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Sample records for 18f-fdg-avid tissue sites

  1. (99m)Tc-MDP- and (18F)-FDG-avid florid reactive periostitis ossificans mimicking recurrent osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Byun, Byung Hyun; Koh, Jae-Soo; Yoo, Ji Young; Lim, Sang Moo; Kong, Chang-Bae

    2013-06-01

    Florid reactive periostitis ossificans is a rare benign lesion usually affecting the tubular bones of the hands and feet, and its histological features may be confused with those of infection and osteosarcoma. We report a case with florid reactive periostitis ossificans of the femur showing increased tracer uptake on both Tc-MDP bone scan and F-FDG PET/CT mimicking a local recurrence in a 15-year-old patient with high-grade osteosarcoma.

  2. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT and (18)F-NaF-PET/CT in men with castrate-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zukotynski, Katherine A; Kim, Chun K; Gerbaudo, Victor H; Hainer, Jon; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Kantoff, Philip; den Abbeele, Annick D Van; Seltzer, Steven; Sweeney, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate (18)F-labeled-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG-) and (18)F-labeled-sodium fluoride ((18)F-NaF-) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) as biomarkers in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Nine men (53-75 years) in a phase 1 trial of abiraterone and cabozantinib had (18)F-FDG-PET/CT, (18)F-NaF-PET/CT and standard imaging ((99m)Tc-labeled-methylene-diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) bone scan and abdominal/pelvic CT) at baseline and after 8 weeks of therapy. Baseline disease was classified as widespread (18)F-FDG-avid, oligometastatic (18)F-FDG-avid (1 site), or non-(18)F-FDG-avid. Metabolic response was classified using European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria. Treatment response using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1, Prostate Cancer Working Group 2 (PCWG2) guidelines and days on trial (DOT) were recorded. All men were followed for 1 year or until progression. Four men had (18)F-FDG-avid disease: two with widespread (DOT 53 and 76) and two with oligometastatic disease (DOT 231 and still on trial after 742+ days). Five men had non-(18)F-FDG-avid disease; three remained stable or improved (2 still on trial while one discontinued for non-oncologic reasons; DOT 225-563+), and 2 progressed (DOT 285 and 532). Despite the small sample size, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant difference in progression free survival (PFS) between men with widespread (18)F-FDG-avid, oligometastatic (18)F-FDG-avid and non-(18)F-FDG-avid disease (p < 0.01). All men had (18)F-NaF-avid disease. Neither (18)F-NaF-avid disease extent nor intensity was predictive of treatment response. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT may be superior to (18)F-NaF-PET/CT and standard imaging in men with mCRPC on abiraterone and cabozantinib. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT may have potential to stratify men into 3 groups (widespread vs. oligometastatic (18)F-FDG-avid vs. non-(18)F-FDG-avid mCRPC) to tailor therapy. Further evaluation is

  3. Tissue specificity of endothelin binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bolger, G.T.; Liard, F.; Krogsrud, R.; Thibeault, D.; Jaramillo, J. )

    1990-09-01

    A measurement was made of the binding of 125I-labeled endothelin (125I-ET) to crude membrane fractions prepared from rat aorta, atrium, ventricle, portal vein, trachea, lung parenchyma, vas deferens, ileum, bladder, and guinea-pig taenia coli and lung parenchyma. Scatchard analysis of 125I-ET binding in all tissues indicated binding to a single class of saturable sites. The affinity and density of 125I-ET binding sites varied between tissues. The Kd of 125I-ET binding was approximately 0.5 nM for rat aorta, trachea, lung parenchyma, ventricle, bladder, and vas deferens, and guinea-pig taenia coli and lung parenchyma, 1.8 nM for rat portal vein and atrium, and 3.3 nM for ileum. The Bmax of 125I-ET binding had the following rank order of density in rat tissues: trachea greater than lung parenchyma = vas deferens much greater than aorta = portal vein = atrium greater than bladder greater than ventricle = ileum. The properties of 125I-ET endothelin binding were characterized in rat ventricular membranes. 125I-ET binding was time dependent, reaching a maximum within 45-60 min at 25 degrees C. The calculated microassociation constant was 9.67 x 10(5) s-1 M-1. Only 15-20% of 125I-ET dissociated from its binding site even when dissociation was studied as long as 3 h. Preincubation of ventricular membranes with ET prevented binding of 125I-ET. 125I-ET binding was destroyed by boiling of ventricular membranes and was temperature, pH, and cation (Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+) dependent.

  4. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  5. Dirigent proteins and dirigent sites in lignifying tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlat, V.; Kwon, M.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.

    2001-01-01

    Tissue-specific dirigent protein gene expression and associated dirigent (site) localization were examined in various organs of Forsythia intermedia using tissue printing, in situ mRNA hybridization and immunolabeling techniques, respectively. Dirigent protein gene expression was primarily noted in the undifferentiated cambial regions of stem sections, whereas dirigent protein sites were detected mainly in the vascular cambium and ray parenchyma cell initials. Immunolocalization also revealed cross-reactivity with particular regions of the lignified cell walls, these being coincident with the known sites of initiation of lignin deposition. These latter regions are considered to harbor contiguous arrays of dirigent (monomer binding) sites for initiation of lignin biopolymer assembly. Dirigent protein mRNA expression was also localized in the vascular regions of roots and petioles, whereas in leaves the dirigent sites were primarily associated with the palisade layers and the vascular bundle. That is, dirigent protein mediated lignan biosynthesis was initiated primarily in the cambium and ray cell initial regions of stems as well as in the leaf palisade layers, this being in accordance with the occurrence of the lignans for defense purposes. Within lignified secondary xylem cell walls, however, dirigent sites were primarily localized in the S(1) sublayer and compound middle lamella, these being coincident with previously established sites for initiation of macromolecular lignin biosynthesis. Once initiation occurs, lignification is proposed to continue through template polymerization.

  6. Characterization of Heparin-binding Site of Tissue Transglutaminase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuo; Collighan, Russell J.; Pytel, Kamila; Rathbone, Daniel L.; Li, Xiaoling; Griffin, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional Ca2+-activated protein cross-linking enzyme secreted into the extracellular matrix (ECM), where it is involved in wound healing and scarring, tissue fibrosis, celiac disease, and metastatic cancer. Extracellular TG2 can also facilitate cell adhesion important in wound healing through a nontransamidating mechanism via its association with fibronectin, heparan sulfates (HS), and integrins. Regulating the mechanism how TG2 is translocated into the ECM therefore provides a strategy for modulating these physiological and pathological functions of the enzyme. Here, through molecular modeling and mutagenesis, we have identified the HS-binding site of TG2 202KFLKNAGRDCSRRSSPVYVGR222. We demonstrate the requirement of this binding site for translocation of TG2 into the ECM through a mechanism involving cell surface shedding of HS. By synthesizing a peptide NPKFLKNAGRDCSRRSS corresponding to the HS-binding site within TG2, we also demonstrate how this mimicking peptide can in isolation compensate for the RGD-induced loss of cell adhesion on fibronectin via binding to syndecan-4, leading to activation of PKCα, pFAK-397, and ERK1/2 and the subsequent formation of focal adhesions and actin cytoskeleton organization. A novel regulatory mechanism for TG2 translocation into the extracellular compartment that depends upon TG2 conformation and the binding of HS is proposed. PMID:22298777

  7. Sequence- and Structure-Based Analysis of Tissue-Specific Phosphorylation Sites

    PubMed Central

    Karabulut, Nermin Pinar; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation is the most widespread and well studied reversible posttranslational modification. Discovering tissue-specific preferences of phosphorylation sites is important as phosphorylation plays a role in regulating almost every cellular activity and disease state. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of global and tissue-specific sequence and structure properties of phosphorylation sites utilizing recent proteomics data. We identified tissue-specific motifs in both sequence and spatial environments of phosphorylation sites. Target site preferences of kinases across tissues indicate that, while many kinases mediate phosphorylation in all tissues, there are also kinases that exhibit more tissue-specific preferences which, notably, are not caused by tissue-specific kinase expression. We also demonstrate that many metabolic pathways are differentially regulated by phosphorylation in different tissues. PMID:27332813

  8. Tissue expansion techniques to minimize morbidity of the anterolateral thigh perforator flap donor site.

    PubMed

    Hallock, Geoffrey G

    2013-11-01

    Selection of any free flap donor site must not only meet the requirements of the recipient site but also minimize untoward sequela at the donor site itself. Although the anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator flap is an ideal soft tissue donor site, a major drawback can be its nonesthetic appearance if a skin graft was needed. This detriment can be ameliorated by using traditional tissue expansion techniques. In a retrospective review over the past decade, 14 patients had ALT free flap donor site tissue expansion. These were subcategorized as pretransfer, concurrent, or posttransfer tissue expansion. In this group, mean ALT flap width was 12.2 ± 4.2 cm, which precluded direct donor site closure. Rectangular expanders were generally recommended. Multiple expanders are suggested for larger defects. The duration of expansion averaged 291.4 ± 163.9 days. The mean instilled volume ratio exceeded 2.43 ± 0.9 times the maximum vendor recommendation. Small skin graft residua were still left in four patients. Tissue expansion proved to be an important modality to consider for minimizing the stigmata of the skin grafted ALT free flap donor site. However, this process is time consuming and requires an additional surgical procedure. As such, this option must be reserved for the most motivated and compliant patients.

  9. Soft tissue development around pontic site: A case series.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Sarita Joshi; Singh, Pranav Kumar; Devarhubli, Achut R; Keerthi, R

    2016-01-01

    An ideal emergence profile is vital for maintaining gingival health and developing esthetics. The ovate pontic which mimics a natural tooth gives the most appropriate emergence profile. For a successful ovate pontic restoration, an alveolar ridge of sufficient height and width is necessary to enhance the deficient ridge and to achieve an esthetic emergence profile. Interpositional graft was carried out along with ovate pontic to achieve an ideal esthetic restoration. After three months of the postoperative period, there was an increased horizontal dimension in the deficient ridge and an esthetic emergence profile. Interpositional graft technique is a simpler and predictable technique for pontic site development in moderate cases of bucco-lingual ridge deficiency. PMID:27621552

  10. Site-targeted acoustic contrast agent detects molecular expression of tissue factor after balloon angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Christopher S.; Abendschein, Dana R.; Scherrer, David E.; Scott, Michael J.; Marsh, Jon N.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Lanza, Gregory M.

    2000-04-01

    Complex molecular signaling heralds the early stages of pathologies such as angiogenesis, inflammation, and cellular responses to mechanically damaged coronary arteries after balloon angioplasty. In previous studies, we have demonstrated acoustic enhancement of blood clot morphology with the use of a nongaseous, ligand-targeted acoustic nanoparticle emulsion delivered to areas of thrombosis both in vitro and in vivo. In this paper, we characterize the early expression of tissue factor which contributes to subsequent arterial restenosis. Tissue factor is a 42kd glycoprotein responsible for blood coagulation but also plays a well-described role in cancer metastasis, angiogenesis, and vascular restenosis. This study was designed to determine whether the targeted contrast agent could localize tissue factor expressed within the wall of balloon-injured arteries. Both carotid arteries of five pigs (20 kg) were injured using an 8 X 20 mm angioplasty balloon. The carotids were treated in situ with a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle emulsion covalently complexed to either specific anti-tissue factor polyclonal F(ab) fragments (treatment) or non-specific IgG F(ab) fragments (control). Intravascular ultrasound (30 MHz) images of the arteries were obtained before and after exposure to the emulsions. Tissue- factor targeted ultrasonic contrast agent acoustically enhanced the subintima and media at the site of balloon- induced injury compared with control contrast arteries (p less than 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of increased tissue factor at the sites of acoustic enhancement. Binding of the targeted agents was demonstrated in vitro by scanning electron microscope images of cultured smooth muscle cells that constitutively express tissue factor. This study demonstrates the concept of molecular imaging and localization of carotid arteries' tissue factor in vivo using a new, nanoparticulate emulsion. Enhancement of the visualization of the molecular

  11. Controlling activation site density by low-energy far-field stimulation in cardiac tissue.

    PubMed

    Hörning, Marcel; Takagi, Seiji; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2012-06-01

    Tachycardia and fibrillation are potentially fatal arrhythmias associated with the formation of rotating spiral waves in the heart. Presently, the termination of these types of arrhythmia is achieved by use of antitachycardia pacing or cardioversion. However, these techniques have serious drawbacks, in that they either have limited application or produce undesirable side effects. Low-energy far-field stimulation has recently been proposed as a superior therapy. This proposed therapeutic method would exploit the phenomenon in which the application of low-energy far-field shocks induces a large number of activation sites ("virtual electrodes") in tissue. It has been found that the formation of such sites can lead to the termination of undesired states in the heart and the restoration of normal beating. In this study we investigate a particular aspect of this method. Here we seek to determine how the activation site density depends on the applied electric field through in vitro experiments carried out on neonatal rat cardiac tissue cultures. The results indicate that the activation site density increases exponentially as a function of the intracellular conductivity and the level of cell isotropy. Additionally, we report numerical results obtained from bidomain simulations of the Beeler-Reuter model that are quantitatively consistent with our experimental results. Also, we derive an intuitive analytical framework that describes the activation site density and provides useful information for determining the ratio of longitudinal to transverse conductivity in a cardiac tissue culture. The results obtained here should be useful in the development of an actual therapeutic method based on low-energy far-field pacing. In addition, they provide a deeper understanding of the intrinsic properties of cardiac cells.

  12. Controlling activation site density by low-energy far-field stimulation in cardiac tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörning, Marcel; Takagi, Seiji; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2012-06-01

    Tachycardia and fibrillation are potentially fatal arrhythmias associated with the formation of rotating spiral waves in the heart. Presently, the termination of these types of arrhythmia is achieved by use of antitachycardia pacing or cardioversion. However, these techniques have serious drawbacks, in that they either have limited application or produce undesirable side effects. Low-energy far-field stimulation has recently been proposed as a superior therapy. This proposed therapeutic method would exploit the phenomenon in which the application of low-energy far-field shocks induces a large number of activation sites (“virtual electrodes”) in tissue. It has been found that the formation of such sites can lead to the termination of undesired states in the heart and the restoration of normal beating. In this study we investigate a particular aspect of this method. Here we seek to determine how the activation site density depends on the applied electric field through in vitro experiments carried out on neonatal rat cardiac tissue cultures. The results indicate that the activation site density increases exponentially as a function of the intracellular conductivity and the level of cell isotropy. Additionally, we report numerical results obtained from bidomain simulations of the Beeler-Reuter model that are quantitatively consistent with our experimental results. Also, we derive an intuitive analytical framework that describes the activation site density and provides useful information for determining the ratio of longitudinal to transverse conductivity in a cardiac tissue culture. The results obtained here should be useful in the development of an actual therapeutic method based on low-energy far-field pacing. In addition, they provide a deeper understanding of the intrinsic properties of cardiac cells.

  13. Effect of the anatomical site on telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in bovine adipose tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Tomoya Higuchi, Mikito; Nakanishi, Naoto

    2015-08-07

    Adipose tissue growth is associated with preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Telomere length is a biological marker for cell proliferation. Preadipocyte factor-1 (pref-1) is specifically expressed in preadipocytes and acts as a molecular gatekeeper of adipogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the fat depot-specific differences in telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in various anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral) of fattening Wagyu cattle. Visceral adipose tissue expressed higher pref-1 mRNA than did subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length in visceral adipose tissue tended to be longer than that of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length of adipose tissue was not associated with adipocyte size from three anatomical sites. No significant correlation was found between the pref-1 mRNA level and the subcutaneous adipocyte size. In contrast, the pref-1 mRNA level was negatively correlated with the intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size. These results suggest that anatomical sites of adipose tissue affect the telomere length and expression pattern of the pref-1 gene in a fat depot-specific manner. - Highlights: • Visceral adipose tissue express higher pref-1 mRNA than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length in visceral adipose tissue is longer than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length of adipose tissue is not associated with adipocyte size. • Pref-1 mRNA is negatively correlated with intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size.

  14. Identification of tissue sites for increased albumin degradation in sarcoma-bearing mice

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, C.; Iresjoe, B.M.L.; Lundholm, K. )

    1991-02-01

    Plasma albumin concentration declines in both experimental and clinical cancer. Previous investigations have demonstrated that this is partly explained by increased breakdown of albumin. The present study has identified the tissue sites for increased albumin degradation in a nonmetastasizing sarcoma mouse (C57/BL6J) model. Results have been compared to nontumor-bearing animals either freely fed or food restricted (pair-weighed) so that their body composition was similar to tumor-bearing animals. Tumor-bearing mice had increased albumin degradation (0.13 +/- 0.02 mg/hr/g bw) compared to both freely fed (0.09 +/- 0.007) and pair-weighed control animals (0.05 +/- 0.008). Radioactivity from circulating (3H)raffine aldehyde labeled albumin appeared with maximum peak values in lysosomes isolated from both tumor and nontumor tissues at 48 hr following iv injection. The intralysosomal accumulation of radioactivity was two- to threefold higher in tumor tissue compared to liver tissue, although the specific activity of protease(s) for albumin degradation measured in vitro was not higher in tumor tissue (30.4 +/- 3.6 mg/hr/g tissue) compared to normal liver tissue (36.9 +/- 1.7). Accounting for the entire tumor the proteolytic capacity for albumin breakdown was however much larger in the tumor (161.6 +/- 32.6 mg/organ) compared to both normal liver (37.5 +/- 2.3) and tumor-host liver (56.4 +/- 2.8). Pepstatin inhibited 78 +/- 6% of the proteolytic activity in the tumor measured by 125I-labeled undenatured mouse albumin as the substrate. Leupeptin inhibited 49 +/- 6%. There was a significantly decreased breakdown of albumin in both skeletal muscles and the gastrointestinal tract from tumor-bearing animals.

  15. The ovine nasal mucosa: an alternative tissue site for mucosal immunization.

    PubMed

    Sedgmen, Bradley J; Lofthouse, Shari A; Meeusen, Els N T

    2006-02-01

    The ovine nasal mucosal environment has histological and ultrastructural features that resemble well-known inductive sites of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. In the present study, the nasal mucosa was assessed as a potential mucosal tissue site for delivering vaccines to sheep. Sheep were immunized by either injection with the model antigen, Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin (KLH), and aluminium hydroxide gel (alum) or by aerosol spray with KLH with and without cholera toxin (CT). Sheep immunized by injection with KLH/alum and aerosol spray with KLH/CT induced strong anti-KLH IgG and IgA serum antibody responses as well as specific T cell memory. Anti-KLH IgG1 responses were significantly higher following immunization by injection and no significant differences in anti-KLH IgG2 responses were detected between groups. Sheep immunized with KLH by aerosol spray without CT did not produce serum antibody and T cell memory responses. Antibody-secreting cells were present in the parotid lymph nodes (draining lymph nodes) of sheep immunized with KLH/alum and KLH/CT, but secreted only Ag-specific IgG1, and not IgG2 or IgA. These results suggest that aerosolization of soluble antigen formulations with CT may provide an alternative method of delivering nasal vaccines to sheep and other large animal species, and that further improvements in antigen penetration of nasal tissues may dramatically improve the strength of the immune response.

  16. Urinary bladder matrix promotes site appropriate tissue formation following right ventricle outflow tract repair

    PubMed Central

    Remlinger, Nathaniel T; Gilbert, Thomas W; Yoshida, Masahiro; Guest, Brogan N; Hashizume, Ryotaro; Weaver, Michelle L; Wagner, William R; Brown, Bryan N; Tobita, Kimimasa; Wearden, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    The current prevalence and severity of heart defects requiring functional replacement of cardiac tissue pose a serious clinical challenge. Biologic scaffolds are an attractive tissue engineering approach to cardiac repair because they avoid sensitization associated with homograft materials and theoretically possess the potential for growth in similar patterns as surrounding native tissue. Both urinary bladder matrix (UBM) and cardiac ECM (C-ECM) have been previously investigated as scaffolds for cardiac repair with modest success, but have not been compared directly. In other tissue locations, bone marrow derived cells have been shown to play a role in the remodeling process, but this has not been investigated for UBM in the cardiac location, and has never been studied for C-ECM. The objectives of the present study were to compare the effectiveness of an organ-specific C-ECM patch with a commonly used ECM scaffold for myocardial tissue repair of the right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT), and to examine the role of bone marrow derived cells in the remodeling response. A chimeric rat model in which all bone marrow cells express green fluorescent protein (GFP) was generated and used to show the ability of ECM scaffolds derived from the heart and bladder to support cardiac function and cellular growth in the RVOT. The results from this study suggest that urinary bladder matrix may provide a more appropriate substrate for myocardial repair than cardiac derived matrices, as shown by differences in the remodeling responses following implantation, as well as the presence of site appropriate cells and the formation of immature, myocardial tissue. PMID:23974174

  17. Estimation of soft- and hard-tissue thickness at implant sites

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil; Mascarenhas, Rohan; Husain, Akhter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Anchorage control is a critical consideration when planning treatment for patients with dental and skeletal malocclusions. To obtain sufficient stability of implants, the thickness of the soft tissue and the cortical-bone in the placement site must be considered; so as to provide an anatomical map in order to assist the clinician in the placement of the implants. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the thickness of soft- and hard-tissue. Materials and Methods: To measure soft tissue and cortical-bone thicknesses, 12 maxillary cross-sectional specimens were obtained from the cadavers, which were made at three maxillary mid-palatal suture areas: The interdental area between the first and second premolars (Group 1), the second premolar and the first molar (Group 2), and the first and second molars (Group 3). Sectioned samples along with reference rulers were digitally scanned. Scanned images were calibrated and measurements were made with image-analysis software. We measured the thickness of soft and hard-tissues at five sectional areas parallel to the buccopalatal cementoenamel junction (CEJ) line at 2-mm intervals and also thickness of soft tissue at the six landmarks including the incisive papilla (IP) on the palate. The line perpendicular to the occlusal plane was made and measurement was taken at 4-mm intervals from the closest five points to IP. Results: (1) Group 1:6 mm from CEJ in buccal side and 2 mm from CEJ in palatal side. (2) Group 2:8 mm from CEJ in buccal side and 4 mm from CEJ in palatal side. (3) Group 3:8 mm from CEJ in buccal side and 8 mm from CEJ in palatal side. Conclusions: The best site for placement of implant is with thinnest soft tissue and thickest hard tissue, which is in the middle from CEJ in buccal side and closest from CEJ in palatal side in Group 1 and faraway from CEJ in buccal side and closest from CEJ in palatal side in Group 2 and faraway from CEJ in buccal side and faraway from CEJ in palatal side in

  18. Receptor binding sites for atrial natriuretic factor are expressed by brown adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Bacay, A.C.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Mantyh, P.W. )

    1988-09-01

    To explore the possibility that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is involved in thermoregulation we used quantitative receptor autoradiography and homogenate receptor binding assays to identify ANF bindings sites in neonatal rat and sheep brown adipose tissue, respectively. Using quantitative receptor autoradiography were were able to localize high levels of specific binding sites for {sup 125}I-rat ANF in neonatal rat brown adipose tissue. Homogenate binding assays on sheep brown fat demonstrated that the radioligand was binding to the membrane fraction and that the specific binding was not due to a lipophilic interaction between {sup 125}I-rat ANF and brown fat. Specific binding of {sup 125}I-rat ANF to the membranes of brown fat cells was inhibited by unlabeled rat ANF with a Ki of 8.0 x 10(-9) M, but not by unrelated peptides. These studies demonstrate that brown fat cells express high levels of ANF receptor binding sites in neonatal rat and sheep and suggest that ANF may play a role in thermoregulation.

  19. Effect of spatial distribution of irradiated sites on injury selectivity in vascular tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Wai-Fung; Morrison, Paul R.; Trainor, Shawn W.; Kurban, Amal K.; Tan, Oon T.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the extent of injury induced in blood vessels can be increased by : (a) increasing the number of sites per unit irradiation area, and (b) modifying the irradiation sequence, without compromising selectivity and specificity. Irradiation parameters comprising a wavelength of 585 nm, a pulse duration of 360 microsecond(s) , a spotsize of 3-5 mm diameter, and an energy density range of 7.0-7.5 cm-2 is applied in vivo on an albino pig. The results demonstrated that up to one third overlap of irradiated sites is tolerated without causing irreversible alteration in the epidermis and dermis. Injury remains confined predominantly to vascular tissues, and increases in severity as the sites become closer. Besides site density, the degree of injury also depends on the location of the site (center, boundary, or corner) within the irradiated matrix. These observations concur with inferences from surface temperature measurements made on an in vitro model. Another method for increasing injury is to irradiate in small clusters rather than point by point along a line.

  20. Rates and tissue sites of non-insulin- and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, A.D.; Brechtel, G.; Wallace, P.; Edelman, S.V.

    1988-12-01

    In vivo glucose uptake can occur via two mechanisms, namely, insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU) and non-insulin-mediated glucose uptake (NIMGU). Although the principal tissue sites for IMGU are skeletal muscle, the tissue sites for NIMGU at a given serum glucose concentration are not known. To examine this issue, rates of whole body glucose uptake (Rd) were measured at basal and during glucose clamp studies performed at euglycemia (approximately 90 mg/dl) and hyperglycemia (approximately 220 mg/dl) in six lean healthy men. Studies were performed during hyperinsulinemia (approximately 70 microU/ml) and during somatostatin-induced insulinopenia to measure IMGU and NIMGU, respectively. During each study, leg glucose balance (arteriovenous catheter technique) was also measured. With this approach, rates of whole body skeletal muscle IMGU and NIMGU can be estimated, and the difference between overall Rd and skeletal muscle glucose uptake represents non-skeletal muscle Rd. The results indicate that approximately 20% of basal Rd is into skeletal muscle. During insulinopenia approximately 86% of body NIMGU occurs in non-skeletal muscle tissues at euglycemia. When hyperglycemia was created, whole body NIMGU increased from 128 +/- 6 to 213 +/- 18 mg/min (P less than 0.01); NIMGU into non-skeletal muscle tissues was 134 +/- 11 and 111 +/- 6 mg/min at hyperglycemia and euglycemia, respectively, P = NS. Therefore, virtually all the hyperglycemia induced increment in NIMGU occurred in skeletal muscle. During hyperinsulinemia, IMGU in skeletal muscle represented 75 and 95% of body Rd, at euglycemia and hyperglycemia, respectively.

  1. Site-specific 3D imaging of cells and tissues with a dual beam microscope

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, Jurgen A.W.; Hayles, Mike; Gestmann, Ingo; Giannuzzi, Lucille A.; Lich, Ben; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2006-01-01

    Current approaches to 3D imaging at subcellular resolution using confocal microscopy and electron tomography, while powerful, are limited to relatively thin and transparent specimens. Here we report on the use of a new generation of dual beam electron microscopes capable of site-specific imaging of the interior of cellular and tissue specimens at spatial resolutions about an order of magnitude better than those currently achieved with optical microscopy. The principle of imaging is based on using a focused ion beam to create a cut at a designated site in the specimen, followed by viewing the newly generated surface with a scanning electron beam. Iteration of these two steps several times thus results in the generation of a series of surface maps of the specimen at regularly spaced intervals, which can be converted into a three-dimensional map of the specimen. We have explored the potential of this sequential “slice-and-view” strategy for site-specific 3D imaging of frozen yeast cells and tumor tissue, and establish that this approach can identify the locations of intracellular features such as the 100 nm-wide yeast nuclear pore complex. We also show that 200 nm thick sections can be generated in situ by “milling” of resin-embedded specimens using the ion beam, providing a valuable alternative to manual sectioning of cells and tissues using an ultramicrotome. Our results demonstrate that dual beam imaging is a powerful new tool for cellular and subcellular imaging in 3D for both basic biomedical and clinical applications. PMID:16713294

  2. Characterization of Naphthaleneacetic Acid Binding to Receptor Sites on Cellular Membranes of Maize Coleoptile Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Peter M.; Dohrmann, Ulrike; Hertel, Rainer

    1977-01-01

    Characteristics of and optimum conditions for saturable (“specific”) binding of [14C]naphthaleneacetic acid to sites located on membranous particles from maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles are described. Most, if not all, of the specific binding appears to be due to a single kinetic class of binding sites having a KD of 5 to 7 × 10−7m for naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA). Binding of NAA is insensitive to high monovalent salt concentrations, indicating that binding is not primarily ionic. However, specific binding is inhibited by Mg2+ or Ca2+ above 5 mm. Specific binding is improved by organic acids, especially citrate. Binding is heat-labile and is sensitive to agents that act either on proteins or on lipids. Specific binding is reversibly inactivated by reducing agents such as dithioerythritol; a reducible group, possibly a disulfide group, may be located at the binding site and required for its function. The affinity of the specific binding sites for auxins is modified by an unidentified dialyzable, heat-stable, apparently amphoteric, organic factor (“supernatant factor”) found in maize tissue. PMID:16659851

  3. Inflammation drives wound hyperpigmentation in zebrafish by recruiting pigment cells to sites of tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Mathieu; Feng, Yi; Jones, Rebecca A; Martin, Paul

    2013-03-01

    In humans, skin is the largest organ and serves as a barrier between our body and the outside world. Skin protects our internal organs from external pathogens and other contaminants, and melanocytes within the skin protect the body from damage by ultraviolet light. These same pigment cells also determine our skin colour and complexion. Skin wounding triggers a repair response that includes a robust recruitment of inflammatory cells, which function to kill invading microbes and clear away cell and matrix debris. Once at the wound site, these innate immune cells release a barrage of cytokines that direct the activities of other cells during the repair process. Tissue damage and repair also frequently lead to alterations in skin pigmentation, in particular to wound hyperpigmentation. In this study, we describe a model of wound hyperpigmentation in the translucent zebrafish larva, where we can live-image the recruitment of melanocytes and their precursors, melanoblasts, to the wound site. We show that these pigment cells are drawn in after the initial recruitment of innate immune cells and that the inflammatory response is essential for wound hyperpigmentation. This new model will allow us to uncover the molecular link between immune and pigment cells during tissue repair and to screen for potential therapeutics to dampen wound hyperpigmentation.

  4. Actinides in deer tissues at the rocky flats environmental technology site.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew S; Sattelberg, R Mark

    2005-11-01

    Limited hunting of deer at the future Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge has been proposed in U.S. Fish and Wildlife planning documents as a compatible wildlife-dependent public use. Historically, Rocky Flats site activities resulted in the contamination of surface environmental media with actinides, including isotopes of americium, plutonium, and uranium. In this study, measurements of actinides [Americium-241 (241Am); Plutonium-238 (238Pu); Plutonium-239,240 (239,240Pu); uranium-233,244 (233,234U); uranium-235,236 (235,236U); and uranium-238 (238U)] were completed on select liver, muscle, lung, bone, and kidney tissue samples harvested from resident Rocky Flats deer (N = 26) and control deer (N = 1). In total, only 17 of the more than 450 individual isotopic analyses conducted on Rocky Flats deer tissue samples measured actinide concentrations above method detection limits. Of these 17 detects, only 2 analyses, with analytical uncertainty values added, exceeded threshold values calculated around a 1 x 10(-6) risk level (isotopic americium, 0.01 pCi/g; isotopic plutonium, 0.02 pCi/g; isotopic uranium, 0.2 pCi/g). Subsequent, conservative risk calculations suggest minimal human risk associated with ingestion of these edible deer tissues. The maximum calculated risk level in this study (4.73 x 10(-6)) is at the low end of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acceptable risk range. PMID:16639905

  5. Setting site-specific water-quality standards by using tissue residue criteria and bioaccumulation data. Part 1. Methodology.

    PubMed

    Toll, John E; Tear, Lucinda M; DeForest, David K; Brix, Kevin V; Adams, William J

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a method for determining site-specific water-quality standards (SSWQSs) for substances regulated based on tissue residues. The method uses a multisite regression model to solve for the conditional prior probability density function (PDF) on water concentration, given that tissue concentration equals a tissue residue threshold. The method then uses site-specific water and tissue concentration data to update the probabilities on a Monte Carlo sample of the prior PDF by using Bayesian Monte Carlo analysis. The resultant posterior PDF identifies the water concentration that, if met at the site, would provide a desired level of confidence of meeting the tissue residue threshold contingent on model assumptions. This allows for derivation of a SSWQS. The method is fully reproducible, statistically rigorous, and easily implemented. A useful property of the method is that the model is sensitive to the amount of site-specific data available, that is, a more conservative or protective number (water concentration) is derived when the data set is small or the variance is large. Likewise, as the site water concentration increases above the water-quality standard, more site-specific information is needed to demonstrate a safe concentration at the site. A companion paper demonstrates the method by using selenium as an example. PMID:15683188

  6. Tissue-specific N-glycosylation, site-specific oligosaccharide patterns and lentil lectin recognition of rat Thy-1.

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, R B; Tse, A G; Dwek, R A; Williams, A F; Rademacher, T W

    1987-01-01

    To examine the extent to which protein structure and tissue-type influence glycosylation, we have determined the oligosaccharide structures at each of the three glycosylation sites (Asn-23, 74 and 98) of the cell surface glycoprotein Thy-1 isolated from rat brain and thymus. The results show that there is tissue-specificity of glycosylation and that superimposed on this is a significant degree of site-specificity. On the basis of the site distribution of oligosaccharides, we find that no Thy-1 molecules are in common between the two tissues despite the amino acid sequences being identical. We suggest, therefore, that by controlling N-glycosylation a tissue creates an unique set of glycoforms (same polypeptide but with oligosaccharides that differ either in sequence or disposition). The structures at each of the three sites were also determined for the thymocyte Thy-1 that binds to lentil lectin (Thy-1 L+) and for that which does not (Thy-1 L-). Segregation of intact thymus Thy-1 into two distinct sets of glycoforms by lentil lectin was found to be due to the structures at site 74. Analysis of oligosaccharide structures at the 'passenger' sites (23 and 98) suggests that either Thy-1 L+ and Thy-1 L- molecules are made in different cell-types or that the biosynthesis of oligosaccharides at one site is influenced by the glycosylation at other sites. PMID:2886334

  7. Oxidative stress in tissues of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from a polluted site

    SciTech Connect

    Bainy, A.C.D.; Carvalho, P.S.M.; Saito, E.; Leitao, M.A.S.; Junqueira, V.B.C.

    1995-12-31

    Pro and antioxidant parameters were compared in the erythrocytes, gill, liver and kidney of Nile Tilapia from a fish farm (Reference group) and from a polluted site at Billings Reservoir (Reservoir group). The erythrocyte oxidative stress was characterized by the increased oxygen uptake and decreased time induction (induced by t-butyl hydroperoxide, t-BHP) evidencing a higher susceptibility to oxidative damage. Moreover, a decrease in both catalase (CAT) activity and total glutathione content (GSH) in erythrocytes of Reservoir fish were observed. The higher gill cytochrome b{sub 5} levels is probably related to the enhanced oxyradical production. This fact associated to the diminished CAT and G6PDH activities establish a gill oxidative stress of Reservoir fish. The liver pro-oxidant parameters were greatly increased in the Reservoir fish. These results together with the increase in SOD activity and decrease in CAT, glutathione reductase (GR) and G6PDH activities indicate a liver oxidative stress condition. The observed increase in kidney NADH cytochrome c reductase and in both P-450 and b{sub 5} contents did not reflect in enhanced oxyradical production. The decrease in GSH observed in this tissue is probably associated to the conjugation reactions for ulterior excretion. These results furnish useful data for prospections of polluted aquatic sites in order to correlate the presence of pollutants to associated biological effects.

  8. Cationic gold staining of glomerular anionic sites in archived tissue, reprocessed from paraffin wax into LR gold resin.

    PubMed

    Goode, N P; Shires, M; Aparicio, S R; Davison, A M

    1993-05-01

    Glomerular capillary wall anionic sites have been demonstrated by cationic gold staining of archived renal biopsy tissue (up to 10 years old), obtained from six patients, originally embedded in paraffin wax, and subsequently reprocessed into LR gold resin. The staining patterns at pH 2.5 and pH 7.0, demonstrating different glomerular basement membrane (GBM) anionic constituents, were compared in three patients from whom tissue directly processed into LR gold and reprocessed tissue was available. Ultrastructural preservation was poorer and shrinkage artefact greater in paraformaldehyde-lysine periodate (PLP) as opposed to formol saline-fixed reprocessed tissue. However, GBM anionic site expression was well preserved, or even enhanced (lamina rara externa, pH 7.0) in reprocessed tissue, using either fixative. Although it may not be possible to compare subtle changes in anionic site distribution in variously fixed and processed tissues, due to these artefacts, the technique enables retrospective study of charge status in archived material from disease groups in which there are distinct anionic site aberrations.

  9. Effect of the anatomical site on telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in bovine adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomoya; Higuchi, Mikito; Nakanishi, Naoto

    2015-08-01

    Adipose tissue growth is associated with preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Telomere length is a biological marker for cell proliferation. Preadipocyte factor-1 (pref-1) is specifically expressed in preadipocytes and acts as a molecular gatekeeper of adipogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the fat depot-specific differences in telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in various anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral) of fattening Wagyu cattle. Visceral adipose tissue expressed higher pref-1 mRNA than did subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length in visceral adipose tissue tended to be longer than that of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length of adipose tissue was not associated with adipocyte size from three anatomical sites. No significant correlation was found between the pref-1 mRNA level and the subcutaneous adipocyte size. In contrast, the pref-1 mRNA level was negatively correlated with the intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size. These results suggest that anatomical sites of adipose tissue affect the telomere length and expression pattern of the pref-1 gene in a fat depot-specific manner.

  10. Topical Corticosteroid for the Treatment of Hypergranulation Tissue at the Gastrostomy Tube Insertion Site: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ae, Ryusuke; Kosami, Koki; Yahata, Shinsuke

    2016-09-01

    Hypergranulation tissue formation around a gastrostomy tube insertion site is a common feeding tube-related complication that affects patients who receive long-term enteral nutrition. Some clinicians recommend use of a topical corticosteroid in patients with gastrostomy tube insertion site hypergranulation. However, documentation is scant regarding appropriate treatment for this condition. This case report describes a 67-year-old bedridden man with spinocerebellar degeneration who presented with hypergranulation at the site of the gastrostomy tube, inserted 1 week earlier. The tissue was raw and inflamed, with bleeding and exudation. The gastrostomy site was gently cleansed with gauze dampened with tap water, and topical 0.05% clobetasol propionate ointment was applied directly to the hypergranulation tissue twice daily. After 4 days of treatment, the hypergranulation tissue almost completely disappeared, redness markedly decreased, and bleeding and exudation ceased, with no recurrence observed during the 6 months of follow-up. This case study supports other reports that short-term corticosteroid treatment may be a safe, quick, noninvasive, and effective treatment for hypergranulation at the gastrostomy tube insertion site. Further studies are needed to evaluate the safety, effectiveness, appropriate dosage, and duration of topical corticosteroid for the treatment of hypergranulation tissue. PMID:27668480

  11. Crystal structures of human tissue kallikrein 4: activity modulation by a specific zinc binding site.

    PubMed

    Debela, Mekdes; Magdolen, Viktor; Grimminger, Valerie; Sommerhoff, Christian; Messerschmidt, Albrecht; Huber, Robert; Friedrich, Rainer; Bode, Wolfram; Goettig, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Human tissue kallikrein 4 (hK4) belongs to a 15-member family of closely related serine proteinases. hK4 is predominantly expressed in prostate, activates hK3/PSA, and is up-regulated in prostate and ovarian cancer. We have identified active monomers of recombinant hK4 besides inactive oligomers in solution. hK4 crystallised in the presence of zinc, nickel, and cobalt ions in three crystal forms containing cyclic tetramers and octamers. These structures display a novel metal site between His25 and Glu77 that links the 70-80 loop with the N-terminal segment. Micromolar zinc as present in prostatic fluid inhibits the enzymatic activity of hK4 against fluorogenic substrates. In our measurements, wild-type hK4 exhibited a zinc inhibition constant (IC50) of 16 microM including a permanent residual activity, in contrast to the zinc-independent mutants H25A and E77A. Since the Ile16 N terminus of wild-type hK4 becomes more accessible for acetylating agents in the presence of zinc, we propose that zinc affects the hK4 active site via the salt-bridge formed between the N terminus and Asp194 required for a functional active site. hK4 possesses an unusual 99-loop that creates a groove-like acidic S2 subsite. These findings explain the observed specificity of hK4 for the P1 to P4 substrate residues. Moreover, hK4 shows a negatively charged surface patch, which may represent an exosite for prime-side substrate recognition. PMID:16950394

  12. Pairwise comparisons of ten porcine tissues identify differential transcriptional regulation at the gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level

    SciTech Connect

    Farajzadeh, Leila; Hornshøj, Henrik; Momeni, Jamal; Thomsen, Bo; Larsen, Knud; Hedegaard, Jakob; Bendixen, Christian; Madsen, Lone Bruhn

    2013-08-23

    Highlights: •Transcriptome sequencing yielded 223 mill porcine RNA-seq reads, and 59,000 transcribed locations. •Establishment of unique transcription profiles for ten porcine tissues including four brain tissues. •Comparison of transcription profiles at gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level. •Highlights a high level of regulation of neuro-related genes at both gene, isoform, and TSS level. •Our results emphasize the pig as a valuable animal model with respect to human biological issues. -- Abstract: The transcriptome is the absolute set of transcripts in a tissue or cell at the time of sampling. In this study RNA-Seq is employed to enable the differential analysis of the transcriptome profile for ten porcine tissues in order to evaluate differences between the tissues at the gene and isoform expression level, together with an analysis of variation in transcription start sites, promoter usage, and splicing. Totally, 223 million RNA fragments were sequenced leading to the identification of 59,930 transcribed gene locations and 290,936 transcript variants using Cufflinks with similarity to approximately 13,899 annotated human genes. Pairwise analysis of tissues for differential expression at the gene level showed that the smallest differences were between tissues originating from the porcine brain. Interestingly, the relative level of differential expression at the isoform level did generally not vary between tissue contrasts. Furthermore, analysis of differential promoter usage between tissues, revealed a proportionally higher variation between cerebellum (CBE) versus frontal cortex and cerebellum versus hypothalamus (HYP) than in the remaining comparisons. In addition, the comparison of differential transcription start sites showed that the number of these sites is generally increased in comparisons including hypothalamus in contrast to other pairwise assessments. A comprehensive analysis of one of the tissue contrasts, i

  13. Site-specific circadian expression of leptin and its receptor in human adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Abellán, P. Gómez; Santos, C. Gómez; Madrid, J. A.; Milagro, F. I.; Campion, J.; Martínez, J. A.; Luján, J. A.; Ordovás, J. M.; Garaulet, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Circadian variability of circulating leptin levels has been well established over the last decade. However, the circadian behavior of leptin in human adipose tissue remains unknown. This also applies to the soluble leptin receptor. Objective We investigated the ex vivo circadian behavior of leptin and its receptor expression in human adipose tissue (AT). Subjects and methods Visceral and subcutaneous abdominal AT biopsies (n = 6) were obtained from morbid obese women (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2). Anthropometric variables and fasting plasma glucose, leptin, lipids and lipoprotein concentrations were determined. In order to investigate rhythmic expression pattern of leptin and its receptor, AT explants were cultured during 24-h and gene expression was analyzed at the following times: 08:00, 14:00, 20:00, 02:00 h, using quantitative real-time PCR. Results Leptin expression showed an oscillatory pattern that was consistent with circadian rhythm in cultured AT. Similar patterns were noted for the leptin receptor. Leptin showed its achrophase (maximum expression) during the night, which might be associated to a lower degree of fat accumulation and higher mobilization. When comparing both fat depots, visceral AT anticipated its expression towards afternoon and evening hours. Interestingly, leptin plasma values were associated with decreased amplitude of LEP rhythm. This association was lost when adjusting for waist circumference. Conclusion Circadian rhythmicity has been demonstrated in leptin and its receptor in human AT cultures in a site-specific manner. This new knowledge paves the way for a better understanding of the autocrine/paracrine role of leptin in human AT. PMID:22411388

  14. Stereoselective L-(3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate-binding sites in nervous tissue of Aplysia californica: evidence for muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, T.F.; Mpitsos, G.J.; Siebenaller, J.F.; Barker, D.L.

    1985-12-01

    The muscarinic antagonist L-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate (L-(/sup 3/H)QNB) binds with a high affinity (Kd = 0.77 nM) to a single population of specific sites (Bmax = 47 fmol/mg of protein) in nervous tissue of the gastropod mollusc, Aplysia. The specific L-(/sup 3/H)QNB binding is displaced stereoselectively by the enantiomers of benzetimide, dexetimide, and levetimide. The pharmacologically active enantiomer, dexetimide, is more potent than levetimide as an inhibitor of L-(/sup 3/H)QNB binding. Moreover, the muscarinic cholinergic ligands, scopolamine, atropine, oxotremorine, and pilocarpine are effective inhibitors of the specific L-(/sup 3/H)QNB binding, whereas nicotinic receptor antagonists, decamethonium and d-tubocurarine, are considerably less effective. These pharmacological characteristics of the L-(/sup 3/H)QNB-binding site provide evidence for classical muscarinic receptors in Aplysia nervous tissue. The physiological relevance of the dexetimide-displaceable L-(/sup 3/H)QNB-binding site was supported by the demonstration of the sensitivity of the specific binding to thermal denaturation. Specific binding of L-(/sup 3/H)QNB was also detected in nervous tissue of another marine gastropod, Pleurobranchaea californica. The characteristics of the Aplysia L-(/sup 3/H)QNB-binding site are in accordance with studies of numerous vertebrate and invertebrate tissues indicating that the muscarinic cholinergic receptor site has been highly conserved through evolution.

  15. Stereoselective L-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate-binding sites in nervous tissue of Aplysia californica: evidence for muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Murray, T F; Mpitsos, G J; Siebenaller, J F; Barker, D L

    1985-12-01

    The muscarinic antagonist L-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (L-[3H]QNB) binds with a high affinity (Kd = 0.77 nM) to a single population of specific sites (Bmax = 47 fmol/mg of protein) in nervous tissue of the gastropod mollusc, Aplysia. The specific L-[3H]QNB binding is displaced stereoselectively by the enantiomers of benzetimide, dexetimide, and levetimide. The pharmacologically active enantiomer, dexetimide, is more potent than levetimide as an inhibitor of L-[3H]QNB binding. Moreover, the muscarinic cholinergic ligands, scopolamine, atropine, oxotremorine, and pilocarpine are effective inhibitors of the specific L-[3H]QNB binding, whereas nicotinic receptor antagonists, decamethonium and d-tubocurarine, are considerably less effective. These pharmacological characteristics of the L-[3H]QNB-binding site provide evidence for classical muscarinic receptors in Aplysia nervous tissue. The physiological relevance of the dexetimide-displaceable L-[3H]QNB-binding site was supported by the demonstration of the sensitivity of the specific binding to thermal denaturation. Specific binding of L-[3H]QNB was also detected in nervous tissue of another marine gastropod, Pleurobranchaea californica. The characteristics of the Aplysia L-[3H]QNB-binding site are in accordance with studies of numerous vertebrate and invertebrate tissues indicating that the muscarinic cholinergic receptor site has been highly conserved through evolution. PMID:4078624

  16. Matricryptic sites control tissue injury responses in the cardiovascular system: relationships to pattern recognition receptor regulated events.

    PubMed

    Davis, George E

    2010-03-01

    This review addresses new concepts related to the importance of how cells within the cardiovascular system respond to matricryptic sites generated from the extracellular matrix (ECM) following tissue injury. A model is presented whereby matricryptic sites exposed from the ECM result in activation of multiple cell surface receptors including integrins, scavenger receptors, and toll-like receptors which together are hypothesized to coactivate downstream signaling pathways which alter cell behaviors following tissue injury. Of great interest are the relationships between matricryptic fragments of ECM called matricryptins and other stimuli that activate cells during injury states such as released components from cells (DNA, RNA, cytoskeletal components such as actin) or products from infectious agents in innate immunity responses. These types of cell activating molecules, which are composed of repeating molecular elements, are known to interact with pattern recognition receptors that (i) are expressed from cell surfaces, (ii) are released from cells following tissue injury, or (iii) circulate as components of plasma. Thus, cell recognition of matricryptic sites from the ECM appears to be an important component of a broad cell and tissue sensory system to detect and respond to environmental cues generated following varied types of tissue injury.

  17. Metals in tissues of seabass and seabream reared in sites with oxic and anoxic substrata and risk assessment for consumers.

    PubMed

    Kalantzi, I; Pergantis, S A; Black, K D; Shimmield, T M; Papageorgiou, N; Tsapakis, M; Karakassis, I

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-eight metals and elements were measured in the muscle, liver, gills, bone and intestine of farmed seabass and gilthead seabream from four Mediterranean fish farms. The influence of fish species and the effect of environmental conditions on the metal accumulation in fish tissues was investigated. Most concentrations were lower in muscle and higher in liver and bone than in other body tissues. Seabass accumulates more elements in its tissues than seabream. Fish reared in coarse, oxic sites accumulate more elements with higher concentrations in muscle, bone and intestine and with lower concentrations in liver and gills than fish reared in silty, anoxic sites. This may be attributed to feed type and sediment properties. According to the metal pollution index, hazard quotient, selenium health benefit values, carcinogenic risk of arsenic, maximum safe consumption and the permitted limits, the consumption of both farmed species should be considered as safe for human health.

  18. Metals in tissues of seabass and seabream reared in sites with oxic and anoxic substrata and risk assessment for consumers.

    PubMed

    Kalantzi, I; Pergantis, S A; Black, K D; Shimmield, T M; Papageorgiou, N; Tsapakis, M; Karakassis, I

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-eight metals and elements were measured in the muscle, liver, gills, bone and intestine of farmed seabass and gilthead seabream from four Mediterranean fish farms. The influence of fish species and the effect of environmental conditions on the metal accumulation in fish tissues was investigated. Most concentrations were lower in muscle and higher in liver and bone than in other body tissues. Seabass accumulates more elements in its tissues than seabream. Fish reared in coarse, oxic sites accumulate more elements with higher concentrations in muscle, bone and intestine and with lower concentrations in liver and gills than fish reared in silty, anoxic sites. This may be attributed to feed type and sediment properties. According to the metal pollution index, hazard quotient, selenium health benefit values, carcinogenic risk of arsenic, maximum safe consumption and the permitted limits, the consumption of both farmed species should be considered as safe for human health. PMID:26471605

  19. Genome-wide detection of DNase I hypersensitive sites in single cells and FFPE tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wenfei; Tang, Qingsong; Wan, Mimi; Cui, Kairong; Zhang, Yi; Ren, Gang; Ni, Bing; Sklar, Jeffrey; Przytycka, Teresa M; Childs, Richard; Levens, David; Zhao, Keji

    2015-12-01

    DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) provide important information on the presence of transcriptional regulatory elements and the state of chromatin in mammalian cells. Conventional DNase sequencing (DNase-seq) for genome-wide DHSs profiling is limited by the requirement of millions of cells. Here we report an ultrasensitive strategy, called single-cell DNase sequencing (scDNase-seq) for detection of genome-wide DHSs in single cells. We show that DHS patterns at the single-cell level are highly reproducible among individual cells. Among different single cells, highly expressed gene promoters and enhancers associated with multiple active histone modifications display constitutive DHS whereas chromatin regions with fewer histone modifications exhibit high variation of DHS. Furthermore, the single-cell DHSs predict enhancers that regulate cell-specific gene expression programs and the cell-to-cell variations of DHS are predictive of gene expression. Finally, we apply scDNase-seq to pools of tumour cells and pools of normal cells, dissected from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue slides from patients with thyroid cancer, and detect thousands of tumour-specific DHSs. Many of these DHSs are associated with promoters and enhancers critically involved in cancer development. Analysis of the DHS sequences uncovers one mutation (chr18: 52417839G>C) in the tumour cells of a patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma, which affects the binding of the tumour suppressor protein p53 and correlates with decreased expression of its target gene TXNL1. In conclusion, scDNase-seq can reliably detect DHSs in single cells, greatly extending the range of applications of DHS analysis both for basic and for translational research, and may provide critical information for personalized medicine. PMID:26605532

  20. Immunoglobulin-containing cells in chick embryo urogenital tissues: a new site for early B lineage cells in endothermic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Zettergren, L D; Cutlan, R T

    1992-07-01

    We have employed histological and immunofluorescent staining procedures in order to characterize the distribution of mu + B lineage cells in tissue sections prepared from developing chicken embryo urogenital tissues (UGTs) between 14 and 21 days of incubation. B lineage cells were observed in tissue sections prepared from developing UGTs, especially the mesonephros and its associated tissue, throughout the sample period. The highest densities of mu + B lineage cells were observed in tissue sections prepared from 18 day embryos. The mu + UGT cells were distributed singly and in clusters in subcapsular regions and within the peritubular interstitium of the mesonephros. These observations (1) are consistent with those which suggest nonbursal site(s) for origin of cells in B lineage, (2) may help account for the varying effects of embryonic caudectomy performed between the second and third days of incubation and surgical bursectomy performed close to hatching, (3) may help provide new insights on the effects of sex hormones on B cell development, and (4) suggest fundamental ontogenetic and phylogenetic similarities between developing vertebrate immune systems.

  1. Imaging site-specific peptide-targeting in tumor tissues using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lixin; Zhang, Miao; Yu, Ping

    2011-03-01

    We report imaging studies on site-specific peptide-targeting in tumor tissues using newly developed optical peptide probes and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The system used two broadband superluminescent light emission diodes with different central wavelengths. An electro-optic modulation in the reference beam was used to get full-range deep imaging inside tumor tissues. The optical probes were based on Bombesin (BBN) that is a fourteen amino acid peptide. BBN has high binding affinity to gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors overexpressed on several human cancer cell lines. Fluorescence BBN probes were developed by conjugating the last eight residues of BBN, -Q-W-A-V-G-H-L-M-(NH2), with Alexa Flour 680 or Alexa Fluor 750 dye molecules via amino acid linker -G-G-G. The SD-OCT imaging can identify normal tissue and tumor tissue through the difference in scattering coefficient, and trace the BBN conjugate probes through the absorption of the dye molecules using the twowavelength algorithm. We performed the specific uptake and receptor-blocking experiments of the optical BBN probes in severely compromised immunodeficient mouse model bearing human PC-3 prostate tumor xenografts. Tumor and muscle tissues were collected and used for SD-OCT imaging. The SD-OCT images showed fluorescence traces of the BBN probes in the peptide-targeted tumor tissues. Our results demonstrated that SD-OCT is a potential tool for preclinical and clinical early cancer detection.

  2. Metal(loid)s in sediment, lobster and mussel tissues near historical gold mine sites.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tony R; Grant, Jon

    2015-12-15

    Previous studies near historical gold mining districts in Nova Scotia have identified significant enrichment of metal(loid)s in coastal marine sediments. Most of this inventory is buried below biologically active zones, although in some areas arsenic has bioaccumulated in marine biota resulting in localised bivalve shellfish closures. Isaacs Harbour is poised for future industrial development, but before potential impacts are predicted, current marine baseline conditions must be determined. To address this gap, this study established a baseline using surface sediments and biota (mussel and lobster tissues), to provide a broader picture of metal(loid)s in the marine environment. Results confirmed previous studies showing that most sediment metal(loid) concentrations still exceeded Canadian Marine Sediment Quality Guidelines, and also provided evidence of Canadian Food Inspection Agency fish tissue exceedances of arsenic in lobster and lead in mussel tissues indicating that some bioaccumulation of legacy contaminants in marine biota continues to the present day.

  3. Metal(loid)s in sediment, lobster and mussel tissues near historical gold mine sites.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tony R; Grant, Jon

    2015-12-15

    Previous studies near historical gold mining districts in Nova Scotia have identified significant enrichment of metal(loid)s in coastal marine sediments. Most of this inventory is buried below biologically active zones, although in some areas arsenic has bioaccumulated in marine biota resulting in localised bivalve shellfish closures. Isaacs Harbour is poised for future industrial development, but before potential impacts are predicted, current marine baseline conditions must be determined. To address this gap, this study established a baseline using surface sediments and biota (mussel and lobster tissues), to provide a broader picture of metal(loid)s in the marine environment. Results confirmed previous studies showing that most sediment metal(loid) concentrations still exceeded Canadian Marine Sediment Quality Guidelines, and also provided evidence of Canadian Food Inspection Agency fish tissue exceedances of arsenic in lobster and lead in mussel tissues indicating that some bioaccumulation of legacy contaminants in marine biota continues to the present day. PMID:26475024

  4. The Evolution of Tissue Stiffness at Radiofrequency Ablation Sites During Lesion Formation and in the Peri‐Ablation Period

    PubMed Central

    EYERLY, STEPHANIE A.; VEJDANI‐JAHROMI, MARYAM; DUMONT, DOUGLAS M.; TRAHEY, GREGG E.

    2015-01-01

    Peri‐Ablation Monitoring of RFA Lesion Stiffness Introduction Elastography imaging can provide radiofrequency ablation (RFA) lesion assessment due to tissue stiffening at the ablation site. An important aspect of assessment is the spatial and temporal stability of the region of stiffness increase in the peri‐ablation period. The aim of this study was to use 2 ultrasound‐based elastography techniques, shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging, to monitor the evolution of tissue stiffness at ablation sites in the 30 minutes following lesion creation. Methods and Results In 6 canine subjects, SWEI measurements and 2‐D ARFI images were acquired at 6 ventricular endocardial RFA sites before, during, and for 30 minutes postablation. An immediate increase in tissue stiffness was detected during RFA, and the area of the postablation region of stiffness increase (RoSI) as well as the relative stiffness at the RoSI center was stable approximately 2 minutes after ablation. Of note is the observation that relative stiffness in the region adjacent to the RoSI increased slightly during the first 15 minutes, consistent with local fluid displacement or edema. The magnitude of this increase, ∼0.5‐fold from baseline, was significantly less than the magnitude of the stiffness increase directly inside the RoSI, which was greater than 3‐fold from baseline. Conclusions Ultrasound‐based SWEI and ARFI imaging detected an immediate increase in tissue stiffness during RFA, and the stability and magnitude of the stiffness change suggest that consistent elasticity‐based lesion assessment is possible 2 minutes after and for at least 30 minutes following ablation. PMID:25970142

  5. Tissue radionuclide concentrations in water birds and upland birds on the Hanford Site (USA) from 1971-2009.

    PubMed

    Delistraty, Damon; Van Verst, Scott

    2011-08-01

    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result, there is a need to characterize contaminant effects on site biota. Within this framework, the main purpose of our study was to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in bird tissue, obtained from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The database was sorted by avian group (water bird vs. upland bird), radionuclide (over 20 analytes), tissue (muscle, bone, liver), location (onsite vs. offsite), and time period (1971-1990 vs. 1991-2009). Onsite median concentrations in water birds were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in onsite upland birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990) and Sr-90 in bone (1991-2009), perhaps due to behavioral, habitat, or trophic species differences. Onsite median concentrations in water birds were higher (borderline significance with Bonferroni P = 0.05) than those in offsite birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990). Onsite median concentrations in the earlier time period were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in the later time period for Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Sr-90 in water bird muscle and for Cs-137 in upland bird muscle tissue. Median concentrations of Sr-90 in bone were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in muscle for both avian groups and both locations. Over the time period, 1971-2009, onsite median internal dose was estimated for each radionuclide in water bird and upland bird tissues. However, a meaningful dose comparison between bird groups was not possible, due to a dissimilar radionuclide inventory, mismatch of time periods for input radionuclides, and lack of an external dose estimate. Despite these limitations, our results contribute toward ongoing efforts to characterize ecological risk at the Hanford Site.

  6. Localisation of C reactive protein in infarcted tissue sites of multiple organs during sepsis.

    PubMed

    Baidoshvili, A; Nijmeijer, R; Lagrand, W K; Hack, C E; Niessen, H W M

    2002-02-01

    This report hypothesises an active role for the acute phase protein, C reactive protein (CRP), in local inflammatory reactions. This was studied in infarction sites from liver and kidney in a patient who died as a result of multiple complications after cholecystectomy. In this patient, a general acute phase protein reaction was induced, with an increase in plasma CRP. In infarction sites of kidney and liver, colocalisation of CRP and activated complement were found, whereas non-infarct sites were negative for CRP and complement. These results suggest that CRP directly participates in local inflammatory processes, possibly via complement activation, after binding of a suitable ligand.

  7. Affinity of pyridylalkylamines for nicotinic, muscarinic and histaminic recognition sites in brain tissue preparations.

    PubMed

    Repond, C; Pratt, J A; Stolerman, I P; Mayer, J M; Jenner, P; Marsden, C D; Testa, B

    1986-08-01

    The affinity of 15 regioisomeric and homologous pyridylalkylamines was examined in brain preparations for nicotinic, muscarinic, and H1-histaminic binding sites as labeled by [3H]-nicotine, [3H]-dexetimide and [3H]-mepyramine, respectively. Overall, the compounds show a clear selectivity for the nicotinic versus muscarinic binding sites, and a weak affinity for the H1-histaminic sites. Variations in affinity appear to be partly influenced by steric factors (such as position of attachment, length and rigidity of side-chain) and marginally by lipophilicity. PMID:3778556

  8. Phylogenetic distribution of (/sup 3/H)cyclohexyladenosine binding sites in nervous tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Siebenaller, J.F.; Murray, T.F.

    1986-05-29

    The specific binding of the A/sub 1/ adenosine receptor ligand. (/sup 3/H)CHA, was investigated in membrane fractions prepared from brains of eleven vertebrate species and ganglia of four invertebrate species. Substantial amounts of specific (/sup 3/H)CHA binding sites were demonstrated in brain membranes of all vertebrate species examined; however, (/sup 3/H)CHA binding sites were not detectable in nervous sites in vertebrate brains increase in higher vertebrates. Moreover, the pharmacological characteristics of the site labeled by (/sup 3/H)CHA in two divergent classes of vertebrates were similar. The broad phylogenetic distribution of A/sub 1/ adenosine receptors in primitive as well as advanced vertebrate species suggests a fundamental role for adenosine in neuronal modulation.

  9. Initial characterization and autoradiographic localization of a novel sigma/opioid binding site in immune tissues.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B B; Liu, Y; Chang, S; Saini, P; Ha, B K; Barrett, T W; Wolfe, S A

    1996-07-01

    High concentrations of novel, haloperidol- and DTG-inaccessible (+)-[3H]-3-PPP binding sites were found in human peripheral blood leukocytes rat spleen and splenocytes, but not in rat brain. Splenic sites were localized in a course punctate pattern in the marginal zones and red pulp. The pharmacology of the splenic sites was: (-)-SKF 10,047 > or = naltrexone = (-)-pentazocine > (+)-pentazocine = (-)-3-PPP = (+)-SKF 10,047 > or = (+)-3-PPP > or = dextrorphan > dextromethorphan > PCP > clorgyline. DTG, haloperidol, TCP, (-)-deprenyl and SKF 525-A did not complete. Binding activity was destroyed by heating and phospholipase C, but not by proteases or glycosidases. These sites may be involved in immunomodulation by opiate and sigma receptor agonists.

  10. Site-Specific Neutrophil Migration and CXCL2 Expression in Periodontal Tissue.

    PubMed

    Greer, A; Irie, K; Hashim, A; Leroux, B G; Chang, A M; Curtis, M A; Darveau, R P

    2016-07-01

    The oral microbial community is the best-characterized bacterial ecosystem in the human host. It has been shown in the mouse that oral commensal bacteria significantly contribute to clinically healthy periodontal homeostasis by influencing the number of neutrophils that migrate from the vasculature to the junctional epithelium. Furthermore, in clinically healthy tissue, the neutrophil response to oral commensal bacteria is associated with the select expression of the neutrophil chemokine CXCL2 but not CXCL1. This preliminary study examined the contribution of commensal bacteria on neutrophil location across the tooth/gingival interface. Tissue sections from the root associated mesial (anterior) of the second molar to the root associated distal (posterior) of the second molar were examined for neutrophils and the expression of the neutrophil chemokine ligands CXCL1 and CXCL2. It was found that both the number of neutrophils as well as the expression of CXCL2 but not CXCL1 was significantly increased in tissue sections close to the interdental region, consistent with the notion of select tissue expression patterns for neutrophil chemokine expression and subsequent neutrophil location. Furthermore, mice gavaged with either oral Streptococcus or Lactobacillus sp. bacteria induced a location pattern of neutrophils and CXCL2 expression similar to the normal oral flora. These data indicate for the first time select neutrophil location and chemokine expression patterns associated with clinically healthy tissue. The results reveal an increased inflammatory load upon approaching the interproximal region, which is consistent with the observation that the interproximal region often reveals early clinical signs of periodontal disease. PMID:27013641

  11. Amyloid tracers detect multiple binding sites in Alzheimer's disease brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ruiqing; Gillberg, Per-Göran; Bergfors, Assar; Marutle, Amelia; Nordberg, Agneta

    2013-07-01

    Imaging fibrillar amyloid-β deposition in the human brain in vivo by positron emission tomography has improved our understanding of the time course of amyloid-β pathology in Alzheimer's disease. The most widely used amyloid-β imaging tracer so far is (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B, a thioflavin derivative but other (11)C- and (18)F-labelled amyloid-β tracers have been studied in patients with Alzheimer's disease and cognitively normal control subjects. However, it has not yet been established whether different amyloid tracers bind to identical sites on amyloid-β fibrils, offering the same ability to detect the regional amyloid-β burden in the brains. In this study, we characterized (3)H-Pittsburgh compound B binding in autopsied brain regions from 23 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 20 control subjects (aged 50 to 88 years). The binding properties of the amyloid tracers FDDNP, AV-45, AV-1 and BF-227 were also compared with those of (3)H-Pittsburgh compound B in the frontal cortices of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Saturation binding studies revealed the presence of high- and low-affinity (3)H-Pittsburgh compound B binding sites in the frontal cortex (K(d1): 3.5 ± 1.6 nM; K(d2): 133 ± 30 nM) and hippocampus (K(d1):5.6 ± 2.2 nM; K(d2): 181 ± 132 nM) of Alzheimer's disease brains. The relative proportion of high-affinity to low-affinity sites was 6:1 in the frontal cortex and 3:1 in the hippocampus. One control showed both high- and low-affinity (3)H-Pittsburgh compound B binding sites (K(d1): 1.6 nM; K(d2): 330 nM) in the cortex while the others only had a low-affinity site (K(d2): 191 ± 70 nM). (3)H-Pittsburgh compound B binding in Alzheimer's disease brains was higher in the frontal and parietal cortices than in the caudate nucleus and hippocampus, and negligible in the cerebellum. Competitive binding studies with (3)H-Pittsburgh compound B in the frontal cortices of Alzheimer's disease brains revealed high- and low-affinity binding sites for BTA

  12. The mouse lymph node as an ectopic transplantation site for multiple tissues

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Junji; Boone, Lindsey; DeWard, Aaron; Hoppo, Toshitaka; Lagasse, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Cell-based therapy has been viewed as a promising alternative to organ transplantation, but cell transplantation aimed at organ repair is not always possible. Here, we show that the mouse lymph node can support the engraftment and growth of healthy cells from multiple tissues. Direct injection of hepatocytes into a single mouse lymph node generated enough ectopic liver mass to rescue survival of mice with lethal metabolic disease. Furthermore, thymuses transplanted into a lymph node of athymic nude mice generate a functional immune system capable of rejecting allogeneic and xenogeneic grafts. Finally, pancreatic islets injected into the lymph node of diabetic mice restore normal glucose control. Collectively, these results suggest the practical approach of targeting lymph nodes to restore, maintain or improve tissue and organ functions. PMID:23000933

  13. Characterization of heparin-binding site of tissue transglutaminase: its importance in cell surface targeting, matrix deposition, and cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Collighan, Russell J; Pytel, Kamila; Rathbone, Daniel L; Li, Xiaoling; Griffin, Martin

    2012-04-13

    Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional Ca(2+)-activated protein cross-linking enzyme secreted into the extracellular matrix (ECM), where it is involved in wound healing and scarring, tissue fibrosis, celiac disease, and metastatic cancer. Extracellular TG2 can also facilitate cell adhesion important in wound healing through a nontransamidating mechanism via its association with fibronectin, heparan sulfates (HS), and integrins. Regulating the mechanism how TG2 is translocated into the ECM therefore provides a strategy for modulating these physiological and pathological functions of the enzyme. Here, through molecular modeling and mutagenesis, we have identified the HS-binding site of TG2 (202)KFLKNAGRDCSRRSSPVYVGR(222). We demonstrate the requirement of this binding site for translocation of TG2 into the ECM through a mechanism involving cell surface shedding of HS. By synthesizing a peptide NPKFLKNAGRDCSRRSS corresponding to the HS-binding site within TG2, we also demonstrate how this mimicking peptide can in isolation compensate for the RGD-induced loss of cell adhesion on fibronectin via binding to syndecan-4, leading to activation of PKCα, pFAK-397, and ERK1/2 and the subsequent formation of focal adhesions and actin cytoskeleton organization. A novel regulatory mechanism for TG2 translocation into the extracellular compartment that depends upon TG2 conformation and the binding of HS is proposed.

  14. Elucidation of transcriptome-wide microRNA binding sites in human cardiac tissues by Ago2 HITS-CLIP

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Ryan M.; Zhang, Xiaoming; Cheng, Congsheng; McLendon, Jared M.; Skeie, Jessica M.; Johnson, Frances L.; Davidson, Beverly L.; Boudreau, Ryan L.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) have emerged as key biological effectors in human health and disease. These small noncoding RNAs are incorporated into Argonaute (Ago) proteins, where they direct post-transcriptional gene silencing via base-pairing with target transcripts. Although miRs have become intriguing biological entities and attractive therapeutic targets, the translational impacts of miR research remain limited by a paucity of empirical miR targeting data, particularly in human primary tissues. Here, to improve our understanding of the diverse roles miRs play in cardiovascular function and disease, we applied high-throughput methods to globally profile miR:target interactions in human heart tissues. We deciphered Ago2:RNA interactions using crosslinking immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (HITS-CLIP) to generate the first transcriptome-wide map of miR targeting events in human myocardium, detecting 4000 cardiac Ago2 binding sites across >2200 target transcripts. Our initial exploration of this interactome revealed an abundance of miR target sites in gene coding regions, including several sites pointing to new miR-29 functions in regulating cardiomyocyte calcium, growth and metabolism. Also, we uncovered several clinically-relevant interactions involving common genetic variants that alter miR targeting events in cardiomyopathy-associated genes. Overall, these data provide a critical resource for bolstering translational miR research in heart, and likely beyond. PMID:27418678

  15. Comparative tissue distribution of heavy metals in house sparrow (Passer domesticus, Aves) in polluted and reference sites in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Tamer; Mor, Firdevs

    2011-10-01

    Bioindicators are useful for environmental monitoring in ecosystems with pollution loads. We compared concentrations of selected 10 metals in 42 samples of House Sparrow in a polluted by thermal power plant and reference sites. We found mean tissue concentrations of some metals to be significantly higher in sparrows from the polluted area when compared to tissues from the reference site. In liver mean concentrations of Cu (35.85 ± 17.22 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (101.76 ± 26.38 mg kg(-1)) were significantly higher and concentration of Ni (0.43 ± 0.49 mg kg(-1)) were significantly lower in sparrows from the polluted area (p<0.05). The concentration of Cu was significantly higher in muscle and liver at the polluted site. Gender did not seem to influence residue levels, of the elements studied, among sparrows with the exception of kidney cobalt concentrations; which were higher in female sparrows than in males (p<0.05, t=-2.409).

  16. PCB in tissue concentrations in great blue heron occupying a Superfund site: Risk assessment implications

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.S.; Brewer, R.; Mitchell, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    Using existing ambient concentrations of chemicals and conservative assumptions, preliminary risk assessment has indicated that piscivorous wildlife along the Clinch River adjacent to the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, TN are potentially at risk from exposure to PCBs. Total PCB concentrations in great blue heron egg and chick liver tissue (7.69 {mu}g/g and 1.91 {mu}g/g, respectively) collected from a tributary to the Clinch River passing through the ORR, were significantly greater than concentrations in egg and chick liver tissue (1.24 {mu}g/g and 0.71 {mu}g/g, respectively) collected off the ORR. Mono and non-ortho CB congeners also were greater in heron tissues collected on the ORR compared to those collected off the ORR. Reproductive parameters (eggs/nest and chicks/nest) were not significantly different between locations. These data indicate that herons nesting on the ORR are exposed to PCBs, however, concentrations are insufficient to illicit a detectable adverse reproductive response in this species. Risk assessment implications are that piscivorous species utilizing habitats on the ORR are accumulating environmental contaminants greater than back ground concentrations for this region, however, only the most sensitive species are probably adversely effected. Continued monitoring will provide base-line data for evaluating natural resource damages and remediation decisions.

  17. Syntax compensates for poor binding sites to encode tissue specificity of developmental enhancers.

    PubMed

    Farley, Emma K; Olson, Katrina M; Zhang, Wei; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Levine, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    Transcriptional enhancers are short segments of DNA that switch genes on and off in response to a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Despite the discovery of the first enhancer more than 30 y ago, the relationship between primary DNA sequence and enhancer activity remains obscure. In particular, the importance of "syntax" (the order, orientation, and spacing of binding sites) is unclear. A high-throughput screen identified synthetic notochord enhancers that are activated by the combination of ZicL and ETS transcription factors in Ciona embryos. Manipulation of these enhancers elucidated a "regulatory code" of sequence and syntax features for notochord-specific expression. This code enabled in silico discovery of bona fide notochord enhancers, including those containing low-affinity binding sites that would be excluded by standard motif identification methods. One of the newly identified enhancers maps upstream of the known enhancer that regulates Brachyury (Ci-Bra), a key determinant of notochord specification. This newly identified Ci-Bra shadow enhancer contains binding sites with very low affinity, but optimal syntax, and therefore mediates surprisingly strong expression in the notochord. Weak binding sites are compensated by optimal syntax, whereas enhancers containing high-affinity binding affinities possess suboptimal syntax. We suggest this balance has obscured the importance of regulatory syntax, as noncanonical binding motifs are typically disregarded by enhancer detection methods. As a result, enhancers with low binding affinities but optimal syntax may be a vastly underappreciated feature of the regulatory genome.

  18. Syntax compensates for poor binding sites to encode tissue specificity of developmental enhancers.

    PubMed

    Farley, Emma K; Olson, Katrina M; Zhang, Wei; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Levine, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    Transcriptional enhancers are short segments of DNA that switch genes on and off in response to a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Despite the discovery of the first enhancer more than 30 y ago, the relationship between primary DNA sequence and enhancer activity remains obscure. In particular, the importance of "syntax" (the order, orientation, and spacing of binding sites) is unclear. A high-throughput screen identified synthetic notochord enhancers that are activated by the combination of ZicL and ETS transcription factors in Ciona embryos. Manipulation of these enhancers elucidated a "regulatory code" of sequence and syntax features for notochord-specific expression. This code enabled in silico discovery of bona fide notochord enhancers, including those containing low-affinity binding sites that would be excluded by standard motif identification methods. One of the newly identified enhancers maps upstream of the known enhancer that regulates Brachyury (Ci-Bra), a key determinant of notochord specification. This newly identified Ci-Bra shadow enhancer contains binding sites with very low affinity, but optimal syntax, and therefore mediates surprisingly strong expression in the notochord. Weak binding sites are compensated by optimal syntax, whereas enhancers containing high-affinity binding affinities possess suboptimal syntax. We suggest this balance has obscured the importance of regulatory syntax, as noncanonical binding motifs are typically disregarded by enhancer detection methods. As a result, enhancers with low binding affinities but optimal syntax may be a vastly underappreciated feature of the regulatory genome. PMID:27155014

  19. Results of fish tissue screening studies from sites in the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers in 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Dycus, D.L.

    1990-07-01

    TVA analyzes tissues of Tennessee Valley area fish as part of intensive evaluations and as pat of screening level evaluations. Intensive studies are conducted in reservoirs where contamination problems are known or suspected and include analysis of individual fillets from important fish species from several areas in the reservoir. This information is used by State public health officials to determine whether fish consumption advisories are necessary to protect human health. Screening studies are based on analysis of composite rather than individual samples and are intended to provide trend information and to identify areas where problems may exist indicating need for an intensive evaluation. All studies are coordinated with State agencies because they ultimately must make management decisions regarding public health. TVA has two fish tissue screening programs. One examines fish on an annual basis at inflow points from eight of the major tributaries into the Tennessee River reservoir system. The other examines fish from within the reservoirs on a rotating basis with the goal of sampling each reservoir at least once every three years. 7 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  20. Identification of hormone esters in injection site in muscle tissues by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Costain, R M; Fesser, A C E; McKenzie, D; Mizuno, M; MacNeil, J D

    2008-12-01

    The detection of hormone abuse for growth promotion in food animal production is a global concern. Initial testing for hormones in Canada was directed at the compounds approved for use in beef cattle, melengestrol acetate, trenbolone acetate and zeranol, and the banned compound diethylstilbestrol (DES). No hormonal growth promoters are approved for use in veal production in Canada. However, instances of use of trenbolone and clenbuterol were detected in Canada in the 1990s. During the development of a new analytical method for testosterone and progesterone, there were reports of suspicious injection sites being found in veal calves. Upon implementation of the method, analysis of investigative samples revealed significant residues of testosterone in some injection sites. To prove that the source of these residues was exogenous, a fully validated method for hormone esters was developed to confirm the presence of exogenous hormones in these injection sites. The QUECHERS model was employed in methods development and resulted in a simple, effective extraction technique that consisted of sample pre-homogenization, liquid/liquid partitioning, extract dilution, filtration and use of LC/MS/MS to provide detection selectivity. The result was an adaptable MS/MS confirmation technique that meets the needs of Canadian regulatory authorities to confirm the misuse of injectable testosterone, and potentially other hormones, in food animal production.

  1. Subcutaneous soft tissue tumours at the site of implanted microchips in mice.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, T; Kamino, K; Dasenbrock, C; Ernst, H; Kohler, M; Morawietz, G; Campo, E; Cardesa, A; Tomatis, L; Mohr, U

    1997-08-01

    An experiment using 4279 CBA/J mice of two generations was carried out to investigate the influence of parental preconceptual exposure to X-ray radiation or to chemical carcinogens. Microchips were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsolateral back for unique identification of each animal. The animals were kept for lifespan under standard laboratory conditions. In 36 mice a circumscribed neoplasm occurred in the area of the implanted microchip. Females were significantly more frequently affected than male mice. An influence of age or different treatment on the s.c. tumour incidence in two mice generations could not be observed. Macroscopically, firm, pale white nodules up to 25 mm in diameter with the microchip in its center were found. Microscopically, soft tissue tumours such as fibrosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma were detected.

  2. Influence of site on the therapeutic ratio of adjuvant radiotherapy in soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity

    SciTech Connect

    Alektiar, Kaled M. . E-mail: alektiak@mskcc.org; Brennan, Murray F.; Singer, Samuel

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: The ultimate goal of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity is to improve the therapeutic ratio by increasing local control while minimizing morbidity. Most efforts in trying to improve this ratio have focused on the sequencing of RT and surgery, with little attention to the potential influence of the tumor site. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of tumor site on local control and complications in a group of patients with primary high-grade soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity treated at a single institution with postoperative RT. Methods and Materials: Between July 1982 and December 2000, 369 adult patients with primary high-grade soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity were treated with limb-sparing surgery and postoperative RT. Patients who underwent surgery or RT outside our institution were excluded. The tumor site was the upper extremity (UE) in 103 (28%) and the lower extremity (LE) in 266 (72%). The tumor was {<=}5 cm in 98 patients (27%), and the microscopic margins were positive in 44 (12%). Of the 369 patients, 104 (28%) underwent postoperative external beam RT (EBRT), 233 (63%) postoperative brachytherapy (BRT), and 32 underwent a combination (9%); 325 (88%) received a 'conventional' radiation dose, defined as 60-70 Gy for EBRT, 45 Gy for BRT, and 45-50 Gy plus 15-20 Gy for EBRT plus BRT. Complications were assessed in terms of wound complications requiring repeat surgery, fracture, joint stiffness, edema, and Grade 3 or worse peripheral nerve damage. Results: The UE and LE groups were balanced with regard to age, depth, margin status, and type of RT (EBRT vs. BRT {+-} EBRT). However, more patients in the UE group had tumors {<=}5 cm and more received a conventional radiation dose (p = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). With a median follow-up of 50 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of local control, distant relapse-free survival, and overall survival for the whole population was 82% (95

  3. Effects of sex and site on amino acid metabolism enzyme gene expression and activity in rat white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Arriarán, Sofía; Agnelli, Silvia; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. White adipose tissue (WAT) shows marked sex- and diet-dependent differences. However, our metabolic knowledge of WAT, especially on amino acid metabolism, is considerably limited. In the present study, we compared the influence of sex on the amino acid metabolism profile of the four main WAT sites, focused on the paths related to ammonium handling and the urea cycle, as a way to estimate the extent of WAT implication on body amino-nitrogen metabolism. Experimental Design. Adult female and male rats were maintained, undisturbed, under standard conditions for one month. After killing them under isoflurane anesthesia. WAT sites were dissected and weighed. Subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric WAT were analyzed for amino acid metabolism gene expression and enzyme activities. Results. There was a considerable stability of the urea cycle activities and expressions, irrespective of sex, and with only limited influence of site. Urea cycle was more resilient to change than other site-specialized metabolic pathways. The control of WAT urea cycle was probably related to the provision of arginine/citrulline, as deduced from the enzyme activity profiles. These data support a generalized role of WAT in overall amino-N handling. In contrast, sex markedly affected WAT ammonium-centered amino acid metabolism in a site-related way, with relatively higher emphasis in males’ subcutaneous WAT. Conclusions. We found that WAT has an active amino acid metabolism. Its gene expressions were lower than those of glucose-lipid interactions, but the differences were quantitatively less important than usually reported. The effects of sex on urea cycle enzymes expression and activity were limited, in contrast with the wider variations observed in other metabolic pathways. The results agree with a centralized control of urea cycle operation affecting the adipose organ as a whole. PMID:26587356

  4. Prevalence, site and tissue preference of myxozoan parasites infecting gills of cultured fish in Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Katoch, Anu

    2016-02-25

    Native carp species cultured in Indian farms in Punjab (catla Catla catla, rohu Labeo rohita, mrigal Cirrhinus mrigala, exotic carps such as silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, common carp Cyprinus carpio and a catfish Sperata seenghala) were examined for the presence of myxozoan parasites infecting gills. Firstly, the gills were examined under a zoom-stereomicroscope for the presence of plasmodia. The number of plasmodia per gill was counted to determine the index for the intensity of infection. Infected tissues were processed for histology, and 3-4 µm sections of infected gills were stained with haematoxylin & eosin and Luna's method. A total of 19 species of myxosporean were found infecting various cell types in the gills. Of these, 14 species belonged to the genus Myxobolus, 3 species to the genus Thelohanellus and 2 species to the genus Henneguya. Species belonging to the genus Myxobolus formed the interlamellar and intralamellar vascular (LV) type plasmodia, and species belonging to the genus Thelohanellus and Henneguya formed intrafilamental vascular (FV) type plasmodia. Mixed infections comprising 2, 3 or 4 different myxozoan species were noted in individual fish. The most common type of parasitism was polyparasitism due to 4 myxobolids co-occuring in fish with an infection rate of 23.16%. All species caused mild to severe haemorrhagic gill disease with little clinical symptomatology.

  5. Prevalence, site and tissue preference of myxozoan parasites infecting gills of cultured fish in Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Katoch, Anu

    2016-02-25

    Native carp species cultured in Indian farms in Punjab (catla Catla catla, rohu Labeo rohita, mrigal Cirrhinus mrigala, exotic carps such as silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, common carp Cyprinus carpio and a catfish Sperata seenghala) were examined for the presence of myxozoan parasites infecting gills. Firstly, the gills were examined under a zoom-stereomicroscope for the presence of plasmodia. The number of plasmodia per gill was counted to determine the index for the intensity of infection. Infected tissues were processed for histology, and 3-4 µm sections of infected gills were stained with haematoxylin & eosin and Luna's method. A total of 19 species of myxosporean were found infecting various cell types in the gills. Of these, 14 species belonged to the genus Myxobolus, 3 species to the genus Thelohanellus and 2 species to the genus Henneguya. Species belonging to the genus Myxobolus formed the interlamellar and intralamellar vascular (LV) type plasmodia, and species belonging to the genus Thelohanellus and Henneguya formed intrafilamental vascular (FV) type plasmodia. Mixed infections comprising 2, 3 or 4 different myxozoan species were noted in individual fish. The most common type of parasitism was polyparasitism due to 4 myxobolids co-occuring in fish with an infection rate of 23.16%. All species caused mild to severe haemorrhagic gill disease with little clinical symptomatology. PMID:26912043

  6. Benzodiazepine binding sites in rat interscapular brown adipose tissue: effect of cold environment, denervation and endocrine ablations

    SciTech Connect

    Solveyra, C.G.; Romeo, H.E.; Rosenstein, R.E.; Estevez, A.G.; Cardinali, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    /sup 3/H-Flunitrazepam (FNZP) binding was examined in a crude membrane fraction obtained from rat interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT). A single population of binding sites was apparent with dissociation constant (K/sub D/) = 0.47 +/- 0.04 uM and maximal number of binding sites (B/sub max/ = 31 +/- 5 pmol.mg prot/sup -1/. From the activity of several benzodiazepine (BZP) analogs to compete for the binding, the peripheral nature of FNZP binding was tentatively established. Similar BZP binding sites were detectable in isolated IBAT mitochondria. Exposure of rats to 4 /sup 0/C for 15 days decreased B/sub max/ significantly without affecting K/sub D/. Cold-induced decrease in B/sub max/ of BZP binding was prevented by surgical IBAT denervation. Denervation prevented or impaired the increased activity of the mitochondrial markers succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in IBAT of cold-exposed rats, but did not affect monoamine oxidase activity. Their results indicate that BZP binding in rat IBAT may belong to the peripheral type, is decreased by a cold environment through activation of peripheral sympathetic nerves and is affected by hypophysectomy. BZP and GDP binding in IBAT mitochondria seem not to be functionally related. 23 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Tissue-specific expression of the bovine aromatase-encoding gene uses multiple transcriptional start sites and alternative first exons.

    PubMed

    Fürbass, R; Kalbe, C; Vanselow, J

    1997-07-01

    Here we report on the genomic structure of the bovine aromatase cytochrome P450-encoding gene (Cyp19) and its tissue-specific transcript variants. The gene comprises at least 14 exons (1.1, 1.2a, 1.2b, 1.3,1.4, and 2-10) spanning more than 56 kilobases of genomic DNA. The coding area is confined to exons 2-10. Transcriptional start sites of Cyp19 were examined in granulosa cells, placenta, testis, adrenal gland, and brain, employing 5'-RACE (rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends) and primer extension. The analysis of 5'-RACE clones revealed six Cyp19 transcript variants that were different within their 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTR). Yet, the coding region was identical in all clones. Although two of these 5'-UTR (the first 152 nucleotides of exon 2 and exon 1.4) are conserved among different species, four others (exons 1.1, 1.2a, 1.2b, and 1.3) did not show sequence homology to any other species. Transcription from exons 1.1 and 2 starts at several adjacent sites. In granulosa cells and placenta, but not in brain, a fraction of transcripts starting with exon 1.2a contains an additional untranslated exon, 1.2b, due to alternative splicing. Transcript variants comprising exon 1.1, 1.2a, 1.2b, or 1.3 were mainly found in the placenta, those with the 5'-UTR of exon 2 were predominant in granulosa cells, and transcripts with exon 1.4 prevailed in the brain. Estimates of Cyp19 transcript concentrations in six different tissues revealed high levels in granulosa cells and placenta, intermediate levels in testis and brain, and low levels in adrenal gland and liver. Our experiments demonstrate that six transcript variants of the bovine Cyp19 gene, including 9-11 exons, are expressed with tissue-specific preferences. These transcripts are presumably generated using five different promoter regions and tissue-specific alternative splicing. PMID:9202222

  8. Identification of tissue-specific DNA-protein binding sites by means of two-dimensional electrophoretic mobility shift assay display.

    PubMed

    Chernov, Igor P; Timchenko, Kira A; Akopov, Sergey B; Nikolaev, Lev G; Sverdlov, Eugene D

    2007-05-01

    We developed a technique of differential electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) display allowing identification of tissue-specific protein-binding sites within long genomic sequences. Using this approach, we identified 10 cell type-specific protein-binding sites (protein target sites [PTSs]) within a 137-kb human chromosome 19 region. In general, tissue-specific binding of proteins from different nuclear extracts by individual PTSs did not follow the all-or-nothing principle. Most often, PTS-protein complexes were formed in all cases, but they were different for different nuclear extracts used. PMID:17359930

  9. Site-specific differences of insulin action in adipose tissue derived from normal prepubertal children

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, Malcolm; Stewart, Claire; Welsh, Gavin; Hunt, Linda; Tavare, Jeremy; Holly, Jeff; Shield, Julian; Sabin, Matt; Crowne, Elizabeth . E-mail: Liz.Crowne@ubht.swest.nhs.uk

    2005-08-15

    Body fat distribution determines obesity-related morbidity in adults but little is known of the aetiology or pathophysiology in children. This study investigates differences in insulin-mediated metabolism in primary cell cultures of subcutaneous and visceral preadipocytes derived from prepubertal children. The impact of differentiation and responses to TNF{alpha} exposure was also investigated. Proliferation rates were greater in subcutaneous versus visceral preadipocytes (41 h(3) versus 69 h(4); P = 0.008). Insulin caused a dose-dependent increase in GSK-3 phosphorylation and an increase in MAPK phosphorylation over time, with increased sensitivity in subcutaneous preadipocytes. Post-differentiation, dose-dependent increases in GSK-3 phosphorylation were maintained, while MAPK phosphorylation was identical in both subtypes. No changes were observed in insulin receptor abundance pre-/post-differentiation. GLUT4 abundance was significantly increased in visceral versus subcutaneous adipocytes by 76(4)%; P = 0.03), coincidental with increased insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy-glucose transport (+150(26)% versus +79(10)%; P = 0.014) and further elevated by acute exposure to TNF{alpha} (+230(52)%; P = 0.019 versus +123(24)%; P = 0.025, respectively). TNF{alpha} also significantly increased basal glucose transport rates (+44(14)%; P = 0.006 versus +34(11)%; P = 0.007) and GLUT1 localisation to the plasma membrane. These data establish site-specific differences in subcutaneous and visceral fat cells from children. Responses to insulin varied with differentiation and TNF{alpha} exposure in the two depots, consistent with parallel changes in GLUT1/4 abundance and localisation.

  10. Evaluation of microorganisms cultured from injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites in endangered giant aquatic Ozark Hellbender salamanders.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Cheryl A; Ott, C Mark; Castro, Sarah L; Garcia, Veronica M; Molina, Thomas C; Briggler, Jeffrey T; Pitt, Amber L; Tavano, Joseph J; Byram, J Kelly; Barrila, Jennifer; Nickerson, Max A

    2011-01-01

    Investigation into the causes underlying the rapid, global amphibian decline provides critical insight into the effects of changing ecosystems. Hypothesized and confirmed links between amphibian declines, disease, and environmental changes are increasingly represented in published literature. However, there are few long-term amphibian studies that include data on population size, abnormality/injury rates, disease, and habitat variables to adequately assess changes through time. We cultured and identified microorganisms isolated from abnormal/injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites of the endangered Ozark Hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi, to discover potential causative agents responsible for their significant decline in health and population. This organism and our study site were chosen because the population and habitat of C. a. bishopi have been intensively studied from 1969-2009, and the abnormality/injury rate and apparent lack of regeneration were established. Although many bacterial and fungal isolates recovered were common environmental organisms, several opportunistic pathogens were identified in association with only the injured tissues of C.a. bishopi. Bacterial isolates included Aeromonas hydrophila, a known amphibian pathogen, Granulicetella adiacens, Gordonai terrae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aerococcus viridans, Streptococcus pneumoniae and a variety of Pseudomonads, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. stutzeri, and P. alcaligenes. Fungal isolates included species in the genera Penicillium, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Streptomycetes, and the Class Hyphomycetes. Many of the opportunistic pathogens identified are known to form biofilms. Lack of isolation of the same organism from all wounds suggests that the etiological agent responsible for the damage to C. a. bishopi may not be a single organism. To our knowledge, this is the first study to profile the external microbial consortia cultured from a

  11. Evaluation of microorganisms cultured from injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites in endangered giant aquatic Ozark Hellbender salamanders.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Cheryl A; Ott, C Mark; Castro, Sarah L; Garcia, Veronica M; Molina, Thomas C; Briggler, Jeffrey T; Pitt, Amber L; Tavano, Joseph J; Byram, J Kelly; Barrila, Jennifer; Nickerson, Max A

    2011-01-01

    Investigation into the causes underlying the rapid, global amphibian decline provides critical insight into the effects of changing ecosystems. Hypothesized and confirmed links between amphibian declines, disease, and environmental changes are increasingly represented in published literature. However, there are few long-term amphibian studies that include data on population size, abnormality/injury rates, disease, and habitat variables to adequately assess changes through time. We cultured and identified microorganisms isolated from abnormal/injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites of the endangered Ozark Hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi, to discover potential causative agents responsible for their significant decline in health and population. This organism and our study site were chosen because the population and habitat of C. a. bishopi have been intensively studied from 1969-2009, and the abnormality/injury rate and apparent lack of regeneration were established. Although many bacterial and fungal isolates recovered were common environmental organisms, several opportunistic pathogens were identified in association with only the injured tissues of C.a. bishopi. Bacterial isolates included Aeromonas hydrophila, a known amphibian pathogen, Granulicetella adiacens, Gordonai terrae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aerococcus viridans, Streptococcus pneumoniae and a variety of Pseudomonads, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. stutzeri, and P. alcaligenes. Fungal isolates included species in the genera Penicillium, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Streptomycetes, and the Class Hyphomycetes. Many of the opportunistic pathogens identified are known to form biofilms. Lack of isolation of the same organism from all wounds suggests that the etiological agent responsible for the damage to C. a. bishopi may not be a single organism. To our knowledge, this is the first study to profile the external microbial consortia cultured from a

  12. Evaluation of Microorganisms Cultured from Injured and Repressed Tissue Regeneration Sites in Endangered Giant Aquatic Ozark Hellbender Salamanders

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Ott, C. Mark; Castro, Sarah L.; Garcia, Veronica M.; Molina, Thomas C.; Briggler, Jeffrey T.; Pitt, Amber L.; Tavano, Joseph J.; Byram, J. Kelly; Barrila, Jennifer; Nickerson, Max A.

    2011-01-01

    Investigation into the causes underlying the rapid, global amphibian decline provides critical insight into the effects of changing ecosystems. Hypothesized and confirmed links between amphibian declines, disease, and environmental changes are increasingly represented in published literature. However, there are few long-term amphibian studies that include data on population size, abnormality/injury rates, disease, and habitat variables to adequately assess changes through time. We cultured and identified microorganisms isolated from abnormal/injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites of the endangered Ozark Hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi, to discover potential causative agents responsible for their significant decline in health and population. This organism and our study site were chosen because the population and habitat of C. a. bishopi have been intensively studied from 1969–2009, and the abnormality/injury rate and apparent lack of regeneration were established. Although many bacterial and fungal isolates recovered were common environmental organisms, several opportunistic pathogens were identified in association with only the injured tissues of C.a. bishopi. Bacterial isolates included Aeromonas hydrophila, a known amphibian pathogen, Granulicetella adiacens, Gordonai terrae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aerococcus viridans, Streptococcus pneumoniae and a variety of Pseudomonads, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. stutzeri, and P. alcaligenes. Fungal isolates included species in the genera Penicillium, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Streptomycetes, and the Class Hyphomycetes. Many of the opportunistic pathogens identified are known to form biofilms. Lack of isolation of the same organism from all wounds suggests that the etiological agent responsible for the damage to C. a. bishopi may not be a single organism. To our knowledge, this is the first study to profile the external microbial consortia cultured from a

  13. Tissue classification of large-scale multi-site MR data using fuzzy k-nearest neighbor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghayoor, Ali; Paulsen, Jane S.; Kim, Regina E. Y.; Johnson, Hans J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes enhancements to automate classification of brain tissues for multi-site degenerative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data analysis. Processing of large collections of MR images is a key research technique to advance our understanding of the human brain. Previous studies have developed a robust multi-modal tool for automated tissue classification of large-scale data based on expectation maximization (EM) method initialized by group-wise prior probability distributions. This work aims to augment the EM-based classification using a non-parametric fuzzy k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) classifier that can model the unique anatomical states of each subject in the study of degenerative diseases. The presented method is applicable to multi-center heterogeneous data analysis and is quantitatively validated on a set of 18 synthetic multi-modal MR datasets having six different levels of noise and three degrees of bias-field provided with known ground truth. Dice index and average Hausdorff distance are used to compare the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method to a state-of-the-art classification method implemented based on EM algorithm. Both evaluation measurements show that presented enhancements produce superior results as compared to the EM only classification.

  14. Core Promoter Plasticity Between Maize Tissues and Genotypes Contrasts with Predominance of Sharp Transcription Initiation Sites[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Vidal, Mabel; Gray, John; Doseff, Andrea I.; Grotewold, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Core promoters are crucial for gene regulation, providing blueprints for the assembly of transcriptional machinery at transcription start sites (TSSs). Empirically, TSSs define the coordinates of core promoters and other regulatory sequences. Thus, experimental TSS identification provides an essential step in the characterization of promoters and their features. Here, we describe the application of CAGE (cap analysis of gene expression) to identify genome-wide TSSs used in root and shoot tissues of two maize (Zea mays) inbred lines (B73 and Mo17). Our studies indicate that most TSS clusters are sharp in maize, similar to mice, but distinct from Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, or zebra fish, in which a majority of genes have broad-shaped TSS clusters. We established that ∼38% of maize promoters are characterized by a broader TATA-motif consensus, and this motif is significantly enriched in genes with sharp TSSs. A noteworthy plasticity in TSS usage between tissues and inbreds was uncovered, with ∼1500 genes showing significantly different dominant TSSs, sometimes affecting protein sequence by providing alternate translation initiation codons. We experimentally characterized instances in which this differential TSS utilization results in protein isoforms with additional domains or targeted to distinct subcellular compartments. These results provide important insights into TSS selection and gene expression in an agronomically important crop. PMID:26628745

  15. An intramembranous ossification model for the in silico analysis of bone tissue formation in tooth extraction sites.

    PubMed

    Corredor-Gómez, Jennifer Paola; Rueda-Ramírez, Andrés Mauricio; Gamboa-Márquez, Miguel Alejandro; Torres-Rodríguez, Carolina; Cortés-Rodríguez, Carlos Julio

    2016-07-21

    The accurate modeling of biological processes allows us to predict the spatiotemporal behavior of living tissues by computer-aided (in silico) testing, a useful tool for the development of medical strategies, avoiding the expenses and potential ethical implications of in vivo experimentation. A model for bone healing in mouth would be useful for selecting proper surgical techniques in dental procedures. In this paper, the formulation and implementation of a model for Intramembranous Ossification is presented aiming to describe the complex process of bone tissue formation in tooth extraction sites. The model consists in a mathematical description of the mechanisms in which different types of cells interact, synthesize and degrade extracellular matrices under the influence of biochemical factors. Special attention is given to angiogenesis, oxygen-dependent effects and growth factor-induced apoptosis of fibroblasts. Furthermore, considering the depth-dependent vascularization of mandibular bone and its influence on bone healing, a functional description of the cell distribution on the severed periodontal ligament (PDL) is proposed. The developed model was implemented using the finite element method (FEM) and successfully validated by simulating an animal in vivo experiment on dogs reported in the literature. A good fit between model outcome and experimental data was obtained with a mean absolute error of 3.04%. The mathematical framework presented here may represent an important tool for the design of future in vitro and in vivo tests, as well as a precedent for future in silico studies on osseointegration and mechanobiology. PMID:27113783

  16. Effects of Pacing Site and Stimulation History on Alternans Dynamics and the Development of Complex Spatiotemporal Patterns in Cardiac Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gizzi, Alessio; Cherry, Elizabeth M.; Gilmour, Robert F.; Luther, Stefan; Filippi, Simonetta; Fenton, Flavio H.

    2013-01-01

    Alternans of action potential duration has been associated with T wave alternans and the development of arrhythmias because it produces large gradients of repolarization. However, little is known about alternans dynamics in large mammalian hearts. Using optical mapping to record electrical activations simultaneously from the epicardium and endocardium of 9 canine right ventricles, we demonstrate novel arrhythmogenic complex spatiotemporal dynamics. (i) Alternans predominantly develops first on the endocardium. (ii) The postulated simple progression from normal rhythm to concordant to discordant alternans is not always observed; concordant alternans can develop from discordant alternans as the pacing period is decreased. (iii) In contrast to smaller tissue preparations, multiple stationary nodal lines may exist and need not be perpendicular to the pacing site or to each other. (iv) Alternans has fully three-dimensional dynamics and the epicardium and endocardium can show significantly different dynamics: multiple nodal surfaces can be transmural or intramural and can form concave/convex surfaces resulting in islands of discordant alternans. (v) The complex spatiotemporal patterns observed during alternans are very sensitive to both the site of stimulation and the stimulation history. Alternans in canine ventricles not only exhibit larger amplitudes and persist for longer cycle length regimes compared to those found in smaller mammalian hearts, but also show novel dynamics not previously described that enhance dispersion and show high sensitivity to initial conditions. This indicates some underlying predisposition to chaos and can help to guide the design of new drugs and devices controlling and preventing arrhythmic events. PMID:23637684

  17. Unconventional Human T Cells Accumulate at the Site of Infection in Response to Microbial Ligands and Induce Local Tissue Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzi, Anna Rita; Kift-Morgan, Ann; Lopez-Anton, Melisa; Friberg, Ida M.; Zhang, Jingjing; Brook, Amy C.; Roberts, Gareth W.; Donovan, Kieron L.; Colmont, Chantal S.; Toleman, Mark A.; Bowen, Timothy; Johnson, David W.; Topley, Nicholas; Moser, Bernhard; Fraser, Donald J.

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial responsiveness and function of unconventional human T cells are poorly understood, with only limited access to relevant specimens from sites of infection. Peritonitis is a common and serious complication in individuals with end-stage kidney disease receiving peritoneal dialysis. By analyzing local and systemic immune responses in peritoneal dialysis patients presenting with acute bacterial peritonitis and monitoring individuals before and during defined infectious episodes, our data show that Vγ9/Vδ2+ γδ T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells accumulate at the site of infection with organisms producing (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate and vitamin B2, respectively. Such unconventional human T cells are major producers of IFN-γ and TNF-α in response to these ligands that are shared by many microbial pathogens and affect the cells lining the peritoneal cavity by triggering local inflammation and inducing tissue remodeling with consequences for peritoneal membrane integrity. Our data uncover a crucial role for Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells in bacterial infection and suggest that they represent a useful predictive marker for important clinical outcomes, which may inform future stratification and patient management. These findings are likely to be applicable to other acute infections where local activation of unconventional T cells contributes to the antimicrobial inflammatory response. PMID:27527598

  18. Vascular niches: endothelial cells as tissue- and site-specific multifunctional team players in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Géraud, Cyrill; Koch, Philipp-S; Goerdt, Sergij

    2014-08-01

    The cardiovascular system is a circulatory system that transports the blood and reaches out to almost every site of the body. Endothelial cells (EC) as the innermost cell layer of blood vessels constitute a huge interface between the blood and nearly all other tissues and cells. Although blood vessels and their EC were considered as rather inert and passive conduits early in the history of vascular discoveries, progress in vascular research now suggests that EC are actively involved in a plethora of physiological or pathophysiological processes. Endothelial heterogeneity and the concept of vascular niches are in the spotlight of current research in vascular biology. Endothelial heterogeneity comprises morphologic, molecular and functional features. It allows EC to adapt to the organ- and site-specific requirements exhibited by different segments of the vascular tree. In organ-specific vascular niches, EC mutually interact with neighboring cells. EC-derived cytokines, called angiokines, acting in a paracrine (angiocrine) fashion have been shown to be decisively involved in various biological processes ranging from stem cell maintenance to organ regeneration as well as cancer progression and metastasis. In summary, EC should always be considered as teammates in the maintenance and regulation of complex multicellular network interactions in health and disease.

  19. Best single-slice measurement site for estimating visceral adipose tissue volume after weight loss in obese, Japanese men

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the measurement site at L4–L5 for visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has been commonly accepted, some researchers suggest that additional upper sites (i.e., L1–L2 and L2–L3) are useful for estimating VAT volume. Therefore, determining the optimum measurement site remains challenging and has become important in determining VAT volume. We investigated the influence of a single-slice measurement site on the prediction of VAT volume and changes in VAT volume in obese Japanese men. Methods Twenty-four men, aged 30–65 years with a mean BMI of 30 kg/m2, were included in a 12-week weight loss program. We obtained continuous T1-weighted abdominal magnetic resonance images from T9 to S1 with a 1.5-T system to measure the VAT area. These VAT areas were then summed to determine VAT volume before and after the program. Results Single-slice images at 3–11 cm above L4–L5 had significant and high correlations with VAT volume at baseline (r = 0.94–0.97). The single-slice image with the highest correlation coefficient with respect to VAT volume was located at 5 cm above L4–L5 (r = 0.97). The highest correlation coefficient between the individual changes in VAT area and changes in VAT volume was located at 6 cm above L4–L5 (r = 0.90). Conclusions Individual measurement sites have different abilities to estimate VAT volume and changes in VAT volume in obese Japanese men. Best zone located at 5–6 cm above L4–L5 may be a better predictor of VAT volume than the L4–L5 image in terms of both baseline and changes with weight loss. PMID:22698384

  20. Treatment of rats with a self-selected hyperlipidic diet, increases the lipid content of the main adipose tissue sites in a proportion similar to that of the lipids in the rest of organs and tissues.

    PubMed

    Romero, María Del Mar; Roy, Stéphanie; Pouillot, Karl; Feito, Marisol; Esteve, Montserrat; Grasa, María Del Mar; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Alemany, Marià; Remesar, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is distributed as large differentiated masses, and smaller depots covering vessels, and organs, as well as interspersed within them. The differences between types and size of cells makes AT one of the most disperse and complex organs. Lipid storage is partly shared by other tissues such as muscle and liver. We intended to obtain an approximate estimation of the size of lipid reserves stored outside the main fat depots. Both male and female rats were made overweight by 4-weeks feeding of a cafeteria diet. Total lipid content was analyzed in brain, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, four white AT sites: subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric, two brown AT sites (interscapular and perirenal) and in a pool of the rest of organs and tissues (after discarding gut contents). Organ lipid content was estimated and tabulated for each individual rat. Food intake was measured daily. There was a surprisingly high proportion of lipid not accounted for by the main macroscopic AT sites, even when brain, liver and BAT main sites were discounted. Muscle contained about 8% of body lipids, liver 1-1.4%, four white AT sites lipid 28-63% of body lipid, and the rest of the body (including muscle) 38-44%. There was a good correlation between AT lipid and body lipid, but lipid in "other organs" was highly correlated too with body lipid. Brain lipid was not. Irrespective of dietary intake, accumulation of body fat was uniform both for the main lipid storage and handling organs: large masses of AT (but also liver, muscle), as well as in the "rest" of tissues. These storage sites, in specialized (adipose) or not-specialized (liver, muscle) tissues reacted in parallel against a hyperlipidic diet challenge. We postulate that body lipid stores are handled and regulated coordinately, with a more centralized and overall mechanisms than usually assumed.

  1. [New challenge of tissue repair and regenerative medicine: to achieve a perfect repair and regeneration of multiple tissues in wound sites].

    PubMed

    Fu, X B

    2016-01-01

    Great achievements in the study of tissue repair and regeneration have been made, and many of these successes have been shown to be beneficial to the patients in recent years. However, perfect tissue repair and regeneration of damaged tissues and organs remain to be great challenges in the management of trauma and diseases. Based on the progress in developmental biology in animals and advances in stem cell biology, it is possible to attain the aim of perfect repair and regeneration by means of somatic cell reprogramming and different inducing techniques.

  2. Comparison of two techniques of harvesting connective tissue and its effects on healing pattern at palate and recession coverage at recipient site

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Nymphea; Khasa, Meenakshi; Gugnani, Shalini; Malik, Rajvir; Bali, Deepika

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the healing pattern in palate following harvestation of connective tissue graft by two different techniques and to compare the recession coverage at the recipient sites. Materials and Methods: 30 recession sites with Miller's class I and II recession in 16 patients were recruited for this study. Sites were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups. Group I used Unigraft Knife to harvest the connective tissue whereas in group II patients Langer & Langer techniques was used to harvest the connective tissue graft from the palate. Healing was evaluated at the donor site using- wound size(WS), immediate bleeding (iB) and delayed bleeding (dB), complete wound epithelialization (CE), sensibility disorders (S) and post operative pain (PP) at baseline, 1st, 4th, and 12th week postoperatively. Recession coverage was assessed by measuring Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), vertical recession (VR), width of keratinized gingiva (KT). Results: On comparison between Group I and II, a statistically significant larger wound size was observed in Group I. CWE was higher in Group II. A non significant difference was observed when SD, and delayed bleeding were compared at all time intervals. A non-significant difference was observed in the clinical parameters at the recipient site. Conclusion: When evaluating the WS and CWE, the Langer and Langer technique was found to be better than the Unigraft knife technique for harvesting the connective tissue graft, whereas both the techniques were found to be effective in root coverage procedure outcomes. PMID:27041892

  3. Absence of Internal Ribosome Entry Site-Mediated Tissue Specificity in the Translation of a Bicistronic Transgene

    PubMed Central

    Shaw-Jackson, Chloë; Michiels, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The 5′ noncoding regions of the genomes of picornaviruses form a complex structure that directs cap-independent initiation of translation. This structure has been termed the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). The efficiency of translation initiation was shown, in vitro, to be influenced by the binding of cellular factors to the IRES. Hence, we hypothesized that the IRES might control picornavirus tropism. In order to test this possibility, we made a bicistronic construct in which translation of the luciferase gene is controlled by the IRES of Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus. In vitro, we observed that the IRES functions in various cell types and in macrophages, irrespective of their activation state. In vivo, we observed that the IRES is functional in different tissues of transgenic mice. Thus, it seems that the IRES is not an essential determinant of Theiler’s virus tropism. On the other hand, the age of the mouse could be critical for IRES function. Indeed, the IRES was found to be more efficient in young mice. Picornavirus IRESs are becoming popular tools in transgenesis technology, since they allow the expression of two genes from the same transcription unit. Our results show that the Theiler’s virus IRES is functional in cells of different origins and that it is thus a broad-spectrum tool. The possible age dependency of the IRES function, however, could be a drawback for gene expression in adult mice. PMID:10074119

  4. Study on Metal Concentrations in Tissues of Mallard and Pochard from Two Major Wintering Sites in Southeastern Caspian Sea, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sinka-Karimi, Mohammad Hosein; Pourkhabbaz, Ali Reza; Hassanpour, Mehdi; Levengood, Jeffrey M

    2015-09-01

    We examined concentrations of cadmium, chromium, iron, lead and zinc in the kidney, liver, and pectoral muscle of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos; n = 30) and Pochards (Aythya ferina; n = 30) from two important wintering sites in the southeastern Caspian Sea in the winter of 2012. Mean lead concentrations (µg g(-1) ww) in livers (2.36 ± 1.00) of Pochard and in kidneys (3.43 ± 0.91) of Mallard exceeded the exposure threshold levels in liver (1.5 µg g(-1) ww) and kidney (3 µg g(-1) ww) of waterfowl. Mean cadmium concentrations in livers (1.63 ± 0.66) of Pochards exceeded the background level of this metal in liver (1 µg g(-1) ww) of waterfowl. Chromium, iron and zinc concentrations were within the normal range as reported in other duck studies. Gender-related and inter-specific variation of metal concentrations in analyzed tissues were observed (t test, p < 0.05). Our results indicated that waterfowl using the Miankalah and Gomishan International Wetlands are being exposed to elevated concentrations of cadmium and lead. PMID:26141923

  5. DDTs in rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) from an agricultural site, South China: tissue distribution, biomagnification, and potential toxic effects assessment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2012-04-01

    Contamination with agricultural pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), is among several proposed stressors contributing to the global declines in amphibian populations and species biodiversity. These chemicals were examined in insects and in the muscle, liver, and eggs of rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) from the paddy fields of an agricultural site in South China. The ΣDDT (sum of DDT, DDE, and DDD) concentrations ranged from 154 to 915, 195 to 1,400, and 165 to 1,930 ng/g lipid weight in the muscle, liver, and eggs, respectively. All the DDTs (DDT, DDE, and DDD) showed higher affinity for the liver relative to muscle tissue and can be maternally transferred to eggs in female frogs. The average biomagnification factors for DDTs ranged from 1.6 to 1.9 and 1.5 to 2.9 in female and male frogs, respectively, providing clear evidence of their biomagnification from insects to frogs. Compared with the reported DDT levels demonstrated to have toxic effects on frogs, DDTs in the present frogs are unlikely to constitute an immediate health risk. However, the adverse impacts of high DDT residues in eggs on the hatching success and their potential toxicity to the newly metamorphosed larval frogs should be assessed further.

  6. Study on Metal Concentrations in Tissues of Mallard and Pochard from Two Major Wintering Sites in Southeastern Caspian Sea, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sinka-Karimi, Mohammad Hosein; Pourkhabbaz, Ali Reza; Hassanpour, Mehdi; Levengood, Jeffrey M

    2015-09-01

    We examined concentrations of cadmium, chromium, iron, lead and zinc in the kidney, liver, and pectoral muscle of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos; n = 30) and Pochards (Aythya ferina; n = 30) from two important wintering sites in the southeastern Caspian Sea in the winter of 2012. Mean lead concentrations (µg g(-1) ww) in livers (2.36 ± 1.00) of Pochard and in kidneys (3.43 ± 0.91) of Mallard exceeded the exposure threshold levels in liver (1.5 µg g(-1) ww) and kidney (3 µg g(-1) ww) of waterfowl. Mean cadmium concentrations in livers (1.63 ± 0.66) of Pochards exceeded the background level of this metal in liver (1 µg g(-1) ww) of waterfowl. Chromium, iron and zinc concentrations were within the normal range as reported in other duck studies. Gender-related and inter-specific variation of metal concentrations in analyzed tissues were observed (t test, p < 0.05). Our results indicated that waterfowl using the Miankalah and Gomishan International Wetlands are being exposed to elevated concentrations of cadmium and lead.

  7. Immunohistochemical evidence that gonads and gonad-associated tissues are sites for enrichment with immunoglobulin-containing cells in adult chickens.

    PubMed

    Zettergren, L D

    1995-01-01

    Immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections prepared from gonads and gonad-associated tissues obtained from adult chickens was performed in order to assess the possibility that these tissues may be sites of enrichment with IgM-containing cells in various B lineages. Evidence is presented which suggests that IgM-containing B lineage cells are present in 1) the ovarian stroma and subcapsular areas of the ovary and 2) the interstitium and subcapsular areas of the epididymis of the testes. These represent new sites reported for B lineage cells in adult chickens. Some questions relevant to the physiologic, ontogenetic, and phylogenetic implications of these observations relative to vertebrate hematolymphopoietic processes are included.

  8. Glycerolipid biosynthesis in rat adipose tissue. Influence of adipose-cell size and site of adipose tissue on triacylglycerol formation in lean and obese rats.

    PubMed

    Jamdar, S C

    1978-01-15

    The rates of lipid formation were compared in different fat-depots from lean and obese rats by using [14C]glycerol 3-phosphate, [14C]glucose or [14C]acetate as substrates. In lean animals, subcutaneous adipose tissue showed significantly lower rates of lipid synthesis than did perirenal and gonadal fat-tissue. In obese animals, the rates of lipid synthesis were significantly higher and did not vary from one fat-depot to another. Differences in the rates of lipid formation between lean and obese rats disappeared during dietary restriction of obese animals. The isolated adipocyte preparation did not reflect the true metabolic activity of the adipose organ, since this preparation was mainly derived from smaller adipocytes that were metabolically less active than larger adipocytes. The present study suggests that it is better to use whole tissue preparations to measure lipogenesis and esterification reactions, because these measurements represent the contribution of both larger and smaller adipocytes towards lipid formation.

  9. Adipose Tissue Is a Neglected Viral Reservoir and an Inflammatory Site during Chronic HIV and SIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Damouche, Abderaouf; Huot, Nicolas; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Mélard, Adeline; David, Ludivine; Gommet, Céline; Ghosn, Jade; Noel, Nicolas; Pourcher, Guillaume; Martinez, Valérie; Benoist, Stéphane; Béréziat, Véronique; Cosma, Antonio; Favier, Benoit; Vaslin, Bruno; Rouzioux, Christine; Capeau, Jacqueline; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Le Grand, Roger; Lambotte, Olivier; Bourgeois, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Two of the crucial aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are (i) viral persistence in reservoirs (precluding viral eradication) and (ii) chronic inflammation (directly associated with all-cause morbidities in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-controlled HIV-infected patients). The objective of the present study was to assess the potential involvement of adipose tissue in these two aspects. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF); the latter comprises immune cells such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages (both of which are important target cells for HIV). The inflammatory potential of adipose tissue has been extensively described in the context of obesity. During HIV infection, the inflammatory profile of adipose tissue has been revealed by the occurrence of lipodystrophies (primarily related to ART). Data on the impact of HIV on the SVF (especially in individuals not receiving ART) are scarce. We first analyzed the impact of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in SIVmac251 infected macaques and found that both adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells were affected. The adipocyte density was elevated, and adipose tissue immune cells presented enhanced immune activation and/or inflammatory profiles. We detected cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA in the SVF and in sorted CD4+ T cells and macrophages from adipose tissue. We demonstrated that SVF cells (including CD4+ T cells) are infected in ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. Importantly, the production of HIV RNA was detected by in situ hybridization, and after the in vitro reactivation of sorted CD4+ T cells from adipose tissue. We thus identified adipose tissue as a crucial cofactor in both viral persistence and chronic immune activation/inflammation during HIV infection. These observations open up new therapeutic strategies for limiting the size of the viral reservoir and decreasing low-grade chronic

  10. Adipose Tissue Is a Neglected Viral Reservoir and an Inflammatory Site during Chronic HIV and SIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Damouche, Abderaouf; Lazure, Thierry; Avettand-Fènoël, Véronique; Huot, Nicolas; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Mélard, Adeline; David, Ludivine; Gommet, Céline; Ghosn, Jade; Noel, Nicolas; Pourcher, Guillaume; Martinez, Valérie; Benoist, Stéphane; Béréziat, Véronique; Cosma, Antonio; Favier, Benoit; Vaslin, Bruno; Rouzioux, Christine; Capeau, Jacqueline; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Le Grand, Roger; Lambotte, Olivier; Bourgeois, Christine

    2015-09-01

    Two of the crucial aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are (i) viral persistence in reservoirs (precluding viral eradication) and (ii) chronic inflammation (directly associated with all-cause morbidities in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-controlled HIV-infected patients). The objective of the present study was to assess the potential involvement of adipose tissue in these two aspects. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF); the latter comprises immune cells such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages (both of which are important target cells for HIV). The inflammatory potential of adipose tissue has been extensively described in the context of obesity. During HIV infection, the inflammatory profile of adipose tissue has been revealed by the occurrence of lipodystrophies (primarily related to ART). Data on the impact of HIV on the SVF (especially in individuals not receiving ART) are scarce. We first analyzed the impact of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in SIVmac251 infected macaques and found that both adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells were affected. The adipocyte density was elevated, and adipose tissue immune cells presented enhanced immune activation and/or inflammatory profiles. We detected cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA in the SVF and in sorted CD4+ T cells and macrophages from adipose tissue. We demonstrated that SVF cells (including CD4+ T cells) are infected in ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. Importantly, the production of HIV RNA was detected by in situ hybridization, and after the in vitro reactivation of sorted CD4+ T cells from adipose tissue. We thus identified adipose tissue as a crucial cofactor in both viral persistence and chronic immune activation/inflammation during HIV infection. These observations open up new therapeutic strategies for limiting the size of the viral reservoir and decreasing low-grade chronic

  11. Quantitative three-dimensional methodology to assess volumetric and profilometric outcome of subepithelial connective tissue grafting at pontic sites: a prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    González-Martín, Oscar; Veltri, Mario; Moráguez, Osvaldo; Belser, Urs C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a technique for the assessment of soft tissue volumetric and profilometric changes. The technique has been applied at the alveolar contour of mild to moderate horizontal ridge defects after soft tissue augmentation at pontic sites. A quantitative three-dimensional (3D) analysis based on laser scanning was used for the measurement of volume gain and horizontal changes of alveolar profile 5 months after a subepithelial connective tissue graft using a pouch approach in five patients. All the surgical sites healed uneventfully. A mean soft tissue volume increase of 35.9 mm3 was measured 5 months after the grafting procedure. The linear measurements showed that, in the area where the augmentation was performed, the distance between the preoperative vestibular profile and the postoperative one ranged from 0.16 to 2 mm. The described quantitative measurements based on 3D laser scanning appear to be an effective method for assessment of soft tissue changes in future studies. Additionally, within the limitation of a small sample size, the present data suggest that the investigated surgical technique can be considered when corrections of mild to moderate alveolar horizontal ridge atrophies at maxillary lateral incisor edentulous gaps are necessary.

  12. Site-specific concentrations of carotenoids in adipose tissue: relations with dietary and serum carotenoid concentrations in healthy adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary carotenoids are related to decreased risk of certain diseases. Serum and adipose tissue carotenoid concentrations are used as biomarkers of intake. This study examined relationships among concentrations of carotenoids in diet, serum and adipose tissue. Twelve women and thirteen healthy men p...

  13. The chromosomal integration site determines the tissue-specific methylation of mouse mammary tumour virus proviral genes.

    PubMed Central

    Günzburg, W H; Groner, B

    1984-01-01

    Multiple endogenous mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) proviral genes are present at different chromosomal locations in inbred mouse strains. Proviral DNA methylation is location and tissue specific. The methylation patterns are stably inherited and appear to be conferred upon the viral DNA by the flanking mouse genomic DNA. In transformed cells, either mammary carcinoma cells, or cells immortalized by SV40 in vitro, the stable pattern of methylation is lost. Although hypomethylation of proviral genes, both in normal and in transformed tissue, accompanies MMTV-specific RNA expression, it is also observed in non-expressing tissues. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6329738

  14. Identification of a 5-Methylcytosine Site that may Regulate C/EBPβ Binding and Determine Tissue-Specific Expression of the BPI Gene in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Wang, Jing; Yin, Xuemei; Sun, Shouyong; Zi, Chen; Zhu, Guoqiang; Wu, Shenglong; Bao, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) plays an important role in innate immune defense in mammals. A previous study showed that BPI gene expression correlates to gram-negative bacteria resistance. However, this gene showed tissue-specific expression in piglets and strongly expressed only in the digestive tract. To investigate the mechanisms governing the tissue-specificity, bisulfite sequencing PCR and next generation sequencing were used for high accuracy methylation quantitation of CpG islands of BPI gene upstream in 11 different tissues from weaned Yorkshire piglets. Additionally, qPCR was used to examine mRNA levels of BPI gene as well as transcription factor. We additionally analyzed transcriptional regulation by studying key 5-methylcytosine sites and transcription factors. Results showed that BPI mRNA levels significantly correlated with the overall methylation as well as methylation at mC-15 which was non-CpG site, no significant correlation could be found between the BPI and transcription factor mRNA levels, EMSA test showed that C/EBPβ could interact with BPI wild-type promoter DNA, but not methylated DNA. So we confirmed that methylation of mC-15 residue could inhibit the ability of C/EBPβ binding to the BPI promoter and affect the expression, and this mechanism probably plays a role in the tissue specificity of BPI gene expression in weaned piglets. PMID:27338589

  15. Identification of a 5-Methylcytosine Site that may Regulate C/EBPβ Binding and Determine Tissue-Specific Expression of the BPI Gene in Piglets.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Wang, Jing; Yin, Xuemei; Sun, Shouyong; Zi, Chen; Zhu, Guoqiang; Wu, Shenglong; Bao, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) plays an important role in innate immune defense in mammals. A previous study showed that BPI gene expression correlates to gram-negative bacteria resistance. However, this gene showed tissue-specific expression in piglets and strongly expressed only in the digestive tract. To investigate the mechanisms governing the tissue-specificity, bisulfite sequencing PCR and next generation sequencing were used for high accuracy methylation quantitation of CpG islands of BPI gene upstream in 11 different tissues from weaned Yorkshire piglets. Additionally, qPCR was used to examine mRNA levels of BPI gene as well as transcription factor. We additionally analyzed transcriptional regulation by studying key 5-methylcytosine sites and transcription factors. Results showed that BPI mRNA levels significantly correlated with the overall methylation as well as methylation at mC-15 which was non-CpG site, no significant correlation could be found between the BPI and transcription factor mRNA levels, EMSA test showed that C/EBPβ could interact with BPI wild-type promoter DNA, but not methylated DNA. So we confirmed that methylation of mC-15 residue could inhibit the ability of C/EBPβ binding to the BPI promoter and affect the expression, and this mechanism probably plays a role in the tissue specificity of BPI gene expression in weaned piglets. PMID:27338589

  16. High affinity ( sup 3 H)glibenclamide binding sites in rat neuronal and cardiac tissue: Localization and developmental characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.A.; Velayo, N.L.; Dage, R.C.; Rampe, D. )

    1991-01-01

    We examined the binding of the antidiabetic sulfonylurea (3H) glibenclamide to rat brain and heart membranes. High affinity binding was observed in adult rat forebrain (Kd = 137.3 pM, maximal binding site density = 91.8 fmol/mg of protein) and ventricle (Kd = 77.1 pM, maximal binding site density = 65.1 fmol/mg of protein). Binding site density increased approximately 250% in forebrain membranes during postnatal development but was constant in ventricular membranes. Quantitative autoradiography was used to examine the regional distribution of (3H) glibenclamide binding sites in sections from rat brain, spinal cord and heart. The greatest density of binding in adult brain was found in the substantia nigra and globus pallidus, whereas the other areas displayed heterogenous binding. In agreement with the membrane binding studies, 1-day-old rat brain had significantly fewer (3H)glibenclamide binding sites than adult brain. Additionally, the pattern of distribution of these sites was qualitatively different from that of the adult. In adult rat spinal cord, moderate binding densities were observed in spinal cord gray and displayed a rostral to caudal gradient. In adult rat heart, moderate binding densities were observed and the sites were distributed homogeneously. In conclusion, significant development of (3H)glibenclamide binding sites was seen in the brain but not the heart during postnatal maturation. Furthermore, a heterogeneous distribution of binding sites was observed in both the brain and spinal cord of adult rats.

  17. Heavy metals and hydrocarbon concentrations in water, sediments and tissue of Cyclope neritea from two sites in Suez Canal, Egypt and histopathological effects.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Hesham M; Shehata, Abdalla M

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals and hydrocarbons are of the most common marine pollutants around the world. The present study aimed to assess the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in tissues of the snail cyclope neritea, water and sediments from two sites of the study area (Temsah lake and Suez canal) represent polluted and unpolluted sites respectively. The results showed that, the levels of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Co, Mg and Zn) in the polluted area have reached harmful limits recorded globally. Lead in water, sediment and tissue of the snail reached to 0.95 ppm, 4.54 ppm and 7.93 ppm respectively. Cadmium reached 0.31 ppm, 1.15 ppm and 3.08 ppm in the corresponding samples. Cobalt was not detected in water, but it reached 1.42 ppm and 10.36 ppm in the sediment and snails tissue respectively. Magnesium in water, sediment and tissue of the snail reached 3.73 ppm, 9.44 ppm and12.6 ppm respectively. Zinc reached 0.11 ppm, 3.89 ppm and 12.60ppm in the corresponding samples. Meanwhile, hydrocarbons in the polluted area (site1) reached 110.10 μg/L, 980.15 μg/g and 228.00 μg/g in water sediment and digestive gland tissues of the snails respectively. Whereas, hydrocarbons in the unpolluted area (site2) were estimated as 14.20 μg/L, 55.60 μg/g and 22.66 μg/g in water, sediment and tissue of the snails respectively. The combination of histopathological image with monitoring of the metal level in the digestive gland of the present snail provides an important tool for early detection of impending environmental problems and potential public health issues. Petroleum hydrocarbons are toxic to the marine fauna when present above certain limit in the marine water. The major detoxification organ in molluscs is the digestive gland, which has been used as a bioindicator organ for toxicity assessment. The effect of high crude oil on the digestive gland tubules of exposed snails when examined microscopically reveals a series of histological changes which indicates that the

  18. Seminal vesicles and urinary bladder as sites of aromatization of androgens in men, evidenced by a CYP19A1-driven luciferase reporter mouse and human tissue specimens.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Leena; Rantakari, Pia; Sjögren, Klara; Salminen, Anu; Lauren, Eve; Kallio, Jenny; Damdimopoulou, Pauliina; Boström, Minna; Boström, Peter J; Pakarinen, Pirjo; Zhang, FuPing; Kujala, Paula; Ohlsson, Claes; Mäkelä, Sari; Poutanen, Matti

    2013-04-01

    The human CYP19A1 gene is expressed in various tissues by the use of tissue-specific promoters, whereas the rodent cyp19a1 gene is expressed mainly in the gonads and brain. We generated a transgenic mouse model containing a >100-kb 5' region of human CYP19A1 gene connected to a luciferase reporter gene. The luciferase activity in mouse tissues mimicked the CYP19A1 gene expression pattern in humans. Interestingly, the reporter gene activity was 16 and 160 times higher in the urinary bladder and seminal vesicles, respectively, as compared with the activity in the testis. Accordingly, CYP19A1 gene and P450arom protein expression was detected in those human tissues. Moreover, the data revealed that the expression of CYP19A1 gene is driven by promoters PII, I.4, and I.3 in the seminal vesicles, and by promoters PII and I.4 in the urinary bladder. Furthermore, the reporter gene expression in the seminal vesicles was androgen dependent: Castration decreased the expression ∼20 times, and testosterone treatment restored it to the level of an intact mouse. This reporter mouse model facilitates studies of tissue-specific regulation of the human CYP19A1 gene, and our data provide evidence for seminal vesicles as important sites for estrogen production in males.

  19. Burdens of PBBs, PBDEs, and PCBs in tissues of the cancer patients in the e-waste disassembly sites in Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gaofeng; Wang, Zijian; Zhou, Huaidong; Zhao, Qing

    2009-08-15

    This study was conducted to explore the burdens of PBBs, PBDEs, and PCBs among cancer patients living in the e-waste disassembly sites. The contents of 23 PBB congeners, 12 PBDE congeners, and 27 PCB congeners in kidney, liver, and lung samples were measured by GC-MS. The results showed that low-brominated PBBs and PBB153 were the predominant congeners. PBDE47 were the most predominant PBDE congeners. PBDE209 were detected in > 70% of the samples, with geometric means ranging from 64.2 to 113.9 ng g(-1) lipid. Among the three subfamilies of PHAHs, PCB concentrations were the highest. The detected levels of PHAHs were in the same order of magnitude in the three tissues, which indicated that any of the three tissues could be the suitable indicator for assessing body burdens of PHAHs. PBB contents (181-192 ng g(-1) lipid) were obviously higher than those reported in the general USA population (3-8 ng g(-1) lipid). PBDE levels (174.1-182.3 ng g(-1) lipid) were comparable to those reported in the USA population, but significantly higher than those of the European population. PCBs levels were comparable to those of the European population. The high cancer incidence in the disassembly sites may be related to higher burdens of PBBs, PBDEs, and PCBs in tissues. PMID:19539352

  20. Uptake of gamma-aminobutyric acid and L-glutamic acid by synaptosomes from postmortem human cerebral cortex: multiple sites, sodium dependence and effect of tissue preparation.

    PubMed

    Dodd, P R; Watson, W E; Morrison, M M; Johnston, G A; Bird, E D; Cowburn, R F; Hardy, J A

    1989-06-26

    The uptake of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and L-glutamic acid by synaptosomes prepared from frozen postmortem human brain was shown to be effected via distinct high and low affinity sites. At approximately 17 h postmortem delay, the kinetic parameters for GABA uptake were: high affinity site, Km 7.1 +/- 2.5 microM, Vmax 18.7 +/- 4.8 nmol.min-1 per 100 mg protein; low affinity site, Km 2 +/- 1 mM, Vmax 425 +/- 250 nmol.min-1 per 100 mg protein (means +/- S.E.M., n = 13). Kinetic parameters for L-glutamate uptake were: high affinity site, Km 7.5 +/- 1.0 microM, Vmax 85 +/- 8 nmol.min-1 per 100 mg protein; low affinity site, Km 1.8 +/- 1.2 mM. Vmax 780 +/- 175 nmol.min-1 per 100 mg protein (n = 11). A detailed kinetic analysis of high affinity GABA uptake was performed over a range of sodium ion concentrations. The results were consistent with a coupling ratio of one Na+ ion to one GABA molecule; a similar result was found with rat brain synaptosomes. However, rat and human synaptosomes differed in the degree to which the substrate affinity of the high affinity GABA uptake site varied with decreasing Na+ ion concentration. High affinity GABA uptake was markedly affected by the method used to freeze and divide the tissue, but did not vary greatly in different cortical regions. There was some decline of high affinity GABA uptake activity with postmortem delay, apparently due to a loss of sites rather than a change in site affinity.

  1. Human bone hardness seems to depend on tissue type but not on anatomical site in the long bones of an old subject.

    PubMed

    Ohman, Caroline; Zwierzak, Iwona; Baleani, Massimiliano; Viceconti, Marco

    2013-02-01

    It has been hypothesised that among different human subjects, the bone tissue quality varies as a function of the bone segment morphology. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the quality, evaluated in terms of hardness of packages of lamellae, of cortical and trabecular bones, at different anatomical sites within the human skeleton. The contralateral six long bones of an old human subject were indented at different levels along the diaphysis and at both epiphyses of each bone. Hardness value, which is correlated to the degree of mineralisation, of both cortical and trabecular bone tissues was calculated for each indentation location. It was found that the cortical bone tissue was harder (+18%) than the trabecular one. In general, the bone hardness was found to be locally highly heterogeneous. In fact, considering one single slice obtained for a bone segment, the coefficient of variation of the hardness values was up to 12% for cortical bone and up to 17% for trabecular bone. However, the tissue hardness was on average quite homogeneous within and among the long bones of the studied donor, although differences up to 9% among levels and up to 7% among bone segments were found. These findings seem not to support the mentioned hypothesis, at least not for the long bones of an old subject.

  2. Donor-Site Morbidity Following Free Tissue Harvest from the Thigh: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis of Complications.

    PubMed

    Lakhiani, Chrisovalantis; DeFazio, Michael V; Han, Kevin; Falola, Reuben; Evans, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Background Donor-site morbidity significantly influences patient satisfaction and quality of life following reconstructive surgery. The relevant donor-site morbidities associated with more commonly utilized thigh-based flaps are reviewed. Methods A systematic search of the MEDLINE and Cochrane databases from 1994 to 2014 was conducted to identify all reports of "anterolateral thigh (ALT)," "vastus lateralis (VL)," "anteromedial thigh (AMT)," "transverse upper gracilis (TUG)," tensor fascia latae (TFL)," "gracilis," and "rectus femoris (RF)," flaps. Only studies that investigated donor-site outcomes related to pain, paresthesia, wound dehiscence, infection, hematoma, seroma, contour deformity, and/or objective functional performance were included. Case series or anecdotal reports with less than five flaps, non-English, and animal studies were excluded. Results A total of 116 articles representing 4,554 flaps were reviewed, including 2,922 ALT/VL, 148 AMT, 436 TUG, 278 TFL, 527 gracilis, and 243 RF flaps. The most frequently cited donor-site complication was paresthesia (range: 0-36.4%), followed by wound dehiscence (range: 0.9-8.3%), contour deformity (range: 0-5.2%), pain (range: 0-6.3%), and seroma (range: 0.4-2.0%). Despite mixed results regarding functional performance, pooled-analysis of dynamometric studies demonstrated a significant reduction in strength only after RF flap harvest (21%). Conclusions Donor-site morbidity for thigh-flaps is minimal and appears to be well-tolerated by the majority of patients. Nevertheless, the appropriate flap selection is highly individualized, and patients must be informed of potential complications and morbidities specific to each flap. We have established the most current review of donor-site morbidity for thigh-based flaps to aid the surgeon in this important discussion.

  3. Role of sensitivity of zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO-NRs) based photosensitizers in hepatocellular site of biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, M.; Fakhar-E-Alam, M.; Alsalhi, M. S.

    2011-11-01

    Zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO-NRs) with high surface to volume ratio and bio compatibility are used as an efficient photosensitizer carrier system for achievement of Hepatocellular cancer cell (HepG2) necrosis within few minutes. Present study highlights the role of effectiveness of ZnO-NRs in photodynamic therapy (PDT). We have grown the ZnO-NRs on the tip of borosilicate glass capillaries (0.5 μm diameter). The grown ZnO-NRs were conjugated using Photofrin® and ALA for the efficient intracellular drug delivery, which produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) via photochemical reactions leading to cell death within few minutes after exposing UV light (240 nm). Viability of controlled and treated HepG2 cells with optimum dose of light (UV-visible) has been assessed by neutral red assay (NRA). The results were verified by staining of mitochondria using Mitotracker® red as an efficient dye as well as ROS detection. ZnO-NRs based Phogem® (PG) treated normal liver tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats were used as comparative experimental model. Morphological apoptotic changes in liver tissue of Sprague-Dawley rats before and after ZnO-NRs conjugated with photosensitizer (PS)-mediated PDT were investigated by microscopic examination.

  4. Mesenchymal stem cells, used as bait, disclose tissue binding sites: a tool in the search for the niche?

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Brian B; Singh, Nandita; Yasuda, Kaoru; Park, Hyeong-Cheon; Addabbo, Francesco; Ghaly, Tammer; Rajdev, Maharshi; Jasmin, Jean-Francois; Plotkin, Matthew; Lisanti, Michael P; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2010-08-01

    We developed an ex vivo approach characterizing renal mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) adhesion to kidney sections. Specificity of MSC adhesion was confirmed by demonstrating a) 3T3 cells displayed 10-fold lower adhesion, and b) MSC adhesion was CXCR4/stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)-dependent. MSC adhesion was asymmetrical, with postischemic sections exhibiting more than twofold higher adhesion than controls, and showed preference to perivascular areas. Pretreating kidney sections with cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide resulted in increased MSC adhesion (by displacing resident cells), whereas blockade of CXCR4 with AMD3100 and inhibition of alpha4beta1(VLA4) integrin or vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1, reduced adhesion. The difference between adhered cells under cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide-treated and control conditions reflected prior occupancy of binding sites with endogenous cells. The AMD3100-inhibitable fraction of adhesion reflected CXCR4-dependent adhesion, whereas maximal adhesion was interpreted as kidney MSC-lodging capacity. MSC obtained from mice overexpressing caveolin-1 exhibited more robust adhesion than those obtained from knockout animals, consistent with CXCR4 dimerization in caveolae. These data demonstrate a) CXCR4/SDF-1-dependent adhesion increases in ischemia; b) CXCR4/SDF-1 activation is dependent on MSC surface caveolin-1; and c) occupancy of MSC binding sites is decreased, while d) capacity of MSC binding sites is expanded in postischemic kidneys. In conclusion, we developed a cell-bait strategy to unmask renal stem cell binding sites, which may potentially shed light on the MSC niche(s) and its characteristics.

  5. Pericoronary Adipose Tissue as Storage and Supply Site for Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein in Human Coronary Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Yasumi; Uchida, Yasuto; Shimoyama, Ei; Hiruta, Nobuyuki; Kishimoto, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Soichiro

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It is generally believed that low-density lipoprotein enters the vascular wall from its lumen and oxidized (oxLDL), after which it plays an important role in atherosclerosis. Because voluminous epicardial adipose tissue is a risk factor for coronary events, there is a possibility that the pericoronary adipose tissue (PCAT), which is a part of epicardial adipose tissue, acts as a risk factor by supplying oxLDL to the coronary arterial wall. The present study was performed whether PCAT stores and supplies oxLDL to the coronary wall. Methods Localization of oxLDL in PCAT and its relation to plaque morphology were examined by immunohistochemical techniques in 27 epicardial coronary arteries excised from 9 human autopsy cases. Results OxLDL deposited in all PCAT of the studied cases. The percent (%) incidence of oxLDL in the intima of 25 normal segment, 19 white plaques, 15 yellow plaques without necrotic core (NC) and 10 yellow plaques with NC, was 32, 84, 93 (p<0.05 vs normal segments and yellow plaques with NC), and 30, respectively. OxLDL deposited either in dotted or diffuse pattern. Double immunohistochemical staining revealed that the dotted oxLDL was that contained in CD68(+)-macrophages. The oxLDL-containing macrophages were observed in the interstitial space but not inside of the vasa vasorum, and they traversed PCAT, adventitia, external and internal elastic laminae, suggesting their migration towards the intima. Diffuse oxLDL deposits were observed in 17 preparations, the majority of which were co-localized with the vasa vasorum in outer or in both inner and outer halves of intima, and rarely in the inner half alone. Conclusions The results suggested that PCAT is a supply source of oxLDL to coronary intima and acts as a risk factor for coronary events, that oxLDL increasingly deposits in the intima with plaque growth and decreases after plaque maturation, and therefore molecular therapies targeting the PCAT before plaque growth could be effective

  6. Porous polymer scaffold for on-site delivery of stem cells--Protects from oxidative stress and potentiates wound tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Geesala, Ramasatyaveni; Bar, Nimai; Dhoke, Neha R; Basak, Pratyay; Das, Amitava

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing by cell transplantation techniques often suffer setbacks due to oxidative stress encountered at injury sites. A porous polyethyleneglycol-polyurethane (PEG-PU) scaffold that facilitates cell delivery and boosts tissue repair was developed through semi-interpenetrating polymer network approach. The key physico-chemical properties assessed confirms these polymeric matrices are highly thermostable, barostable, degrade at an acidic pH (5.8), biodegradable, cytocompatible and possess excellent porosity. Mechanism of cellular penetration into porous polymer networks was evident by a ≥6 - fold increase in gene expression of MMP-13 and MMP-2 via activation of Akt and Erk. H2O2-induced apoptosis of mouse bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) was abrogated in presence of polymer networks indicating a protective effect from oxidative stress. Transplantation of BMSC + PEG-PU at murine excisional splint wound site depicted significant increase in fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, anti-oxidant enzyme activities of catalase, SOD and GPx. Furthermore it significantly decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, etc) with a concomitant increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-13) at an early healing period of day 7. Finally, immunostaining revealed an enhanced engraftment and vascularity indicating an accelerated wound tissue closure. This pre-clinical study demonstrates the proof-of-concept and further necessitates their clinical evaluation as potential cell delivery vehicle scaffolds.

  7. [Polychlorinated biphenyls and their methylsulfonyl metabolites in fish from an electronic waste recycling site in south China: tissue distribution and human dietary exposure].

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we determined polychlorinated biphenyls and their methylsulfonyl metabolites (MeSO2-PCBs) in the tissues of two fish species-mud carp and northern snakehead-from a natural pond in an electronic waste recycling site in the Pearl River Delta, Southern China. The mean concentrations of PCBs (Σ PCBs )varied from 560 to 10 462 ng x g(-1) wet weight, and from 580 to 50 492 ng x g(-1) wet weight in the tissues of mud carp and northern snakehead, respectively, with the highest levels found in the liver. Lipid contents played an important role in the determination of tissue distribution of PCBs. The mean concentrations of Σ MeSO2-PCBs varied between 0.44 and 53 ng x g(-1) wet weight in tissues of mud carp, while varied between 1.86 and 132 ng x g(-1) wet weight in northern snakehead. These levels were one order of magnitude greater than the highest levels of MeSO2-PCBs previously reported in fish. The EF values of chiral PCBs in mud carp were lower than those in the sediments, with an exception of PCB149. However, the declined EFs in mud carp were rebounded in northern snakehead, and some values were even higher than those in the sediment. This result may suggest that the mud carp and the northern snakehead preferred to biotransform different enantiomers of PCB congeners. The elevated levels of Σ PCBs and Σ MeSO2-PCBs detected in the present study indicated a high exposure risk to the local residents. Restricting the consumption of these fish in the local markets is important and essential for reducing the health risks to local residents. PMID:25826938

  8. RNA Interference of Soybean Isoflavone Synthase Genes Leads to Silencing in Tissues Distal to the Transformation Site and to Enhanced Susceptibility to Phytophthora sojae1

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Senthil; Graham, Madge Y.; Yu, Oliver; Graham, Terrence L.

    2005-01-01

    Isoflavones are thought to play diverse roles in plant-microbe interactions and are also potentially important to human nutrition and medicine. Isoflavone synthase (IFS) is a key enzyme for the formation of the isoflavones. Here, we examined the consequences of RNAi silencing of genes for this enzyme in soybean (Glycine max). Soybean cotyledon tissues were transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes carrying an RNAi silencing construct designed to silence expression of both copies of IFS genes. Approximately 50% of emerging roots were transformed with the RNAi construct, and most transformed roots exhibited >95% silencing of isoflavone accumulation. Silencing of IFS was also demonstrated throughout the entire cotyledon (in tissues distal to the transformation site) both by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of isoflavones and by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. This distal silencing led to a nearly complete suppression of mRNA accumulation for both the IFS1 and IFS2 genes and of isoflavone accumulations induced by wounding or treatment with the cell wall glucan elicitor from Phytophthora sojae. Preformed isoflavone conjugates were not reduced in distal tissues, suggesting little turnover of these stored isoflavone pools. Distal silencing was established within just 5 d of transformation and was highly efficient for a 3- to 4-d period, after which it was no longer apparent in most experiments. Silencing of IFS was effective in at least two genotypes and led to enhanced susceptibility to P. sojae, disrupting both R gene-mediated resistance in roots and nonrace-specific resistance in cotyledon tissues. The soybean cotyledon system, already a model system for defense signal-response and cell-to-cell signaling, may provide a convenient and effective system for functional analysis of plant genes through gene silencing. PMID:15778457

  9. [Polychlorinated biphenyls and their methylsulfonyl metabolites in fish from an electronic waste recycling site in south China: tissue distribution and human dietary exposure].

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we determined polychlorinated biphenyls and their methylsulfonyl metabolites (MeSO2-PCBs) in the tissues of two fish species-mud carp and northern snakehead-from a natural pond in an electronic waste recycling site in the Pearl River Delta, Southern China. The mean concentrations of PCBs (Σ PCBs )varied from 560 to 10 462 ng x g(-1) wet weight, and from 580 to 50 492 ng x g(-1) wet weight in the tissues of mud carp and northern snakehead, respectively, with the highest levels found in the liver. Lipid contents played an important role in the determination of tissue distribution of PCBs. The mean concentrations of Σ MeSO2-PCBs varied between 0.44 and 53 ng x g(-1) wet weight in tissues of mud carp, while varied between 1.86 and 132 ng x g(-1) wet weight in northern snakehead. These levels were one order of magnitude greater than the highest levels of MeSO2-PCBs previously reported in fish. The EF values of chiral PCBs in mud carp were lower than those in the sediments, with an exception of PCB149. However, the declined EFs in mud carp were rebounded in northern snakehead, and some values were even higher than those in the sediment. This result may suggest that the mud carp and the northern snakehead preferred to biotransform different enantiomers of PCB congeners. The elevated levels of Σ PCBs and Σ MeSO2-PCBs detected in the present study indicated a high exposure risk to the local residents. Restricting the consumption of these fish in the local markets is important and essential for reducing the health risks to local residents.

  10. Investigation into dosimetric effect of a MAGNA-SITE{sup TM} tissue expander on post-mastectomy radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Rosemary C.A.; Morgan, Andrew M.

    2005-06-15

    It is increasingly common for radiotherapy departments to encounter high density objects in patients being planned for radiotherapy. Many cases, such as artificial hip prostheses, are well documented. In our cancer center we have recently come across a new type of implant--a McGhan Style 133 Tissue Expander--implanted in patients who have undergone a mastectomy and will in future have breast reconstruction. This type of implant contains a small rare earth magnet encased in a titanium body, which induces significant perturbations in the dose distribution. These perturbations have been measured using a p-type semiconductor diode. Attenuation of up to 30% of local dose has been observed for a single beam. However, in more realistic clinical situations using tangential parallel opposed beams, it is estimated that part of the planning target volume maybe be underdosed by approximately 10%. Comparisons have been made between measured attenuation and that calculated by a treatment planning system, which demonstrates inadequate modeling of the dose perturbation caused by the implant in this case.

  11. Relationship between selenium body burdens and tissue concentrations in fish exposed to coal ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston spill site

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, Teresa J; Fortner, Allison M; Jett, Robert T; Peterson, Mark J; Carriker, Neil; Morris, Jesse G; Gable, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    In December 2008, 4.1 million m3 of coal ash were released into the Emory and Clinch Rivers by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant. Coal ash contains several contaminants, including the bioaccumulative metalloid selenium (Se). Because Se is predominantly accumulated in aquatic organisms through dietary, rather than aqueous exposure, tissue-based toxicity thresholds for Se are currently being considered. The proposed threshold concentrations range between 4-9 g/g Se (dry wt.) in whole body fish, with a proposed fillet threshold of 11.8 g/g. In the present study we examined the spatial and temporal trends in Se bioaccumulation and examined the relationship between the Se content in fillets and in whole bodies of fish collected around the Kingston spill site to determine whether Se bioaccumulation was a significant concern at the ash spill site. While Se concentrations in fish (whole bodies and fillets) were elevated at sampling locations affected by the Kingston ash spill relative to reference locations, concentrations do not appear to be above risk thresholds and have not been increasing over the five year period since the spill. Our results are not only relevant to guiding the human health and ecological risk assessments at the Kingston ash spill site, but because of current national discussions on appropriate guidelines for Se in fish as well for the disposal of coal combustion wastes, our results are also relevant to the general understanding of Se bioaccumulation in contaminated water bodies.

  12. Synchrotron micro-scale measurement of metal distributions in Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia root tissue from an urban brownfield site

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank J.; Zhang, Weiguo; Yu, Lizhong; Liu, Chang -Jun; Jones, Keith W.; Tappero, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    Liberty State Park in New Jersey, USA, is a “brownfield” site containing various levels of contaminants. To investigate metal uptake and distributions in plants on the brownfield site, Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia were collected in Liberty State Park during the growing season (May–September) in 2011 at two sites with the high and low metal loads, respectively. The objective of this study was to understand the metal (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentration and spatial distributions in P. australis and T. latifolia root systems with micro-meter scale resolution using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF) and synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (μCMT)more » techniques. The root structure measurement by synchrotron μCMT showed that high X-ray attenuation substance appeared in the epidermis. Synchrotron μXRF measurement showed that metal concentrations and distributions in the root cross-section between epidermis and vascular tissue were statistically different. Significant correlations were found between metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) and Fe in the epidermis, implying that metals were scavenged by Fe oxides. The results from this study suggest that the expression of metal transport and accumulation within the root systems may be element specific. The information derived from this study can improve our current knowledge of the wetland plant ecological function in brownfield remediation.« less

  13. Synchrotron micro-scale measurement of metal distributions in Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia root tissue from an urban brownfield site.

    PubMed

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank J; Zhang, Weiguo; Yu, Lizhong; Liu, Changjun; Jones, Keith W; Tappero, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    Liberty State Park in New Jersey, USA, is a "brownfield" site containing various levels of contaminants. To investigate metal uptake and distributions in plants on the brownfield site, Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia were collected in Liberty State Park during the growing season (May-September) in 2011 at two sites with the high and low metal loads, respectively. The objective of this study was to understand the metal (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentration and spatial distributions in P. australis and T. latifolia root systems with micro-meter scale resolution using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF) and synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (μCMT) techniques. The root structure measurement by synchrotron μCMT showed that high X-ray attenuation substance appeared in the epidermis. Synchrotron μXRF measurement showed that metal concentrations and distributions in the root cross-section between epidermis and vascular tissue were statistically different. Significant correlations were found between metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) and Fe in the epidermis, implying that metals were scavenged by Fe oxides. The results from this study suggest that the expression of metal transport and accumulation within the root systems may be element specific. The information derived from this study can improve our current knowledge of the wetland plant ecological function in brownfield remediation.

  14. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate binding sites in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. Properties, comparisons and potential physiological significance.

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, P J; Irvine, R F

    1992-01-01

    1. Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 binding sites were studied in cerebellar and hepatic microsomes from rat, and in bovine adrenal-cortical microsomes. 2. At pH 7.0, all three tissues showed specific binding, with Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 being the most potent competing ligand of those tested [which included Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 and InsP6] and Scatchard analysis suggested two sites; a site with high affinity and high specificity [Kd (1-6) x 10(-9) M] and a site with low affinity and low specificity [Kd (2-6) x 10(-7) M]. 3. At pH 5.5, cerebellar and bovine adrenal microsomes showed similar binding properties: two affinities with a similar specificity for Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 as at pH 7.0. 4. However, when assayed in a low-ionic strength acetate-based buffer at pH 5.0, cerebellar microsomes retain specific Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 binding sites, whereas bovine adrenal and hepatic microsomal binding sites lose much of their specificity, as InsP6 and Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 are equally as potent as Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. 5. Pi (25 mM), which is frequently included in Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 binding assays, had a small inhibitory effect on binding of cerebellar and adrenal microsomes at pH 5.5, but a large effect at pH 7.0, so that a considerable decrease occurs in the amount of specific binding at pH 5.5 compared with that at pH 7.0, if Pi is omitted from the binding assay. 6. Cerebellar and adrenal microsomes were used in a ligand-displacement mass assay (conducted under near-physiological conditions, at pH 7.0) on extracts of cerebral-cortex slices stimulated with agonists, and both preparations faithfully detected the increases in Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 that occurred, implying that Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 is the principal ligand on these binding sites in intact cells. 7. Apparent contradictions in the literature with regard to Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 binding sites in neuronal and peripheral tissues can be largely accounted for by the data, and the properties of the binding sites detected at physiological pH are consistent with the possibility

  15. Tissue Mercury Concentrations and Survival of Tree Swallow Embryos, Nestlings and Young Adult Females on a Contaminated Site.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Capwell E; Cristol, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    Tree swallows nesting on mercury-contaminated sites along the South River in Virginia, USA were monitored for reproductive success. The bodies of nestlings found deceased in their nest boxes were collected, along with blood and feather samples from the adult parents and surviving siblings. We also measured hatching and fledging success of the clutches and the annual recapture rate of adults. We found that the body feathers of deceased nestlings contained significantly higher concentrations of mercury (12.89 ± 8.42 μg/g, n = 15) than those of nestlings that survived to fledge (7.41 ± 4.79 μg/g, n = 15). However, mothers of more successful clutches (>75 % hatching) did not differ in mercury concentrations from females with less successful clutches (<50 % hatching). Additionally, adult females breeding for the first time that returned to breed the following year did not differ in blood mercury from females of the same age that bred once but never returned. Our results suggest that mercury had its greatest effect on these songbirds during the nestling stage, whereas for embryos or first-time breeding females, other factors likely played larger roles in mortality.

  16. Reflectance spectrum of adipose tissue to trace grass feeding in sheep: influence of measurement site and shrinkage time after slaughter.

    PubMed

    Priolo, A; Prache, S; Micol, D; Agabriel, J

    2002-04-01

    The signature of carotenoid pigments stored in the caudal fat has been used to discriminate carcasses of lambs raised on pasture from those fed concentrates. However, the literature reports higher concentration of carotenoids in perirenal than in caudal fat, and it is likely that carotenoid concentration in fat increases with shrinkage time. Our objectives were to investigate the effects of measurement site and shrinkage time after slaughter on the reliability of the discrimination between grass- and concentrate-fed lambs. Thirty-two lambs were fed concentrate-based diets (stall, n = 16) or grazed a natural pasture in France (grass, n = 16). The concentrate supply was regulated to have similar ADG between the two treatments. Periodically lambs weighing about 35 kg were slaughtered. Reflectance spectrum and lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) were measured at slaughter and after 24 h of shrinkage in the subcutaneous caudal and in the perirenal fat. The spectra were translated to have a value of reflectance at 510 nm = 0 and the integral of the translated spectrum was calculated between 450 and 510 nm (i.e., the zone of light absorption by carotenoids). The integral value of subcutaneous caudal fat at slaughter differed between stall- and grass-fed lambs (P < 0.05) but was not reliable to discriminate between feeding treatments. After 24-h shrinkage, the discrimination was better but was uncertain for 50% of the lambs. The integral value of perirenal fat at slaughter allowed us to discriminate all the lambs fed concentrates (16) from all those fed pasture (16). After 24-h shrinkage, the discrimination based on perirenal fat was partially compromised; 21.9% of the animals were not correctly discriminated. The integral value of the translated spectrum was highly (P < 0.001) correlated with the fat yellowness (b*), but the b* value was not reliable to discriminate between feeding treatments. However, plotting yellowness (b*) against redness (a*) values

  17. Tissue distribution of products of the mouse decay-accelerating factor (DAF) genes. Exploitation of a Daf1 knock-out mouse and site-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lin, F; Fukuoka, Y; Spicer, A; Ohta, R; Okada, N; Harris, C L; Emancipator, S N; Medof, M E

    2001-10-01

    Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) is a membrane regulator of C3 activation that protects self cells from autologous complement attack. In humans, DAF is uniformly expressed as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored molecule. In mice, both GPI-anchored and transmembrane-anchored DAF proteins are produced, each of which can be derived from two different genes (Daf1 and Daf2). In this report, we describe a Daf1 gene knock-out mouse arising as the first product of a strategy for targeting one or both Daf genes. As part of the work, we characterize recently described monoclonal antibodies against murine DAF protein using deletion mutants synthesized in yeast, and then employ the monoclonal antibodies in conjunction with wild-type and the Daf1 knock-out mice to determine the tissue distribution of the mouse Daf1 and Daf2 gene products. To enhance the immunohistochemical detection of murine DAF protein, we utilized the sensitive tyramide fluorescence method. In wild-type mice, we found strong DAF labelling of glomeruli, airway and gut epithelium, the spleen, vascular endothelium throughout all tissues, and seminiferous tubules of the testis. In Daf1 knock-out mice, DAF labelling was ablated in most tissues, but strong labelling of the testis and splenic dendritic cells remained. In both sites, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses identified both GPI and transmembrane forms of Daf2 gene-derived protein. The results have relevance for studies of in vivo murine DAF function and of murine DAF structure.

  18. Comprehensive site-specific whole genome profiling of stromal and epithelial colonic gene signatures in human sigmoid colon and rectal tissue.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jason M; Kim, Eunji; Ivanov, Ivan; Davidson, Laurie A; Goldsby, Jennifer S; Hullar, Meredith A J; Randolph, Timothy W; Kaz, Andrew M; Levy, Lisa; Lampe, Johanna W; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-09-01

    The strength of associations between various exposures (e.g., diet, tobacco, chemopreventive agents) and colorectal cancer risk may partially depend on the complex interaction between epithelium and stroma across anatomic subsites. Currently, baseline data describing genome-wide coding and long noncoding gene expression profiles in the healthy colon specific to tissue type and location are lacking. Therefore, colonic mucosal biopsies from 10 healthy participants who were enrolled in a clinical study to evaluate effects of lignan supplementation on gut resiliency were used to characterize the site-specific global gene expression signatures associated with stromal vs. epithelial cells in the sigmoid colon and rectum. Using RNA-seq, we demonstrate that tissue type and location patterns of gene expression and upstream regulatory pathways are distinct. For example, consistent with a key role of stroma in the crypt niche, mRNAs associated with immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes (i.e., CXCL14, ANTXR1), smooth muscle contraction (CALD1), proliferation and apoptosis (GLP2R, IGFBP3), and modulation of extracellular matrix (MMP2, COL3A1, MFAP4) were all highly expressed in the stroma. In comparison, HOX genes (HOXA3, HOXD9, HOXD10, HOXD11, and HOXD-AS2, a HOXD cluster antisense RNA 2), and WNT5B expression were also significantly higher in sigmoid colon compared with the rectum. These findings provide strong impetus for considering colorectal tissue subtypes and location in future observational studies and clinical trials designed to evaluate the effects of exposures on colonic health.

  19. Comprehensive site-specific whole genome profiling of stromal and epithelial colonic gene signatures in human sigmoid colon and rectal tissue.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jason M; Kim, Eunji; Ivanov, Ivan; Davidson, Laurie A; Goldsby, Jennifer S; Hullar, Meredith A J; Randolph, Timothy W; Kaz, Andrew M; Levy, Lisa; Lampe, Johanna W; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-09-01

    The strength of associations between various exposures (e.g., diet, tobacco, chemopreventive agents) and colorectal cancer risk may partially depend on the complex interaction between epithelium and stroma across anatomic subsites. Currently, baseline data describing genome-wide coding and long noncoding gene expression profiles in the healthy colon specific to tissue type and location are lacking. Therefore, colonic mucosal biopsies from 10 healthy participants who were enrolled in a clinical study to evaluate effects of lignan supplementation on gut resiliency were used to characterize the site-specific global gene expression signatures associated with stromal vs. epithelial cells in the sigmoid colon and rectum. Using RNA-seq, we demonstrate that tissue type and location patterns of gene expression and upstream regulatory pathways are distinct. For example, consistent with a key role of stroma in the crypt niche, mRNAs associated with immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes (i.e., CXCL14, ANTXR1), smooth muscle contraction (CALD1), proliferation and apoptosis (GLP2R, IGFBP3), and modulation of extracellular matrix (MMP2, COL3A1, MFAP4) were all highly expressed in the stroma. In comparison, HOX genes (HOXA3, HOXD9, HOXD10, HOXD11, and HOXD-AS2, a HOXD cluster antisense RNA 2), and WNT5B expression were also significantly higher in sigmoid colon compared with the rectum. These findings provide strong impetus for considering colorectal tissue subtypes and location in future observational studies and clinical trials designed to evaluate the effects of exposures on colonic health. PMID:27401218

  20. A Novel Computational Strategy to Identify A-to-I RNA Editing Sites by RNA-Seq Data: De Novo Detection in Human Spinal Cord Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Picardi, Ernesto; Gallo, Angela; Galeano, Federica; Tomaselli, Sara; Pesole, Graziano

    2012-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process occurring in a wide range of organisms. In human brain, the A-to-I RNA editing, in which individual adenosine (A) bases in pre-mRNA are modified to yield inosine (I), is the most frequent event. Modulating gene expression, RNA editing is essential for cellular homeostasis. Indeed, its deregulation has been linked to several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. To date, many RNA editing sites have been identified by next generation sequencing technologies employing massive transcriptome sequencing together with whole genome or exome sequencing. While genome and transcriptome reads are not always available for single individuals, RNA-Seq data are widespread through public databases and represent a relevant source of yet unexplored RNA editing sites. In this context, we propose a simple computational strategy to identify genomic positions enriched in novel hypothetical RNA editing events by means of a new two-steps mapping procedure requiring only RNA-Seq data and no a priori knowledge of RNA editing characteristics and genomic reads. We assessed the suitability of our procedure by confirming A-to-I candidates using conventional Sanger sequencing and performing RNA-Seq as well as whole exome sequencing of human spinal cord tissue from a single individual. PMID:22957051

  1. Metals and other elements in tissues of wild fish from fish farms and comparison with farmed species in sites with oxic and anoxic sediments.

    PubMed

    Kalantzi, Ioanna; Black, Kenneth D; Pergantis, Spiros A; Shimmield, Tracy M; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Sevastou, Katerina; Karakassis, Ioannis

    2013-11-15

    Farmed fish and wild fish aggregating in the vicinity of four Mediterranean fish farms with different environmental conditions were sampled. Levels of metals (including As and Se) were measured in the muscle, liver, gills, bone and intestine. The wild fish from sites with anoxic substrata accumulate metals (including As and Se) from the ambient habitat in their gills whereas those from sites with oxic substrata concentrate these elements through their diet in their intestine. Tissues of wild fish aggregating around farm cages accumulate a greater number of these elements and with higher concentrations than farmed fish. Habitat, diet, ecological needs, fat content of fish, and protein expression may play an important role in these element differences between fish species. Fe in flathead grey mullet, As in surmullet, rainbow wrasse, grey gurnard and picarel and Hg in bogue may pose a risk for human health. Farmed and wild fish are good sources of P, K, Cr and Se while flathead grey mullet, picarel and comber are excellent sources of Ca and Se.

  2. Sites of particle retention and lung tissue responses to chronically inhaled diesel exhaust and coal dust in rats and cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Nikula, K J; Avila, K J; Griffith, W C; Mauderly, J L

    1997-01-01

    The usefulness of pulmonary carcinogenicity data from rats exposed to high concentrations of particles for quantitatively predicting lung cancer risk in humans exposed to much lower environmental or occupational concentrations has been questioned. The results of several chronic inhalation bioassays of poorly soluble, nonfibrous particles have suggested that rats may be more prone than other rodent species to develop persistent pulmonary epithelial hyperplasia, metaplasia, and tumors in response to the accumulation of inhaled particles. In addition, rats and primates differ in their pulmonary anatomy and rate of particle clearance from the lung. This paper reviews results of recent Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (Albuquerque, NM) investigations that directly compared the anatomical patterns of particle retention and the lung tissue responses of rats and monkeys exposed chronically to high occupational concentrations of poorly soluble particles. Lung sections from male cynomolgus monkeys and F344 rats exposed 7 hr/day, 5 days/week for 24 months to filtered ambient air, diesel exhaust (2 mg soot/m3), coal dust (2 mg respirable particulate material/m3), or diesel exhaust and coal dust combined (1 mg soot and 1 mg respirable coal dust/m3) were obtained from a study conducted at the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and examined histopathologically and morphometrically. Within each species, the sites of particle retention and lung tissue responses were the same for diesel soot, coal dust, and combined material. Rats retained a significantly greater portion of the particulate material in the lumens of alveolar ducts and alveoli than monkeys. Conversely, monkeys retained a significantly greater portion of the particulate material in the interstitium than rats. Rats, but not monkeys, had significant alveolar epithelial hyperplastic, inflammatory, and septal fibrotic responses to the retained particles. These results suggest that anatomic

  3. 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with adult-onset Still's disease.

    PubMed

    Dong, Meng-Jie; Wang, Cai-Qin; Zhao, Kui; Wang, Guo-Lin; Sun, Mei-Ling; Liu, Zhen-Feng; Xu, Liqin

    2015-12-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) has become useful for the detection and diagnosis of inflammatory conditions, including rheumatic diseases, immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related disease and giant cell arteritis. However, few articles based on small sample sizes (n = 7) diagnosed as adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) have been published. The study aim was to observe the reliable characteristics and usefulness of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for the evaluation of consecutive patients with AOSD. Eligible patients were selected from among those who had undergone (18)F-FDG PET/CT between May 2007 and June 2014. Twenty-six consecutive AOSD patients were recruited retrospectively according to criteria set by Yamaguchi et al. All patients underwent evaluation by (18)F-FDG PET/CT. The characteristics and usefulness of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for evaluation of consecutive patients with AOSD were evaluated. All 26 patients had (18)F-FDG-avid lesion(s) related to their particular disease. Diffuse and homogeneous accumulation of (18)F-FDG was seen in the bone marrow (26/26; 100 %; maximum standardized uptake (SUVmax), 2.10-6.73) and spleen (25/26; 96.15 %). The SUVmax of affected lymph nodes was 1.3-9.53 (mean ± SD, 4.12 ± 2.24). The SUVmax and size factors (maximum diameter and areas) of affected lymph nodes were significantly different (P = 0.033 and P = 0.012, respectively). (18)F-FDG PET/CT showed the general distribution of (18)F-FDG accumulation. This factor helped to exclude malignant disease and aided the diagnosis of AOSD (42.3 %) in 11 cases when combined with clinical features and aided decisions regarding appropriate biopsy sites, such as the lymph nodes (n = 9) and bone marrow (n = 13). (18)F-FDG PET/CT is a unique imaging method for the assessment of metabolic activity throughout the body in subjects with AOSD. Characteristics or patterns of AOSD observed on (18)F-FDG PET/CT can be used for the

  4. Multi-Body-Site Microbiome and Culture Profiling of Military Trainees Suffering from Skin and Soft Tissue Infections at Fort Benning, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jatinder; Johnson, Ryan C.; Schlett, Carey D.; Elassal, Emad M.; Crawford, Katrina B.; Mor, Deepika; Lanier, Jeffrey B.; Law, Natasha N.; Walters, William A.; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Bennett, Jason W.; Hall, Eric R.; Millar, Eugene V.; Ellis, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are common in the general population, with increased prevalence among military trainees. Previous research has revealed numerous nasal microbial signatures that correlate with SSTI development and Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Thus, we hypothesized that the ecology of the inguinal, oropharynx, and perianal regions may also be altered in response to SSTI and/or S. aureus colonization. We collected body site samples from 46 military trainees with purulent abscess (SSTI group) as well as from 66 asymptomatic controls (non-SSTI group). We also collected abscess cavity samples to assess the microbial composition of these infections. Samples were analyzed by culture, and the microbial communities were characterized by high-throughput sequencing. We found that the nasal, inguinal, and perianal regions were similar in microbial composition and significantly differed from the oropharynx. We also observed differences in Anaerococcus and Streptococcus abundance between the SSTI and non-SSTI groups for the nasal and oropharyngeal regions, respectively. Furthermore, we detected community membership differences between the SSTI and non-SSTI groups for the nasal and inguinal sites. Compared to that of the other regions, the microbial compositions of the nares of S. aureus carriers and noncarriers were dramatically different; we noted an inverse correlation between the presence of Corynebacterium and the presence of Staphylococcus in the nares. This correlation was also observed for the inguinal region. Culture analysis revealed elevated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) colonization levels for the SSTI group in the nasal and inguinal body sites. Together, these data suggest significant microbial variability in patients with SSTI as well as between S. aureus carriers and noncarriers. IMPORTANCE While it is evident that nasal colonization with S. aureus increases the likelihood of SSTI, there is a significant lack of

  5. Tissue-specific autoregulation of Drosophila suppressor of forked by alternative poly(A) site utilization leads to accumulation of the suppressor of forked protein in mitotically active cells.

    PubMed

    Juge, F; Audibert, A; Benoit, B; Simonelig, M

    2000-11-01

    The Suppressor of forked protein is the Drosophila homolog of the 77K subunit of human cleavage stimulation factor, a complex required for the first step of the mRNA 3'-end-processing reaction. We have shown previously that wild-type su(f) function is required for the accumulation of a truncated su(f) transcript polyadenylated in intron 4 of the gene. This led us to propose a model in which the Su(f) protein would negatively regulate its own accumulation by stimulating 3'-end formation of this truncated su(f) RNA. In this article, we demonstrate this model and show that su(f) autoregulation is tissue specific. The Su(f) protein accumulates at a high level in dividing tissues, but not in nondividing tissues. We show that this distribution of the Su(f) protein results from stimulation by Su(f) of the tissue-specific utilization of the su(f) intronic poly(A) site, leading to the accumulation of the truncated su(f) transcript in nondividing tissues. Utilization of this intronic poly(A) site is affected in a su(f) mutant and restored in the mutant with a transgene encoding wild-type Su(f) protein. These data provide an in vivo example of cell-type-specific regulation of a protein level by poly(A) site choice, and confirm the role of Su(f) in regulation of poly(A) site utilization.

  6. Molecular characterization of the body site-specific human epidermal cytokeratin 9: cDNA cloning, amino acid sequence, and tissue specificity of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Langbein, L; Heid, H W; Moll, I; Franke, W W

    1993-12-01

    /plantar epidermis was found positive. By in situ hybridization and immunolocalization we further showed that CK 9 is only expressed in the suprabasal cell layers of this special epidermal tissue. We discuss the molecular properties of CK 9 and its cell type- and body site-specific expression in relation to the special differentiation of palmar/plantar epidermis and to diseases specific for this body site. PMID:7507869

  7. Residues of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in frogs (Rana limnocharis) from a contaminated site, South China: tissue distribution, biomagnification, and maternal transfer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ying; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian; Guan, Yun-Tao; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2009-07-15

    Environmental pollutants are suspected to be a cause of global declines in amphibian populations, but few data are available on the bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in amphibians. To examine the tissue distribution, biomagnification potential, and maternal transfer of PBDEs in frogs, eighteen PBDE congeners were measured in the muscle, liver, and egg tissues of rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) and insects collected from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in South China. PBDE levels in the frogs ranged from 0.63 to 11.6, 4.57 to 56.2, and 10.7 to 125 ng/g wet wt in the muscles, livers, and eggs, respectively. The frogs exhibited a unique congener profile, compared to those in aquatic and terrestrial species, with BDEs 99, 153, 183, 209, and 47 as the dominant congeners, intermediating between aquatic and terrestrial species. Most of the PBDE congeners in general showed higher affinity to liver than to muscle tissue. Except for BDEs 28, 47, 66, 138, and 206, the average biomagnification factors (BMFs) for all PBDE congeners were greater than 1.0, providing clear evidence of their biomagnification from insects to frogs. A parabolic relationship between log BMFs and bromine atom numbers or log Kow of PBDEs was observed, with the maximum BMF values for PBDEs with 6 bromine atoms (or at a log K(ow) of approximately 8.0). Relatively higher levels of 3-MeO-BDE 47 were found in male frogs, suggesting that male frogs in the present study might have higher metabolic capacity for PBDEs compared to female frogs. The ratio of levels in egg/female liver, indicating mother-to-egg transfer capacity, increased with increasing bromine atom numbers up to 7 and then declined as the bromine atom numbers rose. This indicated that the physicochemical properties of the congeners (e.g., K(ow), molecular sizes, and structures), resulting in different affinities to transport proteins, might impact their maternal transfer in frogs.

  8. Trends in concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish tissue from selected sites in the Delaware River basin in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, 1969-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riva-Murray, Karen; Brightbill, Robin A.; Bilger, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Trends in concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish tissue from selected sites in the Delaware River basin in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, 1969-98 by Karen Riva-Murray, Robin A. Brightbill, and Michael D. Bilger U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4066 ABSTRACT Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in fish tissue collected during the 1990's from selected sites in the Delaware River Basin were compared with concentrations in fish tissue collected during 1969-88. Data collected by State and Federal agencies on concentrations in whole-body common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and edible portions of American eel (Anguilla rostrata), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) during 1969-98 were compiled to define temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs in fish tissue from selected segments of the Delaware River, Lehigh River, Schuylkill River, and Brandywine Creek. The Delaware River in the vicinity of Trenton, New Jersey and Yardley, Pennsylvania (above the tidal influence) had the largest long-term data set among the sites considered for this study and was the only site with sufficient data for statistical analysis. A general pattern of decline in PCB concentrations during 1969-98 was apparent for this river segment. PCB concentrations in whole-body white sucker from this lower Delaware River segment declined during 1969-98 from a highest concentration of 7 micrograms per gram (?g/g, wet weight) in a sample collected during 1972 to 0.26 ?g/g (wet weight) in a sample collected during 1998. PCB concentration was negatively correlated with year (Spearman rank correlation -0.46, p < 0.08, n = 15); especially after removal of a sample from 1977 with an unusually low concentration (Spearman rank correlation -0.53, p = 0.05, n = 14). PCB concentrations in edible flesh of American eel declined during 1975-95, from a highest concentration of 3

  9. Purinergic P2Y2 Receptor Control of Tissue Factor Transcription in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells: NEW AP-1 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR SITE AND NEGATIVE REGULATOR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwei; Zhang, Lingxin; Wang, Chuan; Roy, Shama; Shen, Jianzhong

    2016-01-22

    We recently reported that the P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) is the predominant nucleotide receptor expressed in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) and that P2Y2R activation by ATP or UTP induces dramatic up-regulation of tissue factor (TF), a key initiator of the coagulation cascade. However, the molecular mechanism of this P2Y2R-TF axis remains unclear. Here, we report the role of a newly identified AP-1 consensus sequence in the TF gene promoter and its original binding components in P2Y2R regulation of TF transcription. Using bioinformatics tools, we found that a novel AP-1 site at -1363 bp of the human TF promoter region is highly conserved across multiple species. Activation of P2Y2R increased TF promoter activity and mRNA expression in HCAEC. Truncation, deletion, and mutation of this distal AP-1 site all significantly suppressed TF promoter activity in response to P2Y2R activation. EMSA and ChIP assays further confirmed that upon P2Y2R activation, c-Jun, ATF-2, and Fra-1, but not the typical c-Fos, bound to the new AP-1 site. In addition, loss-of-function studies using siRNAs confirmed a positive transactivation role of c-Jun and ATF-2 but unexpectedly revealed a strong negative role of Fra-1 in P2Y2R-induced TF up-regulation. Furthermore, we found that P2Y2R activation promoted ERK1/2 phosphorylation through Src, leading to Fra-1 activation, whereas Rho/JNK mediated P2Y2R-induced activation of c-Jun and ATF-2. These findings reveal the molecular basis for P2Y G protein-coupled receptor control of endothelial TF expression and indicate that targeting the P2Y2R-Fra-1-TF pathway may be an attractive new strategy for controlling vascular inflammation and thrombogenicity associated with endothelial dysfunction.

  10. The binding site of a steroid hormone receptor-like protein within the Drosophila Adh adult enhancer is required for high levels of tissue-specific alcohol dehydrogenase expression.

    PubMed Central

    Ayer, S; Benyajati, C

    1992-01-01

    Developmental and tissue-specific transcription from the Adh distal promoter is regulated in part by the Adh adult enhancer, located 450 to 600 bp upstream from the distal RNA start site. We have characterized four proteins (DEP1 to DEP4), present in Drosophila tissue culture cell nuclear extracts, which bind to this enhancer. DEP1 and DEP2 bind to a positive cis-acting element (-492 to -481) and share nucleotide contacts. A small linker replacement deletion mutation, which disrupts the overlapping DEP1- and DEP2-binding sites, reduces Adh distal transcription in an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-expressing cultured cell line, in the adult fat body (the major tissue of ADH expression), as well as in some but not all adult tissues where ADH is normally expressed. This enhancer element contains an imperfect palindromic sequence similar to steroid hormone receptor superfamily response elements. Binding-site screening of a lambda gt11 expression library has identified the steroid receptor superfamily member fushi tarazu factor 1 (FTZ-F1) as a protein that binds to this site. Anti-FTZ-F1 antibodies have identified DEP1 as FTZ-F1. DEP2 also binds to the FTZ-F1 site from the fushi tarazu zebra element, suggesting that DEP2 may also be a steroid receptor superfamily member. Our results raise the possibility that Adh regulation in certain adult tissues involves a hormone-mediated pathway. Because DEP1 (FTZ-F1) and DEP2 contact some of the same nucleotides within the positive cis element, it is unlikely that they can bind simultaneously. Such alternative binding may play a role in the tissue-specific and developmental transcription of Adh. Images PMID:1732738

  11. Fireworks-induced chest wall granulomatous disease: 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Le, Stephanie T; Nguyen, Ba Duong

    2014-04-01

    The authors present a case of 18F-FDG-avid granulomatous reaction induced by fireworks injury of the chest wall in a patient with esophageal adenocarcinoma. This hypermetabolic lesion, involving the right pectoralis muscles, appeared slightly more prominent on restaging PET/CT imaging following chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Excisional biopsy of the lesion established the diagnosis of foreign-body granulomatous-type inflammation with surrounding foci of non-polarizable black foreign material and ruled out malignancy. The patient recalled accidentally shooting himself in the chest with a Roman candle at the age of 3.

  12. Fireworks-induced chest wall granulomatous disease: 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Le, Stephanie T; Nguyen, Ba Duong

    2014-04-01

    The authors present a case of 18F-FDG-avid granulomatous reaction induced by fireworks injury of the chest wall in a patient with esophageal adenocarcinoma. This hypermetabolic lesion, involving the right pectoralis muscles, appeared slightly more prominent on restaging PET/CT imaging following chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Excisional biopsy of the lesion established the diagnosis of foreign-body granulomatous-type inflammation with surrounding foci of non-polarizable black foreign material and ruled out malignancy. The patient recalled accidentally shooting himself in the chest with a Roman candle at the age of 3. PMID:23877517

  13. Late metastatic recurrence of penile carcinoma after 10 years: Demonstration with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Punit

    2016-01-01

    Penile cancer is rare cancer. While inguinal and pelvic nodal metastasis is common, distant metastasis is rare. We here present the interesting case of a 59-year-old male patient with penile carcinoma, previously treated with penectomy and inguinal lymphadenectomy 10 years earlier. He presented with bone pains and given history of malignancy he was referred for an 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). PET/CT demonstrated multiple 18F-FDG avid bone and lung metastases. No locoregional disease was seen. Biopsy from a lung nodule confirmed the diagnosis, and the patient was started on palliative chemotherapy. PMID:27385892

  14. miR-16-5p Is a Stably-Expressed Housekeeping MicroRNA in Breast Cancer Tissues from Primary Tumors and from Metastatic Sites

    PubMed Central

    Rinnerthaler, Gabriel; Hackl, Hubert; Gampenrieder, Simon Peter; Hamacher, Frank; Hufnagl, Clemens; Hauser-Kronberger, Cornelia; Zehentmayr, Franz; Fastner, Gerd; Sedlmayer, Felix; Mlineritsch, Brigitte; Greil, Richard

    2016-01-01

    For quantitative microRNA analyses in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, expression levels have to be normalized to endogenous controls. To investigate the most stably-expressed microRNAs in breast cancer and its surrounding tissue, we used tumor samples from primary tumors and from metastatic sites. MiRNA profiling using TaqMan® Array Human MicroRNA Cards, enabling quantification of 754 unique human miRNAs, was performed in FFPE specimens from 58 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Forty-two (72%) samples were collected from primary tumors and 16 (28%) from metastases. In a cross-platform analysis of a validation cohort of 32 FFPE samples from patients with early breast cancer genome-wide microRNA expression analysis using SurePrintG3 miRNA (8 × 60 K)® microarrays from Agilent® was performed. Eleven microRNAs could be detected in all samples analyzed. Based on NormFinder and geNorm stability values and the high correlation (rho ≥ 0.8) with the median of all measured microRNAs, miR-16-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-126-3p, and miR-222-3p are suitable single gene housekeeper candidates. In the cross-platform validation, 29 human microRNAs were strongly expressed (mean log2-intensity > 10) and 21 of these microRNAs including miR-16-5p and miR-29a-3p were also stably expressed (CV < 5%). Thus, miR-16-5p and miR-29a-3p are both strong housekeeper candidates. Their Normfinder stability values calculated across the primary tumor and metastases subgroup indicate that miR-29a-3p can be considered as the strongest housekeeper in a cohort with mainly samples from primary tumors, whereas miR-16-5p might perform better in a metastatic sample enriched cohort. PMID:26821018

  15. Effect of the harvest procedure and tissue site on the osteogenic function of and gene expression in human mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    HENRICH, DIRK; NAU, CHRISTOPH; KRAFT, SASKIA BO; ZOLLFRANK, MAXIMILIAN; KONTRADOWITZ, KERSTIN; OPPERMANN, ELSIE; SCHULTHEISS, JUDITH; MEIER, SIMON; FRANK, JOHANNES; MARZI, INGO; SEEBACH, CAROLINE

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has indicated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) harvested with the Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator (RIA) procedure exhibited an improved osteogenic differentiation capability compared with MSCs obtained by bone marrow aspiration from the iliac crest. In the present study, we hypothesized that the harvest procedure indeed influences the osteogenic activity of human MSCs more than the tissue site itself. Concentration [by colony forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay], calcification (by von Kossa staining), collagen deposition, gene expression and the gene methylation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 pathway [BMP2, SMAD5 and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2)], the Wnt pathway [WNT3, dickkopf-1 (DKK1), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and β-catenin] and osteogenic genes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A) and osteocalcin] were analyzed in the MSCs isolated intraoperatively from the iliac crest with a spoon (n=14), from the femur with a spoon (n=7), from the femur with the RIA procedure (n=13) and from the iliac crest by fine-needle aspiration (n=8, controls). A Bonferroni-Holm corrected p-value <0.05 indicated a statistically significant difference. The concentration of CFU-F in the MSCs was increased in the RIA debris in comparison with that in the iliac crest aspirates (trend) and the femur (spoon, significant). Calcium deposition was highest in the femur-derived MSCs (by RIA) and was significantly increased in comparison with that in the iliac crest-derived MSCs (spoon, aspirate). The gene expression of BMP2, SMAD5, RUNX2, osteocalcin, and COL1A was significantly increased in the femur-derived MSCs (spoon) and the iliac crest aspirate derived-MSCs in comparison with that in the femur-derived MSCs (by RIA). There was no significant diversity between the samples obtained using a spoon (from the femur or iliac crest). Calcium deposition and osteogenic gene expression decreased significantly

  16. Mutation of the palmitoylation site of estrogen receptor α in vivo reveals tissue-specific roles for membrane versus nuclear actions

    PubMed Central

    Adlanmerini, Marine; Solinhac, Romain; Abot, Anne; Fabre, Aurélie; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Guihot, Anne-Laure; Boudou, Frédéric; Sautier, Lucile; Vessières, Emilie; Kim, Sung Hoon; Lière, Philippe; Fontaine, Coralie; Krust, Andrée; Chambon, Pierre; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Gourdy, Pierre; Shaul, Philip W.; Henrion, Daniel; Arnal, Jean-François; Lenfant, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) activation functions AF-1 and AF-2 classically mediate gene transcription in response to estradiol (E2). A fraction of ERα is targeted to plasma membrane and elicits membrane-initiated steroid signaling (MISS), but the physiological roles of MISS in vivo are poorly understood. We therefore generated a mouse with a point mutation of the palmitoylation site of ERα (C451A-ERα) to obtain membrane-specific loss of function of ERα. The abrogation of membrane localization of ERα in vivo was confirmed in primary hepatocytes, and it resulted in female infertility with abnormal ovaries lacking corpora lutea and increase in luteinizing hormone levels. In contrast, E2 action in the uterus was preserved in C451A-ERα mice and endometrial epithelial proliferation was similar to wild type. However, E2 vascular actions such as rapid dilatation, acceleration of endothelial repair, and endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation were abrogated in C451A-ERα mice. A complementary mutant mouse lacking the transactivation function AF-2 of ERα (ERα-AF20) provided selective loss of function of nuclear ERα actions. In ERα-AF20, the acceleration of endothelial repair in response to estrogen–dendrimer conjugate, which is a membrane-selective ER ligand, was unaltered, demonstrating integrity of MISS actions. In genome-wide analysis of uterine gene expression, the vast majority of E2-dependent gene regulation was abrogated in ERα-AF20, whereas in C451A-ERα it was nearly fully preserved, indicating that membrane-to-nuclear receptor cross-talk in vivo is modest in the uterus. Thus, this work genetically segregated membrane versus nuclear actions of a steroid hormone receptor and demonstrated their in vivo tissue-specific roles. PMID:24371309

  17. Methylation similarities of two CpG sites within exon 5 of human H19 between normal tissues and testicular germ cell tumours of adolescents and adults, without correlation with allelic and total level of expression.

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, A. J.; Verkerk, A. J.; Dekker, M. C.; van Gurp, R. J.; Oosterhuis, J. W.; Looijenga, L. H.

    1997-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) of adolescents and adults morphologically mimic different stages of embryogenesis. Established cell lines of these cancers are used as informative models to study early development. We found that, in contrast to normal development, TGCTs show a consistent biallelic expression of imprinted genes, including H19, irrespective of histology. Methylation of particular cytosine residues of H19 correlates with inhibition of expression, which has not been studied in TGCTs thus far. We investigated the methylation status of two CpG sites within the 3' region of H19 (exon 5: positions 3321 and 3324) both in normal tissues as well as in TGCTs. To obtain quantitative data of these specific sites, the ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction technique, instead of Southern blot analysis, was applied. The results were compared with the allelic status and the total level of expression of this gene. Additionally, the undifferentiated cells and differentiated derivatives of the TGCT-derived cell line NT2-D1 were analysed. While peripheral blood showed no H19 expression and complete methylation, a heterogeneous but consistent pattern of methylation and level of expression was found in the other normal tissues, without a correlation between the two. The separate histological entities of TGCTs resembled the pattern of their nonmalignant tissues. While the CpG sites remained completely methylated in NT2-D1, H19 expression was induced upon differentiation. These data indicate that methylation of the CpG sites within exon 5 of H19 is tissue dependent, without regulating allelic status and/or total level of expression. Of special note is the finding that, also regarding methylation of these particular sites of H19, TGCTs mimic their non-malignant counterparts, in spite of their consistent biallelic expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9310237

  18. Site-Specific Reduction of Oxidative and Lipid Metabolism in Adipose Tissue of 3′-Azido-3′-Deoxythymidine-Treated Rats▿

    PubMed Central

    Deveaud, Catherine; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Reynaud, Annabel; Bonnet, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Although it is well accepted that treatment with some nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors modifies both fat metabolism and fat distribution in humans, the mechanisms underlying these modifications are not yet known. The present investigation examined whether a decrease in oxidative capacity, induced by a chronic oral administration of 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine (AZT) in rats, could be associated with an alteration of the lipogenic capacity of white adipose tissues. The impact of obesity as a factor was then evaluated. Results showed that AZT treatment induced differential effects depending on anatomical localization. Indeed, in the inguinal adipose tissue, the specific activities of cytochrome c oxidase and fatty acid synthase, two rate-controlling enzymes in energy and lipogenic metabolisms, respectively, both decreased under AZT treatment, thus leading to a lowered cell lipid accumulation. Moreover, the AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation level tended to increase, thus implying that AZT causes an energy imbalance. Furthermore, the inguinal tissue of obese rats presented a sensitivity to AZT treatment that was higher than that of lean rats. In contrast, for epididymal tissue, no significant change in all these parameters could be detected under AZT treatment, regardless of the nutritional status of the animals. Taken together, these data demonstrate differential effects of AZT on subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral white adipose tissue. It could be considered that the chronic decreases in energy and lipogenic metabolism of inguinal adipocyte, consecutive to AZT treatment, may lead, in the long term, to adipose tissue atrophy. PMID:17158934

  19. Preliminary assessment of using tree-tissue analysis and passive-diffusion samplers to evaluate trichloroethene contamination of ground water at Site SS-34N, McChord Air Force Base, Washington, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    Two low-cost innovative sampling procedures for characterizing trichloroethene (TCE) contamination in ground water were evaluated for use at McChord Air Force Base (AFB) by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force McChord Air Force Base Installation Restoration Program, in 2001. Previous attempts to characterize the source of ground-water contamination in the heterogeneous glacial outwash aquifer at McChord site SS-34N using soil-gas surveys, direct-push exploration, and more than a dozen ground-water monitoring wells have had limited success. The procedures assessed in this study involved analysis of tree-tissue samples to map underlying ground-water contamination and deploying passive-diffusion samplers to measure TCE concentrations in existing monitoring wells. These procedures have been used successfully at other U.S. Department of Defense sites and have resulted in cost avoidance and accelerated site characterization. Despite the presence of TCE in ground water at site SS-34N, TCE was not detected in any of the 20 trees sampled at the site during either early spring or late summer sampling. The reason the tree tissue procedure was not successful at the McChord AFB site SS-34N may have been due to an inability of tree roots to extract moisture from a water table 30 feet below the land surface, or that concentrations of TCE in ground water were not large enough to be detectable in the tree tissue at the sampling point. Passive-diffusion samplers were placed near the top, middle, and bottom of screened intervals in three monitoring wells and TCE was observed in all samplers. Concentrations of TCE from the passive-diffusion samplers were generally similar to concentrations found in samples collected in the same wells using conventional pumping methods. In contrast to conventional pumping methods, the collection of ground-water samples using the passive-diffusion samples did not generate waste purge water that would require hazardous

  20. Bioaccumulative characteristics of tetrabromobisphenol A and hexabromocyclododecanes in multi-tissues of prey and predator fish from an e-waste site, South China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-08-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were analyzed in 12 tissues of prey (mud carp) and predator (northern snakehead) fish from an e-waste area, South China. The TBBPA concentrations in different tissues ranged from 0.03 to 2.85 ng/g wet weight (ww) in mud carp and 0.04 to 1.30 ng/g ww in northern snakehead. The concentrations of HBCDs ranged from 0.07 to 96.9 ng/g ww in mud carp and 0.18 to 240 ng/g ww in northern snakehead. HBCD levels in tissues were correlated with lipid content for both fish species, while this correlation was only found in mud carp for TBBPA. Meanwhile, northern snakehead exhibited higher HBCD levels but lower TBBPA levels than mud carps. These observations are attributed to the more polar and reactive properties of TBBPA than HBCDs. α-HBCD was the predominant diastereoisomer of HBCDs in all tissues of mud carp and northern snakehead, except for chyme of mud carp. All the analyzed tissues in mud carp showed an enrichment of (+)-α-HBCD enantiomer with EF (enantiomeric fraction) values of 0.53-0.62, but that in northern snakehead showed an enrichment of (-)-α-HBCD enantiomer with EF values of 0.35-0.5. Considering the fact that the mud carp is one of the diet items of northern snakehead, the different enantiomer accumulation characteristics of α-HBCD between the two fish species in the present study indicated that prey and predator fish could prefer to biotransform different enantiomers of α-HBCD. PMID:25874430

  1. Bioaccumulative characteristics of tetrabromobisphenol A and hexabromocyclododecanes in multi-tissues of prey and predator fish from an e-waste site, South China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-08-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were analyzed in 12 tissues of prey (mud carp) and predator (northern snakehead) fish from an e-waste area, South China. The TBBPA concentrations in different tissues ranged from 0.03 to 2.85 ng/g wet weight (ww) in mud carp and 0.04 to 1.30 ng/g ww in northern snakehead. The concentrations of HBCDs ranged from 0.07 to 96.9 ng/g ww in mud carp and 0.18 to 240 ng/g ww in northern snakehead. HBCD levels in tissues were correlated with lipid content for both fish species, while this correlation was only found in mud carp for TBBPA. Meanwhile, northern snakehead exhibited higher HBCD levels but lower TBBPA levels than mud carps. These observations are attributed to the more polar and reactive properties of TBBPA than HBCDs. α-HBCD was the predominant diastereoisomer of HBCDs in all tissues of mud carp and northern snakehead, except for chyme of mud carp. All the analyzed tissues in mud carp showed an enrichment of (+)-α-HBCD enantiomer with EF (enantiomeric fraction) values of 0.53-0.62, but that in northern snakehead showed an enrichment of (-)-α-HBCD enantiomer with EF values of 0.35-0.5. Considering the fact that the mud carp is one of the diet items of northern snakehead, the different enantiomer accumulation characteristics of α-HBCD between the two fish species in the present study indicated that prey and predator fish could prefer to biotransform different enantiomers of α-HBCD.

  2. Development of an Ultra-rapid, Small Tissue-collecting Device for Endoscopic Surgery--the Lymph Node Carrier: Useful in Protecting the Air-sealing Valves of the Trocar for Endoscopic Surgery and in Preventing Port Site Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Tokihisa; Ohdaira, Takeshi

    2015-11-01

    In laparoscopic and thoracoscopic surgery for malignant tumors, it is often necessary to recognize intraoperative rapid diagnosis by sampling a small section of tissue that is suspected of the lymphatic or disseminated metastasis of malignant tumor cells, or of the direct invasion. However, sampling of the target tissue has to be carried out without dropping a section into the peritoneal or thoracic cavity and port-site tumor recurrence. We developed a device named the "lymph node carrier (LNC)" that is capable of instantaneously carrying a small piece of tissue out of the body after its insertion into the trocar for conventional laparoscopic surgery. LNC is composed of the following three parts: 1) the carrier container; 2) the external sheath that re-encloses the tissue, which protruded from the container, into the container; and 3) the air-sealing cap. In the in vivo study three sows were used to remove the sigmoid colon and to carry adipose tissue containing the dissected lymph nodes out of the body. Sliding of the external sheath and the LNC container allowed the re-enclosure of adipose tissue protruding from the container. Carriage time of the dissected lymph nodes out of three sows was 37.7±1.5 seconds in mean±SD. LNC was suggested to be a surgical device capable of allowing, in a very efficient manner and a very short period of time, the repeated collection of removed specimens out of the body without damaging the air-sealing valves of the trocar for endoscopic surgery.

  3. Chromatin studies reveal that an ERE is located far upstream of a vitellogenin gene and that a distal tissue-specific hypersensitive site is conserved for two coordinately regulated vitellogenin genes.

    PubMed Central

    Burch, J B; Fischer, A H

    1990-01-01

    Estrogen induces the expression of three vitellogenin genes in chicken hepatocytes. To survey the vitellogenin III (VTGIII) gene region for possible distal regulatory sequences, we identified tissue-specific hypersensitive (HS) sites within a 45 kb chromatin region spanning this gene. Five constitutive HS sites were found to mark the VTGIII gene region in hormone-naive hepatocytes. Strikingly, the constitutive HS site located 5.5 kb upstream of the VTGIII gene and a previously identified HS site located within the coordinately regulated VTGII gene mapped to nearly identical copies of a 72 bp sequence. Moreover, it would appear that there has been evolutionary pressure to retain specifically this 72 bp of VTGII-like sequence near the VTGIII gene subsequent to the VTGIII and VTGII genes becoming unlinked approximately 16 Myr ago. Two additional sets of HS sites were induced in the VTGIII gene region in response to estrogen. One set mapped immediately upstream of the gene in the vicinity of what we show to be a functional estrogen response element (ERE). The other induced HS site mapped 7.5 kb upstream of the gene. This far-upstream region was sequenced and was found to contain two imperfect ERE consensus sequences spaced 88 bp apart. In transient expression assays neither of these individual imperfect ERE sequences was functional, but a fragment spanning both sequences behaved as a strong ERE. In contrast to this synergism between imperfect ERE sequences, the presence of an NF-1 binding site 23 bp away from the more distal imperfect ERE sequence was not sufficient to render the latter a functional ERE in our assays. Images PMID:2377458

  4. Analysis of heavy metals from water, sediment, and tissues of Labeo angra (Hamilton, 1822), from an Ox-box lake- an wetland site from Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Suchismita; Choudhury, Shamim Sultana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the regional impacts of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) on water, sediment and a native, teleost fish species, Labeo angra, inhabiting a flood plain wetland of Barak River in Assam, India. Heavy metal concentrations in the water, sediments and fish were measured; bioaccumulation factor, metal pollution index as well as condition indices were calculated, to assess the pollution load and health status of the fish. Multivariate statistical analysis was used on wetland water and sediment heavy metals to ascertain the possible sources and seasonal variations of the pollutants. Results showed that most heavy metals in the wetland water and sediments exceeded the water (drinking and irrigation) and sediment quality guidelines, respectively. Seasonal variations were observed for geogenic heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Mg and Ca while no seasonal variations were observed for anthropogenic heavy metals, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that there was strong correlation between geogenic and anthropogenic heavy metals in water and sediment, both originating from the common anthropogenic sources. Accumulation of most of the metals in all the tissues was above the safe limits as recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization. High bioaccumulation factors and metal pollution index for these metals in the different tissues revealed that metals were extensively bio-accumulated and bioconcentrated. Condition indices in fish from the wetland suggested metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26422176

  5. Analysis of heavy metals from water, sediment, and tissues of Labeo angra (Hamilton, 1822), from an Ox-box lake- an wetland site from Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Suchismita; Choudhury, Shamim Sultana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the regional impacts of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) on water, sediment and a native, teleost fish species, Labeo angra, inhabiting a flood plain wetland of Barak River in Assam, India. Heavy metal concentrations in the water, sediments and fish were measured; bioaccumulation factor, metal pollution index as well as condition indices were calculated, to assess the pollution load and health status of the fish. Multivariate statistical analysis was used on wetland water and sediment heavy metals to ascertain the possible sources and seasonal variations of the pollutants. Results showed that most heavy metals in the wetland water and sediments exceeded the water (drinking and irrigation) and sediment quality guidelines, respectively. Seasonal variations were observed for geogenic heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Mg and Ca while no seasonal variations were observed for anthropogenic heavy metals, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that there was strong correlation between geogenic and anthropogenic heavy metals in water and sediment, both originating from the common anthropogenic sources. Accumulation of most of the metals in all the tissues was above the safe limits as recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization. High bioaccumulation factors and metal pollution index for these metals in the different tissues revealed that metals were extensively bio-accumulated and bioconcentrated. Condition indices in fish from the wetland suggested metabolic abnormalities.

  6. Fusarium proliferatum Soft Tissue Infection at the Site of a Puncture by a Plant: Recovery, Isolation, and Direct Molecular Identification ▿

    PubMed Central

    Palmore, Tara N.; Shea, Yvonne R.; Childs, Richard W.; Sherry, Richard M.; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    After allogeneic stem cell transplantation, a 49-year-old man developed fever and inflammation at the site of a plant puncture on a finger. A hyalohyphomycete was recovered by incubating the plant spine fragment following surgery. Amplification of the internal transcribed spacer region and 5.8S rRNA, β-tubulin, and translation elongation factor coding genes identified Fusarium proliferatum, which was confirmed later by culture. PMID:19923491

  7. Gene expression levels of Casein kinase 1 (CK1) isoforms are correlated to adiponectin levels in adipose tissue of morbid obese patients and site-specific phosphorylation mediated by CK1 influences multimerization of adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengfei; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Bischof, Joachim; Radermacher, Peter; Wabitsch, Martin; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Wolf, Anna-Maria; Hillenbrand, Andreas; Knippschild, Uwe

    2015-05-01

    White adipose tissue has now been recognized as an important endocrine organ secreting bioactive molecules termed adipocytokines. In obesity, anti-inflammatory adipocytokines like adiponectin are decreased while pro-inflammatory factors are over-produced. These changes contribute to the development of insulin resistance and obesity-associated diseases. Since members of the casein kinase 1 (CK1) family are involved in the regulation of various signaling pathways we ask here whether they are able to modulate the functions of adiponectin. We show that CK1δ and ε are expressed in adipose tissue and that the expression of CK1 isoforms correlates with that of adiponectin. Furthermore, adiponectin co-immunoprecipitates with CK1δ and CK1ε and is phosphorylated by CK1δ at serine 174 and threonine 235, thereby influencing the formation of adiponectin oligomeric complexes. Furthermore, inhibition of CK1δ in human adipocytes by IC261 leads to an increase in basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In summary, our data indicate that site-specific phosphorylation of adiponectin, especially at sites targeted by CK1δ in vitro, provides an additional regulatory mechanism for modulating adiponectin complex formation and function. PMID:25724478

  8. High resolution structures of p-aminobenzamidine- and benzamidine-VIIa/soluble tissue factor: unpredicted conformation of the 192-193 peptide bond and mapping of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and Zn2+ sites in factor VIIa.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, S Paul; Schmidt, Amy E; Agah, Sayeh; Bajaj, Madhu S; Padmanabhan, Kaillathe

    2006-08-25

    Factor VIIa (FVIIa) consists of a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain, two epidermal growth factor-like domains, and a protease domain. FVIIa binds seven Ca(2+) ions in the Gla, one in the EGF1, and one in the protease domain. However, blood contains both Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), and the Ca(2+) sites in FVIIa that could be specifically occupied by Mg(2+) are unknown. Furthermore, FVIIa contains a Na(+) and two Zn(2+) sites, but ligands for these cations are undefined. We obtained p-aminobenzamidine-VIIa/soluble tissue factor (sTF) crystals under conditions containing Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), and Zn(2+). The crystal diffracted to 1.8A resolution, and the final structure has an R-factor of 19.8%. In this structure, the Gla domain has four Ca(2+) and three bound Mg(2+). The EGF1 domain contains one Ca(2+) site, and the protease domain contains one Ca(2+), one Na(+), and two Zn(2+) sites. (45)Ca(2+) binding in the presence/absence of Mg(2+) to FVIIa, Gla-domainless FVIIa, and prothrombin fragment 1 supports the crystal data. Furthermore, unlike in other serine proteases, the amide N of Gly(193) in FVIIa points away from the oxyanion hole in this structure. Importantly, the oxyanion hole is also absent in the benzamidine-FVIIa/sTF structure at 1.87A resolution. However, soaking benzamidine-FVIIa/sTF crystals with d-Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethyl ketone results in benzamidine displacement, d-Phe-Pro-Arg incorporation, and oxyanion hole formation by a flip of the 192-193 peptide bond in FVIIa. Thus, it is the substrate and not the TF binding that induces oxyanion hole formation and functional active site geometry in FVIIa. Absence of oxyanion hole is unusual and has biologic implications for FVIIa macromolecular substrate specificity and catalysis. PMID:16757484

  9. A Site-Specific Integrated Col2.3GFP Reporter Identifies Osteoblasts Within Mineralized Tissue Formed In Vivo by Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiaonan; Jiang, Xi; Wang, Liping; Stover, Mary Louise; Zhan, Shuning; Huang, Jianping; Goldberg, A. Jon; Liu, Yongxing; Kuhn, Liisa; Reichenberger, Ernst J.; Rowe, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for study and treatment of bone diseases or traumatic bone injuries requires efficient protocols to differentiate hESCs/iPSCs into cells with osteogenic potential and the ability to isolate differentiated osteoblasts for analysis. We have used zinc finger nuclease technology to deliver a construct containing the Col2.3 promoter driving GFPemerald to the AAVS1 site (referred to as a “safe harbor” site), in human embryonic stem cells (H9Zn2.3GFP), with the goal of marking the cells that have become differentiated osteoblasts. In teratomas formed using these cells, we identified green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive cells specifically associated with in vivo bone formation. We also differentiated the cells into a mesenchymal stem cell population with osteogenic potential and implanted them into a mouse calvarial defect model. We observed GFP-positive cells associated with alizarin complexone-labeled newly formed bone surfaces. The cells were alkaline phosphatase-positive, and immunohistochemistry with human specific bone sialoprotein (BSP) antibody indicates that the GFP-positive cells are also associated with the human BSP-containing matrix, demonstrating that the Col2.3GFP construct marks cells in the osteoblast lineage. Single-cell cloning generated a 100% Col2.3GFP-positive cell population, as demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a GFP probe. The karyotype was normal, and pluripotency was demonstrated by Tra1-60 immunostaining, pluripotent low density reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction array and embryoid body formation. These cells will be useful to develop optimal osteogenic differentiation protocols and to isolate osteoblasts from normal and diseased iPSCs for analysis. PMID:25122686

  10. Synchrotron micro-scale measurement of metal distributions in Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia root tissue from an urban brownfield site

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank J.; Zhang, Weiguo; Yu, Lizhong; Liu, Chang -Jun; Jones, Keith W.; Tappero, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    Liberty State Park in New Jersey, USA, is a “brownfield” site containing various levels of contaminants. To investigate metal uptake and distributions in plants on the brownfield site, Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia were collected in Liberty State Park during the growing season (May–September) in 2011 at two sites with the high and low metal loads, respectively. The objective of this study was to understand the metal (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentration and spatial distributions in P. australis and T. latifolia root systems with micro-meter scale resolution using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF) and synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (μCMT) techniques. The root structure measurement by synchrotron μCMT showed that high X-ray attenuation substance appeared in the epidermis. Synchrotron μXRF measurement showed that metal concentrations and distributions in the root cross-section between epidermis and vascular tissue were statistically different. Significant correlations were found between metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) and Fe in the epidermis, implying that metals were scavenged by Fe oxides. The results from this study suggest that the expression of metal transport and accumulation within the root systems may be element specific. The information derived from this study can improve our current knowledge of the wetland plant ecological function in brownfield remediation.

  11. Immune Response Gene Expression in Colorectal Cancer Carries Distinct Prognostic Implications According to Tissue, Stage and Site: A Prospective Retrospective Translational Study in the Context of a Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pentheroudakis, George; Raptou, Georgia; Kotoula, Vassiliki; Wirtz, Ralph M.; Vrettou, Eleni; Karavasilis, Vasilios; Gourgioti, Georgia; Gakou, Chryssa; Syrigos, Konstantinos N.; Bournakis, Evangelos; Rallis, Grigorios; Varthalitis, Ioannis; Galani, Eleni; Lazaridis, Georgios; Papaxoinis, George; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Makatsoris, Thomas; Kalogeras, Konstantine T.; Fountzilas, George

    2015-01-01

    Background Although host immune response is an emerging prognostic factor for colorectal cancer, there is no consensus on the optimal methodology, surrogate markers or tissue for study. Patients and Methods Tumour blocks were prospectively collected from 344 patients with stage II/III colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Whole section lymphocytic infiltration was studied along with mRNA expression of CD3Z, CD8, CD4, CXCL9, CXCL13, IGHM, FOXP3, SNAI2 and ESR1 by qRT-qPCR in tissue microarray (TMA) cores from the centre of tumour, invasive margin and adjacent normal mucosa. Results Lymphocytic infiltration, deficient MMR (10.9%), KRAS (40.7%) and BRAF (4.9%) mutations or single mRNA gene expression were not prognostic. Tumour ESR1 gene expression (Hazard Ratio [HR] for relapse 2.33, 95% CI 1.35-4.02; HR for death 1.74, 95% CI 1.02-2.97) and absence of necrosis (HR for relapse 1.71, 95% CI 1.05-2.71; HR for death 1.98, 95% CI 1.14-3.43) were adverse prognostic features. We used CD3Z and CD8 expression in order to devise the mRNA-based Immune Score (mIS) and proceeded to partitioning analysis in 267 patients, with age, stage, tumour site (Right vs Left CRC), KRAS mutation and tumour mIS as input factors. Only in patients with stage III right-sided colon cancer, a low immune response was associated with inferior disease-free survival (mIS-low, HR for relapse 2.28, 95% CI 1.05-8.02). No prognostic significance was seen for tumour mIS in any other stage or site of CRC, or for a similar mIS score derived from adjacent normal mucosa. Independent adverse prognostic significance was retained in multivariable analysis for absence of necrosis, tumour ESR1 expression in all patients and low tumour mIS in stage III right-sided CRC. Conclusions In localised CRC, mRNA-based CD3Z/CD8 profiling of tumour immune response may have stage, site and tissue-specific prognostic significance, along with ESR1 expression. Trial Registration ANZCTR.org.au ACTRN

  12. [Study on a human tissue-type plasminogen activator mutant cDNA knocked-in the beta-casein gene site of murine ES cells].

    PubMed

    Lin, Fu-Yu; Yang, Xiao; Deng, Ji-Xian; Chen, Hong-Xing; Huang, Pei-Tango

    2004-06-01

    A murine beta-casein gene targeting vector was constructed using the cloned genomic sequence. The short arm was 2.7 kb including mouse beta-casein gene 5' flanking sequence, exon1, intron1 and partial exon2. The long arm is a 3.4 kb fragment including partial intron2, exon3 approximately 7, intron3 approximately 6 and partial intron7. The human t-PA mutant cDNA was subcloned in the exon2 and fused with the mice beta-casein signal peptide sequence. The positive selective marker neo was placed in the middle of intron2. A tk negative selective marker was just outside the short arm. TC-1 ES cells were cultured and amplified on G418 resistant feeder layer. The linearized targeting construct DNAs of 45 microg were introduced into 2 x 10(7) ES cells by electroporation. Totally 192 ES clones were picked up after cultured in G418 and Gancyclovir for 7 days. The colonies were amplified and subjected to genomic DNA preparation. The genomic DNAs were digested with EcoR I and used for Southern blot analysis. A probe inside the 5' homologous arm was used for hybridization. A 9.8 kb band was found in wild type, but the band was shift down from 9.8 kb to 6.6 kb in the beta-casein gene targeted allele because a new EcoR I site was introduced into the exon2 along with the human t-PA mutant gene. There were 9.8 kb and 6.6 kb bands in targeted ES cells. One clone of targeted ES cells with correct homologous recombination events was obtained among 78 analyzed clones. It lays foundation for gene targeted mice making.

  13. Tissue types (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports other tissues and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue ...

  14. Steroid biosynthesis in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehan; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Vihma, Veera

    2015-11-01

    Tissue-specific expression of steroidogenic enzymes allows the modulation of active steroid levels in a local manner. Thus, the measurement of local steroid concentrations, rather than the circulating levels, has been recognized as a more accurate indicator of the steroid action within a specific tissue. Adipose tissue, one of the largest endocrine tissues in the human body, has been established as an important site for steroid storage and metabolism. Locally produced steroids, through the enzymatic conversion from steroid precursors delivered to adipose tissue, have been proven to either functionally regulate adipose tissue metabolism, or quantitatively contribute to the whole body's steroid levels. Most recently, it has been suggested that adipose tissue may contain the steroidogenic machinery necessary for the initiation of steroid biosynthesis de novo from cholesterol. This review summarizes the evidence indicating the presence of the entire steroidogenic apparatus in adipose tissue and discusses the potential roles of local steroid products in modulating adipose tissue activity and other metabolic parameters.

  15. The immunohistochemical expression profile of osteopontin in normal human tissues using two site-specific antibodies reveals a wide distribution of positive cells and extensive expression in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Kunii, Yasuto; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Masahiro; Seitoh, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Toshimitsu

    2009-09-01

    To elucidate the cellular distribution of osteopontin (OPN) in normal human tissues, we undertook immunohistochemistry using two site-specific OPN antibodies. The 10A16 monoclonal antibody was raised against the amino acid sequence just downstream of the thrombin cleavage site, while the O-17 polyclonal antibody was raised against the N-terminal peptide. Each antibody has been confirmed previously to react with both whole OPN and its relevant fragments. The expression pattern for these two antibodies was similar in distribution. In addition, we also identified expression in Ebner's gland, type II pneumocytes, Kupffer cells, cells of the endocrine organs, anterior lens capsule and ciliary body, synovial type A cells, mesothelia, adipocytes, and mast cells. Neurons and glia in the central nervous system and spinal cord, cranial and peripheral nerve sheaths, ganglion cells in the sympathetic ganglion, intestinal plexuses, retina, and choroid plexus also regularly exhibited OPN positivity. Testicular germ cells, pancreatic exocrine cells, and follicular dendritic cells reacted with 10A16 only, whereas lutein cells and taste bud cells exhibited O-17 reactivity alone. These minor differences were hypothesized to reflect the state of OPN in the cells; that is, whether OPN was in its whole molecule or fragmented form. In conclusion, we demonstrate that OPN is widely distributed in normal human cells, particularly those comprising the central and peripheral nervous systems.

  16. (/sup 3/H)leukotriene B/sub 4/ binding to the guinea pig spleen membranes: a rich tissue source for a high affinity leukotriene B/sub 4/ receptor site

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J.B.; Kohi, F.; Townley, R.G.

    1986-03-05

    To select a tissue rich for the high affinity leukotriene (LT)B/sub 4/ receptor site, they compared binding of 1 nM (/sup 3/H)LTB/sub 4/ (180 Ci/mmol) to the crude membrane preparations of guinea pig spleen, thymus, lung, uterus, bladder, brain, adrenal gland, small intestine, liver, kidney and heart. They found that the membrane preparations from spleen contained the highest binding activity per mg protein. They characterized the LTB/sub 4/ binding to the spleen preparation in detail. LTB/sub 4/ binding was rapid, reversible, stereoselective and saturable. The data from equilibrium experiments showed a linear Scatchard plot with a K/sub d/ of 1.6 nM and a binding site density of 259 fmol/mg prot. The rank order of agents competing for spleen (/sup 3/H)LTB/sub 4/ binding at 25/sup 0/C was: LTB/sub 4/ (K/sub i/ = 2.8 nM) > 20-OH-LTB/sub 4/ (23 nM) > LTA/sub 4/ (48 nM) > LTA/sub 4/ methyl ester (0.13 ..mu..M) > 20-COOH-LTB/sub 4/ (> 6.6 ..mu..M) greater than or equal to arachidonic acid (0.15 mM) similarly ordered FPL-55,712 (0.11 mM). At 4/sup 0/C, LTB/sub 4/ (2.3 nM) competed at least 10x more effectively than 20-OH-LTB/sub 4/ (29 nM) and 20-COOH-LTB/sub 4/ (> 6.6 ..mu..M). HPLC analysis indicated that incubation of 84 ng LTB/sub 4/ with the spleen membrane at 25/sup 0/C did not result in the formation of 20-OH-LTB/sub 4/ (< 1 ng) in the filtrate. They conclude that guinea pig spleen contains a rich tissue source of high affinity (/sup 3/H)LTB/sub 4/ receptor binding sites.

  17. Tissue Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Dancau, Ana-Maria; Simon, Ronald; Mirlacher, Martina; Sauter, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Modern next-generation sequencing and microarray technologies allow for the simultaneous analysis of all human genes on the DNA, RNA, miRNA, and methylation RNA level. Studies using such techniques have lead to the identification of hundreds of genes with a potential role in cancer or other diseases. The validation of all of these candidate genes requires in situ analysis of high numbers of clinical tissues samples. The tissue microarray technology greatly facilitates such analysis. In this method minute tissue samples (typically 0.6 mm in diameter) from up to 1000 different tissues can be analyzed on one microscope glass slide. All in situ methods suitable for histological studies can be applied to TMAs without major changes of protocols, including immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, or RNA in situ hybridization. Because all tissues are analyzed simultaneously with the same batch of reagents, TMA studies provide an unprecedented degree of standardization, speed, and cost efficiency.

  18. Tissue Tregs.

    PubMed

    Panduro, Marisella; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

    2016-05-20

    The immune system is responsible for defending an organism against the myriad of microbial invaders it constantly confronts. It has become increasingly clear that the immune system has a second major function: the maintenance of organismal homeostasis. Foxp3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important contributors to both of these critical activities, defense being the primary purview of Tregs circulating through lymphoid organs, and homeostasis ensured mainly by their counterparts residing in parenchymal tissues. This review focuses on so-called tissue Tregs. We first survey existing information on the phenotype, function, sustaining factors, and human equivalents of the three best-characterized tissue-Treg populations-those operating in visceral adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and the colonic lamina propria. We then attempt to distill general principles from this body of work-as concerns the provenance, local adaptation, molecular sustenance, and targets of action of tissue Tregs, in particular.

  19. Tissue pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in human soft tissue infections

    PubMed Central

    Bellmann, Romuald; Kuchling, Gerald; Dehghanyar, Pejman; Zeitlinger, Markus; Minar, Erich; Mayer, Bernhard X; Müller, Markus; Joukhadar, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Aims The present study addressed the ability of levofloxacin to penetrate into subcutaneous adipose tissues in patients with soft tissue infection. Methods Tissue concentrations of levofloxacin in inflamed and healthy subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured in six patients by microdialysis after administration of a single intravenous dose of 500 mg. Levofloxacin was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results The mean concentration vs time profile of free levofloxacin in plasma was identical to that in inflamed and healthy tissues. The ratios of the mean area under the free levofloxacin concentration vs time curve from 0 to 10 h (AUC(0,10 h)) in tissue to that in plasma were 1.2 ± 1.0 for inflamed and 1.1 ± 0.6 for healthy subcutaneous adipose tissue (mean ± SD). The mean difference in the ratio of the AUCtissue : AUCplasma for inflamed and healthy tissue was 0.09 (95% confidence interval −0.58, 0.759, P > 0.05). Interindividual variability in tissue penetration was high, as indicated by a coefficient of variation of approximately 82% for AUCtissue : AUCplasma ratios. Conclusions The penetration of levofloxacin into tissue appears to be unaffected by local inflammation. Our plasma and tissue data suggest that an intravenous dose of 500 mg levofloxacin provides effective antibacterial concentrations at the target site. However, in treatment resistant patients, tissue concentrations may be sub-therapeutic. PMID:15089808

  20. Tissue Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, James

    2016-01-01

    Every day, 27,000 trees are used to make bathroom tissue. Americans use an average of 23.6 rolls per person per year, and more than 7 billion rolls of toilet paper are sold yearly in the United States alone. Perhaps the amount of bathroom tissue used can be reduced by changing the dimensions of the paper or the core. This brief article presents…

  1. Engineering graded tissue interfaces.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennifer E; Burns, Kellie L; Le Doux, Joseph M; Guldberg, Robert E; García, Andrés J

    2008-08-26

    Interfacial zones between tissues provide specialized, transitional junctions central to normal tissue function. Regenerative medicine strategies focused on multiple cell types and/or bi/tri-layered scaffolds do not provide continuously graded interfaces, severely limiting the integration and biological performance of engineered tissue substitutes. Inspired by the bone-soft tissue interface, we describe a biomaterial-mediated gene transfer strategy for spatially regulated genetic modification and differentiation of primary dermal fibroblasts within tissue-engineered constructs. We demonstrate that zonal organization of osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular phenotypes can be engineered by a simple, one-step seeding of fibroblasts onto scaffolds containing a spatial distribution of retrovirus encoding the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1. Gradients of immobilized retrovirus, achieved via deposition of controlled poly(L-lysine) densities, resulted in spatial patterns of transcription factor expression, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralized matrix deposition. Notably, this graded distribution of mineral deposition and mechanical properties was maintained when implanted in vivo in an ectopic site. Development of this facile and robust strategy is significant toward the regeneration of continuous interfacial zones that mimic the cellular and microstructural characteristics of native tissue.

  2. The CD11a binding site of efalizumab in psoriatic skin tissue as analyzed by Multi-Epitope Ligand Cartography robot technology. Introduction of a novel biological drug-binding biochip assay.

    PubMed

    Bonnekoh, B; Böckelmann, R; Pommer, A J; Malykh, Y; Philipsen, L; Gollnick, H

    2007-01-01

    Efalizumab (Raptiva) is an immunomodulating recombinant humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds to CD11a, the alpha-subunit of leukocyte function antigen-1 (LFA-1). By blocking the binding of LFA-1 to ICAM-1, efalizumab inhibits the adhesion of leukocytes to other cell types and interferes with the migration of T lymphocytes to sites of inflammation (including psoriatic skin plaques). Analysis of the response in patients treated with efalizumab to date shows that distinct groups of responders and nonresponders to the drug exist. It would therefore be of great practical value to be able to predict which patients are most likely to respond to treatment, by identifying key parameters in the mechanism of action of efalizumab. Detailed investigation and detection of multiple epitopes in microcompartments of skin tissue has until recently been restricted by the available technology. However, the newly developed technique of Multi-Epitope Ligand Cartography (MELC) robot technology combines proteomics and biomathematical tools to visualize protein networks at the cellular and subcellular levels in situ, and to decipher cell functions. The MELC technique, which is outlined in this paper, was used to help characterize the binding of efalizumab to affected and unaffected psoriatic skin as compared to normal control skin under ex vivomodel conditions. Efalizumab was labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate and integrated into a MELC library of more than 40 antibodies. These antibodies were selected for their potential to detect epitopes which may be indicative of (a) various cell types, (b) structural components of the extracellular matrix, or (c) the processes of cell proliferation, activation and adhesion. Efalizumab bound to CD11a in affected psoriatic skin by a factor 15x and 32x higher than in unaffected psoriatic skin and normal control skin, respectively. CD11a and the efalizumab binding site were primarily expressed in the extravascular dermis, whereas CD54 (ICAM

  3. Injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue for tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sung-Mi; You, Hi-Jin; Han, Seung-Kyu

    2014-11-01

    Soft tissue augmentation is a process of implanting tissues or materials to treat wrinkles or soft tissue defects in the body. Over the years, various materials have evolved to correct soft tissue defects, including a number of tissues and polymers. Autogenous dermis, autogenous fat, autogenous dermis-fat, allogenic dermis, synthetic implants, and fillers have been widely accepted for soft tissue augmentations. Tissue engineering technology has also been introduced and opened a new venue of opportunities in this field. In particular, a long-lasting filler consisting of hyaluronic acid filler and living human mesenchymal cells called "injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue" has been created and applied clinically, as this strategy has many advantages over conventional methods. Fibroblasts and adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction cells can be clinically used as injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue at present. In this review, information on the soft tissue augmentation method using the injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue is provided.

  4. Lymphoid Tissue Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Development and Tissue Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are sites that facilitate cell-cell interactions required for generating adaptive immune responses. Nonhematopoietic mesenchymal stromal cells have been shown to play a critical role in SLO function, organization, and tissue homeostasis. The stromal microenvironment undergoes profound remodeling to support immune responses. However, chronic inflammatory conditions can promote uncontrolled stromal cell activation and aberrant tissue remodeling including fibrosis, thus leading to tissue damage. Despite recent advancements, the origin and role of mesenchymal stromal cells involved in SLO development and remodeling remain unclear. PMID:27190524

  5. Dinitrotoluene in deer tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, L.R.

    1991-09-30

    Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP), Baraboo, Wisconsin, has within a security-fenced area, a herd of whitetail deer. The US Army and the State of Wisconsin, Department of Health and Social Services have determined that approximately 20 of the deer be harvested and tissue samples thus collected be analyzed for 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,4- and 2,6-DNT) by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to a sensitivity of 0.1 part per million (ppm). The HPLC analyses will be done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) following protocol used previously for similar work for other government sites. ORNL shall instruct Olin relative to the quantity and type of tissue required, storage and shipment requirements, and other information to ensure that all protocol and chain of custody requirements are clear. A final report will be made to Olin Corporation upon completion of the HPLC analyses.

  6. Tissue irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  7. Photochemical tissue bonding

    DOEpatents

    Redmond, Robert W.; Kochevar, Irene E.

    2012-01-10

    Photochemical tissue bonding methods include the application of a photosensitizer to a tissue and/or tissue graft, followed by irradiation with electromagnetic energy to produce a tissue seal. The methods are useful for tissue adhesion, such as in wound closure, tissue grafting, skin grafting, musculoskeletal tissue repair, ligament or tendon repair and corneal repair.

  8. Chitin scaffolds in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Rangasamy; Chennazhi, Krishna Prasad; Srinivasan, Sowmya; Nair, Shantikumar V; Furuike, Tetsuya; Tamura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering/regeneration is based on the hypothesis that healthy stem/progenitor cells either recruited or delivered to an injured site, can eventually regenerate lost or damaged tissue. Most of the researchers working in tissue engineering and regenerative technology attempt to create tissue replacements by culturing cells onto synthetic porous three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds, which is currently regarded as an ideal approach to enhance functional tissue regeneration by creating and maintaining channels that facilitate progenitor cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The requirements that must be satisfied by such scaffolds include providing a space with the proper size, shape and porosity for tissue development and permitting cells from the surrounding tissue to migrate into the matrix. Recently, chitin scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering due to their non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The advantage of chitin as a tissue engineering biomaterial lies in that it can be easily processed into gel and scaffold forms for a variety of biomedical applications. Moreover, chitin has been shown to enhance some biological activities such as immunological, antibacterial, drug delivery and have been shown to promote better healing at a faster rate and exhibit greater compatibility with humans. This review provides an overview of the current status of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine research using chitin scaffolds for bone, cartilage and wound healing applications. We also outline the key challenges in this field and the most likely directions for future development and we hope that this review will be helpful to the researchers working in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  9. Chitin Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Rangasamy; Chennazhi, Krishna Prasad; Srinivasan, Sowmya; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Furuike, Tetsuya; Tamura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering/regeneration is based on the hypothesis that healthy stem/progenitor cells either recruited or delivered to an injured site, can eventually regenerate lost or damaged tissue. Most of the researchers working in tissue engineering and regenerative technology attempt to create tissue replacements by culturing cells onto synthetic porous three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds, which is currently regarded as an ideal approach to enhance functional tissue regeneration by creating and maintaining channels that facilitate progenitor cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The requirements that must be satisfied by such scaffolds include providing a space with the proper size, shape and porosity for tissue development and permitting cells from the surrounding tissue to migrate into the matrix. Recently, chitin scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering due to their non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The advantage of chitin as a tissue engineering biomaterial lies in that it can be easily processed into gel and scaffold forms for a variety of biomedical applications. Moreover, chitin has been shown to enhance some biological activities such as immunological, antibacterial, drug delivery and have been shown to promote better healing at a faster rate and exhibit greater compatibility with humans. This review provides an overview of the current status of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine research using chitin scaffolds for bone, cartilage and wound healing applications. We also outline the key challenges in this field and the most likely directions for future development and we hope that this review will be helpful to the researchers working in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:21673928

  10. Tissue Photolithography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive

    2011-01-01

    Tissue lithography will enable physicians and researchers to obtain macromolecules with high purity (greater than 90 percent) from desired cells in conventionally processed, clinical tissues by simply annotating the desired cells on a computer screen. After identifying the desired cells, a suitable lithography mask will be generated to protect the contents of the desired cells while allowing destruction of all undesired cells by irradiation with ultraviolet light. The DNA from the protected cells can be used in a number of downstream applications including DNA sequencing. The purity (i.e., macromolecules isolated form specific cell types) of such specimens will greatly enhance the value and information of downstream applications. In this method, the specific cells are isolated on a microscope slide using photolithography, which will be faster, more specific, and less expensive than current methods. It relies on the fact that many biological molecules such as DNA are photosensitive and can be destroyed by ultraviolet irradiation. Therefore, it is possible to protect the contents of desired cells, yet destroy undesired cells. This approach leverages the technologies of the microelectronics industry, which can make features smaller than 1 micrometer with photolithography. A variety of ways has been created to achieve identification of the desired cell, and also to designate the other cells for destruction. This can be accomplished through chrome masks, direct laser writing, and also active masking using dynamic arrays. Image recognition is envisioned as one method for identifying cell nuclei and cell membranes. The pathologist can identify the cells of interest using a microscopic computerized image of the slide, and appropriate custom software. In one of the approaches described in this work, the software converts the selection into a digital mask that can be fed into a direct laser writer, e.g. the Heidelberg DWL66. Such a machine uses a metalized glass plate (with

  11. Special distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in brain tissues of free-range domestic hens and ducks from a village near an electronic waste recycling site in South China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Li, Yong-Fang; Fu, Shan; Zhao, Xing-Ru

    2011-03-01

    The rural village, Taizhou of Zhejiang Province, had been exposed to e-waste recycling for years, the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in hens and ducks were high. The concentration of ∑PBDEs in the brain was the lowest among tissues of individual hens and ducks after correction for the respective lipid content. Also, the concentration ratio of BDE-153 versus BDE-154 (153/154) of brain was the highest among tissues of individual hens and ducks. Our results indicate that the hindrance of blood-brain barrier to compounds, such as high molecular weight and non-planar conformation (steric hindrance), contributed to the low concentration of PBDEs in the brain tissue of hens and ducks, especially in cases exposed to high levels of PBDE.

  12. Tissue engineering strategies for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Amit S; Mikos, Antonios G

    2005-01-01

    Bone loss due to trauma or disease is an increasingly serious health problem. Current clinical treatments for critical-sized defects are problematic and often yield poor healing due to the complicated anatomy and physiology of bone tissue, as well as the limitations of medical technology. Bone tissue engineering offers a promising alternative strategy of healing severe bone injuries by utilizing the body's natural biological response to tissue damage in conjunction with engineering principles. Osteogenic cells, growth factors, and biomaterial scaffolds form the foundation of the many bone tissue engineering strategies employed to achieve repair and restoration of damaged tissue. An ideal biomaterial scaffold will provide mechanical support to an injured site and also deliver growth factors and cells into a defect to encourage tissue growth. Additionally, this biomaterial should degrade in a controlled manner without causing a significant inflammatory response. The following chapter highlights multiple strategies and the most recent advances in various areas of research for bone tissue regeneration.

  13. Biodegradable inflatable balloons for tissue separation.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arijit; Haim-Zada, Moran; Domb, Abraham J

    2016-10-01

    Confining radiation to a specific region (during radiation therapy) minimizes damage to surrounding tissues. Biodegradable inflatable balloons (bio-balloons) were developed. The device protects the normal tissues by increasing the gap between radiation source and critical structures. The radiation fades away while passing through the inflated balloon preventing the surrounding tissues from harmful radiation. These bio-balloons have also found clinical use to treat massive rotator cuff tear. This review summarizes the chemistry, engineering, and clinical development of these biomedical devices. These balloons are made of biodegradable polymers folded into the edge of a trocar and inserted between the tissues to be separated, and inflated by normal saline in the site of the application. The inserted balloon protects the tissues from radiation or mechanical stress. They remain inflated on site for two months and are finally eliminated within 12 months. PMID:27521613

  14. Ectopic lymphoid tissues and local immunity

    PubMed Central

    Carragher, Damian M.; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Randall, Troy D.

    2008-01-01

    Ectopic or tertiary lymphoid tissues develop at sites of inflammation or infection in peripheral, non-lymphoid organs. These tissues are architecturally similar to conventional secondary lymphoid organs, with separated B and T cell areas, specialized populations of dendritic cells, well-differentiated stromal cells and high endothelial venules. Ectopic lymphoid tissues are often associated with the local pathology that results from chronic infection or chronic inflammation. However, there are also examples in which ectopic lymphoid tissues appear to contribute to local protective immune responses. Here we review how ectopic lymphoid structures develop and function in the context of local immunity and pathology. PMID:18243731

  15. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... L. Goldstein, MD, MMSc (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  16. Necrotizing soft tissue infection

    MedlinePlus

    Necrotizing fasciitis; Fasciitis - necrotizing; Flesh-eating bacteria; Soft tissue gangrene; Gangrene - soft tissue ... Many different types of bacteria can cause this infection. A very severe and usually deadly form of necrotizing soft tissue infection is due to the ...

  17. Utilizing time-lapse micro-CT-correlated bisphosphonate binding kinetics and soft tissue-derived input functions to differentiate site-specific changes in bone metabolism in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tower, R J; Campbell, G M; Müller, M; Glüer, C C; Tiwari, S

    2015-05-01

    The turnover of bone is a tightly regulated process between bone formation and resorption to ensure skeletal homeostasis. This process differs between bone types, with trabecular bone often associated with higher turnover than cortical bone. Analyses of bone by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) reveal changes in structure and mineral content, but are limited in the study of metabolic activity at a single time point, while analyses of serum markers can reveal changes in bone metabolism, but cannot delineate the origin of any aberrant findings. To obtain a site-specific assessment of bone metabolic status, bisphosphonate binding kinetics were utilized. Using a fluorescently-labeled bisphosphonate, we show that early binding kinetics monitored in vivo using fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT) can monitor changes in bone metabolism in response to bone loss, stimulated by ovariectomy (OVX), or bone gain, resulting from treatment with the anabolic bone agent parathyroid hormone (PTH), and is capable of distinguishing different, metabolically distinct skeletal sites. Using time-lapse micro-CT, longitudinal bone turnover was quantified. The spine showed a significantly greater percent resorbing volume and surface in response to OVX, while mice treated with PTH showed significantly greater resorbing volume per bone surface in the spine and significantly greater forming surfaces in the knee. Correlation studies between binding kinetics and micro-CT suggest that forming surfaces, as assessed by time-lapse micro-CT, are preferentially reflected in the rate constant values while forming and resorbing bone volumes primarily affect plateau values. Additionally, we developed a blood pool correction method which now allows for quantitative multi-compartment analyses to be conducted using FMT. These results further expand our understanding of bisphosphonate binding and the use of bisphosphonate binding kinetics as a tool to monitor site-specific changes in bone metabolism in

  18. Value siting

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrar, T.A.; Howes, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    Finding an appropriate site is becoming an increasing challenge in building new power projects. One of the first orders of business in project development is identifying a site that offers the maximum spread between the cost of fuel and net power price. The collection of sites that exhibit an adequate spread - presenting a first-order, acceptable economic expectation - must now be subjected to an ever increasing number of political, societal, technical, and economic exclusion screens. The barriers can include cooling water constraints, community resistance, visual incompatibility, archaeological concerns and endangered species preservation issues. Most power siting difficulties can be substantially mitigated by gaining access to developed, but under-used sites, whose current owners are bound by circumstances - political or financial - that prevent them from using such locations. There are two such categories of sites: Utilities that have sites on which depreciated power production assets rest; and, The federal government, with numerous sites throughout the country, particularly military bases subject to closure under the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) proceedings. It is in the interests of developers, as well as consumers, investors and taxpayers, ti undertake a thorough examination of these overlooked pearls of opportunities and develop their potential.

  19. Tissue bionics: examples in biomimetic tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Green, David W

    2008-09-01

    Many important lessons can be learnt from the study of biological form and the functional design of organisms as design criteria for the development of tissue engineering products. This merging of biomimetics and regenerative medicine is termed 'tissue bionics'. Clinically useful analogues can be generated by appropriating, modifying and mimicking structures from a diversity of natural biomatrices ranging from marine plankton shells to sea urchin spines. Methods in biomimetic materials chemistry can also be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with added functional utility that promise human tissues fit for the clinic.

  20. [Research progress in peri-implant soft tissue engineering augmentation method].

    PubMed

    Pei, Tingting; Yu, Hongqiang; Wen, Chaoju; Guo, Tianqi; Zhou, Yanmin; Peng, Huimin

    2016-05-01

    The sufficiency of hard and soft tissue at the implant site is the guarantee of long-term function, health and the appearance of implant denture. Problem of soft tissue recession at the implant site has always been bothering dentists. Traditional methods for augmentation of soft tissue such as gingival transplantation have disadvantages of instability of the increased soft-tissue and more trauma. Lately the methods that base on tissue engineering to increase the soft tissue of peri-implant sites have drawn great attention. This review focuses on the current methods of peri-implant restoration through tissue engineering, seed cells, biological scaffolds and cytokines. PMID:27220393

  1. Skin tissue engineering for the infected wound site: biodegradable PLA nanofibers and a novel approach for silver ion release evaluated in a 3D coculture system of keratinocytes and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, Mahsa; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2014-10-01

    Wound infection presents a challenging and growing problem. With the increased prevalence and growth of multidrug-resistant bacteria, there is a mounting need to reduce and eliminate wound infections using methodologies that limit the ability of bacteria to evolve into further drug-resistant strains. A well-known strategy for combating bacterial infection and preventing wound sepsis is through the delivery of silver ions to the wound site. High surface area silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) allowing extensive silver ion release have therefore been explored in different wound dressings and/or skin substitutes. However, it has been recently shown that AgNPs can penetrate into the stratum corneum of skin or diffuse into the cellular plasma membrane, and may interfere with a variety of cellular mechanisms. The goal of this study was to introduce and evaluate a new type of high surface area metallic silver in the form of highly porous silver microparticles (AgMPs). Polylactic acid (PLA) nanofibers were successfully loaded with either highly porous AgMPs or AgNPs and the antimicrobial efficacy and cytotoxicity of the two silver-based wound dressings were assessed and compared. To better mimic the physiological environment in vivo where both human cells and bacteria are present, a novel coculture system combining human epidermal keratinocytes and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was designed to simultaneously evaluate human skin cell cytotoxicity with antimicrobial efficacy in a three-dimensional environment. We found that highly porous AgMPs could be successfully incorporated in nanofibrous wound dressings, and exhibited comparable antimicrobial efficacy and cytotoxicity to AgNPs. Further, PLA nanofibers containing highly porous AgMPs exhibited steady silver ion release, at a greater rate of release, than nanofibers containing AgNPs. The replacement of AgNPs with the newly introduced AgMPs overcomes concerns regarding the use of nanoparticles and holds great promise as skin

  2. Variation in alternative splicing across human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Gene; Holste, Dirk; Kreiman, Gabriel; Burge, Christopher B

    2004-01-01

    Background Alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) is widely used by higher eukaryotes to generate different protein isoforms in specific cell or tissue types. To compare AS events across human tissues, we analyzed the splicing patterns of genomically aligned expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from libraries of cDNAs from different tissues. Results Controlling for differences in EST coverage among tissues, we found that the brain and testis had the highest levels of exon skipping. The most pronounced differences between tissues were seen for the frequencies of alternative 3' splice site and alternative 5' splice site usage, which were about 50 to 100% higher in the liver than in any other human tissue studied. Quantifying differences in splice junction usage, the brain, pancreas, liver and the peripheral nervous system had the most distinctive patterns of AS. Analysis of available microarray expression data showed that the liver had the most divergent pattern of expression of serine-arginine protein and heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein genes compared to the other human tissues studied, possibly contributing to the unusually high frequency of alternative splice site usage seen in liver. Sequence motifs enriched in alternative exons in genes expressed in the brain, testis and liver suggest specific splicing factors that may be important in AS regulation in these tissues. Conclusions This study distinguishes the human brain, testis and liver as having unusually high levels of AS, highlights differences in the types of AS occurring commonly in different tissues, and identifies candidate cis-regulatory elements and trans-acting factors likely to have important roles in tissue-specific AS in human cells. PMID:15461793

  3. Fluroine-18 labeled 28-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-[-3-fluoropropyl] nortropane(FPT): Synthesis and tissue distribution of a potential, radioligand for mapping cocaine receptor sites by PET

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, R.; Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1995-05-01

    Highly potent and selective radioligands for the dopamine transporter labeled with fluorine-18 (t {1/2}=110 min) are attractive probes for longitudinal in vivo mapping of cocaine receptor sites in the caudate by PET. Recently, we reported an iodine-123 labeled 3{beta}-aryl analog of cocaine, 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-((E)-3-iodopropen-1-yl)nortropane, which was 125 times more potent than cocaine in inhibiting [I-125] RTI-55 binding to rat striatal homogenates and which showed high striatal (S) uptake (0.61% dose/g) and high S to cerebellum (C) ratio S/C=16.5 at 120 min in rats. These results demonstrated bulk tolerance at the 8-position of this I-123 analog. These findings prompted us to synthesize a new radioligand fluorine-18 labeled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-3-fluoropropylnortropane (FPT) as a potential cocaine receptor PET imaging agent. Treatment of 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(chlorophenyl) nortropane (1) with 1-bromo-3-fluoropropane (2) in CH3CN at 80{degrees}C afforded FPT (3). In Vitro binding studies in rat striatal homogenates using [I-125] RTI-55 resulted in a Ki (nM) of 8.2 for FPT. [F-18]FPT (3) was prepared by treating 1,3-diiodopropane (4) with NCA K[F-18]/K222 for 5 min in CH3CN at 85{degrees}C to give [F-18] 1-fluoro-3-iodopropane (5) in 50% E.O.B. yield. Coupling of [F-18] 5 with 1 in CH3CN at 60{degrees}C afforded [F-18]FPT in 5% yield (not optimized) E.O.B. following HPLC purification in a total synthesis time of 100 min.. [F-18]5 was >99% radiochemically pure with a specific activity of 8 Ci/{mu}mole. Following intravenous administration to rats [F-18]FPT showed high uptake in the striatum (S) with rapid washout from the cerebellum to afford a high S/C ratios=6.2 at 120 min. Primate imaging will also be presented. These results suggest that FPT is an excellent candidate for mapping cocaine receptor sites by PET.

  4. Tissue damage detection by osmotic surveillance.

    PubMed

    Enyedi, Balázs; Kala, Snigdha; Nikolich-Zugich, Tijana; Niethammer, Philipp

    2013-09-01

    How tissue damage is detected to induce inflammatory responses is unclear. Most studies have focused on damage signals released by cell breakage and necrosis. Whether tissues use other cues in addition to cell lysis to detect that they are damaged is unknown. We find that osmolarity differences between interstitial fluid and the external environment mediate rapid leukocyte recruitment to sites of tissue damage in zebrafish by activating cytosolic phospholipase a2 (cPLA2) at injury sites. cPLA2 initiates the production of non-canonical arachidonate metabolites that mediate leukocyte chemotaxis through a 5-oxo-ETE receptor (OXE-R). Thus, tissues can detect damage through direct surveillance of barrier integrity, with cell swelling probably functioning as a pro-inflammatory intermediate in the process. PMID:23934216

  5. Affinities and densities of high-affinity (/sup 3/H)muscimol (GABA-A) binding sites and of central benzodiazepine receptors are unchanged in autopsied brain tissue from cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Butterworth, R.F.; Lavoie, J.; Giguere, J.F.; Pomier-Layrargues, G.

    1988-09-01

    The integrity of GABA-A receptors and of central benzodiazepine receptors was evaluated in membrane preparations from prefrontal cortex and caudate nuclei obtained at autopsy from nine cirrhotic patients who died in hepatic coma and an equal number of age-matched control subjects. Histopathological studies revealed Alzheimer Type II astrocytosis in all cases in the cirrhotic group; controls were free from neurological, psychiatric or hepatic diseases. Binding to GABA-A receptors was studied using (/sup 3/H)muscimol as radioligand. The integrity of central benzodiazepine receptors was evaluated using (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam and (/sup 3/H)Ro15-1788. Data from saturation binding assays was analyzed by Scatchard plot. No modifications of either affinities (Kd) or densities (Bmax) of (/sup 3/H)muscimol of central benzodiazepine binding sites were observed. These findings do not support recent suggestions that alterations of either high-affinity GABA or benzodiazepine receptors play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  6. Tissue oxygen measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soller, Babs R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A device and method in accordance with the invention for determining the oxygen partial pressure (PO.sub.2) of a tissue by irradiating the tissue with optical radiation such that the light is emitted from the tissue, and by collecting the reflected or transmitted light from the tissue to form an optical spectrum. A spectral processor determines the PO.sub.2 level in tissue by processing this spectrum with a previously-constructed spectral calibration model. The tissue may, for example, be disposed underneath a covering tissue, such as skin, of a patient, and the tissue illuminated and light collected through the skin. Alternatively, direct tissue illumination and collection may be effected with a hand-held or endoscopic probe. A preferred system also determines pH from the same spectrum, and the processor may determine critical conditions and issue warnings based on parameter values.

  7. Engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Atala, Anthony; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2012-11-14

    Tissue engineering has emerged at the intersection of numerous disciplines to meet a global clinical need for technologies to promote the regeneration of functional living tissues and organs. The complexity of many tissues and organs, coupled with confounding factors that may be associated with the injury or disease underlying the need for repair, is a challenge to traditional engineering approaches. Biomaterials, cells, and other factors are needed to design these constructs, but not all tissues are created equal. Flat tissues (skin); tubular structures (urethra); hollow, nontubular, viscus organs (vagina); and complex solid organs (liver) all present unique challenges in tissue engineering. This review highlights advances in tissue engineering technologies to enable regeneration of complex tissues and organs and to discuss how such innovative, engineered tissues can affect the clinic.

  8. Tissue engineering in urology.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, C J; Kratz, G

    2001-05-01

    Techniques that are aimed at regeneration of human tissues and organs (tissue engineering) have recently entered into clinical practice. Tissue engineering is currently among the fastest growing areas in medicine, and involves the application of the principles of biology and engineering to the development of functional substitutes for damaged tissues. One of the main limitations of reconstructive surgery in the genitourinary tract is the lack of autologous tissue. This could be changed by the ability to cultivate the patient's own tissues in vitro, or by stimulating the cells in vivo into regeneration of new tissues. The present review discusses how tissue engineering can be used to regenerate some of the tissues of the genitourinary tract. Even though these methods have only recently been introduced clinically into genitourinary medicine, numerous scientific studies have been reported that indicate that these techniques may be of great importance in the near future.

  9. Radiofluorinated 3-(2{prime}-fluoroethyl)-2-thienylspiperone (FETS): Synthesis, pharmacologic characterization, tissue distribution and primate imaging of a selective radioligand for mapping D2 receptor sites by PET

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M.M.; Shi, B.; Hoffman, J.

    1995-05-01

    Abnormally high dopaminergic neurotransmission has been implicated in schizophrenia. A number of radiolabeled analogs of spiperone, a potent antipyschotic with a high (nanomolar) affinity for dopamine D2 receptors, have been synthesized for quantifying D2 receptors in humans. An undesired property accompanying high striatal uptake of radiolabeled spiperone (SPIP) analogs is high affinity for serotonin 5-IIT2 receptors. A potent spiperone analog which selectively binds to D2 receptors would be valuable in studying regional dopaminergic aberrations in schizophrenia. We have synthesized new potent radioligands [F-18] labeled 3-(2{prime}-fluoroethyl)-2-thienylspiperone (FETS) and 3-(3{prime}-fluoropropyl)-2-thienylspiperone (FPTS) for quantifying D2 receptors by PET. In vitro binding studies for D2 receptors in rat striatal homogenates using [H-3]raclopride afforded Ki`s (nM) of 1.07 for SPIP, 2.02 for FETS, 3.45 for FES and 5.45 for FPTS. In vitro binding studies for 5-HT2 receptors in rat cortical homogenates using [H-3]ketanserin afforded Ki`s (nM) of 1.86 for SPIP, 6.03 for FES, 20 for FPTS and 67 for FETS. Thus, FETS was found to be a potent and the most selective (Ki 5-HT2/Ki D2=33.5) spiperone ligand for D2 receptors. [F-18]FETS was synthesized in 41% E.O.B. by NCA K[F-18]/K222 exchange for tosylate from 3-(2{sup {prime}}-tosylethyl)-2-thienylspiperone in CH3CN at 100{degrees}C. HPLC purification afforded [F-18]FETS with a specific activity of 8 Ci/{mu}mole in a total synthesis time of 90 min. Following femoral vein injection in rats [F-18]FETS showed good uptake and retention in striatal (S) tissue (0.91% dose/g at 60 min) with clearance from the cerebellum (C) (0.24% dose/g at 60 min) giving S/C = 3.6 at 60 min. [F-18]FETS (6.0 mCi) was also administered to a rhesus monkey and showed high uptake and retention in the basal ganglia with S/C = 6.0 and 10.0 at 1 h and 2 h post injection respectively.

  10. Measuring tissue oxygenation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soyemi, Olusola O. (Inventor); Soller, Babs R. (Inventor); Yang, Ye (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for calculating tissue oxygenation, e.g., oxygen saturation, in a target tissue are disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods include: (a) directing incident radiation to a target tissue and determining reflectance spectra of the target tissue by measuring intensities of reflected radiation from the target tissue at a plurality of radiation wavelengths; (b) correcting the measured intensities of the reflectance spectra to reduce contributions thereto from skin and fat layers through which the incident radiation propagates; (c) determining oxygen saturation in the target tissue based on the corrected reflectance spectra; and (d) outputting the determined value of oxygen saturation.

  11. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  12. Frequency doubling of ultrashort laser pulses in biological tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Beop-Min; Eichler, Juergen; Da Silva, Luiz B.

    1999-12-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of second-harmonic generation (SHG) in biological tissues was performed by use of ultrashort laser pulses (<1 ps). A simplified one-dimensional model for the generation and the propagation of frequency-doubled light inside tissue was developed. This model was tested in vitro against measurements of pig and chicken tissue and human tooth. The experimental results indicate that the intensity of SHG varies significantly among tissues types and between test sites in individual tissue. Possibilities of using this nonlinear tissue property in imaging and diagnostics are discussed. (c) 1999 Optical Society of America.

  13. Transcript abundance of the pig stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene has no effect on fatty acid composition in muscle and fat tissues, but its polymorphism within the putative microRNA target site is associated with daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio.

    PubMed

    Bartz, M; Szydlowski, M; Kociucka, B; Salamon, S; Jeleń, H H; Switonski, M

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid composition in porcine intramuscular fat affects the dietetic value and technological properties of meat. The stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene is a strong positional and functional candidate for fatty acid composition. Our sequence analysis in 4 breeds (Duroc, Pietrain, Polish Landrace, and Polish Large White) revealed a novel SNP in the 5'-flanking sequence and 9 novel SNP and 2 novel indels in the 3' untranslated region (UTR). Transcript level of the SCD in subcutaneous fat was significantly greater than in muscle tissue (n=83; P<0.001) and the interbreed comparison revealed a greater transcript level in the fat tissue of Polish Landrace (P<0.01). We found no association between the abundance of the SCD transcript and fatty acid composition in any of the tissues. We performed an association analysis between 4 SNP (c.-353C>T, c.-233T>C, c.*164A>G, and c.*928G>C), 1 indel (c.*2574_2576delGTC), and production traits in Polish Large White (n=185) and synthetic line 990 (n=243). The most pronounced associations were observed for the c.*928G>C polymorphism, which occurs within a predicted target site for 2 microRNA (ssc-miR-185 and ssc-miR-491). In line 990, this polymorphism was significantly associated with daily BW gain (P<0.04 under the general model) and feed conversion ratio (P<0.0004) but not with fatness traits. The same tendency, but not significant, was observed in the Polish Large White breed. When both breeds were analyzed together, these associations were again highly significant (daily BW gain P<0.003; feed conversion ratio P<0.0001). We conclude that c.*928G>C is a promising marker for both porcine traits.

  14. Connective Tissue Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Connective tissue is the material inside your body that supports many of its parts. It is the "cellular ... their work. Cartilage and fat are examples of connective tissue. There are over 200 disorders that impact connective ...

  15. Chronic Wasting Disease Positive Tissue Bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Scott D.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the USGS National Wildlife Health Center entered into an agreement with the Wyoming Game and Fish Department and the Department of Veterinary Sciences at the University of Wyoming to produce a collection of positive tissues from cervids intentionally infected with chronic wasting disease. This agreement was facilitated through the University of Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Unit. Also, the investigators on this project sampled the animals incrementally over 2 years to show changes over time, and examined tissues from the animals by immunohistochemistry. CWD positive tissues are catalogued by species, sample site and time of infection. These data and more will soon be published.

  16. Injectable fillers for facial soft tissue enhancement.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A P; Romo, T

    2000-01-01

    Soft tissue augmentation materials have been advocated for correction of post-surgical or post-traumatic facial defects, as well as for age-related folds and wrinkles. While autogenous tissues may be the safest option, they require a second operative site. Animal-derived or synthetic materials have been advocated since the late 19th century, and have waxed and waned in popularity. In recent years, we have gained a better understanding of the physical events that occur when material is placed within or below the skin. With this knowledge, we stand at the threshold of a new era, where soft tissue fillers can be designed and customized to suit the individual patient. This article will review the major materials that have been or are now advocated for use as soft tissue fillers, and will detail their relative strengths and weaknesses in order to give the clinician a better perspective when considering a material for soft tissue augmentation.

  17. Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Le, Hanh N. D.; Decker, Ryan; Kim, Peter C. W.; Kang, Jin U.; Krieger, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure that restores bowel continuity after surgical resection to treat intestinal malignancy, inflammation, or obstruction. Despite the routine nature of intestinal anastomosis procedures, the rate of complications is high. Standard visual inspection cannot distinguish the tissue subsurface and small changes in spectral characteristics of the tissue, so existing tissue anastomosis techniques that rely on human vision to guide suturing could lead to problems such as bleeding and leakage from suturing sites. We present a proof-of-concept study using a portable multispectral imaging (MSI) platform for tissue characterization and preoperative surgical planning in intestinal anastomosis. The platform is composed of a fiber ring light-guided MSI system coupled with polarizers and image analysis software. The system is tested on ex vivo porcine intestine tissue, and we demonstrate the feasibility of identifying optimal regions for suture placement.

  18. Phenotypic Transitions of Macrophages Orchestrate Tissue Repair

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Margaret L.; Koh, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are essential for the efficient healing of numerous tissues, and they contribute to impaired healing and fibrosis. Tissue repair proceeds through overlapping phases of inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling, and macrophages are present throughout this progression. Macrophages exhibit transitions in phenotype and function as tissue repair progresses, although the precise factors regulating these transitions remain poorly defined. In efficiently healing injuries, macrophages present during a given stage of repair appear to orchestrate transition into the next phase and, in turn, can promote debridement of the injury site, cell proliferation and angiogenesis, collagen deposition, and matrix remodeling. However, dysregulated macrophage function can contribute to failure to heal or fibrosis in several pathological situations. This review will address current knowledge of the origins and functions of macrophages during the progression of tissue repair, with emphasis on skin and skeletal muscle. Dysregulation of macrophages in disease states and therapies targeting macrophage activation to promote tissue repair are also discussed. PMID:24091222

  19. Live birth after ovarian tissue transplant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. M.; Yeoman, R. R.; Battaglia, D. E.; Stouffer, R. L.; Zelinski-Wooten, M. B.; Fanton, J. W.; Wolf, D. P.

    2004-03-01

    Radiation and high-dose chemotherapy may render women with cancer prematurely sterile, a side-effect that would be avoided if ovarian tissue that had been removed before treatment could be made to function afterwards. Live offspring have been produced from transplanted ovarian tissue in mice and sheep but not in monkeys or humans, although sex steroid hormones are still secreted. Here we describe the successful transplantation of fresh ovarian tissue to a different site in a monkey, which has led to the birth of a healthy female after oocyte production, fertilization and transfer to a surrogate mother. The ectopically grafted tissue functions without surgical connection to major blood vessels and sets the stage for the transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue in humans.

  20. Progress in free tissue transfer.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, B M; Kumar, P A

    1990-01-01

    The development of microsurgical techniques has supplied plastic surgery with a new chance to transfer tissue to nearly any recipient site of the body. Classical methods still have their value but also their limits in many circumstances. Free tissue transfer has proved its advantages, especially in covering defects in the lower extremity; but microsurgical flaps also gain ground in reconstructive surgery of the head and neck, the female breast, the abdominal wall, and the hands. This article will survey well-classified microsurgical flaps, their indications, and their limits. In addition to a description of skin, fasciocutaneous, septocutaneous, and musculocutaneous flaps, we also include the latest detailed knowledge of free transfer of muscles, vascularized tendons, nerves, bones, and even joints, digits, and jejunal transfer. An outlook toward new perspectives with so-called prefabricated flaps will also be discussed. PMID:2256350

  1. Tissue Engineering Strategies for the Regeneration of Orthopaedic Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Helen H.; Subramony, Siddarth D.; Boushell, Margaret K.; Zhang, Xinzhi

    2013-01-01

    A major focus in the field of orthopaedic tissue engineering is the development of tissue engineered bone and soft tissue grafts with biomimetic functionality to allow for their translation to the clinical setting. One of the most significant challenges of this endeavor is promoting the biological fixation of these grafts with each other as well as the implant site. Such fixation requires strategic biomimicry to be incorporated into the scaffold design in order to re-establish the critical structure-function relationship of the native soft tissue-to-bone interface. The integration of distinct tissue types (e.g. bone and soft tissues such as cartilage, ligaments, or tendons), requires a multi-phased or stratified scaffold with distinct yet continuous tissue regions accompanied by a gradient of mechanical properties that mimics that of the multi-tissue transition between bone and soft tissues. This review discusses tissue engineering strategies for regenerating common tissue-to-tissue interfaces (ligament-to-bone, tendon-to-bone or cartilage-to-bone), and the strategic biomimicry implemented in stratified scaffold design for multi-tissue regeneration. Potential challenges and future directions in this emerging field will also be presented. It is anticipated that interface tissue engineering will enable integrative soft tissue repair, and will be instrumental for the development of complex musculoskeletal tissue systems with biomimetic complexity and functionality. PMID:20422291

  2. Tissue identification by ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecroissette, D. H.; Heyser, R. C.; Gammell, P. M.; Wilson, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The ultrasonic properties of animal and human soft tissue were measured over the frequency range of 1.5 to 10.0 MHz. The method employed a swept-frequency, coherent technique known as time delay spectrometry. Measurements of attenuation versus frequency on liver, backfat, kidney, pancreas, spleen, breast, and other tissue were made. Considerable attention was paid to tissue handling and in determining the effects of fixing on the attenuation of ultrasound in the tissue.

  3. Tissue transfer techniques in reconstructive urology

    PubMed Central

    Bryk, Darren J; Yamaguchi, Yuka

    2015-01-01

    Tissue transfer techniques are an essential part of the reconstructive urologist's armamentarium. Flaps and graft techniques are widely used in genital and urethral reconstruction. A graft is tissue that is moved from a donor site to a recipient site without its native blood supply. The main types of grafts used in urology are full thickness grafts, split thickness skin grafts and buccal mucosa grafts. Flaps are transferred from the donor site to the recipient site on a pedicle containing its native blood supply. Flaps can be classified based on blood supply, elevation methods or the method of transfer. The most used flaps in urology include penile, preputial, and scrotal skin. We review the various techniques used in reconstructive urology and the outcomes of these techniques. PMID:26175866

  4. Development of tissue bank

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole. PMID:23162240

  5. Site Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Eric C.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a guide to planning and building a Web site, with an emphasis on setting up a Web server. Discussion includes hiring a consultant, contracts and payment, assembly of teams, training, development of a business plan, registration of domain name, purchase of hardware and software, local area networks, and types of Internet connection. (JKP)

  6. Tissue engineering of reproductive tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Atala, Anthony

    2012-07-01

    Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technology may soon offer new hope for patients with serious injuries and end-stage reproductive organ failure. Scientists are now applying the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that can restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured reproductive tissues. In addition, the stem cell field is advancing, and new discoveries in this field will lead to new therapeutic strategies. For example, newly discovered types of stem cells have been retrieved from uterine tissues such as amniotic fluid and placental stem cells. The process of therapeutic cloning and the creation of induced pluripotent cells provide still other potential sources of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering applications. Although stem cells are still in the research phase, some therapies arising from tissue engineering endeavors that make use of autologous adult cells have already entered the clinic. This article discusses these tissue engineering strategies for various organs in the male and female reproductive tract.

  7. Mechanics of tissue compaction.

    PubMed

    Turlier, Hervé; Maître, Jean-Léon

    2015-12-01

    During embryonic development, tissues deform by a succession and combination of morphogenetic processes. Tissue compaction is the morphogenetic process by which a tissue adopts a tighter structure. Recent studies characterized the respective roles of cells' adhesive and contractile properties in tissue compaction. In this review, we formalize the mechanical and molecular principles of tissue compaction and we analyze through the prism of this framework several morphogenetic events: the compaction of the early mouse embryo, the formation of the fly retina, the segmentation of somites and the separation of germ layers during gastrulation.

  8. Adipose tissue angiogenesis assay.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rodriguez, Raziel; Gealekman, Olga; Kruse, Maxwell E; Rosenthal, Brittany; Rao, Kishore; Min, Soyun; Bellve, Karl D; Lifshitz, Lawrence M; Corvera, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Changes in adipose tissue mass must be accompanied by parallel changes in microcirculation. Investigating the mechanisms that regulate adipose tissue angiogenesis could lead to better understanding of adipose tissue function and reveal new potential therapeutic strategies. Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new capillaries from existing microvessels. This process can be recapitulated in vitro, by incubation of tissue in extracellular matrix components in the presence of pro-angiogenic factors. Here, we describe a method to study angiogenesis from adipose tissue fragments obtained from mouse and human tissue. This assay can be used to define effects of diverse factors added in vitro, as well as the role of endogenously produced factors on angiogenesis. We also describe approaches to quantify angiogenic potential for the purpose of enabling comparisons between subjects, thus providing information on the role of physiological conditions of the donor on adipose tissue angiogenic potential.

  9. Engineering Complex Tissues

    PubMed Central

    MIKOS, ANTONIOS G.; HERRING, SUSAN W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; ELISSEEFF, JENNIFER; LU, HELEN H.; KANDEL, RITA; SCHOEN, FREDERICK J.; TONER, MEHMET; MOONEY, DAVID; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; KAPLAN, DAVID; VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC, GORDANA

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and vasculogenesis, explained that the vascular arrangement precedes and dictates the architecture of the new bone, and proposed that engineering of osseous tissues might benefit from preconstruction of an appropriate vasculature. Jennifer Elisseeff explored the formation of complex tissue structures based on the example of stratified cartilage engineered using stem cells and hydrogels. Helen Lu discussed engineering of tissue interfaces, a problem critical for biological fixation of tendons and ligaments, and the development of a new generation of fixation devices. Rita Kandel discussed the challenges related to the re-creation of the cartilage-bone interface, in the context of tissue engineered joint repair. Frederick Schoen emphasized, in the context of heart valve engineering, the need for including the requirements derived from “adult biology” of tissue remodeling and establishing reliable early predictors of success or failure of tissue engineered implants. Mehmet Toner presented a review of biopreservation techniques and stressed that a new breakthrough in this field may be necessary to meet all the needs of tissue engineering. David Mooney described systems providing temporal and spatial regulation of growth factor availability, which may find utility in virtually all tissue engineering and regeneration applications, including directed in vitro and in vivo vascularization of tissues. Anthony Atala offered a clinician’s perspective for functional tissue

  10. Septal cartilage tissue engineering: new horizons.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jacqueline J; Watson, Deborah

    2010-10-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering is a dynamically changing field that has the potential to address some of the tissue repair challenges seen in nasal and craniofacial reconstructive surgeries. The scope of the problem includes limited autologous tissue availability, donor site morbidity associated with the harvesting of these tissue grafts, and the risk of an immune reaction to allogenic or synthetic implants that might be used as alternatives. Current tissue engineering strategies involve harvesting a small biopsy specimen from a patient and then isolating chondrocytes through enzymatic digestion of the extracellular matrix. These isolated chondrocytes can be expanded in monolayer and reseeded into a three-dimensional scaffold that could potentially be used as autologous surgical grafts. Using cell-expansion techniques, it would be feasible to generate abundant amounts of cartilage in defined shapes and sizes. The ideal tissue-engineered cartilage would resemble native tissue in terms of its biochemical, structural, and metabolic properties so that it could restore stability, function, and contour to the damaged or defective facial region. In this article, emerging technology and major challenges are described to highlight recent advances and overall trends within septal cartilage tissue engineering.

  11. Histopathological evaluation of tissue undergoing thermal insult

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Minal; Bonde, Dushyant; Patil, Swati; Gawande, Madhuri; Hande, Alka; Jain, Deepali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Thermal insult is the major cause of thermal injury or death and in case of death due to thermal injury the body often has to be recovered from the site. Histologically, one can predict whether the victim was alive or dead when the fire was on going. However, determination of probable cause of thermal insult to which victim subjected to be difficult when the victim's body is found somewhere else from the crime scene or accident site or found alone. Hence, histopathological evaluation of the tissue which has undergone thermal insult in such conditions could help to place evidence in front of law officials, regarding probable condition, or scenario at time of burn of victim. Aims: Keeping this as a criteria in this study we aim to evaluate burnt tissue histopathologically, that undergone various degree of thermal insult, which simulates various real life scenario for mortality in burn cases. Settings and Design: We evaluate the changes in hematoxylin and eosin staining pattern of tissue which has undergone thermal insult compared to normal tissue and also the progressive changes in staining pattern, architectural, and cellular details. Materials and Methods: Samples were taken from the patients, in various surgical procedures. Each sample was cut into five parts with close margins so that each burnt tissue is evaluated for same field or region. The tissue that obtained was immediately subjected to varying degree of temperature over a specific period so as to simulate the various real-life condition. Then the tissues were fixed, processed, and stained with routine H and E staining. The processed slides of tissue were examined under the microscope, and the staining, and architectural changes were evaluated and described. Results: Results show that there was a progressive changes in the architectural pattern of the epithelium and connective tissue showing cleft formation and vacuolization, staining pattern also shows mixing of stains progressively as the

  12. Engineering Orthopedic Tissue Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    While a wide variety of approaches to engineering orthopedic tissues have been proposed, less attention has been paid to the interfaces, the specialized areas that connect two tissues of different biochemical and mechanical properties. The interface tissue plays an important role in transitioning mechanical load between disparate tissues. Thus, the relatively new field of interfacial tissue engineering presents new challenges—to not only consider the regeneration of individual orthopedic tissues, but also to design the biochemical and cellular composition of the linking tissue. Approaches to interfacial tissue engineering may be distinguished based on if the goal is to recreate the interface itself, or generate an entire integrated tissue unit (such as an osteochondral plug). As background for future efforts in engineering orthopedic interfaces, a brief review of the biology and mechanics of each interface (cartilage–bone, ligament–bone, meniscus–bone, and muscle–tendon) is presented, followed by an overview of the state-of-the-art in engineering each tissue, including advances and challenges specific to regenerating the interfaces. PMID:19231983

  13. 42 CFR 82.18 - How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... primary cancer site(s)? 82.18 Section 82.18 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.18 How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s... cancer covered by a claim is in a tissue not covered by existing ICRP models, NIOSH will use the...

  14. 42 CFR 82.18 - How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... primary cancer site(s)? 82.18 Section 82.18 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.18 How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s... cancer covered by a claim is in a tissue not covered by existing ICRP models, NIOSH will use the...

  15. 42 CFR 82.18 - How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... primary cancer site(s)? 82.18 Section 82.18 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.18 How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s... cancer covered by a claim is in a tissue not covered by existing ICRP models, NIOSH will use the...

  16. 42 CFR 82.18 - How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... primary cancer site(s)? 82.18 Section 82.18 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.18 How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s... cancer covered by a claim is in a tissue not covered by existing ICRP models, NIOSH will use the...

  17. 42 CFR 82.18 - How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... primary cancer site(s)? 82.18 Section 82.18 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.18 How will NIOSH calculate internal dose to the primary cancer site(s... cancer covered by a claim is in a tissue not covered by existing ICRP models, NIOSH will use the...

  18. Tissue blood flow mapping using laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, Karin; Linden, Maria; Nilsson, Gert E.

    1995-03-01

    By the introduction of the laser Doppler perfusion imager (LDPI) the microvascular blood flow in a tissue area can be mapped by sequentially moving a laser beam over the tissue. The measurement is performed without touching the tissue and the captured perfusion values in the peripheral circulation are presented as a color-coded image. In the ordinary LDPI-set-up, 64 X 64 measurement sites cover an area in the range of about 10 - 150 cm2 depending on system settings. With a high resolution modification, recordings can be done on tissue areas as small as 1 cm2. This high resolution option has been assessed in animal models for the mapping of small vessels. To be able to record not only spatial but also temporal perfusion components of tissue blood flow, different local area scans (LAS) have been developed. These include single point recording as well as integration of either 2 X 2, 3 X 3, or 4 X 4 measurement sites. The laser beam is repeatedly moved in a quadratic pattern over the small tissue area of interest and the output value constitutes the average perfusion of all captured values within the actual region. For the evaluation, recordings were performed on healthy volunteers before and after application of a vasodilatating cream on the dorsal side of the hand.

  19. Special segment: soft tissue matrices--soft-tissue augmentation of the foot and ankle using an acellular regenerative tissue scaffold.

    PubMed

    Brigido, Stephen A

    2009-10-01

    Surgical treatment of damaged soft-tissue structures in the young and physically active patient requires keen understanding of biomechanical forces that are placed on the repair during rehabilitation. Over the years, several materials have been evaluated to mechanically augment suture repair. Autograft tissues such as the gastrocnemius fascia, flexor hallicus longus, peroneus brevis, fascia lata, and plantaris have been implemented successfully. Concerns over donor site morbidity have limited the use of these autologous tissues. Allografts such as fascia lata and tendon have been used successfully but are plagued with practical issues such as inflammatory reaction and suture retention weakness. Acellular regenerative tissue scaffolds have gained in popularity in recent years because of the limited host inflammatory response, ease of use, and high tensile strength.

  20. [Connective tissue dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Piantkovskiĭ, A S

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a diagnosis of dysplasia of connective tissue in athletes, where the most important are the methods of clinical assessment using diagnostic tests and rating scales manifestation of connective tissue dysplasia. Evaluation of patients with suspected connective tissue dysplasia should include inspection of an ophthalmologist, orthopedic trauma, cardiology. Should also be carried out by criteria diagnosis degree of connective tissue dysplasia by T. Y. Smolnova (2003) (Large and small diagnostic criteria), which include: increased skin extensibility, joint hypermobility (sprain, dislocation and subluxation, flat feet), muscle hypotonia, a hereditary predisposition to the disease, evaluation of signs joint hypermobility (Beighton criteria). If during routine medical examination revealed athletes with manifestations of connective tissue dysplasia, they are subject to a more in-depth examination and observation. Early diagnosis of connective tissue dysplasia allows not only to plan the training process, but also reduces the trauma of athletes.

  1. Tissue-resident macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Luke C.; Jenkins, Stephen J.; Allen, Judith E.; Taylor, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-resident macrophages are a heterogeneous population of immune cells that fulfill tissue-specific and niche-specific functions. These range from dedicated homeostatic functions, such as clearance of cellular debris and iron processing, to central roles in tissue immune-surveillance, response to infection and the resolution of inflammation. Recent studies highlight marked heterogeneity in the origins of tissue macrophages that arise from hematopoietic versus self-renewing embryo-derived populations. We discuss the tissue–niche-specific factors that dictate cell phenotype, the definition of which will allow novel strategies to promote the restoration of tissue homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms that dictate tissue macrophage heterogeneity should explain why simplified paradigms of macrophage activation do not explain the extent of heterogeneity seen in vivo. PMID:24048120

  2. Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Esther J.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterials serve as an integral component of tissue engineering. They are designed to provide architectural framework reminiscent of native extracellular matrix in order to encourage cell growth and eventual tissue regeneration. Bone and cartilage represent two distinct tissues with varying compositional and mechanical properties. Despite these differences, both meet at the osteochondral interface. This article presents an overview of current biomaterials employed in bone and cartilage applications, discusses some design considerations, and alludes to future prospects within this field of research. PMID:23820768

  3. New bipolar tissue ligator combines constant tissue compression and temperature guidance: histologic study and implications for treatment of hemorrhoids

    PubMed Central

    Piskun, Gregory; Tucker, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background Several minimally invasive technologies are available to treat common soft tissue lesions including symptomatic hemorrhoids. The use of energy to deliver heat and coagulate target lesions is commonly practiced. This study compares the histologic effects produced on intestinal tissues by two energy-based systems which employ different approaches of heat delivery. Methods Two heat delivery systems were evaluated in vivo in a single porcine subject: infrared coagulator and bipolar tissue ligator utilizing constant tissue compression and temperature guidance. Eighteen treatment sites divided into three groups of six were assessed. Treatment site temperature was measured and the effects of thermal treatment in the mucosa, submucosa, submucosal vessels, and muscularis layer were scored. Lateral thermal spread beyond the energy application site was also assessed. Results Treatment site temperatures were much lower in the bipolar ligator group than in the infrared coagulator group. The mucosal and submucosal tissue changes observed in tissues treated with infrared energy and bipolar energy at 55°C were similar. Both the mucosal and submucosal tissue changes with bipolar energy at 50°C were significantly less. Conclusion Both devices achieved similar histologic results. However, the unique design of the bipolar ligator, which allows consistent capture, constant compression, and temperature monitoring of target tissue, accomplished the desired histologic changes with less muscular damage at much lower temperatures than the infrared coagulator. The use of bipolar ligation could offer clinical advantages such as reduced patient pain and a minimized chance of heat-related collateral tissue damage. PMID:23152714

  4. Clarifying Tissue Clearing

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Douglas S.; Lichtman, Jeff W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Biological specimens are intrinsically three dimensional; however because of the obscuring effects of light scatter, imaging deep into a tissue volume is problematic. Although efforts to eliminate the scatter by “clearing” the tissue have been ongoing for over a century, there have been a large number of recent innovations. This review introduces the physical basis for light-scatter in tissue, describes the mechanisms underlying various clearing techniques, and discusses several of the major advances in light microscopy for imaging cleared tissue. PMID:26186186

  5. Pulsed Laser Tissue Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Joseph T.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Jansen, E. Duco; Motamedi, Massoud; Welch, Ashley J.

    Pulsed lasers, by virtue of their ability to deliver energy in a spatially and temporally confined fashion, are able to micromachine biological tissues. The clinical success of pulsed laser treatment, however, is often limited by the extent of damage that is caused to the tissue in the vicinity of the ablation crater. In general, pulsed ablation is a trade off between thermal damage to surrounding tissue, caused by relatively long pulses (>100 ms), and mechanical damage to surrounding tissue, caused by relatively short pulses (<1 ms). To identify the origin of pulsed laser induced damage, the possible laser tissue interactions and ablation are discussed here and in Chapter 14. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the reader with a condensed overview of the parameters that must be considered in the process of pulsed laser ablation of soft tissue. In this chapter, pulsed infrared ablation of biological soft tissue is used as a paradigm to illustrate the concepts and design considerations. Generally speaking, the absorption of laser light may lead to photothermal, photomechanical or photochemical interaction with the irradiated tissue [1-5]. The vast majority of therapeutic laser-tissue interactions is based on photothermal interactions where laser energy is converted into heat. Subsequent to thermalization of the absorbed optical energy, heat transfer mechanisms, in particular conduction allow thermal diffusion from high temperature areas to surrounding regions. When laser penetration depth is less than the laser spot radius, the thermal diffusion time, τ th, can be defined as:

  6. Bioreactors for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huang-Chi; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2006-09-01

    Bioreactors are essential in tissue engineering, not only because they provide an in vitro environment mimicking in vivo conditions for the growth of tissue substitutes, but also because they enable systematic studies of the responses of living tissues to various mechanical and biochemical cues. The basic principles of bioreactor design are reviewed, the bioreactors commonly used for the tissue engineering of cartilage, bone and cardiovascular systems are assessed in terms of their performance and usefulness. Several novel bioreactor types are also reviewed. PMID:16955350

  7. Tissue engineering strategies for the regeneration of orthopedic interfaces.

    PubMed

    Lu, Helen H; Subramony, Siddarth D; Boushell, Margaret K; Zhang, Xinzhi

    2010-06-01

    A major focus in the field of orthopedic tissue engineering is the development of tissue engineered bone and soft tissue grafts with biomimetic functionality to allow for their translation to the clinical setting. One of the most significant challenges of this endeavor is promoting the biological fixation of these grafts with each other as well as the implant site. Such fixation requires strategic biomimicry to be incorporated into the scaffold design in order to re-establish the critical structure-function relationship of the native soft tissue-to-bone interface. The integration of distinct tissue types (e.g. bone and soft tissues such as cartilage, ligaments, or tendons), necessitates a multi-phased or stratified scaffold with distinct yet continuous tissue regions accompanied by a gradient of mechanical properties. This review discusses tissue engineering strategies for regenerating common tissue-to-tissue interfaces (ligament-to-bone, tendon-to-bone, or cartilage-to-bone), and the strategic biomimicry implemented in stratified scaffold design for multi-tissue regeneration. Potential challenges and future directions in this emerging field will also be presented. It is anticipated that interface tissue engineering will enable integrative soft tissue repair, and will be instrumental for the development of complex musculoskeletal tissue systems with biomimetic complexity and functionality.

  8. Extracellular matrix as a bioactive material for soft tissue reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hodde, Jason

    2006-12-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) directs all phases of healing following trauma or disease and is therefore a natural source of prosthetic mesh material that can be used strategically to induce the repair and restoration of soft tissues following surgery. Biomaterials such as Surgisis (Cook Biotech Incorporated, West Lafayette, IN, USA), which are derived from natural ECM, provide the extracellular components necessary to direct the healing response, allow for the proliferation of new, healthy tissue and restore tissue integrity to the damaged site. The 3-D organization of these extracellular components distinguishes the Surgisis mesh from synthetic materials and is associated with constructive tissue remodelling instead of scar tissue. Common features of this ECM-assisted tissue remodelling include angiogenesis, recruitment of circulating progenitor cells and constructive remodelling of damaged tissue structures. The tissue response to this biologic mesh is discussed in the context of recent reports on clinical hernia repair.

  9. COMMUNICATION: Electrochemical polymerization of conducting polymers in living neural tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson-Burns, Sarah M.; Hendricks, Jeffrey L.; Martin, David C.

    2007-06-01

    A number of biomedical devices require extended electrical communication with surrounding tissue. Significant improvements in device performance would be achieved if it were possible to maintain communication with target cells despite the reactive, insulating scar tissue that forms at the device-tissue interface. Here, we report that the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be polymerized directly within living neural tissue resulting in an electrically conductive network that is integrated within the tissue. Nano and microscale PEDOT filaments extend out from electrode sites, presumably forming within extracellular spaces. The cloud of PEDOT filaments penetrates out into the tissue far enough that it should be possible to bypass fibrous scar tissue and contact surrounding healthy neurons. These electrically functional, diffuse conducting polymer networks grown directly within tissue signify a new paradigm for creating soft, low impedance implantable electrodes.

  10. In situ tissue regeneration through host stem cell recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Ko, In Kap; Lee, Sang Jin; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J

    2013-01-01

    The field of tissue engineering has made steady progress in translating various tissue applications. Although the classical tissue engineering strategy, which involves the use of culture-expanded cells and scaffolds to produce a tissue construct for implantation, has been validated, this approach involves extensive cell expansion steps, requiring a lot of time and laborious effort before implantation. To bypass this ex vivo process, a new approach has been introduced. In situ tissue regeneration utilizes the body's own regenerating capacity by mobilizing host endogenous stem cells or tissue-specific progenitor cells to the site of injury. This approach relies on development of a target-specific biomaterial scaffolding system that can effectively control the host microenvironment and mobilize host stem/progenitor cells to target tissues. An appropriate microenvironment provided by implanted scaffolds would facilitate recruitment of host cells that can be guided to regenerating structural and functional tissues. PMID:24232256

  11. Silk scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Danyu

    2015-01-01

    The musculoskeletal system, which includes bone, cartilage, tendon/ligament, and skeletal muscle, is becoming the targets for tissue engineering because of the high need for their repair and regeneration. Numerous factors would affect the use of musculoskeletal tissue engineering for tissue regeneration ranging from cells used for scaffold seeding to the manufacture and structures of materials. The essential function of the scaffolds is to convey growth factors as well as cells to the target site to aid the regeneration of the injury. Among the variety of biomaterials used in scaffold engineering, silk fibroin is recognized as an ideal material for its impressive cytocompatibility, slow biodegradability, and excellent mechanical properties. The current review describes the advances made in the fabrication of silk fibroin scaffolds with different forms such as films, particles, electrospun fibers, hydrogels, three-dimensional porous scaffolds, and their applications in the regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues. PMID:26445979

  12. Silk scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yao, Danyu; Liu, Haifeng; Fan, Yubo

    2016-02-01

    The musculoskeletal system, which includes bone, cartilage, tendon/ligament, and skeletal muscle, is becoming the targets for tissue engineering because of the high need for their repair and regeneration. Numerous factors would affect the use of musculoskeletal tissue engineering for tissue regeneration ranging from cells used for scaffold seeding to the manufacture and structures of materials. The essential function of the scaffolds is to convey growth factors as well as cells to the target site to aid the regeneration of the injury. Among the variety of biomaterials used in scaffold engineering, silk fibroin is recognized as an ideal material for its impressive cytocompatibility, slow biodegradability, and excellent mechanical properties. The current review describes the advances made in the fabrication of silk fibroin scaffolds with different forms such as films, particles, electrospun fibers, hydrogels, three-dimensional porous scaffolds, and their applications in the regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues.

  13. '2' much mitral tissue.

    PubMed

    Barriales-Villa, Roberto; Pérez-Martínez, Fernando; Alvarez-Juárez, Ana I; Vázquez-Rey, Eugenia; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso

    2010-03-01

    A 73-year-old female patient was referred for evaluation after suffering an atypical chest pain. Physical examination and ECG were normal. The echocardiogram showed a normal ventricular function. Attached to the anterior leaflet an accessory mitral valve tissue was identified. In systole, this mitral tissue creates an image that looks like the 'number 2'.

  14. Biomimetic materials design for cardiac tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Dunn, David A; Hodge, Alexander J; Lipke, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. In the absence of sufficient numbers of organs for heart transplant, alternate approaches for healing or replacing diseased heart tissue are under investigation. Designing biomimetic materials to support these approaches will be essential to their overall success. Strategies for cardiac tissue engineering include injection of cells, implantation of three-dimensional tissue constructs or patches, injection of acellular materials, and replacement of valves. To replicate physiological function and facilitate engraftment into native tissue, materials used in these approaches should have properties that mimic those of the natural cardiac environment. Multiple aspects of the cardiac microenvironment have been emulated using biomimetic materials including delivery of bioactive factors, presentation of cell-specific adhesion sites, design of surface topography to guide tissue alignment and dictate cell shape, modulation of mechanical stiffness and electrical conductivity, and fabrication of three-dimensional structures to guide tissue formation and function. Biomaterials can be engineered to assist in stem cell expansion and differentiation, to protect cells during injection and facilitate their retention and survival in vivo, and to provide mechanical support and guidance for engineered tissue formation. Numerous studies have investigated the use of biomimetic materials for cardiac regeneration. Biomimetic material design will continue to exploit advances in nanotechnology to better recreate the cellular environment and advance cardiac regeneration. Overall, biomimetic materials are moving the field of cardiac regenerative medicine forward and promise to deliver new therapies in combating heart disease.

  15. Orthotopic and heterotopic ovarian tissue transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Demeestere, I.; Simon, P.; Emiliani, S.; Delbaere, A.; Englert, Y.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Transplantation of ovarian tissue is, at present, the only clinical option available to restore fertility using cryopreserved ovarian tissue. More than 30 transplantations of cryopreserved tissue have been reported, and six babies have been born, worldwide, following this procedure. Despite these encouraging results, it is essential to optimize the procedure by improving the follicular survival, confirming safety and developing alternatives. Here, we review the different factors affecting follicular survival and growth after grafting. METHODS Relevant studies were identified by searching Pubmed up to January 2009 with English language limitation. The following key words were used: (ovarian tissue or whole ovary) AND (transplantation) AND (cryopreservation or pregnancy). Using the literature and personal experience, we examined relevant data on the different exogenous and clinical factors affecting follicular development after grafting. RESULTS Clinical factors such as the patient's age and the transplantation sites influenced the lifespan of the graft. A heterotopic transplantation site is not optimal but offers some advantages and it may also promote the hormonal environment after a combined heterotopic and orthotopic transplantation. Exogenous factors such as antioxidants, growth factors or hormones were tested to improve follicular survival; however, their efficiency regarding further follicular development and fertility potential remains to be established. CONCLUSION Additional evidence is required to define optimal conditions for ovarian tissue transplantation. Alternatives such as whole ovary or isolated follicles transplantations require further investigation but are likely to be successful in humans in the future. PMID:19474206

  16. Pharmacokinetics of Antiretrovirals in Mucosal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, M.L.; Srinivas, N.; Kashuba, A.D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In the absence of an HIV vaccine or cure, antiretroviral (ARV) based prevention strategies are being investigated to reduce HIV incidence. These prevention strategies depend on achieving effective drug concentrations at the site HIV exposure which is most commonly the mucosal tissues of the lower gastrointestinal tract and the female genital tract. Areas covered This article collates all known data regarding drug exposure in these vulnerable mucosal tissues, and reviews important mechanisms of ARV drug distribution. Research papers and abstracts describing antiretroviral pharmacokinetics in the female genital tract and lower gastrointestinal mucosal tissues available in MEDLINE® or presented at scientific conferences prior to December 2014 are reviewed in detail. Important influences on ARV mucosal tissue distribution, including protein binding, active drug transport, and endogenous hormones, are also reviewed. Expert opinion ARVs exhibit highly variable pharmacokinetics in mucosal tissues. In general, antiretroviral exposure is higher in the lower gastrointestinal tract compared to the female genital tract, but concentrations required for protective efficacy are largely unknown. The expected site of HIV exposure represents an important consideration when designing and optimizing antiretroviral based prevention strategies. PMID:25797064

  17. Necrotizing soft tissue infections

    PubMed Central

    Urschel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Necrotizing soft tissue infections are a group of highly lethal infections that typically occur after trauma or surgery. Many individual infectious entities have been described, but they all have similar pathophysiologies, clinical features, and treatment approaches. The essentials of successful treatment include early diagnosis, aggressive surgical debridement, antibiotics, and supportive intensive treatment unit care. The two commonest pitfalls in management are failure of early diagnosis and inadequate surgical debridement. These life-threatening infections are often mistaken for cellulitis or innocent wound infections, and this is responsible for diagnostic delay. Tissue gas is not a universal finding in necrotizing soft tissue infections. This misconception also contributes to diagnostic errors. Incision and drainage is an inappropriate surgical strategy for necrotizing soft tissue infections; excisional debridement is needed. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be useful, but it is not as important as aggressive surgical therapy. Despite advances in antibiotic therapy and intensive treatment unit medicine, the mortality of necrotizing soft tissue infections is still high. This article emphasizes common treatment principles for all of these infections, and reviews some of the more important individual necrotizing soft tissue infectious entities.


Keywords: fasciitis; gas gangrene; clostridium infections; streptococcal infections; necrosis; debridement; surgical infections; soft tissue infections PMID:10621873

  18. Computational analysis of tissue-specific combinatorial gene regulation: predicting interaction between transcription factors in human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xueping; Lin, Jimmy; Zack, Donald J.; Qian, Jiang

    2006-01-01

    Tissue-specific gene expression is generally regulated by more than a single transcription factor (TF). Multiple TFs work in concert to achieve tissue specificity. In order to explore these complex TF interaction networks, we performed a large-scale analysis of TF interactions for 30 human tissues. We first identified tissue-specific genes for 30 tissues based on gene expression databases. We then evaluated the relationships between TFs using the relative position and co-occurrence of their binding sites in the promoters of tissue-specific genes. The predicted TF–TF interactions were validated by both known protein–protein interactions and co-expression of their target genes. We found that our predictions are enriched in known protein–protein interactions (>80 times that of random expectation). In addition, we found that the target genes show the highest co-expression in the tissue of interest. Our findings demonstrate that non-tissue specific TFs play a large role in regulation of tissue-specific genes. Furthermore, they show that individual TFs can contribute to tissue specificity in different tissues by interacting with distinct TF partners. Lastly, we identified several tissue-specific TF clusters that may play important roles in tissue-specific gene regulation. PMID:16982645

  19. Predicting DNA methylation level across human tissues.

    PubMed

    Ma, Baoshan; Wilker, Elissa H; Willis-Owen, Saffron A G; Byun, Hyang-Min; Wong, Kenny C C; Motta, Valeria; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Schwartz, Joel; Cookson, William O C M; Khabbaz, Kamal; Mittleman, Murray A; Moffatt, Miriam F; Liang, Liming

    2014-04-01

    Differences in methylation across tissues are critical to cell differentiation and are key to understanding the role of epigenetics in complex diseases. In this investigation, we found that locus-specific methylation differences between tissues are highly consistent across individuals. We developed a novel statistical model to predict locus-specific methylation in target tissue based on methylation in surrogate tissue. The method was evaluated in publicly available data and in two studies using the latest IlluminaBeadChips: a childhood asthma study with methylation measured in both peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and lymphoblastoid cell lines; and a study of postoperative atrial fibrillation with methylation in PBL, atrium and artery. We found that our method can greatly improve accuracy of cross-tissue prediction at CpG sites that are variable in the target tissue [R(2) increases from 0.38 (original R(2) between tissues) to 0.89 for PBL-to-artery prediction; from 0.39 to 0.95 for PBL-to-atrium; and from 0.81 to 0.98 for lymphoblastoid cell line-to-PBL based on cross-validation, and confirmed using cross-study prediction]. An extended model with multiple CpGs further improved performance. Our results suggest that large-scale epidemiology studies using easy-to-access surrogate tissues (e.g. blood) could be recalibrated to improve understanding of epigenetics in hard-to-access tissues (e.g. atrium) and might enable non-invasive disease screening using epigenetic profiles. PMID:24445802

  20. Functional cardiac tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Liau, Brian; Zhang, Donghui; Bursac, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Heart attack remains the leading cause of death in both men and women worldwide. Stem cell-based therapies, including the use of engineered cardiac tissues, have the potential to treat the massive cell loss and pathological remodeling resulting from heart attack. Specifically, embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are a promising source for generation of therapeutically relevant numbers of functional cardiomyocytes and engineering of cardiac tissues in vitro. This review will describe methodologies for successful differentiation of pluripotent stem cells towards the cardiovascular cell lineages as they pertain to the field of cardiac tissue engineering. The emphasis will be placed on comparing the functional maturation in engineered cardiac tissues and developing heart and on methods to quantify cardiac electrical and mechanical function at different spatial scales. PMID:22397609

  1. Tissue engineering: orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Laurencin, C T; Ambrosio, A M; Borden, M D; Cooper, J A

    1999-01-01

    Because of an aging population and increased occurrence of sports-related injuries, musculoskeletal disorders have become one of the major health concerns in the United States. Current treatments, although fairly successful, do not provide the optimum therapy. These treatments typically rely on donor tissues obtained either from the patient or from another source. The former raises the issue of supply, whereas the latter poses the risk of rejection and disease transfer. This has prompted orthopedic surgeons and scientists to look for viable alternatives. In recent years, tissue engineering has gained increasing support as a method to treat orthopedic disorders. Because it uses principles of engineering, biology, and chemistry, tissue engineering may provide a more effective approach to the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders than traditional methods. This chapter presents a review of current methods and new tissue-engineering techniques for the treatment of disorders affecting bone, ligament, and cartilage.

  2. Spectromicroscopy of Brain Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazer, Bradley; Cannara, Rachel; Gilbert, Benjamin; Destasio, Gelsomina; Ogg, Mandy; Gough, Kathy

    2001-03-01

    X-ray PhotoElectron Emission Microscopy (X-PEEM) was originally developed for studying the surface microchemistry of materials science specimens. It has then evolved into a valuable tool to investigate the magnetic properties of materials and the microchemistry of cells and tissues. We used the MEPHISTO X-PEEM instrument, installed at the UW-Synchrotron Radiation Center to detect trace concentrations of non-physiological elements in senile brain tissue specimens. These tissues contain a large number of plaques, in which all the compounds and elements that the brain does not need are disposed and stored. We hypothesized that plaques should contain elements, such as Si, B, and Al which are very abundant on the Earth crust but absent from healthy tissues. We verified this hypothesis with MEPHISTO and found evidence of Si and B, and suspect Al. We also found a higher than normal concentration of Fe.

  3. Facial Soft Tissue Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kretlow, James D.; McKnight, Aisha J.; Izaddoost, Shayan A.

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic facial soft tissue injuries are commonly encountered in the emergency department by plastic surgeons and other providers. Although rarely life-threatening, the treatment of these injuries can be complex and may have significant impact on the patient's facial function and aesthetics. This article provides a review of the relevant literature related to this topic and describes the authors' approach to the evaluation and management of the patient with facial soft tissue injuries. PMID:22550459

  4. Tissue Culture in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Duray, Paul H.; Hatfill, Steven J.

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to simulate normal tissue micro-environments in vitro have been thwarted by the complexity and plasticity of the extracellular matrix, which is important in regulating cytoskeletal and nuclear matrix proteins. Gravity is one of the problems, tending to separate components that should be kept together. For space shuttle experiments, NASA engineers devised a double-walled rotating bioreactor, which is proving to be a useful tissue culture device on earth as well as in space.

  5. Connective tissue abnormalities in MRL/1 mice.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J C; Cooke, A; Moore, A R; Collins, C; Hay, F; Willoughby, D A

    1986-01-01

    Pathological changes in the connective tissue of the limbs of MRL/1 mice are described. Focal infiltrates of polymorphs or large mononuclear cells, or both, were seen both in synovial lining and subcutaneous tissue. Infiltrates were associated with vasculitis in some cases. Deposits of amorphous material were seen in and around joints and in foot pads. The material was more particulate and refractile than typical 'fibrinoid' and showed a positive Feulgen reaction. It was not surrounded by palisading cells and when seen in synovial tissue was not usually associated with changes in synovial lining cells. No obvious difference was seen between intra-articular and extra-articular lesions. Lesions in subcutaneous tissue occurred exclusively in the foot pads. Lymphocyte infiltration was not prominent at any site and no follicle formation was seen. Of two colonies studied, only one showed a significant increase in lining cell numbers in synovial tissue. Exercised animals had a similar distribution and severity of disease to those of matched controls. All lesions described were distinguishable from non-specific inflammatory lesions in normal control mice and MRL/++ mice on assessment of unmarked sections. The relation between these connective tissue lesions and the changes found in human chronic synovitis is discussed. Images PMID:3729576

  6. Bone tissue engineering: recent advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Amini, Ami R; Laurencin, Cato T; Nukavarapu, Syam P

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of bone disorders and conditions has trended steeply upward and is expected to double by 2020, especially in populations where aging is coupled with increased obesity and poor physical activity. Engineered bone tissue has been viewed as a potential alternative to the conventional use of bone grafts, due to their limitless supply and no disease transmission. However, bone tissue engineering practices have not proceeded to clinical practice due to several limitations or challenges. Bone tissue engineering aims to induce new functional bone regeneration via the synergistic combination of biomaterials, cells, and factor therapy. In this review, we discuss the fundamentals of bone tissue engineering, highlighting the current state of this field. Further, we review the recent advances of biomaterial and cell-based research, as well as approaches used to enhance bone regeneration. Specifically, we discuss widely investigated biomaterial scaffolds, micro- and nano-structural properties of these scaffolds, and the incorporation of biomimetic properties and/or growth factors. In addition, we examine various cellular approaches, including the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and their clinical application strengths and limitations. We conclude by overviewing the challenges that face the bone tissue engineering field, such as the lack of sufficient vascularization at the defect site, and the research aimed at functional bone tissue engineering. These challenges will drive future research in the field.

  7. Bone Tissue Engineering: Recent Advances and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Ami R.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Nukavarapu, Syam P.

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of bone disorders and conditions has trended steeply upward and is expected to double by 2020, especially in populations where aging is coupled with increased obesity and poor physical activity. Engineered bone tissue has been viewed as a potential alternative to the conventional use of bone grafts, due to their limitless supply and no disease transmission. However, bone tissue engineering practices have not proceeded to clinical practice due to several limitations or challenges. Bone tissue engineering aims to induce new functional bone regeneration via the synergistic combination of biomaterials, cells, and factor therapy. In this review, we discuss the fundamentals of bone tissue engineering, highlighting the current state of this field. Further, we review the recent advances of biomaterial and cell-based research, as well as approaches used to enhance bone regeneration. Specifically, we discuss widely investigated biomaterial scaffolds, micro- and nano-structural properties of these scaffolds, and the incorporation of biomimetic properties and/or growth factors. In addition, we examine various cellular approaches, including the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and their clinical application strengths and limitations. We conclude by overviewing the challenges that face the bone tissue engineering field, such as the lack of sufficient vascularization at the defect site, and the research aimed at functional bone tissue engineering. These challenges will drive future research in the field. PMID:23339648

  8. Optimizing aesthetic and functional outcomes at donor sites.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Seng-Feng; Tan, Ngian-Chye

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest by reconstructive surgeons in improving the aesthetic and functional outcomes of donor sites. As the success rate of free tissue transfers has exceeded more than 95% in most microsurgical centers, more emphasis can be shifted to the donor site. However, morbidities of donor sites can occur not only in free tissue transfers, but in locoregional flaps as well. In reconstructive procedures, the main principle is to mobilize normal tissue and utilize it to reconstruct an area of defect. The donor site, of course has no pathology, but is a previously healthy area. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to not only minimize postoperative complications at recipient sites, but also pay attention to donor sites. Just as in organ transplantation where efforts are made to ensure the safety and a good outcome for a donor patient, outcomes should be improved and morbidity reduced at donor sites in reconstructive surgery.

  9. Paracrine regulation of endometriotic tissue.

    PubMed

    Minici, Francesca; Tiberi, Federica; Tropea, Anna; Miceli, Fiorella; Fiorella, Miceli; Orlando, Mariateresa; Gangale, Maria Francesca; Romani, Federica; Catino, Stefania; Campo, Sebastiano; Lanzone, Antonio; Apa, Rosanna

    2007-10-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic estrogen-dependent gynecological disease, characterized by pelvic pain and infertility, defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma within the pelvic peritoneum and other extrauterine sites. In the peritoneal cavity endometrial cells adhere, proliferate and induce an inflammatory response. Despite a long history of clinical and experimental research, the pathogenesis of endometriosis is still controversial. Abnormal immunological activation, the endocrine milieu and the peritoneal environment all dramatically affect endometriotic tissue function. Recent studies suggest that the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis contains an increased number of activated macrophages and other immune cells that secrete various local products, such as growth factors and cytokines, which exert a paracrine action on endometriotic cells. Since the peculiar biological characteristics of eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis differ from endometrium of normal subjects, an important role in the pathogenesis of this complex disease has been suggested. All of these factors contribute to enhanced proliferative and angiogenic activity and a number of functional and structural changes, resulting in the particular behavior of this tissue.

  10. Two bradykinin binding sites with picomolar affinities

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, D.C.; Vavrek, R.; Stewart, J.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1986-05-01

    Bradykinin (BK) and related peptides exert a wide range of effects on several organ systems. We have attempted to sort out these effects by studying the binding interaction of (/sup 3/H)BK at the membrane level with in vitro receptor binding techniques. High specific activity (/sup 3/H)BK and an enzyme inhibitor cocktail has enabled us to label two BK binding sites with different affinity and peptide specificity in several guinea-pig tissues. In the guinea-pig ileum the high-affinity site has an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for (/sup 3/H)BK of 13 pM and a maximal number of binding sites of 8.3 pmol/g of tissue wet weight. The low-affinity guinea-pig ileum site displays a Kd of 910 pM, a maximum number of binding sites of 14 pmol/g of tissue wet weight and shows a greater selectivity for BK analogs over Lysyl-BK analogs. Two similar sites can also be discriminated in kidney and heart. The potencies of a series of BK analogs at the high-affinity guinea-pig ileum site correlate well with their potencies in contracting ileal smooth muscle. The binding of (/sup 3/H)BK in the guinea-pig ileum is inhibited by physiological concentrations of monovalent and divalent cations.

  11. The Italian registry of soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Clemente, C; Orazi, A; Rilke, F

    1988-01-01

    After a review of the incidence data on malignant soft-tissue tumors in Italy (Registro dei Tumori della Regione Lombardia, provincia di Varese), Europe (nine European Cancer Registries considered representative of various geographical areas) and extra-European countries (data of ten World Cancer Registries), the aim and the organization of the Italian Malignant Soft-Tissue Tumor Registry are described. The collection system is based on dedicated forms prepared for the computerization of all data. From 1.1.1985 to 31.3.1987, 207 cases of malignant and potentially malignant soft-tissue tumors entered the Registry, with exclusion of those sarcomas arising in viscera. The distribution, categorized by histologic type, sex and site, and the preliminary results on relapses and metastases are reported.

  12. Cartilage tissue engineering using resorbable scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Rotter, Nicole; Bücheler, Markus; Haisch, Andreas; Wollenberg, Barbara; Lang, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering holds considerable promise for orthopaedic and reconstructive head and neck surgery. With an increasingly ageing population, the number of patients affected by arthritis and recurrent joint pain is constantly growing, along with the associated socio-economic costs. In head and neck surgery reconstructive procedures gain increasing importance in multimodal tumour therapies. These procedures require the harvesting of large amounts of donor tissue, which causes significant donor site morbidity. Therefore, in vitro-engineered cartilage may provide for a cost-effective and clinically valuable medical need. This article presents an overview of the clinical background as well as considerations for engineered cartilage in the head and neck, and provides examples of cartilage tissue engineering based on various scaffolds.

  13. Binding of cholera toxin by various tissues.

    PubMed

    Gascoyne, N; Van Heyningen, W E

    1975-09-01

    Under certain conditions, it is possible to confirm the observation by Peterson (1974) that the cholera toxin-binding capacities of tissues from brain and colon mucosa, and from liver and small intestine mucosa, are comparable. Binding of toxin by all tissues except brain is very variable, but is roughtly proportional to their content of the toxin-binding ganglioside galactosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl (sialosyl) lactosyl ceramide. It appears that some toxin-binding sites of the mucosa of the small intestin and colon may be masked. It has also been confirmed that there may be some solubilization of toxin-binding material from brain on standing a few days at 4 C, but this is comparatively slight. Some disadvantages of measuring toxin binding by adding small amounts of radioactive toxin to compartively large amounts of tissue are discussed.

  14. Optical birefringence of aorta tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, G. C.; Wang, W. B.; Pu, Y.; Alfano, R. R.

    2010-02-01

    The optical birefringence of porcine aortic tissues including heated and non-heated tissues was studied using polarization technique. The measurements show that a whole piece of aortic tissue has birefringence properties like a uniaxial crystal. The experiment results indicate that the birefringence status of tissue have a potential application for monitoring changes of tissue structure due to burning, plastic surgery, laser tissue welding and wound healing.

  15. The tissue diagnostic instrument.

    PubMed

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection.

  16. [Connective tissue and inflammation].

    PubMed

    Jakab, Lajos

    2014-03-23

    The author summarizes the structure of the connective tissues, the increasing motion of the constituents, which determine the role in establishing the structure and function of that. The structure and function of the connective tissue are related to each other in the resting as well as inflammatory states. It is emphasized that cellular events in the connective tissue are part of the defence of the organism, the localisation of the damage and, if possible, the maintenance of restitutio ad integrum. The organism responds to damage with inflammation, the non specific immune response, as well as specific, adaptive immunity. These processes are located in the connective tissue. Sterile and pathogenic inflammation are relatively similar processes, but inevitable differences are present, too. Sialic acids and glycoproteins containing sialic acids have important roles, and the role of Siglecs is also highlighted. Also, similarities and differences in damages caused by pathogens and sterile agents are briefly summarized. In addition, the roles of adhesion molecules linked to each other, and the whole event of inflammatory processes are presented. When considering practical consequences it is stressed that the structure (building up) of the organism and the defending function of inflammation both have fundamental importance. Inflammation has a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and the unimpaired somato-psychological state of the organism. Thus, inflammation serves as a tool of organism identical with the natural immune response, inseparably connected with the specific, adaptive immune response. The main events of the inflammatory processes take place in the connective tissue.

  17. The tissue diagnostic instrument

    PubMed Central

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection. PMID:19485522

  18. Mechanobiology of bone tissue.

    PubMed

    Klein-Nulend, J; Bacabac, R G; Mullender, M G

    2005-12-01

    In order to obtain bones that combine a proper resistance against mechanical failure with a minimum use of material, bone mass and its architecture are continuously being adapted to the prevailing mechanical loads. It is currently believed that mechanical adaptation is governed by the osteocytes, which respond to a loading-induced flow of interstitial fluid through the lacuno-canalicular network by producing signaling molecules. An optimal bone architecture and density may thus not only be determined by the intensity and spatial distribution of mechanical stimuli, but also by the mechanoresponsiveness of osteocytes. Bone cells are highly responsive to mechanical stimuli, but the critical components in the load profile are still unclear. Whether different components such as fluid shear, tension or compression may affect cells differently is also not known. Although both tissue strain and fluid shear stress cause cell deformation, these stimuli might excite different signaling pathways related to bone growth and remodeling. In order to define new approaches for bone tissue engineering in which bioartificial organs capable of functional load bearing are created, it is important to use cells responding to the local forces within the tissue, whereby biophysical stimuli need to be optimized to ensure rapid tissue regeneration and strong tissue repair.

  19. The tissue diagnostic instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection.

  20. Containment-enhanced Ho:YAG photofragmentation of soft tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christens-Barry, William A.; Guarnieri, Michael; Carson, Benjamin S.

    1998-01-01

    Laser surgery of soft tissue can exploit the power of brief, intense pulses of light to cause localized disruption of tissue with minimal effect upon surrounding tissue. In particular, studies of Ho:YAG laser surgery have shown that the effects of cavitation upon tissues and bone depend upon the physical composition of structures in the vicinity of the surgical site. For photofragmentation of occluding structures within catheters and other implant devices, it is possible to exploit the particular geometry of the catheter to amplify the effects of photofragmentation beyond those seen in bulk tissue. A Ho:YAG laser was used to photofragment occlusive material (tissue and tissue analogs) contained in glass capillary tubing and catheter tubing of the kind used in ventricular shunt implants for the management of hydrocephalus. Occluded catheters obtained from patient explants were also employed. Selection of operational parameters used in photoablation and photofragmentation of soft tissue must consider the physical composition and geometry of the treatment site. In the present case, containment of the soft tissue within relatively inelastic catheters dramatically alters the extent of photofragmentation relative to bulk (unconstrained) material. Our results indicate that the disruptive effect of cavitation bubbles is increased in catheters, due to the rapid displacement of material by cavitation bubbles comparable in size to the inner diameter of the catheter. The cylindrical geometry of the catheter lumen may additionally influence the propagation of acoustic shock waves that result from the collapse of the condensing cavitation bubbles.

  1. Cerebral and Tissue Oximetry

    PubMed Central

    Steppan, Jochen; Hogue, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been increasingly adopted in cardiac surgery to measure regional cerebral oxygen saturation. This method takes advantage of the fact that light in the near-infrared spectrum penetrates tissue, including bone and muscle. Sensors are placed at fixed distances from a light emitter, and algorithms subtract superficial light absorption from deep absorption to provide an index of tissue oxygenation. Although the popularity of NIRS monitoring is growing, definitive data that prove outcome benefits with its use remain sparse. Therefore, widespread, routine use of NIRS as a standard-of-care monitor cannot be recommended at present. Recent investigations have focused on the use of NIRS in subgroups that may benefit from NIRS monitoring, such as pediatric patients. Furthermore, a novel application of processed NIRS information for monitoring cerebral autoregulation and tissue oxygenation (e.g., kidneys and the gut) is promising. PMID:25480772

  2. Tissue-like phantoms

    DOEpatents

    Frangioni, John V.; De Grand, Alec M.

    2007-10-30

    The invention is based, in part, on the discovery that by combining certain components one can generate a tissue-like phantom that mimics any desired tissue, is simple and inexpensive to prepare, and is stable over many weeks or months. In addition, new multi-modal imaging objects (e.g., beads) can be inserted into the phantoms to mimic tissue pathologies, such as cancer, or merely to serve as calibration standards. These objects can be imaged using one, two, or more (e.g., four) different imaging modalities (e.g., x-ray computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence) simultaneously.

  3. Biomechanics of brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Prevost, Thibault P; Balakrishnan, Asha; Suresh, Subra; Socrate, Simona

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of porcine brain tissue, obtained from a series of in vitro observations and experiments, is analyzed and described here with the aid of a large strain, nonlinear, viscoelastic constitutive model. Mixed gray and white matter samples excised from the superior cortex were tested in unconfined uniaxial compression within 15h post mortem. The test sequence consisted of three successive load-unload segments at strain rates of 1, 0.1 and 0.01 s⁻¹, followed by stress relaxation (n=25). The volumetric compliance of the tissue was assessed for a subset of specimens (n=7) using video extensometry techniques. The tissue response exhibited moderate compressibility, substantial nonlinearity, hysteresis, conditioning and rate dependence. A large strain kinematics nonlinear viscoelastic model was developed to account for the essential features of the tissue response over the entire deformation history. The corresponding material parameters were obtained by fitting the model to the measured conditioned response (axial and volumetric) via a numerical optimization scheme. The model successfully captures the observed complexities of the material response in loading, unloading and relaxation over the entire range of strain rates. The accuracy of the model was further verified by comparing model predictions with the tissue response in unconfined compression at higher strain rate (10 s⁻¹) and with literature data in uniaxial tension. The proposed constitutive framework was also found to be adequate to model the loading response of brain tissue in uniaxial compression over a wider range of strain rates (0.01-3000 s⁻¹), thereby providing a valuable tool for simulations of dynamic transients (impact, blast/shock wave propagation) leading to traumatic brain injury.

  4. Decellularized Tissue and Cell-Derived Extracellular Matrices as Scaffolds for Orthopaedic Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Christina W.; Solorio, Loran D.; Alsberg, Eben

    2014-01-01

    The reconstruction of musculoskeletal defects is a constant challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, chondral lesions, infections and tumor debulking can often lead to large tissue voids requiring reconstruction with tissue grafts. Autografts are currently the gold standard in orthopaedic tissue reconstruction; however, there is a limit to the amount of tissue that can be harvested before compromising the donor site. Tissue engineering strategies using allogeneic or xenogeneic decellularized bone, cartilage, skeletal muscle, tendon and ligament have emerged as promising potential alternative treatment. The extracellular matrix provides a natural scaffold for cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. Decellularization of in vitro cell-derived matrices can also enable the generation of autologous constructs from tissue specific cells or progenitor cells. Although decellularized bone tissue is widely used clinically in orthopaedic applications, the exciting potential of decellularized cartilage, skeletal muscle, tendon and ligament cell-derived matrices has only recently begun to be explored for ultimate translation to the orthopaedic clinic. PMID:24417915

  5. Permanent soft tissue fillers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, YuShan L; Ellis, David A F

    2011-12-01

    As our youth-oriented society ages, interest in nonsurgical aesthetic techniques has generated a dramatic rise in the use of filling agents for facial rejuvenation. Backed by multiple published studies documenting safety and efficacy, soft tissue fillers are often viewed as treatments with minimal recovery time and limited risk of complications when compared with traditional surgical interventions. This has led to a genuine demand for fillers with similar safety profiles but ever increasing longevity in their aesthetic corrections. This review addresses many of the permanent soft tissue fillers that are commercially available worldwide as well as important concerns regarding their complications.

  6. Polarized light propagation through tissue and tissue phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, V; Walsh, J T JR; Maitland, D J

    2000-02-08

    We show that standard tissue phantoms can be used to mimic the intensity and polarization properties of tissue. Polarized light propagation through biologic tissue is typically studied using tissue phantoms consisting of dilute aqueous suspensions of microspheres. The dilute phantoms can empirically match tissue polarization and intensity properties. One discrepancy between the dilute phantoms and tissue exist: common tissue phantoms, such as dilute Intralipid and dilute 1-{micro}m-diameter polystyrene microsphere suspensions, depolarize linearly polarized light more quickly than circularly polarized light. In dense tissue, however, where scatterers are often located in close proximity to one another, circularly polarized light is depolarized similar to or more quickly than linearly polarized light. We also demonstrate that polarized light propagates differently in dilute versus densely packed microsphere suspensions, which may account for the differences seen between polarized light propagation in common dilute tissue phantoms versus dense biologic tissue.

  7. Genome-wide survey of tissue-specific microRNA and transcription factor regulatory networks in 12 tissues.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiyun; Maki, Miranda; Ding, Ruofan; Yang, Yalan; Zhang, Bao; Xiong, Lili

    2014-06-03

    Tissue-specific miRNAs (TS miRNA) specifically expressed in particular tissues play an important role in tissue identity, differentiation and function. However, transcription factor (TF) and TS miRNA regulatory networks across multiple tissues have not been systematically studied. Here, we manually extracted 116 TS miRNAs and systematically investigated the regulatory network of TF-TS miRNA in 12 human tissues. We identified 2,347 TF-TS miRNA regulatory relations and revealed that most TF binding sites tend to enrich close to the transcription start site of TS miRNAs. Furthermore, we found TS miRNAs were regulated widely by non-tissue specific TFs and the tissue-specific expression level of TF have a close relationship with TF-genes regulation. Finally, we describe TSmiR (http://bioeng.swjtu.edu.cn/TSmiR), a novel and web-searchable database that houses interaction maps of TF-TS miRNA in 12 tissues. Taken together, these observations provide a new suggestion to better understand the regulatory network and mechanisms of TF-TS miRNAs underlying different tissues.

  8. Facial lipohypertrophy in HIV-infected subjects who underwent autologous fat tissue transplantation.

    PubMed

    Guaraldi, Giovanni; De Fazio, Domenico; Orlando, Gabriella; Murri, Rita; Wu, Albert; Guaraldi, Pietro; Esposito, Roberto

    2005-01-15

    Of 41 HIV-infected patients with facial lipoatrophy who underwent autologous fat transplantation, disfiguring facial lipohypertrophy at the graft site occurred at the same time as recurrent fat accumulation at the tissue harvest site in 4 patients who had had fat transferred from the dorsocervical fat pad or from subcutaneous abdominal tissue.

  9. Adipokines and the Endocrine Role of Adipose Tissues.

    PubMed

    Giralt, Marta; Cereijo, Rubén; Villarroya, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed a shift in the consideration of white adipose tissue as a mere repository of fat to be used when food becomes scarce to a true endocrine tissue releasing regulatory signals, the so-called adipokines, to the whole body. The control of eating behavior, the peripheral insulin sensitivity, and even the development of the female reproductive system are among the physiological events controlled by adipokines. Recently, the role of brown adipose tissue in human physiology has been recognized. The metabolic role of brown adipose tissue is opposite to white fat; instead of storing fat, brown adipose tissue is a site of energy expenditure via adaptive thermogenesis. There is growing evidence that brown adipose tissue may have its own pattern of secreted hormonal factors, the so-called brown adipokines, having distinctive biological actions on the overall physiological adaptations to enhance energy expenditure.

  10. Targeting adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Two different types of adipose tissues can be found in humans enabling them to respond to starvation and cold: white adipose tissue (WAT) is generally known and stores excess energy in the form of triacylglycerol (TG), insulates against cold, and serves as a mechanical cushion. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) helps newborns to cope with cold. BAT has the capacity to uncouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thereby generating heat rather than adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The previously widely held view was that BAT disappears rapidly after birth and is no longer present in adult humans. Using positron emission tomography (PET), however, it was recently shown that metabolically active BAT occurs in defined regions and scattered in WAT of the adult and possibly has an influence on whole-body energy homeostasis. In obese individuals adipose tissue is at the center of metabolic syndrome. Targeting of WAT by thiazolidinediones (TZDs), activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) a ‘master’ regulator of fat cell biology, is a current therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Since its unique capacity to increase energy consumption of the body and to dissipate surplus energy as heat, BAT offers new perspectives as a therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Recent discoveries of new signaling pathways of BAT development give rise to new therapeutic possibilities in order to influence BAT content and activity. PMID:23102228

  11. Eye tissues study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Genina, Elina A.; Lakodina, Nina A.

    2001-08-01

    Theoretical and in vitro and in vivo experimental study of spectral and polarization characteristics of the human and rabbit eye tissues are presented. The possibility of control of optical properties of eye cornea, lens and sclera is discussed and realized experimentally for glucose solution as the refractive index matching factor.

  12. Tissue non-linearity.

    PubMed

    Duck, F

    2010-01-01

    The propagation of acoustic waves is a fundamentally non-linear process, and only waves with infinitesimally small amplitudes may be described by linear expressions. In practice, all ultrasound propagation is associated with a progressive distortion in the acoustic waveform and the generation of frequency harmonics. At the frequencies and amplitudes used for medical diagnostic scanning, the waveform distortion can result in the formation of acoustic shocks, excess deposition of energy, and acoustic saturation. These effects occur most strongly when ultrasound propagates within liquids with comparatively low acoustic attenuation, such as water, amniotic fluid, or urine. Attenuation by soft tissues limits but does not extinguish these non-linear effects. Harmonics may be used to create tissue harmonic images. These offer improvements over conventional B-mode images in spatial resolution and, more significantly, in the suppression of acoustic clutter and side-lobe artefacts. The quantity B/A has promise as a parameter for tissue characterization, but methods for imaging B/A have shown only limited success. Standard methods for the prediction of tissue in-situ exposure from acoustic measurements in water, whether for regulatory purposes, for safety assessment, or for planning therapeutic regimes, may be in error because of unaccounted non-linear losses. Biological effects mechanisms are altered by finite-amplitude effects. PMID:20349813

  13. Soft tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Ranella J; Cohen, Joel L

    2006-09-01

    Recent additions to the soft tissue augmentation armamentarium have greatly increased the dermatologic surgeon's choices in optimizing facial contouring and the treatment of acne scars. In this article, we review the science of fillers and look at the future of dermal fillers.

  14. [Soft-tissue fillers].

    PubMed

    Dallara, J-M

    2008-02-01

    Injections of soft-tissue fillers have rapidly become accessible and essential. When dealing with facial aging, it is logical to compensate for the loss of volume, but the optimisation of a younger face involves a 3D strategy as well.

  15. Hypoelastic Soft Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Alan D.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Sacks, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    In Part I, a novel hypoelastic framework for soft-tissues was presented. One of the hallmarks of this new theory is that the well-known exponential behavior of soft-tissues arises consistently and spontaneously from the integration of a rate based formulation. In Part II, we examine the application of this framework to the problem of biaxial kinematics, which are common in experimental soft-tissue characterization. We confine our attention to an isotropic formulation in order to highlight the distinction between non-linearity and anisotropy. In order to provide a sound foundation for the membrane extension of our earlier hypoelastic framework, the kinematics and kinetics of in-plane biaxial extension are revisited, and some enhancements are provided. Specifically, the conventional stress-to-traction mapping for this boundary value problem is shown to violate the conservation of angular momentum. In response, we provide a corrected mapping. In addition, a novel means for applying loads to in-plane biaxial experiments is proposed. An isotropic, isochoric, hypoelastic, constitutive model is applied to an in-plane biaxial experiment done on glutaraldehyde treated bovine pericardium. The experiment is comprised of eight protocols that radially probe the biaxial plane. Considering its simplicity (two adjustable parameters) the model does a reasonably good job of describing the non-linear normal responses observed in these experimental data, which are more prevalent than are the anisotropic responses exhibited by this tissue. PMID:21394222

  16. Sensing in tissue bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, P.

    2006-03-01

    Specialized sensing and measurement instruments are under development to aid the controlled culture of cells in bioreactors for the fabrication of biological tissues. Precisely defined physical and chemical conditions are needed for the correct culture of the many cell-tissue types now being studied, including chondrocytes (cartilage), vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (blood vessels), fibroblasts, hepatocytes (liver) and receptor neurones. Cell and tissue culture processes are dynamic and therefore, optimal control requires monitoring of the key process variables. Chemical and physical sensing is approached in this paper with the aim of enabling automatic optimal control, based on classical cell growth models, to be achieved. Non-invasive sensing is performed via the bioreactor wall, invasive sensing with probes placed inside the cell culture chamber and indirect monitoring using analysis within a shunt or a sampling chamber. Electroanalytical and photonics-based systems are described. Chemical sensing for gases, ions, metabolites, certain hormones and proteins, is under development. Spectroscopic analysis of the culture medium is used for measurement of glucose and for proteins that are markers of cell biosynthetic behaviour. Optical interrogation of cells and tissues is also investigated for structural analysis based on scatter.

  17. Tissue dynamics with permeation.

    PubMed

    Ranft, J; Prost, J; Jülicher, F; Joanny, J-F

    2012-06-01

    Animal tissues are complex assemblies of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM), and permeating interstitial fluid. Whereas key aspects of the multicellular dynamics can be captured by a one-component continuum description, cell division and apoptosis imply material turnover between different components that can lead to additional mechanical conditions on the tissue dynamics. We extend our previous description of tissues in order to account for a cell/ECM phase and the permeating interstitial fluid independently. In line with our earlier work, we consider the cell/ECM phase to behave as an elastic solid in the absence of cell division and apoptosis. In addition, we consider the interstitial fluid as ideal on the relevant length scales, i.e., we ignore viscous stresses in the interstitial fluid. Friction between the fluid and the cell/ECM phase leads to a Darcy-like relation for the interstitial fluid velocity and introduces a new characteristic length scale. We discuss the dynamics of a tissue confined in a chamber with a permeable piston close to the homeostatic state where cell division and apoptosis balance, and we calculate the rescaled effective diffusion coefficient for cells. For different mass densities of the cell/ECM component and the interstitial fluid, a treadmilling steady state due to gravitational forces can be found.

  18. NASA Bioreactor tissue culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  19. Photoacoustic thermography of tissue.

    PubMed

    Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Wang, Lihong V

    2014-02-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) techniques can measure temperature in biological tissues because PA signal amplitude is sensitive to tissue temperature. So far, temperature-measuring PA techniques have focused on sensing of temperature changes at a single position. In this work, we photoacoustically measured spatial distribution of temperature in deep tissue. By monitoring the temperature at a single position using a thermocouple, the relationship between the PA signal amplitude and the actual temperature was determined. The relationship was then used to translate a PA image into a temperature map. This study showed that it is possible to calibrate the system for the temperature range of hyperthermia using single-point measurements over a smaller temperature range. Our experimental results showed a precision of -0.8±0.4°C (mean±standard error) in temperature measurement, and a spatial resolution as fine as 1.0 mm. PA techniques can be potentially applied to monitor temperature distribution deep in tissue during hyperthermia treatment of cancer.

  20. Neoproteoglycans in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Weyers, Amanda; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Proteoglycans, comprised of a core protein to which glycosaminoglycan chains are covalently linked, are an important structural and functional family of macromolecules found in the extracellular matrix. Advances in our understanding of biological interactions have lead to a greater appreciation for the need to design tissue engineering scaffolds that incorporate mimetics of key extracellular matrix components. A variety of synthetic and semisynthetic molecules and polymers have been examined by tissue engineers that serve as structural, chemical and biological replacements for proteoglycans. These proteoglycan mimetics have been referred to as neoproteoglycans and serve as functional and therapeutic replacements for natural proteoglycans that are often unavailable for tissue engineering studies. Although neoproteoglycans have important limitations, such as limited signaling ability and biocompatibility, they have shown promise in replacing the natural activity of proteoglycans through cell and protein binding interactions. This review focuses on the recent in vivo and in vitro tissue engineering applications of three basic types of neoproteoglycan structures, protein–glycosaminoglycan conjugates, nano-glycosaminoglycan composites and polymer–glycosaminoglycan complexes. PMID:23399318

  1. Plant Tissue Culture Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

  2. Exploring Optical Contrast in Ex-Vivo Breast Tissue Using Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy and Tissue Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Stephanie Ann

    In this research, ex-vivo breast tissue is evaluated to determine which sources of optical contrast have the potential to detect malignancy at the margins in women of differing breast composition. Then, H&E images of ex-vivo breast tissue sites are quantified to further deconstruct the relationship between optical scattering and the underlying tissue morphology. H&E images were taken of the malignant and benign sites and quantified to describe the % adipose, % collagen and % glands. Adipose sites, images at 10x, were predominantly fatty and quantified according to adipocyte morphology. H&E-stained adipose tissue sections were analyzed with an automated image processing algorithm to extract average cell area and cell density. Non-adipose sites were imaged with a 2.5x objective. Grids of 200µm boxes corresponding to the 3mm x 2mm area were overlaid on each non-adipose image. The non-adipose images were classified as the following: adipose and collagen (fibroadipose); collagen and glands (fibroglandular); adipose, collagen and glands (mixed); and malignant sites. Correlations between <μs‧> and % collagen in were determined in benign sites. Age, BMI, and MBD were then correlated to <μs‧> in the adipose and non-adipose sites. Variability in <μs‧> was determined to be related to collagen and not adipose content. In order to further investigate this relationship, the importance of age, BMI and MBD was analyzed after adjusting for the % collagen. Lastly, the relationship between % collagen and % glands was analyzed to determine the relative contributions of % collagen and % glands <μ s‧>. Statistics were calculated using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, Pearson correlation coefficients and linear fits in R. Further deconstructing the relationship between optical scattering and tissue morphology resulted in a positive relationship between <μ s‧> and % collagen. Increased variability was observed in sites with a higher percentage of collagen. In adipose tissues MBD

  3. Modular Tissue Engineering: Engineering Biological Tissues from the Bottom Up

    PubMed Central

    Nichol, Jason W.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Tissue engineering creates biological tissues that aim to improve the function of diseased or damaged tissues. To enhance the function of engineered tissues there is a need to generate structures that mimic the intricate architecture and complexity of native organs and tissues. With the desire to create more complex tissues with features such as developed and functional microvasculature, cell binding motifs and tissue specific morphology, tissue engineering techniques are beginning to focus on building modular microtissues with repeated functional units. The emerging field known as modular tissue engineering focuses on fabricating tissue building blocks with specific microarchitectural features and using these modular units to engineer biological tissues from the bottom up. In this review we will examine the promise and shortcomings of “bottom-up” approaches to creating engineered biological tissues. Specifically, we will survey the current techniques for controlling cell aggregation, proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition, as well as approaches to generating shape-controlled tissue modules. We will then highlight techniques utilized to create macroscale engineered biological tissues from modular microscale units. PMID:20179781

  4. Biomimetic 3D tissue printing for soft tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pati, Falguni; Ha, Dong-Heon; Jang, Jinah; Han, Hyun Ho; Rhie, Jong-Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-09-01

    Engineered adipose tissue constructs that are capable of reconstructing soft tissue with adequate volume would be worthwhile in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Tissue printing offers the possibility of fabricating anatomically relevant tissue constructs by delivering suitable matrix materials and living cells. Here, we devise a biomimetic approach for printing adipose tissue constructs employing decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) matrix bioink encapsulating human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs). We designed and printed precisely-defined and flexible dome-shaped structures with engineered porosity using DAT bioink that facilitated high cell viability over 2 weeks and induced expression of standard adipogenic genes without any supplemented adipogenic factors. The printed DAT constructs expressed adipogenic genes more intensely than did non-printed DAT gel. To evaluate the efficacy of our printed tissue constructs for adipose tissue regeneration, we implanted them subcutaneously in mice. The constructs did not induce chronic inflammation or cytotoxicity postimplantation, but supported positive tissue infiltration, constructive tissue remodeling, and adipose tissue formation. This study demonstrates that direct printing of spatially on-demand customized tissue analogs is a promising approach to soft tissue regeneration.

  5. Modular Tissue Engineering: Engineering Biological Tissues from the Bottom Up.

    PubMed

    Nichol, Jason W; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Tissue engineering creates biological tissues that aim to improve the function of diseased or damaged tissues. To enhance the function of engineered tissues there is a need to generate structures that mimic the intricate architecture and complexity of native organs and tissues. With the desire to create more complex tissues with features such as developed and functional microvasculature, cell binding motifs and tissue specific morphology, tissue engineering techniques are beginning to focus on building modular microtissues with repeated functional units. The emerging field known as modular tissue engineering focuses on fabricating tissue building blocks with specific microarchitectural features and using these modular units to engineer biological tissues from the bottom up. In this review we will examine the promise and shortcomings of "bottom-up" approaches to creating engineered biological tissues. Specifically, we will survey the current techniques for controlling cell aggregation, proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition, as well as approaches to generating shape-controlled tissue modules. We will then highlight techniques utilized to create macroscale engineered biological tissues from modular microscale units.

  6. Tissue fusion bursting pressure and the role of tissue water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cezo, James; Kramer, Eric; Taylor, Kenneth; Ferguson, Virginia; Rentschler, Mark

    2013-02-01

    Tissue fusion is a complex, poorly understood process which bonds collagenous tissues together using heat and pressure. The goal of this study is to elucidate the role of hydration in bond efficacy. Hydration of porcine splenic arteries (n=30) was varied by pre-fusion treatments: 24-48 hour immersion in isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic baths. Treated arteries were fused in several locations using Conmed's Altrus thermal fusion device and the bursting pressure was then measured for each fused segment. Artery sections were then weighed before and after lyophilization, to quantify water content. Histology (HE, EVG staining) enabled visualization of the bonding interface. Bursting pressure was significantly greater (p=4.17 E-ll) for the hypotonic group (607.6 +/- 83.2mmHg), while no significant difference existed between the isotonic (332.6 +/- 44.7mmHg) and hypertonic (348.7 +/- 44.0mmHg) treatment groups. Total water content varied (p=8.80 E-24) from low water content in the hypertonic samples (72.5% weight +/- 0.9), to high water content in the hypotonic samples (83.1% weight +/- 1.9), while the isotonic samples contained 78.8% weight +/- 1.1. Strength differences between the treated vessels imply that bound water driven from the tissue during fusion may reveal available collagen crosslinking sites to facilitate bond formation during the fusion process. Thus when the tissue contains greater bound water volumes, more crosslinking sites may become available during fusion, leading to a stronger bond. This study provides an important step towards understanding the chemistry underlying tissue fusion and the mechanics of tissue fusion as a function of bound water within the tissue.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in hepatoblastoma tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ximao; Liu, Baihui; Zheng, Shan; Dong, Kuiran; Dong, Rui

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation has a crucial role in cancer biology. In the present study, a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in hepatoblastoma (HB) tissues was performed to verify differential methylation levels between HB and normal tissues. As alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has a critical role in HB, AFP methylation levels were also detected using pyrosequencing. Normal and HB liver tissue samples (frozen tissue) were obtained from patients with HB. Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in these tissues was performed using an Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, and the results were confirmed with reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip demonstrated distinctively less methylation in HB tissues than in non-tumor tissues. In addition, methylation enrichment was observed in positions near the transcription start site of AFP, which exhibited lower methylation levels in HB tissues than in non-tumor liver tissues. Lastly, a significant negative correlation was observed between AFP messenger RNA expression and DNA methylation percentage, using linear Pearson's R correlation coefficients. The present results demonstrate differential methylation levels between HB and normal tissues, and imply that aberrant methylation of AFP in HB could reflect HB development. Expansion of these findings could provide useful insight into HB biology. PMID:27446465

  8. Temperature measurement methods during direct heat arterial tissue fusion.

    PubMed

    Cezo, James D; Kramer, Eric; Taylor, Kenneth D; Ferguson, Virginia; Rentschler, Mark E

    2013-09-01

    Fusion of biological tissues through direct and indirect heating is a growing area of medical research, yet there are still major gaps in understanding this procedure. Several companies have developed devices which fuse blood vessels, but little is known about the tissue's response to the stimuli. The need for accurate measurements of tissue behavior during tissue fusion is essential for the continued development and improvement of energy delivery devices. An experimental study was performed to measure the temperatures experienced during tissue fusion and the resulting burst pressure of the fused arteries. An array of thermocouples was placed in the lumen of a porcine splenic artery segment and sealed using a ConMed Altrus thermal fusion device. The temperatures within the tissue, in the device, and at the tissue-device interface were recorded. These measurements were then analyzed to calculate the temperature profile in the lumen of the artery. The temperature in the artery at the site of tissue fusion was measured to range from 142 to 163 °C using the ConMed Altrus. The corresponding burst pressure for arteries fused at this temperature was measured as 416 ± 79 mmHg. This study represents the first known experimental measurement of temperature at the site of vessel sealing found in the literature.

  9. Implementation: Preparing the Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Susan Baerg

    1983-01-01

    Considers site requirements that should be specified by the library and the vendor for a library automated system located at a central site away from the library, including size of site, the environment, cleanliness, electrical power, security/safety (fire, restricted access), site certification, telecommunications, and terminal sites. (EJS)

  10. Genital soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Schoolmeester, John K; Fritchie, Karen J

    2015-07-01

    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the vulvovaginal and inguinoscrotal regions are among the most diagnostically challenging specimens in the pathology laboratory owing largely to their unique intersection between general soft tissue tumors and relatively genital-specific mesenchymal tumors. Genital stromal tumors are a unique subset of soft tissue tumors encountered at this location, and this group includes fibroepithelial stromal polyp, superficial (cervicovaginal) myofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma, mammary-type myofibroblastoma, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma. Aside from the striking morphologic and immunophenotypic similarity that is seen with these entities, there is evidence that a subset of genital stromal tumors may be linked genetically. This review will focus on simplifying this group of tumors and provide the pathologist or dermatopathologist with practical management information. Smooth muscle tumors of the external genitalia will also be discussed.

  11. Nicotine and periodontal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Ranjan; Kapoor, Anoop; Grover, Vishakha; Kaushal, Sumit

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use has been recognized to be a significant risk factor for the development and progression of periodontal disease. Its use is associated with increased pocket depths, loss of periodontal attachment, alveolar bone and a higher rate of tooth loss. Nicotine, a major component and most pharmacologically active agent in tobacco is likely to be a significant contributing factor for the exacerbation of periodontal diseases. Available literature suggests that nicotine affects gingival blood flow, cytokine production, neutrophil and other immune cell function; connective tissue turnover, which can be the possible mechanisms responsible for overall effects of tobacco on periodontal tissues. Inclusion of tobacco cessation as a part of periodontal therapy encourages dental professionals to become more active in tobacco cessation counseling. This will have far reaching positive effects on our patients’ oral and general health. PMID:20922084

  12. Tissue engineering the kidney.

    PubMed

    Hammerman, Marc R

    2003-04-01

    The means by which kidney function can be replaced in humans include dialysis and renal allotransplantation. Dialytic therapies are lifesaving, but often poorly tolerated. Transplantation of human kidneys is limited by the availability of donor organs. During the past decades, a number of different approaches have been applied toward tissue engineering the kidney as a means to replace renal function. The goals of one or another of them included the recapitulation of renal filtration, reabsorptive and secretory functions, and replacement of endocrine/metabolic activities. This review will delineate the progress to date recorded for five approaches: (1) integration of new nephrons into the kidney; (2) growing new kidneys in situ; (3) use of stem cells; (4) generation of histocompatible tissues using nuclear transplantation; and (5) bioengineering of an artificial kidney. All five approaches utilize cellular therapy. The first four employ transplantation as well, and the fifth uses dialysis.

  13. Tissue regeneration with photobiomodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Elieza G.; Arany, Praveen R.

    2013-03-01

    Low level light therapy (LLLT) has been widely reported to reduce pain and inflammation and enhance wound healing and tissue regeneration in various settings. LLLT has been noted to have both stimulatory and inhibitory biological effects and these effects have been termed Photobiomodulation (PBM). Several elegant studies have shown the key role of Cytochrome C oxidase and ROS in initiating this process. The downstream biological responses remain to be clearly elucidated. Our work has demonstrated activation of an endogenous latent growth factor complex, TGF-β1, as one of the major biological events in PBM. TGF-β1 has critical roles in various biological processes especially in inflammation, immune responses, wound healing and stem cell biology. This paper overviews some of the studies demonstrating the efficacy of PBM in promoting tissue regeneration.

  14. Electromechanical Properties of Bone Tissue.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regimbal, Raymond L.

    Discrepancies between calculated and empirical properties of bone are thought to be due to a general lack of consideration for the extent and manner(s) with which bone components interact at the molecular level. For a bone component in physiological fluid or whenever two phases are in contact, there is a region between the bulk phases called the electrical double layer which is marked by a separation of electric charges. For the purpose of studying electrical double layer interactions, the method of particle microelectrophoresis was used to characterize bone and its major constituents on the basis of the net charge they bear when suspended in ionic media of physiological relevance. With the data presented as pH versus zeta (zeta ) potential, the figures reveal an isoelectric point (IEP) for bone mineral near pH 8.6, whereas intact and EDTA demineralized bone tissue both exhibit IEPs near pH 5.1. While these data demonstrate the potential for a significant degree of coulombic interaction between the bone mineral and organic constituent double layers, it was also observed that use of inorganic phosphate buffers, as a specific marker for bone mineral, resulted in (1) an immediate reversal, from positive to negative, of the bone mineral zeta potential (2) rendered the zeta potential of intact bone more negative in a manner linearly dependent on both time and temperature and (3) had no affect on demineralized bone (P < 0.01). In agreement with that shown in model protein-hydroxyapatite systems, it is suggested here that inorganic phosphate ions in solution compete with organic acid groups (e.g. carboxyl and phosphate of collagen, sialoprotein, ...) for positively charged sites on the bone mineral surface and effectively uncouple the bone mineral and organic phase double layers. Mechanically, this uncoupling is manifested as a loss of tissue rigidity when monitoring the midspan deflection of bone beams subject to constant load for a 3 day period. While it is thus

  15. Element levels in snakes in South Carolina: differences between a control site and exposed site on the Savannah River site.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Murray, S; Gaines, K F; Novak, J M; Punshon, T; Dixon, C; Gochfeld, M

    2006-01-01

    Levels of 18 elements, including lead, mercury, selenium, and uranium, were examined in three species of snakes from an exposed and reference site on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina. We tested the hypotheses that there were no differences as a function of species, and there were no difference between the exposed and control site for blood and muscle (tail) samples for banded water snake (Nerodia fasciata), brown water snake (N. taxispilota) and cotton mouth (Akistrodon piscivorous). The banded water snakes collected were significantly smaller than the other two species. For blood, there were significant species differences only for barium, copper, selenium, uranium and zinc, while for muscle tissue there were significant interspecific differences in aluminum, arsenic, barium, cobalt, cesium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, manganese, strontium, vanadium and zinc, suggesting that muscle tissue in the tail is a better indicator of potential interspecific differences. It is also easier logistically to collect tail tissue than blood. Where one species had significantly higher levels than the other species in muscle tissue levels, cottonmouth had higher levels of five elements (aluminum, cobalt, lead, mercury, vanadium), brown water snake had two (lead, strontium), and banded water snake had only barium. There were few significant differences between the control and reference site for levels of blood, but several for muscle tissue. All three species had significantly higher levels of arsenic and manganese at Tim's Branch than the reference site, and nickel and uranium were significantly higher for banded water snake and cotton mouth, the larger species. Individuals with high exposure of one element were exposed to high levels of other elements.

  16. Tissue expansion in perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, D. T.; Burd, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    Tissue expansion is a recent advance in skin cover technique. Its empirical use has enabled many previously difficult reconstructions to be completed without recourse to distant flaps. Its high complication rate and lack of basic scientific understanding at present restrict its use to selected cases, but the quality of repairs possible by this method encourage further serious scientific study. Images fig. 1 fig. 2 fig. 3 fig. 4 fig. 5 PMID:2589784

  17. Tissue blood flow mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    The operating principles of Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging (LDPI) for visualization of the tissue blood perfusion are explained. Using this emerging technology skin perfusion has been investigated in healthy volunteers and in patients with various conditions that affect skin blood flow. LDPI is anticipated to be particularly useful in evaluation of peripheral circulation in diabetics, as an objective tool in irritancy patch testing, assessment of burnt skin and visualization of spot-wise hyperperfusion in breast skin in association with carcinoma.

  18. Reptile Soft Tissue Surgery.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Mans, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The surgical approach to reptiles can be challenging. Reptiles have unique physiologic, anatomic, and pathologic differences. This may result in frustrating surgical experiences. However, recent investigations provided novel, less invasive, surgical techniques. The purpose of this review was to describe the technical aspects behind soft tissue surgical techniques that have been used in reptiles, so as to provide a general guideline for veterinarians working with reptiles.

  19. Lean Tissue Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    Body composition refers to the amount of fat and lean tissues in our body; it is a science that looks beyond a unit of body weight, accounting for the proportion of different tissues and its relationship to health. Although body weight and body mass index are well-known indexes of health status, most researchers agree that they are rather inaccurate measures, especially for elderly individuals and those patients with specific clinical conditions. The emerging use of imaging techniques such as dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound imaging in the clinical setting have highlighted the importance of lean soft tissue (LST) as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. It is clear from emerging studies that body composition health will be vital in treatment decisions, prognostic outcomes, and quality of life in several nonclinical and clinical states. This review explores the methodologies and the emerging value of imaging techniques in the assessment of body composition, focusing on the value of LST to predict nutrition status. PMID:25239112

  20. Stereolithography in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Shelby A; Goering, Peter L; Narayan, Roger J

    2014-03-01

    Several recent research efforts have focused on use of computer-aided additive fabrication technologies, commonly referred to as additive manufacturing, rapid prototyping, solid freeform fabrication, or three-dimensional printing technologies, to create structures for tissue engineering. For example, scaffolds for tissue engineering may be processed using rapid prototyping technologies, which serve as matrices for cell ingrowth, vascularization, as well as transport of nutrients and waste. Stereolithography is a photopolymerization-based rapid prototyping technology that involves computer-driven and spatially controlled irradiation of liquid resin. This technology enables structures with precise microscale features to be prepared directly from a computer model. In this review, use of stereolithography for processing trimethylene carbonate, polycaprolactone, and poly(D,L-lactide) poly(propylene fumarate)-based materials is considered. In addition, incorporation of bioceramic fillers for fabrication of bioceramic scaffolds is reviewed. Use of stereolithography for processing of patient-specific implantable scaffolds is also discussed. In addition, use of photopolymerization-based rapid prototyping technology, known as two-photon polymerization, for production of tissue engineering scaffolds with smaller features than conventional stereolithography technology is considered.

  1. Connective Tissue Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Dabiri, Ganary; Falanga, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Connective tissue disorders (CTD), which are often also termed collagen vascular diseases, include a number of related inflammatory conditions. Some of these diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), localized scleroderma (morphea variants localized to the skin), Sjogren’s syndrome, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease. In addition to the systemic manifestations of these diseases, there are a number of cutaneous features that make these conditions recognizable on physical exam. Lower extremity ulcers and digital ulcers are an infrequent but disabling complication of long-standing connective tissue disease. The exact frequency with which these ulcers occur is not known, and the cause of the ulcerations is often multifactorial. Moreover, a challenging component of CTD ulcerations is that there are still no established guidelines for their diagnosis and treatment. The morbidity associated with these ulcerations and their underlying conditions is very substantial. Indeed, these less common but intractable ulcers represent a major medical and economic problem for patients, physicians and nurses, and even well organized multidisciplinary wound healing centers. PMID:23756459

  2. Investigation of laser tissue welding dynamics via experiment and modeling.

    PubMed

    Small, W; Maitland, D J; Heredia, N J; Eder, D C; Celliers, P M; Da Silva, L B; London, R A; Matthews, D L

    1997-02-01

    An in vitro study of laser tissue welding mediated with a dye-enhanced protein solder was performed. Freshly harvested sections of porcine aorta were used for the experiments. Arteriotomies approximately 4 mm in length were treated using an 805 nm continuous-wave diode laser coupled to a 1-mm diameter fiber. Temperature histories of the surface of the weld site were obtained using a fiberoptic-based infrared thermometer. The experimental effort was complemented by the LATIS (LAser-TISsue) computer code, which numerically simulates the exposure of tissue to near-infrared radiation using coupled Monte Carlo, thermal transport, and mass transport models. Comparison of the experimental and simulated thermal results shows that the inclusion of water transport and evaporative losses in the model is necessary to determine the thermal distributions and hydration state in the tissue. The hydration state of the weld site was correlated with the acute weld strength.

  3. Environmental conditions influence tissue regeneration rates in scleractinian corals.

    PubMed

    Sabine, Alexis M; Smith, Tyler B; Williams, Dana E; Brandt, Marilyn E

    2015-06-15

    Natural and anthropogenic factors may influence corals' ability to recover from partial mortality. To examine how environmental conditions affect lesion healing, we assessed several water quality parameters and tissue regeneration rates in corals at six reefs around St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. We hypothesized that sites closer to developed areas would have poor water quality due to proximity to anthropogenic stresses, which would impede tissue regeneration. We found that water flow and turbidity most strongly influenced lesion recovery rates. The most impacted site, with high turbidity and low flow, recovered almost three times slower than the least impacted site, with low turbidity, high flow, and low levels of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results illustrate that in addition to lesion-specific factors known to affect tissue regeneration, environmental conditions can also control corals' healing rates. Resource managers can use this information to protect low-flow, turbid nearshore reefs by minimizing sources of anthropogenic stress.

  4. Promoting Your Web Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote sites on the World Wide Web focuses on how search engines work and how they retrieve and identify sites. Appropriate Web links for submitting new sites and for Internet marketing are included. (LRW)

  5. Deep tissue injury from a bioengineering point of view.

    PubMed

    Gefen, Amit

    2009-04-01

    The phrasing of the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel's (NPUAP) definition of deep tissue injury (DTI) was based on case reports, clinical observations, and experience. Although etiological studies of DTI, primarily related to characterizing biomechanical factors affecting onset and progression, support and strengthen parts of the NPUAP's definition, some recent findings suggest a need to re-evaluate the wording and perhaps refine future definitions of DTI. Application of existing bioengineering research to underlying biological, physical, biomechanical, and biochemical mechanisms involved in the definition of DTI suggests the following: 1) changes in skin color - ie, deviation of the local skin color from the surroundings - may indicate a DTI might be present, but color is not useful for quantifying the severity of injury; 2) the pressure and/or shear definition is inaccurate because it creates an artificial distinction between pressure and shear, which are physically coupled, and because it ignores tensional loads; 3) palpating tissue firmness at the wound site provides limited assessment information because tissue firmness will depend on the point in time along the course of DTI development. Damaged tissues might appear stiffer than surrounding tissues if examined when muscle tissue is locally contracted due to local rigor mortis but at a later stage damage might manifest as tissues that are softer than their surroundings when digestive enzymes start decomposing necrotic tissues; 4) skin temperature changes near the DTI site may reflect inflammatory response, causing local heating, or ischemic perfusion, causing local cooling; and 5) rapid deterioration of DTI is likely occurring due to muscle tissue stiffening at the rigor mortis phase; stiffened tissues abnormally deform adjacent tissues and this effect is amplified if muscles are atrophied. The application of interdisciplinary research may help clinicians and researchers move from evolving jargons

  6. Transplantation of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage in an Animal Model (Xenograft and Autograft): Construct Validation.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Hitoshi; Watson, Deborah; Masuda, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering holds great promise for cartilage repair with minimal donor-site morbidity. The in vivo maturation of a tissue-engineered construct can be tested in the subcutaneous tissues of the same species for autografts or of immunocompromised animals for allografts or xenografts. This section describes detailed protocols for the surgical transplantation of a tissue-engineered construct into an animal model to assess construct validity.

  7. Recent advances in protein profiling of tissues and tissue fluids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2007-08-01

    Creating protein profiles of tissues and tissue fluids, which contain secreted proteins and peptides released from various cells, is critical for biomarker discovery as well as drug and vaccine target selection. It is extremely difficult to obtain pure samples from tissues or tissue fluids, however, and identification of complex protein mixtures is still a challenge for mass spectrometry analysis. Here, we summarize recent advances in techniques for extracting proteins from tissues for mass spectrometry profiling and imaging. We also introduce a novel technique using a capillary ultrafiltration (CUF) probe to enable in vivo collection of proteins from the tissue microenvironment. The CUF probe technique is compared with existing sampling techniques, including perfusion, saline wash, fine-needle aspiration and microdialysis. In this review, we also highlight quantitative mass spectrometric proteomic approaches with, and without, stable-isotope labels. Advances in quantitative proteomics will significantly improve protein profiling of tissue and tissue fluid samples collected by CUF probes.

  8. Prediction of tissue thermal damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhong, Yongmin; Subic, Aleksandar; Jazar, Reza; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2016-04-29

    This paper presents a method to characterize tissue thermal damage by taking into account the thermal-mechanical effect of soft tissues for thermal ablation. This method integrates the bio-heating conduction and non-rigid motion dynamics to describe thermal-mechanical behaviors of soft tissues and further extends the traditional tissue damage model to characterize thermal-mechanical damage of soft tissues. Simulations and comparison analysis demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively predict tissue thermal damage and it also provides reliable guidelines for control of the thermal ablation procedure. PMID:27163325

  9. Prediction of tissue thermal damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhong, Yongmin; Subic, Aleksandar; Jazar, Reza; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2016-04-29

    This paper presents a method to characterize tissue thermal damage by taking into account the thermal-mechanical effect of soft tissues for thermal ablation. This method integrates the bio-heating conduction and non-rigid motion dynamics to describe thermal-mechanical behaviors of soft tissues and further extends the traditional tissue damage model to characterize thermal-mechanical damage of soft tissues. Simulations and comparison analysis demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively predict tissue thermal damage and it also provides reliable guidelines for control of the thermal ablation procedure.

  10. Hanford Site Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. ); Yancey, E.F. )

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  11. Tissue response: biomaterials, dental implants, and compromised osseous tissue.

    PubMed

    Babu RS, Arvind; Ogle, Orrett

    2015-04-01

    Tissue response represents an important feature in biocompatibility in implant procedures. This review article highlights the fundamental characteristics of tissue response after the implant procedure. This article also highlights the tissue response in compromised osseous conditions. Understanding the histologic events after dental implants in normal and abnormal bone reinforces the concept of case selection in dental implants.

  12. Cellular Phone Enabled Non-Invasive Tissue Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Laufer, Shlomi; Rubinsky, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Cellular phone technology is emerging as an important tool in the effort to provide advanced medical care to the majority of the world population currently without access to such care. In this study, we show that non-invasive electrical measurements and the use of classifier software can be combined with cellular phone technology to produce inexpensive tissue characterization. This concept was demonstrated by the use of a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to distinguish through the cellular phone between heart and kidney tissue via the non-invasive multi-frequency electrical measurements acquired around the tissues. After the measurements were performed at a remote site, the raw data were transmitted through the cellular phone to a central computational site and the classifier was applied to the raw data. The results of the tissue analysis were returned to the remote data measurement site. The classifiers correctly determined the tissue type with a specificity of over 90%. When used for the detection of malignant tumors, classifiers can be designed to produce false positives in order to ensure that no tumors will be missed. This mode of operation has applications in remote non-invasive tissue diagnostics in situ in the body, in combination with medical imaging, as well as in remote diagnostics of biopsy samples in vitro. PMID:19365554

  13. Tissue factor activity under flow.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Scott L

    2010-04-01

    Coagulation processes under flow conditions are fundamentally different when compared to whole blood clotting in a tube. Due to red blood cell migration toward the center of the vessel, platelet concentrations are elevated several-fold in the plasma layer near the wall or thrombus. Evaluation of platelet function, coagulation proteases, and pharmacological agents can utilize closed systems of constant volume that lack flow (eg. intracellular calcium measurement, automated calibrated thrombography) or include flow (eg. aggregometry or cone-and-plate viscometry). However, these laboratory approaches fail to recreate the fact that intravascular thrombosis is an open system where blood is continually flowing over a thrombotic site. In open systems, the rapid accumulation of platelets at a surface leads to platelet concentrations greatly exceeding those found in whole blood and the delivery/removal of species by convection may impact the efficacy of pharmacological agents. During a clotting event under flow, platelets can accumulate via adhesion receptors to concentrations that are 10 to 50-fold higher than that of platelet-rich plasma. Using controlled in vitro perfusions of whole blood, it is possible to determine the critical level of surface tissue factor needed to trigger full scale coagulation on collagen. Such in vitro perfusion systems also allow a determination of the potency of anti-platelet agents as a function of wall shear rate.

  14. Skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The major applications of tissue-engineered skin substitutes are in promoting the healing of acute and chronic wounds. Several approaches have been taken by commercial companies to develop products to address these conditions. Skin substitutes include both acellular and cellular devices. While acellular skin substitutes act as a template for dermal formation, this discussion mainly covers cellular devices. In addressing therapeutic applications in tissue engineering generally, a valuable precursor is an understanding of the mechanism of the underlying pathology. While this is straightforward in many cases, it has not been available for wound healing. Investigation of the mode of action of the tissue-engineered skin substitutes has led to considerable insight into the mechanism of formation, maintenance and treatment of chronic wounds. Four aspects mediating healing are considered here for their mechanism of action: (i) colonization of the wound bed by live fibroblasts in the implant, (ii) the secretion of growth factors, (iii) provision of a suitable substrate for cell migration, particularly keratinocytes and immune cells, and (iv) modification of the immune system by secretion of neutrophil recruiting chemokines. An early event in acute wound healing is an influx of neutrophils that destroy planktonic bacteria. However, if the bacteria are able to form biofilm, they become resistant to neutrophil action and prevent reepithelialization. In this situation the wound becomes chronic. In chronic wounds, fibroblasts show a senescence-like phenotype with decreased secretion of neutrophil chemoattractants that make it more likely that biofilms become established. Treatment of the chronic wounds involves debridement to eliminate biofilm, and the use of antimicrobials. A role of skin substitutes is to provide non-senescent fibroblasts that attract and activate neutrophils to prevent biofilm re-establishment. The emphasis of the conclusion is the importance of preventing

  15. Obtaining corneal tissue for keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Navarro Martínez-Cantullera, A; Calatayud Pinuaga, M

    2016-10-01

    Cornea transplant is the most common tissue transplant in the world. In Spain, tissue donation activities depend upon transplant coordinator activities and the well-known Spanish model for organ and tissue donation. Tissue donor detection system and tissue donor evaluation is performed mainly by transplant coordinators using the Spanish model on donation. The evaluation of a potential tissue donor from detection until recovery is based on an exhaustive review of the medical and social history, physical examination, family interview to determine will of the deceased, and a laboratory screening test. Corneal acceptance criteria for transplantation have a wider spectrum than other tissues, as donors with active malignancies and infections are accepted for kearatoplasty in most tissue banks. Corneal evaluation during the whole process is performed to ensure the safety of the donor and the recipient, as well as an effective transplant. Last step before processing, corneal recovery, must be performed under standard operating procedures and in a correct environment.

  16. Tools to assess tissue quality.

    PubMed

    Neumeister, Veronique M

    2014-03-01

    Biospecimen science has recognized the importance of tissue quality for accurate molecular and biomarker analysis and efforts are made to standardize tissue procurement, processing and storage conditions of tissue samples. At the same time the field has emphasized the lack of standardization of processes between different laboratories, the variability inherent in the analytical phase and the lack of control over the pre-analytical phase of tissue processing. The problem extends back into tissue samples in biorepositories, which are often decades old and where documentation about tissue processing might not be available. This review highlights pre-analytical variations in tissue handling, processing, fixation and storage and emphasizes the effects of these variables on nucleic acids and proteins in harvested tissue. Finally current tools for quality control regarding molecular or biomarker analysis are summarized and discussed.

  17. Gram stain of tissue biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... stain of tissue biopsy test involves using crystal violet stain to test a sample of tissue taken ... microscope slide. The specimen is stained with crystal violet stain and goes through more processing before it ...

  18. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  19. Thermoacoustic resonance effect and circuit modelling of biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Zheng, Yuanjin; Feng, Xiaohua; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2013-02-01

    In this letter, thermoacoustic resonance effect is predicted from theoretical analysis with series resistor-inductor-capacitor resonance circuit model and then observed experimentally using muscle tissue illuminated by multi-pulse microwave source. Through model fitting, the circuit parameters are extracted to characterize quantitatively the resonant response of the tissue. Coherent demodulation is applied to obtain the enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and spatial information by treating tissue as a communication channel. This physical phenomenon shows significantly higher sensitivity than conventional single microwave pulse induced thermoacoustic effect, enabling the potential design of low-power thermoacoustic imaging device for portable and on-site diagnosis.

  20. Condensation of tissue and stem cells for fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Shinichiro; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2015-04-01

    Aspirated fat contains unnecessary components such as water, oil, and blood cells. For better outcomes, tissue purification and condensation are useful, especially when injection volume to the recipient site is limited. Because aspirated fat is relatively poor in adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs), ASC condensation seems important for obtaining better regeneration and retention. Reducing tissue volume by removing some adipocytes or supplementation of stromal vascular fraction or ASCs can increase the ASC/adipocyte ratio in the graft. Clinical results of ASC supplementation remain controversial, but ASC condensation seems to lead to expanding applications of fat grafting into revitalization of stem cell-depleted tissue.

  1. Modulation of tissue repair by regeneration enhancer elements.

    PubMed

    Kang, Junsu; Hu, Jianxin; Karra, Ravi; Dickson, Amy L; Tornini, Valerie A; Nachtrab, Gregory; Gemberling, Matthew; Goldman, Joseph A; Black, Brian L; Poss, Kenneth D

    2016-04-14

    How tissue regeneration programs are triggered by injury has received limited research attention. Here we investigate the existence of enhancer regulatory elements that are activated in regenerating tissue. Transcriptomic analyses reveal that leptin b (lepb) is highly induced in regenerating hearts and fins of zebrafish. Epigenetic profiling identified a short DNA sequence element upstream and distal to lepb that acquires open chromatin marks during regeneration and enables injury-dependent expression from minimal promoters. This element could activate expression in injured neonatal mouse tissues and was divisible into tissue-specific modules sufficient for expression in regenerating zebrafish fins or hearts. Simple enhancer-effector transgenes employing lepb-linked sequences upstream of pro- or anti-regenerative factors controlled the efficacy of regeneration in zebrafish. Our findings provide evidence for 'tissue regeneration enhancer elements' (TREEs) that trigger gene expression in injury sites and can be engineered to modulate the regenerative potential of vertebrate organs.

  2. Dinitrotoluene in deer tissues. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, L.R.

    1991-09-30

    Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP), Baraboo, Wisconsin, has within a security-fenced area, a herd of whitetail deer. The US Army and the State of Wisconsin, Department of Health and Social Services have determined that approximately 20 of the deer be harvested and tissue samples thus collected be analyzed for 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,4- and 2,6-DNT) by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to a sensitivity of 0.1 part per million (ppm). The HPLC analyses will be done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) following protocol used previously for similar work for other government sites. ORNL shall instruct Olin relative to the quantity and type of tissue required, storage and shipment requirements, and other information to ensure that all protocol and chain of custody requirements are clear. A final report will be made to Olin Corporation upon completion of the HPLC analyses.

  3. Mechanisms of Laser-Tissue Interaction: II. Tissue Thermal Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mohammad Ali; Erfanzadeh, Mohsen; Mohajerani, Ezeddin

    2013-01-01

    Laser-tissue interaction is of great interest due to its significant application in biomedical optics in both diagnostic and treatment purposes. Major aspects of the laser-tissue interaction which has to be considered in biomedical studies are the thermal properties of the tissue and the thermal changes caused by the interaction of light and tissue. In this review paper the effects of light on the tissue at different temperatures are discussed. Then, due to the noticeable importance of studying the heat transfer quantitatively, the equations governing this phenomenon are presented. Finally a method of medical diagnosis called thermography and some of its applications are explained. PMID:25606316

  4. European association of tissue banks.

    PubMed

    Cahane, Michael; van Baare, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    Tissue banking is a specific field of medical practice. The European Association of Tissue Banks (EATB) is a scientific nonprofit organization that coordinates and supports aspects of tissue banking within Europe. The evolvement, structure and principal fields of interest and activities of the EATB are described.

  5. Scaffold-free tissue engineering: organization of the tissue cytoskeleton and its effects on tissue shape.

    PubMed

    Czajka, Caitlin A; Mehesz, Agnes Nagy; Trusk, Thomas C; Yost, Michael J; Drake, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Work described herein characterizes tissues formed using scaffold-free, non-adherent systems and investigates their utility in modular approaches to tissue engineering. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that all tissues formed using scaffold-free, non-adherent systems organize tissue cortical cytoskeletons that appear to be under tension. Tension in these tissues was also evident when modules (spheroids) were used to generate larger tissues. Real-time analysis of spheroid fusion in unconstrained systems illustrated modular motion that is compatible with alterations in tensions, due to the process of disassembly/reassembly of the cortical cytoskeletons required for module fusion. Additionally, tissues generated from modules placed within constrained linear molds, which restrict modular motion, deformed upon release from molds. That tissue deformation is due in full or in part to imbalanced cortical actin cytoskeleton tensions resulting from the constraints imposed by mold systems is suggested from our finding that treatment of forming tissues with Y-27632, a selective inhibitor of ROCK phosphorylation, reduced tissue deformation. Our studies suggest that the deformation of scaffold-free tissues due to tensions mediated via the tissue cortical cytoskeleton represents a major and underappreciated challenge to modular tissue engineering.

  6. Interface tissue engineering: next phase in musculoskeletal tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sambit; Teh, Thomas Kh; He, Pengfei; Toh, Siew Lok; Goh, James Ch

    2011-05-01

    Increasing incidence of musculoskeletal injuries coupled with limitations in the current treatment options have necessitated tissue engineering and regenerative medicine- based approaches. Moving forward from engineering isolated musculoskeletal tissues, research strategies are now being increasingly focused on repairing and regenerating the interfaces between dissimilar musculoskeletal tissues with the aim to achieve seamless integration of engineered musculoskeletal tissues. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in the tissue engineering of musculoskeletal tissue interfaces with a focus on Singapore's contribution in this emerging field. Various biomimetic scaffold and cellbased strategies, the use of growth factors, gene therapy and mechanical loading, as well as animal models for functional validation of the tissue engineering strategies are discussed.

  7. Broadband transmission spectroscopy in tissue: application to radiofrequency tissue fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floume, Timmy; Syms, Richard R. A.; Darzi, Ara W.; Hanna, George B.

    2009-05-01

    Radiofrequency tissue fusion consists in heating apposed tissue faces, which results in their sealing. Tissue transformations must be controlled to obtain reliable reproducible seal. In this paper we demonstrate how to extract information on the two main tissue transformations, thermal damage and dehydration, from continuous wave transmission spectra. A fibre based near infrared transmission spectroscopy system is presented and described theoretically. Show demonstrate that such system can be fully modeled using ray optics considerations for the coupling of the light into optical fibers, and MC simulations of light propagation in tissue. We then develop an algorithm based on the absolute measurement of attenuation and the modified Beer Lambert Law that enables the extraction of absolute tissue hydration and information on the degree of thermal damage, via scattering losses. We also discuss the basis and limit of absolute measurement during broadband submicronic tissue transmittance spectroscopy.

  8. Acquired disorders of elastic tissue: Part II. decreased elastic tissue.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kevan G; Bercovitch, Lionel; Dill, Sara W; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2004-08-01

    Elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix are integral components of dermal connective tissue. The resilience and elasticity required for normal structure and function of the skin are attributable to the network of elastic tissue. Advances in our understanding of elastic tissue physiology provide a foundation for studying the pathogenesis of elastic tissue disorders. Many acquired disorders are nevertheless poorly understood owing to the paucity of reported cases. Several acquired disorders in which loss of dermal elastic tissue produces prominent clinical and histopathologic features have recently been described, including middermal elastolysis, papular elastorrhexis, and pseudoxanthoma-like papillary dermal elastolysis, which must be differentiated from more well-known disorders such as anetoderma, acquired cutis laxa, and acrokeratoelastoidosis. Learning objective At the conclusion of this learning activity, participants should have an understanding of the similarities and differences between acquired disorders of elastic tissue that are characterized by a loss of elastic tissue.

  9. Tissue allograft coding and traceability in USM Tissue Bank, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sheikh Ab Hamid, Suzina; Abd Rahman, Muhamad Nor Firdaus

    2010-11-01

    In Malaysia, tissue banking activities began in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Tissue Bank in early 1990s. Since then a few other bone banks have been set up in other government hospitals and institutions. However, these banks are not governed by the national authority. In addition there is no requirement set by the national regulatory authority on coding and traceability for donated human tissues for transplantation. Hence, USM Tissue Bank has taken the initiatives to adopt a system that enables the traceability of tissues between the donor, the processed tissue and the recipient based on other international standards for tissue banks. The traceability trail has been effective and the bank is certified compliance to the international standard ISO 9001:2008. PMID:20582480

  10. Biothermomechanics of skin tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, F.; Lu, T. J.; Seffen, K. A.

    Biothermomechanics of skin is highly interdisciplinary involving bioheat transfer, burn damage, biomechanics and neurophysiology. During heating, thermally induced mechanical stress arises due to the thermal denaturation of collagen, resulting in macroscale shrinkage. Thus, the strain, stress, temperature and thermal pain/damage are highly correlated; in other words, the problem is fully coupled. The aim of this study is to develop a computational approach to examine the heat transfer process and the heat-induced mechanical response, so that the differences among the clinically applied heating modalities can be quantified. Exact solutions for temperature, thermal damage and thermal stress for a single-layer skin model were first derived for different boundary conditions. For multilayer models, numerical simulations using the finite difference method (FDM) and finite element method (FEM) were used to analyze the temperature, burn damage and thermal stress distributions in the skin tissue. The results showed that the thermomechanical behavior of skin tissue is very complex: blood perfusion has little effect on thermal damage but large influence on skin temperature distribution, which, in turn, influences significantly the resulting thermal stress field; the stratum corneum layer, although very thin, has a large effect on the thermomechanical behavior of skin, suggesting that it should be properly accounted for in the modeling of skin thermal stresses; the stress caused by non-uniform temperature distribution in the skin may also contribute to the thermal pain sensation.

  11. Hanford Site Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP`s primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides an existing and future land use plan for the Hanford Site. The HSDP is updated annually in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B, Site Development Planning, to reflect the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans.

  12. SCHOOL SITE STANDARDS AND SITE SELECTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    THIS REPORT PRESENTS ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL SITE DEVELOPMENT DATA COMPILED BY THE DIVISION OF EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES PLANNING, NEW YORK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT. ENROLLMENT FIGURES USED REPRESENT THE ULTIMATE SIZE OF THE SCHOOLS. THE STANDARDS ARE MINIMUM FOR THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITH ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SITES BASED ON THREE ACRES PLUS…

  13. Combining regenerative medicine strategies to provide durable reconstructive options: auricular cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Jessop, Zita M; Javed, Muhammad; Otto, Iris A; Combellack, Emman J; Morgan, Siân; Breugem, Corstiaan C; Archer, Charles W; Khan, Ilyas M; Lineaweaver, William C; Kon, Moshe; Malda, Jos; Whitaker, Iain S

    2016-01-28

    Recent advances in regenerative medicine place us in a unique position to improve the quality of engineered tissue. We use auricular cartilage as an exemplar to illustrate how the use of tissue-specific adult stem cells, assembly through additive manufacturing and improved understanding of postnatal tissue maturation will allow us to more accurately replicate native tissue anisotropy. This review highlights the limitations of autologous auricular reconstruction, including donor site morbidity, technical considerations and long-term complications. Current tissue-engineered auricular constructs implanted into immune-competent animal models have been observed to undergo inflammation, fibrosis, foreign body reaction, calcification and degradation. Combining biomimetic regenerative medicine strategies will allow us to improve tissue-engineered auricular cartilage with respect to biochemical composition and functionality, as well as microstructural organization and overall shape. Creating functional and durable tissue has the potential to shift the paradigm in reconstructive surgery by obviating the need for donor sites.

  14. Site amplifications for generic rock sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Joyner, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    Seismic shear-wave velocity as a function of depth for generic rock sites has been estimated from borehole data and studies of crustal velocities, and these velocities have been used to compute frequency-dependent amplifications for zero attenuation for use in simulations of strong ground motion. We define a generic rock site as one whose velocity at shallow depths equals the average of those from the rock sites sampled by the borehole data. Most of the boreholes are in populated areas; for that reason, the rock sites sampled are of particular engineering significance. We consider two generic rock sites: rock, corresponding to the bulk of the borehole data, and very hard rock, such as is found in glaciated regions in large areas of eastern North America or in portions of western North America. The amplifications on rock sites can be in excess of 3.5 at high frequencies, in contrast to the amplifications of less than 1.2 on very hard rock sites. The consideration of unattenuated amplification alone is computationally convenient, but what matters for ground-motion estimation is the combined effect of amplification and attenuation. For reasonable values of the attenuation parameter K0, the combined effect of attenuation and amplification for rock sites peaks between about 2 and 5 Hz with a maximum level of less than 1.8. The combined effect is about a factor of 1.5 at 1 Hz and is less than unity for frequencies in the range of 10 to 20 Hz (depending on K0). Using these amplifications, we find provisional values of about ???? = 70 bars and K0 = 0.035 sec for rock sites in western North America by fitting our empirically determined response spectra for an M 6.5 event to simulated values. The borehole data yield shear velocities (V??30) of 618 and 306 m/sec for "rock" and "soil" sites, respectively, when averaged over the upper 30 m. From this, we recommend that V??30 equals 620 and 310 m/sec for applications requiring the average velocity for rock and soil sites in

  15. Mixed connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Ragnar; Hetlevik, Siri Opsahl; Lilleby, Vibke; Molberg, Øyvind

    2016-02-01

    The concept of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) as a separate connective tissue disease (CTD) has persisted for more than four decades. High titers of antibodies targeting the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U1 snRNP) in peripheral blood are a sine qua non for the diagnosis of MCTD, in addition to distinct clinical features including Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), "puffy hands," arthritis, myositis, pleuritis, pericarditis, interstitial lung disease (ILD), and pulmonary hypertension (PH). Recently, population-based epidemiology data from Norway estimated the point prevalence of adult-onset MCTD to be 3.8 per 100,000 and the mean annual incidence to be 2.1 per million per year, supporting the notion that MCTD is the least common CTD. Little is known about the etiology of MCTD, but recent genetic studies have confirmed that MCTD is a strongly HLA (​human leukocyte antigen)-linked disease, as the HLA profiles of MCTD differ distinctly from the corresponding profiles of ethnically matched healthy controls and other CTDs. In the first section of this review, we provide an update on the clinical, immunological, and genetic features of MCTD and discuss the relationship between MCTD and the other CTDs. Then we proceed to discuss the recent advances in therapy and our current understanding of prognosis and prognostic factors, especially those that are associated with the more serious pulmonary and cardiovascular complications of the disease. In the final section, we discuss some of the key, unresolved questions related to anti-RNP-associated diseases and indicate how these questions may be approached in future studies. PMID:27421219

  16. Differential tissue-on-tissue lubrication by ophthalmic formulations.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Anne E; Baier, Robert E; Chen, Huagang; Chowhan, Masood

    2007-07-01

    Tissue-on-tissue friction testing was used to determine how instillation of hydrophilic polymer-containing formulations between the "blinking" tissues would compare with lubrication by saline, alone, or an oil-emulsion preparation. Best results were obtained for a formulation that contained active demulcents polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) and propylene glycol (PG), as well as a gellable polymer hydroxypropyl guar (HP-Guar) in a borate-buffered solution, in comparison with hydroxypropylcellulose-containing and carboxymethylcellulose-containing formulations. Superior performance of all the formulations was found for lubricating tissue-on-tissue couples, compared with metal-oxide-to-metal oxide interfaces, or metal oxide-to-tissue interfaces. A reciprocating pin-on-disc type friction/wear test device articulated the intimal faces of preserved human umbilical cord vein segments under increasing loads during simulated continuous "eye-blinking" with addition of increasing weights up to 60 g/cm2, simulating maximal eyelid force on the orbital globe. The tissue-on-tissue couples moved from liquid phase lubrication to boundary lubrication. After residual formulations were rinsed away with saline, persistence of low friction at the highest loads was indicative of formulation substantivity. Human umbilical cord vein segments were utilized in saline-wetted tissue-on-tissue couples that showed variable starting coefficients of friction in the range 0.2-0.4, producing moderate tearing and disruption of the interfacial layers above the medial collagen zone. The best-performing formulations instilled to the tissues pre-wetted with saline apparently reacted separately with each tissue face to produce a lower final and persistent coefficient of friction of about 0.05. Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy of these guar-modified tissue specimens showed only a few superficial tissue disruptions, and some interphase swelling consistent with polymer uptake. The frictional

  17. The soft tissue sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Eilber, F.R.; Morton, D.L.; Sondak, V.K.; Economou, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    New advances in multimodality therapy of sarcomas in all anatomic sites are thoroughly described. Multimodality therapy with limb-salvage surgery for extremity tumors, sarcomas of the head and neck, trunk, intraabdominal, visceral, and genitourinary tract and cardiopulmonary system are presented. Separate sections are devoted to the management of pediatric sarcomas, pulmonary metastasis and to the pathology and radiobiology, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy of sarcomas. The text also stresses the philosophy of achieving adequate local control without radical amputation by combined surgery and chemo/radiotherapy.

  18. Discordance of DNA methylation variance between two accessible human tissues.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ruiwei; Jones, Meaghan J; Chen, Edith; Neumann, Sarah M; Fraser, Hunter B; Miller, Gregory E; Kobor, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Population epigenetic studies have been seeking to identify differences in DNA methylation between specific exposures, demographic factors, or diseases in accessible tissues, but relatively little is known about how inter-individual variability differs between these tissues. This study presents an analysis of DNA methylation differences between matched peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) and buccal epithelial cells (BECs), the two most accessible tissues for population studies, in 998 promoter-located CpG sites. Specifically we compared probe-wise DNA methylation variance, and how this variance related to demographic factors across the two tissues. PBMCs had overall higher DNA methylation than BECs, and the two tissues tended to differ most at genomic regions of low CpG density. Furthermore, although both tissues showed appreciable probe-wise variability, the specific regions and magnitude of variability differed strongly between tissues. Lastly, through exploratory association analysis, we found indication of differential association of BEC and PBMC with demographic variables. The work presented here offers insight into variability of DNA methylation between individuals and across tissues and helps guide decisions on the suitability of buccal epithelial or peripheral mononuclear cells for the biological questions explored by epigenetic studies in human populations.

  19. Laser-tissue photothermal interaction and tissue temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ives, Andrea K.; Chen, Wei R.; Jassemnejad, Baha; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, John A.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2000-06-01

    Responses of tissue to laser stimulation are crucial in both disease diagnostics and treatment. In general, when tissue absorbs laser energy photothermal interaction occurs. The most important signature of the photothermal reaction is the tissue temperature change during and after the laser irradiation. Experimentally, the tissue reaction to laser irradiation can be measured by numerous methods including direct temperature measurement and measurement of perfusion change. In this study, a multiple-channel temperature probe was used to measure tissue temperature change during irradiation of lasers with different wavelengths at different power settings. Tissue temperature in chicken breast tissue as well as skin and breast tumor of rats was measured during irradiation of an 805-nm diode laser. The vertical profiles of temperature were obtained using simultaneous measurement at several different locations. The absorption of laser energy by tissue was enhanced by injecting laser-absorbing dye into the tissue. A Nd:YAG laser of 1064-nm wavelength was also used to irradiate turkey breast tissue. Our results showed that both laser penetration ability and photothermal reaction depended on the wavelength of lasers. In the case of 805-nm laser, the temperature increased rapidly only in the region close to the laser source and the thermal equilibrium could be reached within a short time period. The laser absorbing dye drastically enhanced the thermal reaction, resulting in approximately 4-fold temperature increase. On the contrary, the laser beam with 1064-nm wavelength penetrated deeply into tissue and the tissue temperature continued increasing even after a 10-minute laser irradiation.

  20. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  1. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  2. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Tharp, Kevin M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  3. Polarized Light Propagation in Biological Tissue and Tissue Phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, V.; Walsh, J.T.; Maitland, D.

    1999-12-10

    Imaging through biologic tissue relies on the discrimination of weakly scattered from multiply scattered photons. The degree of polarization can be used as the discrimination criterion by which to reject multiply scattered photons. Polarized light propagation through biologic tissue is typically studied using tissue phantoms consisting of dilute aqueous suspensions of microsphere. We show that, although such phantoms are designed to match the macroscopic scattering properties of tissue (i.e.. the scattering coefficient, {mu}{sub 3}, and scattering anisotropy, g), they do not accurately represent biologic tissue for polarization-sensitive studies. In common tissue phantoms, such as dilute Intralipid and dilute 1-{micro}m-diameter polystyrene microsphere suspensions, we find that linearly polarized light is depolarized more quickly than circularly polarized light. In dense tissue, however, where scatterers are often located in close proximity to one another, circularly polarized light is depolarized similar to or more quickly than linearly polarized light. We also demonstrate that polarized light propagates differently in dilute versus densely packed microsphere suspensions, which may account for the differences seen between polarized light propagation in common dilute tissue phantoms versus dense biologic tissue.

  4. Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides in Marine Waters Near the United Heckathorn Site, Richmond, California

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, Liam D.; Kohn, Nancy P.

    2000-09-05

    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in January 1998 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for the first post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and DDT were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared to pre-remediation data available from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Biomonitoring results indicated that pesticides were still bioavailable in the water column, and have not been reduced from pre-remediation levels. Annual biomonitoring will continue to assess the effectiveness of remedial actions at the United Heckathorn Site.

  5. Ethylene binding site affinity in ripening apples

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, S.M. . Dept. of Horticultural Science); Sisler, E.C. )

    1993-09-01

    Scatchard plots for ethylene binding in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), which were harvested weekly for 5 weeks to include the ethylene climacteric rise, showed C[sub 50] values (concentration of ethylene needed to occupy 50% of the ethylene binding sites) of 0.10, 0.11, 0.34, 0.40, and 0.57 [mu]l ethylene/liter[sup [minus]1], respectively, for each of the 5 weeks. Higher ethylene concentrations were required to saturate the binding sites during the climacteric rise than at other times. Diffusion of [sup 14]C-ethylene from the binding sites was curvilinear and did not show any indication of multiple binding sites. Ethylene was not metabolized by apple tissue.

  6. Adipose Tissue: Sanctuary for HIV/SIV Persistence and Replication.

    PubMed

    Pallikkuth, Suresh; Mohan, Mahesh

    2015-12-01

    This commentary highlights new findings from a recent study identifying adipose tissue as a potential HIV reservoir and a major site of inflammation during chronic human/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infection. A concise discussion about upcoming challenges and new research avenues for reducing chronic adipose inflammation during HIV/SIV infection is presented.

  7. Innovation in tissue viability documentation for acute services.

    PubMed

    Parnham, A

    2011-09-01

    This paper discusses the developmental process, outcome and delivery of an innovative approach to standardising tissue viability documentation across two sites within Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, following the results of benchmarking pressure ulcer preventive care strategies and recommendations from pressure ulcer root cause analysis. It reflects upon the process, highlighting the lessons learnt.

  8. EDTA separation and recombination of epithelium and connective tissue of human oral mucosa. Studies of tissue transplants in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Holmstrup, P; Dabelsteen, E; Harder, F

    1985-01-01

    A possible epithelial-mesenchymal interaction in determining epithelial histologic features of human oral mucosa was examined. The study comprised 74 biopsies of normal buccal mucosa and 54 biopsies of normal palatal mucosa. Epithelium was separated from connective tissue by the use of 1 mM ethylenediamine tetraacetate dihydrate. Self-recombined and cross-recombined epithelial and connective tissues and connective tissue sheets alone were transplanted to subcutaneous sites of nude mice. Histologic examination of cross-recombined palatal epithelium/buccal connective tissue transplants showed a change in keratinization pattern but no major change in number of epithelial cell layers as the result of connective tissue influence. Transplanted sheets of connective tissue after growth for 14 days showed that complete separation of biopsies from buccal mucosa had been obtained. However, palatal mucosa had been incompletely separated as evidenced by re-epithelialization of most of the connective tissue transplants. The consequences of the incomplete palatal epithelium-connective tissue separation are discussed.

  9. Field site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, D. E.; Ellefsen, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Several general guidelines should be kept in mind when considering the selection of field sites for teaching remote sensing fundamentals. Proximity and vantage point are two very practical considerations. Only through viewing a broad enough area to place the site in context can one make efficient use of a site. The effects of inclement weather when selecting sites should be considered. If field work is to be an effective tool to illustrate remote sensing principles, the following criteria are critical: (1) the site must represent the range of class interest; (2) the site must have a theme or add something no other site offers; (3) there should be intrasite variation within the theme; (4) ground resolution and spectral signature distinction should be illustrated; and (5) the sites should not be ordered sequentially.

  10. SMARTE'S SITE CHARACTERIZATION TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site Characterization involves collecting environmental data to evaluate the nature and extent of contamination. Environmental data could consist of chemical analyses of soil, sediment, water or air samples. Typically site characterization data are statistically evaluated for thr...

  11. Biomimetic Materials for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Peter X

    2008-01-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is an exciting research area that aims at regenerative alternatives to harvested tissues for transplantation. Biomaterials play a pivotal role as scaffolds to provide three-dimensional templates and synthetic extracellular-matrix environments for tissue regeneration. It is often beneficial for the scaffolds to mimic certain advantageous characteristics of the natural extracellular matrix, or developmental or would healing programs. This article reviews current biomimetic materials approaches in tissue engineering. These include synthesis to achieve certain compositions or properties similar to those of the extracellular matrix, novel processing technologies to achieve structural features mimicking the extracellular matrix on various levels, approaches to emulate cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and biologic delivery strategies to recapitulate a signaling cascade or developmental/would-healing program. The article also provides examples of enhanced cellular/tissue functions and regenerative outcomes, demonstrating the excitement and significance of the biomimetic materials for tissue engineering and regeneration. PMID:18045729

  12. New Methods in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Sheahan, Timothy P.; Rice, Charles M.; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.

    2015-01-01

    New insights in the study of virus and host biology in the context of viral infection are made possible by the development of model systems that faithfully recapitulate the in vivo viral life cycle. Standard tissue culture models lack critical emergent properties driven by cellular organization and in vivo–like function, whereas animal models suffer from limited susceptibility to relevant human viruses and make it difficult to perform detailed molecular manipulation and analysis. Tissue engineering techniques may enable virologists to create infection models that combine the facile manipulation and readouts of tissue culture with the virus-relevant complexity of animal models. Here, we review the state of the art in tissue engineering and describe how tissue engineering techniques may alleviate some common shortcomings of existing models of viral infection, with a particular emphasis on hepatotropic viruses. We then discuss possible future applications of tissue engineering to virology, including current challenges and potential solutions. PMID:25893203

  13. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Moharamzadeh, K; Colley, H; Murdoch, C; Hearnden, V; Chai, W L; Brook, I M; Thornhill, M H; Macneil, S

    2012-07-01

    Advances in tissue engineering have permitted the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human oral mucosa for various in vivo and in vitro applications. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa have been further optimized in recent years for clinical applications as a suitable graft material for intra-oral and extra-oral repair and treatment of soft-tissue defects. Novel 3D in vitro models of oral diseases such as cancer, Candida, and bacterial invasion have been developed as alternatives to animal models for investigation of disease phenomena, their progression, and treatment, including evaluation of drug delivery systems. The introduction of 3D oral mucosal reconstructs has had a significant impact on the approaches to biocompatibility evaluation of dental materials and oral healthcare products as well as the study of implant-soft tissue interfaces. This review article discusses the recent advances in tissue engineering and applications of tissue-engineered human oral mucosa.

  14. Human Tissue Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Neurodyne Corporation Human Tissue Stimulator (HTS) is a totally implantable system used for treatment of chronic pain and involuntary motion disorders by electrical stimulation. It was developed by Pacesetter Systems, Inc. in cooperation with the Applied Physics Laboratory. HTS incorporates a nickel cadmium battery, telemetry and command systems technologies of the same type as those used in NASA's Small Astronomy Satellite-3 in microminiature proportions so that the implantable element is the size of a deck of cards. The stimulator includes a rechargeable battery, an antenna and electronics to receive and process commands and to report on its own condition via telemetry, a wireless process wherein instrument data is converted to electrical signals and sent to a receiver where signals are presented as usable information. The HTS is targeted to nerve centers or to particular areas of the brain to provide relief from intractable pain or arrest involuntary motion. The nickel cadmium battery can be recharged through the skin. The first two HTS units were implanted last year and have been successful. Extensive testing is required before HTS can be made available for general use.

  15. Role of inflammatory factors and adipose tissue in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Part I: Rheumatoid adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Kontny, Ewa; Zaniewicz-Kaniewska, Katarzyna; Prohorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Saied, Fadhil; Maśliński, Włodzimierz

    2013-06-01

    . However, we also diagnose cases in which the inflammatory process in the joint is no longer active, but abnormal vascularity still persists in the adipose tissue. There are also cases where abnormal adipose tissue is the only sign of inflammation. Therefore, ultrasound examination confirms the existence of the additional site of inflammation, i.e. the adipose tissue which should be evaluated at the stage of initial diagnosis and during follow-up, also in terms of remission.

  16. Localization of cytokines in cholesteatoma tissue.

    PubMed

    Marenda, S A; Aufdemorte, T B

    1995-03-01

    Acquired cholesteatoma is associated with an intense inflammatory reaction with resultant tissue and bone destruction. Cytokines are molecules released by inflammatory cells at the site of infection and are potent mediators of inflammation and the immune response. Five cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta 1 and 2, and interleukin-1 and 6, were immunolocalized in human cholesteatoma epithelium and subepithelial stroma, with greater intensity of staining compared with noninflamed external auditory canal skin. Increased interleukin-6 activity in cholesteatoma epithelium and stroma correlated significantly with the presence of ossicular and bony erosion and granulation tissue noted intraoperatively. Transforming growth factor-beta 2 activity in cholesteatoma epithelium correlated significantly with bony erosion at surgery. Additionally, transforming growth factor-beta 1 activity in cholesteatoma epithelium correlated significantly with increased length of disease. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6 appear to be involved in the inflammation and resultant remodeling associated with cholesteatoma. We hypothesized a protective function of transforming growth factor-beta 1 and 2 in the presence of cholesteatoma. The antiinflammatory and osteoclast and keratinocyte inhibitory actions of the transforming growth factor-beta s could potentially slow the proliferation and resultant tissue destructiveness associated with cholesteatoma.

  17. Gingival Tissue Transcriptomes Identify Distinct Periodontitis Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Kebschull, M.; Demmer, R.T.; Grün, B.; Guarnieri, P.; Pavlidis, P.; Papapanou, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    The currently recognized principal forms of periodontitis—chronic and aggressive—lack an unequivocal, pathobiology-based foundation. We explored whether gingival tissue transcriptomes can serve as the basis for an alternative classification of periodontitis. We used cross-sectional whole-genome gene expression data from 241 gingival tissue biopsies obtained from sites with periodontal pathology in 120 systemically healthy nonsmokers with periodontitis, with available data on clinical periodontal status, subgingival microbial profiles, and serum IgG antibodies to periodontal microbiota. Adjusted model-based clustering of transcriptomic data using finite mixtures generated two distinct clusters of patients that did not align with the current classification of chronic and aggressive periodontitis. Differential expression profiles primarily related to cell proliferation in cluster 1 and to lymphocyte activation and unfolded protein responses in cluster 2. Patients in the two clusters did not differ with respect to age but presented with distinct phenotypes (statistically significantly different whole-mouth clinical measures of extent/severity, subgingival microbial burden by several species, and selected serum antibody responses). Patients in cluster 2 showed more extensive/severe disease and were more often male. The findings suggest that distinct gene expression signatures in pathologic gingival tissues translate into phenotypic differences and can provide a basis for a novel classification. PMID:24646639

  18. Paleoproteomic study of the Iceman's brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Maixner, Frank; Overath, Thorsten; Linke, Dennis; Janko, Marek; Guerriero, Gea; van den Berg, Bart H J; Stade, Bjoern; Leidinger, Petra; Backes, Christina; Jaremek, Marta; Kneissl, Benny; Meder, Benjamin; Franke, Andre; Egarter-Vigl, Eduard; Meese, Eckart; Schwarz, Andreas; Tholey, Andreas; Zink, Albert; Keller, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    The Tyrolean Iceman, a Copper-age ice mummy, is one of the best-studied human individuals. While the genome of the Iceman has largely been decoded, tissue-specific proteomes have not yet been investigated. We studied the proteome of two distinct brain samples using gel-based and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based proteomics technologies together with a multiple-databases and -search algorithms-driven data-analysis approach. Thereby, we identified a total of 502 different proteins. Of these, 41 proteins are known to be highly abundant in brain tissue and 9 are even specifically expressed in the brain. Furthermore, we found 10 proteins related to blood and coagulation. An enrichment analysis revealed a significant accumulation of proteins related to stress response and wound healing. Together with atomic force microscope scans, indicating clustered blood cells, our data reopens former discussions about a possible injury of the Iceman's head near the site where the tissue samples have been extracted.

  19. Adipose tissue extract promotes adipose tissue regeneration in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zijing; Yuan, Yi; Gao, Jianhua; Lu, Feng

    2016-05-01

    An adipose tissue engineering chamber model of spontaneous adipose tissue generation from an existing fat flap has been described. However, the chamber does not completely fill with adipose tissue in this model. Here, the effect of adipose tissue extract (ATE) on adipose tissue regeneration was investigated. In vitro, the adipogenic and angiogenic capacities of ATE were evaluated using Oil Red O and tube formation assays on adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs), respectively. In vivo, saline or ATE was injected into the adipose tissue engineering chamber 1 week after its implantation. At different time points post-injection, the contents were morphometrically, histologically, and immunohistochemically evaluated, and the expression of growth factors and adipogenic genes was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time PCR. With the exception of the baseline control group, in which fat flaps were not inserted into a chamber, the total volume of fat flap tissue increased significantly in all groups, especially in the ATE group. Better morphology and structure, a thinner capsule, and more vessels were observed in the ATE group than in the control group. Expression of angiogenic growth factors and adipogenic markers were significantly higher in the ATE group. ATE therefore significantly promoted adipose tissue regeneration and reduced capsule formation in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model. These data suggest that ATE provides a more angiogenic and adipogenic microenvironment for adipose tissue formation by releasing various cytokines and growth factors that also inhibit capsule formation.

  20. The safe and effective use of allograft tissue--an update.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Scott A; King, Warren

    2003-01-01

    The use of allograft tissue in orthopaedic surgery has increased tremendously over the last several years. Tissue availability, reduced surgical times, and lack of donor site morbidity are attractive characteristics to surgeons and patients alike. Although complications, such as disease transmission, are relatively uncommon when using allograft tissue, they do occur. This article will review the literature concerning the safe and effective use of allograft tissue, as well as present four case reports of Clostridium septicum infection caused by implantation of contaminated allograft tissue.

  1. The safe and effective use of allograft tissue--an update.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Scott A; King, Warren

    2003-01-01

    The use of allograft tissue in orthopaedic surgery has increased tremendously over the last several years. Tissue availability, reduced surgical times, and lack of donor site morbidity are attractive characteristics to surgeons and patients alike. Although complications, such as disease transmission, are relatively uncommon when using allograft tissue, they do occur. This article will review the literature concerning the safe and effective use of allograft tissue, as well as present four case reports of Clostridium septicum infection caused by implantation of contaminated allograft tissue. PMID:12975205

  2. Multimodality Instrument for Tissue Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip is discussed. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network, program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration.

  3. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Merzlyak, Anna; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2014-01-01

    Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy. PMID:24991085

  4. Electrospun multifunctional tissue engineering scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chong; Wang, Min

    2014-03-01

    Tissue engineering holds great promises in providing successful treatments of human body tissue loss that current methods are unable to treat or unable to achieve satisfactory clinical outcomes. In scaffold-based tissue engineering, a highperformance scaffold underpins the success of a tissue engineering strategy and a major direction in the field is to create multifunctional tissue engineering scaffolds for enhanced biological performance and for regenerating complex body tissues. Electrospinning can produce nanofibrous scaffolds that are highly desirable for tissue engineering. The enormous interest in electrospinning and electrospun fibrous structures by the science, engineering and medical communities has led to various developments of the electrospinning technology and wide investigations of electrospun products in many industries, including biomedical engineering, over the past two decades. It is now possible to create novel, multicomponent tissue engineering scaffolds with multiple functions. This article provides a concise review of recent advances in the R & D of electrospun multifunctional tissue engineering scaffolds. It also presents our philosophy and research in the designing and fabrication of electrospun multicomponent scaffolds with multiple functions.

  5. Geometric control of tissue morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Celeste M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Morphogenesis is the dynamic and regulated change in tissue form that leads to creation of the body plan and development of mature organs. Research over the past several decades has uncovered a multitude of genetic factors required for morphogenesis in animals. The behaviors of individual cells within a developing tissue are determined by combining these genetic signals with information from the surrounding microenvironment. At any point in time, the local microenvironment is influenced by macroscale tissue geometry, which sculpts long range signals by affecting gradients of morphogens and mechanical stresses. The geometry of a tissue thus acts as both a template and instructive cue for further morphogenesis. PMID:19167433

  6. Production of an optimized tissue-engineered pig connective tissue for the reconstruction of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, Gabrielle; Dubé, Jean; Gauvin, Robert; Laterreur, Véronique; Bouhout, Sara; Bolduc, Stéphane

    2011-06-01

    Nonurological autologous tissues are used for urethral reconstruction to correct urinary tract disorders but are still leading to complications. Other substitutes have been studied on small animal models without great success. For preclinical tests, we selected the porcine model for its similarity to the human urinary tract. Up to now, porcine skin fibroblasts were not able to synthesize enough extracellular matrix under standard conditions to sustain the formation of an adequate tissue for transplantation purposes. Therefore, our goal was to optimize the harvesting site and culture conditions to obtain a thick and easy to handle porcine fibroblast tissue. The oral mucosa was found to be the ideal harvesting site, and a culture temperature of 39°C enabled the formation of a good porcine fibroblast sheet. We successfully superimpose three fibroblast sheets that merged into a thick and resistant tissue where physiological extracellular matrix was produced. Mechanical resistance evaluation by uniaxial traction on the three-layer fibroblast constructs also demonstrated its suitable properties. The production of this porcine connective tissue offers an interesting option in the field of urological tissue engineering. Autologous experiments on a larger animal model are now possible and accessible, allowing the performance of long-term in vivo studies.

  7. Tissue regeneration during tissue expansion and choosing an expander

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, K.; Agrawal, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the various aspects of tissue regeneration during the process of tissue expansion. “Creep” and mechanical and biological “stretch” are responsible for expansion. During expansion, the epidermis thickens, the dermis thins out, vascularity improves, significant angiogenesis occurs, hair telogen phase becomes shorter and the peripheral nerves, vessels and muscle fibres lengthen. Expansion is associated with molecular changes in the tissue. Almost all these biological changes are reversible after the removal of the expander.This study is also aimed at reviewing the difficulty in deciding the volume and dimension of the expander for a defect. Basic mathematical formulae and the computer programmes for calculating the dimension of tissue expanders, although available in the literature, are not popular. A user-friendly computer programme based on the easily available Microsoft Excel spread sheet has been introduced. When we feed the area of defect and base dimension of the donor area or tissue expander, this programme calculates the volume and height of the expander. The shape of the expander is decided clinically based on the availability of the donor area and the designing of the future tissue movement. Today, tissue expansion is better understood biologically and mechanically. Clinical judgement remains indispensable in choosing the size and shape of the tissue expander. PMID:22754146

  8. Three Dimensional Optic Tissue Culture and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Aten, Laurie A. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Caldwell, Delmar R. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Fitzgerald, Wendy S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process for artificially producing three-dimensional optic tissue has been developed. The optic cells are cultured in a bioireactor at low shear conditions. The tissue forms as normal, functional tissue grows with tissue organization and extracellular matrix formation.

  9. Treatment Options for Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ...

  11. Stages of Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ...

  12. Surgical Aspects of Ovarian Tissue Removal and Ovarian Tissue Transplantation for Fertility Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, M. W.; Dittrich, R.; Findeklee, S.; Lotz, L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The removal of ovarian tissue prior to starting oncologic treatment and the subsequent transplantation of this tissue after completing therapy have become increasingly important surgical fertility-preserving techniques. The aim of this review was to investigate the different surgical techniques used for this method reported in the literature to date and to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the respective techniques. Review: A search was done in MEDLINE using a defined algorithm to find studies published between January 2004 and December 2015. All study designs were included in our review if they contained statements on the surgical technique used. We found 16 publications (8 retrospective cohort studies, 6 case reports and 2 systematic reviews) with a total of 1898 female patients which reported on the surgical technique used for ovarian biopsy and 15 publications (7 retrospective cohort studies, 6 case reports and 2 systematic reviews) with a total of 455 women which mentioned the surgical technique used for ovarian transplantation. Different surgical techniques can be used both for ovarian biopsy and for the transplantation of ovarian tissue. A number of different surgical routes have been used, and the amount of tissue extracted, the instruments used, the treatment of the ovary, the transplantation site, the blood supply to the transplanted ovarian tissue and the procedure used for simultaneous surgical interventions vary. Conclusion: In future, one of the tasks will be to establish a standard surgical method for ovarian extraction and transplantation which will have a low rate of complications and a high pregnancy and birth rate while ensuring that the transplanted tissue is fully functional. PMID:27761026

  13. Our favourite alternative splice site.

    PubMed

    Lerivray, Hubert; Méreau, Agnès; Osborne, H Beverley

    2006-05-01

    Alternative splicing is a widespread mechanism in mammals that generates several mRNAs from one gene, thereby creating genetic diversity of the genome. Variant splice patterns are often specific to different stages of development or particular tissues, and alternative splicing defects are being more frequently detected in genetic diseases and cancers. The increasingly important role of alternative splicing in the function and the regulation of cellular process makes it critical to have an easy-to-use data repository for the biological and medical research communities. We have compared web resources that give access to information on alternatively spliced genes, and the FAST DB (Friendly Alternative Splicing and Transcripts DataBase) site came out as our favourite.

  14. Site Environmental Report, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program.`` This 1993 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in the Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here.

  15. Tomography finds waste sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan M.

    Geophysical diffraction tomography (GDT), a remote sensing method, is being developed for hazardous waste site characterization by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tenn., with the support of the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.More accurate assessment of hazardous sites translates into more efficient and less costly cleanup efforts by defining parameters such as waste site boundaries, geophysical site characteristics, buried container leakage, and hazardous material migration. Remote sensing devices eliminate the potential for environmental damage, safety hazards, or high costs associated with intrusive site characterization techniques.

  16. Wave emission on interacting heterogeneities in cardiac tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörning, Marcel; Takagi, Seiji; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2010-08-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias, a precursor of fibrillationlike states in the beating heart, are associated with spiral waves, which are likely to become pinned to heterogeneities. Far-field pacing (FFP) is a promising method for terminating such waves by using heterogeneities in the tissue as internal pacing sites. In this study we investigated the role of multiple obstacles and their interaction during FFP. We show that a secondary nearby obstacle can significantly modulate the minimum electrical field in FFP. Further, we show that essentially the same effect can be observed in cardiac tissue culture, which is a powerful experimental model to simulate heart activity. Here, an isotropic cell distribution leads to domain formation of locally distributed depolarization sites. Both secondary obstacles and domain formation of local depolarization sites can modulate energy requirements to originate wave propagation on obstacles. Our theoretical result was confirmed by experiments with cardiomyocyte monolayers. This result may be useful for the future application of FFP to a real beating heart.

  17. Reactive Oxygen Species in Inflammation and Tissue Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Manish; Siddiqui, Mohammad Rizwan; Tran, Khiem; Reddy, Sekhar P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key signaling molecules that play an important role in the progression of inflammatory disorders. An enhanced ROS generation by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) at the site of inflammation causes endothelial dysfunction and tissue injury. The vascular endothelium plays an important role in passage of macromolecules and inflammatory cells from the blood to tissue. Under the inflammatory conditions, oxidative stress produced by PMNs leads to the opening of inter-endothelial junctions and promotes the migration of inflammatory cells across the endothelial barrier. The migrated inflammatory cells not only help in the clearance of pathogens and foreign particles but also lead to tissue injury. The current review compiles the past and current research in the area of inflammation with particular emphasis on oxidative stress-mediated signaling mechanisms that are involved in inflammation and tissue injury. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1126–1167. PMID:23991888

  18. Pharmacokinetics of tilmicosin in equine tissues and plasma.

    PubMed

    Clark, C; Dowling, P M; Ross, S; Woodbury, M; Boison, J O

    2008-02-01

    The macrolide antibiotic tilmicosin has potential for treating bacterial respiratory tract infections in horses. A pharmacokinetic study evaluated the disposition of tilmicosin in the horse after oral (4 mg/kg) or subcutaneous (s.c.) (10 mg/kg) administration. Tilmicosin was not detected in equine plasma or tissues after oral administration at this dose. With s.c. injection, tilmicosin concentrations reached a maximum concentration of approximately 200 ng/mL in the plasma of the horses. Tilmicosin concentrations in plasma persisted with a mean residence time (MRT) of 19 h. Maximum tissue residue concentrations (C(max)) of tilmicosin measured in equine lung, kidney, liver and muscle tissues after s.c. administration were 2784, 4877, 1398, and 881 ng/g, respectively. The MRT of tilmicosin in these tissues was approximately 27 h. Subcutaneous administration of tilmicosin resulted in severe reactions at the injection sites.

  19. Norwalk Virus–specific Binding to Oyster Digestive Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Loisy, Fabienne; Atmar, Robert L.; Hutson, Anne M.; Estes, Mary K.; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Pommepuy, Monique; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The primary pathogens related to shellfishborne gastroenteritis outbreaks are noroviruses. These viruses show persistence in oysters, which suggests an active mechanism of virus concentration. We investigated whether Norwalk virus or viruslike particles bind specifically to oyster tissues after bioaccumulation or addition to tissue sections. Since noroviruses attach to carbohydrates of the histo-blood group family, tests using immunohistochemical analysis were performed to evaluate specific binding of virus or viruslike particles to oyster tissues through these ligands. Viral particles bind specifically to digestive ducts (midgut, main and secondary ducts, and tubules) by carbohydrate structures with a terminal N-acetylgalactosamine residue in an α linkage (same binding site used for recognition of human histo-blood group antigens). These data show that the oyster can selectively concentrate a human pathogen and that conventional depuration will not eliminate noroviruses from oyster tissue. PMID:16707048

  20. Human intestinal tissue antibiotic concentrations. Clindamycin, gentamicin, and mezlocillin.

    PubMed

    Thadepalli, H; Lou, M A; Prabhala, R H; Mandal, A K

    1990-11-01

    An antibiotic, to be effective for prophylaxis in abdominal trauma, should quickly achieve high concentrations in the intestinal wall and at enough inhibitory levels to kill most aerobic and anaerobic bacteria that are potential contaminants at the site of surgical incision. Therefore, we studied the intestinal tissue levels of clindamycin, gentamicin, and mezlocillin to see whether the tissue levels achieved by these antibiotics in the intestinal tissue were adequate. A single dose of mezlocillin, 4 grams; clindamycin, 600 mg and gentamicin, 80 mg; quickly reached the desired concentrations, i.e., 52.3, 9.69 and 6.1 micrograms/gram of intestinal tissue respectively. These levels were high enough to inhibit the growth of most isolates of E. coli and B. fragilis, common pathogens involved in intra-abdominal abscess.

  1. Combination of erbium and holmium laser radiation for tissue ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratisto, Hans S.; Frenz, Martin; Koenz, Flurin; Altermatt, Hans J.; Weber, Heinz P.

    1996-05-01

    Erbium lasers emitting at 2.94 micrometers and holmium lasers emitting at 2.1 micrometers are interesting tools for cutting, drilling, smoothing and welding of water containing tissues. The high absorption coefficient of water at these wavelengths leads to their good ablation efficiency with controlled thermally altered zones around the ablation sites. Combination of pulses with both wavelengths transmitted through one fiber were used to perform incisions in soft tissue and impacts in bone disks. Histological results and scanning electron microscope evaluations reveal the strong influence of the absorption coefficient on tissue effects, especially on the ablation efficiency and the zone of thermally damaged tissue. It is demonstrated that the combination of high ablation rates and deep coagulation zones can be achieved. The results indicate that this laser system can be considered as a first step towards a multi-functional medical instrument.

  2. Developmental Potential of Vitrified Mouse Testicular Tissue after Ectopic Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yamini, Nazila; Pourmand, Gholamreza; Amidi, Fardin; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Ataei Nejad, Nahid; Mougahi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue should be considered as an important factor for fertility preservation in young boys with cancer. The objective of this study is to investigate whether immature testicular tissue of mice can be successfully cryopreserved using a simple vitrification procedure to maintain testicular cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation capacity. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, immature mice testicular tissue fragments (0.5-1 mm²) were vitrified-warmed in order to assess the effect of vitrification on testicular tissue cell viability. Trypan blue staining was used to evaluate developmental capacity. Vitrified tissue (n=42) and fresh (control, n=42) were ectopically transplanted into the same strain of mature mice (n=14) with normal immunity. After 4 weeks, the graft recovery rate was determined. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to evaluate germ cell differentiation, immunohistochemistry staining by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibody, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick- End Labeling (TUNEL) assay for proliferation and apoptosis frequency. Results Vitrification did not affect the percentage of cell viability. Vascular anastomoses was seen at the graft site. The recovery rate of the vitrified graft did not significantly differ with the fresh graft. In the vitrified graft, germ cell differentiation developed up to the secondary spermatocyte, which was similar to fresh tissue. Proliferation and apoptosis in the vitrified tissue was comparable to the fresh graft. Conclusion Vitrification resulted in a success rates similar to fresh tissue (control) in maintaining testicular cell viability and tissue function. These data provided further evidence that vitrification could be considered an alternative for cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue. PMID:27054121

  3. The effect of micro-ECoG substrate footprint on the meningeal tissue response

    PubMed Central

    Schendel, Amelia A.; Nonte, Michael W.; Vokoun, Corinne; Richner, Thomas J.; Brodnick, Sarah K.; Atry, Farid; Frye, Seth; Bostrom, Paige; Pashaie, Ramin; Thongpang, Sanitta; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Williams, Justin C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is great interest in designing implantable neural electrode arrays that maximize function while minimizing tissue effects and damage. Although it has been shown that substrate geometry plays a key role in the tissue response to intracortically implanted, penetrating neural interfaces, there has been minimal investigation into the effect of substrate footprint on the tissue response to surface electrode arrays. This study investigates the effect of micro-electrocorticography device geometry on the longitudinal tissue response. Approach The meningeal tissue response to two micro-electrocorticography devices with differing geometries was evaluated. The first device had each electrode site and trace individually insulated, with open regions in between, while the second device had a solid substrate, in which all sixteen electrode sites were embedded in a continuous insulating sheet. These devices were implanted bilaterally in rats, beneath cranial windows, through which the meningeal tissue response was monitored for one month after implantation. Electrode site impedance spectra were also monitored during the implantation period. Main Results It was observed that collagenous scar tissue formed around both types of devices. However, the distribution of the tissue growth was different between the two array designs. The mesh devices experienced thick tissue growth between the device and the cranial window, and minimal tissue growth between the device and the brain, while the solid device showed the opposite effect, with thick tissue forming between the brain and the electrode sites. Significance This data suggests that an open architecture device would be more ideal for neural recording applications, in which a low impedance path from the brain to the electrode sites is critical for maximum recording quality. PMID:24941335

  4. Hanford Site Comprehensive site Compliance Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tollefson, K.S.

    1997-08-05

    This document is the second annual submittal by WHC, ICF/KH, PNL and BHI and contains the results of inspections of the stormwater outfalls listed in the Hanford Site Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) (WHC 1993a) as required by General Permit No. WA-R-00-000F (WA-R-00-A17F): This report also describes the methods used to conduct the Storm Water Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation, as required in Part IV, Section D, {ampersand} C of the General Permit, summarizes the results of the compliance evaluation, and documents significant leaks and spills.

  5. Plant Tissues. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on plant tissues. Presented first are an attention step and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about plant tissues and the effect of water and minerals on them. The following topics are among those discussed: reasons why water is important to plants,…

  6. Collagen for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana Marina; Gentile, Piergiorgio; Chiono, Valeria; Ciardelli, Gianluca

    2012-09-01

    In the last decades, increased knowledge about the organization, structure and properties of collagen (particularly concerning interactions between cells and collagen-based materials) has inspired scientists and engineers to design innovative collagen-based biomaterials and to develop novel tissue-engineering products. The design of resorbable collagen-based medical implants requires understanding the tissue/organ anatomy and biological function as well as the role of collagen's physicochemical properties and structure in tissue/organ regeneration. Bone is a complex tissue that plays a critical role in diverse metabolic processes mediated by calcium delivery as well as in hematopoiesis whilst maintaining skeleton strength. A wide variety of collagen-based scaffolds have been proposed for different tissue engineering applications. These scaffolds are designed to promote a biological response, such as cell interaction, and to work as artificial biomimetic extracellular matrices that guide tissue regeneration. This paper critically reviews the current understanding of the complex hierarchical structure and properties of native collagen molecules, and describes the scientific challenge of manufacturing collagen-based materials with suitable properties and shapes for specific biomedical applications, with special emphasis on bone tissue engineering. The analysis of the state of the art in the field reveals the presence of innovative techniques for scaffold and material manufacturing that are currently opening the way to the preparation of biomimetic substrates that modulate cell interaction for improved substitution, restoration, retention or enhancement of bone tissue function. PMID:22705634

  7. Adipose tissue macrophages: amicus adipem?

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Justin I.; Ganeshan, Kirthana; Chawla, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Chronic overnutrition drives complex adaptations within both professional metabolic and bystander tissues that, despite intense investigation, are still poorly understood. Xu et al. (2013) now describe the unexpected ability of adipose tissue macrophages to buffer lipids released from obese adipocytes in a manner independent of inflammatory macrophage activation. PMID:24315364

  8. Biomaterials for tissue engineering: summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, L.; Mikos, A. G.; Gibbons, D. F.; Picciolo, G. L.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes presentations and discussion at the workshop "Enabling Biomaterial Technology for Tissue Engineering," which was held during the Fifth World Biomaterials Congress in May 1996. Presentations covered the areas of material substrate architecture, barrier effects, and cellular response, including analysis of biomaterials challenges involved in producing specific tissue-engineered products.

  9. [Interests and potentials of adipose tissue in scleroderma].

    PubMed

    Daumas, A; Eraud, J; Hautier, A; Sabatier, F; Magalon, G; Granel, B

    2013-12-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a disorder involving the connective tissue, arterioles and microvessels. It is characterized by skin and visceral fibrosis and ischemic phenomena. Currently, therapy is limited and no antifibrotic treatment has proven its efficacy. Beyond some severe organ lesions (pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, scleroderma renal crisis), which only concern a minority of patients, the skin sclerosis of hands and face and the vasculopathy lead to physical and psychological disability in most patients. Thus, functional improvement of hand motion and face represents a priority for patient therapy. Due to its easy obtention by fat lipopaspirate and adipocytes survival, re injection of adipose tissue is a common therapy used in plastic surgery for its voluming effect. Identification and characterization of the adipose tissue-derived stroma vascular fraction, mainly including mesenchymal stem cells, have revolutionized the science showing that adipose tissue is a valuable source of multipotent stem cells, able to migrate to site of injury and to differentiate according to the receiver tissue's needs. Due to easy harvest by liposuction, its abundance in mesenchymal cells far higher that the bone marrow, and stroma vascular fraction's ability to differentiate and secrete growth angiogenic and antiapoptotic factors, the use of adipose tissue is becoming more attractive in regenerative medicine. We here present the interest of adipose tissue use in the treatment of the hands and face in scleroderma. PMID:24050783

  10. Histotripsy methods in mechanical disintegration of tissue: towards clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Vera A; Fowlkes, J Brian; Roberts, William W; Schade, George R; Xu, Zhen; Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Hall, Timothy L; Maxwell, Adam D; Wang, Yak-Nam; Cain, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, an ultrasound beam is focused within the body to locally affect the targeted site without damaging intervening tissues. The most common HIFU regime is thermal ablation. Recently there has been increasing interest in generating purely mechanical lesions in tissue (histotripsy). This paper provides an overview of several studies on the development of histotripsy methods toward clinical applications. Two histotripsy approaches and examples of their applications are presented. In one approach, sequences of high-amplitude, short (microsecond-long), focused ultrasound pulses periodically produce dense, energetic bubble clouds that mechanically disintegrate tissue. In an alternative approach, longer (millisecond-long) pulses with shock fronts generate boiling bubbles and the interaction of shock fronts with the resulting vapour cavity causes tissue disintegration. Recent preclinical studies on histotripsy are reviewed for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), liver and kidney tumours, kidney stone fragmentation, enhancing anti-tumour immune response, and tissue decellularisation for regenerative medicine applications. Potential clinical advantages of the histotripsy methods are discussed. Histotripsy methods can be used to mechanically ablate a wide variety of tissues, whilst selectivity sparing structures such as large vessels. Both ultrasound and MR imaging can be used for targeting and monitoring the treatment in real time. Although the two approaches utilise different mechanisms for tissue disintegration, both have many of the same advantages and offer a promising alternative method of non-invasive surgery.

  11. Histotripsy Methods in Mechanical Disintegration of Tissue: Toward Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Khokhlova, VA; Fowlkes, JB; Roberts, WW; Schade, GR; Xu, Z; Khokhlova, TD; Hall, TL; Maxwell, AD; Wang, YN; Cain, CA

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, an ultrasound beam is focused within the body to locally affect the targeted site without damaging intervening tissues. The most common HIFU regime is thermal ablation. Recently, there has been increasing interest in generating purely mechanical lesions in tissue (histotripsy). This paper provides an overview of several studies on the development of histotripsy methods toward clinical applications. Material and Methods Two histotripsy approaches and examples of their applications are presented. In one approach, sequences of high-amplitude, short (microsecond-long), focused ultrasound pulses periodically produce dense, energetic bubble clouds that mechanically disintegrate tissue. In an alternative approach, longer (millisecond-long) pulses with shock fronts generate boiling bubbles and the interaction of shock fronts with the resulting vapor cavity causes tissue disintegration. Results Recent pre-clinical studies on histotripsy are reviewed for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), liver and kidney tumors, kidney stone fragmentation, enhancing antitumor immune response, and tissue decellularization for regenerative medicine applications. Potential clinical advantages of the histotripsy methods are discussed. Conclusions Histotripsy methods can be used to mechanically ablate a wide variety of tissues, whilst selectivity sparing structures such as large vessels. Both ultrasound and MR imaging can be used for targeting and monitoring the treatment in real time. Although the two approaches utilize different mechanisms for tissue disintegration, both have many of the same advantages and offer a promising alternative method of noninvasive surgery. PMID:25707817

  12. Application of the cell sheet technique in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, GUANGNAN; QI, YIYING; NIU, LIE; DI, TUOYU; ZHONG, JINWEI; FANG, TINGTING; YAN, WEIQI

    2015-01-01

    The development and application of the tissue engineering technique has shown a significant potential in regenerative medicine. However, the limitations of conventional tissue engineering methods (cell suspensions, scaffolds and/or growth factors) restrict its application in certain fields. The novel cell sheet technique can overcome such disadvantages. Cultured cells can be harvested as intact sheets without the use of proteolytic enzymes, such as trypsin or dispase, which can result in cell damage and loss of differentiated phenotypes. The cell sheet is a complete layer, which contains extracellular matrix, ion channel, growth factor receptors, nexin and other important cell surface proteins. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which have the potential for multiple differentiation, are promising candidate seed cells for tissue engineering. The MSC sheet technique may have potential in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering in general. Additionally, induced pluripotent stem cell and embryonic stem cell-derived cell sheets have been proposed for tissue regeneration. Currently, the application of cell sheet for tissue reconstruction includes: Direct recipient sites implantation, superposition of cell sheets to construct three-dimensional structure for implantation, or cell sheet combined with scaffolds. The present review discusses the progress in cell sheet techniques, particularly stem cell sheet techniques, in tissue engineering. PMID:26623011

  13. Toward clinical application of tissue-engineered cartilage.

    PubMed

    Fulco, Ilario; Largo, René Denis; Miot, Sylvie; Wixmerten, Anke; Martin, Ivan; Schaefer, Dirk J; Haug, Martin Dieter

    2013-04-01

    Since the late 1960s, surgeons and scientists envisioned use of tissue engineering to provide an alternative treatment for tissue and organ damage by combining biological and synthetic components in such a way that a long-lasting repair was established. In addition to the treatment, the patient would also benefit from reduced donor site morbidity and operation time as compared with the standard procedures. Tremendous efforts in basic research have been done since the late 1960s to better understand chondrocyte biology and cartilage maturation and to fulfill the growing need for tissue-engineered cartilage in reconstructive, trauma, and orthopedic surgery. Starting from the first successful generation of engineered cartilaginous tissue, scientists strived to improve the properties of the cartilaginous constructs by characterizing different cell sources, modifying the environmental factors influencing cell expansion and differentiation and applying physical stimuli to modulate the mechanical properties of the construct. All these efforts have finally led to a clinical phase I trial to show the safety and feasibility of using tissue-engineered cartilage in reconstructive facial surgery. However, to bring tissue engineering into routine clinical applications and commercialize tissue-engineered grafts, further research is necessary to achieve a cost-effective, standardized, safe, and regulatory compliant process.

  14. Adult mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering versus regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Arnold I

    2007-11-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from bone marrow or marrow aspirates and because they are culture-dish adherent, they can be expanded in culture while maintaining their multipotency. The MSCs have been used in preclinical models for tissue engineering of bone, cartilage, muscle, marrow stroma, tendon, fat, and other connective tissues. These tissue-engineered materials show considerable promise for use in rebuilding damaged or diseased mesenchymal tissues. Unanticipated is the realization that the MSCs secrete a large spectrum of bioactive molecules. These molecules are immunosuppressive, especially for T-cells and, thus, allogeneic MSCs can be considered for therapeutic use. In this context, the secreted bioactive molecules provide a regenerative microenvironment for a variety of injured adult tissues to limit the area of damage and to mount a self-regulated regenerative response. This regenerative microenvironment is referred to as trophic activity and, therefore, MSCs appear to be valuable mediators for tissue repair and regeneration. The natural titers of MSCs that are drawn to sites of tissue injury can be augmented by allogeneic MSCs delivered via the bloodstream. Indeed, human clinical trials are now under way to use allogeneic MSCs for treatment of myocardial infarcts, graft-versus-host disease, Crohn's Disease, cartilage and meniscus repair, stroke, and spinal cord injury. This review summarizes the biological basis for the in vivo functioning of MSCs through development and aging. PMID:17620285

  15. Biomedical testing of cryopreserved tissues.

    PubMed

    Costa, Blas Melissari

    2005-01-01

    The Laboratory of Biomechanics of the Testing of Materials Institute of the Uruguayan Engineering School has ongoing biomechanical research for thr last 25 years. First about fixators employed in osteosynthesis and now also on the characterisation of biological tissues. A multidisciplinary group with physicians, chemists and statistical and mechanical engineers was integrated for that purpose. Research of biological tissues is carried out together with the National Organs and Tissues Bank. All materials are provided from cadaver donors. The objective is the biomechanical evaluation of tissues to be used as all allografts and the improvement of preservation methods. Elastic properties are determined for example in compression, tensile and bending tests. Sample extraction and preparation, equipments, testing procedures and some results for tendons and bones are detailed. Evaluation of fresh and cryopreserved vascular tissues is described and conclusions about their biomechanical difference between them are drawn.

  16. Tissue printing on nitrocellulose membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.; Song, Yanru; Pont-Lezica, R.; Lin, Liangshiou; Ye, Zhenghua; Varner, J.E. )

    1989-04-01

    In the 1950's Daoust developed substrate film printing on gelatin and starch films to localize protease, amylase, DNAase and RNAase activities. These procedures were adapted to plant tissues by Yomo and Taylor (1973) and by Jacobsen and Knox (1973). Membranes such as nitrocellulose bind cellular materials from cut tissue surfaces with little lateral diffusion. Thus accurate chemical prints are obtained. When the tissue is pressed firmly onto nitrocellulose a physical impression is obtained which shows the anatomy of the tissue. We have used the tissue-print technique to localize (1) proteins with labeled antibodies, (2) RNA with labeled nucleic acid probes, (3) enzymes by catalytic activity, (4) glycoproteins by fluorescent lectins, (5) lectins by fluorescent sugars, (6) cysteine-rich proteins by dansylated iodoacetamide, (7) ascorbic acid by silver nitrate, (8) soluble fluorescent compounds by direct observation.

  17. Videofluorometer for imaging tissue metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Jeffrey J.; Rorvik, Dawn A.; Richmond, Keith N.; Barlow, Clyde H.

    1989-11-01

    A videofluorometer is described that directly acquires digital metabolic images of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence in tissue. NADH fluorescence provides an intrinsic indicator of the state of tissue mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. The device combines a computer-controlled fluorescence excitation system with digital image acquisition to quantify tissue bioenergetics in both spatial and time domains. Localized ischemia following coronary artery ligation in a perfused rat heart (model for a coronary artery occlusion heart attack) is used as an example to demonstrate the capabilities of the system. This videofluorometer permits monitoring changes in physiological state of organs and tissue without interfering with tissue metabolism. The digital nature of the acquired image allows detailed analysis of physiological features and their time dependence.

  18. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well. PMID:17005024

  19. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well.

  20. Characteristic expression of extracellular matrix in subcutaneous adipose tissue development and adipogenesis; comparison with visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shinobu; Kiuchi, Satomi; Ouchi, Atsushi; Hase, Tadashi; Murase, Takatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a connective tissue specified for energy metabolism and endocrines, but functional differences between subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have not been fully elucidated. To reveal the physiological role of SAT, we characterized in vivo tissue development and in vitro adipocyte differentiation. In a DNA microarray analysis of SAT and VAT in Wistar rats, functional annotation clusters of extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes were found in SAT, and major ECM molecules expressed in adipose tissues were profiled. In a histological analysis and quantitative expression analysis, ECM expression patterns could be classified into two types: (i) a histogenesis-correlated type such as type IV and XV collagen, and laminin subunits, (ii) a high-SAT expression type such as type I, III, and V collagen and minor characteristic collagens. Type (i) was related to basal membrane and up-regulated in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells and in histogenesis at depot-specific timings. In contrast, type (ii) was related to fibrous forming and highly expressed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Exceptionally, fibronectin was abundant in developed adipose tissue, although it was highly expressed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The present study showed that adipose tissues site-specifically regulate molecular type and timing of ECM expression, and suggests that these characteristic ECM molecules provide a critical microenvironment, which may affect bioactivity of adipocyte itself and interacts with other tissues. It must be important to consider the depot-specific property for the treatment of obesity-related disorders, dermal dysfunction and for the tissue regeneration.

  1. Macrophage activation-induced thymosin beta 4 production: a tissue repair mechanism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macrophages play significant role in immunity which not only kill pathogens, produce cytokines but also clear dead tissues at the site of inflammation and stimulate wound healing. Much less is known how these cells contribute to tissue repair process. In course of our studies comparing the peptide...

  2. Development of technique for laser welding of biological tissues using laser welding device and nanocomposite solder.

    PubMed

    Gerasimenko, A; Ichcitidze, L; Podgaetsky, V; Ryabkin, D; Pyankov, E; Saveliev, M; Selishchev, S

    2015-08-01

    The laser device for welding of biological tissues has been developed involving quality control and temperature stabilization of weld seam. Laser nanocomposite solder applied onto a wound to be weld has been used. Physicochemical properties of the nanocomposite solder have been elucidated. The nature of the tissue-organizing nanoscaffold has been analyzed at the site of biotissue welding. PMID:26738200

  3. Soft tissue expansion before vertical ridge augmentation: Inflatable silicone balloons or self-filling osmotic tissue expanders?

    PubMed Central

    Dhadse, Prasad Vijayrao; Yeltiwar, Ramareddy Krishnarao; Bhongade, Manohar Laxmanrao; Pendor, Sunil Dattuji

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in periodontal plastic surgical procedures allow the clinician to reconstruct deficient alveolar ridges in more predictable ways than previously possible. Placement of implant/s in resorbed ridges poses numerous challenges to the clinician for successful esthetic and functional rehabilitation. The reconstruction frequently utilizes one or combination of periodontal plastic surgical procedures in conjunction with autogenous bone grafting, allogenic bone block grafting, ridge split techniques, distraction osteogenesis, or guided bone regeneration (GBR) for most predictable outcomes. Current surgical modalities used in reconstruction of alveolar ridge (horizontal and/or vertical component) often involve the need of flap transfer. Moreover, there is compromise in tissue integrity and color match owing to different surgical site and the tissue utilized is insufficient in quantity leading to post surgical graft exposition and/or loss of grafted bone. Soft tissue expansion (STE) by implantation of inflatable silicone balloon or self filling osmotic tissue expanders before reconstructive surgery can overcome these disadvantages and certainly holds a promise for effective method for generation of soft tissue thereby achieving predictable augmentation of deficient alveolar ridges for the implant success. This article focuses and compares these distinct tissue expanders for their clinical efficacy of achieving excess tissue that predominantly seems to be prerequisite for ridge augmentation which can be reasonably followed by successful placement of endosseous fixtures. PMID:25210255

  4. Development of hybrid scaffolds using ceramic and hydrogel for articular cartilage tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Seol, Young-Joon; Park, Ju Young; Jeong, Wonju; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-04-01

    The regeneration of articular cartilage consisting of hyaline cartilage and hydrogel scaffolds has been generally used in tissue engineering. However, success in in vivo studies has been rarely reported. The hydrogel scaffolds implanted into articular cartilage defects are mechanically unstable and it is difficult for them to integrate with the surrounding native cartilage tissue. Therefore, it is needed to regenerate cartilage and bone tissue simultaneously. We developed hybrid scaffolds with hydrogel scaffolds for cartilage tissue and with ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue. For in vivo study, hybrid scaffolds were press-fitted into osteochondral tissue defects in a rabbit knee joints and the cartilage tissue regeneration in blank, hydrogel scaffolds, and hybrid scaffolds was compared. In 12th week after implantation, the histological and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted to evaluate the cartilage tissue regeneration. In the blank and hydrogel scaffold groups, the defects were filled with fibrous tissues and the implanted hydrogel scaffolds could not maintain their initial position; in the hybrid scaffold group, newly generated cartilage tissues were morphologically similar to native cartilage tissues and were smoothly connected to the surrounding native tissues. This study demonstrates hybrid scaffolds containing hydrogel and ceramic scaffolds can provide mechanical stability to hydrogel scaffolds and enhance cartilage tissue regeneration at the defect site.

  5. CELT site testing program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeck, Matthias; Erasmus, D. Andre; Djorgovski, S. George; Chanan, Gary A.; Nelson, Jerry E.

    2003-01-01

    The California Extremely Large Telescope, CELT, is a proposed 30-m telescope. Choosing the best possible site for CELT is essential in order to extract the best science from the observations and to reduce the complexity of the telescope. Site selection is therefore currently one of the most critical pacing items of the CELT project. In this paper, we first present selected results from a survey of the atmospheric transparency at optical and infrared wavelengths over the southwestern USA and northern Mexico using satellite data. Results of a similar study of South America have been reported elsewhere. These studies will serve as the pre-selection criterion of the sites at which we will perform on-site testing. We then describe the current status of on-site turbulence evaluation efforts and the future plans of the CELT site testing program.

  6. Site environmental report summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    In this summary of the Fernald 1992 Site Environmental Report the authors will describe the impact of the Fernald site on man and the environment and provide results from the ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included is a summary of the data obtained from sampling conducted to determine if the site complies with DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA) requirements. These requirements are set to protect both man and the environment.

  7. Viking landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagakos, N.

    1973-01-01

    A valley near the mouth of the 20,000-foot-deep Martian Grand Canyon has been chosen by NASA as the site of its first automated landing on the planet Mars. The landing site for the second mission of the 1975-76 Viking spacecraft will probably be an area about 1,000 miles northeast of the first site, where the likelihood of water increases the chances of finding evidence of life.

  8. Site environmental programs

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.W.; Hanf, R.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the site environmental programs. Effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs monitor for impacts from operations in several areas. The first area consists of the point of possible release into the environment. The second area consists of possible contamination adjacent to DOE facilities, and the third area is the general environment both on and off the site.

  9. 1994 Site environmental report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Fernald site is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facility that produced high-quality uranium metals for military defense for nearly 40 years. DOE suspended production at the site in 1989 and formally ended production in 1991. Although production activities have ceased, the site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the site. The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. This 1994 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in this Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here. All information presented in this summary is discussed more fully in the main body of this report.

  10. Polarized light interaction with tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.

    2016-07-01

    This tutorial-review introduces the fundamentals of polarized light interaction with biological tissues and presents some of the recent key polarization optical methods that have made possible the quantitative studies essential for biomedical diagnostics. Tissue structures and the corresponding models showing linear and circular birefringence, dichroism, and chirality are analyzed. As the basis for a quantitative description of the interaction of polarized light with tissues, the theory of polarization transfer in a random medium is used. This theory employs the modified transfer equation for Stokes parameters to predict the polarization properties of single- and multiple-scattered optical fields. The near-order of scatterers in tissues is accounted for to provide an adequate description of tissue polarization properties. Biomedical diagnostic techniques based on polarized light detection, including polarization imaging and spectroscopy, amplitude and intensity light scattering matrix measurements, and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography are described. Examples of biomedical applications of these techniques for early diagnostics of cataracts, detection of precancer, and prediction of skin disease are presented. The substantial reduction of light scattering multiplicity at tissue optical clearing that leads to a lesser influence of scattering on the measured intrinsic polarization properties of the tissue and allows for more precise quantification of these properties is demonstrated.

  11. Trade in human tissue products.

    PubMed

    Tonti-Filippini, Nicholas; Zeps, Nikolajs

    2011-03-01

    Trade in human tissue in Australia is prohibited by state law, and in ethical guidelines by the National Health and Medical Research Council: National statement on ethical conduct in human research; Organ and tissue donation by living donors: guidelines for ethical practice for health professionals. However, trade in human tissue products is a common practice especially for: reconstructive orthopaedic or plastic surgery; novel human tissue products such as a replacement trachea created by using human mesenchymal stem cells; biomedical research using cell lines, DNA and protein provided through biobanks. Cost pressures on these have forced consideration of commercial models to sustain their operations. Both the existing and novel activities require a robust framework to enable commercial uses of human tissue products while maintaining community acceptability of such practices, but to date no such framework exists. In this article, we propose a model ethical framework for ethical governance which identifies specific ethical issues such as: privacy; unique value of a person's tissue; commodification of the body; equity and benefit to the community; perverse incentives; and "attenuation" as a potentially useful concept to help deal with the broad range of subjective views relevant to whether it is acceptable to commercialise certain human tissue products. PMID:21382003

  12. Tissue bioengineering and artificial organs.

    PubMed

    Llames, Sara; García, Eva; Otero Hernández, Jesús; Meana, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    The scarcity of organs and tissues for transplant and the need of immunosuppressive drugs to avoid rejection constitute two reasons that justify organ and tissue production in the laboratory. Tissue engineering based tissues (TE) could allow to regenerate the whole organ from a fragment or even to produce several organs from an organ donor for grafting purposes. TE is based in: (1) the ex vivo expansion of cells, (2) the seeding of these expanded cells in tridimensional structures that mimic physiological conditions and, (3) grafting the prototype. In order to graft big structures it is necessary that the organ or tissue produced "ex vivo" bears a vascular tree to ensure the nutrition of its deep layers. At present, no technology has been developed to provide this vascular tree to TE derived products. Thus, these tissues must be thin enough to acquire nutrients during the first days by diffusion from surrounding tissues. This fact constitutes nowadays the greatest limitation of technologies for organ development in the laboratory.In this chapter, all these problems and their possible solutions are commented. Also, the present status of TE techniques in the regeneration of different organ systems is reviewed.

  13. [Muscles and connective tissue: histology].

    PubMed

    Delage, J-P

    2012-10-01

    Here, we give some comments about the DVD movies "Muscle Attitudes" from Endovivo productions, the movies up lighting some loss in the attention given to studies on the connective tissue, and especially them into muscles. The main characteristics of the different components in the intra-muscular connective tissue (perimysium, endomysium, epimysium) are shown here with special references to their ordered architecture and special references to their spatial distributions. This connective tissue is abundant into the muscles and is in continuity with the muscles in vicinity, with their tendons and their sheath, sticking the whole on skin. This connective tissue has also very abundant connections on the muscles fibres. It is then assumed that the connective tissue sticks every organs or cells of the locomotion system. Considering the elastic properties of the collagen fibres which are the most abundant component of connective tissue, it is possible to up light a panel of connective tissue associated functions such as the transmission of muscle contractions or the regulation of protein and energetic muscles metabolism.

  14. Developing a tissue perfusion sensor.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S L R; Parker, K H; O'Hare, D

    2007-01-01

    The development of a electrochemical tissue perfusion sensor is presented. The sensor is a platinum/platinum ring-disc microelectrode that relies on the principle of collector-generator to monitor mass transport within its vicinity. Tissue perfusion is a mass transport mechanism that describes the movement of respiratory gases, nutrients and metabolites in tissue. The sensor's capability of detecting perfusion at the cellular level in a continuous fashion is unique. This sensor will provide insight into the way nutrients and metabolites are transported in tissue especially in cases were perfusion is low such as in wounds or ischemic tissue. We present experimental work for the development and testing of the sensors in vitro. Experimental flow recordings in free steam solutions as well as the flow through tissue-like media are shown. Tests on post operative human tissue are also presented. The sensor's feature such as the continuous recoding capacities, spatial resolution and the measurement range from ml/min to microl/min are highlighted. PMID:18002549

  15. Trade in human tissue products.

    PubMed

    Tonti-Filippini, Nicholas; Zeps, Nikolajs

    2011-03-01

    Trade in human tissue in Australia is prohibited by state law, and in ethical guidelines by the National Health and Medical Research Council: National statement on ethical conduct in human research; Organ and tissue donation by living donors: guidelines for ethical practice for health professionals. However, trade in human tissue products is a common practice especially for: reconstructive orthopaedic or plastic surgery; novel human tissue products such as a replacement trachea created by using human mesenchymal stem cells; biomedical research using cell lines, DNA and protein provided through biobanks. Cost pressures on these have forced consideration of commercial models to sustain their operations. Both the existing and novel activities require a robust framework to enable commercial uses of human tissue products while maintaining community acceptability of such practices, but to date no such framework exists. In this article, we propose a model ethical framework for ethical governance which identifies specific ethical issues such as: privacy; unique value of a person's tissue; commodification of the body; equity and benefit to the community; perverse incentives; and "attenuation" as a potentially useful concept to help deal with the broad range of subjective views relevant to whether it is acceptable to commercialise certain human tissue products.

  16. Multimodality instrument for tissue characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration. The use of this system will make surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Other applications of this system include the detection, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer, spinal diseases, and use in general exploratory surgery.

  17. Bioactive scaffold for bone tissue engineering: An in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, Treena Lynne

    Massive bone loss of the proximal femur is a common problem in revision cases of total hip implants. Allograft is typically used to reconstruct the site for insertion of the new prosthesis. However, for long term fixation and function, it is desirable that the allograft becomes fully replaced by bone tissue and aids in the regeneration of bone to that site. However, allograft use is typically associated with delayed incorporation and poor remodeling. Due to these profound limitations, alternative approaches are needed. Tissue engineering is an attractive approach to designing improved graft materials. By combining osteogenic activity with a resorbable scaffold, bone formation can be stimulated while providing structure and stability to the limb during incorporation and remodeling of the scaffold. Porous, surface modified bioactive ceramic scaffolds (pSMC) have been developed which stimulate the expression of the osteoblastic phenotype and production of bone-like tissue in vitro. The scaffold and two tissue-engineered constructs, osteoprogenitor cells seeded onto scaffolds or cells expanded in culture to form bone tissue on the scaffolds prior to implantation, were investigated in a long bone defect model. The rate of incorporation was assessed. Both tissue-engineered constructs stimulated bone formation and comparable repair at 2 weeks. In a rat femoral window defect model, bone formation increased over time for all groups in concert with scaffold resorption, leading to a 40% increase in bone and 40% reduction of the scaffold in the defect by 12 weeks. Both tissue-engineered constructs enhanced the rate of mechanical repair of long bones due to better bony union with the host cortex. Long bones treated with tissue engineered constructs demonstrated a return in normal torsional properties by 4 weeks as compared to 12 weeks for long bones treated with pSMC. Culture expansion of cells to produce bone tissue in vitro did not accelerate incorporation over the treatment

  18. Tissue patterning and cellular mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Evan

    2015-01-01

    In development, cells organize into biological tissues through cell growth, migration, and differentiation. Globally, this process is dictated by a genetically encoded program in which secreted morphogens and cell–cell interactions prompt the adoption of unique cell fates. Yet, at its lowest level, development is achieved through the modification of cell–cell adhesion and actomyosin-based contractility, which set the level of tension within cells and dictate how they pack together into tissues. The regulation of tension within individual cells and across large groups of cells is a major driving force of tissue organization and the basis of all cell shape change and cell movement in development. PMID:26504164

  19. Determination of tissue endothelin levels.

    PubMed

    Wong, M; Jeng, A Y

    1995-05-01

    A methodology for the quantitation of tissue endothelin levels has been developed. About 85% of authentic endothelin-1 added to the tissue extract was recovered. Using this protocol, the levels of endothelin in various rat tissues were determined. In Wistar-Kyoto rats, the kidney was found to have the highest level of endothelin, 1120 pg/gm wet weight, followed by the spleen and liver. The brain contained only half as much of endothelin when compared with the kidney. This method can be utilized to assess the pathological role of endothelin in cardiovascular or renal diseases.

  20. A study of a tissue equivalent gelatine based tissue substitute

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, J.L.

    1992-11-01

    A study of several tissue substitutes for use as volumetric dosimeters was performed. The tissue substitutes studied included tissue substitutes from previous studies and from ICRU 44. The substitutes were evaluated for an overall match to Reference Man which was used as a basis for this study. The evaluation was based on the electron stopping power, the mass attenuation coefficient, the electron density, and the specific gravity. The tissue substitute chosen also had to be capable of changing from a liquid into a solid form to maintain an even distribution of thermoluminesent dosimetry (TLD) powder and then back to a liquid for recovery of the TLD powder without adversely effecting the TLD powder. The gelatine mixture provided the closest match to the data from Reference Man tissue. The gelatine mixture was put through a series of test to determine it`s usefulness as a reliable tissue substitute. The TLD powder was cast in the gelatine mixture and recovered to determine if the TLD powder was adversely effected. The distribution of the TLD powder after being cast into the gelatin mixture was tested in insure an even was maintained.

  1. A study of a tissue equivalent gelatine based tissue substitute

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, J.L.

    1992-11-01

    A study of several tissue substitutes for use as volumetric dosimeters was performed. The tissue substitutes studied included tissue substitutes from previous studies and from ICRU 44. The substitutes were evaluated for an overall match to Reference Man which was used as a basis for this study. The evaluation was based on the electron stopping power, the mass attenuation coefficient, the electron density, and the specific gravity. The tissue substitute chosen also had to be capable of changing from a liquid into a solid form to maintain an even distribution of thermoluminesent dosimetry (TLD) powder and then back to a liquid for recovery of the TLD powder without adversely effecting the TLD powder. The gelatine mixture provided the closest match to the data from Reference Man tissue. The gelatine mixture was put through a series of test to determine it's usefulness as a reliable tissue substitute. The TLD powder was cast in the gelatine mixture and recovered to determine if the TLD powder was adversely effected. The distribution of the TLD powder after being cast into the gelatin mixture was tested in insure an even was maintained.

  2. Sustainable three-dimensional tissue model of human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Evangelia; Marra, Kacey G; Kaplan, David L

    2013-10-01

    The need for physiologically relevant sustainable human adipose tissue models is crucial for understanding tissue development, disease progression, in vitro drug development and soft tissue regeneration. The coculture of adipocytes differentiated from human adipose-derived stem cells, with endothelial cells, on porous silk protein matrices for at least 6 months is reported, while maintaining adipose-like outcomes. Cultures were assessed for structure and morphology (Oil Red O content and CD31 expression), metabolic functions (leptin, glycerol production, gene expression for GLUT4, and PPARγ) and cell replication (DNA content). The cocultures maintained size and shape over this extended period in static cultures, while increasing in diameter by 12.5% in spinner flask culture. Spinner flask cultures yielded improved adipose tissue outcomes overall, based on structure and function, when compared to the static cultures. This work establishes a tissue model system that can be applied to the development of chronic metabolic dysfunction systems associated with human adipose tissue, such as obesity and diabetes, due to the long term sustainable functions demonstrated here.

  3. Transcription elongation and tissue-specific somatic CAG instability.

    PubMed

    Goula, Agathi-Vasiliki; Stys, Agnieszka; Chan, Jackson P K; Trottier, Yvon; Festenstein, Richard; Merienne, Karine

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of CAG/CTG repeats is responsible for many diseases, including Huntington's disease (HD) and myotonic dystrophy 1. CAG/CTG expansions are unstable in selective somatic tissues, which accelerates disease progression. The mechanisms underlying repeat instability are complex, and it remains unclear whether chromatin structure and/or transcription contribute to somatic CAG/CTG instability in vivo. To address these issues, we investigated the relationship between CAG instability, chromatin structure, and transcription at the HD locus using the R6/1 and R6/2 HD transgenic mouse lines. These mice express a similar transgene, albeit integrated at a different site, and recapitulate HD tissue-specific instability. We show that instability rates are increased in R6/2 tissues as compared to R6/1 matched-samples. High transgene expression levels and chromatin accessibility correlated with the increased CAG instability of R6/2 mice. Transgene mRNA and H3K4 trimethylation at the HD locus were increased, whereas H3K9 dimethylation was reduced in R6/2 tissues relative to R6/1 matched-tissues. However, the levels of transgene expression and these specific histone marks were similar in the striatum and cerebellum, two tissues showing very different CAG instability levels, irrespective of mouse line. Interestingly, the levels of elongating RNA Pol II at the HD locus, but not the initiating form of RNA Pol II, were tissue-specific and correlated with CAG instability levels. Similarly, H3K36 trimethylation, a mark associated with transcription elongation, was specifically increased at the HD locus in the striatum and not in the cerebellum. Together, our data support the view that transcription modulates somatic CAG instability in vivo. More specifically, our results suggest for the first time that transcription elongation is regulated in a tissue-dependent manner, contributing to tissue-selective CAG instability. PMID:23209427

  4. Stem Cells and Scaffolds for Vascularizing Engineered Tissue Constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luong, E.; Gerecht, S.

    The clinical impact of tissue engineering depends upon our ability to direct cells to form tissues with characteristic structural and mechanical properties from the molecular level up to organized tissue. Induction and creation of functional vascular networks has been one of the main goals of tissue engineering either in vitro, for the transplantation of prevascularized constructs, or in vivo, for cellular organization within the implantation site. In most cases, tissue engineering attempts to recapitulate certain aspects of normal development in order to stimulate cell differentiation and functional tissue assembly. The induction of tissue growth generally involves the use of biodegradable and bioactive materials designed, ideally, to provide a mechanical, physical, and biochemical template for tissue regeneration. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), derived from the inner cell mass of a developing blastocyst, are capable of differentiating into all cell types of the body. Specifically, hESCs have the capability to differentiate and form blood vessels de novo in a process called vasculogenesis. Human ESC-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and endothelial cells have substantial potential for microvessel formation, in vitro and in vivo. Human adult EPCs are being isolated to understand the fundamental biology of how these cells are regulated as a population and to explore whether these cells can be differentiated and reimplanted as a cellular therapy in order to arrest or even reverse damaged vasculature. This chapter focuses on advances made toward the generation and engineering of functional vascular tissue, focusing on both the scaffolds - the synthetic and biopolymer materials - and the cell sources - hESCs and hEPCs.

  5. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Acute Adipose Tissue Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Sung; Rongisch, Robert; Hager, Stephan; Grieb, Gerrit; Nourbakhsh, Mahtab; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Bucala, Richard; Bernhagen, Juergen; Pallua, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine and has been implicated in inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about the regulation of MIF in adipose tissue and its impact on wound healing. The aim of this study was to investigate MIF expression in inflamed adipose and determine its role in inflammatory cell recruitment and wound healing. Adipose tissue was harvested from subcutaneous adipose tissue layers of 24 healthy subjects and from adipose tissue adjacent to acutely inflamed wounds of 21 patients undergoing wound debridement. MIF protein and mRNA expression were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR. Cell-specific MIF expression was visualized by immunohistochemistry. The functional role of MIF in cell recruitment was investigated by a chemotaxis assay and by flow cytometry of labeled macrophages that were injected into Mif-/-and wildtype mice. Wound healing was evaluated by an in vitro scratch assay on human fibroblast monolayers. MIF protein levels of native adipose tissue and supernatants from acutely inflamed wounds were significantly elevated when compared to healthy controls. MIF mRNA expression was increased in acutely inflamed adipose tissue indicating the activation of MIF gene transcription in response to adipose tissue inflammation. MIF is expressed in mature adipocytes and in infiltrated macrophages. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell migration was significantly increased towards supernatants derived from inflamed adipose tissue. This effect was partially abrogated by MIF-neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, when compared to wildtype mice, Mif-/-mice showed reduced infiltration of labeled macrophages into LPS-stimulated epididymal fat pads in vivo. Finally, MIF antibodies partially neutralized the detrimental effect of MIF on fibroblast wound healing. Our results indicate that increased MIF expression and rapid activation of the MIF gene in fat tissue adjacent to acute wound healing disorders may play a role in cell

  6. Differentiating cancerous from normal breast tissue by redox imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, He N.; Tchou, Julia; Feng, Min; Zhao, Huaqing; Li, Lin Z.

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal metabolism can be a hallmark of cancer occurring early before detectable histological changes and may serve as an early detection biomarker. The current gold standard to establish breast cancer (BC) diagnosis is histological examination of biopsy. Previously we have found that pre-cancer and cancer tissues in animal models displayed abnormal mitochondrial redox state. Our technique of quantitatively measuring the mitochondrial redox state has the potential to be implemented as an early detection tool for cancer and may provide prognostic value. We therefore in this present study, investigated the feasibility of quantifying the redox state of tumor samples from 16 BC patients. Tumor tissue aliquots were collected from both normal and cancerous tissue from the affected cancer-bearing breasts of 16 female patients (5 TNBC, 9 ER+, 2 ER+/Her2+) shortly after surgical resection. All specimens were snap-frozen with liquid nitrogen on site and scanned later with the Chance redox scanner, i.e., the 3D cryogenic NADH/oxidized flavoprotein (Fp) fluorescence imager. Our preliminary results showed that both NADH and Fp (including FAD, i.e., flavin adenine dinucleotide) signals in the cancerous tissues roughly tripled to quadrupled those in the normal tissues (p<0.05) and the redox ratio Fp/(NADH+Fp) was about 27% higher in the cancerous tissues than in the normal ones (p<0.05). Our findings suggest that the redox state could differentiate between cancer and non-cancer breast tissues in human patients and this novel redox scanning procedure may assist in tissue diagnosis in freshly procured biopsy samples prior to tissue fixation. We are in the process of evaluating the prognostic value of the redox imaging indices for BC.

  7. Neutrophils: Between Host Defence, Immune Modulation, and Tissue Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Philipp; Saffarzadeh, Mona; Weber, Alexander N. R.; Rieber, Nikolaus; Radsak, Markus; von Bernuth, Horst; Benarafa, Charaf; Roos, Dirk; Skokowa, Julia; Hartl, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils, the most abundant human immune cells, are rapidly recruited to sites of infection, where they fulfill their life-saving antimicrobial functions. While traditionally regarded as short-lived phagocytes, recent findings on long-term survival, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, heterogeneity and plasticity, suppressive functions, and tissue injury have expanded our understanding of their diverse role in infection and inflammation. This review summarises our current understanding of neutrophils in host-pathogen interactions and disease involvement, illustrating the versatility and plasticity of the neutrophil, moving between host defence, immune modulation, and tissue damage. PMID:25764063

  8. Tissue culture-based rabies vaccines: vaccine production technology transfer.

    PubMed

    Halstead, S B

    1988-01-01

    Overcoming stagnation in rabies prevention programs in the developing world requires national strategies that include plans to adopt existing facilities for production of low-cost efficacious tissue culture-based vaccine. Transfer of tissue culture technology for the production of rabies vaccine has been supported by the World Health Organization and The Rockefeller Foundation, and in the fall of 1986 the location of the optimal site for the initial technology transfer program was agreed upon. Funds were provided to assemble training staff and to purchase the supplies and equipment to furnish a production facility at the Veterinary Products Company of Colombia (VECOL) located in Bogota, Colombia.

  9. Destructive fat tissue engineering using photodynamic and selective photothermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Yanina, Irina Yu.; Simonenko, Georgy V.

    2009-02-01

    Destructive fat tissue engineering could be realized using the optical method, which provides reduction of regional or site-specific accumulations of subcutaneous adipose tissue on the cell level. We hypothesize that light irradiation due to photodynamic and selective photothermal effects may lead to fat cell lypolytic activity (the enhancement of lipolysis of cell triglycerides due to expression of lipase activity and cell release of free fat acids (FFAs) due to temporal cell membrane porosity), and cell delayed killing due to apoptosis caused by the induced fat cell stress and/or limited cell necrosis.

  10. Persistent trophoblastic tissue following salpingostomy for unruptured ectopic pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Rivlin, M.E.; Meeks, G.R.; Cowan, B.D.; Bates, G.W.

    1985-02-01

    Radioimmunoassay of beta-hCG was used to diagnose an ectopic pregnancy in a 30 year old patient and the site of pregnancy was determined by ultrasonography. A salpingostomy was performed; the ectopic pregnancy and the residual trophoblastic tissue were removed. Six weeks later a right salpingectomy was performed to remove persistent trophoblastic tissue. Histologic examination of the surgical specimen demonstrated viable chorionic villi. Serial measurements of beta-hCG are recommended following conservative surgery for ectopic gestation to assure the patient and the surgeon that the tube contains no residual products of conception.

  11. Quantitative discrimination of MEF2 sites.

    PubMed

    Fickett, J W

    1996-01-01

    Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) is a family of closely related transcription factors that play a key role in the differentiation of muscle tissues and are important in the muscle-specific expression of a number of genes. Given the centrality of MEF2 in muscle differentiation, regulatory regions newly determined to be muscle specific are often studied for potential MEF2 binding sites. Possible sites are often located by comparison to a homologous gene or by matching to the consensus MEF2 sequence. Enough data have accumulated that a richer description of the MEF2 binding site, a position weight matrix, can be reliably constructed and its usefulness can be assessed. It was shown that scores from such a matrix approximate MEF2 binding energy and enable recognition of naturally occurring MEF2 sites with high sensitivity and specificity. Regulation of genes via MEF2-like sites is complicated by the fact that a number of transcription factors are involved. Not only is MEF2 itself a family of proteins, but several other, nonhomologous, transcription factors overlap MEF2 in DNA-binding specificity. Thus, more quantitative methods for recognizing potential sites may help with the lengthy process of disentangling the complex regulatory circuits of muscle-specific expression.

  12. Savannah River Site's Site Specific Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities that were identified during the preparation of the Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) for FY 1992--1996. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. The purpose of the SSP is to develop a baseline for policy, budget, and schedules for the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities. The plan explains accomplishments since the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 plan, demonstrates how present and future activities are prioritized, identifies currently funded activities and activities that are planned to be funded in the upcoming fiscal year, and describes future activities that SRS is considering.

  13. MicroRNA-339-5p down-regulates protein expression of β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) in human primary brain cultures and is reduced in brain tissue specimens of Alzheimer disease subjects.

    PubMed

    Long, Justin M; Ray, Balmiki; Lahiri, Debomoy K

    2014-02-21

    Alzheimer disease (AD) results, in part, from the excess accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide as neuritic plaques in the brain. The short Aβ peptide is derived from the large transmembrane Aβ precursor protein (APP). The rate-limiting step in the production of Aβ from APP is mediated by the β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Dysregulation of BACE1 levels leading to excess Aβ deposition is implicated in sporadic AD. Thus, elucidating the full complement of regulatory pathways that control BACE1 expression is key to identifying novel drug targets central to the Aβ-generating process. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are expected to participate in this molecular network. Here, we identified a known miRNA, miR-339-5p, as a key contributor to this regulatory network. Two distinct miR-339-5p target sites were predicted in the BACE1 3'-UTR by in silico analyses. Co-transfection of miR-339-5p with a BACE1 3'-UTR reporter construct resulted in significant reduction in reporter expression. Mutation of both target sites eliminated this effect. Delivery of the miR-339-5p mimic also significantly inhibited expression of BACE1 protein in human glioblastoma cells and human primary brain cultures. Delivery of target protectors designed against the miR-339-5p BACE1 3'-UTR target sites in primary human brain cultures significantly elevated BACE1 expression. Finally, miR-339-5p levels were found to be significantly reduced in brain specimens isolated from AD patients as compared with age-matched controls. Therefore, miR-339-5p regulates BACE1 expression in human brain cells and is most likely dysregulated in at least a subset of AD patients making this miRNA a novel drug target.

  14. Preliminary Site Characterization Report, Rulsion Site, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report is a summary of environmental information gathered during a review of the documents pertaining to Project Rulison and interviews with personnel who worked on the project. Project Rulison was part of Operation Plowshare (a program designed to explore peaceful uses for nuclear devices). The project consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device on September 10, 1969, in western Colorado to stimulate natural gas production. Following the detonation, a reentry well was drilled and several gas production tests were conducted. The reentry well was shut-in after the last gas production test and was held in standby condition until the general cleanup was undertaken in 1972. A final cleanup was conducted after the emplacement and testing wells were plugged in 1976. However, some surface radiologic contamination resulted from decontamination of the drilling equipment and fallout from the gas flaring during drilling operations. With the exception of the drilling effluent pond, all surface contamination at the Rulison Site was removed during the cleanup operations. All mudpits and other excavations were backfilled, and both upper and lower drilling pads were leveled and dressed. This report provides information regarding known or suspected areas of contamination, previous cleanup activities, analytical results, a review of the regulatory status, the site`s physical environment, and future recommendations for Project Ruhson. Based on this research, several potential areas of contamination have been identified. These include the drilling effluent pond and mudpits used during drilling operations. In addition, contamination could migrate in the gas horizon.

  15. Plugged-in SITE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Rhys

    2003-01-01

    Examines form, color, and technology at the University of Ottawa's School of Information Technology and Engineering (SITE) building, focusing on systems (e.g., SITE is a data wired building, but with no expensive raised floors or cheap dropped ceilings); assembly rather than construction (replacing standard notions of construction with the process…

  16. Site characterization handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This Handbook discusses both management and technical elements that should be considered in developing a comprehensive site characterization program. Management elements typical of any project of a comparable magnitude and complexity are combined with a discussion of strategies specific to site characterization. Information specific to the technical elements involved in site characterization is based on guidance published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with respect to licensing requirements for LLW disposal facilities. The objective of this Handbook is to provide a reference for both NRC Agreement States and non-Agreement States for use in developing a comprehensive site characterization program that meets the specific objectives of the State and/or site developer/licensee. Each site characterization program will vary depending on the objectives, licensing requirements, schedules/budgets, physical characteristics of the site, proposed facility design, and the specific concerns raised by government agencies and the public. Therefore, the Handbook is not a prescriptive guide to site characterization. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Commercial Web Site Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses business use of the Web and related search engine design issues as well as research on general and academic links before reporting on a survey of the links published by a collection of business Web sites. Results indicate around 66% of Web sites do carry external links, most of which are targeted at a specific purpose, but about 17%…

  18. SAMPLING OF CONTAMINATED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical aspect of characterization of the amount and species of contamination of a hazardous waste site is the sampling plan developed for that site. f the sampling plan is not thoroughly conceptualized before sampling takes place, then certain critical aspects of the limits o...

  19. WWW: Neuroscience Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The human brain contains an estimated 100 billion neurons, and browsing the Web, one might be led to believe that there's a Web site for every one of those cells. It's no surprise that there are lots of Web sites concerning the nervous system. After all, the human brain is toward the top of nearly everyone's list of favorite organs and of…

  20. Site Planning and Layout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary T.

    1998-01-01

    Examines five issues related to child care facility design: (1) siting the building, outdoor play, and service areas; (2) creating favorable microclimates; (3) developmentally appropriate play yards; (4) pedestrian access and site circulation; and (5) vehicular access and parking away from pedestrians and play. (KB)

  1. Sites of the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCleary, George F., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a map of Europe identifying the location of major concentration camps, extermination camps, and massacre sites during World War II. Maintains that only a few of the over 400 sites in the former Soviet Union where entire Jewish villages were exterminated are shown. (CFR)

  2. Tissue engineering: Perfusable vascular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgacs, Gabor

    2012-09-01

    A rapid vascular casting approach that uses carbohydrate glass as a sacrificial template allows tissues to be built that can be kept alive for longer in the laboratory until needed for transplantation.

  3. Scaffolds in Tendon Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Lamberti, Alfredo; Petrillo, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering techniques using novel scaffold materials offer potential alternatives for managing tendon disorders. Tissue engineering strategies to improve tendon repair healing include the use of scaffolds, growth factors, cell seeding, or a combination of these approaches. Scaffolds have been the most common strategy investigated to date. Available scaffolds for tendon repair include both biological scaffolds, obtained from mammalian tissues, and synthetic scaffolds, manufactured from chemical compounds. Preliminary studies support the idea that scaffolds can provide an alternative for tendon augmentation with an enormous therapeutic potential. However, available data are lacking to allow definitive conclusion on the use of scaffolds for tendon augmentation. We review the current basic science and clinical understanding in the field of scaffolds and tissue engineering for tendon repair. PMID:22190961

  4. Teaching Tips: Plant Tissue Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Ed

    1991-01-01

    Plant tissue testing can be done to monitor plant nutrition levels during the growing season and diagnose nutrient deficiency problems. They can provide feedback on crop conditions and fertility needs. (Author)

  5. Mechanical Signaling in Reproductive Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Soledad; Chang, Sydney; Barzilai, Joshua J.; Leppert, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    The organs of the female reproductive system are among the most dynamic tissues in the human body, undergoing repeated cycles of growth and involution from puberty through menopause. To achieve such impressive plasticity, reproductive tissues must respond not only to soluble signals (hormones, growth factors, and cytokines) but also to physical cues (mechanical forces and osmotic stress) as well. Here, we review the mechanisms underlying the process of mechanotransduction—how signals are conveyed from the extracellular matrix that surrounds the cells of reproductive tissues to the downstream molecules and signaling pathways that coordinate the cellular adaptive response to external forces. Our objective was to examine how mechanical forces contribute significantly to physiological functions and pathogenesis in reproductive tissues. We highlight how widespread diseases of the reproductive tract, from preterm labor to tumors of the uterus and breast, result from an impairment in mechanical signaling. PMID:25001021

  6. Nanomaterials, Inflammation and Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Jagannath

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials exhibit unique properties that are absent in the bulk material because decreasing material size leads to an exponential increase in surface area, surface area to volume ratio, and effective stiffness, resulting in altered physiochemical properties. Diverse categories of nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanoporous scaffolds, nanopatterned surfaces, nanofibers and carbon nanotubes can be generated using advanced fabrication and processing techniques. These materials are being increasingly incorporated in tissue engineering scaffolds to facilitate the development of biomimetic substitutes to replace damaged tissues and organs. Long term success of nanomaterials in tissue engineering is contingent upon the inflammatory responses they elicit in vivo. This review seeks to summarize the recent developments in our understanding of biochemical and biophysical attributes of nanomaterials and the inflammatory responses they elicit, with a focus on strategies for nanomaterial design in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25421333

  7. Types of muscle tissue (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The 3 types of muscle tissue are cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. Cardiac muscle cells are located in ... heart, appear striated, and are under involuntary control. Smooth muscle fibers are located in walls of hollow ...

  8. Infrared Analysis Using Tissue Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Noel L.; Wood, Steven G.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a quick, easy, and cheap, but effective method of obtaining infrared spectra of solids and nonvolatile liquids by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The technique uses tissue paper as a support matrix. (RH)

  9. Tissue-engineered urinary conduits.

    PubMed

    Kates, Max; Singh, Anirudha; Matsui, Hotaka; Steinberg, Gary D; Smith, Norm D; Schoenberg, Mark P; Bivalacqua, Trinity J

    2015-03-01

    The role of tissue engineering in the cystectomy population rests on the principle of sparing healthy intestinal tissue while replacing diseased bladder. Over the last 25 years advances in cell biology and material science have improved the quality and durability of bladder replacement in animals. The neo-urinary conduit ([NUC]-Tengion) employs autologous fat smooth muscle cells which are seeded onto synthetic, biodegradable scaffolds. This seeded construct is then implanted in the patient and purportedly regenerates native urinary tissue to serve as a passive channel connecting the ureters to the skin surface. Preclinical animal studies as well as the first phase I human trial implanting the NUC are reviewed. While the ultimate goal of creating a durable, effective, tissue-engineered conduit is still in its infancy, important technical and experimental strides have been made. PMID:25677229

  10. Endoscopic subsurface imaging in tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Demos, S G; Staggs, M; Radousky, H B

    2001-02-12

    The objective of this work is to develop endoscopic subsurface optical imaging technology that will be able to image different tissue components located underneath the surface of the tissue at an imaging depth of up to 1 centimeter. This effort is based on the utilization of existing technology and components developed for medical endoscopes with the incorporation of the appropriate modifications to implement the spectral and polarization difference imaging technique. This subsurface imaging technique employs polarization and spectral light discrimination in combination with image processing to remove a large portion of the image information from the outer layers of the tissue which leads to enhancement of the contrast and image quality of subsurface tissue structures.

  11. Tissue fusion over nonadhering surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Nier, Vincent; Deforet, Maxime; Duclos, Guillaume; Yevick, Hannah G.; Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Marcq, Philippe; Silberzan, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Tissue fusion eliminates physical voids in a tissue to form a continuous structure and is central to many processes in development and repair. Fusion events in vivo, particularly in embryonic development, often involve the purse-string contraction of a pluricellular actomyosin cable at the free edge. However, in vitro, adhesion of the cells to their substrate favors a closure mechanism mediated by lamellipodial protrusions, which has prevented a systematic study of the purse-string mechanism. Here, we show that monolayers can cover well-controlled mesoscopic nonadherent areas much larger than a cell size by purse-string closure and that active epithelial fluctuations are required for this process. We have formulated a simple stochastic model that includes purse-string contractility, tissue fluctuations, and effective friction to qualitatively and quantitatively account for the dynamics of closure. Our data suggest that, in vivo, tissue fusion adapts to the local environment by coordinating lamellipodial protrusions and purse-string contractions. PMID:26199417

  12. Tissue engineering and reparative medicine.

    PubMed

    Sipe, Jean D

    2002-06-01

    Reparative medicine is a critical frontier in biomedical and clinical research. The National Institutes of Health Bioengineering Consortium (BECON) convened a symposium titled "Reparative Medicine: Growing Tissues and Organs," which was held on June 25 and 26, 2001 in Bethesda, Maryland. The relevant realms of cells, molecular signaling, extracellular matrix, engineering design principles, vascular assembly, bioreactors, storage and translation, and host remodeling and the immune response that are essential to tissue engineering were discussed. This overview of the scientific program summarizes the plenary talks, extended poster presentations and breakout session reports with an emphasis on scientific and technical hurdles that must be overcome to achieve the promise of restoring, replacing, or enhancing tissue and organ function that tissue engineering offers.

  13. Site decommissioning management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fauver, D.N.; Austin, J.H.; Johnson, T.C.; Weber, M.F.; Cardile, F.P.; Martin, D.E.; Caniano, R.J.; Kinneman, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff`s strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites.

  14. Site directed recombination

    DOEpatents

    Jurka, Jerzy W.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced homologous recombination is obtained by employing a consensus sequence which has been found to be associated with integration of repeat sequences, such as Alu and ID. The consensus sequence or sequence having a single transition mutation determines one site of a double break which allows for high efficiency of integration at the site. By introducing single or double stranded DNA having the consensus sequence flanking region joined to a sequence of interest, one can reproducibly direct integration of the sequence of interest at one or a limited number of sites. In this way, specific sites can be identified and homologous recombination achieved at the site by employing a second flanking sequence associated with a sequence proximal to the 3'-nick.

  15. Connective tissue and bacterial deposits on rubber dam sheet and ePTFE barrier membranes in guided periodontal tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Apinhasmit, Wandee; Swasdison, Somporn; Tamsailom, Suphot; Suppipat, Nophadol

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the connective tissue and bacterial deposits on rubber dam sheets and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membranes used as barrier membranes in guided tissue regeneration for periodontal treatment. Twenty patients having intrabony defects and/or furcation defects were surgically treated by guided tissue regeneration employing either rubber dam sheets (10 patients) or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membranes (10 patients) as barrier membranes. Four to six weeks after the first operation, membranes were retrieved from the lesion sites and processed for scanning electron microscopy. The lesion-facing surfaces of membranes were examined for the presence of connective tissue and bacterial deposits. The differences between the numbers of fields and the distributions of connective tissue and bacteria on both types of membranes were analysed by the Chi-square test at the level of 0.05 significance. The results showed a lot of fibroblasts with their secreted extracellular matrices, known as components of the connective tissue on rubber dam sheets and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membranes. There was no significant difference in the total number of connective tissue on both types of membranes (P = 0.456). Many bacterial forms including cocci, bacilli, filaments and spirochetes with the interbacterial matrices were identified. The total number of bacteria on rubber dam sheets was statistically less than that on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membranes (P < 0.001). The comparable number of connective tissue on both types of membranes suggests that the healing process under both types of membranes was also comparable. Therefore, the rubber dam sheet might be used as a barrier membrane in guided tissue regeneration.

  16. NETosis and lack of DNase activity are key factors in Echis carinatus venom-induced tissue destruction

    PubMed Central

    Katkar, Gajanan D.; Sundaram, Mahalingam S.; NaveenKumar, Somanathapura K.; Swethakumar, Basavarajaiah; Sharma, Rachana D.; Paul, Manoj; Vishalakshi, Gopalapura J.; Devaraja, Sannaningaiah; Girish, Kesturu S.; Kemparaju, Kempaiah

    2016-01-01

    Indian Echis carinatus bite causes sustained tissue destruction at the bite site. Neutrophils, the major leukocytes in the early defence process, accumulate at the bite site. Here we show that E. carinatus venom induces neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. The NETs block the blood vessels and entrap the venom toxins at the injection site, promoting tissue destruction. The stability of NETs is attributed to the lack of NETs-degrading DNase activity in E. carinatus venom. In a mouse tail model, mice co-injected with venom and DNase 1, and neutropenic mice injected with the venom, do not develop NETs, venom accumulation and tissue destruction at the injected site. Strikingly, venom-induced mice tail tissue destruction is also prevented by the subsequent injection of DNase 1. Thus, our study suggests that DNase 1 treatment may have a therapeutic potential for preventing the tissue destruction caused by snake venom. PMID:27093631

  17. Advances in meniscal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Eli, Nnaemeka; Oragui, Emeka; Khan, Wasim

    2011-01-01

    Injuries and lesions to the meniscal cartilage of the knee joint are common. As a result of its limited regenerative capacity, early degenerative changes to the articular surface frequently occur, resulting in pain and poor function. Currently available surgical interventions include repair of tears, and partial and total meniscectomy but the results are inconsistent and often poor. Interest in the field of meniscal tissue engineering with the possibilities of better treatment outcomes has grown in recent times. Current research has focused on the use of mesenchymal stem cells, fibrochondrocytes, meniscal derived cells and fibroblast-like synoviocytes in tissue engineering. Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent cells that have been identified in a number of tissues including bone marrow and synovium. Current research is aimed at defining the correct combination of cytokines and growth factors necessary to induce specific tissue formation and includes transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) and Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2). Scaffolds provide mechanical stability and integrity, and supply a template for three-dimensional organization of the developing tissue. A number of experimental and animal models have been used to investigate the ideal scaffolds for meniscal tissue engineering. The ideal scaffold for meniscal tissue engineering has not been identified but biodegradable scaffolds have shown the most promising results. In addition to poly-glycolic acid (PGA) and poly-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffolds, new synthetic hydrogels and collagen sponges are also being explored. There are two synthetic meniscal implants currently in clinical use and there are a number of clinical trials in the literature with good short- and medium-term results. Both products are indicated for segmental tissue loss and not for complete meniscal replacement. The long-term results of these implants are unknown and we wait to see whether they will be

  18. Magnetic resonance of calcified tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wehrli, Felix W.

    2016-01-01

    MRI of the human body is largely made possible by the favorable relaxation properties of protons of water and triacyl glycerides prevalent in soft tissues. Hard tissues – key among them bone – are generally less amenable to measurement with in vivo MR imaging techniques, not so much as a result of the lower proton density but rather due to the extremely short life-times of the proton signal in water bound to solid-like entities, typically collagen, or being trapped in micro-pores. Either mechanism can enhance T2 relaxation by up to three orders of magnitude relative to their soft-tissue counterparts. Detection of these protons requires solid-state techniques that have emerged in recent years and that promise to add a new dimension to the study of hard tissues. Alternative approaches to probe calcified tissues exploit their characteristic magnetic properties. Bone, teeth and extra-osseous calcium-containing biomaterials are unique in that they are more diamagnetic than all other tissues and thus yield information indirectly by virtue of the induced magnetic fields present in their vicinity. Progress has also been made in methods allowing very high-resolution structural imaging of trabecular and cortical bone relying on detection of the surrounding soft-tissues. This brief review, much of it drawn from work conducted in the author’s laboratory, seeks to highlight opportunities with focus on early-stage developments for image-based assessment of structure, function, physiology and mechanics of calcified tissues in humans via liquid and solid-state approaches, including proton, deuteron and phosphorus NMR and MRI. PMID:23414678

  19. Pesticidal residues in animal tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.; Menzie, C.M.; Adomaitis, V.A.; Reichel, W.L.

    1960-01-01

    Tests with penned starlings, rats, pheasants, and ducks indicated that each species differs in sensitivity to the various pesticides. Residues in tissues are proportional to the degree of exposure during area treatment and they are also found in animals shot six or more months after treatment. The presence of more than 20-30 ppm of DDT, 20 ppm of chlordan, and 6-20 ppm of heptachlor epoxide in quail tissues indicated that the birds had ingested lethal dosages of the pesticides.

  20. Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Obregon, Maria-Jesus

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases). The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. “Brite” or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs) that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2, and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that lead to activation of UCP1 in WAT

  1. Photoacoustic Measurements in Brain Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Kasili, P.M.; Mobley, J.; Vo-Dinh, T.

    1999-09-19

    In this work, we develop and evaluate the photoacoustic technique for recording spectra of white and gray mammalian brain tissues. In addition to the experimental work, we also discuss the geometric aspects of photoacoustic signal generation using collimated light. Spectra constructed from the peak-to-peak amplitude of the photoacoustic waveforms indicate differences in the two tissue types at wavelengths between 620 and 695 nm. The potential of the technique for non-invasive diagnosis is discussed.

  2. Soft tissue augmentation using Restylane.

    PubMed

    Biesman, Brian

    2004-05-01

    Soft tissue augmentation plays an important role in facial rejuvenation. To accomplish this goal, numerous materials have been used. Hyaluronic acids represent the latest family of products to become available in the United States. This article provides an introduction to the proper use of Restylane, the first hyaluronic acid product to be approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for soft tissue augmentation.

  3. Magnetic resonance of calcified tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrli, Felix W.

    2013-04-01

    MRI of the human body is largely made possible by the favorable relaxation properties of protons of water and triacyl glycerides prevalent in soft tissues. Hard tissues - key among them bone - are generally less amenable to measurement with in vivo MR imaging techniques, not so much as a result of the lower proton density but rather due to the extremely short life-times of the proton signal in water bound to solid-like entities, typically collagen, or being trapped in micro-pores. Either mechanism can enhance T2 relaxation by up to three orders of magnitude relative to their soft-tissue counterparts. Detection of these protons requires solid-state techniques that have emerged in recent years and that promise to add a new dimension to the study of hard tissues. Alternative approaches to probe calcified tissues exploit their characteristic magnetic properties. Bone, teeth and extra-osseous calcium-containing biomaterials are unique in that they are more diamagnetic than all other tissues and thus yield information indirectly by virtue of the induced magnetic fields present in their vicinity. Progress has also been made in methods allowing very high-resolution structural imaging of trabecular and cortical bone relying on detection of the surrounding soft-tissues. This brief review, much of it drawn from work conducted in the author's laboratory, seeks to highlight opportunities with focus on early-stage developments for image-based assessment of structure, function, physiology and mechanics of calcified tissues in humans via liquid and solid-state approaches, including proton, deuteron and phosphorus NMR and MRI.

  4. Tissue tropisms in group A streptococcal infections

    PubMed Central

    Bessen, Debra E; Lizano, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific pathogen that is highly prevalent throughout the world. The vast majority of GAS infections lead to a mild disease involving the epithelial surfaces of either the throat or skin. The concept of distinct sets of ‘throat’ and ‘skin’ strains of GAS has long been conceived. From an ecological standpoint, the epithelium of the throat and skin are important because it is where the organism is most successful in reproducing and transmitting to new hosts. This article examines key features of the epidemiology, population biology and molecular pathogenesis that underlie the tissue site preferences for infection exhibited by GAS, with an emphasis on work from our laboratory on skin tropisms. Recombinational replacement with orthologous gene forms, following interspecies transfer, appears to be an important genetic step leading up to the exploitation of new niches by GAS. PMID:20353302

  5. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible.

  6. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible. PMID:26076904

  7. Do no harm--normal tissue effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation therapy confers enormous benefits that must be balanced against the possibilities for harm including late toxicity in normal tissues and radiation-induced second malignancies. A small percentage of patients experience severe late complications. The question is, do these late sequelae occur randomly, or are they confined to individuals who are genetically predisposed to radiosensitivity. Experiments with knockout mice and with patients demonstrate that individuals heterozygous for a number of genes appear to be radiosensitive. If radiosensitive patients were identified prospectively by genetic analysis, they could be spared the trauma of late sequelae. Several large studies have shown a statistically significant excess of radiation-induced malignancies in radiotherapy patients. Most second cancers are carcinomas, developing in the lining cells of the body often remote from the treatment site. Radiation-induced sarcomas appear only in the heavily irradiated areas. These are small in number but appear with a very high relative risk.

  8. Microelastography of tissue with OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Joseph M.; Bao, Xudong; Xiao, Shaojun

    1999-04-01

    The goal of OCT elastography is to quantify microscope strain induced inside a tissue by stress applied externally. Images of internal strain or displacement may provide valuable information about pathological processes such as edema and fibrosis which are known to alter the mechanical properties of tissue.In this sty we developed experimental methods for measuring internal deformation in highly scattering tissue with OCT and applied them to tissue phantoms and living tissue. Piezoelectric actuators were configured to compress the samples in steps of 5-10 micrometers as images were captured synchronously using either a frame or a line-by-line acquisition mode. The displacements of structures inside the samples were quantified using speckle- tracking algorithms based on cross correlation or optical flow of selected features. Displacements as small as a few micrometers were measurable in heterogeneous gelatin phantoms containing scattering particles and living skin. The rules suggest that the composition of tissue layers whose elasticities differ greatly can be deduced visually from image sequences without the need for complicated image processing. However, better models are needed to transform the displacement images into quantitative maps of subtle regional variations of the elastic modulus.

  9. The cryopreservation of composite tissues

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Cryopreservation of human cells and tissue has generated great interest in the scientific community since 1949, when the cryoprotective activity of glycerol was discovered. Nowadays, it is possible to reach the optimal conditions for the cryopreservation of a homogeneous cell population or a one cell-layer tissue with the preservation of a high pourcentage of the initial cells. Success is attained when there is a high recovery rate of cell structures and tissue components after thawing. It is more delicate to obtain cryopreservation of composite tissues and much more a whole organ. The present work deals with fundamental principles of the cryobiology of biological structures, with special attention to the transfer of liquids between intra and extracellular compartments and the initiation of the formation and aggregation of ice during freezing. The consequences of various physical and chemical reactions on biological tissue are described for different cryoprotective agents. Finally, we report a review of results on cyropreservation of various tissues, on the one hand, and various organs, on the other. We also report immunomodulation of antigenic responses to cryopreserved cells and organs. PMID:20046674

  10. [Soft tissue rheumatism in erderly].

    PubMed

    Szczepański, Leszek

    2008-01-01

    Disorders of soft, peri-articular tissues are a common cause of musculoskeletal pain in elderly patients. Nevertheless, most physicians underestimate the role of soft tissue rheumatism in the pathomechanism of the pain. The impairments of soft tissue can not be diagnosed by X-rays examinations, whereas degenerative lesions of joints are easy diagnosed using this method even despite of their uncertain role in producing the symptoms. The incidence of pain syndromes originated from soft tissues differ regarding to the age of patients. In young subjects the incidence of all of them is generally low. Syndromes provoked by overloading during work: repetitive strain syndrome, canal tunnel syndrome, tennis elbow, golfers elbow, shoulder tendon coin disorders and myofascial pain syndrome are common in middle-aged patients. The morbidity of fibromialgia syndrome is also lower in old people probably as the result of diminished numbers and degenerative changes in nociceptive fibers. The syndromes prevailing in elderly patients include trochanteric syndrome and the pain syndromes provoked by muscle spasm depended on posture abnormalities. In the soft tissue pain syndrome prevention adapted to old age kinesitherapy and avoiding muscle overloading are recommended. Soft tissue pain syndromes are usually treated with non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs. In local pain syndromes better results can be obtained by local treatment. Local injections of glikocorticosteroids are usually very effective and safe.

  11. The growth of tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lysaght, M J; Reyes, J

    2001-10-01

    This report draws upon data from a variety of sources to estimate the size, scope, and growth rate of the contemporary tissue engineering enterprise. At the beginning of 2001, tissue engineering research and development was being pursued by 3,300 scientists and support staff in more than 70 startup companies or business units with a combined annual expenditure of over $600 million. Spending by tissue engineering firms has been growing at a compound annual rate of 16%, and the aggregate investment since 1990 now exceeds $3.5 billion. At the beginning of 2001, the net capital value of the 16 publicly traded tissue engineering startups had reached $2.6 billion. Firms focusing on structural applications (skin, cartilage, bone, cardiac prosthesis, and the like) comprise the fastest growing segment. In contrast, efforts in biohybrid organs and other metabolic applications have contracted over the past few years. The number of companies involved in stem cells and regenerative medicine is rapidly increasing, and this area represents the most likely nidus of future growth for tissue engineering. A notable recent trend has been the emergence of a strong commercial activity in tissue engineering outside the United States, with at least 16 European or Australian companies (22% of total) now active.

  12. miRNA control of tissue repair and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sen, Chandan K; Ghatak, Subhadip

    2015-10-01

    Tissue repair and regeneration rely on the function of miRNA, molecular silencers that enact post-transcriptional gene silencing of coding genes. Disruption of miRNA homeostasis is developmentally lethal, indicating that fetal tissue development is tightly controlled by miRNAs. Multiple critical facets of adult tissue repair are subject to control by miRNAs, as well. Sources of cell pool for tissue repair and regeneration are diverse and provided by processes including cellular dedifferentiation, transdifferentiation, and reprogramming. Each of these processes is regulated by miRNAs. Furthermore, induced pluripotency may be achieved by miRNA-based strategies independent of transcription factor manipulation. The observation that miRNA does not integrate into the genome makes miRNA-based therapeutic strategies translationally valuable. Tools to manipulate cellular and tissue miRNA levels include mimics and inhibitors that may be specifically targeted to cells of interest at the injury site. Here, we discuss the extraordinary importance of miRNAs in tissue repair and regeneration based on emergent reports and rapid advances in miRNA-based therapeutics.

  13. Neutrophil swarming: an essential process of the neutrophil tissue response.

    PubMed

    Kienle, Korbinian; Lämmermann, Tim

    2016-09-01

    Neutrophil infiltration into inflamed and infected tissues is a fundamental process of the innate immune response. While neutrophil interactions with the blood vessel wall have been intensely studied over the last decades, neutrophil dynamics beyond the vasculature have for a long time remained poorly investigated. Recent intravital microscopy studies of neutrophil populations directly at the site of tissue damage or microbial invasion have changed our perspective on neutrophil responses within tissues. Swarm-like migration patterns of neutrophils, referred to as 'neutrophil swarming', have been detected in diverse tissues under conditions of sterile inflammation and infection with various pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Current work has begun to unravel the molecular pathways choreographing the sequential phases of highly coordinated chemotaxis followed by neutrophil accumulation and the formation of substantial neutrophil clusters. It is now clear that intercellular communication among neutrophils amplifies their recruitment in a feed-forward manner, which provides them with a level of self-organization during neutrophil swarming. This review will summarize recent developments and current concepts on neutrophil swarming, an important process of the neutrophil tissue response with a critical role in maintaining the balance between host protection and inflammation-driven tissue destruction. PMID:27558329

  14. Predicting tissue-specific enhancers in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Loots, Gabriela G.; Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Ovcharenko, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Determining how transcriptional regulatory signals are encoded in vertebrate genomes is essential for understanding the origins of multicellular complexity; yet the genetic code of vertebrate gene regulation remains poorly understood. In an attempt to elucidate this code, we synergistically combined genome-wide gene-expression profiling, vertebrate genome comparisons, and transcription factor binding-site analysis to define sequence signatures characteristic of candidate tissue-specific enhancers in the human genome. We applied this strategy to microarray-based gene expression profiles from 79 human tissues and identified 7187 candidate enhancers that defined their flanking gene expression, the majority of which were located outside of known promoters. We cross-validated this method for its ability to de novo predict tissue-specific gene expression and confirmed its reliability in 57 of the 79 available human tissues, with an average precision in enhancer recognition ranging from 32% to 63% and a sensitivity of 47%. We used the sequence signatures identified by this approach to successfully assign tissue-specific predictions to ∼328,000 human–mouse conserved noncoding elements in the human genome. By overlapping these genome-wide predictions with a data set of enhancers validated in vivo, in transgenic mice, we were able to confirm our results with a 28% sensitivity and 50% precision. These results indicate the power of combining complementary genomic data sets as an initial computational foray into a global view of tissue-specific gene regulation in vertebrates. PMID:17210927

  15. The role of radiology in paediatric soft tissue sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    van Rijn, R.; McHugh, K.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Paediatric soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a group of malignant tumours that originate from primitive mesenchymal tissue and account for 7% of all childhood tumours. Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) and undifferentiated sarcomas account for approximately 50% of soft tissue sarcomas in children and non-rhabdomyomatous soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS) the remainder. The prognosis and biology of STS tumours vary greatly depending on the age of the patient, the primary site, tumour size, tumour invasiveness, histologic grade, depth of invasion, and extent of disease at diagnosis. Over recent years, there has been a marked improvement in survival rates in children and adolescents with soft tissue sarcoma and ongoing international studies continue to aim to improve these survival rates whilst attempting to reduce the morbidity associated with treatment. Radiology plays a crucial role in the initial diagnosis and staging of STS, in the long term follow-up and in the assessment of many treatment related complications. We review the epidemiology, histology, clinical presentation, staging and prognosis of soft tissue sarcomas and discuss the role of radiology in their management. PMID:18442956

  16. Role of morphogenetic proteins in skeletal tissue engineering and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Reddi, A H

    1998-03-01

    Morphogenesis is the developmental cascade of pattern formation and body plan establishment, culminating in the adult form. It has formed the basis for the emerging discipline of tissue engineering, which uses principles of molecular developmental biology and morphogenesis gleaned through studies on inductive signals, responding stem cells, and the extracellular matrix to design and construct spare parts that restore function to the human body. Among the many organs in the body, bone has considerable powers for regeneration and is a prototype model for tissue engineering. Implantation of demineralized bone matrix into subcutaneous sites results in local bone induction. This model mimics sequential limb morphogenesis and has permitted the isolation of bone morphogens, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), from demineralized adult bone matrix. BMPs initiate, promote, and maintain chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, but are also involved in the morphogenesis of organs other than bone. The symbiosis of the mechanisms underlying bone induction and differentiation is critical for tissue engineering and is governed by both biomechanics (physical forces) and context (microenvironment/extracellular matrix), which can be duplicated by biomimetic biomaterials such as collagens, hydroxyapatite, proteoglycans, and cell adhesion glycoproteins, including fibronectins and laminin. Rules of tissue architecture elucidated in bone morphogenesis may provide insights into tissue engineering and be universally applicable for all organs/tissues, including bones and joints. PMID:9528003

  17. Lunar Polar Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    An important step for a scientific mission is to assess on where the mission should be conducted. This study on landing site selection focuses on a mission to the poles of the Moon where an in-situ mission should be conducted to answer the questions with respect to volatiles and ices. The European interest for a mission to the poles of the Moon is presented in the mission concept called Heracles. This mission would be a tele-operated, sample return mission where astronauts will controlling a rover from an Orion capsule in cislunar orbit. The primary selection of landing sites was based on the scientific interest of areas near the poles. The maximum temperature map from Diviner was used to select sites where CO^2¬ should always be stable. This means that the maximum temperature is lower than 54K which is the sublimation temperature for CO^2¬ in lunar atmospheric pressure. Around these areas 14 potential regions of interest were selected. Further selection was based on the epoch of the surface in these regions of interest. It was thought that it would be of high scientific value if sites are sampled which have another epoch than already sampled by one of the Apollo or Luna missions. Only 6 sites on both North as South Pole could contain stable CO^2 ¬and were older than (Pre-)Necterian. Before a landing site and rover traverse was planned these six sites were compared on their accessibility of the areas which could contain stable CO^2. It was assumed that slope lower than 20^o is doable to rove. Eventually Amundsen and Rozhdestvenskiy West were selected as regions of interest. Assumptions for selecting landing sites was that area should have a slope lower than 5^o, a diameter of 1km, in partial illuminated area, and should not be isolated but inside an area which is in previous steps marked as accessible area to rove. By using multiple tools in ArcGIS it is possible to present the area's which were marked as potential landing sites. The closest potential landing

  18. Functional tissue engineering of ligament healing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Ligaments and tendons are dense connective tissues that are important in transmitting forces and facilitate joint articulation in the musculoskeletal system. Their injury frequency is high especially for those that are functional important, like the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the knee as well as the glenohumeral ligaments and the rotator cuff tendons of the shoulder. Because the healing responses are different in these ligaments and tendons after injury, the consequences and treatments are tissue- and site-specific. In this review, we will elaborate on the injuries of the knee ligaments as well as using functional tissue engineering (FTE) approaches to improve their healing. Specifically, the ACL of knee has limited capability to heal, and results of non-surgical management of its midsubstance rupture have been poor. Consequently, surgical reconstruction of the ACL is regularly performed to gain knee stability. However, the long-term results are not satisfactory besides the numerous complications accompanied with the surgeries. With the rapid development of FTE, there is a renewed interest in revisiting ACL healing. Approaches such as using growth factors, stem cells and scaffolds have been widely investigated. In this article, the biology of normal and healing ligaments is first reviewed, followed by a discussion on the issues related to the treatment of ACL injuries. Afterwards, current promising FTE methods are presented for the treatment of ligament injuries, including the use of growth factors, gene delivery, and cell therapy with a particular emphasis on the use of ECM bioscaffolds. The challenging areas are listed in the future direction that suggests where collection of energy could be placed in order to restore the injured ligaments and tendons structurally and functionally. PMID:20492676

  19. Cryogen spray cooling during laser tissue welding.

    PubMed

    Fried, N M; Walsh, J T

    2000-03-01

    Cryogen cooling during laser tissue welding was explored as a means of reducing lateral thermal damage near the tissue surface and shortening operative time. Two centimetre long full-thickness incisions were made on the epilated backs of guinea pigs, in vivo. India ink was applied to the incision edges then clamps were used to appose the edges. A 4 mm diameter beam of 16 W, continuous-wave, 1.06 microm, Nd:YAG laser radiation was scanned over the incisions, producing approximately 100 ms pulses. There was a delay of 2 s between scans. The total irradiation time was varied from 1-2 min. Cryogen was delivered to the weld site through a solenoid valve in spurt durations of 20, 60 and 100 ms. The time between spurts was either 2 or 4 s, corresponding to one spurt every one or two laser scans. Histology and tensile strength measurements were used to evaluate laser welds. Total irradiation times were reduced from 10 min without surface cooling to under 1 min with surface cooling. The thermal denaturation profile showed less denaturation in the papillary dermis than in the mid-dermis. Welds created using optimized irradiation and cooling parameters had significantly higher tensile strengths (1.7 +/- 0.4 kg cm(-2)) than measured in the control studies without cryogen cooling (1.0 +/- 0.2 kg cm(-2)) (p < 0.05). Cryogen cooling of the tissue surface during laser welding results in increased weld strengths while reducing thermal damage and operative times. Long-term studies will be necessary to determine weld strengths and the amount of scarring during wound healing.

  20. Occurrence and Distribution of Organochlorine Compounds in Biological Tissue and Bed Sediment From Streams in the Trinity River Basin, Texas, 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J. Bruce

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in biological tissue and bed sediment from the Trinity River Basin study area of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organochlorine compounds were determined in biological tissue and surficial bed sediment from 16 stream sites in the Trinity River Basin of east-central Texas. Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) were collected at 10 sites, and fish, including blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), bluegill (Lepomis cyanellus), and yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis) were collected at all mainstem and two tributary sites. Thirty of the 36 compounds analyzed in biological tissue or surficial bed sediment were detected in one or both media. Overall, more organochlorine compounds were detected in bed sediment than in biological tissue; however, various chlordane isomers, DDT metabolites, and PCBs were detected more frequently in tissue than in sediment. The chlordane isomers and PCBs that were detected more frequently in biological tissue also were detected more frequently at urban sites than at agricultural sites. Organochlorine compound concentrations generally were highest in fish tissue from Trinity River mainstem sites. Fish tissue from the mainstem sites contained a higher percentage of lipids than did fish- and clam-tissue samples from the tributary sites.

  1. Cell orientation in potato tuber parenchyma tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Marek; Konstankiewicz, Krystyna; Zgórska, Kazimiera

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents the results of the research of the size and shape of parenchyma tissue cells in potato tubers depending on the direction and site of sampling in tubers. An optical confocal microscope was used to observe samples in their natural state. The investigation was carried out for 1 mm thick samples cut from cylindrical samples (10x10 mm)taken in two mutually perpendicular directions of the inner and outer core of each variety. The analysis was done ten times.The methods developed for the composition and image analysis ensure obtaining a sufficient number of cells to determine tissue structure parameters (surface, shape, elongation and number of cells per 1 mm2) and decays of these parameters were obtained. Statistical analysis was performed using the λ-Kolmogorov-Smirnov compliance test.Arelationship between the direction of sampling and the size and shape of the inner core of cells was found. Greater surface area and elongation of the inner core cells for the longitudinal direction in the tuber (stolon - top) was demonstrated. There was no such a correlation for the outer core in the tubers of the cultivars examined.

  2. Gingival tissue transcriptomes in experimental gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Daniel; Ramberg, Per; Demmer, Ryan T.; Kebschull, Moritz; Dahlén, Gunnar; Papapanou, Panos N.

    2012-01-01

    Aims We investigated the sequential gene expression in the gingiva during the induction and resolution of experimental gingivitis. Methods Twenty periodontally and systemically healthy non-smoking volunteers participated in a 3-week experimental gingivitis protocol, followed by debridement and 2-week regular plaque control. We recorded clinical indices and harvested gingival tissue samples from 4 interproximal palatal sites in half of the participants at baseline, Day 7, 14 and 21 (‘induction phase’), and at day 21, 25, 30 and 35 in the other half (‘resolution phase’). RNA was extracted, amplified, reversed transcribed, amplified, labeled and hybridized with Affymetrix Human Genome U133Plus2.0 microarrays. Paired t-tests compared gene expression changes between consecutive time points. Gene ontology analyses summarized the expression patterns into biologically relevant categories. Results The median gingival index was 0 at baseline, 2 at Day 21 and 1 at Day 35. Differential gene regulation peaked during the third week of induction and the first four days of resolution. Leukocyte transmigration, cell adhesion and antigen processing/presentation were the top differentially regulated pathways. Conclusions Transcriptomic studies enhance our understanding of the pathobiology of the reversible inflammatory gingival lesion and provide a detailed account of the dynamic tissue responses during induction and resolution of experimental gingivitis. PMID:21501207

  3. Electrospun nanostructured scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Venugopal, J; Ramakrishna, S

    2009-10-01

    The current challenge in bone tissue engineering is to fabricate a bioartificial bone graft mimicking the extracellular matrix (ECM) with effective bone mineralization, resulting in the regeneration of fractured or diseased bones. Biocomposite polymeric nanofibers containing nanohydroxyapatite (HA) fabricated by electrospinning could be promising scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Nanofibrous scaffolds of poly-l-lactide (PLLA, 860+/-110 nm), PLLA/HA (845+/-140 nm) and PLLA/collagen/HA (310+/-125 nm) were fabricated, and the morphology, chemical and mechanical characterization of the nanofibers were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and tensile testing, respectively. The in vitro biocompatibility of different nanofibrous scaffolds was also assessed by growing human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB), and investigating the proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and mineralization of cells on different nanofibrous scaffolds. Osteoblasts were found to adhere and grow actively on PLLA/collagen/HA nanofibers with enhanced mineral deposition of 57% higher than the PLLA/HA nanofibers. The synergistic effect of the presence of an ECM protein, collagen and HA in PLLA/collagen/HA nanofibers provided cell recognition sites together with apatite for cell proliferation and osteoconduction necessary for mineralization and bone formation. The results of our study showed that the biocomposite PLLA/collagen/HA nanofibrous scaffold could be a potential substrate for the proliferation and mineralization of osteoblasts, enhancing bone regeneration. PMID:19447211

  4. Melanin content of hamster tissues, human tissues, and various melanomas

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, K.P.; Fairchild, R.G.; Slatkin, D.N.; Greenberg, D.; Packer, S.; Atkins, H.L.; Hannon, S.J.

    1981-02-01

    Melanin content (percentage by weight) was determined in both pigmented and nonpigmented tissues of Syrian golden hamsters bearing Greene melanoma. Melanin content was also measured in various other melanoma models (B-16 in C57 mice, Harding-Passey in BALB/c mice, and KHDD in C3H mice) and in nine human melanomas, as well as in selected normal tissues. The purpose was to evaluate the possible efficacy of chlorpromazine, which is known to bind to melanin, as a vehicle for boron transport in neutron capture therapy. Successful therapy would depend upon selective uptake and absolute concentration of borated compounds in tumors; these parameters will in turn depend upon melanin concentration in melanomas and nonpigmented ''background'' tissues. Hamster whole eyes, hamster melanomas, and other well-pigmented animal melanomas were found to contain 0.3 to 0.8% melanin by weight, whereas human melanomas varied from 0.1 to 0.9% (average, 0.35%). Other tissues, with the exception of skin, were lower in content by a factor of greater than or equal to30. Melanin pigment was extracted from tissues, and the melanin content was determined spectrophotometrically. Measurements were found to be sensitive to the presence of other proteins. Previous procedures for isolating and quantifying melanin often neglected the importance of removing proteins and other interfering nonmelanic substances.

  5. Nanostructured Biomaterials for Tissue Engineered Bone Tissue Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chiara, Gardin; Letizia, Ferroni; Lorenzo, Favero; Edoardo, Stellini; Diego, Stomaci; Stefano, Sivolella; Eriberto, Bressan; Barbara, Zavan

    2012-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering strategies are emerging as attractive alternatives to autografts and allografts in bone tissue reconstruction, in particular thanks to their association with nanotechnologies. Nanostructured biomaterials, indeed, mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the natural bone, creating an artificial microenvironment that promotes cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. At the same time, the possibility to easily isolate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from different adult tissues together with their multi-lineage differentiation potential makes them an interesting tool in the field of bone tissue engineering. This review gives an overview of the most promising nanostructured biomaterials, used alone or in combination with MSCs, which could in future be employed as bone substitutes. Recent works indicate that composite scaffolds made of ceramics/metals or ceramics/polymers are undoubtedly more effective than the single counterparts in terms of osteoconductivity, osteogenicity and osteoinductivity. A better understanding of the interactions between MSCs and nanostructured biomaterials will surely contribute to the progress of bone tissue engineering. PMID:22312283

  6. Secretory function of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kuryszko, J; Sławuta, P; Sapikowski, G

    2016-01-01

    There are two kinds of adipose tissue in mammals: white adipose tissue - WAT and brown adipose tissue - BAT. The main function of WAT is accumulation of triacylglycerols whereas the function of BAT is heat generation. At present, WAT is also considered to be an endocrine gland that produces bioactive adipokines, which take part in glucose and lipid metabolism. Considering its endocrine function, the adipose tissue is not a homogeneous gland but a group of a few glands which act differently. Studies on the secretory function of WAT began in 1994 after discovery of leptin known as the satiation hormone, which regulates body energy homeostasis and maintainence of body mass. Apart from leptin, the following belong to adipokines: adiponectin, resistin, apelin, visfatin and cytokines: TNF and IL 6. Adiponectin is a polypeptide hormone of antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic activity. It plays a key role in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Resistin exerts a counter effect compared to adiponectin and its physiological role is to maintain fasting glycaemia. Visfatin stimulates insulin secretion and increases insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake by muscle cells and adipocytes. Apelin probably increases the insulin sensitivity of tissues. TNF evokes insulin resistance by blocking insulin receptors and inhibits insulin secretion. Approximately 30% of circulating IL 6 comes from adipose tissue. It causes insulin resistance by decreasing the expression of insulin receptors, decreases adipogenesis and adiponectin and visfatin secretion, and stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis. In 2004, Bays introduced the notion of adiposopathy, defined as dysfunction of the adipose tissue, whose main feature is insulin and leptin resistance as well as the production of inflammatory cytokines: TNF and IL 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein. This means that excess of adipose tissue, especially visceral adipose tissue, leads to the development of a chronic subclinical

  7. Master Plans for Park Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Jerry R.

    This booklet is a general guide to park site planning. The four basic steps involved in developing a park site are a) determination of the uses of the site, b) analysis of the site potential for these uses, c) identification of the functional relationship among the uses, and d) coordination of the uses to the park sites. Uses of park sites are…

  8. Autoradiographic localization of endothelin-1 binding sites in porcine skin

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.D.; Springall, D.R.; Wharton, J.; Polak, J.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques and {sup 125}I-labeled endothelin-1 were used to study the distribution of endothelin-1 binding sites in porcine skin. Specific endothelin-1 binding sites were localized to blood vessels (capillaries, deep cutaneous vascular plexus, arteries, and arterioles), the deep dermal and connective tissue sheath of hair follicles, sebaceous and sweat glands, and arrector pili muscle. Specific binding was inhibited by endothelin-2 and endothelin-3 as well as endothelin-1. Non-specific binding was found in the epidermis and the medulla of hair follicles. No binding was found in connective tissue or fat. These vascular binding sites may represent endothelin receptors, in keeping with the known cutaneous vasoconstrictor actions of the peptide. If all binding sites are receptors, the results suggest that endothelin could also regulate the function of sweat glands and may have trophic effects in the skin.

  9. Biocompatible magnetic core-shell nanocomposites for engineered magnetic tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Arco, Laura; Rodriguez, Ismael A.; Carriel, Victor; Bonhome-Espinosa, Ana B.; Campos, Fernando; Kuzhir, Pavel; Duran, Juan D. G.; Lopez-Lopez, Modesto T.

    2016-04-01

    The inclusion of magnetic nanoparticles into biopolymer matrixes enables the preparation of magnetic field-responsive engineered tissues. Here we describe a synthetic route to prepare biocompatible core-shell nanostructures consisting of a polymeric core and a magnetic shell, which are used for this purpose. We show that using a core-shell architecture is doubly advantageous. First, gravitational settling for core-shell nanocomposites is slower because of the reduction of the composite average density connected to the light polymer core. Second, the magnetic response of core-shell nanocomposites can be tuned by changing the thickness of the magnetic layer. The incorporation of the composites into biopolymer hydrogels containing cells results in magnetic field-responsive engineered tissues whose mechanical properties can be controlled by external magnetic forces. Indeed, we obtain a significant increase of the viscoelastic moduli of the engineered tissues when exposed to an external magnetic field. Because the composites are functionalized with polyethylene glycol, the prepared bio-artificial tissue-like constructs also display excellent ex vivo cell viability and proliferation. When implanted in vivo, the engineered tissues show good biocompatibility and outstanding interaction with the host tissue. Actually, they only cause a localized transitory inflammatory reaction at the implantation site, without any effect on other organs. Altogether, our results suggest that the inclusion of magnetic core-shell nanocomposites into biomaterials would enable tissue engineering of artificial substitutes whose mechanical properties could be tuned to match those of the potential target tissue. In a wider perspective, the good biocompatibility and magnetic behavior of the composites could be beneficial for many other applications.The inclusion of magnetic nanoparticles into biopolymer matrixes enables the preparation of magnetic field-responsive engineered tissues. Here we

  10. A collaborative siting approach

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, T.M.

    1995-11-01

    Michigan`s earlier siting efforts failed, due to an overly prescriptive siting law and strategy. Recent amendments to state law will refocus Michigan`s siting efforts on the development and implementation of a volunteer host community process. A Board of Governors is assisting the Michigan Low-Level Radioactive Waste Authority by developing a comprehensive volunteer plan. The Board will also evaluate broad waste management options and make recommendations to the Authority on issues such as waste minimization initiatives, interim storage alternatives, the potential for joining or forming another compact, and the prospect for out-of-state disposal.

  11. LCOGT Sites and Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, John; Brown, Timothy M.; Conway, Patrick; Elphick, Mark; Falarski, Michael; Hawkins, Eric; Rosing, Wayne; Shobbrook, John

    2011-03-01

    LCOGT is currently building and deploying a world-wide network of at least twelve 1-meter and twenty-four 0.4-meter telescopes to as many as 4 sites in the Southern hemisphere (Chile, South Africa, Eastern Australia) and 4 in the Northern hemisphere (Hawaii, West Texas, Canary Islands). Our deployment and operations model emphasizes modularity and interchangeability of major components, maintenance and troubleshooting personnel who are local to the site, and autonomy of operation. We plan to ship, install, and spare large units (in many cases entire telescopes), with minimal assembly on site.

  12. Genome-wide de Novo Prediction of Proximal and Distal Tissue-Specific Enhancers

    SciTech Connect

    Loots, G G; Ovcharenko, I V

    2005-11-03

    Determining how transcriptional regulatory networks are encoded in the human genome is essential for understanding how cellular processes are directed. Here, we present a novel approach for systematically predicting tissue specific regulatory elements (REs) that blends genome-wide expression profiling, vertebrate genome comparisons, and pattern analysis of transcription factor binding sites. This analysis yields 4,670 candidate REs in the human genome with distinct tissue specificities, the majority of which reside far away from transcription start sites. We identify key transcription factors (TFs) for 34 distinct tissues and demonstrate that tissue-specific gene expression relies on multiple regulatory pathways employing similar, but different cohorts of interacting TFs. The methods and results we describe provide a global view of tissue specific gene regulation in humans, and propose a strategy for deciphering the transcriptional regulatory code in eukaryotes.

  13. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

  14. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E; Bal, B Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B; Bonewald, Lynda F; Tomsia, Antoni P

    2011-06-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed.

  15. Real time assessment of RF cardiac tissue ablation with optical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Demos, S G; Sharareh, S

    2008-03-20

    An optical spectroscopy approach is demonstrated allowing for critical parameters during RF ablation of cardiac tissue to be evaluated in real time. The method is based on incorporating in a typical ablation catheter transmitting and receiving fibers that terminate at the tip of the catheter. By analyzing the spectral characteristics of the NIR diffusely reflected light, information is obtained on such parameters as, catheter-tissue proximity, lesion formation, depth of penetration of the lesion, formation of char during the ablation, formation of coagulum around the ablation site, differentiation of ablated from healthy tissue, and recognition of micro-bubble formation in the tissue.

  16. Lattice percolation approach to 3D modeling of tissue aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, Vyacheslav; Privman, Vladimir; Libert, Sergiy

    2016-11-01

    We describe a 3D percolation-type approach to modeling of the processes of aging and certain other properties of tissues analyzed as systems consisting of interacting cells. Lattice sites are designated as regular (healthy) cells, senescent cells, or vacancies left by dead (apoptotic) cells. The system is then studied dynamically with the ongoing processes including regular cell dividing to fill vacant sites, healthy cells becoming senescent or dying, and senescent cells dying. Statistical-mechanics description can provide patterns of time dependence and snapshots of morphological system properties. The developed theoretical modeling approach is found not only to corroborate recent experimental findings that inhibition of senescence can lead to extended lifespan, but also to confirm that, unlike 2D, in 3D senescent cells can contribute to tissue's connectivity/mechanical stability. The latter effect occurs by senescent cells forming the second infinite cluster in the regime when the regular (healthy) cell's infinite cluster still exists.

  17. Drugs Approved for Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Soft Tissue Sarcoma This page lists ... soft tissue sarcoma that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Soft Tissue Sarcoma Cosmegen (Dactinomycin) Dactinomycin ...

  18. Donation FAQs (Bone and Tissue Allografts)

    MedlinePlus

    ... donor family services. Most organ, tissue and eye banks that are members of MTF send tissue to ... according to exact surgical specifications. Small, local tissue banks could not provide this level of quality in ...

  19. Three dimensional optic tissue culture and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Cardwell, Delmar R. (Inventor); Oconnor, Kim (Inventor); Fitzgerald, Wendy S. (Inventor); Aten, Laurie A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A process for artificially producing three-dimensional optic tissue has been developed. The optic cells are cultured in a bioreactor at low shear conditions. The tissue forms normal, functional tissue organization and extracellular matrix.

  20. Myxoid Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma with Multiple Primary Sites

    PubMed Central

    Muler, Jeffrey H.; Paulino, Augusto F.; Roulston, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is one of the most common types of soft tissue sarcomas in adults. The most common location of MFH are the extremities and the trunk, with the most common site for distant metastases being the lung. We describe a case with multiple synchronous sites of myxoid MFH but no lung metastases and presence of abnormalities of 19p13. PMID:18521346