Sample records for 189-c 289-f 189-k

  1. Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the C, F, K, and P-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basins (189-C, 289-F, 189-K, and 189-P)

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Randall


    The C-, F-, K-, and P-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basins (189-C, 289-F, 189-K, and 189-P) (C-, F-, K-, and P-CPRBs) waste units are listed as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(u) Solid Waste Management Units/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) units in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS). The C-, F-, K-, and P-CPRBS comprise a single operable unit which was remediated under an early removal action during the summer of 1997. Slightly elevated levels of naturally occurring metals and radionuclides in the coal-laden sediments and shallow soils were confined to the 0-1 foot interval below the basin floor. These source materials were identified as low level threat wastes. Under the Removal Site Evaluation Report/Wastewater Closure Plan for the C-, F-, K-, and P-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basins (189-C, 289-F, 189-K, and 189-P) (U) (WSRC 1997b), the coal-laden sediments and shallow soils were removed from each of the four basins during the summer of 1997. At least four feet of clean backfill was placed in each basin to restore the area to the surrounding grade. This removal action completely freed the four CPRBS of the source material for the constituents of concern and the sulfide minerals, which were reducing the pH of the infiltrate. Because the source material has been removed from the CPRBs, releases of hazardous substances will not occur from this operable unit and there is no imminent or substantial endangerment to public health, welfare, or the environment.

  2. Mutation from arginine to lysine at the position 189 of hemagglutinin contributes to the antigenic drift in H3N2 swine influenza viruses.


    Ye, Jianqiang; Xu, Yifei; Harris, Jillian; Sun, Hailiang; Bowman, Andrew S; Cunningham, Fred; Cardona, Carol; Yoon, Kyoungjin J; Slemons, Richard D; Wan, Xiu-Feng


    Two distinct antigenic clusters were previously identified among the H3N2 swine influenza A viruses (IAVs) and were designated H3N2SIV-alpha and H3N2SIV-beta (Feng et al., 2013. Journal of Virology 87 (13), 7655-7667). A consistent mutation was observed at the position 189 of hemagglutinin (R189K) between H3N2SIV-alpha and H3N2SIV-beta fair isolates. To evaluate the contribution of R189K mutation to the antigenic drift from H3N2SIV-alpha to H3N2SIV-beta, four reassortant viruses with 189R or 189K were generated. The antigenic cartography demonstrated that the R189K mutation in the hemagglutinin of H3N2 IAV contributed to the antigenic drift, separating these viruses into H3N2SIV-alpha to H3N2SIV-beta. This R189K mutation was also found to contribute to the cross-reaction with several ferret sera raised against historical human IAVs with hemagglutinin carrying 189K. This study suggests that the R189K mutation plays a vital role in the antigenicity of swine and human H3N2 IAVs and identification of this antigenic determinant will help us rapidly identify antigenic variants in influenza surveillance.

  3. 29 CFR 784.107 - Relationship of employee's work to operations on the specified aquatic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR


    ... described in section 13(a)(5) must be performed with respect to “any kind of fish, shellfish, crustacea... section 13(b)(4) must be performed with respect to “any kind of fish, shellfish, or other aquatic forms of...; Mitchell v. Trade Winds, Inc., 289 F. 2d 278; Walling v. Haden, 153 F. 2d 196)....

  4. 29 CFR 784.107 - Relationship of employee's work to operations on the specified aquatic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR


    ... described in section 13(a)(5) must be performed with respect to “any kind of fish, shellfish, crustacea... section 13(b)(4) must be performed with respect to “any kind of fish, shellfish, or other aquatic forms of...; Mitchell v. Trade Winds, Inc., 289 F. 2d 278; Walling v. Haden, 153 F. 2d 196)....

  5. Polar stratospheric clouds and the Antarctic ozone hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, Lamont R.; Mccormick, M. Patrick


    A theoretical model for the formation and growth of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) has been developed. Results for the calculated temperature dependence of optical backscattering are found to agree well with values obtained during two Arctic airborne-lidar experiments. Results for PSC formation in Antarctica show that at the 70-mbar level, about 80 percent of the HNO3 and about 30 percent of the H2O vapor available may be sequestered in relatively large PSC particles at a temperature near 189 K.

  6. Thermal analysis of a high energy propulsion system /hydrazine and liquid fluorine/ for a rover class Mars Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stultz, J. W.


    Maintaining cryogenic fluorine at a -189 C during the interplanetary cruise period to Mars is a major thermal problem. At this low temperature the heat rejection by radiation is severely limited and the allowable thermal load to the fluorine tank is less than approximately 8 watts. Previous studies generally constrain the spacecraft to an inline tank configuration which tends to maximize the fluorine tank's view and heat rejection to space. With the Inertial Upper Stage, sufficient stack height may not be available on the Shuttle for an inline tank configuration. Therefore, this study addresses the more thermally constraining side by side tank configuration.

  7. Catalytic performance of carbon nanotubes in H2O2 decomposition: experimental and quantum chemical study.


    Voitko, Katerina; Tóth, Ajna; Demianenko, Evgenij; Dobos, Gábor; Berke, Barbara; Bakalinska, Olga; Grebenyuk, Anatolij; Tombácz, Etelka; Kuts, Volodymyr; Tarasenko, Yurij; Kartel, Mykola; László, Krisztina


    The catalytic performance of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with different surface chemistry was studied in the decomposition reaction of H2O2 at various values of pH and temperature. A comparative analysis of experimental and quantum chemical calculation results is given. It has been shown that both the lowest calculated activation energy (∼18.9 kJ/mol) and the highest rate constant correspond to the N-containing CNT. The calculated chemisorption energy values correlate with the operation stability of MWCNTs. Based on the proposed quantum chemical model it was found that the catalytic activity of carbon materials in electron transfer reactions is controlled by their electron donor capability.

  8. Dosimeter for the measurement of UV exposures related to melanoma induction.


    Turnbull, David J; Parisi, Alfio V


    This paper reports on the development of a dosimeter for the measurement of biologically effective UV exposures related to melanoma induction. The melanoma (UVMel) dosimeter is based on the combination of polysulfone and nalidixic acid. This research found that the combination of these photosensitive chromophores reacts to UV wavelengths from 290 to 390 nm. It was found that a large change in optical absorbance occurred at 345 nm when the dosimeter was employed to quantify the solar UV waveband. Preliminary results indicate that this UVMel dosimeter can measure exposures of more than 189 kJ m(-2) of biologically effective weighted solar UV radiation with an inter-dosimeter variability of no more than +/-5%. PMID:20551501

  9. Magnetic phase diagrams of the Kagomé staircase compound Co3V2O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, F.; Chaudhury, R. P.; Galstyan, E.; Lorenz, B.; Wang, Y. Q.; Sun, Y. Y.; Chu, C. W.


    At zero magnetic field, a series of five phase transitions occur in Co3V2O8. The Néel temperature, TN=11.4 K, is followed by four additional phase changes at T1=8.9 K, T2=7.0 K, T3=6.9 K, and T4=6.2 K. The different phases are distinguished by the commensurability of the b-component of its spin density wave vector. We investigate the stability of these various phases under magnetic fields through dielectric constant and magnetic susceptibility anomalies. The field-temperature phase diagram of Co3V2O8 is completely resolved. The complexity of the phase diagram results from the competition of different magnetic states with almost equal ground state energies due to competing exchange interactions and frustration.

  10. Structural, dielectric and vibrational studies of the new mixed solid solution of thallium potassium sulfate selenate tellurate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elferjani, A.; Abdelhedi, M.; Dammak, M.; Kolsi, A. W.


    The new mixed compound Tl1.89K0.11(SO4)0.9(SeO4)0.1Te(OH)6 which is crystallized in the monoclinic system with space group P21/ c was analyzed at room temperature using X-ray diffractometer data. The unit cell parameters are a = 12.3308(7), b = 7.2011(4), c = 12.0298(8) Å, β = 110.755(4)°, V = 998.87(11) Å3 and Z = 4. The final refinement led to R = 0.035 and Rw = 0.038. The main feature of these atomic arrangements is the coexistence of three and different anions (SO4 2-, SeO4 2- and TeO6 6- groups) in the unit cell, connected by hydrogen bonds (O-H···O) which make the building of the crystal. The Tl+ and K+ cations, occupying the same positions, are located between these polyhedral. The crystals of Tl1.89K0.11(SO4)0.9(SeO4)0.1Te(OH)6 underwent three endothermic peaks at 377, 466 and 472 K. These transitions were detected by DSC and analyzed by dielectric measurements using the impedance and modulus spectroscopy techniques. The IR and Raman spectra recorded at room temperature in the frequency ranges (50-1200) and (400-4000) cm-1, respectively, have confirmed the presence of TeO6 6-, SO4 2- and SeO4 2- groups in the crystal.

  11. Solids concentration measurements in molten wax by an ultrasonic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Blackwell, A.G.; Schehl, R.R.; Zarochak, M.F.


    The application of the three-phase slurry reactor system to coal liquefaction processing and chemical industries has recently received considerable attention. To design and efficiently operate a three-phase slurry reactor, the degree of dispersion of the solid (catalyst) in the reactor should be understood. The solids distribution within the reactor greatly affects its performance. An ultrasonic technique is under development for measuring solids concentration in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary measurements have been made on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 189 C. The data show that the velocity and attenuation of the sound are well-defined functions of the solid and gas concentrations in the molten wax.

  12. Ultrasonic characterization of slurries in an autoclave reactor at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Blackwell, A.G.; Harke, F.W.; Schehl, R.R.; Zarochak, M.F.


    The application of the three-phase slurry reactor system for coal liquefaction processing and chemical industries has recently received considerable attention. To design and efficiently operate a three-phase slurry reactor, the degree of dispersion of the solid (catalyst) in the reactor must be understood and controlled. An ultrasonic technique was developed to measure the concentration of solids in an autoclave reactor. Preliminary measurements were conducted on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 189 C. The data show that the velocity and attenuation of the sound are well-defined functions of the solid and gas concentrations in the molten wax. The results suggest possibilities for directly measuring solids concentration during operation of a three-phase slurry reactor.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SMaSH+: observations and companion detection (Sana+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, H.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Lacour, S.; Berger, J.-P.; Duvert, G.; Gauchet, L.; Norris, B.; Olofsson, J.; Pickel, D.; Zins, G.; Absil, O.; de Koter, A.; Kratter, K.; Schnurr, O.; Zinnecker, H.


    The bulk of the Southern MAssive Stars at High angular resolution survey (SMaSH+) observations has been obtained in the course of a European Southern Observatory (ESO) large program (189.C-0644) which was granted 20 VLTI/PIONIER nights over the period 2012 April-2013 March and 3 NACO/SAM nights in 2013 June. The NACO observations are complemented by a 2011 pilot program and additional programs in 2012 and 2013 for a total of 13 VLT/UT4 nights. Thirteen stars have further been observed as backup targets of various PIONIER runs from 2013 December to 2014 August. The practical limiting magnitude of PIONIER in its small spectral dispersion mode is H=7.5. (5 data files).

  14. A Novel Family of Cell Wall-Related Proteins Regulated Differently during the Yeast Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Peña, José Manuel; Cid, Víctor J.; Arroyo, Javier; Nombela, César


    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ygr189c, Yel040w, and Ylr213c gene products show significant homologies among themselves and with various bacterial β-glucanases and eukaryotic endotransglycosidases. Deletion of the corresponding genes, either individually or in combination, did not produce a lethal phenotype. However, the removal of YGR189c and YEL040w, but not YLR213c, caused additive sensitivity to compounds that interfere with cell wall construction, such as Congo red and Calcofluor White, and overexpression of YEL040w led to resistance to these compounds. These genes were renamed CRH1 and CRH2, respectively, for Congo red hypersensitive. By site-directed mutagenesis we found that the putative glycosidase domain of CRH1 was critical for its function in complementing hypersensitivity to the inhibitors. The involvement of CRH1 and CRH2 in the development of cell wall architecture was clearly shown, since the alkali-soluble glucan fraction in the crh1Δ crh2Δ strain was almost twice the level in the wild-type. Interestingly, the three genes were subject to different patterns of transcriptional regulation. CRH1 and YLR213c (renamed CRR1, for CRH related) were found to be cell cycle regulated and also expressed under sporulation conditions, whereas CRH2 expression did not vary during the mitotic cycle. Crh1 and Crh2 are localized at the cell surface, particularly in chitin-rich areas. Consistent with the observed expression patterns, Crh1–green fluorescent protein was found at the incipient bud site, around the septum area in later stages of budding, and in ascospore envelopes. Crh2 was found to localize mainly at the bud neck throughout the whole budding cycle, in mating projections and zygotes, but not in ascospores. These data suggest that the members of this family of putative glycosidases might exert a common role in cell wall organization at different stages of the yeast life cycle. PMID:10757808

  15. Strategies for genetic study of hearing loss in the Brazilian northeastern region

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Uirá S; Santos, Silvana; Cavalcanti, Hannalice G; Andrade, Wagner T; Dantas, Vitor G; Rosa, Marine RD; Mingroni-Netto, Regina C


    The overall aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of genetic factors to the etiology of hearing loss (HL) in two counties in the Brazilian northeastern region. A cross-sectional study, based on the key informant approach (KI) was conducted in Queimadas and Gado Bravo counties (Paraíba, Northeast Brazil). The sample consisted of 182 patients with HL. Genetic screening of the most frequent mutations associated with HL was performed for all samples. DFNB1 mutations were the most frequently found in both counties. The c.35delG mutation was detected in homozygosis in seven non-syndromic probands in Queimadas (7/76, 9.2%) and only a single homozygote with this mutation was found in Gado Bravo (1/44, 2.3%). We also detected the del(GJB6-D13S1854) mutation in non-syndromic probands from Gado Bravo (2/44, 4.5%). The c.189C>A (p.TyrY63*) mutation in the CLRN1 gene was detected in homozygosis in 21/23 Usher syndrome patients from Gado Bravo and it was not found in Queimadas. Cases with probable genetic etiology contributed approximately to half of HL probands in each county (54.6% in Gado Bravo and 45.7% in Queimadas). We confirm the importance of DFNB1 locus to non-syndromic HL but we show that the frequency of mutations in the northeastern region differs somewhat from those reported in southeastern Brazil and other populations. In addition, the extremely high frequency of individuals with Usher syndrome with c.189C>A variation in CLRN1 indicates the need for a specific screening of this mutation. PMID:24596593

  16. Scavenging of ammonia by raindrops in Saturn's great storm clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitsky, M. L.; Baines, Kevin


    Observations of the great Saturn storms of 2010-2011 by Cassini instruments showed a very large depletion in atmospheric ammonia. While dynamics will play a role, the very high solubility of ammonia in water may be another important contributor to ammonia depletion in storms. Ammonia exists in Earth's atmosphere and rainstorms dissolve ammonia to a great degree, leaving almost no NH3 in the atmosphere. Studies by Elperin et al (2011, 2013) show that scavenging of ammonia is greatest as a rainstorm starts and lessens as raindrops fall, tapering off to almost zero by the time the rain reaches the ground (Elperin et al 2009). Ammonia is reaching saturation as it dissolves in the aqueous solution. As concentration increases, NH3 is then converted to aqueous species (NH3)x.(H2O)y (Max and Chapados 2013).Ammonia has the highest solubility in water compared to all other gases in the Saturn atmosphere. The Henry's Law constant for NH3 in water is 60 M/atm at 25 C. For H2S, it is 0.001 M/atm. In Saturn storms, it is "raining UP": As water-laden storm clouds convectively rise, ammonia gas will be scavenged and go into solution to a great degree, whilst all the other gases remain mostly in the gas phase. Aqueous ammonia acts as an antifreeze: if ammonia is dissolved in water cloud droplets to the limit of its solubility, as water droplets rise, they can stay liquid (and continue to scavenge NH3) to well below their normal freezing point of 0 Celsius (273 K). The freezing point for a 30 wt % water-ammonia solution is ~189 K. The pressure level where T = 189 K is at 2.8 bars. The normal freezing point of water occurs at the 9 bar pressure level in Saturn's atmosphere. 2.8 bars occurs at the -51 km altitude (below the 1 bar level). 9 bars is at the -130 km level: a difference of 79 km. A water droplet containing 30 wt% NH3 can move upwards from 9 bars to 2.8 bars (79 km) and still remain liquid, only freezing above that altitude. Calculations by the E-AIM model show that ammonia

  17. Luminal flow modulates H+-ATPase activity in the cortical collecting duct (CCD).


    Liu, Wen; Pastor-Soler, Núria M; Schreck, Carlos; Zavilowitz, Beth; Kleyman, Thomas R; Satlin, Lisa M


    Epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC)-mediated Na(+) absorption and BK channel-mediated K(+) secretion in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) are modulated by flow, the latter requiring an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), microtubule integrity, and exocytic insertion of preformed channels into the apical membrane. As axial flow modulates HCO(3)(-) reabsorption in the proximal tubule due to changes in both luminal Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 and H(+)-ATPase activity (Du Z, Yan Q, Duan Y, Weinbaum S, Weinstein AM, Wang T. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290: F289-F296, 2006), we sought to test the hypothesis that flow also regulates H(+)-ATPase activity in the CCD. H(+)-ATPase activity was assayed in individually identified cells in microperfused CCDs isolated from New Zealand White rabbits, loaded with the pH-sensitive dye BCECF, and then subjected to an acute intracellular acid load (NH(4)Cl prepulse technique). H(+)-ATPase activity was defined as the initial rate of bafilomycin-inhibitable cell pH (pH(i)) recovery in the absence of luminal K(+), bilateral Na(+), and CO(2)/HCO(3)(-), from a nadir pH of ∼6.2. We found that 1) an increase in luminal flow rate from ∼1 to 5 nl·min(-1)·mm(-1) stimulated H(+)-ATPase activity, 2) flow-stimulated H(+) pumping was Ca(2+) dependent and required microtubule integrity, and 3) basal and flow-stimulated pH(i) recovery was detected in cells that labeled with the apical principal cell marker rhodamine Dolichos biflorus agglutinin as well as cells that did not. We conclude that luminal flow modulates H(+)-ATPase activity in the rabbit CCD and that H(+)-ATPases therein are present in both principal and intercalated cells. PMID:21957178

  18. Neuromuscular response of the trunk to sudden gait disturbances: Forward vs. backward perturbation.


    Mueller, Juliane; Engel, Tilman; Mueller, Steffen; Kopinski, Stephan; Baur, Heiner; Mayer, Frank


    The study aimed to analyse neuromuscular activity of the trunk comparing four different perturbations during gait. Thirteen subjects (28±3yrs) walked (1m/s) on a split-belt treadmill, while 4 (belt) perturbations (F1, F2, B1, B2) were randomly applied. Perturbations differed, related to treadmill belt translation, in direction (forward (F)/backward (B)) and amplitude (20m/s(2) (1)/40m/s(2) (2)). Trunk muscle activity was assessed with a 12-lead-EMG. EMG-RMS [%] (0-200ms after perturbation; normalized to RMS of normal gait) was analyzed for muscles and four trunk areas (ventral left/right; dorsal left/right). Ratio of ventral:dorsal muscles were calculated. Muscle onset [ms] was determined. Data analysis was conducted descriptively, followed by ANOVA (post hoc Tukey-Kramer (α=0.05)). All perturbations lead to an increase in EMG-RMS (428±289%). F1 showed the lowest and F2 the highest increase for the flexors. B2 showed the highest increase for the extensors. Significant differences between perturbations could be observed for 6 muscles, as well as the 4 trunk areas. Ratio analysis revealed no significant differences (range 1.25 (B1) to 1.71 (F2) between stimuli. Muscle response time (ventral: 87.0±21.7ms; dorsal: 88.4±17.0ms) between stimuli was only significant (p=0.005) for the dorsal muscles. Magnitude significantly influences neuromuscular trunk response patterns in healthy adults. Regardless of direction ventral muscles always revealed higher relative increase of activity while compensating the walking perturbations.

  19. Isolation and characterization of juncin, an antifungal protein from seeds of Japanese Takana (Brassica juncea Var. integrifolia).


    Ye, Xiujuan; Ng, Tzi Bun


    An 18.9 kDa antifungal protein designated juncin was isolated from seeds of the Japanese takana (Brassica juncea var. integrifolia). The purification protocol employed comprised anion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration on Superdex 75. Juncin was adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and SP-Sepharose but unadsorbed on Q-Sepharose. The protein exhibited antifungal activity toward the phytopathogens Fusarium oxysporum, Helminthosporium maydis, and Mycosphaerella arachidicola with IC(50) values of 13.5, 27, and 10 μM, respectively. It was devoid of mitogenic activity toward splenocytes and nitric oxide inducing activity toward macrophages. It inhibited the proliferation of hepatoma (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF7) cells with IC(50) values of 5.6 and 6.4 μM, respecitvely, and the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 4.5 μM. Its N-terminal sequence differed from those of antifungal proteins that have been reported to date. Compared with Brassica campestris and Brassica alboglabra antifungal peptides, juncin exhibits a different molecular mass and N-terminal amino acid sequence but similar biological activities. PMID:19354248

  20. A new antigenic variant of human influenza A (H3N2) virus isolated from airport and community surveillance in Taiwan in early 2009.


    Yang, Ji-Rong; Lin, Chao-Hua; Chen, Chun-Jung; Liu, Jian-Liang; Huang, Yuan-Pin; Kuo, Chuan-Yi; Yao, Ching-Yuan; Hsu, Li-Ching; Lo, Je; Ho, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Liu, Ming-Tsan


    A new variant of influenza A H3N2 virus emerged in January 2009 and became the dominant strain in Taiwan in April 2009. The variant was also detected in imported cases from various regions, including East and Southeast Asia and North America, indicating that it has circulated globally. Compared to the 2009-2010 vaccine strain, A/Brisbane/10/2007, the hemagglutinin gene of this variant exhibited five substitutions, E62K, N144K, K158N, K173Q and N189K, which are located in the antigenic sites E, A, B, D and B respectively, and it was antigenically distinct from A/Brisbane/10/2007 with more than eight-fold titer reduction in the hemagglutination inhibition reaction. The A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus recommended by World Health Organization for use in the 2010 southern hemisphere and 2010-2011 northern influenza seasons exhibited the same substitutions like this new variant. In addition to regional or community influenza surveillance, the imported cases or airport fever screening surveillance may be a good resource to monitor the evolution of the virus and benefit the real-time information of global influenza circulation. PMID:20347893

  1. Temperature and variability of Pillan, Wayland Patera, and Loki Patera on Io from Cassini ISS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Daniel R.; Radebaugh, Jani; Stephens, Denise C.


    Cassini spacecraft images of Io obtained during its flyby of Jupiter in late 2000 and early 2001 were used to determine the lava composition and eruption style of three faint hot spots, Pillan, Wayland Patera, and Loki Patera. We found a maximum color temperature of 1130 ± 289 K for Pillan and maximum color temperatures of 1297 ± 289 K and 1387 ± 287 K for Wayland Patera and Loki Patera, respectively. These temperatures are suggestive of basaltic lava but an ultramafic composition cannot be ruled out. The temperatures with the best signal-to-noise ratios also suggested basaltic lava and were found to be 780 ± 189 K, 1116 ± 250 K, and 1017 ± 177 K for Pillan, Wayland Patera, and Loki Patera, respectively. Pillan showed constant thermal output within error over three days of observations. The data also suggest Pillan may be surrounded by topography that blocked emission in the middle of the observation and caused a more dramatic decrease in emission. Wayland Patera’s intensity decreased over the three eclipse observations, consistent with a cooling lava flow or decreasing effusion rate. Intensities at Loki Patera over the course of the observations varied, consistent with previous determinations that Loki Patera is an often quiescent lava lake with periods of overturning, fountaining, and crustal foundering.

  2. In vitro culture of Parascaris equorum larvae and initial investigation of parasite excretory-secretory products.


    Burk, Steffanie V; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Brewster-Barnes, Tammy; Bryant, Uneeda K; Howe, Daniel K; Carter, Craig N; Vanzant, Eric S; Harmon, Robert J; Kazacos, Kevin R; Rossano, Mary G


    Currently, diagnosis of Parascaris equorum infection in equids is limited to patent infections. The goals of this study were to culture P. equorum larvae in vitro and identify excretory-secretory (ES) products for prepatent diagnostic testing. Parascaris equorum L2/L3 larvae were hatched and cultured for up to 3 weeks for ES product collection. Fifth stage (L5) P. equorum were also cultured for ES product collection. Examination of ES fractions by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and silver stain revealed L2/L3 products ranging from 12-94 kDa and L5 products ranging from 12-189 kDa. Western blot analyses were conducted using polyclonal antibodies produced against P. equorum or Baylisascaris procyonis L2/L3 ES products, sera from rabbits inoculated with B. procyonis or Toxocara canis eggs, and sera from animals naturally infected with P. equorum or T. canis. Western blot results indicated parasite antigens migrating at 19 and 34 kDa may be useful for specifically detecting P. equorum infections. PMID:25209615

  3. Pyridoxine biosynthesis in yeast: participation of ribose 5-phosphate ketol-isomerase.


    Kondo, Hiroki; Nakamura, Yoriko; Dong, Yi-Xin; Nikawa, Jun-ichi; Sueda, Shinji


    To identify the genes involved in pyridoxine synthesis in yeast, auxotrophic mutants were prepared. After transformation with a yeast genomic library, a transformant (A22t1) was obtained from one of the auxotrophs, A22, which lost the pyridoxine auxotrophy. From an analysis of the plasmid harboured in A22t1, the RKI1 gene coding for ribose 5-phosphate ketol-isomerase and residing on chromosome no. 15 was identified as the responsible gene. This notion was confirmed by gene disruption and tetrad analysis on a diploid prepared from the wild-type and the auxotroph. The site of mutation on the RKI1 gene was identified as position 566 with a transition from guanine to adenine, resulting in amino acid substitution of Arg-189 with lysine. The enzymic activity of the Arg189-->Lys (R189K) mutant of ribose 5-phosphate ketolisomerase was 0.6% when compared with the wild-type enzyme. Loss of the structural integrity of the protein seems to be responsible for the greatly diminished activity, which eventually leads to a shortage of either ribose 5-phosphate or ribulose 5-phosphate as the starting or intermediary material for pyridoxine synthesis.

  4. Magnetic Phase Diagram of Co3V2O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Fei; Lorenz, Bernd; Wang, Y. Q.; Sun, Y. Y.; Chu, C. W.


    Kagom'e-staircase lattice structures like Ni3V2O8 and Co3V2O8 have recently attracted attention because of their complex magnetic phase diagrams and the magnetically induced ferroelectric (FE) phase observed in Ni3V2O8. Co3V2O8 at zero magnetic field exhibits five subsequent magnetic phase transition in a narrow temperature range. It has an incommensurate antiferromagnetic phase below TN=11.4 K and weak ferromagnetic behavior along the a-axis at TC=6.2 K. Along with three other phase transitions in between; T1=8.9 K, T2=7.0 K and T3=6.9 K, the evolution of these five phase transitions under magnetic field, phase boundaries, is traced through magnetic susceptibility and dielectric constant anomalies. We resolve the complete magnetic phase diagram of Co3V2O8 with the magnetic field applied along the principal crystallographic orientations.

  5. Extraction and structural characteristics of pectic polysaccharides from Abies sibirica L.


    Shakhmatov, Evgeny G; Udoratina, Elena V; Atukmaev, Konstantin V; Makarova, Elena N


    Structurally different pectins were isolated from the wood greenery of Abies sibirica L. by the sequential extraction with water (ASW), HCl solution (pH∼4) (ASA), and NH3 solution (pH∼8.5) (ASN). The GalA/Rha molar ratios for the ASW (15), ASA (8.9), and ASN (3.9) polysaccharides diminish in the order ASW>ASA>ASN, indicating a decrease in homogalacturonans and increase in rhamnogalacturonan I in this series. The ASWH, ASAH, and ASNH homogalacturonans derived by acid hydrolysis of ASW, ASA, and ASN have similar Mw 23.8, 21.1, and 18.9kDa, respectively, corresponding to a mean polymerization degree of 97-122 for the GalA residue. The macromolecule backbone of ASN was represented mainly by moieties of partially methylesterified homogalacturonan and partially 2-O- and/or 3-O-acetylated rhamnogalacturonan I. The carbohydrate side chains of the branched region are primarily made up of terminal, 1,5-O-, 1,3,5-di-O- and 1,2,3,5-tri-O-substituted α-L-Araf residues and terminal, 1,3-O- and 1,3,6-di-O-substituted β-D-Galp residues. The currently known pectin models were refined. PMID:25843854

  6. Mixed-phased particles in polar stratospheric ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, Anatoli; Molina, Mario J.; Loerting, Thomas


    Keywords: polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), ozone depletion, differential scanning calorimeter. The rate of chlorine activation reactions, which lead to ozone depletion in the winter/spring polar stratosphere (Molina, 1994), depends on the phase state of the surface of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) ice crystals (McNeil et al., 2006). PSCs are thought to consist of solid ice and NAT (nitric acid trihydrate, HNO3× 3H2O) particles and supercooled HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets. The corresponding PSCs are called Type II, Ia, and Ib PSCs, respectively (Zondlo et al., 1998). Type II PSCs are formed in the Antarctic region below the ice frost point of 189 K by homogeneous freezing of HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets (Chang et al., 1999) with the excess of HNO3. The PSC ice crystals are thought to be solid. However, the fate of H+, NO3-, SO42- ions during freezing was not investigated. Our differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of freezing emulsified HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets of sizes and compositions representative of the polar stratosphere demonstrate that during the freezing of the droplets, H+, NO3-, SO42- are expelled from the ice lattice. The expelled ions form a residual solution around the formed ice crystals. The residual solution does not freeze but transforms to glassy state at ~150 K (Bogdan et al., 2010). By contrast to glass-formation in these nitric-acid rich ternary mixtures the residual solution freezes in the case of sulphuric-acid rich ternary mixtures (Bogdan and Molina, 2009). For example, we can consider the phase separation into ice and a residual solution during the freezing of 23/3 wt% HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets. On cooling, ice is formed at ~189 K. This is inferred from the fact that the corresponding melting peak at ~248 K exactly matches the melting point of ice in the phase diagram of HNO3/H2SO4/H2O containing 3 wt % H2SO4. After the ice has formed, the glass transition occurs at Tg ≈ 150 K. The appearance of the glass transition indicates that the

  7. Assessment, design and control strategy development of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle for CSU's EcoCAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Matthew D.

    Advanced automotive technology assessment and powertrain design are increasingly performed through modeling, simulation, and optimization. But technology assessments usually target many competing criteria making any individual optimization challenging and arbitrary. Further, independent design simulations and optimizations take considerable time to execute, and design constraints and objectives change throughout the design process. Changes in design considerations usually require re-processing of simulations and more time. In this thesis, these challenges are confronted through CSU's participation in the EcoCAR2 hybrid vehicle design competition. The complexity of the competition's design objectives leveraged development of a decision support system tool to aid in multi-criteria decision making across technologies and to perform powertrain optimization. To make the decision support system interactive, and bypass the problem of long simulation times, a new approach was taken. The result of this research is CSU's architecture selection and component sizing, which optimizes a composite objective function representing the competition score. The selected architecture is an electric vehicle with an onboard range extending hydrogen fuel cell system. The vehicle has a 145kW traction motor, 18.9kWh of lithium ion battery, a 15kW fuel cell system, and 5kg of hydrogen storage capacity. Finally, a control strategy was developed that improves the vehicles performance throughout the driving range under variable driving conditions. In conclusion, the design process used in this research is reviewed and evaluated against other common design methodologies. I conclude, through the highlighted case studies, that the approach is more comprehensive than other popular design methodologies and is likely to lead to a higher quality product. The upfront modeling work and decision support system formulation will pay off in superior and timely knowledge transfer and more informed design decisions. The hypothesis is supported by the three case studies examined in this thesis.

  8. Oxidation of ferritic martensitic alloys T91, HCM12A and HT-9 in supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ampornrat, Pantip; Was, Gary S.


    The oxidation behavior of ferritic-martensitic (F-M) alloys in supercritical water (SCW) was studied in order to evaluate the suitability of these alloys for use in the Gen IV supercritical water reactor (SCWR) concept. A series of exposure tests in SCW were performed with three F-M alloys: T91, HCM12A, and HT-9. The effect of temperature was evaluated over the range of 400-600 °C and the dissolved oxygen concentration was controlled at <10 ppb (deaerated condition), 100 and 300 ppb. The oxidation behavior was determined from weight gain measurements along with oxide structure analysis. The results indicated that the oxidation rate was strongly dependent on temperature and followed an Arrhenius behavior. Activation energies for oxidation were 172, 177, and 189 kJ/mol for HT-9, HCM12A, and T91, respectively. The time dependence of the oxidation rate followed an exponential law with time exponents ˜0.3-0.42. Reduction in oxidation rate was observed at intermediate values (100-300 ppb) of dissolved oxygen concentration. The oxide formed on the alloy surface consisted of an outer layer of porous magnetite (Fe 3O 4) and an inner layer of iron chromium oxide, (Fe, Cr) 3O 4 with spinel structure. A transition region lies beneath the inner oxide in which the metal content increases to bulk values and the oxygen content decreases to nearly zero. Iron chromium oxide, (Fe, Cr)O, with the wustite structure was observed in the transition layer at 600 °C. The relatively good agreement between the activation energies for oxidation and that for grain boundary diffusion of oxygen support an oxidation mechanism based on short circuit oxygen diffusion to the oxide-metal interface.

  9. Isolation, structure, and surfactant properties of polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca L. from South China Sea.


    Tian, Hua; Yin, Xueqiong; Zeng, Qinghuan; Zhu, Li; Chen, Junhua


    Two polysaccharides (ULP1 and ULP2) were isolated through ultrasonic-assisted extraction from green seaweed Ulva lactuca L. which was collected from the South China Sea. The highest yield of 17.57% was obtained under the conditions of 2% NaOH, 90 °C, material/water mass ratio 1:80, liquid extraction 5h and subsequent ultrasound-assisted extraction 1h. The structure of ULPs were characterized with periodate oxidation followed by Smith degradation, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectroscopy, FTIR, and GPC. The molecular weights of ULP1 and ULP2 were 189 kDa and 230 kDa, respectively. The structural characteristics of ULP1 and ULP2 were quite similar. They were composed of rhamnose, xylose, glucose, and glucuronic acid. The content of rhamnose, xylose, glucose, glucuronic acid, sulfate was 51.2%, 12.3%, 20.1%, 16.4%, 12.0% for ULP1, respectively, and 60.8%, 14.2%, 8.2%, 16.8%, 26.8%, respectively, for ULP2. Both ULP1 and ULP2 showed good surface activity. 5 mg/mL ULP1 (2.62×10(-2) mmol/L) decreased the water surface tension to 51.63 mN/m. The critical micellar concentration of ULP1 and ULP2 was 1.01 mg/mL (5.3×10(-3) mmol/L) and 1.14 mg/mL (5.0×10(-3) mmol/L), respectively.

  10. Crack growth rates and metallographic examinations of Alloy 600 and Alloy 82/182 from field components and laboratory materials tested in PWR environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.


    In light water reactors, components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking. This report summarizes the crack growth rate results and related metallography for field and laboratory-procured Alloy 600 and its weld alloys tested in pressurized water reactor (PWR) environments. The report also presents crack growth rate (CGR) results for a shielded-metal-arc weld of Alloy 182 in a simulated PWR environment as a function of temperature between 290 C and 350 C. These data were used to determine the activation energy for crack growth in Alloy 182 welds. The tests were performed by measuring the changes in the stress corrosion CGR as the temperatures were varied during the test. The difference in electrochemical potential between the specimen and the Ni/NiO line was maintained constant at each temperature by adjusting the hydrogen overpressure on the water supply tank. The CGR data as a function of temperature yielded activation energies of 252 kJ/mol for a double-J weld and 189 kJ/mol for a deep-groove weld. These values are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature. The data reported here and those in the literature suggest that the average activation energy for Alloy 182 welds is on the order of 220-230 kJ/mol, higher than the 130 kJ/mol commonly used for Alloy 600. The consequences of using a larger value of activation energy for SCC CGR data analysis are discussed.

  11. [(3)H]-girisopam, a novel selective benzodiazepine for the 2, 3-benzodiazepine binding site.


    Horváth, E J; Salamon, C; Bakonyi, A; Fekete, M I; Palkovits, M


    Several members of the 2,3-benzodiazepine family, such as tofisopam (Grandaxin((R))) nerisopam (GYKI-52 322) [F. Andrási, K. Horváth, E. Sineger, P. Berzsenyi, J. Borsy, A. Kenessey, M. Tarr, T. Láng, J. Korösi, T. Hámori, Neuropharmacology of a new psychotropic 2, 3-benzodiazepine, Arzneim.-Forsch. Drug. Res., 37 (1987) 1119-1124.] [1] or girisopam (GYKI-51 189) [K. Horváth, F. Andrási, P. Berzsenyi, M. Pátfalusi, M. Patthy, G. Szabó, L. Sebestyén, J. Korösi, P. Botka, T. Hámori, T. Láng, A new psychoactive 5H-2, 3-benzodiazepine with a unique spectrum of activity, Arzneim.-Forsch. Drug. Res., 39 (1989) 894-899.] [2] proved anxiolytic in man and various animal models. Moreover, girisopam could also be characterized as an atypical neuroleptic agent. In spite of the structural similarity, their pharmacological profiles differ significantly from that of the 'classical' 1,4-benzodiazepines. Importantly, according to the data obtained so far these drugs do not have an addiction potential. The novel 2,3-benzodiazepine antagonist girisopam binds with high affinity (K(d)=10.3+/-1.21 nM) and limited capacity (B(max)=6.94+/-1.8 pmol/mg protein) to a single class of recognition sites in rat striatum [J.E. Horváth, J. Hudák, M. Palkovits, Zs. Lenkei, M.I.K. Fekete, P. Arányi, A novel specific binding site for homophthalazines (formerly 2, 3-benzodiazepines) in the rat brain, Eur. J. Pharmacol., 236 (1993) 151-153.]. This protocol describes the use of [(3)H]-girisopam as a specific radioligand for the 2,3-benzodiazepines receptor.

  12. Cloning and characterization of goose interleukin-17A cDNA.


    Wei, Shuangshi; Liu, Xiaomei; Gao, Mingchun; Zhang, Wenlong; Zhu, Yunhui; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei


    Interleukin-17 (IL-17 or IL-17A) is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells. IL-17A plays important roles in inflammation and host defense. In this study, the cDNA of the goose IL-17A (GoIL-17A) gene was cloned from thymocytes. Recombinant GoIL-17A (rGoIL-17A) was expressed using a baculovirus expression system and then biologically characterized. The complete open reading frame (ORF) of GoIL-17A contains 510 base pairs that encode 169 amino acid residues, including a 29-amino acid signal peptide and a single potential N-linked glycosylation site. This protein has a molecular weight of 18.9kDa. The amino acid sequence showed 95.9%, 84.6%, 45.0% and 38.4% similarity with the corresponding duck, chicken, rat, and human IL-17A sequences, respectively. The six conserved cysteine residues were also observed in GoIL-17A. A recombinant, mature form of GoIL-17A was produced and its biological activities in goose embryonic fibroblasts were investigated. RT-PCR analysis revealed a marked up-regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression in goose embryonic fibroblasts treated with 1-50 μg of rGoIL-17A for 12h. The GoIL-17A gene sequence and the biologically active recombinant protein may be useful for understanding the role of IL-17A in immune regulation.

  13. Genomic analysis of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare) using sequence-tagged molecular markers. Estimates of divergence based on RFLP and PCR markers derived from stress-responsive genes, and simple-sequence repeats (SSRs).


    Maestri, E; Malcevschi, A; Massari, A; Marmiroli, N


    Three types of molecular markers have been compared for their utility in evaluating genetic diversity among cultivars of Hordeum vulgare. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms at 71 sites were scored with the aid of probes corresponding to stress-responsive genes from barley and wheat, coding for a low-molecular-weight heat shock protein, a dehydrin, an aldose reductase homolog, and a 18.9-kDa drought-induced protein of unknown function. Indexes of genetic diversity computed in the total sample and within groups of cultivars (two-rowed and six-rowed, winter and spring varieties) indicated high values of genetic differentiation ( F (ST) >15%). A second assessment of genetic diversity was performed by PCR amplification of genomic DNA using as primers 13 arbitrary oligonucleotides derived from sequences of the same stress-responsive genes. A high degree of polymorphism was uncovered using these markers also, but they yielded low values for F (ST) (<7%) among groups of cultivars. Finally, 15 different simple-sequence repeats (AC or AG) were amplified with primers based on unique flanking sequences. Levels of polymorphism and differentiation between groups of cultivars revealed by these markers were quite high. Ordination techniques applied to measures of genetic distance among cultivars demonstrated a remarkable ability of the RFLPs associated with stress-responsive genes to discriminate on the basis of growth habit. The correlation with production data for the cultivars in different environments was also significant. This "functional genomics" strategy was therefore as informative as the "structural genomics" (SSR-based) approach, but requires the analysis of fewer probes. PMID:11976962

  14. Appearance and possible homing of two species of sculpins in Maine tidepools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muring, J.R.


    Two species of sculpins (Cottidae), the grubby, Myoxocephalus aenaeus, and the shorthorn sculpin, M. scorpius, were studied in rocky tidepools along the coast of Maine. Fishes were captured and measured during 116 sampling trips between 1979 and 1996. Both of these species of sculpins are from the northwestern Atlantic Ocean and are present in tidepools nearly every month of the year and are the only fish species found in Maine tidepools during winter. Both sculpin species are important components of tidepool ecosystems and dominate the rocky tidepool fish communities from late autumn to early spring, a time when other fish species decline in abundance or are absent. There was no apparent relationship between sculpin abundance and salinity, but the two species of Myoxocephalus were encountered in water temperatures of 1.5 to 18.9??C, with 55.0% of the shorthorn sculpins and 57.3% of the grubbies encountered in tidepools where water temperatures ranged from 12 to 15??C. Between 1988 and 1996, 102 individuals from both species were marked. Of these, 21.3% were recaptured, some repeatedly in the same tidepools and even at specific locations within tidepools over successive tidal cycles - an indication of homing behavior.

  15. Linkage of an ABCC transporter to a single QTL that controls Ostrinia nubilalis larval resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Fa toxin.


    Coates, Brad S; Siegfried, Blair D


    Field evolved resistance of insect populations to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline (Cry) toxins expressed by crop plants has resulted in reduced control of insect feeding damage to field crops, and threatens the sustainability of Bt transgenic technologies. A single quantitative trait locus (QTL) that determines resistance in Ostrinia nubilalis larvae capable of surviving on reproductive stage transgenic corn that express the Bt Cry1Fa toxin was previously mapped to linkage group 12 (LG12) in a backcross pedigree. Fine mapping with high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) anchor markers, a candidate ABC transporter (abcc2) marker, and de novo mutations predicted from a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data redefined a 268.8 cM LG12. The single QTL on LG12 spanned an approximate 46.1 cM region, in which marker 02302.286 and abcc2 were ≤ 2.81 cM, and the GBS marker 697 was an estimated 1.89 cM distant from the causal genetic factor. This positional mapping data showed that an O. nubilalis genome region encoding an abcc2 transporter is in proximity to a single QTL involved in the inheritance of Cry1F resistance, and will assist in the future identification the mutation(s) involved with this phenotype. PMID:26093031

  16. ABO exon and intron analysis in individuals with the AweakB phenotype reveals a novel O1v-A2 hybrid allele that causes four missense mutations in the A transferase

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini-Maaf, Bahram; Hellberg, Åsa; Rodrigues, Maria J; Chester, M Alan; Olsson, Martin L


    Background Since the cloning in 1990 of cDNA corresponding to mRNA transcribed at the blood-group ABO locus, polymorphisms due to ethnic and/or phenotypic variations have been reported. Some subgroups have been explained at the molecular level, but unresolved samples are frequently encountered in the reference laboratory. Results ABO blood grouping discrepancies were investigated serologically and by ABO genotyping [duplex polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) – restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (RFLP) and PCR – allele-specific-primer (ASP) across intron 6] and DNA sequencing of the ABO gene and its proposed regulatory elements. Blood samples from five individuals living in Portugal, Switzerland, Sweden and the USA were analysed. These individuals were confirmed to be of Black ethnic origin and had the unusual AweakB phenotype but appeared to have the A2B genotype without previously reported mutations associated with weak A or B expression. Sequencing of this A allele (having 467C>T and 1061delC associated with the common A2 [A201] allele) revealed three mutations regularly encountered in the O1v [O02] allele: 106C>T (Val36Phe), 188G>A (Arg63His), 220C>T (Pro74Ser) in exons 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The additional presence of 46G>A (Ala16Thr) was noted, whilst 189C>T that normally accompanies 188G>A in O1v was missing, as were all O1v-related mutations in exons 6 and 7 (261delG, 297A>G, 646T>A, 681G>A, 771C>T and 829G>A). On screening other samples, 46G>A was absent, but two new O alleles were found, a Jordanian O1 and an African O1v allele having 188G>A but lacking 189C>T. Sequencing of introns 2, 3, 4 and 5 in common alleles (A1 [A101], A2, B [B101], O1, O1vand O2 [O03]) revealed 7, 12, 17 and 8 polymorphic positions, respectively, suggesting that alleles could be defined by intronic sequences. These polymorphic sites allowed definition of a breakpoint in intron 5 where the O1v-related sequence was fused with A2 to form the new hybrid. Intron 6 has

  17. Selected cysteine point mutations confer mercurial sensitivity to the mercurial-insensitive water channel MIWC/AQP-4.


    Shi, L B; Verkman, A S


    The mercurial-insensitive water channel (MIWC or AQP-4) is a 30-32 kDA integral membrane protein expressed widely in fluid-transporting epithelia [Hasegawa et al. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 5497-5500]. To investigate the mercurial insensitivity and key residues involved in MIWC-mediated water transport, amino acids just proximal to the conserved NPA motifs (residues 69-74 and 187-190) were mutated individually to cysteine. Complementary RNAs were expressed in Xenopus oocytes for assay of osmotic water permeability (Pf) and HgCl2 inhibition dose-response. Oocytes expressing the cysteine mutants were highly water permeable, with Pf values (24-33 x 10(-3) cm/s) not different from that of wild-type (WT) MIWC. Pf was reversibly inhibited by HgCl2 in mutants S70C, G71C, G72C, H73C, and S189C but insensitive to HgCl2 in the other mutants. K1/2 values for 50% inhibition of Pf by HgCl2 were as follows (in millimolar): 0.40 (S70C), 0.36 (G71C), 0.14 (G72C), 0.45 (H73C), 0.24 (S189C), and > 1 for WT MIWC and the other mutants. To test the hypothesis that these residues are near the MIWC aqueous pore, residues 72 and 188 were mutated individually to the larger amino acid tryptophan. Pf in oocytes expressing mutants G72W or A188W (1.3-1.4 x 10(-3) cm/s) was not greater than that in water-injected oocytes even though these proteins were expressed at the oocyte plasma membrane as shown by quantitative immunofluorescence. Coinjection of cRNAs encoding WT MIWC and G72W or A188W indicated a dominant negative effect; Pf (x 10(-3) cm/s) was 22 (0.25 ng of WT), 10 (0.25 ng of WT + 0.25 ng of G72W), and 12 (0.25 ng of WT + 0.25 ng of A188W). Taken together, these results suggest the MIWC is mercurial-insensitive because of absence of a cysteine residue near the NPA motifs and that residues 70-73 and 189 are located at or near the MIWC aqueous pore. In contrast to previous data for the channel-forming integral protein of 28kDa (CHIP28), the finding of a dominant negative phenotype for

  18. The yeast mitochondrial citrate transport protein: molecular determinants of its substrate specificity.


    Aluvila, Sreevidya; Kotaria, Rusudan; Sun, Jiakang; Mayor, June A; Walters, D Eric; Harrison, David H T; Kaplan, Ronald S


    The objective of this study was to identify the role of individual amino acid residues in determining the substrate specificity of the yeast mitochondrial citrate transport protein (CTP). Previously, we showed that the CTP contains at least two substrate-binding sites. In this study, utilizing the overexpressed, single-Cys CTP-binding site variants that were functionally reconstituted in liposomes, we examined CTP specificity from both its external and internal surfaces. Upon mutation of residues comprising the more external site, the CTP becomes less selective for citrate with numerous external anions able to effectively inhibit [(14)C]citrate/citrate exchange. Thus, the site 1 variants assume the binding characteristics of a nonspecific anion carrier. Comparison of [(14)C]citrate uptake in the presence of various internal anions versus water revealed that, with the exception of the R189C mutant, the other site 1 variants showed substantial uniport activity relative to exchange. Upon mutation of residues comprising site 2, we observed two types of effects. The K37C mutant displayed a markedly enhanced selectivity for external citrate. In contrast, the other site 2 mutants displayed varying degrees of relaxed selectivity for external citrate. Examination of internal substrates revealed that, in contrast to the control transporter, the R181C variant exclusively functioned as a uniporter. This study provides the first functional information on the role of specific binding site residues in determining mitochondrial transporter substrate selectivity. We interpret our findings in the context of our homology-modeled CTP as it cycles between the outward-facing, occluded, and inward-facing states.

  19. Spawning habitat selection of hickory shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, J.E.


    We examined the spawning habitat selectivity of hickory shad Alosa mediocris, an anadromous species on the Atlantic coast of North America. Using plankton tows and artificial substrates (spawning pads), we collected hickory shad eggs in the Roanoke River, North Carolina, to identify spawning timing, temperature, and microhabitat use. Hickory shad eggs were collected by both sampling gears in March and April. The results from this and three other studies in North Carolina indicate that spawning peaks at water temperatures between 12.0??C and 14.9??C and that approximately 90% occurs between 11.0??C and 18.9??C. Hickory shad eggs were collected in run and riffle habitats. Water velocity and substrate were significantly different at spawning pads with eggs than at those without eggs, suggesting that these are important microhabitat factors for spawning. Hickory shad eggs were usually collected in velocities of at least 0.1 m/s and on all substrates except those dominated by silt. Eggs were most abundant on gravel, cobble, and boulder substrates. Hickory shad spawned further upstream in years when water discharge rates at Roanoke Rapids were approximately average during March and April (2005 and 2007), as compared with a severe drought year (2006), suggesting that water flows may affect not only spawning site selection but also the quantity and quality of spawning habitat available at a macrohabitat scale. Using our field data and a Bayesian approach to resource selection analysis, we developed a preliminary habitat suitability model for hickory shad. This Bayesian approach provides an objective framework for updating the model as future studies of hickory shad spawning habitat are conducted. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  20. Conservation of antigen components from two recombinant hybrid proteins protective against malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, B; Nau, U; Hundt, E


    Recently, we have shown that two hybrid proteins carrying partial sequences of the blood-stage antigens SERP, HRPII, and MSAI from Plasmodium falciparum confer protective immunity on Aotus monkeys against an experimental parasite infection (B. Knapp, E. Hundt, B. Enders, and H. A. Küpper, Infect. Immun. 60:2397-2401, 1992). The malarial components of the hybrid proteins consist of amino acid residues 630 to 892 of SERP, amino acid residues 146 to 260 of MSAI, and the 189 C-terminal residues of HRPII. We have studied the diversity of these protein regions in field isolates of P. falciparum. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of six donors from two different areas where malaria is endemic. The gene regions of SERP and MSAI coding for the corresponding sequences of the protective hybrid proteins and the exon II region of the HRPII gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. All three regions were found to be highly conserved. In the 262-amino-acid fragment of SERP, one single conservative amino acid substitution was found. The exon II region of HRPII showed only a slight variability in number and arrangement of the repeat units. The 115-amino-acid fragment of MSAI which is located within an N-terminal region known to be conserved among different parasite strains was shown to be the most variable among the vaccine components: amino acid substitutions were found in 14 different positions of this MSAI region when both laboratory strains and field isolates were compared. PMID:8432609

  1. The role of polar stratospheric clouds on total ozone minihole events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabutis, Joseph L.


    Using seven years of data from tha SAM 2 (Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement 2) and TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instruments, along with 70 mbar temperatures extracted from an NMC analysis, the effect of the austral spring polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) on the formation of total ozone miniholes is investigated. A total ozone minihole event is designated as the rapid decrease of more than 20 DU of total ozone over a time period of a day and a spatial extent of approximately 1000 by 1000 km. The severe decrease of total ozone during these minihole events could be explained in part by PSC being formed at altitudes of 10 to 24 km and preventing scattered UV radiation from ozone below the cloud from reaching the TOMS instrument. A result of the cloud's opaqueness is that the total ozone retrieval from TOMS data would underestimate the ozone column in the vicinity of the PSC. The approach to investigate the effect of PSC on total ozone was to use SAM 2 aerosol extinction values in conjunction with NMC stratospheric temperatures to determine if PSC are present during total ozone minihole events occurring during August and September, 1979 to 1986. The minihole events during these seven years were divided into two types: type 1, where the minihole region of 24 hour darkness from regions exposed to sunlight, and type 2, where the minihole occurred 5 to 10 degrees north of the terminator. The presence of PSC in a given region was ascertained by a maximum aerosol extinction greater than .006/km occurring with a temperature less than 189 K. It is found that PSC are consistently present with type 2 minihole events. This is contrasted with PSC rarely occurring in the same vicinity of type 2 miniholes. Also observed of that type 1 minihole events have minimum total ozone values which are on the average 3 to 10 DU smaller than type 2 miniholes. It can be concluded that care must be taken when trying to deduce a dynamical explanation of minihole events near the polar

  2. A novel copper(II) coordination at His186 in full-length murine prion protein

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yasuko; Hiraoka, Wakako; Igarashi, Manabu; Ito, Kimihito; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Yamamori, Tohru; Yasui, Hironobu; Kuwabara, Mikinori; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Inanami, Osamu


    To explore Cu(II) ion coordination by His{sup 186} in the C-terminal domain of full-length prion protein (moPrP), we utilized the magnetic dipolar interaction between a paramagnetic metal, Cu(II) ion, and a spin probe introduced in the neighborhood of the postulated binding site by the spin labeling technique (SDSL technique). Six moPrP mutants, moPrP(D143C), moPrP(Y148C), moPrP(E151C), moPrP(Y156C), moPrP(T189C), and moPrP(Y156C,H186A), were reacted with a methane thiosulfonate spin probe and a nitroxide residue (R1) was created in the binding site of each one. Line broadening of the ESR spectra was induced in the presence of Cu(II) ions in moPrP(Y148R1), moPrP(Y151R1), moPrP(Y156R1), and moPrP(T189R1) but not moPrP(D143R1). This line broadening indicated the presence of electron-electron dipolar interaction between Cu(II) and the nitroxide spin probe, suggesting that each interspin distance was within 20 A. The interspin distance ranges between Cu(II) and the spin probes of moPrP(Y148R1), moPrP(Y151R1), moPrP(Y156R1), and moPrP(T189R1) were estimated to be 12.1 A, 18.1 A, 10.7 A, and 8.4 A, respectively. In moPrP(Y156R1,H186A), line broadening between Cu(II) and the spin probe was not observed. These results suggest that a novel Cu(II) binding site is involved in His186 in the Helix2 region of the C-terminal domain of moPrP{sup C}.

  3. Mangroviflexus xiamenensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Marinilabiliaceae isolated from mangrove sediment.


    Zhao, Chao; Gao, Zhaoming; Qin, Qiwei; Ruan, Lingwei


    A Gram-negative, obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, long rod-shaped bacterium strain P2(T) was isolated from the offshore mangrove sediment of the South China Sea. Growth was observed at between 22 and 39 °C, with an optimum at 35 °C. The pH range for growth was 5.0-8.5, with an optimum around pH 7.0-7.5. Salt tolerance was determined between 0.2 and 3.5% (w/v), optimum at 0.5-1.0%. Catalase and oxidase activities were negative. Strain P2(T) utilized cysteine, lactate, pyruvate, yeast extract or H(2)/CO(2)+acetate as electron donors, and sulfate or sulfite as electron acceptors. Metabolism was strictly fermentative. The main organic fermentation products were propionate, acetate and succinate. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain P2(T) formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the family Marinilabiliaceae. Strain P2(T) was most closely related to members of the genera Alkaliflexus (92.0% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Marinilabilia (91.7%) and Anaerophaga (89.9%) of the family Marinilabiliaceae. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 44.2 ± 1.0 mol%. The dominant fatty acids of strain P2(T) were iso-C(15:0) (33.5%), anteiso-C(15:0) (18.9%), C(16:0) (5.4%), C(16:0) 3-OH (7.7%) and iso-C(17:0) 3-OH (13.3%). The respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (100% of total quinone) and the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. Strain P2(T) was distinguishable from members of phylogenetically related genera by differences in several phenotypic properties. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and physiological evidence, a novel genus, Mangroviflexus, is proposed to harbour strain P2(T) ( = CGMCC 1.5167(T) = DSM 24214(T)) which is described as the type strain of a novel species, Mangroviflexus xiamenensis gen. nov., sp. nov.

  4. Self-Propagating Frontal Polymerization in Water at Ambient Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olten, Nesrin; Kraigsley, Alison; Ronney, Paul D.


    Advances in polymer chemistry have led to the development of monomers and initiation agents that enable propagating free-radical polymerization fronts to exist. These fronts are driven by the exothermicity of the polymerization reaction and the transport of heat from the polymerized product to the reactant monomer/solvent/initiator solution. The thermal energy transported to the reactant solution causes the initiator to decompose, yielding free radicals, which start the free radical polymerization process as discussed in recent reviews. The use of polymerization processes based on propagating fronts has numerous applications. Perhaps the most important of these is that it enables rapid curing of polymers without external heating since the polymerization process itself provides the high temperatures necessary to initiate and sustain polymerization. This process also enables more uniform curing of arbitrarily thick samples since it does not rely on heat transfer from an external source, which will necessarily cause the temperature history of the sample to vary with distance from the surface according to a diffusion-like process. Frontal polymerization also enables filling and sealing of structures having cavities of arbitrary shape without having to externally heat the structure. Water at atmospheric pressure is most convenient solvent to employ and the most important for practical applications (because of the cost and environmental issues associated with DMSO and other solvents). Nevertheless, to our knowledge, steady, self-propagating polymerization fronts have not been reported in water at atmospheric pressure. Currently, polymerization fronts require a high boiling point solvent (either water at high pressures or an alternative solvent such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (boiling point 189 C at atmospheric pressure.) Early work on frontal polymerization, employed pressures up to 5000 atm in order to avoid boiling of the monomer/solvent/initiator solution. High

  5. Swashplateless Helicopter Experimental Investigation: Primary Control with Trailing Edge Flaps Actuated with Piezobenders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copp, Peter

    Helicopter rotor primary control is conventionally carried out using a swashplate with pitch links. Eliminating the swashplate promises to reduce the helicopter's parasitic power in high speed forward flight, as well as may lead to a hydraulic-less vehicle. A Mach-scale swashplateless rotor is designed with integrated piezobender-actuated trailing edge flaps and systematically tested on the benchtop, in the vacuum chamber and on the hoverstand. The blade is nominally based on the UH-60 rotor with a hover tip Mach number of 0.64. The blade diameter is 66 inches requiring 2400 RPM for Mach scale simulation. The rotor hub is modified to reduce the blade fundamental torsional frequency to less than 2.0/rev by replacing the rigid pitch links with linear springs, which results in an increase of the blade pitching response to the trailing edge flaps. Piezoelectric multilayer benders provide the necessary bandwidth, stroke and stiffness to drive the flaps for primary control while fitting inside the blade profile and withstanding the high centrifugal forces. This work focuses on several key issues. A piezobender designed from a soft piezoelectric material, PZT-5K4, is constructed. The new material is used to construct multi-layer benders with increased stroke for the same stiffness relative to hard materials such as PZT-5H2. Each layer has a thickness of 10 mils. The soft material with gold electrodes requires a different bonding method than hard material with nickel electrodes. With this new bonding method, the measured stiffness matches precisely the predicted stiffness for a 12 layer bender with 1.26 inch length and 1.0 inch width with a stiffness of 1.04 lb/mil. The final in-blade bender has a length of 1.38 inches and 1.0 inch width with a stiffness of 0.325 lb/mil and stroke of 20.2 mils for an energy output of 66.3 lb-mil. The behavior of piezobenders under very high electric fields is investigated. High field means +18.9 kV/cm (limited by arcing in air) and -3.54kV/cm (limited by depoling). An undocumented phenomenon is found called bender relaxation where the benders lose over half of their initial DC stroke over time. While the bender stiffness is shown not to change with electric field, the DC stroke is significantly less than AC stroke. A two-bladed Mach-scale rotor is constructed with each blade containing 2 flaps each actuated by a single piezobender. Each flap is 26.5% chord and 14% span for a total of 28% span centered at 75% of the blade radius. Flap motion of greater than 10 degrees half peak-peak is obtained for all 4 flaps at 900 RPM on the hoverstand. So, the flaps show promise for the Mach-scale rotor speed of 2400 RPM. A PID loop is implemented for closed loop control of flap amplitude and mean position. On the hoverstand at 900 RPM, the swashplateless concept is demonstrated. The linear springs used to lower the torsional frequency are shown to have minimum friction during rotation. 1/rev blade pitching of +/-1 degree is achieved at a torsional frequency of 1.5/rev for each blade. At resonance, the blade pitching for each blade is greater than +/-4 degrees. Primary control is demonstrated by measuring hub forces and moments. At resonance state, the flaps in conjunction with the blade pitching provide +/-15 lbs of normal force at a mean lift of 15 lbs yielding +/-100% lift authority. Significant hub forces and moments are produced as well. For a production swashplateless helicopter, it may be prudent to eliminate the pitch links by reducing the blade structural stiffness. A novel wire sensor system network is proposed in order to measure blade elastic flap bending, lead-lag bending and torsion. The theory for measuring blade twist is rigorously derived. A blade is constructed with the wire sensor network and validated on the benchtop for blade elastic bending and twist. This work is a step forward in achieving a swashplateless rotor system. Not only would this reduce drag in high speed forward flight, but it would lead to a hydraulic-less rotorcraft. This would be a major step in vertical flight aviation.

  6. The Blob, the Very Rare Massive Star and the Two Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    The nebula N214 [1] is a large region of gas and dust located in a remote part of our neighbouring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. N214 is a quite remarkable site where massive stars are forming. In particular, its main component, N214C (also named NGC 2103 or DEM 293), is of special interest since it hosts a very rare massive star, known as Sk-71 51 [2] and belonging to a peculiar class with only a dozen known members in the whole sky. N214C thus provides an excellent opportunity for studying the formation site of such stars. Using ESO's 3.5-m New Technology telescope (NTT) located at La Silla (Chile) and the SuSI2 and EMMI instruments, astronomers from France and the USA [3] studied in great depth this unusual region by taking the highest resolution images so far as well as a series of spectra of the most prominent objects present. N214C is a complex of ionised hot gas, a so-called H II region [4], spreading over 170 by 125 light-years (see ESO PR Photo 12b/05). At the centre of the nebula lies Sk-71 51, the region's brightest and hottest star. At a distance of ~12 light-years north of Sk-71 51 runs a long arc of highly compressed gas created by the strong stellar wind of the star. There are a dozen less bright stars scattered across the nebula and mainly around Sk-71 51. Moreover, several fine, filamentary structures and fine pillars are visible. The green colour in the composite image, which covers the bulk of the N214C region, comes from doubly ionised oxygen atoms [5] and indicates that the nebula must be extremely hot over a very large extent. The Star Sk-71 51 decomposed ESO PR Photo 12c/05 ESO PR Photo 12c/05 The Cluster Around Sk-71 51 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 620 pix - 189k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1239 pix - 528k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 12c/05 shows a small field around the hot star Sk-71 51 as seen through the V filter. The left image shows a single frame after subtraction of the nebular background. The image quality - or seeing - is roughly 8.5 pixels

  7. And Then There Were Three...!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    Observatory, recorded with a fixed TV-camera on January 27 at 03:00 UT, soon after the moment of "First Light" with the third 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope ( MELIPAL ). The video sequences were transmitted via ESO's dedicated satellite communication link to the Headquarters in Garching for production of the Clip. It begins with a statement by the Manager of the VLT Project, Dr. Massimo Tarenghi , as exposures of the Crab Nebula are obtained with the telescope and the raw frames are successively displayed on the monitor screen. In a following sequence, ESO's Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , briefly relates the moment of "First Light" for MELIPAL , as she experienced it at the telescope controls. ESO Press Photo 04c/00 ESO Press Photo 04c/00 [Preview; JPEG: 400 x 300; 44k] [Full size; JPEG: 1600 x 1200; 241k] The computer screen with the image of a bright star, as recorded by the Guide Probe in the early evening of January 26; see also PR Photo 04a/00. This image was used for the initial adjustments by means of the active optics system. (Digital Photo). ESO Press Photo 04d/00 ESO Press Photo 04d/00 [Preview; JPEG: 400 x 314; 49k] [Full size; JPEG: 1528 x 1200; 189k] ESO staff at the moment of "First Light" for MELIPAL in the evening of January 26. The photo was made in the wooden hut on the telescope observing floor from where the telescope was controlled during the first hours. (Digital Photo). ESO PR Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory. The ESO PR Video Clips service to visitors to the ESO website provides "animated" illustrations of the ongoing work and events at the European Southern Observatory. The most recent clip was: ESO PR Video Clip 01/00 with aerial sequences from Paranal (12 January 2000). Information is also available on the web about other ESO videos.

  8. The Blob, the Very Rare Massive Star and the Two Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    The nebula N214 [1] is a large region of gas and dust located in a remote part of our neighbouring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. N214 is a quite remarkable site where massive stars are forming. In particular, its main component, N214C (also named NGC 2103 or DEM 293), is of special interest since it hosts a very rare massive star, known as Sk-71 51 [2] and belonging to a peculiar class with only a dozen known members in the whole sky. N214C thus provides an excellent opportunity for studying the formation site of such stars. Using ESO's 3.5-m New Technology telescope (NTT) located at La Silla (Chile) and the SuSI2 and EMMI instruments, astronomers from France and the USA [3] studied in great depth this unusual region by taking the highest resolution images so far as well as a series of spectra of the most prominent objects present. N214C is a complex of ionised hot gas, a so-called H II region [4], spreading over 170 by 125 light-years (see ESO PR Photo 12b/05). At the centre of the nebula lies Sk-71 51, the region's brightest and hottest star. At a distance of ~12 light-years north of Sk-71 51 runs a long arc of highly compressed gas created by the strong stellar wind of the star. There are a dozen less bright stars scattered across the nebula and mainly around Sk-71 51. Moreover, several fine, filamentary structures and fine pillars are visible. The green colour in the composite image, which covers the bulk of the N214C region, comes from doubly ionised oxygen atoms [5] and indicates that the nebula must be extremely hot over a very large extent. The Star Sk-71 51 decomposed ESO PR Photo 12c/05 ESO PR Photo 12c/05 The Cluster Around Sk-71 51 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 620 pix - 189k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1239 pix - 528k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 12c/05 shows a small field around the hot star Sk-71 51 as seen through the V filter. The left image shows a single frame after subtraction of the nebular background. The image quality - or seeing - is roughly 8.5 pixels

  9. Two Extremely Hot Exoplanets Caught in Transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    . The nature of the two new exoplanets ESO PR Photo 14c/04 ESO PR Photo 14c/04 Brightness "Dips" Caused by Two Transiting Exoplanets [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 462 pix - 87k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 923 pix - 189k] ESO PR Photo 14d/04 ESO PR Photo 14d/04 Velocity Variations Caused by Two Transiting Exoplanets [Preview - JPEG: 491 x 400 pix - 82k] [Normal - JPEG: 981 x 800 pix - 183k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 14c/04 shows the brightness "dips" of the stars OGLE-TR-113 (upper) and OGLE-TR-132 (lower), as observed during the OGLE survey. It is now known that they are caused by transiting exoplanets of the new "very hot Jupiter" class. The abscissa represents the orbital phase (one revolution = 1) and the ordinate the relative brightness. As can be seen the brightness variations are of the order of 3 % (upper) and 1% (lower), respectively. ESO PR Photo 14d/04 displays the corresponding radial velocity variations over one planetary revolution, as observed with the FLAMES facility at the 8.2-m VLT Kueyen telescope. The sinusoidal shape reflects the gravitational pull of the planet. A European team of astronomers [1] therefore made use of the 8.2-m VLT Kueyen telescope. In March 2004, they followed 41 OGLE "top transit candidate stars" during 8 half-nights. They profited from the multiplex capacity of the FLAMES/UVES fiber link facility that permits to obtain high-resolution spectra of 8 objects simultaneously and measures stellar velocities with an accuracy of about 50 m/s. While the vast majority of OGLE transit candidates turned out to be binary stars (mostly small, cool stars transiting in front of solar-type stars), two of the objects, known as OGLE-TR-113 and OGLE-TR-132, were found to exhibit small velocity variations. When all available observations - light variations, the stellar spectrum and radial-velocity changes - were combined, the astronomers were able to determine that for these two stars, the transiting objects have masses compatible with those of a giant planet like