ S-values, and consequently in calculating the new S-values using a heterogeneous activity distribution as a source. The calculation was validated with 18F source in a 30 g mouse model. For the generation of the new S-values with heterogeneous activity sources, four organs were used for the calculation of a single S-value. The absorbed doses per organ were compared with previously published reports. The validation procedure of 18F indicates

  13. Direct radiolabeling of monoclonal antibodies with rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy of solid tumors--a review of radiolabeling characteristics, quality control and in vitro stability studies.

    PubMed

    Iznaga-Escobar, N

    2001-03-01

    188Re is one of the radioisotopes expected to emerge as useful for therapy. Development of new radiopharmaceuticals based on 188Re depends on the radiolabeling methods used, which would give stable complexes having predefined radiochemical properties and in vitro and in vivo stability. This paper has attempted to provide a perspective of 188Re-labeled monoclonal antibodies, their radiolabeling characteristics, methods for quality control of radioimmunoconjugates and in vitro stability for radioimmunotherapy of solid tumors. The direct method of 188Re radiolabeling of antibodies by reductive attachment of 188Re in which free sulfhydryl groups have been generated by reduction of the intramolecular S-S disulfide bonds has been shown to be a promising approach in particular. Moreover, excellent methods have been developed to test the radionuclide, radiochemical purity and stability of 188Re-radioimmunoconjugates using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and paper chromatography.

  14. Comparison of ⁹⁰Y and ¹⁷⁷Lu measurement capability in UK and European hospitals.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Andrew; Baker, Michaela; Ferreira, Kelley; Keightley, John

    2014-05-01

    Comparison exercises involving (90)Y and (177)Lu were performed during 2009 and 2012, respectively, to assess the measurement capability of hospitals in the UK and Europe. The results from the measurement of a typical liquid solution of (90)Y show that only 40% of participants could measure the solution to within 5% of the certificated value and that a significant -6% bias was present due to the use of non-standard geometries for the calibration of equipment. The results from the measurement of a standard liquid solution of (177)Lu show that 81% of participants could measure to within 5% of the certificated value and in fact 65% of these results were within 2% of the certificated value, showing administered activities can be far more accurately measured for (177)Lu than for (90)Y and that (177)Lu has a far smaller geometry dependence. These studies were performed to identify specific measurement issues in the user community and to identify areas where future research should be focused. In addition to this the work allows the participants to adjust measurement practice and identify key measurement issues.

  15. Optimizing lutetium 177-anti-carbonic anhydrase IX radioimmunotherapy in an intraperitoneal clear cell renal cell carcinoma xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Muselaers, Constantijn H J; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Bos, Desirée L; Oyen, Wim J G; Mulders, Peter F A; Boerman, Otto C

    2014-01-01

    A new approach in the treatment of clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC) is radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using anti-carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) antibody G250. To investigate the potential of RIT with lutetium 177 (177Lu)-labeled G250, we conducted a protein dose escalation study and subsequently an RIT study in mice with intraperitoneally growing ccRCC lesions. Mice with intraperitoneal xenografts were injected with 1, 3, 10, 30, or 100 μg of G250 labeled with 10 MBq indium 111 (111In) to determine the optimal protein dose. The optimal protein dose determined with imaging and biodistribution studies was used in a subsequent RIT experiment in three groups of 10 mice with intraperitoneal SK-RC-52 tumors. One group received 13 MBq 177Lu-DOTA-G250, a control group received 13 MBq nonspecific 177Lu-MOPC21, and the second control group was not treated and received 20 MBq 111In-DOTA-G250. The optimal G250 protein dose to target ccRCC in this model was 10 μg G250. Treatment with 13 MBq 177Lu-DOTA-G250 was well tolerated and resulted in significantly prolonged median survival (139 days) compared to controls (49-53 days, p  =  .015), indicating that RIT has potential in this metastatic ccRCC model.

  16. In vivo evaluation of PEGylated ⁶⁴Cu-liposomes with theranostic and radiotherapeutic potential using micro PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Anncatrine Luisa; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Binderup, Tina; Elema, Dennis Ringkjøbing; Rasmussen, Palle Hedengran; Hag, Anne Mette; Kjær, Andreas; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of PEGylated (64)Cu-liposomes in clinical diagnostic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and PEGylated (177)Lu-liposomes in internal tumor radiotherapy through in vivo characterization and dosimetric analysis in a human xenograft mouse model. Liposomes with 5 and 10 mol% PEG were characterized with respect to size, charge, and (64)Cu- and (177)Lu-loading efficiency. The tumor imaging potential of (64)Cu-loaded liposomes was evaluated in terms of in vivo biodistribution, tumor accumulation and tumor-to-muscle (T/M) ratios, using PET imaging. The potential of PEGylated liposomes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications was further evaluated through dosimetry analysis using OLINDA/EXM software. The (64)Cu-liposomes were used as biological surrogates to estimate the organ and tumor kinetics of (177)Lu-liposomes. High remote loading efficiency (>95 %) was obtained for both (64)Cu and (177)Lu radionuclides with PEGylated liposomes, and essentially no leakage of the encapsulated radionuclide was observed upon storage and after serum incubation for 24 h at 37 °C. The 10 mol% PEG liposomes showed higher tumor accumulation (6.2 ± 0.2 %ID/g) than the 5 mol% PEG liposomes, as evaluated by PET imaging. The dosimetry analysis of the (64)Cu-liposomes estimated an acceptable total effective dose of 3.3·10(-2) mSv/MBq for diagnostic imaging in patients. A high absorbed tumor dose (114 mGy/MBq) was estimated for the potential radiotherapeutic (177)Lu-liposomes. The overall preclinical profile of PEGylated (64)Cu-liposomes showed high potential as a new PET theranostic tracer for imaging in humans. Dosimetry results predicted that initial administered activity of 200 MBq of (64)Cu-liposomes should be acceptable in patients. Work is in progress to validate the utility of PEGylated (64)Cu-liposomes in a clinical research programme. The high absorbed tumor dose (114 mGy/MBq) estimated for (177)Lu-liposomes and

  17. Alpha- versus beta-emitting radionuclides for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy of CEA-expressing human colon cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Heskamp, Sandra; Hernandez, Reinier; Molkenboer-Kuenen, Janneke D M; Essler, Markus; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Steenbergen, Erik; Cai, Weibo; Seidl, Christof; McBride, William; Goldenberg, David; Boerman, Otto

    2017-02-23

    Rational: Pretargeted radionuclide therapy (PRIT) with the beta-emitting radionuclide (177)Lu is an attractive approach to treat CEA-expressing tumors. The therapeutic efficacy of PRIT could be improved by using alpha-emitting radionuclides such as (213)Bi. Herein, we report and compare the tumor targeting properties and therapeutic efficacy of (213)Bi and (177)Lu for PRIT of CEA-expressing xenografts, using the bispecific antibody TF2 (anti-CEA x anti-HSG) and the di-HSG-DOTA peptide IMP288. Methods: The in vitro binding characteristics of (213)Bi-IMP288 were compared with those of (177)Lu-IMP288. Tumor targeting of (213)Bi-IMP288 and (177)Lu-IMP288 was studied in mice bearing subcutaneous (s.c.) LS174T tumors that were pretargeted with the bispecific antibody TF2. Finally, the effect of (213)Bi-IMP288 (6, 12, or 17 MBq) and (177)Lu-IMP288 (60 MBq) on tumor growth and survival was assessed. Toxicity was determined by monitoring body weight, analyzing blood samples for haematological and renal toxicity (haemoglobin, leucocytes, platelets, creatinine), and by immunohistochemical analysis of the kidneys. Results: The in vitro binding characteristics of (213)Bi-IMP288 (Kd = 0.45 ± 0.20 nM) to TF-2 pretargeted LS174T cells were similar to those of (177)Lu-IMP288 (Kd = 0.53 ± 0.12 nM). In vivo accumulation of (213)Bi-IMP288 in LS174T tumors was observed as early as 15 min post injection (9.2 ± 2.0 %ID/g). (213)Bi-IMP288 cleared rapidly from the circulation; at 30 min post injection the blood levels were 0.44 ± 0.28 %ID/g. Uptake in normal tissues was very low, except for the kidneys where uptake was 1.8 ± 1.1 %ID/g, at 30 min p.i. The biodistribution of (213)Bi-IMP288 was comparable to that of (177)Lu-IMP288. Mice treated with a single dose of (213)Bi-IMP288 or (177)Lu-IMP288 showed significant inhibition of tumor growth. Median survival for the PBS, 6 MBq (213)Bi-IMP288, 12 MBq (213)Bi-IMP288, and 60 MBq (177)Lu-IMP288 treated groups was 22, 31, 45, and 42 days

  18. In Vivo Stabilization of a Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Antagonist Enhances PET Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy of Prostate Cancer in Preclinical Studies.

    PubMed

    Chatalic, Kristell L S; Konijnenberg, Mark; Nonnekens, Julie; de Blois, Erik; Hoeben, Sander; de Ridder, Corrina; Brunel, Luc; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; van Gent, Dik C; Nock, Berthold A; Maina, Theodosia; van Weerden, Wytske M; de Jong, Marion

    2016-01-01

    A single tool for early detection, accurate staging, and personalized treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) would be a major breakthrough in the field of PCa. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) targeting peptides are promising probes for a theranostic approach for PCa overexpressing GRPR. However, the successful application of small peptides in a theranostic approach is often hampered by their fast in vivo degradation by proteolytic enzymes, such as neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Here we show for the first time that co-injection of a NEP inhibitor (phosphoramidon (PA)) can lead to an impressive enhancement of diagnostic sensitivity and therapeutic efficacy of the theranostic (68)Ga-/(177)Lu-JMV4168 GRPR-antagonist. Co-injection of PA (300 µg) led to stabilization of (177)Lu-JMV4168 in murine peripheral blood. In PC-3 tumor-bearing mice, PA co-injection led to a two-fold increase in tumor uptake of (68)Ga-/(177)Lu-JMV4168, 1 h after injection. In positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (68)Ga-JMV4168, PA co-injection substantially enhanced PC-3 tumor signal intensity. Radionuclide therapy with (177)Lu-JMV4168 resulted in significant regression of PC-3 tumor size. Radionuclide therapy efficacy was confirmed by production of DNA double strand breaks, decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Increased survival rates were observed in mice treated with (177)Lu-JMV4168 plus PA as compared to those without PA. This data shows that co-injection of the enzyme inhibitor PA greatly enhances the theranostic potential of GRPR-radioantagonists for future application in PCa patients.

  19. Synthesis and application of a novel cysteine-based DTPA-NCS for targeted radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Young; Hong, Young Don; Kim, Hak-Sung; Choi, Sun-Ju

    2013-04-01

    For the development of safe and effective protein-based radiolabeled complexes such as radioimmunotherapy (RIT), the selection of the radionuclides and the chelating agents used for the radiolabeling of tumor-targeting molecules is a critical factor. We aim to synthesize a novel bifunctional chelating agent containing the isothiocyanate group for easy conjugation with antibodies having the characteristics of high stable chelation with therapeutic radionuclides. We have synthesized the DTPA analogue retaining L-cysteine as a core ligand of the thiol group. The chelating power of cysteine-based DTPA-NCS (cys-DTPA-NCS) was compared with that of commercial ρ-SCN-Bn-DTPA. In an application, the cetuximab was radioimmunoconjugated with (177)Lu using cys-DTPA-NCS. The affinity was tested in a cell line overexpressing EGFR. A therapy study was conducted in nude mice with subcutaneous HT-29 xenografts. The cys-DTPA-NCS presents an excellent ability to chelate as compared to the ρ-SCN-Bn-DTPA. For mean ratio chemical labeling yields of 95%, the result was 0.97. (177)Lu-cys-DTPA-NCS-cetuximab was prepared under ambient condition with a high radiolabeling yield and the radiochemical purity was sustained for at least 6days. The IC50 value of the (177)Lu-labeled cetuximab was 10nM (95% confidence). The stability and therapeutic efficacy of the candidate radiopharmaceutical were verified. The new DTPA derivative, cys-DTPA-NCS, is a good bifunctional chelating agent that can be used for protein-based radiopharmaceutical using lanthanides such as (177)Lu and (90)Y. The prepared (177)Lu-cys-DTPA-NCS-cetuximab can be used for the diagnosis and treatment of human colorectal tumor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. In Vivo Stabilization of a Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Antagonist Enhances PET Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy of Prostate Cancer in Preclinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chatalic, Kristell L.S.; Konijnenberg, Mark; Nonnekens, Julie; de Blois, Erik; Hoeben, Sander; de Ridder, Corrina; Brunel, Luc; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; van Gent, Dik C.; Nock, Berthold A.; Maina, Theodosia; van Weerden, Wytske M.; de Jong, Marion

    2016-01-01

    A single tool for early detection, accurate staging, and personalized treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) would be a major breakthrough in the field of PCa. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) targeting peptides are promising probes for a theranostic approach for PCa overexpressing GRPR. However, the successful application of small peptides in a theranostic approach is often hampered by their fast in vivo degradation by proteolytic enzymes, such as neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Here we show for the first time that co-injection of a NEP inhibitor (phosphoramidon (PA)) can lead to an impressive enhancement of diagnostic sensitivity and therapeutic efficacy of the theranostic 68Ga-/177Lu-JMV4168 GRPR-antagonist. Co-injection of PA (300 µg) led to stabilization of 177Lu-JMV4168 in murine peripheral blood. In PC-3 tumor-bearing mice, PA co-injection led to a two-fold increase in tumor uptake of 68Ga-/177Lu-JMV4168, 1 h after injection. In positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 68Ga-JMV4168, PA co-injection substantially enhanced PC-3 tumor signal intensity. Radionuclide therapy with 177Lu-JMV4168 resulted in significant regression of PC-3 tumor size. Radionuclide therapy efficacy was confirmed by production of DNA double strand breaks, decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Increased survival rates were observed in mice treated with 177Lu-JMV4168 plus PA as compared to those without PA. This data shows that co-injection of the enzyme inhibitor PA greatly enhances the theranostic potential of GRPR-radioantagonists for future application in PCa patients. PMID:26722377

  1. Is there need for radioimmunotherapy? results of a phase I/II study in patients with indolent B-cell lymphomas using lutetium-177-DOTA-rituximab.

    PubMed

    Forrer, F; Oechslin-Oberholzer, C; Campana, B; Maecke, H; Mueller-Brand, J; Lohri, A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the clinical response to 177Lutetium-DOTA-rituximab (177Lu-D-R) and to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in the treatment of patients with relapsed follicular, mantle cell or other indolent lymphomas such as marginal zone lymphoma as well as to put these results into context with other therapy options for these patients. Treatment consisted of cold rituximab (250 mg/m2) on day 1 and day 8 and 177Lu-DOTA-Rituximab on day 8. Reassessment was done at week 10. Thirty-one patients (males=17, females=14, median number of pretreatments: 3) were treated in seven cohorts. Escalation of injected activity was carried out in steps of 5 mCi/m². Dosimetry was performed in the first 20 patients. The MTD was found to be 45 mCi/m2. Thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were the dose-limiting toxicities. Significant anemia only occurred at dose level 7. We observed the nadir of platelets after a median of 36 days from treatment with 177Lu-D-R and a nadir of granulocytes after a median of 50 days from 177Lu-D-R treatment. Non-hematological toxicity was negligible. We observed clinical responses at all dose levels and for all lymphoma entities. Some of the responses were durable; the longest follow up in complete remission is currently over eight years. The MTD of 177Lu-DOTA-Rituximab was found to be 45 mCi/m². Non hematologic toxicity was negligible. Responses were seen in all lymphoma entities and at all dose levels tested. Further testing seems to be most promising mainly in follicular and marginal zone lymphoma in particular as the results compare well to other therapy options for these patients with regard to effectiveness, toxicity and discomfort for the patients.

  2. Localization of small-cell lung cancer xenografts with iodine-125-, indium-111-, and rhenium-188-somatostatin analogs.

    PubMed

    Hosono, M; Hosono, M N; Haberberger, T; Zamora, P O; Guhlke, S; Bender, H; Knapp, F F; Biersack, H J

    1996-09-01

    We examined the potential of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs, 125I-Tyr-3-octreotide (125I-octreotide), (111)In-DTPA(diethylenetriaminepentaacetatic acid)-D-Phe-1-octreotide (111In-octreotide), and 188Re-octreotide for targeting small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) in a mouse model. Tyr-3-octreotide was labeled with 125I by the chloramine T method, and (111)In-octreotide was obtained as a kit, while 188Re was eluted from a 188W/188Re generator, and octreotide was directly labeled with 188Re by reducing disulfide bonds. The 125I-, 111In-, and 188Re-octreotides were injected i.v. into athymic mice bearing NCI-H69 tumors, and the biodistributions were determined at 15 min, and 2, 4, 8, and 24 h. Tumor uptakes were 0.5+/-0.2, 0.3+/-0.1, 0.3+/-0.1 %ID/g, and tumor-to-blood ratios were 1.8, 11.9, 1.2 at 8 h for 125I-, 111In-, and 188Re-octreotides, respectively. Accumulations of 111In-octreotide in normal tissues were lower than those of 125I- and 188Re-octreotides. 188Re-octreotide can be used to localize SCLC lesions as efficiently as radioiodinated octreotide. However, 111In-octreotide was the most suitable agent to obtain high tumor-to-normal tissue contrast for localizing SCLC.

  3. Lutetium-177 DOTATATE Production with an Automated Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis System

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Alireza; Snowdon, Graeme M; Bailey, Dale L; Schembri, Geoffrey P; Bailey, Elizabeth A; Pavlakis, Nick; Roach, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) with yttrium-90 (90Y) and lutetium-177 (177Lu)-labelled SST analogues are now therapy option for patients who have failed to respond to conventional medical therapy. In-house production with automated PRRT synthesis systems have clear advantages over manual methods resulting in increasing use in hospital-based radiopharmacies. We report on our one year experience with an automated radiopharmaceutical synthesis system. Methods: All syntheses were carried out using the Eckert & Ziegler Eurotope’s Modular-Lab Pharm Tracer® automated synthesis system. All materials and methods used were followed as instructed by the manufacturer of the system (Eckert & Ziegler Eurotope, Berlin, Germany). Sterile, GMP-certified, no-carrier added (NCA) 177Lu was used with GMP-certified peptide. An audit trail was also produced and saved by the system. The quality of the final product was assessed after each synthesis by ITLC-SG and HPLC methods. Results: A total of 17 [177Lu]-DOTATATE syntheses were performed between August 2013 and December 2014. The amount of radioactive [177Lu]-DOTATATE produced by each synthesis varied between 10-40 GBq and was dependant on the number of patients being treated on a given day. Thirteen individuals received a total of 37 individual treatment administrations in this period. There were no issues and failures with the system or the synthesis cassettes. The average radiochemical purity as determined by ITLC was above 99% (99.8 ± 0.05%) and the average radiochemical purity as determined by HPLC technique was above 97% (97.3 ± 1.5%) for this period. Conclusions: The automated synthesis of [177Lu]-DOTATATE using Eckert & Ziegler Eurotope’s Modular-Lab Pharm Tracer® system is a robust, convenient and high yield approach to the radiolabelling of DOTATATE peptide benefiting from the use of NCA 177Lu and almost negligible radiation exposure of the operators. PMID:27408890

  4. Phase 1 radioimmunotherapy study with lutetium 177-labeled anti-carbonic anhydrase IX monoclonal antibody girentuximab in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stillebroer, Alexander B; Boerman, Otto C; Desar, Ingrid M E; Boers-Sonderen, Marije J; van Herpen, Carla M L; Langenhuijsen, Johannes F; Smith-Jones, Peter M; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Oyen, Wim J G; Mulders, Peter F A

    2013-09-01

    Patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have a dismal prognosis. Therefore, new and less toxic treatments are needed. We determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and potential therapeutic efficacy of multiple infusions of lutetium 177 ((177)Lu)-girentuximab (cG250) on various dose levels in a phase 1 trial in patients with progressive metastasized ccRCC. In this uncontrolled case series in 23 patients with progressive ccRCC metastases, cG250 accumulation was verified by diagnostic indium 111-cG250 imaging. Patients then received a high-activity dose of (177)Lu-cG250. Groups of three patients received (177)Lu-cG250, starting at a dose level of 1110 MBq/m(2)(177)Lu-cG250, with dose increments of 370 MBq/m(2) per group. In the absence of persistent toxicity, progressive disease, and accelerated blood clearance, patients were eligible for retreatment after 3 mo with 75% of the previous activity dose. Patients could receive a total of three treatment cycles. Determination of the MTD was the primary and therapeutic efficacy was the secondary outcome measurement of the study. The MTD was 2405 MBq/m(2) because higher doses resulted in dose-limiting myelotoxicity. Some patients received second (13 of 23 [56%]) and third (4 of 23 [17%]) treatment cycles. Most patients (17 of 23 [74%]) demonstrated stable disease 3 mo after the first treatment, and one patient showed a partial response that lasted for 9 mo. Mean growth of target tumor lesions was reduced from 40.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], ± 17.0) during the last 3 mo before study entry to 5.5% (95% CI, ± 5.3; p<0.001) at 3 mo after the first treatment cycle. No major nonhematologic side effects were observed. (177)Lu-cG250 radioimmunotherapy in metastatic ccRCC patients is well tolerated at an activity dose level as high as 2405 MBq/m(2) (MTD). Radioimmunotherapy with (177)Lu-cG250 may stabilize previously progressive metastatic ccRCC. Copyright © 2012 European Association of Urology

  5. Lutetium-177 Labeled Bombesin Peptides for Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Tamila Stott; Bandari, Rajendra P; Jiang, Zongrun; Smith, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    The rare-earth radionuclides that decay by beta particle (β-) emission are considered to be ideal in the context of targeted radiotherapy. The rare-earth isotopes exist primarily in the 3+ oxidation state and are considered to be hard metal centers, requiring multidentate, hard donor ligands such as the poly(aminocarboxylates) for in vivo kinetic inertness. 177Lu is a rare-earth radionuclide that is produced in moderate specific activity (740 GBq/mg) by direct neutron capture of enriched 176Lu via the 176Lu(n,γ)177Lu nuclear reaction. 177Lu has a half-life of 6.71 d, decays by beta emission (Ebmax = 0.497 MeV), and emits two imagable photons (113keV, 3% and 208kev, 11%). High specific activity, no-carrier-added 177Lu can also be prepared by an indirect neutron capture nuclear reaction on a 176Yb target. Herein, we report upon bombesin (BBN) peptides radiolabeled with 177Lu. The impetus driving many of the research studies that we have described in this review is that the high-affinity gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR, BBN receptor subtype 2, BB2) has been identified in tissue biopsy samples and immortalized cell lines of many human cancers and is an ideal biomarker for targeting early-stage disease. Early on, the ability of GRPR agonists to be rapidly internalized coupled with a high incidence of GRPR expression on various neoplasias was a driving force for the design and development of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents targeting GRP receptor-positive tumors. Recent reports, however, show compelling evidence that radiopharmaceutical design and development based upon antagonist-type ligand frameworks clearly bears reexamination. Last of all, the ability to target multiple biomarkers simultaneously via a heterodimeric targeting ligand has also provided a new avenue to investigate the dual targeting capacity of bivalent radioligands for improved in vivo molecular imaging and treatment of specific human cancers. In this report, we describe recent advances

  6. Lutetium-177-labelled anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen antibody and ligands for the treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Calopedos, R J S; Chalasani, V; Asher, R; Emmett, L; Woo, H H

    2017-09-01

    Promising therapeutic results of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligand have been shown when labelling with lutetium-177 ((177)Lu). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the therapeutic response of (177)Lu-PSMA in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases up to December 2016. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality. The main outcome of interest was antitumour biochemical response of (177)Lu-PSMA, analysing two measures: 'any PSA decline' and '>50% decline' from baseline. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to calculate the pooled proportion across studies. The I(2) statistic was calculated in each case to investigate the extent of heterogeneity across the studies. A sensitivity analysis was conducted removing two studies, which were presented as abstracts and proportions were summarised by chemical type ((177)Lu-J591/DKZ/I&T). All analyses were conducted using Stata v14. A total of 10 studies were included in the analysis giving a total sample size of 369, 220 (of 334 analysable) experienced any PSA decline. The pooled proportion of patients with any PSA decline was 68% (95% confidence interval (CI): 61-74). The I(2) statistic was 39.1% (P=0.11) suggesting minor heterogeneity between results. The pooled proportion of patients with >50% PSA decline was 37% (95% CI: 22-52). The I(2) statistic was 91.0% (P<0.001) suggesting substantial heterogeneity between results. On subgroup analysis, a higher proportion of patients in the (177)Lu-DKZ/I&T subgroup had a PSA decline >50%, however, it can be seen that the (177)Lu-DKZ/I&T subgroup had a substantial amount of heterogeneity across studies. This review suggests promising early results for the treatment of mCRPC, especially from patients treated with the more recently developed radioligands. Overall, our meta-analysis showed that approximately two

  7. Use of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator for preparation of the rhenium-188 HDD/lipiodol complex for trans-arterial liver cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae Min; Knapp, F F Russ

    2008-03-01

    This work describes the installation, use, and quality control (QC) of the alumina-based tungsten-188 ((188)W)/rhenium-188 ((188)Re) generators provided by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In addition, methods used for concentration of the (188)Re-perrhenate bolus and preparation of (188)Re-labeled HDD (4-hexadecyl-2,2,9,9-tetramethyl-4,7-diaza-1,10-decanethiol) for trans-arterial administration for therapy of nonresectable liver cancer also are described. The (188)W/(188)Re generator has a long useful shelf-life of several months and is a convenient on-site (188)Re production system. (188)Re has excellent therapeutic and imaging properties (T(1/2) 16.9 hours; E(betamax) 2.12 MeV; 155-keV gamma ray, 15%) and is cost effectively obtained on demand by saline elution of the generator. The clinical efficacy of a variety of (188)Re-labeled agents has been demonstrated for several therapeutic applications. Because of the favorable physical properties of (188)Re, several (188)Re-labeled agents are being developed and evaluated for the treatment of nonresectable/refractory liver cancer. (188)Re-labeled HDD has been the most widely studied of these agents for this application and has been introduced into clinical trials at a number of institutions. The trans-arterial administration of (188)Re-labeled agents for treatment of inoperable liver cancer requires use of high-level (1-2 Ci) (188)W/(188)Re generators. The handling of such high levels of (188)Re imposes radiological precautions normally not encountered in a radiopharmacy and adequate care and ALARA (ie, "As Low As Reasonably Achievable") principles must be followed. The ORNL generator provides consistently high (188)Re yields (>75%) and low (188)W parent breakthrough (<10(-3)%) over an extended shelf-life of several months. However, the high elution volumes (20-40 mL for 1-2 Ci generators) can require concentration of the (188)Re bolus by postelution passage through silver cation chloride trapping columns

  8. Lipid Nanocapsules Loaded with Rhenium-188 Reduce Tumor Progression in a Rat Hepatocellular Carcinoma Model

    PubMed Central

    Vanpouille-Box, Claire; Lacoeuille, Franck; Roux, Jérôme; Aubé, Christophe; Garcion, Emmanuel; Lepareur, Nicolas; Oberti, Frédéric; Bouchet, Francis; Noiret, Nicolas; Garin, Etienne; Benoît, Jean-Pierre; Couturier, Olivier; Hindré, François

    2011-01-01

    Background Due to their nanometric scale (50 nm) along with their biomimetic properties, lipid nanocapsules loaded with Rhenium-188 (LNC188Re-SSS) constitute a promising radiopharmaceutical carrier for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment as its size may improve tumor penetration in comparison with microspheres devices. This study was conducted to confirm the feasibility and to assess the efficacy of internal radiation with LNC188Re-SSS in a chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma rat model. Methodology/Principal Findings Animals were treated with an injection of LNC188Re-SSS (80 MBq or 120 MBq). The treated animals (80 MBq, n = 12; 120 MBq, n = 11) were compared with sham (n = 12), blank LNC (n = 7) and 188Re-perrhenate (n = 4) animals. The evaluation criteria included rat survival, tumor volume assessment, and vascular endothelial growth factor quantification. Following treatment with LNC188Re-SSS (80 MBq) therapeutic efficiency was demonstrated by an increase in the median survival from 54 to 107% compared with control groups with up to 7 long-term survivors in the LNC188Re-SSS group. Decreased vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the treated rats could indicate alterations in the angiogenesis process. Conclusions/Significance Overall, these results demonstrate that internal radiation with LNC188Re-SSS is a promising new strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. PMID:21408224

  9. External beam radiotherapy synergizes ¹⁸⁸Re-liposome against human esophageal cancer xenograft and modulates ¹⁸⁸Re-liposome pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hsien; Liu, Shin-Yi; Chi, Chih-Wen; Yu, Hsiang-Lin; Chang, Tsui-Jung; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Lee, Te-Wei; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) treats gross tumors and local microscopic diseases. Radionuclide therapy by radioisotopes can eradicate tumors systemically. Rhenium 188 ((188)Re)-liposome, a nanoparticle undergoing clinical trials, emits gamma rays for imaging validation and beta rays for therapy, with biodistribution profiles preferential to tumors. We designed a combinatory treatment and examined its effects on human esophageal cancer xenografts, a malignancy with potential treatment resistance and poor prognosis. Human esophageal cancer cell lines BE-3 (adenocarcinoma) and CE81T/VGH (squamous cell carcinoma) were implanted and compared. The radiochemical purity of (188)Re-liposome exceeded 95%. Molecular imaging by NanoSPECT/CT showed that BE-3, but not CE81T/VGH, xenografts could uptake the (188)Re-liposome. The combination of EBRT and (188)Re-liposome inhibited tumor regrowth greater than each treatment alone, as the tumor growth inhibition rate was 30% with EBRT, 25% with (188)Re-liposome, and 53% with the combination treatment at 21 days postinjection. Combinatory treatment had no additive adverse effects and significant biological toxicities on white blood cell counts, body weight, or liver and renal functions. EBRT significantly enhanced the excretion of (188)Re-liposome into feces and urine. In conclusion, the combination of EBRT with (188)Re-liposome might be a potential treatment modality for esophageal cancer.

  10. Development of in situ forming thermosensitive hydrogel for radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy in a mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng-Liang; Shih, Ying-Hsia; Liang, Kuo-Sheng; Chiang, Ping-Fang; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Tang, I-Chang; Yao, Cheng-Jung; Lee, Shin-Yi; Luo, Tsai-Yueh; Shieh, Ming-Jium

    2013-05-06

    This study evaluated a system for local cancer radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy. The delivery system is a thermosensitive hydrogel containing a therapeutic radionuclide ((188)Re-Tin colloid) and a chemotherapeutic drug (liposomal doxorubicin). The thermosensitive PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer was designed to spontaneously undergo a sol-gel phase transition in response to temperature, remaining liquid at room temperature and rapidly forming a gel at body temperature. A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the microstructure of the fully loaded hydrogel. Release of radionuclide and doxorubicin from the hydrogel was slow, and the system tended to remain stable for at least 10 days. After the intratumoral administration of Lipo-Dox/(188)Re-Tin hydrogel in mice with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), its retention by the tumor, spatiotemporal distribution, and therapeutic effect were evaluated. The residence time in the tumor was significantly longer for (188)Re-Tin loaded hydrogel than for Na (188)Re perrhenate (Na (188)ReO4). The hydrogel after thermal transition kept the radionuclide inside the tumor, whereas free (188)Re perrhenate ((188)ReO4) diffused quickly from the tumor. The tumor growth was more profoundly inhibited by treatment with Lipo-Dox/(188)Re-Tin hydrogel (with up to 80% regression of well-established tumors on day 32) than treatment with either (188)Re-Tin hydrogel or Lipo-Dox hydrogel. Therefore, this injectable and biodegradable hydrogel may offer the advantage of focusing radiotherapy and chemotherapy locally to maximize their effects on hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Radionuclide Therapy for Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Cives, Mauro; Strosberg, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a form of systemic radiotherapy that allows targeted delivery of radionuclides to tumor cells expressing high levels of somatostatin receptors. The two radiopeptides most commonly used for PRRT, (90)Y-DOTATOC and (177)Lu-DOTATATE, have been successfully employed for more than a decade for the treatment of advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Recently, the phase III, randomized NETTER-1 trial has compared (177)Lu-DOTATATE versus high-dose octreotide LAR in patients with progressive, metastatic midgut NETs, demonstrating exceptional tolerability and efficacy. This review summarizes recent developments in the field of radionuclide therapy for gastroenteropancreatic and lung NETs and considers possible strategies to further enhance its clinical efficacy.

  12. High resolution digital autoradiographic and dosimetric analysis of heterogeneous radioactivity distribution in xenografted prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Timmermand, Oskar V; Nilsson, Jenny; Strand, Sven-Erik; Elgqvist, Jörgen

    2016-12-01

    The first main aim of this study was to illustrate the absorbed dose rate distribution from (177)Lu in sections of xenografted prostate cancer (PCa) tumors using high resolution digital autoradiography (DAR) and compare it with hypothetical identical radioactivity distributions of (90)Y or 7 MeV alpha-particles. Three dosimetry models based on either dose point kernels or Monte Carlo simulations were used and evaluated. The second and overlapping aim, was to perform DAR imaging and dosimetric analysis of the distribution of radioactivity, and hence the absorbed dose rate, in tumor sections at an early time point after injection during radioimmunotherapy using (177)Lu-h11B6, directed against the human kallikrein 2 antigen. Male immunodeficient BALB/c nude mice, aged 6-8 w, were inoculated by subcutaneous injection of ∼10(7) LNCaP cells in a 200 μl suspension of a 1:1 mixture of medium and Matrigel. The antibody h11B6 was conjugated with the chelator CHX-A″-DTPA after which conjugated h11B6 was mixed with (177)LuCl3. The incubation was performed at room temperature for 2 h, after which the labeling was terminated and the solution was purified on a NAP-5 column. About 20 MBq (177)Lu-h11B6 was injected intravenously in the tail vein. At approximately 10 h postinjection (hpi), the mice were sacrificed and one tumor was collected from each of the five animals and cryosectioned into 10 μm thick slices. The tumor slices were measured and imaged using the DAR MicroImager system and the M3Vision software. Then the absorbed dose rate was calculated using a dose point kernel generated with the Monte Carlo code gate v7.0. The DAR system produced high resolution images of the radioactivity distribution, close to the resolution of single PCa cells. The DAR images revealed a pronounced heterogeneous radioactivity distribution, i.e., count rate per area, in the tumors, indicated by the normalized intensity variations along cross sections as mean ± SD: 0.15 ± 0.15, 0.20 ± 0

  13. Thermal Neutron Capture and Thermal Neutron Burn-up of K isomeric state of 177mLu: a way to the Neutron Super-Elastic Scattering cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Roig, O.; Belier, G.; Meot, V.; Daugas, J.-M.; Romain, P.

    2006-03-13

    Thermal neutron radiative capture and burn-up measurements of the K isomeric state in 177Lu form part of an original method to indirectly obtain the neutron super-elastic scattering cross section at thermal energy. Neutron super-elastic scattering, also called neutron inelastic acceleration, occurs during the neutron collisions with an excited nuclear level. In this reaction, the nucleus could partly transfer its excitation energy to the scattered neutron.

  14. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in the management of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors: efficacy profile, safety, and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Severi, Stefano; Grassi, Ilaria; Nicolini, Silvia; Sansovini, Maddalena; Bongiovanni, Alberto; Paganelli, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), developed over the last two decades, is carried out using radiopharmaceuticals such as 90Y-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide and 177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate (177Lu-Dotatate). These radiocompounds are obtained by labeling a synthetic somatostatin analog with a β-emitting radioisotope. The compounds differ from each other in terms of their energetic features (due to the radionuclide) and peptide receptor affinity (due to the analog) but share the common characteristic of binding specific membrane somatostatin receptors that are (generally) overexpressed in neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) and their metastases. NENs are tumors arising from diffuse neuroendocrine system cells that are classified according to grading based on Ki67 percentage values (Grades 1 and 2 are classed as neuroendocrine tumors [NETs]) and to the anatomical site of occurrence (in this paper, we only deal with gastroenteropancreatic [GEP]-NETs, which account for 60%–70% of all NENs). They are also characterized by specific symptoms such as diarrhea and flushing (30% of cases). Despite substantial experience gained in the area of PRRT and its demonstrable effects in terms of efficacy, safety, and improvement in quality of life, these compounds are still not registered (registration of 177Lu-Dotatate for the treatment of midgut NETs is expected soon). Thus, PRRT can only be used in experimental protocols. We provide an overview of the work of leading groups with wide-ranging experience and continuity in data publication in the area of GEP-NET PRRT and report our own personal experience of using different dosage schedules based on the presence of kidney and bone marrow risk factors. Our results on the retreatment of patients previously administered 90Y-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide with a low dosage of 177Lu-Dotatate are also included. A comment on potential future developments of PRRT in GEP-NETs is provided. PMID:28203088

  15. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

    1995-12-31

    In this report, we describe the results for study of the production of lutetium-177 ({sup 177}Lu) in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Two pathways for production of {sup 177}Lu were studied which involved both direct neutron capture on enriched {sup 176}Lu, {sup 176}Lu (n,{gamma}){sup 177}Lu, reaction and by decay of ytterbium-177 ({sup 177}Yb) produced by the {sup 176}Yb(n,{gamma}){sup 177}Yb ({beta}{sup {minus}} {sup {yields}}) reaction. Although the direct route is more straight forward and does not involve any separation steps, the indirect method via {beta}{sup {minus}}-decay of {sup 177}Yb has the advantage of providing carrier-free {sup 177}Lu, which would be required for antibody radiolabeling and other applications where very high specific activity is required.Substrates required for preparation of tissue-specific agents and several radioisotopes were also provided during this period through several Medical Cooperative Programs. These include the substrate for preparation of the ``BMIPP`` cardiac imaging which was developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program, which was provided to Dr. A. Giodamo, M.D. and colleagues at the Catholic University Hospital in Rome, Italy. Tungsten-188 produced in the ORNL HFIR was also provided to the Catholic University Hospital for fabrication of a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator to provide carrier-free rhenium-188 which will be used for preparation of rhenium-188 labeled methylenediphosphonate (MDP) for initial clinical evaluation for palliative treatment of bone pain (L. Troncone, M.D.). Samples of substrates for preparation of the new ORNL ``IQNP`` agent for imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors were provided to the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, for preparation of radioiodinated IQNP for initial imaging studies with this new agent in monkeys and for tissue binding studies with human brain samples obtained from autopsy (C. Halldin, Ph.D.).

  16. Phase II study of Lutetium-177-labeled anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen monoclonal antibody J591 for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Scott T; Milowsky, Matthew I; Morris, Michael; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Christos, Paul; Akhtar, Naveed H; Osborne, Joseph; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Larson, Steve; Taskar, Neeta Pandit; Scher, Howard I; Bander, Neil H; Nanus, David M

    2013-09-15

    To assess the efficacy of a single infusion of radiolabeled anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) monoclonal antibody J591 (lutetium-177; (177)Lu) by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline, measurable disease response, and survival. In this dual-center phase II study, two cohorts with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer received one dose of (177)Lu-J591 (15 patients at 65 mCi/m(2), 17 at 70 mCi/m(2)) with radionuclide imaging. Expansion cohort (n = 15) received 70 mCi/m(2) to verify response rate and examine biomarkers. Forty-seven patients who progressed after hormonal therapies (55.3% also received prior chemotherapy) received (177)Lu-J591. A total of 10.6% experienced ≥50% decline in PSA, 36.2% experienced ≥30% decline, and 59.6% experienced any PSA decline following their single treatment. One of 12 with measurable disease experienced a partial radiographic response (8 with stable disease). Sites of prostate cancer metastases were targeted in 44 of 47 (93.6%) as determined by planar imaging. All experienced reversible hematologic toxicity, with grade 4 thrombocytopenia occurring in 46.8% (29.8% received platelet transfusions) without significant hemorrhage. A total of 25.5% experienced grade 4 neutropenia, with one episode of febrile neutropenia. The phase I maximum tolerated dose (70 mCi/m(2)) resulted in more 30% PSA declines (46.9% vs. 13.3%, P = 0.048) and longer survival (21.8 vs. 11.9 months, P = 0.03), but also more grade 4 hematologic toxicity and platelet transfusions. No serious nonhematologic toxicity occurred. Those with poor PSMA imaging were less likely to respond. A single dose of (177)Lu-J591 was well tolerated with reversible myelosuppression. Accurate tumor targeting and PSA responses were seen with evidence of dose response. Imaging biomarkers seem promising. ©2013 AACR.

  17. Novel Radiolabeled Bisphosphonates for PET Diagnosis and Endoradiotherapy of Bone Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Pfannkuchen, Nina; Meckel, Marian; Bergmann, Ralf; Bachmann, Michael; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Sathekge, Mike; Mohnike, Wolfgang; Baum, Richard P.; Rösch, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Bone metastases, often a consequence of breast, prostate, and lung carcinomas, are characterized by an increased bone turnover, which can be visualized by positron emission tomography (PET), as well as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Bisphosphonate complexes of 99mTc are predominantly used as SPECT tracers. In contrast to SPECT, PET offers a higher spatial resolution and, owing to the 68Ge/68Ga generator, an analog to the established 99mTc generator exists. Complexation of Ga(III) requires the use of chelators. Therefore, DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid), NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid), and their derivatives, are often used. The combination of these macrocyclic chelators and bisphosphonates is currently studied worldwide. The use of DOTA offers the possibility of a therapeutic application by complexing the β-emitter 177Lu. This overview describes the possibility of diagnosing bone metastases using [68Ga]Ga-BPAMD (68Ga-labeled (4-{[bis-(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl]methyl}-7,10-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl)acetic acid) as well as the successful application of [177Lu]Lu-BPAMD for therapy and the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools based on this structure. Improvements concerning both the chelator and the bisphosphonate structure are illustrated providing new 68Ga- and 177Lu-labeled bisphosphonates offering improved pharmacological properties. PMID:28524118

  18. Passage of chromium-mordanted and rare earth-labeled fiber: time of dosing kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, K.R.; Ellis, W.C.; Matis, J.H.; Deswysen, A.G.

    1989-04-01

    Coastal bermudagrass hay was labeled with Cr by the Cr-mordant procedure and with /sup 177/Lu applied to the same fiber. Neutral detergent fiber prepared from the same Coastal bermudagrass hay was labeled with Yb, /sup 169/Yb, Tb and /sup 160/Tb by soaking overnight following by thorough washing and drying. Wood chips were similarly labeled with Sm or La, and Solka Floc was labeled with /sup 147/Nd and /sup 141/Ce. The carriers, labels and times of administration to cattle were: bermudagrass fiber with both Cr and /sup 177/Lu, bermudagrass fiber with /sup 169/Yb and Solka Floc labeled with /sup 147/Nd at 0 h; bermudagrass fiber with Yb, Solka Floc with /sup 141/Ce and wood chips with Sm at 24 h; wood chips with La at 48 h; and bermudagrass fiber labeled with /sup 160/Tb at the beginning and labeled with Tb at the end of a meal. Fecal collection followed and passage characteristics were determined with a two-compartment, age-dependent model. Markers labeling the different fiber sources had different (P less than .01) passage rates (Solka Floc greater than Coastal bermudagrass greater than wood chips), but there was no difference within fiber source for rare earth passage. There also was no difference between the passage characteristics of Cr-mordant and /sup 177/Lu. However, passage rate of particles administered at the beginning of the meal (160Tb) was 42% higher than for particles at the end of the meal (Tb).

  19. Organ-specific SPECT activity calibration using 3D printed phantoms for molecular radiotherapy dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew P; Tipping, Jill; Cullen, David M; Hamilton, David; Brown, Richard; Flynn, Alex; Oldfield, Christopher; Page, Emma; Price, Emlyn; Smith, Andrew; Snee, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Patient-specific absorbed dose calculations for molecular radiotherapy require accurate activity quantification. This is commonly derived from Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging using a calibration factor relating detected counts to known activity in a phantom insert. A series of phantom inserts, based on the mathematical models underlying many clinical dosimetry calculations, have been produced using 3D printing techniques. SPECT/CT data for the phantom inserts has been used to calculate new organ-specific calibration factors for (99m) Tc and (177)Lu. The measured calibration factors are compared to predicted values from calculations using a Gaussian kernel. Measured SPECT calibration factors for 3D printed organs display a clear dependence on organ shape for (99m) Tc and (177)Lu. The observed variation in calibration factor is reproduced using Gaussian kernel-based calculation over two orders of magnitude change in insert volume for (99m) Tc and (177)Lu. These new organ-specific calibration factors show a 24, 11 and 8 % reduction in absorbed dose for the liver, spleen and kidneys, respectively. Non-spherical calibration factors from 3D printed phantom inserts can significantly improve the accuracy of whole organ activity quantification for molecular radiotherapy, providing a crucial step towards individualised activity quantification and patient-specific dosimetry. 3D printed inserts are found to provide a cost effective and efficient way for clinical centres to access more realistic phantom data.

  20. Octadentate picolinic acid-based bispidine ligand for radiometal ions.

    PubMed

    Comba, Peter; Jermilova, Una; Orvig, Chris; Patrick, Brian O; Ramogida, Caterina F; Rück, Katharina; Schneider, Christina; Starke, Miriam

    2017-08-16

    The synthesis of the octadentate bispidine ligand H2bispa2 bearing two picolinic acid pendant arms and its coordination chemistry with metal ions with radionuclides relevant for nuclear medicine, i.e. indium(III) (111In), lutetium(III) (177Lu) and lanthanum(III) (as surrogate for 225Ac), are reported. The non-radioactive metal complexes of the N6O2-type bispa ligand were characterized by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, elemental analysis, mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray analysis. Experimental structural data, a computational analysis, complex stabilities determined by potentiometric titration and "radiostabilities", determined by competition studies in the presence of human serum reveal complex stabilities of H2bispa2 comparable to those of the macrocyclic "gold standard" DOTA. After an incubation time of 1 day for example, 86 and 87 % of [177Lu(bispa2)]+ and [177Lu(DOTA)]-, respectively, remain intact. Importantly, unlike DOTA, H2bispa2 is radiolabeled quantitatively with 111InIII and 225AcIII under ambient conditions, which is an essential aspect, when working with heat-sensitive antibodies as targeting vectors. In the case of 111InIII, room temperature radiolabeling of H2bispa2 yields molar activities as high as 70 MBq/nmol within 10 minutes. These are promising results for radiopharmaceutical applications of H2bispa2. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Development of a new bombesin analog radiolabeled with lutetium-177: in vivo evaluation of the biological properties in Balb-C mice.

    PubMed

    Pujatti, P B; Santos, J S; Massicano, A V F; Mengatti, J; De Araújo, E B

    2010-05-10

    In this work we describe the first results of radiolabeling with lutetium-177 ((177)Lu) and in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies in normal Balb-c mice of a new bombesin analog (BEFG2)--DOTA-Phe-X-BBN(6-14), where X is a spacer of two aminoacids. Bombesin (BBN) is an amphibian analog of human gastrin releasing peptide (GRP). Development of radiolabeled BBN derivatives as agents for diagnostic imaging and systemic radiotherapy has increased considerable because of the observation that GRP receptors (GRPr) are over-expressed in a variety of human tumor cells, such as prostate tumor cells. (177)Lu-labeled peptides are attractive due to the excellent radiophysical properties and commercial availability of the radiometal. BEFG2 was successfully labeled with high yield and kept stable for more than 96 hours at 2-8 degrees C and 1 hour in human plasma. Data analysis obtained from the in vivo studies showed that the amount of BEFG2 present in plasma decreased rapidly and became almost undetectable at 60 min p.i., indicating rapid peptide excretion, which is performed mainly by renal pathway. In addition, biodistribution and single photon emission tomography showed low abdominal accumulation of (177)Lu-DOTA- Phe-X-BBN(6-14), indicating that this analog is a potential candidate for tumors target therapy.

  2. NeuroEndocrine Tumor Therapy with Lutetium-177-octreotate and Everolimus (NETTLE): A Phase I Study.

    PubMed

    Claringbold, Phillip G; Turner, J Harvey

    2015-08-01

    To establish the optimal safe dose of everolimus in combination with (177)Lu-octreotate peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of advanced progressive gastro-entero pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) and to define dose-limiting toxicity. Patients with advanced unresectable progressive well-differentiated GEP-NETS avid for (68)Ga-octreotate on positron emission tomography-computed tomography imaging underwent PRRT with four cycles of 7.8 GBq (177)Lu-octreotate at 8 week intervals. Successive cohorts of 3 patients received escalating doses of everolimus comprising 5, 7.5, and 10 mg daily for 24 weeks. Sixteen patients comprised 4 at 5 mg, 9 at 7.5 mg, and 3 at 10 mg everolimus. Patient cohorts at 5 and 7.5 mg received 83% and 80% of the total planned dose of everolimus over 24 weeks. All patients required dose reduction or complete cessation of everolimus at the 10 mg level, which induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, and reduced creatinine clearance. The overall response rate was 44% (7 of 16 patients), and no patient progressed over the 6 month period of treatment. Four of 5 pancreatic NET patients achieved PR 80%. No patient progressed on study. In combination, PRRT with (177)Lu-octreotate, the maximum tolerated dose of everolimus is 7.5 mg daily.

  3. Investigation of SP94 Peptide as a Specific Probe for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanli; Hu, Yan; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Guobing; Li, Xiao; Zhao, Yanzhao; Tan, Hui; Shi, Hongcheng; Cheng, Dengfeng

    2016-01-01

    SP94 (SFSIIHTPILPL), a novel peptide, has shown specific binding to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. We aimed to investigate the capability of SP94 as a targeting probe for HCC imaging and therapy following labeling with technetium-99m (99mTc) and rhenium-188 (188Re). HYNIC-SP94 was prepared by solid phase synthesis and then labeled with 99mTc. Cell competitive binding, internalization assay, in vitro and in vivo stability, biodistribution and micro-single photon emission computed tomography /computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging studies were performed to investigate the capability of 99mTc tricine-EDDA/HYNIC-SP94 as a specific HCC imaging probe. Initial promising targeting results inspired evaluation of its therapeutic effect when labeled by 188Re. HYNIC-SP94 was then labeled again with 188Re to perform cell apoptosis, microSPECT/CT imaging evaluation and immunohistochemistry. Huh-7 cells exhibited typical apoptotic changes after 188Re irradiation. According to 99mTc tricine-EDDA/HYNIC-SP94 microSPECT/CT imaging, tumor uptake was significantly decreased compared with that of pre-treatment with 188Re-HYNIC-SP94. The immunohistochemistry also displayed obvious necrosis and apoptosis as well as inhibition of proliferation in the 188Re-HYNIC-SP94 treatment group. The results supported that 99mTc tricine-EDDA/HYNIC-SP94 is able to target HCC cells and 188Re-HYNIC- SP94 holds potential as a therapeutic agent for HCC, making 99mTc/188Re-HYNIC-SP94 a promising targeting probe for HCC imaging and therapy. PMID:27649935

  4. Therapeutic and scintigraphic applications of polymeric micelles: combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Ying-Hsia; Peng, Cheng-Liang; Chiang, Ping-Fang; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Luo, Tsai-Yueh; Shieh, Ming-Jium

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated a multifunctional micelle simultaneously loaded with doxorubicin (Dox) and labeled with radionuclide rhenium-188 (188Re) as a combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. We investigated the single photon emission computed tomography, biodistribution, antitumor efficacy, and pathology of 188Re-Dox micelles in a murine orthotopic luciferase-transfected BNL tumor cells hepatocellular carcinoma model. The single photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography images showed high radioactivity in the liver and tumor, which was in agreement with the biodistribution measured by γ-counting. In vivo bioluminescence images showed the smallest size tumor (P<0.05) in mice treated with the combined micelles throughout the experimental period. In addition, the combined 188Re-Dox micelles group had significantly longer survival compared with the control, 188ReO4 alone (P<0.005), and Dox micelles alone (P<0.01) groups. Pathohistological analysis revealed that tumors treated with 188Re-Dox micelles had more necrotic features and decreased cell proliferation. Therefore, 188Re-Dox micelles may enable combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy to maximize the effectiveness of treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26719687

  5. Cytotoxic Effects of PEGylated Anti-EGFR Immunoliposomes Combined with Doxorubicin and Rhenium-188 Against Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Chuan; Cheng, Chu-Nian; Lee, Te-Wei; Hwang, Jeng-Jong

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to construct epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting cetuximab-immunoliposomes (IL-C225) for targeted delivery of doxorubicin and rhenium-188 (Re-188) to EGFR(+) cancer cells. Synthesized IL-C225 was analyzed by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. Cell binding and internalization were examined using doxorubicin-loaded IL-C225 (DXR-IL-C225) with confocal microscopy. IL-C225 combined with doxorubicin and Re-188 ((188)Re-DXR-IL-C225) was synthesized, and the cytotoxic effects of (188)Re-DXR-IL-C225 were analyzed in EGFR(+) cancer cells using cell viability assays. IL-C225 bound to EGFR on A431 cancer cells and was rapidly internalized. Furthermore, IL-C225 localized within the tumor cells efficiently. (188)Re-DXR-IL-C225 exhibited outstanding cytotoxic effects against EGFR(+) cancer cells in vitro and showed superior cytotoxic effects compared to DXR-IL-C225 or (188)Re-IL-C225 alone. The new formulation of (188)Re-DXR-IL-C225 may be a potential theranostic vehicle for delivery of drugs in the treatment of EGFR-overexpressing human cancer. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Techniques for loading technetium-99m and rhenium-186/188 radionuclides into pre-formed liposomes for diagnostic imaging and radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Goins, Beth; Bao, Ande; Phillips, William T

    2010-01-01

    Liposomes can serve as carriers of radionuclides for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. Herein, procedures are outlined for radiolabeling liposomes with the gamma-emitting radionuclide, technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), for non-invasive detection of disease and for monitoring the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of liposomal drugs, and/or with therapeutic beta-emitting radionuclides, rhenium-186/188 ((186/188)Re), for radionuclide therapy. These efficient and practical liposome radiolabeling methods use a post-labeling mechanism to load (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re into pre-formed liposomes prepared in advance of the labeling procedure. For all liposome radiolabeling methods described, a lipophilic chelator is used to transport (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re across the lipid bilayer of the pre-formed liposomes. Once within the liposome interior, the pre-encapsulated glutathione or ammonium sulfate (pH) gradient provides for stable entrapment of the (99m)Tc and (186/188)Re within the liposomes. In the first method, (99m)Tc is transported across the lipid bilayer by the lipophilic chelator, hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) and (99m)Tc-HMPAO becomes trapped by interaction with the pre-encapsulated glutathione within the liposomes. In the second method, (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re is transported across the lipid bilayer by the lipophilic chelator, N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N',N'-diethylethylenediamine (BMEDA), and (99m)Tc-BMEDA or (186/188)Re-BMEDA becomes trapped by interaction with pre-encapsulated glutathione within the liposomes. In the third method, an ammonium sulfate (pH) gradient loading technique is employed using liposomes with an extraliposomal pH of 7.4 and an interior pH of 5.1. BMEDA, which is lipophilic at pH 7.4, serves as a lipophilic chelator for (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re to transport the radionuclides across the lipid bilayer. Once within the more acidic liposome interior, (99m)Tc/(186/188)Re-BMEDA complex becomes protonated and more hydrophilic, which

  7. Techniques for Loading Technetium-99m and Rhenium-186/188 Radionuclides into Preformed Liposomes for Diagnostic Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Goins, Beth; Bao, Ande; Phillips, William T

    2017-01-01

    Liposomes can serve as carriers of radionuclides for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. Herein, procedures are outlined for radiolabeling liposomes with the gamma-emitting radionuclide, technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), for noninvasive detection of disease and for monitoring the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of liposomal drugs, and/or with therapeutic beta-emitting radionuclides, rhenium-186/188 ((186/188)Re), for radionuclide therapy. These efficient and practical liposome radiolabeling methods use a post-labeling mechanism to load (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re into preformed liposomes prepared in advance of the labeling procedure. For all liposome radiolabeling methods described, a lipophilic chelator is used to transport (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re across the lipid bilayer of the preformed liposomes. Once within the liposome interior, the pre-encapsulated glutathione or ammonium sulfate (pH) gradient provides for stable entrapment of the (99m)Tc and (186/188)Re within the liposomes. In the first method, (99m)Tc is transported across the lipid bilayer by the lipophilic chelator, hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) and (99m)Tc-HMPAO becomes trapped by interaction with the pre-encapsulated glutathione within the liposomes. In the second method, (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re is transported across the lipid bilayer by the lipophilic chelator, N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N',N'-diethylethylenediamine (BMEDA), and (99m)Tc-BMEDA or (186/188)Re-BMEDA becomes trapped by interaction with pre-encapsulated glutathione within the liposomes. In the third method, an ammonium sulfate (pH) gradient loading technique is employed using liposomes with an extraliposomal pH of 7.4 and an interior pH of 5.1. BMEDA, which is lipophilic at pH 7.4, serves as a lipophilic chelator for (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re to transport the radionuclides across the lipid bilayer. Once within the more acidic liposome interior, (99m)Tc/(186/188)Re-BMEDA complex becomes protonated and more hydrophilic, which results

  8. Radiochromium conservation and distribution in diuretic states

    SciTech Connect

    Wallach, S.; Verch, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of free water diuresis by three different modalities on body /sup 51/Cr conservation and distribution was studied in adult male rats. Despite massive diuresis, ADH deficiency had little effect on body /sup 51/Cr retention or relative tissue distribution of /sup 51/Cr but did induce 25-40% increases in serum /sup 51/C concentrations which were reversible by pitressin administration. Glucose feeding produced copious diuresis but no change in body /sup 51/Cr retention or relative tissue distribution of /sup 51/Cr. The serum /sup 51/Cr concentration decreased 23% in association with small increases in serum glucose and insulin concentrations. LiCl administration produced moderate diuresis with little change in body /sup 51/Cr retention and inconsistent changes in serum and tissue /sup 51/Cr distribution. These data indicate normal body retention of /sup 51/Cr despite body water pool turnovers of up to 100% per day. Hence, renal handling of Cr is flow-independent, presumably due to Cr reabsorption at a proximal site within the nephron. However, a marked restriction of Cr filtration by the glomerulus due to protein binding of Cr cannot be ruled out by these data. Differences in body weight, even if assumed to be due to altered extracellular fluid volume, are insufficient to account for the serum /sup 51/Cr data. Previous observations in adrenalectomized rats also do not support a role for aldosterone secretion secondary to extracellular fluid volume shifts. Therefore, the increase in serum /sup 51/Cr concentration in ADH deficiency may be due to an effect of ADH to promote cellular transport of Cr whereas the decrease in serum /sup 51/Cr concentration during glucose feeding is probably due to increased cellular penetration of Cr secondary to insulin action.

  9. Avidin chase reduces side effects of radioimmunotherapy in nude mice bearing human colon carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gui-Ping; Wang, Yong-Xian; Huang, Kai; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Chun-Fu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the influence of avidin chase on the side effects of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in nude mice bearing human colon carcinoma and therapeutic outcome. METHODS: Purified anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (McAb) was biotinylated with NHS-biotin, and then radiolabeled with 188Re by the direct method. 188Re-labeled biotinylated anti-CEA McAb (188Re-CEA McAb-Bt) was intravenously injected followed by intravenous injection of avidin after 24 h. SPECT imaging and biodistribution study were performed at 28-48 h after the injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt. Three groups of nude mice subcutaneously grafted with human colon carcinoma were treated 7 d after the graft. Mice in the avidin chase group received intravenous injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt (11.1 MBq/20 μg) followed by intravenous injection of cold avidin (80 μg) after 24 h. Mice in the control group (treated group without avidin chase) only received the injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt (11.1 MBq/20 μg), another control group (non-treated group) only received 0.1 mL normal saline solution. Toxicity was evaluated on the basis of change of body weight and peripheral WBC counts, and therapy effects were determined by variation in tumor volume. Histological analysis of tumors was also performed. RESULTS: Avidin chase markedly accelerated the clearance of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt from the blood and normal tissues. The tumor uptakes of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt at 28 h were 5.90 and 6.42% ID/g, respectively, in chase group and in non-chase group, while the tumor-to-background (T/NT) ratios were 3.19 and 0.56, respectively. The tumor uptake was slightly decreased by avidin chase, but the T/NT ratios were increased. In treated groups the growth rate of body weight and the number of WBC decreased after injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt, and the WBC counts recovered earlier in the group with avidin chase than in the group without avidin chase. Compared to the non-treated group, treated groups with and without avidin chase showed significant

  10. Lu-177-Labeled Zirconia Particles for Radiation Synovectomy.

    PubMed

    Polyak, Andras; Nagy, Lívia Naszályi; Drotár, Eszter; Dabasi, Gabriella; Jóba, Róbert P; Pöstényi, Zita; Mikolajczak, Renata; Bóta, Attila; Balogh, Lajos

    2015-12-01

    The present article describes the preparation of β-emitter lutetium-177-labeled zirconia colloid and its preliminary physicochemical and biological evaluation of suitability for local radionuclide therapy. The new (177)Lu-labeled therapeutic radiopharmaceutical candidate was based on the synthesis mode of a previously described zirconia nanoparticle system. The size and shape of the developed radiopharmaceutical compound were observed through a scanning electron microscope and dynamic light scattering methods. The radiocolloid had a 1.7 μm mean diameter and showed high in vitro radiochemical and colloid size stability at room temperature and during the blood sera stability test. After the in vitro characterizations, the product was investigated in the course of the treatment of a spontaneously diseased dog veterinary patient's hock joint completed with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging follow-up measurements and a dual-isotope SPECT imaging tests with conventional (99m)Tc-methanediphosphonic acid bone scintigraphy. In the treated dog, no clinical side-effects or signs of histopathological changes of the joints were recorded during the treatment. SPECT follow-up studies clearly and conspicuously showed the localization of the (177)Lu-labeled colloid in the hock joint as well as detectable but negligible leakages of the radiocolloid in the nearest lymph node. On the basis of biological follow-up tests, the orthopedic team assumed that the (177)Lu-labeled zirconia colloid-based local radionuclide therapy resulted in a significant and long-term improvement in clinical signs of the patient without any remarkable side-effects.

  11. Repeated Lu-177-PSMA-617 radioligand therapy using treatment activities up to 9.3 GBq.

    PubMed

    Rathke, Hendrik; Giesel, Frederik L; Flechsig, Paul; Kopka, Klaus; Mier, Walter; Hohenfellner, Markus; Haberkorn, Uwe; Kratochwil, Clemens

    2017-08-10

    Current treatment protocols for (177)Lu-PSMA-617 therapies were cautiously derived from dosimetry data, but their practical appropriateness have not yet been proven clinically. We retrospectively report our clinical observations using four different treatment activities. Methods: Forty patients with advanced prostate cancer and positive uptake in PSMA-imaging were treated in fractions of 4 GBq / 80 nmol, 6 GBq / 120 nmol, 7.4 GBq / 150 nmol or 9.3 GBq / 150 nmol (177)Lu-activity / precursor-amount (n = 10, respectively) every 2 months. Safety lab was checked every 2 weeks, PSA-response every 4 weeks; other effects were assessed per anamnesis. Results: Initial PSA response presented no correlation to treatment activity. However, 2/10, 4/10, 4/10 and 7/10 patients with doses of 4, 6, 7.4 and 9.3 GBq were in partial remission 8 weeks after completing all 3 cycles; This would be in line with, but due to low patient numbers not proving, a positive dose-response-relationship. Acute hematological toxicity was also irrespective of treatment activity and no more than one grade-3/4 toxicity was observed in each group. Nevertheless, in contrast to the other groups the mean platelet count in the 9.3 GBq group chronically decreased over time. Conclusion: If patients with diffuse red marrow infiltration and extensive chemotherapeutical pretreatments are excluded, treatment activities up to three injections of 9.3 GBq (177)Lu-PSMA-617 every two months are well tolerable. Further dose escalation should be conducted with care as the MTD seems to be close. Copyright © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  12. Phase 2 Study of Lutetium 177-Labeled Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase IX Monoclonal Antibody Girentuximab in Patients with Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Muselaers, Constantijn H J; Boers-Sonderen, Marye J; van Oostenbrugge, Tim J; Boerman, Otto C; Desar, Ingrid M E; Stillebroer, Alexander B; Mulder, Sasja F; van Herpen, Carla M L; Langenhuijsen, Johan F; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Oyen, Wim J G; Mulders, Peter F A

    2016-05-01

    Despite advances in the treatment of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), there is still an unmet need in the treatment of this disease. A phase 2 radioimmunotherapy (RIT) trial with lutetium 177 ((177)Lu)-girentuximab was initiated to evaluate the efficacy of this approach. In this nonrandomized single-arm trial, patients with progressive metastatic ccRCC who met the inclusion criteria received 2405 MBq/m(2) of (177)Lu-girentuximab intravenously. In the absence of persistent toxicity and progressive disease, patients were eligible for retreatment after 3 mo with 75% of the previous activity dose. A total of 14 patients were included. After the first therapeutic infusion, eight patients (57%) had stable disease (SD) and one (7%) had a partial regression. The treatment was generally well tolerated but resulted in grade 3-4 myelotoxicity in most patients. After the second cycle, continued SD was observed in five of six patients, but none were eligible for retreatment due to prolonged thrombocytopenia. In conclusion, RIT with (177)Lu-girentuximab resulted in disease stabilization in 9 of 14 patients with progressive metastatic ccRCC, but myelotoxicity prevented retreatment in some patients. We investigated the efficacy of lutetium 177-girentuximab radioimmunotherapy in patients with metastatic kidney cancer. The treatment resulted in disease stabilization in 9 of 14 patients. The main toxicity was prolonged low blood cell counts. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02002312 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02002312). Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards Personalized Treatment of Prostate Cancer: PSMA I&T, a Promising Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen-Targeted Theranostic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Chatalic, Kristell L.S.; Heskamp, Sandra; Konijnenberg, Mark; Molkenboer-Kuenen, Janneke D.M.; Franssen, Gerben M.; Clahsen-van Groningen, Marian C.; Schottelius, Margret; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; van Weerden, Wytske M.; Boerman, Otto C.; de Jong, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a well-established target for nuclear imaging and therapy of prostate cancer (PCa). Radiolabeled small-molecule PSMA inhibitors are excellent candidates for PCa theranostics—they rapidly and efficiently localize in tumor lesions. However, high tracer uptake in kidneys and salivary glands are major concerns for therapeutic applications. Here, we present the preclinical application of PSMA I&T, a DOTAGA-chelated urea-based PSMA inhibitor, for SPECT/CT imaging and radionuclide therapy of PCa. 111In-PSMA I&T showed dose-dependent uptake in PSMA-expressing tumors, kidneys, spleen, adrenals, lungs and salivary glands. Coadministration of 2-(phosphonomethyl)pentane-1,5-dioic acid (2-PMPA) efficiently reduced PSMA-mediated renal uptake of 111In-PSMA I&T, with the highest tumor/kidney radioactivity ratios being obtained using a dose of 50 nmol 2-PMPA. SPECT/CT clearly visualized subcutaneous tumors and sub-millimeter intraperitoneal metastases; however, high renal and spleen uptake in control mice (no 2-PMPA) interfered with visualization of metastases in the vicinity of those organs. Coadministration of 2-PMPA increased the tumor-to-kidney absorbed dose ratio during 177Lu-PSMA I&T radionuclide therapy. Hence, at equivalent absorbed dose to the tumor (36 Gy), coinjection of 2-PMPA decreased absorbed dose to the kidneys from 30 Gy to 12 Gy. Mice injected with 177Lu-PSMA I&T only, showed signs of nephrotoxicity at 3 months after therapy, whereas mice injected with 177Lu-PSMA I&T + 2-PMPA did not. These data indicate that PSMA I&T is a promising theranostic tool for PCa. PSMA-specific uptake in kidneys can be successfully tackled using blocking agents such as 2-PMPA. PMID:27162555

  14. Re-188 Enhances the Inhibitory Effect of Bevacizumab in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jie; Xu, Xiaobo; Li, Xiao; Li, Yanli; Liu, Guobing; Tan, Hui; Shen, Hua; Shi, Hongcheng; Cheng, Dengfeng

    2016-09-30

    The malignant behaviors of solid tumors such as growth, infiltration and metastasis are mainly nourished by tumor neovascularization. Thus, anti-angiogenic therapy is key to controlling tumor progression. Bevacizumab, a humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody, plus chemotherapy or biological therapy can prolong survival for cancer patients, but treatment-related mortality is a concern. To improve inhibitory effect and decrease side-effects on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we used Re-188, which is a β emitting radionuclide, directly labeled with bevacizumab for radioimmunotherapy in a human A549 tumor model. Cytotoxic assay data showed that, after (188)ReO₄(-) or (188)Re-bevacizumab at different concentration for 4 and 24 h, a time- and radioactivity does-dependent reduction in cell viability occurred. Also, an apoptosis assay conformed great apoptosis in the (188)Re-bevacizumab group compared with controls and other treatment groups. In vivo, tumor volumes in the (188)Re-bevacizumab (11.1 MBq/mice) group were not reduced but growth was delayed compared with other groups. Thus, (188)Re-bevacizumab enhanced the therapeutic effect of bevacizumab, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC treatment.

  15. Metallofullerene-based Nanoplatform for Brain Tumor Brachytherapy and Longitudinal Imaging in a Murine Orthotopic Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Michael D.; Wilson, John D.; Fuller, Christine E.; Zhang, Jianyuan; Dorn, Harry C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate in an orthotopic xenograft brain tumor model that a functionalized metallofullerene (f-Gd3N@C80) can enable longitudinal tumor imaging and, when radiolabeled with lutetium 177 (177Lu) and tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid (DOTA) (177Lu-DOTA-f-Gd3N@C80), provide an anchor to deliver effective brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: All experiments involving the use of mice were carried out in accordance with protocols approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Human glioblastoma U87MG cells were implanted by using stereotactic procedures into the brains of 37 female athymic nude-Foxn1nu mice and allowed to develop into a tumor for 8 days. T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in five mice. Biodistribution studies were performed in 12 mice at four time points over 7 days to evaluate gadolinium content. Survival studies involved 20 mice that received infusion of a nanoplatform by means of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) 8 days after tumor implantation. Mice in survival studies were divided into two groups: one comprised untreated mice that received f-Gd3N@C80 alone and the other comprised mice treated with brachytherapy that received 1.11 MBq of 177Lu-DOTA-f-Gd3N@C80. Survival data were evaluated by using Kaplan-Meier statistical methods. Results: MR imaging showed extended tumor retention (25.6% ± 1.2 of the infused dose at 52 days, confirmed with biodistribution studies) of the f-Gd3N@C80 nanoplatform, which enabled longitudinal imaging. Successful coupling of 177Lu to the f-Gd3N@C80 surface was achieved by using a bifunctional macrocyclic chelator. The extended tumor retention allowed for effective brachytherapy, as indicated by extended survival time (>2.5 times that of the untreated group) and histologic signs of radiation-induced tumor damage. Conclusion: The authors have developed a multimodal nanoplatform and have demonstrated longitudinal tumor imaging, prolonged intratumoral probe

  16. Investigation of the neutron activation of endohedral rare earth metallofullerenes

    SciTech Connect

    Shilin, V. A. Lebedev, V. T.; Kolesnik, S. G.; Kozlov, V. S.; Grushko, Yu. S.; Sedov, V. P.; Kukorenko, V. V.

    2011-12-15

    Endohedral lanthanide metallofullerenes and their water-soluble biocompatible derivatives have been synthesized. The effect that fast-neutron irradiation has on the stability and nuclear physical properties of endohedral metallofullerenes that are used as magnetocontrast materials ({sup 46}Sc, {sup 140}La, {sup 141}Nd, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 160}Tb, {sup 169}Yb, {sup 170}Tm (isomers I and III), and {sup 177}Lu) is studied. Our hypothesis, according to which carbon-shell relaxation is based on the fast nonradiative processes of an electron shake-off type, is confirmed.

  17. Evaluation of the efficiency curve of a Cadmiun Telluride detector for low-energy photon spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Correia, Amanda Ribeiro; Iwahara, Akira; da Cruz, Paulo Alberto Lima; da Silva, Carlos José; Tauhata, Luiz; Poledna, Roberto; da Silva, Ronaldo Lins; de Queiroz Filho, Pedro Pacheco; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu

    2016-10-01

    The performance of a Cadmiun Telluride (CdTe) detector for low energy photon spectrometry was evaluated. Collected data were analyzed using the basic software package available with the CdTe detector system and the COLEGRAM code developed for photopeak deconvolution at LNHB/France. Several calibrated point sources were used to determine the energy versus efficiency curve. The efficiency curve was used in the determination of main X-ray intensities of (153)Sm and (177)Lu. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Deviation in the predefined calibration factors of the dose calibrators and the associated inaccuracy in the radioactivity measurements of beta-gamma emitters

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sarika; Singh, Baljinder; Koul, Ashwani; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the predefined calibration factors of the dose calibrators can provide accurate radioactivity measurements of beta-gamma emitters used in routine therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. Materials and Methods: Two models of dose calibrators were used in the present study for radioactivity measurements of 153Sm ethylenediamine-N, N, N’, N’-tetrakis methylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) and 177Lu (EDTMP). A known (precalibrated) activity of each of the two beta emitters received by us from our National Supplier for administration to the patients with extensive bony metastases for bone pain palliation, was used for experiments. Results: When we used the manufacturers’ provided dial setting of 450 × 10, each of the dose calibrators underestimated the radioactivity of 177Lu by about 9.0%. Dial settings of 403 × 10 and 408 × 10 for 177Lu on CRC-15R and CRC-ultra dose calibrators respectively were calculated experimentally using an iterative approach. The radioactivity measurements made at these settings provided an excellent agreement with the specified values. Likewise, a dial setting of 230 for each of the two dose calibrators was calculated for 153Sm, which provided a good agreement between the experimentally derived radioactivity values and the certified values. A deviation of ± 5.0% was observed when radioactivity of 177Lu and 153Sm was measured over a wide range (4.0 MBq to 2.1 GBq) for time intervals equivalent to 4.5 half-lives of each of the two radionuclides. A deviation of ± 5% was observed when radioactivity was counted in different dilution volumes and in syringes of varying size. Conclusion: These variations could lead to a cumulative error of about 20.0% toward the inaccuracy in the radioactivity measurements of the beta-gamma emitters and thus predefined calibration factors of the dose calibrators may require experimental re-setting of these parameters and periodic checking to provide accurate radioactivity estimates of

  19. Deviation in the predefined calibration factors of the dose calibrators and the associated inaccuracy in the radioactivity measurements of beta-gamma emitters.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sarika; Singh, Baljinder; Koul, Ashwani; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether the predefined calibration factors of the dose calibrators can provide accurate radioactivity measurements of beta-gamma emitters used in routine therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. Two models of dose calibrators were used in the present study for radioactivity measurements of (153)Sm ethylenediamine-N, N, N', N'-tetrakis methylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) and (177)Lu (EDTMP). A known (precalibrated) activity of each of the two beta emitters received by us from our National Supplier for administration to the patients with extensive bony metastases for bone pain palliation, was used for experiments. When we used the manufacturers' provided dial setting of 450 × 10, each of the dose calibrators underestimated the radioactivity of (177)Lu by about 9.0%. Dial settings of 403 × 10 and 408 × 10 for (177)Lu on CRC-15R and CRC-ultra dose calibrators respectively were calculated experimentally using an iterative approach. The radioactivity measurements made at these settings provided an excellent agreement with the specified values. Likewise, a dial setting of 230 for each of the two dose calibrators was calculated for (153)Sm, which provided a good agreement between the experimentally derived radioactivity values and the certified values. A deviation of ± 5.0% was observed when radioactivity of (177)Lu and (153)Sm was measured over a wide range (4.0 MBq to 2.1 GBq) for time intervals equivalent to 4.5 half-lives of each of the two radionuclides. A deviation of ± 5% was observed when radioactivity was counted in different dilution volumes and in syringes of varying size. These variations could lead to a cumulative error of about 20.0% toward the inaccuracy in the radioactivity measurements of the beta-gamma emitters and thus predefined calibration factors of the dose calibrators may require experimental re-setting of these parameters and periodic checking to provide accurate radioactivity estimates of beta-gamma emitters in a given clinical

  20. Radiosensitivity of Prostate Cancer Cell Lines for Irradiation from Beta Particle-emitting Radionuclide ¹⁷⁷Lu Compared to Alpha Particles and Gamma Rays.

    PubMed

    Elgqvist, Jörgen; Timmermand, Oskar Vilhelmsson; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the radiosensitivity of the prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 when irradiated with beta particles emitted from (177)Lu, and to compare the effect with irradiation using alpha particles or gamma rays. Cells were irradiated with beta particles emitted from (177)Lu, alpha particles from (241)Am, or gamma rays from (137)Cs. A non-specific polyclonal antibody was labeled with (177)Lu and used to irradiate cells in suspension with beta particles. A previously described in-house developed alpha-particle irradiator based on a (241)Am source was used to irradiate cells with alpha particles. External gamma-ray irradiation was achieved using a standard (137)Cs irradiator. Cells were irradiated to absorbed doses equal to 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 Gy. The absorbed doses were calculated as mean absorbed doses. For evaluation of cell survival, the tetrazolium-based WST-1 assay was used. After irradiation, WST-1 was added to the cell solutions, incubated, and then measured for level of absorbance at 450 nm, indicating the live and viable cells. LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 cell lines all had similar patterns of survival for the different radiation types. No significant difference in surviving fractions were observed between cells treated with beta-particle and gamma-ray irradiation, represented for example by the surviving fraction values (mean±SD) at 2, 6, and 10 Gy (SF2, SF6, and SF10) for DU145 after beta-particle irradiation: 0.700±0.090, 0.186±0.050 and 0.056±0.010, respectively. A strong radiosensitivity to alpha particles was observed, with SF2 values of 0.048±0.008, 0.018±0.006 and 0.015±0.005 for LNCaP, DU145, and PC3, respectively. The surviving fractions after irradiation using beta particles or gamma rays did not differ significantly at the absorbed dose levels and dose rates used. Irradiation using alpha particles led to a high level of cell killing. The results show that the beta-particle emitter

  1. Somatostatin receptors as targets for nuclear medicine imaging and radionuclide treatment.

    PubMed

    Maecke, Helmut R; Reubi, Jean Claude

    2011-06-01

    Radiolabeled peptides have been an important class of compounds in radiopharmaceutical sciences and nuclear medicine for more than 20 years. Despite strong research efforts, only somatostatin-based radiopeptides have a real impact on patient care, diagnostically and therapeutically. [(111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid(0)]octreotide is commercially available for imaging. Imaging was highly improved by the introduction of PET radionuclides such as (68)Ga, (64)Cu, and (18)F. Two peptides are successfully used in targeted radionuclide therapy when bound to DOTA and labeled with (90)Y and (177)Lu.

  2. [Radionuclide therapy for neuroendocrine tumours].

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Jann; Oturai, Peter; Højgaard, Liselotte; Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnaes; Martiný, Lars; Rasmussen, Palle; Kjaer, Andreas

    2010-10-25

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using somatostatin analogues labelled with beta-emitting isotopes can be given to patients with metastasized or inoperable neuroendocrine tumours provided these have increased uptake on octreotide scintigraphy. This is a brief review of the treatment principle, indications and contraindications and practices with (177)Lu-DOTATATE treatment used at Rigshospitalet. Side effects are generally mild and reversible. Severe long-term side effects are rare. The majority of patients will experience increased quality of life and partial tumour reduction or stabilization for a period of time. However, up to 20% will experience no treatment effect.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of radiometal-containing peptide nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Holger; Foerster, Christian; Gasser, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have very attractive properties for applications in nuclear medicine. Because PNAs have high selectivity for DNA/RNA recognition, resistance to nuclease/protease degradation, and high thermal and radiolytic stabilities, PNA bioconjugates could transform the areas of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. In this book chapter, we report on the current developments towards the preparation of radiometal-containing PNA constructs and summarize the protocols for labeling these probes with (99m)Tc, (111)In, (64)Cu, (90)Y, and (177)Lu.

  4. Investigation of the chick embryo as a potential alternative to the mouse for evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Haller, Stephanie; Ametamey, Simon M; Schibli, Roger; Müller, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    The chick embryo is an emerging in vivo model in several areas of pre-clinical research including radiopharmaceutical sciences. Herein, it was evaluated as a potential test system for assessing the biodistribution and in vivo stability of radiopharmaceuticals. For this purpose, a number of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with (18)F, (125)I, (99m)Tc, and (177)Lu were investigated in the chick embryo and compared with the data obtained in mice. Chick embryos were cultivated ex ovo for 17-19 days before application of the radiopharmaceutical directly into the peritoneum or intravenously using a vein of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). At a defined time point after application of radioactivity, the embryos were euthanized by shock-freezing using liquid nitrogen. Afterwards they were separated from residual egg components for post mortem imaging purposes using positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). SPECT images revealed uptake of [(99m)Tc]pertechnetate and [(125)I]iodide in the thyroid of chick embryos and mice, whereas [(177)Lu]lutetium, [(18)F]fluoride and [(99m)Tc]-methylene diphosphonate ([(99m)Tc]-MDP) were accumulated in the bones. [(99m)Tc]-dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA) and the somatostatin analog [(177)Lu]-DOTATOC, as well as the folic acid derivative [(177)Lu]-DOTA-folate showed accumulation in the renal tissue whereas [(99m)Tc]-mebrofenin accumulated in the gall bladder and intestine of both species. In vivo dehalogenation of [(18)F]fallypride and of the folic acid derivative [(125)I]iodo-tyrosine-folate was observed in both species. In contrast, the 3'-aza-2'-[(18)F]fluorofolic acid ([(18)F]-AzaFol) was stable in the chick embryo as well as in the mouse. Our results revealed the same tissue distribution profile and in vivo stability of radiopharmaceuticals in the chick embryo and the mouse. This observation is promising with regard to a potential use of the chick embryo as an inexpensive and simple

  5. Metastatic superscan in prostate carcinoma on gallium-68-prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Tripathi, Madhavi; Kumar, Rajeev; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    We describe the imaging features of a metastatic superscan on gallium-68 Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys-(Ahx)-[Ga-68(HBED-CC)], abbreviated as gallium-68-prostate-specific membrane antigen ((68)Ga-PSMA) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging. (68)Ga-PSMA is novel radiotracer undergoing evaluation for PET/CT imaging of prostate carcinoma. This patient had a superscan of metastases on conventional bone scintigraphy and was referred for (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT to evaluate the feasibility of (177)Lu-PSMA therapy.

  6. Isomeric ratio measurements for the radiative neutron capture 176Lu(n,γ) at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis-Petit, D.; Roig, O.; Méot, V.; Morillon, B.; Romain, P.; Jandel, M.; Kawano, T.; Vieira, D. J.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2017-09-01

    The isomeric ratios for the neutron capture reaction 176Lu(n,γ) to the Jπ = 5/2-, 761.7 keV, T1/2 = 32.8 ns and the Jπ = 15/2+, 1356.9 keV, T1/2 = 11.1 ns levels of 177Lu, have been measured for the first time with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These measured isomeric ratios are compared with TALYS calculations.

  7. Chemoradiation therapy using cyclopamine-loaded liquid-lipid nanoparticles and lutetium-177-labeled core-crosslinked polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    You, Jian; Zhao, Jun; Wen, Xiaoxia; Wu, Chunhui; Huang, Qian; Guan, Fada; Wu, Richard; Liang, Dong; Li, Chun

    2015-03-28

    Cyclopamine (CPA), a potent inhibitor of the Hedgehog pathway, has produced promising anticancer results in a number of preclinical studies. CPA has also been found to enhance tumor response to radiation therapy. However, CPA is water insoluble. A drug delivery system suitable for systemic administration of CPA is needed before CPA can be considered for clinical translation. We hypothesized that CPA solubilized in a liquid-lipid nanoparticle system (CPA-LLP) for intravenous injection would have desirable pharmacokinetic properties and increased anticancer efficacy. We further hypothesized that CPA-LLP would enhance the response of tumor cells to targeted radiotherapy delivered selectively through intratumoral injection of lutetium-177 bound to core-crosslinked polymeric micelles (CCPM-(177)Lu). We tested the combination therapy in 4T1 murine breast cancer and Miapaca-2 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma models. The results showed that CPA-LLP had higher antitumor cytotoxicity than free CPA (IC50 values [mean±SEM]: 2.7±0.2μM vs. 11.3±1.2μM against 4T1 cells; 1.8±0.2 vs. 17.1±1.26μM against Miapaca-2 cells; p<0.0001). In both cell lines, CPA-LLP resulted in significantly lower clonogenicity than free CPA (p<0.05). Moreover, in both cell lines, CPA-LLP significantly enhanced the cell response to CCPM-(177)Lu radiotherapy as measured by clonogenic assay (p<0.05). In 4T1 and Miapaca-2 mouse xenograft models, the combination of CPA-LLP and CCPM-(177)Lu delayed tumor growth more than either monotherapy did alone. In the 4T1 tumor model, tumor size at 16days after treatment was significantly smaller with the combination therapy than with all the other treatments. In the Miapaca-2 model, the combination therapy resulted in the highest rate of mouse survival and prevented tumor relapse. In conclusion, the combination of CPA-LLP and CCPM-(177)Lu was an effective strategy for treating breast and pancreatic cancer and deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2015

  8. Automated module radiolabeling of peptides and antibodies with gallium-68, lutetium-177 and iodine-131.

    PubMed

    De Decker, Mario; Turner, J Harvey

    2012-02-01

    Our objectives were to automate radiolabeling of therapeutic activities for safe, reliable, cost-effective, practical routine preparation of (177)Lu-radiopeptides, (131)I radioimmunotherapeutic agents, and (68)Ga-peptide PET diagnostics and, in particular, minimize radiation exposure to the radiopharmaceutical chemist. Reprogramming and adaptation of a commercially available synthetic module (IBA molecular; Synthera®) allowed high yield, fully automated, in-house radiolabeling of novel therapeutic and diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals under remote shielded sterile conditions. Radiochemical yield and purity was measured by instant thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. (68)Ga-octreotate and (177)Lu-octreotate were synthesized, resulting in both radiochemical yield and radiochemical purity greater than 99%. Synthesis of (131)I-rituximab resulted in a yield of 60%, with a radiochemical purity greater than 99%. Using 400 MBq (68)GaCl(3) per synthesis, the estimated absorbed body and hand dose for a manual synthesis was 2 and 27 μ Sv, contrasting with automated synthesis exposure of 1.3 and 7.9 μ Sv. Using 8000 MBq (177)LuCl(3) per synthesis, the estimated absorbed body and hand dose for a manual synthesis was 44.7 and 75 μ Sv, contrasting with automated synthesis exposure of 2.5 and 20 μ Sv. Using 6000 MBq (131)I per synthesis, the estimated absorbed body and hand dose for a manual synthesis was 83.7 and 335 μ Sv, contrasting with automated synthesis exposure of 10.9 and 54.7 μ Sv. The reduction in radiation exposure by automated synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals in the Synthera® module was at least five fold. Automated synthesis of therapeutic (177)Lu and (131)I radiopharmaceuticals and (68)Ga PET agents in the shielded sterile Synthera® module is simple, practical, and efficient and virtually eliminates radiation exposure to the radiopharmaceutical chemist.

  9. A report on the implementation aspects of the International Atomic Energy Agency's first doctoral coordinated research project, "Management of liver cancer using radionuclide methods with special emphasis on trans-arterial radio-conjugate therapy and internal dosimetry".

    PubMed

    Padhy, Ajit Kumar; Dondi, Maurizio

    2008-03-01

    Liver cancer is one of the most dreaded cancers, and it is highly prevalent in the developing countries, where the resources are extremely scarce to deal with this disease using the current commercially available and expensive therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in pursuit of its mandate to promote the application of nuclear technology in the health care in its Member States, has developed and clinically evaluated a new and cost-effective therapeutic radio-conjugate, rhenium-188 ((188)Re)-lipiodol for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma through its first Doctoral Coordinated Research Project. The ready availability of no-carrier-added (188)Re from the tungsten-188/(188)Re generator represents a potentially important source of a therapeutic radioisotope for a broad range of therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. The alumina-based tungsten-188/(188)Re generator system comes with reasonable cost and exhibits attractive therapeutic properties, excellent performance and very long useful shelf-life. Because of the long shelf-life of several months, the use of this generator offers a unique opportunity for the cost-effective and routine availability of a versatile therapeutic radioisotope on an on-demand basis. Further, using its extensive global network and outreach, the IAEA has also transferred the technology of the in-house preparation and use of (188)Re-labeled lipiodol to many institutions around the world, which can now prepare (188)Re-labeled lipiodol in their own radiopharmacy laboratories and treat patients. This effort of the IAEA in trying to address some of the challenges of liver cancer therapy in developing countries has been and truly a global venture with involvement and contributions from several organizations, institutions and numerous individuals. This article discusses some of the implementation aspects of this very important activity of the Agency.

  10. 177 Lu-Labeled Phosphoramidate-Based PSMA Inhibitors: The Effect of an Albumin Binder on Biodistribution and Therapeutic Efficacy in Prostate Tumor-Bearing Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Choy, Cindy J.; Ling, Xiaoxi; Geruntho, Jonathan J.; Beyer, Sophia K.; Latoche, Joseph D.; Langton-Webster, Beatrice; Anderson, Carolyn J.; Berkman, Clifford E.

    2017-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) continues to be an active biomarker for small-molecule PSMA-targeted imaging and therapeutic agents for prostate cancer and various non-prostatic tumors that are characterized by PSMA expression on their neovasculature. One of the challenges for small-molecule PSMA inhibitors with respect to delivering therapeutic payloads is their rapid renal clearance. In order to overcome this pharmacokinetic challenge, we outfitted a 177Lu-labeled phosphoramidate-based PSMA inhibitor (CTT1298) with an albumin-binding motif (CTT1403) and compared its in vivo performance with that of an analogous compound lacking the albumin-binding motif (CTT1401). The radiolabeling of CTT1401 and CTT1403 was achieved using click chemistry to connect 177Lu-DOTA-N3 to the dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO)-bearing CTT1298 inhibitor cores. A direct comparison in vitro and in vivo performance was made for CTT1401 and CTT1403; the specificity and efficacy by means of cellular uptake and internalization, biodistribution, and therapeutic efficacy were determined for both compounds. While both compounds displayed excellent uptake and rapid internalization in PSMA+ PC3-PIP cells, the albumin binding moiety in CTT1403 conferred clear advantages to the PSMA-inhibitor scaffold including increased circulating half-life and prostate tumor uptake that continued to increase up to 168 h post-injection. This increased tumor uptake translated into superior therapeutic efficacy of CTT1403 in PSMA+ PC3-PIP human xenograft tumors.

  11. Patient-specific dosimetry in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Chalkia, M T; Stefanoyiannis, A P; Chatziioannou, S N; Round, W H; Efstathopoulos, E P; Nikiforidis, G C

    2015-03-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) belong to a relatively rare class of neoplasms. Nonetheless, their prevalence has increased significantly during the last decades. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a relatively new treatment approach for inoperable or metastasised NETs. The therapeutic effect is based on the binding of radiolabelled somatostatin analogue peptides with NETs' somatostatin receptors, resulting in internal irradiation of tumours. Pre-therapeutic patient-specific dosimetry is essential to ensure that a treatment course has high levels of safety and efficacy. This paper reviews the methods applied for PRRT dosimetry, as well as the dosimetric results presented in the literature. Focus is given on data concerning the therapeutic somatostatin analogue radiopeptides (111)In-[DTPA(0),D-Phe(1)]-octreotide ((111)In-DTPA-octreotide), (90)Y-[DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]-octreotide ((90)Y-DOTATOC) and (177)Lu-[DOTA(0),Tyr(3),Thr(8)]-octreotide ((177)Lu-DOTATATE). Following the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee formalism, dosimetric analysis demonstrates large interpatient variability in tumour and organ uptake, with kidneys and bone marrow being the critical organs. The results are dependent on the image acquisition and processing protocol, as well as the dosimetric imaging radiopharmaceutical.

  12. In vivo comparative study of hydroxyapatite labeled with different radioisotopes: evaluation of the scintigraphic images.

    PubMed

    Couto, R M; De Barboza, M F; De Souza, A A; Muramoto, E; Mengatti, J; De Araújo, E B

    2010-05-10

    Radyosinovectomy (RSV) is a radiotherapeutic modality where a beta-emitting radionuclide is administered locally by intra-articular injection on the form of a colloid or radiolabeled particulate. RSV is a well-accepted therapeutic procedure in inflammatory joint diseases and has been successfully employed for more than 50 years as a viable alternative to surgical and chemical synovectomy. The aim of this work is to compare the in vivo stability of hydroxyapatite labelled with (177)Lu, (90)Y and (153)Sm. All radionuclides were labelled with high yield and were retained in the joint for 7 days, showing stability and usefulness as tools in the RSV treatment. A similar retention of the products in the muscle was observed when the particles were administrated in the muscle. However, the pure form of the radionuclides were rapidly cleared from the blood and accumulated in the liver when injected i.v.. Although (153)Sm-HA is already available for nuclear medicine procedures and clinical studies with (90)Y-HA have been developed, (177)Lu-labeled RSV agents will be economically more viable and has not been studied yet. Its favorable characteristics contribute to follow, to predict and asses the success of RSV by bone scintigraphy studies.

  13. The determination of the rate of conjugation immunoglobuline with bifunctional chelator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Málek, Z.; Miler, V.; Budský, F.

    2006-01-01

    The work was performed under the GACR project: "Technology of preparation of radionuclides and their labelled compounds for nuclear medicine and pharmacy with the use of the reactor LVR-15" reg. no. 104/03/0499. Imaging of cell’s antigens with the use of labelled immunoglobulines allows imaging of specific receptors on cell membrane and specific tumours. It is necessary to carry out the labelling of the immunoglobulines with radionuclides of suitable physical properties, which form cations (e.g., 111In, 90Y, 177Lu) that form very strong chelates of sufficiently high stability constant preventing the dissociation of complexes or the radionuclide under “in-vivo” conditions. The immunoglobuline must be conjugated with the bifunctional chelator (BCH), which contains both chelating unit and reactive group for binding to the immunoglobuline. In our laboratory we have conjugated human IgG and monoclonal antibody CD20 with diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid dianhydride (cDTPAA). Radionuclides 90Y and 177Lu prepared on the LVR-15 reactor in NRI Rez were used for labelling. After conjugation and labelling the yields in relation to the amount of isotopic carrier have been determined.

  14. Preclinical evaluation of radiolabelled nimotuzumab, a promising monoclonal antibody targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Barta, Pavel; Laznickova, Alice; Laznicek, Milan; Vera, Denis Rolando Beckford; Beran, Milos

    2013-05-15

    Radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies with affinity towards tumour-associated antigens may enhance the efficacy of cancer treatment with targeted radiotherapy. The humanized antibody nimotuzumab represents a promising vector to deliver radioactivity to tumours overexpressing epidermal growth factor receptor type 1 (ErbB1). We analysed the effect of radiolabelling nimotuzumab on its uptake in cancer cells and its biodistribution profile in preclinical experiments. Nimotuzumab was labelled with (131) I by oxidative iodination and with (177) Lu using nimotuzumab conjugates with two different chelators (DTPA and DOTA) and two different spacers (p-SCN-Bn and NHS). For the receptor studies, two cell lines (HaCaT and A431) were used. Biodistribution studies were performed in male Wistar rats. The choice of radiolabel and the manner of its attachment to nimotuzumab had little effect on the internalization of the antibody into ErbB1-expressing cell lines. However, the type of radiolabel, the way in which it was attached to nimotuzumab and the radiolabelling procedure, significantly affected the blood clearance, liver uptake and liver persistence of radiolabelled nimotuzumab. (131) I-nimotuzumab had the longest elimination half-life and the lowest radioactivity uptake in the liver. (177) Lu-labelled nimotuzumab exhibited a shorter elimination half-life, high radioactivity and long-term retention in the liver. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Automated synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of [(68)Ga]Ga-AMBA, and the synthesis and characterization of (nat)Ga-AMBA and [(67)Ga]Ga-AMBA.

    PubMed

    Cagnolini, Aldo; Chen, Jianqing; Ramos, Kimberly; Skedzielewski, Tina Marie; Lantry, Laura E; Nunn, Adrian D; Swenson, Rolf E; Linder, Karen E

    2010-12-01

    Ga-AMBA (Ga-DO3A-CH(2)CO-G-[4-aminobenzoyl]-QWAVGHLM-NH(2)) is a bombesin-like agonist with high affinity for gastrin releasing peptide receptors (GRP-R). Syntheses for (nat)Ga-AMBA, [(67)Ga]Ga-AMBA and [(68)Ga]Ga-AMBA were developed. The preparation of HPLC-purified and Sep-Pak purified [(68)Ga]Ga-AMBA were fully automated, using the built-in radiodetector of the Tracerlab FX F-N synthesizer to monitor fractionated (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator elution and purification. The total synthesis time, including the fractional elution of the generator, was 20 min for Sep-Pak purified material and 40 min for HPLC-purified [(68)Ga]Ga-AMBA. Both [(67)Ga]Ga-AMBA and [(177)Lu]Lu-AMBA showed comparable high affinity for GRP-R in the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3 in vitro (k(D)=0.46+/-0.07; 0.44+/-0.08 nM), high internalization (78; 77%) and low efflux from cells at 2 h (2.4+/-0.7; 2.9+/-1.8%). Biodistribution results in PC-3 tumor-bearing male nude mice showed comparable uptake for [(177)Lu]Lu-, [(111)In]In-, [(67)Ga]Ga- and [(68)Ga]Ga-AMBA. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lutetium 177-DOTA-TATE therapy for esthesioneuroblastoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sabongi, Juliano Guerra; Gonçalves, Mônica Carboni Pereira; Alves, Cira Danielle Casado; Alves, João; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Moriguchi, Sonia Marta

    2016-01-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB), also known as olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant tumor that accounts for 3% of all tumors of the nasal cavity. The incidence of ENB is 0.4 cases per million in the general population, and the most common symptoms are nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Previous studies have indicated the presence of somatostatin receptors in this tumor type. Common treatment strategies for ENB include resection and adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy (combined treatment); however, the rate of recurrence is high. Treatment of neuroendocrine tumors using radionuclides bound to somatostatin analogues is well established in clinical practice. However, a standard and effective therapeutic approach has not been reported for ENB. The current study described the case of a 74-year-old female with numerous recurrences of ENB following multiple treatments and without possibility of resection. The patient was treated with the radiolabeled-somatostatin analogue, 177Lutetium-DOTA-octreotate (177Lu-DOTA-TATE), which successfully controlled the disease. This suggests that 177Lu-DOTA-TATE is a potential treatment for ENB and may represent an effective alternative and novel therapeutic strategy for this disease. PMID:27882120

  17. Radiolabeling of substance P with lutetium-177 and biodistribution study in rat pancreatic tumor xenografted nude mice.

    PubMed

    De Araújo, E B; Pujatti, P B; Mengatti, J

    2010-05-10

    Pancreatic tumor (PT) is a neuroendocrine neoplasm that usually origin metastases in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. The presence of peptide receptors at the cell membrane of PT constitutes the basis of the clinical use of specific radiolabeled ligands for its diagnosis and targeted therapy. Substance P (SP), an 11-amino acid peptide which has an important role in modulating pain transmission trough neurokinin type 1 (NK1r) and 2 receptors (NK2r), may play a role in the pathogenesis of PT, because approximately 10% of these tumors overexpress NK1r. The aim of the present work was to produce a pure and stable SP analog (DOTA-SP) radiolabeled with lutetium-177 ((177)Lu), and to evaluate its in vivo target to AR42J pancreatic tumor cells in Nude mice, in other to verify if SP can be used in this pancreatic tumor detection and treatment. Substance P was successfully labeled with high yield (>99%) at optimized conditions and kept stable for more than 72 hours at 2-8 degrees C and 4 hours in human plasma. Biodistribution studies showed that SP excretion was mainly performed by renal pathway. In addition, (177)Lu-DOTA-SP showed higher uptake by tumor than normal pancreas, indicating the presence of NK receptors in AR42J pancreatic tumor.

  18. Lutetium 177-DOTA-TATE therapy for esthesioneuroblastoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Sabongi, Juliano Guerra; Gonçalves, Mônica Carboni Pereira; Alves, Cira Danielle Casado; Alves, João; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Moriguchi, Sonia Marta

    2016-11-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB), also known as olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant tumor that accounts for 3% of all tumors of the nasal cavity. The incidence of ENB is 0.4 cases per million in the general population, and the most common symptoms are nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Previous studies have indicated the presence of somatostatin receptors in this tumor type. Common treatment strategies for ENB include resection and adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy (combined treatment); however, the rate of recurrence is high. Treatment of neuroendocrine tumors using radionuclides bound to somatostatin analogues is well established in clinical practice. However, a standard and effective therapeutic approach has not been reported for ENB. The current study described the case of a 74-year-old female with numerous recurrences of ENB following multiple treatments and without possibility of resection. The patient was treated with the radiolabeled-somatostatin analogue, (177)Lutetium-DOTA-octreotate ((177)Lu-DOTA-TATE), which successfully controlled the disease. This suggests that (177)Lu-DOTA-TATE is a potential treatment for ENB and may represent an effective alternative and novel therapeutic strategy for this disease.

  19. Extraction of lutetium(III) from aqueous solutions by employing a single fibre-supported liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Trtić-Petrović, Tatjana M; Kumrić, Ksenija R; Dordević, Jelena S; Vladisavljević, Goran T

    2010-07-01

    Transport behaviour of Lu(III) across a polypropylene hollow fibre-supported liquid membrane containing di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (DEHPA) in dihexyl ether as a carrier has been studied. The donor phase was LuCl(3) in the buffer solution consisting of 0.2 M sodium acetate at pH 2.5-5.0. A miniaturised system with a single hollow fibre has been operated in a batch mode. The concentration of Lu(III) was determined by indirect voltammetric method using Zn-EDTA complex. The effect of pH and volume of the donor phase, DEHPA concentration in the organic (liquid membrane) phase, the time of extraction and the content of the acceptor phase on the Lu(III) extraction and stripping behaviour was investigated. The results were discussed in terms of the pertraction and removal efficiency, the memory effect and the mean flux of Lu(III). The optimal conditions for the removal of (177)Lu(III) from labelled (177)Lu-radiopharmaceuticals were discussed and identified. The removal efficiency of Lu(III) greater than 99% was achieved at pH of the donor phase between 3.5 and 5.0 using DEHPA concentration in the organic phase of 0.47 M and the ratio of the donor to the acceptor phase of 182.

  20. Dual-Nuclide Radiopharmaceuticals for Positron Emission Tomography Based Dosimetry in Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wurzer, Alexander; Seidl, Christof; Morgenstern, Alfred; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Schwaiger, Markus; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Notni, Johannes

    2017-08-21

    Improvement of the accuracy of dosimetry in radionuclide therapy has the potential to increase patient safety and therapeutic outcomes. Although positron emission tomography (PET) is ideally suited for acquisition of dosimetric data because PET is inherently quantitative and offers high sensitivity and spatial resolution, it is not directly applicable for this purpose because common therapeutic radionuclides lack the necessary positron emission. This work reports on the synthesis of dual-nuclide labeled radiopharmaceuticals with therapeutic and PET functionality, which are based on common and widely available metal radionuclides. Dual-chelator conjugates, featuring interlinked cyclen- and triazacyclononane-based polyphosphinates DOTPI and TRAP, allow for strictly regioselective complexation of therapeutic (e.g., (177) Lu, (90) Y, or (213) Bi) and PET (e.g., (68) Ga) radiometals in the same molecular framework by exploiting the orthogonal metal ion selectivity of these chelators (DOTPI: large cations, such as lanthanide(III) ions; TRAP: small trivalent ions, such as Ga(III) ). Such DOTPI-TRAP conjugates were decorated with 3 Gly-urea-Lys (KuE) motifs for targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), employing Cu-catalyzed (CuAAC) as well as strain-promoted (SPAAC) click chemistry. These were labeled with (177) Lu or (213) Bi and (68) Ga and used for in vivo imaging of LNCaP (human prostate carcinoma) tumor xenografts in SCID mice by PET, thus proving practical applicability of the concept. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A test for adequacy of chromium nutrition in humans--relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wells, Ibert C; Claassen, John P; Anderson, R J

    2003-04-11

    When Na(2)51CrO(4) is added to blood the 51CrO(4)(2-) ions enter the erythrocytes readily, and nearly exclusively, and are reduced to 51Cr(III) ions. We have observed that a fraction of these ions becomes bound to the cell membrane in a concentration which seemingly depends on that of the dietary derived intracellular Cr(III) ions. Thus, when constant amounts of 51CrO(4)(2-) ions enter constant amounts of erythrocytes, the resulting 51Cr(III) ions become bound to the cell membrane in a concentration that varies inversely as the initial, intracellular concentration of Cr(III) ions which, in turn, depends directly on the adequacy of chromium nutrition. Therefore, we have determined an arbitrary set of conditions under which the concentration of 51Cr(III) ions bound to the erythrocyte membrane becomes an indicator of the adequacy of chromium nutrition. The application of this test to 25 Type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects and 35 normal controls, both randomly selected, indicates that the concentrations of membrane bound 51Cr(III) ions in the two groups were not significantly different. Consequently, it is concluded that the level of chromium nutrition which is normally adequate in humans has only a minor role, if any, in the genesis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Use of rhenium-188 for in vivo imaging and treatment of human cervical cancer cells transfected with lentivirus expressing sodium iodide symporter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Shi, Shuo; Guo, Rui; Miao, Yin; Li, Biao

    2016-10-01

    Although survival rates for cervical cancer have improved, they need further improvement in patients with distant metastases. The sodium iodine symporter (NIS) gene has often been used in cancer therapy and imaging. We examined the therapeutic effects of rhenium-188 (188Re) in a cervical cancer xenograft model expressing the NIS gene under the control of the tumor-specific human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter. We constructed two recombinant lentiviral vectors expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or the NIS gene driven by the hTERT promoter. To determine the tumor-specific transcriptional activity of the hTERT promoter, the eGFP-expressing vector was stably transfected into tumor cells and normal cells. A cervical cancer HeLa cell line stably expressing NIS (HeLa-TERTNIS) was created and examined in a similar way. HeLa and HeLa-TERTNIS tumor xenografts were transplanted in nude mice, and in vivo 188Re distribution was measured using micro-SPECT/CT imaging. The therapeutic effects of 188Re were assessed over 21 days on the basis of tumor volume and the immunohistochemical findings of excised tumors. eGFP expression controlled by the hTERT promoter was substantially higher in the tumor cells than normal cells. Quantitative PCR and western blotting confirmed that HeLa-TERTNIS cells expressed high levels of NIS mRNA and protein, respectively. Further, 188Re uptake and accumulation were significantly higher in HeLa-TERTNIS cells and xenografts than HeLa cells and xenografts. In vitro and in vivo, 188Re significantly reduced the survival of HeLa-TERTNIS cells and inhibited the growth of HeLa-TERTNIS xenografts, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining showed that HeLa-TERTNIS xenograft tumors expressed higher levels of NIS and caspase-3 and lower levels of Ki-67 than HeLa xenograft tumors. Our findings indicated that hTERT promoter-driven expression of the NIS gene in HeLa cells led to 188Re uptake and therapeutic effects. Thus, NIS

  3. Targeted therapy of osteosarcoma with radiolabeled monoclonal antibody to an insulin-like growth factor-2 receptor (IGF2R).

    PubMed

    Geller, David S; Morris, Jonathan; Revskaya, Ekaterina; Kahn, Mani; Zhang, Wendong; Piperdi, Sajida; Park, Amy; Koirala, Pratistha; Guzik, Hillary; Hall, Charles; Hoang, Bang; Yang, Rui; Roth, Michael; Gill, Jonathan; Gorlick, Richard; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-12-01

    Osteosarcoma overall survival has plateaued around 70%, without meaningful improvements in over 30years. Outcomes for patients with overt metastatic disease at presentation or who relapse are dismal. In this study we investigated a novel osteosarcoma therapy utilizing radioimmunotherapy (RIT) targeted to IGF2R, which is widely expressed in OS. Binding efficiency of the Rhenium-188((188)Re)-labeled IGF2R-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) to IGF2R on OS17 OS cells was assessed with Scatchard plot analysis. Biodistribution studies were performed in heterotopic murine osteosarcoma xenografts. Tumor growth was compared over a 24-day period post-treatment between mice randomized to receive (188)Re-labeled IGF2R-specific murine mAb MEM-238 ((188)Re-MEM-238) or one of three controls: (188)Re-labeled isotype control mAb, unlabeled MEM-238, or no treatment. Results demonstrate that the radioimmunoconjugate had a high binding constant to IGF2R. Both (188)Re-MEM-238 and the isotype control had similar initial distribution in normal tissue. After 48h (188)Re-MEM-238 exhibited a 1.8 fold selective uptake within tumor compared to the isotype control (p=0.057). Over 24days, the tumor growth ratio was suppressed in animals treated with RIT compared to unlabeled and untreated controls (p=0.005) as demonstrated by a 38% reduction of IGF2R expressing osteosarcoma cells in the RIT group (p=0.002). In conclusion, given the lack of new effective therapies in osteosarcoma, additional investigation into this target is warranted. High expression of IGF2R on osteosarcoma tumors, paired with the specificity and in vivo anti-cancer activity of (188)Re-labeled IGF2R-specific mAb suggests that IGF2R may represent a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of osteosarcoma. This targeted approach offers the benefits of being independent of a specific pathway, a resistance mechanism, and/or an inherent biologic tumor trait and therefore is relevant to all OS tumors that express IGF2R. Copyright

  4. Mixed tridentate π -donor and monodentate π -acceptor ligands as chelating systems for rhenium-188 and technetium-99m nitrido radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Boschi, Alessandra; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micol; Pasqualini, Roberto; Guerrini, Remo; Duatti, Adriano

    2013-09-01

    A new molecular metallic fragment for labeling biologically active molecules with 99mTc and 188Re is described. This system is composed of a combination of tridentate π-donor and monodentate π-acceptor ligands bound to a [M Ξ N]2+ group (M = (99m)Tc, 188Re) in a pseudo square-pyramidal geometry. A simple structural model of the new metallic fragment was obtained by reacting the ligand 2, 2'-iminodiethanethiol [H2NS2 = NH(CH2CH2SH)2] and monodentate tertiary phosphines with the [M Ξ N]2+ group (M = (99m)Tc, (188)Re). In the resulting complexes (dubbed3+1complexes), the tridentate ligand binds the [M Ξ N]2+ core through the two deprotonated, negatively charged, thiol sulfur atoms and the neutral, protonated, amine nitrogen atom. The residual fourth position of the five-coordinated arrangement is occupied by a phosphine ligand. The chemical identity of these model (99m)Tc and (188)Re compounds was established by comparison with the chromatographic properties of the corresponding complexes obtained at the macroscopic level with the long-lived (99)Tc and natural Re isotopes. The investigation was further extended to comprise a series of ligands formed by simple combinations of two basic amino acids or pseudo-amino acids to yield potential tridentate chelating systems having [S, N, S] and [N, N, S] as sets of π-donor atoms. Labeling yields and in vitro stability were investigated using different ancillary ligands. Results showed that SNS-type ligands afforded the highest labeling yields and the most robust 3+1 nitrido complexes with both (99m)Tc and (188)Re. Thus, the new chelating system can be conveniently employed for labeling peptides and other biomolecules with the [M Ξ N]2+ group.

  5. Radioimmunotherapy with an antibody to HPV16 E6 oncoprotein is effective in experimental cervical tumor expressing low levels of E6

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zewei; Wang, Xing Guo; Einstein, Mark H; Goldberg, Gary L; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose HPV16 is associated with ∼50% of all cervical cancers worldwide. The E6 and E7 genes of oncogenic HPV types, such as HPV16, are necessary for the HPV transforming function and tumorogenesis making them ideal targets for novel treatments. Radioimmunotherapy employs systemically administered radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to tumor-associated antigens. Previously we demonstrated in mice that radioimmunotherapy targeting viral antigens with mAb to HPV16 E6 suppressed CasKi cervical tumors expressing high levels of E6 (∼600 copies of HPV per cell). However, that study opened the question whether radioimmunotherapy can suppress the growth of cervical tumors with low E6 and E7 expression, such as may be seen in patients. Experimental Design We evaluated the expression of E6 in patients' tumors and in the SiHa cell line expressing low levels of E6 and E7 (1–2 copies of HPV per cell) and found them comparable. We initiated SiHa tumors in nude mice, radiolabeled C1P5 mAb to E6 with a beta-emitter 188-Rhenium (188Re) and treated tumor-bearing mice with: (1) 200 µCi 188Re-C1P5 alone; (2) proteasome inhibitor MG132 alone; (3) MG132 followed by 200 µCi 188Re-C1P5; (4) unlabeled C1P5; (5) 200 µCi 188Re-18B7 (isotype-matching control mAb); (6) no treatment. 188Re-C1P5 alone and in combination with MG-132 significantly retarded tumor growth compared to all control groups. Conclusions Our data demonstrate the possibility to suppress tumor growth by targeting viral antigens even in cervical tumors with low E6 expression and provide additional evidence for the potential usefulness of radioimmunotherapy targeting HPV-related antigens in the clinic. PMID:20861673

  6. Effects of thrombin on the integrity of monolayers of cultured human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Galdal, K.S.; Evensen, S.A.; Brosstad, F.

    1982-09-01

    /sup 51/Cr-prelabelled endothelial cells (EC) in confluent monolayers were incubated in RPMI 1640 + foetal calf serum 20% (v/v) to which purified thrombin was added. Thrombin (greater than or equal to 0.1 NIH U/ml) significantly accelerated /sup 51/Cr-release and caused extensive but reversible cell contraction. Thrombin-exposed EC reacted to a new dose of thrombin with no appreciable shape change, but /sup 51/Cr-efflux was again accelerated. EC exposed to thrombin pretreated with N-bromosuccinimide (modifying the macromolecular site) or phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (blocking the serine site) retained normal morphology and did not leak excess amounts of /sup 51/Cr. Antithrombin III also inhibited the effect of thrombin. Pretreatment of EC with either indomethacin, aspirin, sulfinpyrazone, pronase or neuraminidase did not influence the effect of subsequent thrombin exposure.

  7. Comparison of 51chromium-labeled ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid and iohexol as blood markers for intestinal permeability testing in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Frias, Rafael; Strube, Katrin; Ternes, Waldemar; Collado, M Carmen; Spillmann, Thomas; Sankari, Satu; Westermarck, Elias

    2012-04-01

    (51)Chromium-labeled ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid ((51)Cr-EDTA) is the gold standard probe for assessing intestinal permeability (IP) in dogs, but exposure to radioactivity is a disadvantage. Iohexol is a safe contrast medium commonly used for medical imaging purposes and has been successfully applied more recently for the assessment of IP in animal models and humans. This study aimed at comparing (51)Cr-EDTA and iohexol as IP blood markers in dogs. A test solution containing (51)Cr-EDTA and iohexol was administered intragastrically to seven healthy laboratory Beagle dogs, and percentage recoveries in serum were calculated. The strong linear association (correlation, r=0.76 and linear regression, y=0.03+5.04x) between (51)Cr-EDTA and iohexol supports the potential usefulness of iohexol as an IP blood marker in dogs.

  8. A novel method for blood volume estimation using trivalent chromium in rabbit models

    PubMed Central

    Baby, Prathap Moothamadathil; Kumar, Pramod; Kumar, Rajesh; Jacob, Sanu S.; Rawat, Dinesh; Binu, V. S.; Karun, Kalesh M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Blood volume measurement though important in management of critically ill-patients is not routinely estimated in clinical practice owing to labour intensive, intricate and time consuming nature of existing methods. Aims: The aim was to compare blood volume estimations using trivalent chromium [51Cr(III)] and standard Evans blue dye (EBD) method in New Zealand white rabbit models and establish correction-factor (CF). Materials and Methods: Blood volume estimation in 33 rabbits was carried out using EBD method and concentration determined using spectrophotometric assay followed by blood volume estimation using direct injection of 51Cr(III). Twenty out of 33 rabbits were used to find CF by dividing blood volume estimation using EBD with blood volume estimation using 51Cr(III). CF is validated in 13 rabbits by multiplying it with blood volume estimation values obtained using 51Cr(III). Results: The mean circulating blood volume of 33 rabbits using EBD was 142.02 ± 22.77 ml or 65.76 ± 9.31 ml/kg and using 51Cr(III) was estimated to be 195.66 ± 47.30 ml or 89.81 ± 17.88 ml/kg. The CF was found to be 0.77. The mean blood volume of 13 rabbits measured using EBD was 139.54 ± 27.19 ml or 66.33 ± 8.26 ml/kg and using 51Cr(III) with CF was 152.73 ± 46.25 ml or 71.87 ± 13.81 ml/kg (P = 0.11). Conclusions: The estimation of blood volume using 51Cr(III) was comparable to standard EBD method using CF. With further research in this direction, we envisage human blood volume estimation using 51Cr(III) to find its application in acute clinical settings. PMID:25190922

  9. Improved methods for measuring radioactive tracer accumulation and excretion by microarthropods, with applications for a mite species, Tyrophagus longior (Acarina, Acaridae)

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, D T; Crossley, Jr, D A

    1980-08-01

    Radioisotope retention measurements of /sup 85/Sr and /sup 51/Cr in Tyrophagus longior (Gervais) (Acari: Acaridae) were fit to 2 and 1 component models. Biological half-life for the rapid component of both radioisotopes was about 10 hours, with assimilation of /sup 85/Sr being 62%. The identification of /sup 51/Cr turnover as gut clearance must remain tentative. An inexpensive disposable culture chamber for measuring radioisotope retention in microarthropods is described along with details of methodology.

  10. Improved methods for measuring radioactive tracer accumulation and excretion by microarthropods, with applications for the mite, Tyrophagus longior (Gervais) (Acarina: Acaridae)

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, D.T.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1980-07-01

    Radioisotope retention measurements of /sup 85/Sr and /sup 51/Cr in Tyrophagus longior (Gervais) were fit to 2- and 1-component models. Biological half-life for the rapid component of both radioisotopes was about 10 hours, with assimilation of /sup 85/Sr being 62%. The identification of /sup 51/Cr turnover as gut clearance must remain tentative. An inexpensive disposable culture chamber for measuring radioisotope retention in microarthropods is described.

  11. What a Difference a Carbon Makes: H4octapa vs H4C3octapa, Ligands for In-111 and Lu-177 Radiochemistry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The acyclic ligands H4C3octapa and p-SCN-Bn-H4C3octapa were synthesized for the first time, using nosyl protection chemistry. These new ligands were compared to the previously studied ligands H4octapa and p-SCN-Bn-H4octapa to determine the extent to which the addition of a single carbon atom to the backbone of the ligand would affect metal coordination, complex stability, and, ultimately, utility for in vivo radiopharmaceutical applications. Although only a single carbon atom was added to H4C3octapa and the metal donor atoms and denticity were not changed, the solution chemistry and radiochemistry properties were drastically altered, highlighting the importance of careful ligand design and radiometal–ligand matching. It was found that [In(C3octapa)]− and [Lu(C3octapa)]− were substantially different from the analogous H4octapa complexes, exhibiting fluxional isomerization and a higher number of isomers, as observed by 1H NMR, VT-NMR, and 2D COSY/HSQC-NMR experiments. Past evaluation of the DFT structures of [In(octapa)]− and [Lu(octapa)]− revealed very symmetric complexes; in contrast, the [In(C3octapa)]− and [Lu(C3octapa)]− complexes were much less symmetric, suggesting lower symmetry and less rigidity than that of the analogous H4octapa complexes. Potentiometric titrations revealed the formation constants (log KML, pM) were ∼2 units lower for the In3+ and Lu3+ complexes of H4C3octapa when compared to that of the more favorable H4octapa ligand (∼2 orders of magnitude less thermodynamically stable). The bifunctional ligands p-SCN-Bn-H4C3octapa and p-SCN-Bn-H4octapa were conjugated to the antibody trastuzumab and radiolabeled with 111In and 177Lu. Over a 5 day stability challenge experiment in blood serum, 111In-octapa– and 111In-C3octapa–trastuzumab immunoconjugates were determined to be ∼91 and ∼24% stable, respectively, and 177Lu-octapa– and 177Lu-C3octapa–trastuzumab, ∼89% and ∼4% stable, respectively. This work suggests that 5

  12. Radionuclide therapy in neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gulenchyn, K Y; Yao, X; Asa, S L; Singh, S; Law, C

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals in patients with different types of advanced neuroendocrine tumour (NETs). A literature search was carried out in MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 1998 to November 2010. The Cochrane Library (to Issue 10, 2010) and the Standards and Guidelines Evidence Inventory of Cancer Guidelines, including over 1100 English-language cancer guidelines from January 2003 to June 2010, were also checked. No existing systematic reviews or clinical practice guidelines based on a systematic review or randomised controlled trials focusing on this topic were found. Twenty-four fully published articles were abstracted and summarised: 16 articles focused on five peptide receptor radionuclide therapy ((111)In-DTPAOC, (90)Y-DOTALAN, (90)Y-DOTATOC, (90)Y-DOTATATE, and (177)Lu-DOTATATE) and eight focused on (131)I-MIBG treatment. Limited evidence from a historical comparison of studies in one centre supported that (177)Lu-DOTATATE might be associated with greater clinical outcomes compared with (90)Y-DOTATOC or (111)In-DTPAOC. The severe toxicities for (177)Lu-DOTATATE included hepatic insufficiency in 0.6%, myelodysplastic syndrome in 0.8% and renal insufficiency in 0.4% of patients in this study. Insufficient evidence suggested efficacy of (131)I-MIBG in adult NET patients, but the overall tumour response rate from (131)I-MIBG was 27-75% for malignant neuroblastoma, paraganglioma or pheochromocytoma. Haematological toxicities were the main severe side-effects after (131)I-MIBG and 4% of patients developed secondary malignancies in one study. To date, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy seems to be an acceptable option and is relatively safe in adult advanced NET patients with receptor uptake positive on scintigraphy, but patients' renal function must be monitored. (131)I-MIBG may be effective for malignant neuroblastoma, paraganglioma or pheochromocytoma, but its side-effects need to be

  13. Quantitative and qualitative intrapatient comparison of 68Ga-DOTATOC and 68Ga-DOTATATE: net uptake rate for accurate quantification.

    PubMed

    Velikyan, Irina; Sundin, Anders; Sörensen, Jens; Lubberink, Mark; Sandström, Mattias; Garske-Román, Ulrike; Lundqvist, Hans; Granberg, Dan; Eriksson, Barbro

    2014-02-01

    Quantitative imaging and dosimetry are crucial for individualized treatment during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). (177)Lu-DOTATATE and (68)Ga-DOTATOC/(68)Ga-DOTATATE are used, respectively, for PRRT and PET examinations targeting soma