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Sample records for 18ffdg pet imaging

  1. PET Imaging of Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Angiogenesis is a highly-controlled process that is dependent on the intricate balance of both promoting and inhibiting factors, involved in various physiological and pathological processes. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate angiogenesis has resulted in the design of new and more effective therapeutic strategies. Due to insufficient sensitivity to detect therapeutic effects by using standard clinical endpoints or by looking for physiological improvement, a multitude of imaging techniques have been developed to assess tissue vasculature on the structural, functional and molecular level. Imaging is expected to provide a novel approach to noninvasively monitor angiogenesis, to optimize the dose of new antiangiogenic agents and to assess the efficacy of therapies directed at modulation of the angiogenic process. All these methods have been successfully used preclinically and will hopefully aid in antiangiogenic drug development in animal studies. In this review article, the application of PET in angiogenesis imaging at both functional and molecular level will be discussed. For PET imaging of angiogenesis related molecular markers, we emphasize integrin αvβ3, VEGF/VEGFR, and MMPs. PMID:20046926

  2. Exercises in PET Image Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nix, Oliver

    These exercises are complementary to the theoretical lectures about positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction. They aim at providing some hands on experience in PET image reconstruction and focus on demonstrating the different data preprocessing steps and reconstruction algorithms needed to obtain high quality PET images. Normalisation, geometric-, attenuation- and scatter correction are introduced. To explain the necessity of those some basics about PET scanner hardware, data acquisition and organisation are reviewed. During the course the students use a software application based on the STIR (software for tomographic image reconstruction) library 1,2 which allows them to dynamically select or deselect corrections and reconstruction methods as well as to modify their most important parameters. Following the guided tutorial, the students get an impression on the effect the individual data precorrections have on image quality and what happens if they are forgotten. Several data sets in sinogram format are provided, such as line source data, Jaszczak phantom data sets with high and low statistics and NEMA whole body phantom data. The two most frequently used reconstruction algorithms in PET image reconstruction, filtered back projection (FBP) and the iterative OSEM (ordered subset expectation maximation) approach are used to reconstruct images. The exercise should help the students gaining an understanding what the reasons for inferior image quality and artefacts are and how to improve quality by a clever choice of reconstruction parameters.

  3. PET Imaging in Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Roussakis, Andreas-Antonios; Piccini, Paola

    2015-01-01

    To date, little is known about how neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation propagate in Huntington's disease (HD). Unfortunately, no treatment is available to cure or reverse the progressive decline of function caused by the disease, thus considering HD a fatal disease. Mutation gene carriers typically remain asymptomatic for many years although alterations in the basal ganglia and cortex occur early on in mutant HD gene-carriers. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a functional imaging technique of nuclear medicine which enables in vivo visualization of numerous biological molecules expressed in several human tissues. Brain PET is most powerful to study in vivo neuronal and glial cells function as well as cerebral blood flow in a plethora of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's and HD. In absence of HD-specific biomarkers for monitoring disease progression, previous PET studies in HD were merely focused on the study of dopaminergic terminals, cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in manifest and premanifest HD-gene carriers. More recently, research interest has been exploring novel PET targets in HD including the state of phosphodiesterse expression and the role of activated microglia. Hence, a better understanding of the HD pathogenesis mechanisms may lead to the development of targeted therapies. PET imaging follow-up studies with novel selective PET radiotracers such as 11C-IMA-107 and 11C-PBR28 may provide insight on disease progression and identify prognostic biomarkers, elucidate the underlying HD pathology and assess novel pharmaceutical agents and over time.

  4. Quantitative simultaneous PET-MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Jinsong; Petibon, Yoann; Huang, Chuan; Reese, Timothy G.; Kolnick, Aleksandra L.; El Fakhri, Georges

    2014-06-01

    Whole-body PET is currently limited by the degradation due to patient motion. Respiratory motion degrades imaging studies of the abdomen. Similarly, both respiratory and cardiac motions significantly hamper the assessment of myocardial ischemia and/or metabolism in perfusion and viability cardiac PET studies. Based on simultaneous PET-MR, we have developed robust and accurate MRI methods allowing the tracking and measurement of both respiratory and cardiac motions during abdominal or cardiac studies. Our list-mode iterative PET reconstruction framework incorporates the measured motion fields into PET emission system matrix as well as the time-dependent PET attenuation map and the position dependent point spread function. Our method significantly enhances the PET image quality as compared to conventional methods.

  5. Proton Therapy Verification with PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuping; Fakhri, Georges El

    2013-01-01

    Proton therapy is very sensitive to uncertainties introduced during treatment planning and dose delivery. PET imaging of proton induced positron emitter distributions is the only practical approach for in vivo, in situ verification of proton therapy. This article reviews the current status of proton therapy verification with PET imaging. The different data detecting systems (in-beam, in-room and off-line PET), calculation methods for the prediction of proton induced PET activity distributions, and approaches for data evaluation are discussed. PMID:24312147

  6. Quantitative PET imaging with the 3T MR-BrainPET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, C.; Scheins, J.; Lohmann, P.; Tellmann, L.; Byars, L.; Michel, C.; Rota Kops, E.; Brenner, D.; Herzog, H.; Shah, N. J.

    2013-02-01

    The new hybrid imaging technology of MR-PET allows for simultaneous acquisition of versatile MRI contrasts and the quantitative metabolic imaging with PET. In order to achieve the quantification of PET images with minimal residual error the application of several corrections is crucial. In this work we present our results on quantification with the 3T MR BrainPET scanner.

  7. PET and SPECT imaging in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Amy K; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians have gained increasing access to positron emission tomography (PET and PET/CT) imaging facilities, allowing them to use this powerful molecular imaging technique for clinical and research applications. SPECT is currently being used more in Europe than in the United States and has been shown to be useful in veterinary oncology and in the evaluation of orthopedic diseases. SPECT brain perfusion and receptor imaging is used to investigate behavioral disorders in animals that have interesting similarities to human psychiatric disorders. This article provides an overview of the potential applications of PET and SPECT. The use of commercially available and investigational PET radiopharmaceuticals in the management of veterinary disease has been discussed. To date, most of the work in this field has utilized the commercially available PET tracer, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose for oncologic imaging. Normal biodistribution studies in several companion animal species (cats, dogs, and birds) have been published to assist in lesion detection and interpretation for veterinary radiologists and clinicians. Studies evaluating other (18)F-labeled tracers for research applications are underway at several institutions and companion animal models of human diseases are being increasingly recognized for their value in biomarker and therapy development. Although PET and SPECT technologies are in their infancy for clinical veterinary medicine, increasing access to and interest in these applications and other molecular imaging techniques has led to a greater knowledge and collective body of expertise for veterinarians worldwide. Initiation and fostering of physician-veterinarian collaborations are key components to the forward movement of this field.

  8. Novel Developments in Instrumentation for PET Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Advances in medical imaging, in particular positron emission tomography (PET), have been based on technical developments in physics and instrumentation that have common foundations with detection systems used in other fields of physics. New detector materials are used in PET systems that maximize efficiency, timing characteristics and robustness, and which lead to improved image quality and quantitative accuracy for clinical imaging. Time of flight (TOF) techniques are now routinely used in commercial PET scanners that combine physiological imaging with anatomical imaging provided by x-ray computed tomography. Using new solid-state photo-sensors instead of traditional photo-multiplier tubes makes it possible to combine PET with magnetic resonance imaging which is a significant technical challenge, but one that is creating new opportunities for both research and clinical applications. An overview of recent advances in instrumentation, such as TOF and PET/MR will be presented, along with examples of imaging studies to demonstrate the impact on patient care and basic research of diseases.

  9. PET Imaging of Skull Base Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Mittra, Erik S; Iagaru, Andrei; Quon, Andrew; Fischbein, Nancy

    2007-10-01

    The utility of 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT for the evaluation of skull base tumors is incompletely investigated, as a limited number of studies specifically focus on this region with regard to PET imaging. Several patterns can be ascertained, however, by synthesizing the data from various published reports and cases of primary skull base malignancies, as well as head and neck malignancies that extend secondarily to the skull base, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma, nasal cavity and paranasal sinus tumors, parotid cancers, and orbital tumors.

  10. Modular Strategies for PET Imaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Jacob M

    2009-01-01

    Summary of Recent Advances In recent years, modular and simplified chemical and biological strategies have been developed for the synthesis and implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers. New developments in bioconjugation and synthetic methodologies, in combination with advances in macromolecular delivery systems and gene-expression imaging, reflect a need to reduce radiosynthesis burden in order to accelerate imaging agent development. These new approaches, which are often mindful of existing infrastructure and available resources, are anticipated to provide a more approachable entry point for researchers interested in using PET to translate in vitro research to in vivo imaging. PMID:19880343

  11. PET imaging of primary mediastinal tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, K.; Yamada, S.; Kondo, T.; Yamada, K.; Fukuda, H.; Fujiwara, T.; Ito, M.; Ido, T.

    1996-01-01

    Mediastinal masses include a wide variety of tumours and remain an interesting diagnostic challenge for radiologist. We performed positron emission tomography (PET) studies of primary mediastinal tumours in order to predict the malignancy of these tumours preoperatively. Twenty-two patients with primary mediastinal tumours were studied with PET using 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG). The histological findings of surgical pathology or biopsy, or mediastinoscopy were compared with those of computerised tomography (CT) and PET. PET images were evaluated semiquantitatively using the differential uptake ratio (DUR). Increased FDG uptake was observed in nine of ten patients with malignant tumours, including thymic carcinomas, lymphomas, invasive thymomas and a case of sarcoidosis. A moderate level of FDG uptake was found in a myeloma, non-invasive thymomas, and a schwannoma, whereas a low uptake was observed in a teratoma and various benign cysts. The mean FDG uptake of malignant tumours was significantly higher than that of benign tumours. Both thymic cancer and invasive thymoma showed a high FDG uptake. CT examination resulted in three false-negative and two false-positive cases when used in predicting tumour invasion, while PET was associated with a false-positive and a false-negative case. In conclusion, the use of FDG with PET is clinically helpful in evaluating the malignant nature of primary mediastinal tumours. Our results also suggest that a high FDG uptake reflects the invasiveness of malignant nature of thymic tumours. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8611400

  12. PET-based molecular imaging in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, A H; Li, H; Winkeler, A; Hilker, R; Knoess, C; Rüger, A; Galldiks, N; Schaller, B; Sobesky, J; Kracht, L; Monfared, P; Klein, M; Vollmar, S; Bauer, B; Wagner, R; Graf, R; Wienhard, K; Herholz, K; Heiss, W D

    2003-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows non-invasive assessment of physiological, metabolic and molecular processes in humans and animals in vivo. Advances in detector technology have led to a considerable improvement in the spatial resolution of PET (1-2 mm), enabling for the first time investigations in small experimental animals such as mice. With the developments in radiochemistry and tracer technology, a variety of endogenously expressed and exogenously introduced genes can be analysed by PET. This opens up the exciting and rapidly evolving field of molecular imaging, aiming at the non-invasive localisation of a biological process of interest in normal and diseased cells in animal models and humans in vivo. The main and most intriguing advantage of molecular imaging is the kinetic analysis of a given molecular event in the same experimental subject over time. This will allow non-invasive characterisation and "phenotyping" of animal models of human disease at various disease stages, under certain pathophysiological stimuli and after therapeutic intervention. The potential broad applications of imaging molecular events in vivo lie in the study of cell biology, biochemistry, gene/protein function and regulation, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation and characterisation of transgenic animals. Most importantly, molecular imaging will have great implications for the identification of potential molecular therapeutic targets, in the development of new treatment strategies, and in their successful implementation into clinical application. Here, the potential impact of molecular imaging by PET in applications in neuroscience research with a special focus on neurodegeneration and neuro-oncology is reviewed.

  13. PET Imaging - from Physics to Clinical Molecular Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Stan

    2008-03-01

    From the beginnings many years ago in a few physics laboratories and first applications as a research brain function imager, PET became lately a leading molecular imaging modality used in diagnosis, staging and therapy monitoring of cancer, as well as has increased use in assessment of brain function (early diagnosis of Alzheimer's, etc) and in cardiac function. To assist with anatomic structure map and with absorption correction CT is often used with PET in a duo system. Growing interest in the last 5-10 years in dedicated organ specific PET imagers (breast, prostate, brain, etc) presents again an opportunity to the particle physics instrumentation community to contribute to the important field of medical imaging. In addition to the bulky standard ring structures, compact, economical and high performance mobile imagers are being proposed and build. The latest development in standard PET imaging is introduction of the well known TOF concept enabling clearer tomographic pictures of the patient organs. Development and availability of novel photodetectors such as Silicon PMT immune to magnetic fields offers an exciting opportunity to use PET in conjunction with MRI and fMRI. As before with avalanche photodiodes, particle physics community plays a leading role in developing these devices. The presentation will mostly focus on present and future opportunities for better PET designs based on new technologies and methods: new scintillators, photodetectors, readout, software.

  14. PET Imaging in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Roussakis, Andreas-Antonios; Piccini, Paola

    2015-01-01

    To date, little is known about how neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation propagate in Huntington’s disease (HD). Unfortunately, no treatment is available to cure or reverse the progressive decline of function caused by the disease, thus considering HD a fatal disease. Mutation gene carriers typically remain asymptomatic for many years although alterations in the basal ganglia and cortex occur early on in mutant HD gene–carriers. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a functional imaging technique of nuclear medicine which enables in vivo visualization of numerous biological molecules expressed in several human tissues. Brain PET is most powerful to study in vivo neuronal and glial cells function as well as cerebral blood flow in a plethora of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s and HD. In absence of HD–specific biomarkers for monitoring disease progression, previous PET studies in HD were merely focused on the study of dopaminergic terminals, cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in manifest and premanifest HD–gene carriers. More recently, research interest has been exploring novel PET targets in HD including the state of phosphodiesterse expression and the role of activated microglia. Hence, a better understanding of the HD pathogenesis mechanisms may lead to the development of targeted therapies. PET imaging follow–up studies with novel selective PET radiotracers such as 11C-IMA–107 and 11C-PBR28 may provide insight on disease progression and identify prognostic biomarkers, elucidate the underlying HD pathology and assess novel pharmaceutical agents and over time. PMID:26683130

  15. Optimized PET imaging for 4D treatment planning in radiotherapy: the virtual 4D PET strategy.

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Chiara; Riboldi, Marco; Fontana, Giulia; Giri, Maria G; Grigolato, Daniela; Ferdeghini, Marco; Cavedon, Carlo; Baroni, Guido

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the performance of a novel strategy, referred to as "virtual 4D PET", aiming at the optimization of hybrid 4D CT-PET scan for radiotherapy treatment planning. The virtual 4D PET strategy applies 4D CT motion modeling to avoid time-resolved PET image acquisition. This leads to a reduction of radioactive tracer administered to the patient and to a total acquisition time comparable to free-breathing PET studies. The proposed method exploits a motion model derived from 4D CT, which is applied to the free-breathing PET to recover respiratory motion and motion blur. The free-breathing PET is warped according to the motion model, in order to generate the virtual 4D PET. The virtual 4D PET strategy was tested on images obtained from a 4D computational anthropomorphic phantom. The performance was compared to conventional motion compensated 4D PET. Tests were also carried out on clinical 4D CT-PET scans coming from seven lung and liver cancer patients. The virtual 4D PET strategy was able to recover lesion motion, with comparable performance with respect to the motion compensated 4D PET. The compensation of the activity blurring due to motion was successfully achieved in terms of spill out removal. Specific limitations were highlighted in terms of partial volume compensation. Results on clinical 4D CT-PET scans confirmed the efficacy in 4D PET count statistics optimization, as equal to the free-breathing PET, and recovery of lesion motion. Compared to conventional motion compensation strategies that explicitly require 4D PET imaging, the virtual 4D PET strategy reduces clinical workload and computational costs, resulting in significant advantages for radiotherapy treatment planning.

  16. Development of PET/MRI with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Jin Ho; Choi, Yong Jung, Jiwoong; Kim, Sangsu; Lim, Hyun Keong; Im, Ki Chun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyun-wook; Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Jong Guk

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a dual-modality positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of the human brain. Methods: The PET detector block was composed of a 4 × 4 matrix of detector modules, each consisting of a 4 × 4 array LYSO coupled to a 4 × 4 Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GAPD) array. The PET insert consisted of 18 detector blocks, circularly mounted on a custom-made plastic base to form a ring with an inner diameter of 390 mm and axial length of 60 mm. The PET gantry was shielded with gold-plated conductive fabric tapes with a thickness of 0.1 mm. The charge signals of PET detector transferred via 4 m long flat cables were fed into the position decoder circuit. The flat cables were shielded with a mesh-type aluminum sheet with a thickness of 0.24 mm. The position decoder circuit and field programmable gate array-embedded DAQ modules were enclosed in an aluminum box with a thickness of 10 mm and located at the rear of the MR bore inside the MRI room. A 3-T human MRI system with a Larmor frequency of 123.7 MHz and inner bore diameter of 60 cm was used as the PET/MRI hybrid system. A custom-made radio frequency (RF) coil with an inner diameter of 25 cm was fabricated. The PET was positioned between gradient and the RF coils. PET performance was measured outside and inside the MRI scanner using echo planar imaging, spin echo, turbo spin echo, and gradient echo sequences. MRI performance was also evaluated with and without the PET insert. The stability of the newly developed PET insert was evaluated and simultaneous PET and MR images of a brain phantom were acquired. Results: No significant degradation of the PET performance caused by MR was observed when the PET was operated using various MR imaging sequences. The signal-to-noise ratio of MR images was slightly degraded due to the PET insert installed inside the MR bore while the homogeneity was

  17. Current Status of Hybrid PET/MRI in Oncologic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.; Friedman, Kent; Chandarana, Hersh; Melsaether, Amy; Moy, Linda; Ding, Yu-Shin; Jhaveri, Komal; Beltran, Luis; Jain, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This review article explores recent advancements in PET/MRI for clinical oncologic imaging. CONCLUSION Radiologists should understand the technical considerations that have made PET/MRI feasible within clinical workflows, the role of PET tracers for imaging various molecular targets in oncology, and advantages of hybrid PET/MRI compared with PET/CT. To facilitate this understanding, we discuss clinical examples (including gliomas, breast cancer, bone metastases, prostate cancer, bladder cancer, gynecologic malignancy, and lymphoma) as well as future directions, challenges, and areas for continued technical optimization for PET/MRI. PMID:26491894

  18. Joint Segmentation of Anatomical and Functional Images: Applications in Quantification of Lesions from PET, PET-CT, MRI-PET, and MRI-PET-CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Ulas; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Mendhiratta, Neil; Foster, Brent; Xu, Ziyue; Yao, Jianhua; Chen, Xinjian; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel method for the joint segmentation of anatomical and functional images. Our proposed methodology unifies the domains of anatomical and functional images, represents them in a product lattice, and performs simultaneous delineation of regions based on random walk image segmentation. Furthermore, we also propose a simple yet effective object/background seed localization method to make the proposed segmentation process fully automatic. Our study uses PET, PET-CT, MRI-PET, and fused MRI-PET-CT scans (77 studies in all) from 56 patients who had various lesions in different body regions. We validated the effectiveness of the proposed method on different PET phantoms as well as on clinical images with respect to the ground truth segmentation provided by clinicians. Experimental results indicate that the presented method is superior to threshold and Bayesian methods commonly used in PET image segmentation, is more accurate and robust compared to the other PET-CT segmentation methods recently published in the literature, and also it is general in the sense of simultaneously segmenting multiple scans in real-time with high accuracy needed in routine clinical use. PMID:23837967

  19. [A non-local means approach for PET image denoising].

    PubMed

    Yin, Yong; Sun, Weifeng; Lu, Jie; Liu, Tonghai

    2010-04-01

    Denoising is an important issue for medical image processing. Based on the analysis of the Non-local means algorithm recently reported by Buades A, et al. in international journals we herein propose adapting it for PET image denoising. Experimental de-noising results for real clinical PET images show that Non-local means method is superior to median filtering and wiener filtering methods and it can suppress noise in PET images effectively and preserve important details of structure for diagnosis.

  20. SPECT and PET Imaging of Meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Valotassiou, Varvara; Leondi, Anastasia; Angelidis, George; Psimadas, Dimitrios; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Meningiomas arise from the meningothelial cells of the arachnoid membranes. They are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms and represent about 20% of all intracranial tumors. They are usually diagnosed after the third decade of life and they are more frequent in women than in men. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, meningiomas can be classified into grade I meningiomas, which are benign, grade II (atypical) and grade III (anaplastic) meningiomas, which have a much more aggressive clinical behaviour. Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are routinely used in the diagnostic workup of patients with meningiomas. Molecular Nuclear Medicine Imaging with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) could provide complementary information to CT and MRI. Various SPECT and PET tracers may provide information about cellular processes and biological characteristics of meningiomas. Therefore, SPECT and PET imaging could be used for the preoperative noninvasive diagnosis and differential diagnosis of meningiomas, prediction of tumor grade and tumor recurrence, response to treatment, target volume delineation for radiation therapy planning, and distinction between residual or recurrent tumour from scar tissue. PMID:22623896

  1. SPECT and PET imaging of meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Valotassiou, Varvara; Leondi, Anastasia; Angelidis, George; Psimadas, Dimitrios; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Meningiomas arise from the meningothelial cells of the arachnoid membranes. They are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms and represent about 20% of all intracranial tumors. They are usually diagnosed after the third decade of life and they are more frequent in women than in men. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, meningiomas can be classified into grade I meningiomas, which are benign, grade II (atypical) and grade III (anaplastic) meningiomas, which have a much more aggressive clinical behaviour. Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are routinely used in the diagnostic workup of patients with meningiomas. Molecular Nuclear Medicine Imaging with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) could provide complementary information to CT and MRI. Various SPECT and PET tracers may provide information about cellular processes and biological characteristics of meningiomas. Therefore, SPECT and PET imaging could be used for the preoperative noninvasive diagnosis and differential diagnosis of meningiomas, prediction of tumor grade and tumor recurrence, response to treatment, target volume delineation for radiation therapy planning, and distinction between residual or recurrent tumour from scar tissue.

  2. The application of PET imaging in psychoneuroimmunology research.

    PubMed

    Hannestad, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is a research tool that allows in vivo measurements of brain metabolism and specific target molecules. PET imaging can be used to measure these brain variables in a variety of species, including human and non-human primates, and rodents. PET imaging can therefore be combined with various experimental and clinical model systems that are commonly used in psychoneuroimmunology research.

  3. Dedicated PET scanners for breast imaging.

    PubMed

    Freifelder, R; Karp, J S

    1997-12-01

    We have used computer simulations to compare two designs for a PET scanner dedicated to breast imaging with a whole-body PET scanner. The new designs combine high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and good energy resolution to detect small, low-contrast masses. The detectors are position sensitive NaI(Tl) scintillators. The first design is a ring scanner surrounding the breast and the second consists of two planar detectors placed on opposite sides of the breast. We have employed standard performance measures to compare the different designs: contrast, percentage standard deviation of the background, and signal-to-noise ratios of reconstructed images. The results of the simulations show that both of the proposed designs have better lesion detectability than a whole-body scanner. The results also show that contrast is higher in the ring breast system but that the noise is lower in the planar breast system. Overall, the ring system yields images with the best signal-to-noise ratios, although the planar system offers practical advantages for imaging the breast and axilla.

  4. Dedicated PET scanners for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freifelder, Richard; Karp, Joel S.

    1997-12-01

    We have used computer simulations to compare two designs for a PET scanner dedicated to breast imaging with a whole-body PET scanner. The new designs combine high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and good energy resolution to detect small, low-contrast masses. The detectors are position sensitive NaI(Tl) scintillators. The first design is a ring scanner surrounding the breast and the second consists of two planar detectors placed on opposite sides of the breast. We have employed standard performance measures to compare the different designs: contrast, percentage standard deviation of the background, and signal-to-noise ratios of reconstructed images. The results of the simulations show that both of the proposed designs have better lesion detectability than a whole-body scanner. The results also show that contrast is higher in the ring breast system but that the noise is lower in the planar breast system. Overall, the ring system yields images with the best signal-to-noise ratios, although the planar system offers practical advantages for imaging the breast and axilla.

  5. Multiscale Texture Analysis: From 18F-FDG PET Images to Histologic Images.

    PubMed

    Orlhac, Fanny; Thézé, Benoit; Soussan, Michaël; Boisgard, Raphaël; Buvat, Irène

    2016-11-01

    Characterizing tumor heterogeneity using texture indices derived from PET images has shown promise in predicting treatment response and patient survival in some types of cancer. Yet, the relationship between PET-derived texture indices, precise tracer distribution, and biologic heterogeneity needs to be clarified. We investigated this relationship using PET images, autoradiographic images, and histologic images.

  6. Dual-Modality PET/Ultrasound imaging of the Prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Moses, William W.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I.C.

    2005-11-11

    Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)will detect malignant tumors in the prostate and/or prostate bed, as well as possibly help determine tumor ''aggressiveness''. However, the relative uptake in a prostate tumor can be so great that few other anatomical landmarks are visible in a PET image. Ultrasound imaging with a transrectal probe provides anatomical detail in the prostate region that can be co-registered with the sensitive functional information from the PET imaging. Imaging the prostate with both PET and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) will help determine the location of any cancer within the prostate region. This dual-modality imaging should help provide better detection and treatment of prostate cancer. LBNL has built a high performance positron emission tomograph optimized to image the prostate.Compared to a standard whole-body PET camera, our prostate-optimized PET camera has the same sensitivity and resolution, less backgrounds and lower cost. We plan to develop the hardware and software tools needed for a validated dual PET/TRUS prostate imaging system. We also plan to develop dual prostate imaging with PET and external transabdominal ultrasound, in case the TRUS system is too uncomfortable for some patients. We present the design and intended clinical uses for these dual imaging systems.

  7. SiPM-PET with a short optical fiber bundle for simultaneous PET-MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seong Jong; Kang, Han Gyoo; Ko, Guen Bae; Song, In Chan; Rhee, June-Tak; Lee, Jae Sung

    2012-06-21

    For positron emission tomography (PET) inserts to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications, optical fibers have been used for some time to transfer scintillation photons to photomultiplier tubes positioned outside the fringe magnetic field. We previously proposed a novel utilization of an optical fiber for good radio frequency (RF) transmission from body coils to an imaging object. Optical fiber bundles between silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) and scintillation crystals provide an increased spacing between RF-shielded electronics boxes, facilitating RF passage from the body RF coils to imaging objects. In this paper, we present test results of a SiPM-PET system with a short optical fiber bundle for simultaneous PET-MR imaging. We built the SiPM-PET system which consisted of 12 SiPM-PET modules; each module was assembled with a lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicatecrystal block, a 31 mm optical fiber bundle, a Hamamatsu multi-pixel photon counter S11064-050P and a signal processing box shielded with copper. The SiPM-PET system, with a face-to-face distance of 71 mm, was placed inside a 3 T MRI. A small surface coil placed inside the SiPM-PET system was used to receive the signal from phantoms while the body RF coil transmitted the RF pulses. The SiPM-PET system showed little performance degradation during the simultaneous PET-MR imaging and it caused no significant degradation of MR images with turbo spin echo (TSE), gradient echo or 3D spoiled gradient recalled sequences. Echo planar imaging MR images with and without the SiPM-PET inside the MR scanner were significantly worse than the images obtained with the TSE sequence.

  8. Advanced Tracers in PET Imaging of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Hua; Liu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers by positron emission tomography (PET) allows for the noninvasive detection and characterization of biological changes at the molecular level, leading to earlier disease detection, objective monitoring of therapies, and better prognostication of cardiovascular diseases progression. Here we review, the current role of PET in cardiovascular disease, with emphasize on tracers developed for PET imaging of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25389529

  9. Automated image registration for FDOPA PET studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kang-Ping; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Yu, Dan-Chu; Melega, William; Barrio, Jorge R.; Phelps, Michael E.

    1996-12-01

    In this study, various image registration methods are investigated for their suitability for registration of L-6-[18F]-fluoro-DOPA (FDOPA) PET images. Five different optimization criteria including sum of absolute difference (SAD), mean square difference (MSD), cross-correlation coefficient (CC), standard deviation of pixel ratio (SDPR), and stochastic sign change (SSC) were implemented and Powell's algorithm was used to optimize the criteria. The optimization criteria were calculated either unidirectionally (i.e. only evaluating the criteria for comparing the resliced image 1 with the original image 2) or bidirectionally (i.e. averaging the criteria for comparing the resliced image 1 with the original image 2 and those for the sliced image 2 with the original image 1). Monkey FDOPA images taken at various known orientations were used to evaluate the accuracy of different methods. A set of human FDOPA dynamic images was used to investigate the ability of the methods for correcting subject movement. It was found that a large improvement in performance resulted when bidirectional rather than unidirectional criteria were used. Overall, the SAD, MSD and SDPR methods were found to be comparable in performance and were suitable for registering FDOPA images. The MSD method gave more adequate results for frame-to-frame image registration for correcting subject movement during a dynamic FDOPA study. The utility of the registration method is further demonstrated by registering FDOPA images in monkeys before and after amphetamine injection to reveal more clearly the changes in spatial distribution of FDOPA due to the drug intervention.

  10. PET imaging of adoptive progenitor cell therapies.

    SciTech Connect

    Gelovani, Juri G.

    2008-05-13

    Objectives. The overall objective of this application is to develop novel technologies for non-invasive imaging of adoptive stem cell-based therapies with positron emission tomography (PET) that would be applicable to human patients. To achieve this objective, stem cells will be genetically labeled with a PET-reporter gene and repetitively imaged to assess their distribution, migration, differentiation, and persistence using a radiolabeled reporter probe. This new imaging technology will be tested in adoptive progenitor cell-based therapy models in animals, including: delivery pro-apoptotic genes to tumors, and T-cell reconstitution for immunostimulatory therapy during allogeneic bone marrow progenitor cell transplantation. Technical and Scientific Merits. Non-invasive whole body imaging would significantly aid in the development and clinical implementation of various adoptive progenitor cell-based therapies by providing the means for non-invasive monitoring of the fate of injected progenitor cells over a long period of observation. The proposed imaging approaches could help to address several questions related to stem cell migration and homing, their long-term viability, and their subsequent differentiation. The ability to image these processes non-invasively in 3D and repetitively over a long period of time is very important and will help the development and clinical application of various strategies to control and direct stem cell migration and differentiation. Approach to accomplish the work. Stem cells will be genetically with a reporter gene which will allow for repetitive non-invasive “tracking” of the migration and localization of genetically labeled stem cells and their progeny. This is a radically new approach that is being developed for future human applications and should allow for a long term (many years) repetitive imaging of the fate of tissues that develop from the transplanted stem cells. Why the approach is appropriate. The novel approach to

  11. Imaging corn plants with PhytoPET, a modular PET system for plant biology

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Kross, B.; McKisson, J.; McKisson, J. E.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Xi, W.; Zorn, C.; Bonito, G.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Crowell, A.; Cumberbatch, L. C.; Topp, C.; Smith, M. F.

    2013-11-01

    PhytoPET is a modular positron emission tomography (PET) system designed specifically for plant imaging. The PhytoPET design allows flexible arrangements of PET detectors based on individual standalone detector modules built from single Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes and pixelated LYSO arrays. We have used the PhytoPET system to perform preliminary corn plant imaging studies at the Duke University Biology Department Phytotron. Initial evaluation of the PhytoPET system to image the biodistribution of the positron emitting tracer {sup 11}C in corn plants is presented. {sup 11}CO{sub 2} is loaded into corn seedlings by a leaf-labeling cuvette and translocation of {sup 11}C-sugars is imaged by a flexible arrangement of PhytoPET modules on each side. The PhytoPET system successfully images {sup 11}C within corn plants and allows for the dynamic measurement of {sup 11}C-sugar translocation from the leaf to the roots.

  12. Development of a PET Scanner for Simultaneously Imaging Small Animals with MRI and PET

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Christopher J; Goertzen, Andrew L; Thiessen, Jonathan D; Bishop, Daryl; Stortz, Greg; Kozlowski, Piotr; Retière, Fabrice; Zhang, Xuezhu; Sossi, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and staging of cancer. Combined PET and X-ray computed tomography (PET-CT) scanners are now the modality of choice in cancer treatment planning. More recently, the combination of PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being explored in many sites. Combining PET and MRI has presented many challenges since the photo-multiplier tubes (PMT) in PET do not function in high magnetic fields, and conventional PET detectors distort MRI images. Solid state light sensors like avalanche photo-diodes (APDs) and more recently silicon photo-multipliers (SiPMs) are much less sensitive to magnetic fields thus easing the compatibility issues. This paper presents the results of a group of Canadian scientists who are developing a PET detector ring which fits inside a high field small animal MRI scanner with the goal of providing simultaneous PET and MRI images of small rodents used in pre-clinical medical research. We discuss the evolution of both the crystal blocks (which detect annihilation photons from positron decay) and the SiPM array performance in the last four years which together combine to deliver significant system performance in terms of speed, energy and timing resolution. PMID:25120157

  13. PET/MR Imaging in Cancers of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Paspulati, Raj Mohan; Gupta, Amit

    2016-10-01

    PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an established hybrid imaging technique for staging and follow-up of gastrointestinal (GI) tract malignancies, especially for colorectal carcinoma. Dedicated hybrid PET/MR imaging scanners are currently available for clinical use. Although they will not replace regular use of PET/CT, they may have utility in selected cases of GI tract malignancies. The superior soft tissue contrast resolution and depiction of anatomy and the functional information obtained from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provided by MR imaging in PET/MR imaging are advantages over CT of PET/CT for T staging and follow-up of rectal carcinoma and for better characterization of liver lesions. Functional information from DWI and use of liver-specific MR imaging contrast agents are an added advantage in follow-up of liver metastases after systemic and locoregional treatment. New radiotracers will improve the utility of PET/MR imaging in staging and follow-up of tumors, which may not be [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose avid, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors. PET/MR imaging also has application in selected cases of cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, and pancreatic carcinoma for initial staging and follow-up assessment.

  14. CYBPET: a cylindrical PET system for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimian, A.; Thompson, C. J.; Sarkar, S.; Raisali, G.; Pani, R.; Davilu, H.; Sardari, D.

    2005-06-01

    We propose a Cylindrical Breast PET (CYBPET) system for breast imaging with patients in the prone position. An individual pendulous breast is covered by thin plastic to provide reduced pressure fixation and surrounded by the crystals inside the CYBPET ring. Each breast is imaged separately. The rest of the body is shielded properly to minimize the contribution of scattered photons from the other breast and the rest of the body. To compare the CYBPET with whole-body PET (WB-PET) the simulations of CYBPET and a WB-PET (GE-Advance) for a 10 mm tumor inside the breast with a lesion to background (breast) activity concentration of 6 to 1 were made. The noise effective count rate (NECR) of CYBPET is about twice that of WB-PET at activity concentrations less than 3.1 μCi/cc. The spatial resolution of CYBPET is better by 25% than the WB-PET.

  15. Body-wide anatomy recognition in PET/CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huiqian; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Zhao, Liming; Torigian, Drew A.

    2015-03-01

    With the rapid growth of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-based medical applications, body-wide anatomy recognition on whole-body PET/CT images becomes crucial for quantifying body-wide disease burden. This, however, is a challenging problem and seldom studied due to unclear anatomy reference frame and low spatial resolution of PET images as well as low contrast and spatial resolution of the associated low-dose CT images. We previously developed an automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) system [15] whose applicability was demonstrated on diagnostic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images in different body regions on 35 objects. The aim of the present work is to investigate strategies for adapting the previous AAR system to low-dose CT and PET images toward automated body-wide disease quantification. Our adaptation of the previous AAR methodology to PET/CT images in this paper focuses on 16 objects in three body regions - thorax, abdomen, and pelvis - and consists of the following steps: collecting whole-body PET/CT images from existing patient image databases, delineating all objects in these images, modifying the previous hierarchical models built from diagnostic CT images to account for differences in appearance in low-dose CT and PET images, automatically locating objects in these images following object hierarchy, and evaluating performance. Our preliminary evaluations indicate that the performance of the AAR approach on low-dose CT images achieves object localization accuracy within about 2 voxels, which is comparable to the accuracies achieved on diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT images. Object recognition on low-dose CT images from PET/CT examinations without requiring diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT seems feasible.

  16. MULTIMODALITY IMAGING: BEYOND PET/CT AND SPECT/CT

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Simon R.

    2009-01-01

    Multimodality imaging with PET/CT and SPECT/CT has become commonplace in clinical practice and in preclinical and basic medical research. Do other combinations of imaging modalities have a similar potential to impact medical science and clinical medicine? The combination of PET or SPECT with MRI is an area of active research at the present time, while other, perhaps less obvious combinations, including CT/MR and PET/optical also are being studied. In addition to the integration of the instrumentation, there are parallel developments in synthesizing imaging agents that can be viewed by multiple imaging modalities. Is the fusion of PET and SPECT with CT the ultimate answer in multimodality imaging, or is it just the first example of a more general trend towards harnessing the complementary nature of the different modalities on integrated imaging platforms? PMID:19646559

  17. Sparsity-constrained PET image reconstruction with learned dictionaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing; Yang, Bao; Wang, Yanhua; Ying, Leslie

    2016-09-01

    PET imaging plays an important role in scientific and clinical measurement of biochemical and physiological processes. Model-based PET image reconstruction such as the iterative expectation maximization algorithm seeking the maximum likelihood solution leads to increased noise. The maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate removes divergence at higher iterations. However, a conventional smoothing prior or a total-variation (TV) prior in a MAP reconstruction algorithm causes over smoothing or blocky artifacts in the reconstructed images. We propose to use dictionary learning (DL) based sparse signal representation in the formation of the prior for MAP PET image reconstruction. The dictionary to sparsify the PET images in the reconstruction process is learned from various training images including the corresponding MR structural image and a self-created hollow sphere. Using simulated and patient brain PET data with corresponding MR images, we study the performance of the DL-MAP algorithm and compare it quantitatively with a conventional MAP algorithm, a TV-MAP algorithm, and a patch-based algorithm. The DL-MAP algorithm achieves improved bias and contrast (or regional mean values) at comparable noise to what the other MAP algorithms acquire. The dictionary learned from the hollow sphere leads to similar results as the dictionary learned from the corresponding MR image. Achieving robust performance in various noise-level simulation and patient studies, the DL-MAP algorithm with a general dictionary demonstrates its potential in quantitative PET imaging.

  18. Sparsity-constrained PET image reconstruction with learned dictionaries.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Yang, Bao; Wang, Yanhua; Ying, Leslie

    2016-09-07

    PET imaging plays an important role in scientific and clinical measurement of biochemical and physiological processes. Model-based PET image reconstruction such as the iterative expectation maximization algorithm seeking the maximum likelihood solution leads to increased noise. The maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate removes divergence at higher iterations. However, a conventional smoothing prior or a total-variation (TV) prior in a MAP reconstruction algorithm causes over smoothing or blocky artifacts in the reconstructed images. We propose to use dictionary learning (DL) based sparse signal representation in the formation of the prior for MAP PET image reconstruction. The dictionary to sparsify the PET images in the reconstruction process is learned from various training images including the corresponding MR structural image and a self-created hollow sphere. Using simulated and patient brain PET data with corresponding MR images, we study the performance of the DL-MAP algorithm and compare it quantitatively with a conventional MAP algorithm, a TV-MAP algorithm, and a patch-based algorithm. The DL-MAP algorithm achieves improved bias and contrast (or regional mean values) at comparable noise to what the other MAP algorithms acquire. The dictionary learned from the hollow sphere leads to similar results as the dictionary learned from the corresponding MR image. Achieving robust performance in various noise-level simulation and patient studies, the DL-MAP algorithm with a general dictionary demonstrates its potential in quantitative PET imaging.

  19. MR-Based Cardiac and Respiratory Motion-Compensation Techniques for PET-MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Camila; Kolbitsch, Christoph; Reader, Andrew J; Marsden, Paul; Schaeffter, Tobias; Prieto, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac and respiratory motion cause image quality degradation in PET imaging, affecting diagnostic accuracy of the images. Whole-body simultaneous PET-MR scanners allow for using motion information estimated from MR images to correct PET data and produce motion-compensated PET images. This article reviews methods that have been proposed to estimate motion from MR images and different techniques to include this information in PET reconstruction, in order to overcome the problem of cardiac and respiratory motion in PET-MR imaging. MR-based motion correction techniques significantly increase lesion detectability and contrast, and also improve accuracy of uptake values in PET images.

  20. Improving PET imaging for breast cancer using Virtual Pinhole PET half ring insert

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Aswin John; Komarov, Sergey; Wu, Heyu; O’Sullivan, Joseph A.; Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    A PET insert with detector having smaller crystals and placed near a region of interest in a conventional PET scanner can improve image resolution locally due to the Virtual-Pinhole PET (VP-PET) effect. This improvement is from the higher spatial sampling of the imaging area near the detector. We have built a prototype half-ring PET insert for head-and-neck cancer imaging applications. In this paper, we extend the use of the insert to breast imaging and show that such a system provides high resolution images of breast and axillary lymph nodes while maintaining the full imaging field of view capability of a clinical PET scanner. We characterize the resolution and contrast recovery for tumors across the imaging field of view. First, we model the system using Monte Carlo methods to determine its theoretical limit of improvement. Simulations were conducted with hot spherical tumors embedded in background activity at tumor-to-background contrast ranging from 3:1 to 12:1. Tumors are arranged in a Derenzo-like pattern with their diameters ranging from 2 to 12 mm. Experimental studies were performed using a chest phantom with cylindrical breast attachment. Tumors of different sizes arranged in a Derenzo-like pattern with tumor-to- background ratio of 6:1 are inserted into the breast phantom. Imaging capability of mediastinum and axillary lymph nodes is explored. Both Monte Carlo simulations and experiment show clear improvement in image resolution and contrast recovery with VP-PET half ring insert. The degree of improvement in resolution and contrast recovery depends on location of the tumor. The full field of view imaging capability is shown to be maintained. Minor artifacts are introduced in certain regions. PMID:23999026

  1. Update on time-of-flight PET imaging

    PubMed Central

    Surti, Suleman

    2015-01-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) PET was initially introduced in the early days of PET. TOF PET scanners developed in the 1980s had limited sensitivity and spatial resolution, operated in 2D mode with septa, and used analytic image reconstruction methods. Current generation of TOF PET scanners have the highest sensitivity and spatial resolution ever achieved in commercial whole-body PET, operate in fully-3D mode, and use iterative reconstruction with full system modeling. Previously, it was shown that TOF provides a gain in image signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) that is proportional to the square root of the object size divided by the system timing resolution. With oncologic studies being the primary application of PET, more recent work has shown that in modern TOF PET scanners there is an improved trade-off between lesion contrast, image noise, and total imaging time, leading to a combination of improved lesion detectability, reduced scan time or injected dose, and more accurate and precise lesion uptake measurement. The benefit of TOF PET is also higher for heavier patients, which leads to a more uniform clinical performance over all patient sizes. PMID:25525181

  2. Automated cardiac motion compensation in PET/CT for accurate reconstruction of PET myocardial perfusion images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshid, Khawar; McGough, Robert J.; Berger, Kevin

    2008-10-01

    Error-free reconstruction of PET data with a registered CT attenuation map is essential for accurate quantification and interpretation of cardiac perfusion. Misalignment of the CT and PET data can produce an erroneous attenuation map that projects lung attenuation parameters onto the heart wall, thereby underestimating the attenuation and creating artifactual areas of hypoperfusion that can be misinterpreted as myocardial ischemia or infarction. The major causes of misregistration between CT and PET images are the respiratory motion, cardiac motion and gross physical motion of the patient. The misalignment artifact problem is overcome with automated cardiac registration software that minimizes the alignment error between the two modalities. Results show that the automated registration process works equally well for any respiratory phase in which the CT scan is acquired. Further evaluation of this procedure on 50 patients demonstrates that the automated registration software consistently aligns the two modalities, eliminating artifactual hypoperfusion in reconstructed PET images due to PET/CT misregistration. With this registration software, only one CT scan is required for PET/CT imaging, which reduces the radiation dose required for CT-based attenuation correction and improves the clinical workflow for PET/CT.

  3. Thoracic cancer imaging with PET/CT in radiation oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Pai-Chun Melinda

    Significance. Respiratory motion has been shown to cause artifacts in PET/CT imaging. This breathing artifact can have a significant impact on PET quantification and it can lead to large uncertainties when using PET for radiation therapy planning. We have demonstrated a promising solution to resolve the breathing artifact by acquiring respiration-averaged CT (ACT) for PET/CT. The purpose of this work was to optimize the ACT acquisition for clinical implementation and to evaluate the impact of ACT on PET/CT quantification. The hypothesis was that ACT is an effective method in removing the breathing artifact when compared to our current clinical protocol. Methods. Phase and cine approaches for acquiring ACT were investigated and the results of these two approaches were compared to the ACT generated from clinical 4DCT data sets (abbreviated as ACT10phs ). In the phase approach, ACT was generated based on combinations of selected respiratory phases; in the cine approach, ACT was generated based on cine images acquired over a fixed cine duration. The phase combination and cine duration that best approximated the ACT10phs were determined to be the optimized scanning parameters. 216 thoracic PET/CT patients were scanned with both current clinical and the ACT protocols. The effects of ACT on PET/CT quantification were assessed by comparing clinical PET/CT and ACT PET/CT using 3 metrics: PET/CT image alignment, maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and threshold segmented gross tumor volume (GTV). Results. ACT10phs can be best approximated to within 2% of SUV variation by phase averaging based on 4 representative phases, and to within 3% by cine image averaging based on >3s of cine duration. We implemented the cine approach on the PET/CT scanners and acquired 216 patient data sets. 68% of patients had breathing artifacts in their clinical PET/CT and the artifacts were removed/reduced in all corresponding ACT PET/CT. PET/CT quantification for lesions <50 cm3 and

  4. PET IMAGING STUDIES IN DRUG ABUSE RESEARCH.

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Ding, Y.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J.

    2001-01-29

    There is overwhelming evidence that addiction is a disease of the brain (Leshner, 1997). Yet public perception that addiction is a reflection of moral weakness or a lack of willpower persists. The insidious consequence of this perception is that we lose sight of the fact that there are enormous medical consequences of addiction including the fact that a large fraction of the total deaths from cancer and heart disease are caused by smoking addiction. Ironically the medical school that educates physicians in addiction medicine and the cancer hospital that has a smoking cessation clinic are vanishingly rare and efforts at harm reduction are frequently met with a public indignation. Meanwhile the number of people addicted to substances is enormous and increasing particularly the addictions to cigarettes and alcohol. It is particularly tragic that addiction usually begins in adolescence and becomes a chronic relapsing problem and there are basically no completely effective treatments. Clearly we need to understand how drugs of abuse affect the brain and we need to be creative in using this information to develop effective treatments. Imaging technologies have played a major role in the conceptualization of addiction as a disease of the brain (Fowler et al., 1998a; Fowler et al., 1999a). New knowledge has been driven by advances in radiotracer design and chemistry and positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation and the integration of these scientific tools with the tools of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. This topic cuts across the medical specialties of neurology, psychiatry, cancer and heart disease because of the high medical, social and economic toll that drugs of abuse, including and especially the legal drugs, cigarettes and alcohol, take on society. In this chapter we will begin by highlighting the important role that chemistry has played in making it possible to quantitatively image the movement of drugs as well as their effects on the human brain

  5. Development of a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Seiichi Hamamura, Fuka; Kato, Katsuhiko; Ogata, Yoshimune; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Hatazawa, Jun; Watabe, Hiroshi

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Cerenkov-light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects visible photons from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. However, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging remains unclear. If a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system were developed, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging would be clarified by directly comparing these two imaging modalities. Methods: The authors developed and tested a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system that consists of a dual-head PET system, a reflection mirror located above the subject, and a high sensitivity charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The authors installed these systems inside a black box for imaging the Cerenkov-light. The dual-head PET system employed a 1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm{sup 3} GSO arranged in a 33 × 33 matrix that was optically coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube to form a GSO block detector. The authors arranged two GSO block detectors 10 cm apart and positioned the subject between them. The Cerenkov-light above the subject is reflected by the mirror and changes its direction to the side of the PET system and is imaged by the high sensitivity CCD camera. Results: The dual-head PET system had a spatial resolution of ∼1.2 mm FWHM and sensitivity of ∼0.31% at the center of the FOV. The Cerenkov-light imaging system's spatial resolution was ∼275μm for a {sup 22}Na point source. Using the combined PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, the authors successfully obtained fused images from simultaneously acquired images. The image distributions are sometimes different due to the light transmission and absorption in the body of the subject in the Cerenkov-light images. In simultaneous imaging of rat, the authors found that {sup 18}F-FDG accumulation was observed mainly in the Harderian gland on the PET image, while the distribution of Cerenkov-light was observed in the eyes. Conclusions: The authors conclude that their developed PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid

  6. A study of artefacts in simultaneous PET and MR imaging using a prototype MR compatible PET scanner.

    PubMed

    Slates, R B; Farahani, K; Shao, Y; Marsden, P K; Taylor, J; Summers, P E; Williams, S; Beech, J; Cherry, S R

    1999-08-01

    We have assessed the possibility of artefacts that can arise in attempting to perform simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a small prototype MR compatible PET scanner (McPET). In these experiments, we examine MR images for any major artefacts or loss in image quality due to inhomogeneities in the magnetic field, radiofrequency interference or susceptibility effects caused by operation of the PET system inside the MR scanner. In addition, possible artefacts in the PET images caused by the static and time-varying magnetic fields or radiofrequency interference from the MR system were investigated. Biological tissue and a T2-weighted spin echo sequence were used to examine susceptibility artefacts due to components of the McPET scanner (scintillator, optical fibres) situated in the MR field of view. A range of commonly used MR pulse sequences was studied while acquiring PET data to look for possible artefacts in either the PET or MR images. Other than a small loss in signal-to-noise using gradient echo sequences, there was no significant interaction between the two imaging systems. Simultaneous PET and MR imaging of simple phantoms was also carried out in different MR systems with field strengths ranging from 0.2 to 4.7 T. The results of these studies demonstrate that it is possible to acquire PET and MR images simultaneously, without any significant artefacts or loss in image quality, using our prototype MR compatible PET scanner.

  7. Quantifying hypoxia in human cancers using static PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Edward; Yeung, Ivan; Keller, Harald; Wouters, Bradley G; Milosevic, Michael; Hedley, David W; Jaffray, David A

    2016-11-21

    Compared to FDG, the signal of (18)F-labelled hypoxia-sensitive tracers in tumours is low. This means that in addition to the presence of hypoxic cells, transport properties contribute significantly to the uptake signal in static PET images. This sensitivity to transport must be minimized in order for static PET to provide a reliable standard for hypoxia quantification. A dynamic compartmental model based on a reaction-diffusion formalism was developed to interpret tracer pharmacokinetics and applied to static images of FAZA in twenty patients with pancreatic cancer. We use our model to identify tumour properties-well-perfused without substantial necrosis or partitioning-for which static PET images can reliably quantify hypoxia. Normalizing the measured activity in a tumour voxel by the value in blood leads to a reduction in the sensitivity to variations in 'inter-corporal' transport properties-blood volume and clearance rate-as well as imaging study protocols. Normalization thus enhances the correlation between static PET images and the FAZA binding rate K 3, a quantity which quantifies hypoxia in a biologically significant way. The ratio of FAZA uptake in spinal muscle and blood can vary substantially across patients due to long muscle equilibration times. Normalized static PET images of hypoxia-sensitive tracers can reliably quantify hypoxia for homogeneously well-perfused tumours with minimal tissue partitioning. The ideal normalizing reference tissue is blood, either drawn from the patient before PET scanning or imaged using PET. If blood is not available, uniform, homogeneously well-perfused muscle can be used. For tumours that are not homogeneously well-perfused or for which partitioning is significant, only an analysis of dynamic PET scans can reliably quantify hypoxia.

  8. Quantifying hypoxia in human cancers using static PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Edward; Yeung, Ivan; Keller, Harald; Wouters, Bradley G.; Milosevic, Michael; Hedley, David W.; Jaffray, David A.

    2016-11-01

    Compared to FDG, the signal of 18F-labelled hypoxia-sensitive tracers in tumours is low. This means that in addition to the presence of hypoxic cells, transport properties contribute significantly to the uptake signal in static PET images. This sensitivity to transport must be minimized in order for static PET to provide a reliable standard for hypoxia quantification. A dynamic compartmental model based on a reaction-diffusion formalism was developed to interpret tracer pharmacokinetics and applied to static images of FAZA in twenty patients with pancreatic cancer. We use our model to identify tumour properties—well-perfused without substantial necrosis or partitioning—for which static PET images can reliably quantify hypoxia. Normalizing the measured activity in a tumour voxel by the value in blood leads to a reduction in the sensitivity to variations in ‘inter-corporal’ transport properties—blood volume and clearance rate—as well as imaging study protocols. Normalization thus enhances the correlation between static PET images and the FAZA binding rate K 3, a quantity which quantifies hypoxia in a biologically significant way. The ratio of FAZA uptake in spinal muscle and blood can vary substantially across patients due to long muscle equilibration times. Normalized static PET images of hypoxia-sensitive tracers can reliably quantify hypoxia for homogeneously well-perfused tumours with minimal tissue partitioning. The ideal normalizing reference tissue is blood, either drawn from the patient before PET scanning or imaged using PET. If blood is not available, uniform, homogeneously well-perfused muscle can be used. For tumours that are not homogeneously well-perfused or for which partitioning is significant, only an analysis of dynamic PET scans can reliably quantify hypoxia.

  9. Counting Rate Characteristics and Image Distortion in Preclinical PET Imaging During Radiopharmaceutical Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mellhammar, Emma; Dahlbom, Magnus; Axelsson, Johan; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2016-12-01

    PET may provide important information on the response during radiopharmaceutical therapy (RPT). Emission of radiation from the RPT radionuclide may disturb coincidence detection and impair image resolution. In this study, we tested the feasibility of performing intratherapeutic PET on 3 preclinical PET systems.

  10. PET/CT for radiotherapy: image acquisition and data processing.

    PubMed

    Bettinardi, V; Picchio, M; Di Muzio, N; Gianolli, L; Messa, C; Gilardi, M C

    2010-10-01

    This paper focuses on acquisition and processing methods in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for radiotherapy (RT) applications. The recent technological evolutions of PET/CT systems are described. Particular emphasis is dedicated to the tools needed for the patient positioning and immobilization, to be used in PET/CT studies as well as during RT treatment sessions. The effect of organ and lesion motion due to patient's respiration on PET/CT imaging is discussed. Breathing protocols proposed to minimize PET/CT spatial mismatches in relation to respiratory movements are illustrated. The respiratory gated (RG) 4D-PET/CT techniques, developed to measure and compensate for organ and lesion motion, are then introduced. Finally a description is provided of different acquisition and data processing techniques, implemented with the aim at improving: i) image quality and quantitative accuracy of PET images, and ii) target volume definition and treatment planning in RT, by using specific and personalised motion information.

  11. Towards optimal imaging with PET: an in silico feasibility study.

    PubMed

    McNamara, A L; Toghyani, M; Gillam, J E; Wu, K; Kuncic, Z

    2014-12-21

    The efficacy of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging relies fundamentally on the ability of the system to accurately identify true coincidence events. With existing systems, this is currently accomplished with an energy acceptance criterion followed by correction techniques to remove suspected false coincidence events. These corrections generally result in signal and contrast loss and thus limit the PET system's ability to achieve optimum image quality. A key property of annihilation radiation is that the photons are polarised with respect to each other. This polarisation correlation offers a potentially powerful discriminator, independent of energy, to accurately identify true events. In this proof of concept study, we investigate how photon polarisation information can be exploited in PET imaging by developing a method to discriminate true coincidences using the polarisation correlation of annihilation pairs. We implement this method using a Geant4 PET simulation of a GE Advance/Discovery LS system and demonstrate the potential advantages of the polarisation coincidence selection method over a standard energy criterion method. Current PET ring detectors are not capable of exploiting the polarisation correlation of the photon pairs. Compton PET systems, however are promising candidates for this application. We demonstrate the feasibility of a two-component Compton camera system in identifying true coincidences with Monte Carlo simulations. Our study demonstrates the potential of improving signal gain using polarisation, particularly for high photon emission rates. We also demonstrate the ability of the Compton camera at exploiting this polarisation correlation in PET.

  12. Towards optimal imaging with PET: an in silico feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, A. L.; Toghyani, M.; Gillam, J. E.; Wu, K.; Kuncic, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging relies fundamentally on the ability of the system to accurately identify true coincidence events. With existing systems, this is currently accomplished with an energy acceptance criterion followed by correction techniques to remove suspected false coincidence events. These corrections generally result in signal and contrast loss and thus limit the PET system’s ability to achieve optimum image quality. A key property of annihilation radiation is that the photons are polarised with respect to each other. This polarisation correlation offers a potentially powerful discriminator, independent of energy, to accurately identify true events. In this proof of concept study, we investigate how photon polarisation information can be exploited in PET imaging by developing a method to discriminate true coincidences using the polarisation correlation of annihilation pairs. We implement this method using a Geant4 PET simulation of a GE Advance/Discovery LS system and demonstrate the potential advantages of the polarisation coincidence selection method over a standard energy criterion method. Current PET ring detectors are not capable of exploiting the polarisation correlation of the photon pairs. Compton PET systems, however are promising candidates for this application. We demonstrate the feasibility of a two-component Compton camera system in identifying true coincidences with Monte Carlo simulations. Our study demonstrates the potential of improving signal gain using polarisation, particularly for high photon emission rates. We also demonstrate the ability of the Compton camera at exploiting this polarisation correlation in PET.

  13. Simultaneous MRI and PET imaging of a rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Majewski, Stan; Lemieux, Susan K.; Sendhil Velan, S.; Kross, Brian; Popov, Vladimir; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Zorn, Carl; Marano, Gary D.

    2006-12-01

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode. Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements coupled through a long fibre optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The use of light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of a 3T MRI scanner where the magnetic field is relatively small. To test the device, simultaneous MRI and PET images of the brain of a male Sprague Dawley rat injected with FDG were successfully obtained. The images revealed no noticeable artefacts in either image set. Future work includes the construction of a full ring PET scanner, improved light guides and construction of a specialized MRI coil to permit higher quality MRI imaging.

  14. FDG PET Imaging in Pneumocystis Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Kono, Masanori; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Kazuo; Kano, Toshikazu; Mimori, Akio

    2015-08-01

    A 69-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis and pleuritis presented with dyspnea. On admission, she was afebrile and had an oxygen saturation of 97% on ambient air. Chest radiography and CT revealed only subtle ground-glass opacities. However, FDG PET revealed pathological uptake in both lungs. A diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia was made based on a positive β-D-glucan assay and polymerase chain reaction amplification of Pneumocystis jirovecii from the sputum. Posttreatment FDG PET revealed resolution of the previously noted uptake. This case illustrates that FDG PET can be used to diagnose Pneumocystis pneumonia when the CT findings are equivocal.

  15. Evaluation of a silicon photomultiplier PET insert for simultaneous PET and MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Guen Bae; Kim, Kyeong Yun; Yoon, Hyun Suk; Son, Jeong-Whan; Lee, Min Sun; Im, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Jae Sung

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: In this study, the authors present a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)-based positron emission tomography (PET) insert dedicated to small animal imaging with high system performance and robustness to temperature change. Methods: The insert consists of 64 LYSO-SiPM detector blocks arranged in 4 rings of 16 detector blocks to yield a ring diameter of 64 mm and axial field of view of 55 mm. Each detector block consists of a 9 × 9 array of LYSO crystals (1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm{sup 3}) and a monolithic 4 × 4 SiPM array. The temperature of each monolithic SiPM is monitored, and the proper bias voltage is applied according to the temperature reading in real time to maintain uniform performance. The performance of this PET insert was characterized using National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU 4-2008 standards, and its feasibility was evaluated through in vivo mouse imaging studies. Results: The PET insert had a peak sensitivity of 3.4% and volumetric spatial resolutions of 1.92 (filtered back projection) and 0.53 (ordered subset expectation maximization) mm{sup 3} at center. The peak noise equivalent count rate and scatter fraction were 42.4 kcps at 15.08 MBq and 16.5%, respectively. By applying the real-time bias voltage adjustment, an energy resolution of 14.2% ± 0.3% was maintained and the count rate varied ≤1.2%, despite severe temperature changes (10–30 °C). The mouse imaging studies demonstrate that this PET insert can produce high-quality images useful for imaging studies on the small animals. Conclusions: The developed MR-compatible PET insert is designed for insertion into a narrow-bore magnetic resonance imaging scanner, and it provides excellent imaging performance for PET/MR preclinical studies.

  16. Dual PET and Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Probes as Tools for Imaging in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    An, Fei-Fei; Chan, Mark; Kommidi, Harikrishna; Ting, Richard

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to summarize advances in PET fluorescence resolution, agent design, and preclinical imaging that make a growing case for clinical PET fluorescence imaging. CONCLUSION Existing SPECT, PET, fluorescence, and MRI contrast imaging techniques are already deeply integrated into the management of cancer, from initial diagnosis to the observation and management of metastases. Combined positron-emitting fluorescent contrast agents can convey new or substantial benefits that improve on these proven clinical contrast agents. PMID:27223168

  17. Thresholding in PET images of static and moving targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaremko, Brian; Riauka, Terence; Robinson, Don; Murray, Brad; Alexander, Abraham; McEwan, Alexander; Roa, Wilson

    2005-12-01

    Continued therapeutic gain in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) will depend upon our ability to escalate the dose to the primary tumour while minimizing normal tissue toxicity. Both these objectives are facilitated by the accurate definition of a target volume that is as small as possible. To this end, both tumour immobilizations via deep inspiratory breath-hold, along with positron emission tomography (PET), have emerged as two promising approaches. Though PET is an excellent means of defining the general location of a tumour focus, its ability to define exactly the geometric extent of such a focus strongly depends upon selection of an appropriate image threshold. However, in clinical practice, the image threshold is typically not chosen according to consistent, well-established criteria. This study explores the relationship between image threshold and the resultant PET-defined volume using a series of F-18 radiotracer-filled hollow spheres of known internal volumes, both static and under oscillatory motion. The effects of both image threshold and tumour motion on the resultant PET image are examined. Imaging data are further collected from a series of simulated gated PET acquisitions in order to test the feasibility of a patient-controlled gating mechanism during deep inspiratory breath-hold. This study illustrates quantitatively considerable variability in resultant PET-defined tumour volumes depending upon numerous factors, including image threshold, size of the lesion, the presence of tumour motion and the scanning protocol. In this regard, when using PET in treatment planning for NSCLC, the radiation oncologist must select the image threshold very carefully to avoid either under-dosing the tumour or overdosing normal tissues.

  18. Prediction of standard-dose brain PET image by using MRI and low-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET images

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Jiayin; Gao, Yaozong; Shi, Feng; Lalush, David S.; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medical imaging technology that produces 3D images reflecting tissue metabolic activity in human body. PET has been widely used in various clinical applications, such as in diagnosis of brain disorders. High-quality PET images play an essential role in diagnosing brain diseases/disorders. In practice, in order to obtain high-quality PET images, a standard-dose radionuclide (tracer) needs to be used and injected into a living body. As a result, it will inevitably increase the patient’s exposure to radiation. One solution to solve this problem is predicting standard-dose PET images using low-dose PET images. As yet, no previous studies with this approach have been reported. Accordingly, in this paper, the authors propose a regression forest based framework for predicting a standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET image by using a low-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET image and its corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image. Methods: The authors employ a regression forest for predicting the standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET image by low-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET and MRI images. Specifically, the proposed method consists of two main steps. First, based on the segmented brain tissues (i.e., cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter, and white matter) in the MRI image, the authors extract features for each patch in the brain image from both low-dose PET and MRI images to build tissue-specific models that can be used to initially predict standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET images. Second, an iterative refinement strategy, via estimating the predicted image difference, is used to further improve the prediction accuracy. Results: The authors evaluated their algorithm on a brain dataset, consisting of 11 subjects with MRI, low-dose PET, and standard-dose PET images, using leave-one-out cross-validations. The proposed algorithm gives promising results with well-estimated standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET

  19. Contrast Media in PET/Computed Tomography Imaging.

    PubMed

    Dhull, Varun Singh; Rana, Neelima; Nazar, Aftab Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Is there a need for the contrast-enhanced PET/computed tomography (CT) scan or is the low-dose, non-contrast-enhanced PET/CT scan sufficient? The topic has been debated time and again. Although low-dose noncontrast CT serves the purpose of simple anatomic correlation and attenuation correction of PET images, many times patients have to undergo additional contrast-enhanced diagnostic imaging modalities, which may lead to a delay in decision-making. In this review, the authors have addressed various such issues related to the use of contrast agents and special techniques of clinical interest based on their utility in dual-modality PET/CT.

  20. Tau Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Manuela; Kolb, Hartmuth C; Moechars, Dieder; Rombouts, Frederik; Andrés, José Ignacio

    2015-06-11

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia among the elderly population. The good correlation of the density and neocortical spread of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) with clinical AD disease progression offers an opportunity for the early diagnosis and staging using a noninvasive imaging technique such as positron emission tomography (PET). Thus, PET imaging of NFTs not only holds promise as a diagnostic tool but also may enable the development of disease modifying therapeutics for AD. In this review, we focus on the structural diversity of tau PET tracers, the challenges related to the identification of high affinity and highly selective NFT ligands, and recent progress in the clinical development of tau PET radioligands.

  1. 4D PET iterative deconvolution with spatiotemporal regularization for quantitative dynamic PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Reilhac, Anthonin; Charil, Arnaud; Wimberley, Catriona; Angelis, Georgios; Hamze, Hasar; Callaghan, Paul; Garcia, Marie-Paule; Boisson, Frederic; Ryder, Will; Meikle, Steven R; Gregoire, Marie-Claude

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative measurements in dynamic PET imaging are usually limited by the poor counting statistics particularly in short dynamic frames and by the low spatial resolution of the detection system, resulting in partial volume effects (PVEs). In this work, we present a fast and easy to implement method for the restoration of dynamic PET images that have suffered from both PVE and noise degradation. It is based on a weighted least squares iterative deconvolution approach of the dynamic PET image with spatial and temporal regularization. Using simulated dynamic [(11)C] Raclopride PET data with controlled biological variations in the striata between scans, we showed that the restoration method provides images which exhibit less noise and better contrast between emitting structures than the original images. In addition, the method is able to recover the true time activity curve in the striata region with an error below 3% while it was underestimated by more than 20% without correction. As a result, the method improves the accuracy and reduces the variability of the kinetic parameter estimates calculated from the corrected images. More importantly it increases the accuracy (from less than 66% to more than 95%) of measured biological variations as well as their statistical detectivity.

  2. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw [Yorktown, VA; Proffitt, James [Newport News, VA

    2011-02-08

    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  3. Model-based image reconstruction for four-dimensional PET

    SciTech Connect

    Li Tianfang; Thorndyke, Brian; Schreibmann, Eduard; Yang Yong; Xing Lei

    2006-05-15

    Positron emission tonography (PET) is useful in diagnosis and radiation treatment planning for a variety of cancers. For patients with cancers in thoracic or upper abdominal region, the respiratory motion produces large distortions in the tumor shape and size, affecting the accuracy in both diagnosis and treatment. Four-dimensional (4D) (gated) PET aims to reduce the motion artifacts and to provide accurate measurement of the tumor volume and the tracer concentration. A major issue in 4D PET is the lack of statistics. Since the collected photons are divided into several frames in the 4D PET scan, the quality of each reconstructed frame degrades as the number of frames increases. The increased noise in each frame heavily degrades the quantitative accuracy of the PET imaging. In this work, we propose a method to enhance the performance of 4D PET by developing a new technique of 4D PET reconstruction with incorporation of an organ motion model derived from 4D-CT images. The method is based on the well-known maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) algorithm. During the processes of forward- and backward-projection in the ML-EM iterations, all projection data acquired at different phases are combined together to update the emission map with the aid of deformable model, the statistics is therefore greatly improved. The proposed algorithm was first evaluated with computer simulations using a mathematical dynamic phantom. Experiment with a moving physical phantom was then carried out to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method and the increase of signal-to-noise ratio over three-dimensional PET. Finally, the 4D PET reconstruction was applied to a patient case.

  4. Fusion of PET and MRI for Hybrid Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Zang-Hee; Son, Young-Don; Kim, Young-Bo; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    Recently, the development of the fusion PET-MRI system has been actively studied to meet the increasing demand for integrated molecular and anatomical imaging. MRI can provide detailed anatomical information on the brain, such as the locations of gray and white matter, blood vessels, axonal tracts with high resolution, while PET can measure molecular and genetic information, such as glucose metabolism, neurotransmitter-neuroreceptor binding and affinity, protein-protein interactions, and gene trafficking among biological tissues. State-of-the-art MRI systems, such as the 7.0 T whole-body MRI, now can visualize super-fine structures including neuronal bundles in the pons, fine blood vessels (such as lenticulostriate arteries) without invasive contrast agents, in vivo hippocampal substructures, and substantia nigra with excellent image contrast. High-resolution PET, known as High-Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), is a brain-dedicated system capable of imaging minute changes of chemicals, such as neurotransmitters and -receptors, with high spatial resolution and sensitivity. The synergistic power of the two, i.e., ultra high-resolution anatomical information offered by a 7.0 T MRI system combined with the high-sensitivity molecular information offered by HRRT-PET, will significantly elevate the level of our current understanding of the human brain, one of the most delicate, complex, and mysterious biological organs. This chapter introduces MRI, PET, and PET-MRI fusion system, and its algorithms are discussed in detail.

  5. Pixel-feature hybrid fusion for PET/CT images.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yang-Ming; Nortmann, Charles A

    2011-02-01

    Color blending is a popular display method for functional and anatomic image fusion. The underlay image is typically displayed in grayscale, and the overlay image is displayed in pseudo colors. This pixel-level fusion provides too much information for reviewers to analyze quickly and effectively and clutters the display. To improve the fusion image reviewing speed and reduce the information clutter, a pixel-feature hybrid fusion method is proposed and tested for PET/CT images. Segments of the colormap are selectively masked to have a few discrete colors, and pixels displayed in the masked colors are made transparent. The colormap thus creates a false contouring effect on overlay images and allows the underlay to show through to give contours an anatomic context. The PET standardized uptake value (SUV) is used to control where colormap segments are masked. Examples show that SUV features can be extracted and blended with CT image instantaneously for viewing and diagnosis, and the non-feature part of the PET image is transparent. The proposed pixel-feature hybrid fusion highlights PET SUV features on CT images and reduces display clutters. It is easy to implement and can be used as complementarily to existing pixel-level fusion methods.

  6. On the accuracy of a mutual information algorithm for PET-MR image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaiskos, P.; Malamitsi, J.; Andreou, J.; Prassopoulos, V.; Valotassiou, V.; Laspas, F.; Sandilos, P.; Torrens, M.

    2009-07-01

    Image registration has been increasingly used in radiation diagnosis and treatment planning as a means of information integration from different imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET, CT). Especially for brain lesions, accurate 3D registration and fusion of MR and PET images can provide comprehensive information about the patient under study by relating functional information from PET images to the detailed anatomical information available in MR images. However, direct PET-MR image fusion in soft tissue is complicated mainly due to the lack of conspicuous anatomical features in PET images. This study describes the implementation and validation of a mutual information registration algorithm for this purpose. Ten patients with brain lesions underwent MR and PET/CT scanning. MR-PET registration was performed a) based on the well validated MR-CT registration technique and copying the transformation to the PET images derived from the PET/CT scan (MR/PET/CT registration method) and b) directly from the MR and PET images without taking into account the CT images (MR/PET registration method). In order to check the registration accuracy of the MR/PET method, the lesion (target) was contoured in the PET images and it was transferred to the MR images using both the above methods. The MR/PET/CT method served as the gold standard for target contouring. Target contours derived by the MR/PET method were compared with the gold standard target contours for each patient and the deviation between the two contours was used to estimate the accuracy of the PET-MR registration method. This deviation was less than 3 mm (i.e. comparable to the imaging voxel of the PET/CT scanning) for 9/10 of the cases studied. Results show that the mutual information algorithm used is able to perform the PET-MR registration reliably and accurately.

  7. PET/CT imaging in lung cancer: indications and findings*

    PubMed Central

    Hochhegger, Bruno; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Fritscher, Carlos Cezar; Fritscher, Leandro Genehr; Concatto, Natália Henz; Marchiori, Edson

    2015-01-01

    The use of PET/CT imaging in the work-up and management of patients with lung cancer has greatly increased in recent decades. The ability to combine functional and anatomical information has equipped PET/CT to look into various aspects of lung cancer, allowing more precise disease staging and providing useful data during the characterization of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. In addition, the accuracy of PET/CT has been shown to be greater than is that of conventional modalities in some scenarios, making PET/CT a valuable noninvasive method for the investigation of lung cancer. However, the interpretation of PET/CT findings presents numerous pitfalls and potential confounders. Therefore, it is imperative for pulmonologists and radiologists to familiarize themselves with the most relevant indications for and limitations of PET/CT, seeking to protect their patients from unnecessary radiation exposure and inappropriate treatment. This review article aimed to summarize the basic principles, indications, cancer staging considerations, and future applications related to the use of PET/CT in lung cancer. PMID:26176525

  8. Adaptive conductance filtering for spatially varying noise in PET images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padfield, Dirk R.; Manjeshwar, Ravindra

    2006-03-01

    PET images that have been reconstructed with unregularized algorithms are commonly smoothed with linear Gaussian filters to control noise. Since these filters are spatially invariant, they degrade feature contrast in the image, compromising lesion detectability. Edge-preserving smoothing filters can differentially preserve edges and features while smoothing noise. These filters assume spatially uniform noise models. However, the noise in PET images is spatially variant, approximately following a Poisson behavior. Therefore, different regions of a PET image need smoothing by different amounts. In this work, we introduce an adaptive filter, based on anisotropic diffusion, designed specifically to overcome this problem. In this algorithm, the diffusion is varied according to a local estimate of the noise using either the local median or the grayscale image opening to weight the conductance parameter. The algorithm is thus tailored to the task of smoothing PET images, or any image with Poisson-like noise characteristics, by adapting itself to varying noise while preserving significant features in the image. This filter was compared with Gaussian smoothing and a representative anisotropic diffusion method using three quantitative task-relevant metrics calculated on simulated PET images with lesions in the lung and liver. The contrast gain and noise ratio metrics were used to measure the ability to do accurate quantitation; the Channelized Hotelling Observer lesion detectability index was used to quantify lesion detectability. The adaptive filter improved the signal-to-noise ratio by more than 45% and lesion detectability by more than 55% over the Gaussian filter while producing "natural" looking images and consistent image quality across different anatomical regions.

  9. Adrenal masses of varied etiology: anatomical and molecular imaging features on PET-CT.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Punit; Singh, Harmandeep; Dhull, Varun Singh; Suman KC, Sudhir; Kumar, Abhishek; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-03-01

    A wide spectrum of benign and malignant diseases can present as an adrenal mass. Combined PET-CT is useful for evaluation of adrenocortical and adrenomedullary masses. F-FDG has been extensively used as PET radiotracer for this purpose. F-FDOPA PET, Ga-DOTA peptide (Ga-DOTANOC/TATE) PET, and C-HED PET have also been used for imaging of adrenal medullary lesions, whereas C-MTO PET has been used for adrenocortical imaging. We provide a review of imaging characteristics of adrenal gland pathologies on PET-CT using different tracers.

  10. Optimally stabilized PET image denoising using trilateral filtering.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Awais; Bagci, Ulas; Mollura, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Low-resolution and signal-dependent noise distribution in positron emission tomography (PET) images makes denoising process an inevitable step prior to qualitative and quantitative image analysis tasks. Conventional PET denoising methods either over-smooth small-sized structures due to resolution limitation or make incorrect assumptions about the noise characteristics. Therefore, clinically important quantitative information may be corrupted. To address these challenges, we introduced a novel approach to remove signal-dependent noise in the PET images where the noise distribution was considered as Poisson-Gaussian mixed. Meanwhile, the generalized Anscombe's transformation (GAT) was used to stabilize varying nature of the PET noise. Other than noise stabilization, it is also desirable for the noise removal filter to preserve the boundaries of the structures while smoothing the noisy regions. Indeed, it is important to avoid significant loss of quantitative information such as standard uptake value (SUV)-based metrics as well as metabolic lesion volume. To satisfy all these properties, we extended bilateral filtering method into trilateral filtering through multiscaling and optimal Gaussianization process. The proposed method was tested on more than 50 PET-CT images from various patients having different cancers and achieved the superior performance compared to the widely used denoising techniques in the literature.

  11. Monitoring proton radiation therapy with in-room PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuping; España, Samuel; Daartz, Juliane; Liebsch, Norbert; Ouyang, Jinsong; Paganetti, Harald; Bortfeld, Thomas R; El Fakhri, Georges

    2011-07-07

    We used a mobile positron emission tomography (PET) scanner positioned within the proton therapy treatment room to study the feasibility of proton range verification with an in-room, stand-alone PET system, and compared with off-line equivalent studies. Two subjects with adenoid cystic carcinoma were enrolled into a pilot study in which in-room PET scans were acquired in list-mode after a routine fractionated treatment session. The list-mode PET data were reconstructed with different time schemes to generate in-room short, in-room long and off-line equivalent (by skipping coincidences from the first 15 min during the list-mode reconstruction) PET images for comparison in activity distribution patterns. A phantom study was followed to evaluate the accuracy of range verification for different reconstruction time schemes quantitatively. The in-room PET has a higher sensitivity compared to the off-line modality so that the PET acquisition time can be greatly reduced from 30 to <5 min. Features in deep-site, soft-tissue regions were better retained with in-room short PET acquisitions because of the collection of (15)O component and lower biological washout. For soft tissue-equivalent material, the distal fall-off edge of an in-room short acquisition is deeper compared to an off-line equivalent scan, indicating a better coverage of the high-dose end of the beam. In-room PET is a promising low cost, high sensitivity modality for the in vivo verification of proton therapy. Better accuracy in Monte Carlo predictions, especially for biological decay modeling, is necessary.

  12. Dual-Modality Prostate Imaging with PET and Transrectal Ultrasound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Emission Tomography–Transrectal Ultrasound (PET-TRUS) imaging of the prostate and validate the technology with phantom and “proof of principle” human...position a prostate near the PET-center, and this method was also used for phantom imaging in Years 2-5. The TRUS probe is rigidly attached to the TRUS...scanner table. This stabilizer arm moves to allow correct positioning of the TRUS probe in a human subject (or phantom ), then its position is fixed by

  13. Influence of Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms on PET Image Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpetas, G. E.; Michail, C. M.; Fountos, G. P.; Valais, I. G.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Kandarakis, I. S.; Panayiotakis, G. S.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess image quality of PET scanners through a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plane source. The source was simulated using a previously validated Monte Carlo model. The model was developed by using the GATE MC package and reconstructed images obtained with the STIR software for tomographic image reconstruction. The simulated PET scanner was the GE DiscoveryST. A plane source consisted of a TLC plate, was simulated by a layer of silica gel on aluminum (Al) foil substrates, immersed in 18F-FDG bath solution (1MBq). Image quality was assessed in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF). MTF curves were estimated from transverse reconstructed images of the plane source. Images were reconstructed by the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)-OSMAPOSL, the ordered subsets separable paraboloidal surrogate (OSSPS), the median root prior (MRP) and OSMAPOSL with quadratic prior, algorithms. OSMAPOSL reconstruction was assessed by using fixed subsets and various iterations, as well as by using various beta (hyper) parameter values. MTF values were found to increase with increasing iterations. MTF also improves by using lower beta values. The simulated PET evaluation method, based on the TLC plane source, can be useful in the resolution assessment of PET scanners.

  14. Differential Receptor Tyrosine Kinase PET Imaging for Therapeutic Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Wehrenberg-Klee, Eric; Turker, N. Selcan; Heidari, Pedram; Larimer, Benjamin; Juric, Dejan; Baselga, José; Scaltriti, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway hold promise for the treatment of breast cancer, but resistance to these treatments can arise via feedback loops that increase surface expression of the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3), leading to persistent growth pathway signaling. We developed PET probes that provide a method of imaging this response in vivo, determining which tumors may use this escape pathway while avoiding the need for repeated biopsies. Methods: Anti-EGFR-F(ab′)2 and anti-HER3-F(ab′)2 were generated from monoclonal antibodies by enzymatic digestion, conjugated to DOTA, and labeled with 64Cu. A panel of breast cancer cell lines was treated with increasing concentrations of the AKT inhibitor GDC-0068 or the PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941. Pre- and posttreatment expression of EGFR and HER3 was compared using Western blot and correlated to probe accumulation with binding studies. Nude mice xenografts of HCC-70 or MDA-MB-468 were treated with either AKT inhibitor or PI3K inhibitor and imaged with either EGFR or HER3 PET probe. Results: Changes in HER3 and EGFR PET probe accumulation correlate to RTK expression change as assessed by Western blot (R2 of 0.85–0.98). EGFR PET probe PET/CT imaging of HCC70 tumors shows an SUV of 0.32 ± 0.03 for vehicle-, 0.50 ± 0.01 for GDC-0941–, and 0.62 ± 0.01 for GDC-0068–treated tumors, respectively (P < 0.01 for both comparisons to vehicle). HER3 PET probe PET/CT imaging of MDAMB468 tumors shows an SUV of 0.35 ± 0.02 for vehicle- and 0.73 ± 0.05 for GDC-0068–treated tumors (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Our imaging studies, using PET probes specific to EGFR and HER3, show that changes in RTK expression indicative of resistance to PI3K and AKT inhibitors can be seen within days of therapy initiation and are of sufficient magnitude as to allow reliable

  15. Gallium-68 EDTA PET/CT for Renal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Michael S; Hicks, Rodney J

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear medicine renal imaging provides important functional data to assist in the diagnosis and management of patients with a variety of renal disorders. Physiologically stable metal chelates like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriamine penta-acetate (DTPA) are excreted by glomerular filtration and have been radiolabelled with a variety of isotopes for imaging glomerular filtration and quantitative assessment of glomerular filtration rate. Gallium-68 ((68)Ga) EDTA PET usage predates Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) renal imaging, but virtually disappeared with the widespread adoption of gamma camera technology that was not optimal for imaging positron decay. There is now a reemergence of interest in (68)Ga owing to the greater availability of PET technology and use of (68)Ga to label other radiotracers. (68)Ga EDTA can be used a substitute for (99m)Tc DTPA for wide variety of clinical indications. A key advantage of PET for renal imaging over conventional scintigraphy is 3-dimensional dynamic imaging, which is particularly helpful in patients with complex anatomy in whom planar imaging may be nondiagnostic or difficult to interpret owing to overlying structures containing radioactive urine that cannot be differentiated. Other advantages include accurate and absolute (rather than relative) camera-based quantification, superior spatial and temporal resolution and integrated multislice CT providing anatomical correlation. Furthermore, the (68)Ga generator enables on-demand production at low cost, with no additional patient radiation exposure compared with conventional scintigraphy. Over the past decade, we have employed (68)Ga EDTA PET/CT primarily to answer difficult clinical questions in patients in whom other modalities have failed, particularly when it was envisaged that dynamic 3D imaging would be of assistance. We have also used it as a substitute for (99m)Tc DTPA if unavailable owing to supply issues, and have additionally examined the role of

  16. Pulmonary imaging using respiratory motion compensated simultaneous PET/MR

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Joyita; Huang, Chuan; Li, Quanzheng; El Fakhri, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Pulmonary positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is confounded by blurring artifacts caused by respiratory motion. These artifacts degrade both image quality and quantitative accuracy. In this paper, the authors present a complete data acquisition and processing framework for respiratory motion compensated image reconstruction (MCIR) using simultaneous whole body PET/magnetic resonance (MR) and validate it through simulation and clinical patient studies. Methods: The authors have developed an MCIR framework based on maximum a posteriori or MAP estimation. For fast acquisition of high quality 4D MR images, the authors developed a novel Golden-angle RAdial Navigated Gradient Echo (GRANGE) pulse sequence and used it in conjunction with sparsity-enforcing k-t FOCUSS reconstruction. The authors use a 1D slice-projection navigator signal encapsulated within this pulse sequence along with a histogram-based gate assignment technique to retrospectively sort the MR and PET data into individual gates. The authors compute deformation fields for each gate via nonrigid registration. The deformation fields are incorporated into the PET data model as well as utilized for generating dynamic attenuation maps. The framework was validated using simulation studies on the 4D XCAT phantom and three clinical patient studies that were performed on the Biograph mMR, a simultaneous whole body PET/MR scanner. Results: The authors compared MCIR (MC) results with ungated (UG) and one-gate (OG) reconstruction results. The XCAT study revealed contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) improvements for MC relative to UG in the range of 21%–107% for 14 mm diameter lung lesions and 39%–120% for 10 mm diameter lung lesions. A strategy for regularization parameter selection was proposed, validated using XCAT simulations, and applied to the clinical studies. The authors’ results show that the MC image yields 19%–190% increase in the CNR of high-intensity features of interest affected by

  17. MRI and PET image fusion using fuzzy logic and image local features.

    PubMed

    Javed, Umer; Riaz, Muhammad Mohsin; Ghafoor, Abdul; Ali, Syed Sohaib; Cheema, Tanveer Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    An image fusion technique for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) using local features and fuzzy logic is presented. The aim of proposed technique is to maximally combine useful information present in MRI and PET images. Image local features are extracted and combined with fuzzy logic to compute weights for each pixel. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme produces significantly better results compared to state-of-art schemes.

  18. Morphology supporting function: attenuation correction for SPECT/CT, PET/CT, and PET/MR imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tzu C.; Alessio, Adam M.; Miyaoka, Robert M.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    Both SPECT, and in particular PET, are unique in medical imaging for their high sensitivity and direct link to a physical quantity, i.e. radiotracer concentration. This gives PET and SPECT imaging unique capabilities for accurately monitoring disease activity for the purposes of clinical management or therapy development. However, to achieve a direct quantitative connection between the underlying radiotracer concentration and the reconstructed image values several confounding physical effects have to be estimated, notably photon attenuation and scatter. With the advent of dual-modality SPECT/CT, PET/CT, and PET/MR scanners, the complementary CT or MR image data can enable these corrections, although there are unique challenges for each combination. This review covers the basic physics underlying photon attenuation and scatter and summarizes technical considerations for multimodal imaging with regard to PET and SPECT quantification and methods to address the challenges for each multimodal combination. PMID:26576737

  19. PET image reconstruction: a robust state space approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huafeng; Tian, Yi; Shi, Pengcheng

    2005-01-01

    Statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms have shown improved image quality over conventional nonstatistical methods in PET by using accurate system response models and measurement noise models. Strictly speaking, however, PET measurements, pre-corrected for accidental coincidences, are neither Poisson nor Gaussian distributed and thus do not meet basic assumptions of these algorithms. In addition, the difficulty in determining the proper system response model also greatly affects the quality of the reconstructed images. In this paper, we explore the usage of state space principles for the estimation of activity map in tomographic PET imaging. The proposed strategy formulates the organ activity distribution through tracer kinetics models, and the photon-counting measurements through observation equations, thus makes it possible to unify the dynamic reconstruction problem and static reconstruction problem into a general framework. Further, it coherently treats the uncertainties of the statistical model of the imaging system and the noisy nature of measurement data. Since H(infinity) filter seeks minimummaximum-error estimates without any assumptions on the system and data noise statistics, it is particular suited for PET image reconstruction where the statistical properties of measurement data and the system model are very complicated. The performance of the proposed framework is evaluated using Shepp-Logan simulated phantom data and real phantom data with favorable results.

  20. Improving PET spatial resolution and detectability for prostate cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, H.; Guerin, L.; Casey, M. E.; Conti, M.; Eriksson, L.; Michel, C.; Fanti, S.; Pettinato, C.; Adler, S.; Choyke, P.

    2014-08-01

    Prostate cancer, one of the most common forms of cancer among men, can benefit from recent improvements in positron emission tomography (PET) technology. In particular, better spatial resolution, lower noise and higher detectability of small lesions could be greatly beneficial for early diagnosis and could provide a strong support for guiding biopsy and surgery. In this article, the impact of improved PET instrumentation with superior spatial resolution and high sensitivity are discussed, together with the latest development in PET technology: resolution recovery and time-of-flight reconstruction. Using simulated cancer lesions, inserted in clinical PET images obtained with conventional protocols, we show that visual identification of the lesions and detectability via numerical observers can already be improved using state of the art PET reconstruction methods. This was achieved using both resolution recovery and time-of-flight reconstruction, and a high resolution image with 2 mm pixel size. Channelized Hotelling numerical observers showed an increase in the area under the LROC curve from 0.52 to 0.58. In addition, a relationship between the simulated input activity and the area under the LROC curve showed that the minimum detectable activity was reduced by more than 23%.

  1. Initial tests of a prototype MRI-compatible PET imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Majewski, Stan; Lemieux, Susan; Velan, S. Sendhil; Kross, Brain; Popov, Vladimir; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Wojcik, Randy

    2006-12-01

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI, will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group (a collaboration of West Virginia University and Jefferson Lab) is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode with an active FOV of 5×5×4 cm 3. Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements (2.5×2.5×15 mm 3) coupled through a long fiber optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel PSPMT. The fiber optic light guide is made of a glued assembly of 2 mm diameter acrylic fibers with a total length of 2.5 m. The use of a light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of the 3 T General Electric MRI scanner used in the tests. Photon attenuation in the light guides resulted in an energy resolution of ˜60% FWHM, interaction of the magnetic field with PSPMT further reduced energy resolution to ˜85% FWHM. Despite this effect, excellent multi-plane PET and MRI images of a simple disk phantom were acquired simultaneously. Future work includes improved light guides, optimized magnetic shielding for the PSPMTs, construction of specialized coils to permit high-resolution MRI imaging, and use of the system to perform simultaneous PET and MRI or MR-spectroscopy .

  2. Metabolic PET Imaging in Cancer Detection and Therapy Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Aizhi; Lee, Daniel; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2010-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive imaging technique that provides a functional or metabolic assessment of normal tissue or disease conditions. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET imaging (FDG-PET) is widely used clinically for tumor imaging due to increased glucose metabolism in most types of tumors, and has been shown to improve the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of cancers. In this chapter, we review its use in cancer diagnosis, staging, restaging, and assessment of response to treatment. In addition, other metabolic PET imaging agents in research or clinical trial stages are discussed, including amino acid analogs based on increased protein synthesis, and choline, which is based on increased membrane lipid synthesis. Amino acid analogs and choline are more specific to tumor cells than FDG, so they play an important role in differentiating cancers from benign conditions and in the diagnosis of cancers with low FDG uptake or high background FDG uptake. For decades, researchers have shown that tumors have altered metabolic profiles and display elevated uptake of glucose, amino acids, and lipids, which can be used for cancer diagnosis and monitoring of the therapeutic response with excellent signal-to-noise ratios. PMID:21362516

  3. Early Recognition of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy through FDDNP PET Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    cumulative head trauma. All operational aspects of this study have been accomplished including local IRB approval, identification of potential... head injuries sustained in battle have been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Pathological series have...will examine whether FDDNP PET imaging correlates with, and/or can predict, decline in cognitive function in those exposed to cumulative head trauma

  4. Innovative LuYAP:Ce array for PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinti, M. N.; Scafe, R.; Bennati, P.; Lo Meo, S.; Frantellizzi, V.; Pellegrini, R.; De Vincentis, G.; Sacco, D.; Fabbri, A.; Pani, R.

    2017-03-01

    We present an imaging characterization of a 10 × 10 LuYAP array (2 × 2 × 10 mm3 pixels) with an innovative dielectric coating insulation (0.015 mm thick), in view of its possible use in a gamma camera for imaging positron emission tomography (PET) or in similar applications, e.g. as γ -prompt detector in hadron therapy. The particular assembly of this array was realized in order to obtain a packing fraction of 98%, improving detection efficiency and light collection. For imaging purpose, the array has been coupled with a selected Hamamatsu H10966-100 Multi Anode Photomultiplier read out by a customized 64 independent channels electronics. This tube presents a superbialkali photocathode with 38% of quantum efficiency, permitting to enhance energy resolution and consequently image quality. A pixel identification of about 0.5 mm at 662 keV was obtained, highlighting the potentiality of this detector in PET applications.

  5. Predicting standard-dose PET image from low-dose PET and multimodal MR images using mapping-based sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Pei; An, Le; Ma, Guangkai; Kang, Jiayin; Shi, Feng; Wu, Xi; Zhou, Jiliu; Lalush, David S.; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been widely used in clinical diagnosis for diseases and disorders. To obtain high-quality PET images requires a standard-dose radionuclide (tracer) injection into the human body, which inevitably increases risk of radiation exposure. One possible solution to this problem is to predict the standard-dose PET image from its low-dose counterpart and its corresponding multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) images. Inspired by the success of patch-based sparse representation (SR) in super-resolution image reconstruction, we propose a mapping-based SR (m-SR) framework for standard-dose PET image prediction. Compared with the conventional patch-based SR, our method uses a mapping strategy to ensure that the sparse coefficients, estimated from the multimodal MR images and low-dose PET image, can be applied directly to the prediction of standard-dose PET image. As the mapping between multimodal MR images (or low-dose PET image) and standard-dose PET images can be particularly complex, one step of mapping is often insufficient. To this end, an incremental refinement framework is therefore proposed. Specifically, the predicted standard-dose PET image is further mapped to the target standard-dose PET image, and then the SR is performed again to predict a new standard-dose PET image. This procedure can be repeated for prediction refinement of the iterations. Also, a patch selection based dictionary construction method is further used to speed up the prediction process. The proposed method is validated on a human brain dataset. The experimental results show that our method can outperform benchmark methods in both qualitative and quantitative measures.

  6. New SPECT and PET Radiopharmaceuticals for Imaging Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sogbein, Oyebola O.; Pelletier-Galarneau, Matthieu; Schindler, Thomas H.; Wei, Lihui; Wells, R. Glenn; Ruddy, Terrence D.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology has experienced exponential growth within the past four decades with converging capacity to diagnose and influence management of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with technetium-99m radiotracers or thallium-201 has dominated the field; however new hardware and software designs that optimize image quality with reduced radiation exposure are fuelling a resurgence of interest at the preclinical and clinical levels to expand beyond MPI. Other imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) continue to emerge as powerful players with an expanded capacity to diagnose a variety of cardiac conditions. At the forefront of this resurgence is the development of novel target vectors based on an enhanced understanding of the underlying pathophysiological process in the subcellular domain. Molecular imaging with novel radiopharmaceuticals engineered to target a specific subcellular process has the capacity to improve diagnostic accuracy and deliver enhanced prognostic information to alter management. This paper, while not comprehensive, will review the recent advancements in radiotracer development for SPECT and PET MPI, autonomic dysfunction, apoptosis, atherosclerotic plaques, metabolism, and viability. The relevant radiochemistry and preclinical and clinical development in addition to molecular imaging with emerging modalities such as cardiac MRI and PET-MR will be discussed. PMID:24901002

  7. Parametric myocardial perfusion PET imaging using physiological clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohy-ud-Din, Hassan; Karakatsanis, Nikolaos A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Tang, Jing; Rahmim, Arman

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel framework of robust kinetic parameter estimation applied to absolute ow quanti cation in dynamic PET imaging. Kinetic parameter estimation is formulated as a nonlinear least squares with spatial constraints problem (NLLS-SC) where the spatial constraints are computed from a physiologically driven clustering of dynamic images, and used to reduce noise contamination. An ideal clustering of dynamic images depends on the underlying physiology of functional regions, and in turn, physiological processes are quanti ed by kinetic parameter estimation. Physiologically driven clustering of dynamic images is performed using a clustering algorithm (e.g. K-means, Spectral Clustering etc) with Kinetic modeling in an iterative handshaking fashion. This gives a map of labels where each functionally homogenous cluster is represented by mean kinetics (cluster centroid). Parametric images are acquired by solving the NLLS-SC problem for each voxel which penalizes spatial variations from its mean kinetics. This substantially reduces noise in the estimation process for each voxel by utilizing kinetic information from physiologically similar voxels (cluster members). Resolution degradation is also substantially minimized as no spatial smoothing between heterogeneous functional regions is performed. The proposed framework is shown to improve the quantitative accuracy of Myocardial Perfusion (MP) PET imaging, and in turn, has the long-term potential to enhance capabilities of MP PET in the detection, staging and management of coronary artery disease.

  8. Lung tumor segmentation in PET images using graph cuts.

    PubMed

    Ballangan, Cherry; Wang, Xiuying; Fulham, Michael; Eberl, Stefan; Feng, David Dagan

    2013-03-01

    The aim of segmentation of tumor regions in positron emission tomography (PET) is to provide more accurate measurements of tumor size and extension into adjacent structures, than is possible with visual assessment alone and hence improve patient management decisions. We propose a segmentation energy function for the graph cuts technique to improve lung tumor segmentation with PET. Our segmentation energy is based on an analysis of the tumor voxels in PET images combined with a standardized uptake value (SUV) cost function and a monotonic downhill SUV feature. The monotonic downhill feature avoids segmentation leakage into surrounding tissues with similar or higher PET tracer uptake than the tumor and the SUV cost function improves the boundary definition and also addresses situations where the lung tumor is heterogeneous. We evaluated the method in 42 clinical PET volumes from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our method improves segmentation and performs better than region growing approaches, the watershed technique, fuzzy-c-means, region-based active contour and tumor customized downhill.

  9. Automated Movement Correction for Dynamic PET/CT Images: Evaluation with Phantom and Patient Data

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hu; Wong, Koon-Pong; Wardak, Mirwais; Dahlbom, Magnus; Kepe, Vladimir; Barrio, Jorge R.; Nelson, Linda D.; Small, Gary W.; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Head movement during a dynamic brain PET/CT imaging results in mismatch between CT and dynamic PET images. It can cause artifacts in CT-based attenuation corrected PET images, thus affecting both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the dynamic PET images and the derived parametric images. In this study, we developed an automated retrospective image-based movement correction (MC) procedure. The MC method first registered the CT image to each dynamic PET frames, then re-reconstructed the PET frames with CT-based attenuation correction, and finally re-aligned all the PET frames to the same position. We evaluated the MC method's performance on the Hoffman phantom and dynamic FDDNP and FDG PET/CT images of patients with neurodegenerative disease or with poor compliance. Dynamic FDDNP PET/CT images (65 min) were obtained from 12 patients and dynamic FDG PET/CT images (60 min) were obtained from 6 patients. Logan analysis with cerebellum as the reference region was used to generate regional distribution volume ratio (DVR) for FDDNP scan before and after MC. For FDG studies, the image derived input function was used to generate parametric image of FDG uptake constant (Ki) before and after MC. Phantom study showed high accuracy of registration between PET and CT and improved PET images after MC. In patient study, head movement was observed in all subjects, especially in late PET frames with an average displacement of 6.92 mm. The z-direction translation (average maximum = 5.32 mm) and x-axis rotation (average maximum = 5.19 degrees) occurred most frequently. Image artifacts were significantly diminished after MC. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the FDDNP DVR and FDG Ki values in the parietal and temporal regions after MC. In conclusion, MC applied to dynamic brain FDDNP and FDG PET/CT scans could improve the qualitative and quantitative aspects of images of both tracers. PMID:25111700

  10. Automated movement correction for dynamic PET/CT images: evaluation with phantom and patient data.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hu; Wong, Koon-Pong; Wardak, Mirwais; Dahlbom, Magnus; Kepe, Vladimir; Barrio, Jorge R; Nelson, Linda D; Small, Gary W; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Head movement during a dynamic brain PET/CT imaging results in mismatch between CT and dynamic PET images. It can cause artifacts in CT-based attenuation corrected PET images, thus affecting both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the dynamic PET images and the derived parametric images. In this study, we developed an automated retrospective image-based movement correction (MC) procedure. The MC method first registered the CT image to each dynamic PET frames, then re-reconstructed the PET frames with CT-based attenuation correction, and finally re-aligned all the PET frames to the same position. We evaluated the MC method's performance on the Hoffman phantom and dynamic FDDNP and FDG PET/CT images of patients with neurodegenerative disease or with poor compliance. Dynamic FDDNP PET/CT images (65 min) were obtained from 12 patients and dynamic FDG PET/CT images (60 min) were obtained from 6 patients. Logan analysis with cerebellum as the reference region was used to generate regional distribution volume ratio (DVR) for FDDNP scan before and after MC. For FDG studies, the image derived input function was used to generate parametric image of FDG uptake constant (Ki) before and after MC. Phantom study showed high accuracy of registration between PET and CT and improved PET images after MC. In patient study, head movement was observed in all subjects, especially in late PET frames with an average displacement of 6.92 mm. The z-direction translation (average maximum = 5.32 mm) and x-axis rotation (average maximum = 5.19 degrees) occurred most frequently. Image artifacts were significantly diminished after MC. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the FDDNP DVR and FDG Ki values in the parietal and temporal regions after MC. In conclusion, MC applied to dynamic brain FDDNP and FDG PET/CT scans could improve the qualitative and quantitative aspects of images of both tracers.

  11. Registration of parametric dynamic F-18-FDG PET/CT breast images with parametric dynamic Gd-DTPA breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Alphonso; Krol, Andrzej; Lipson, Edward; Mandel, James; McGraw, Wendy; Lee, Wei; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Feiglin, David

    2009-02-01

    This study was undertaken to register 3D parametric breast images derived from Gd-DTPA MR and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series. Nonlinear curve fitting (Levenburg-Marquardt algorithm) based on realistic two-compartment models was performed voxel-by-voxel separately for MR (Brix) and PET (Patlak). PET dynamic series consists of 50 frames of 1-minute duration. Each consecutive PET image was nonrigidly registered to the first frame using a finite element method and fiducial skin markers. The 12 post-contrast MR images were nonrigidly registered to the precontrast frame using a free-form deformation (FFD) method. Parametric MR images were registered to parametric PET images via CT using FFD because the first PET time frame was acquired immediately after the CT image on a PET/CT scanner and is considered registered to the CT image. We conclude that nonrigid registration of PET and MR parametric images using CT data acquired during PET/CT scan and the FFD method resulted in their improved spatial coregistration. The success of this procedure was limited due to relatively large target registration error, TRE = 15.1+/-7.7 mm, as compared to spatial resolution of PET (6-7 mm), and swirling image artifacts created in MR parametric images by the FFD. Further refinement of nonrigid registration of PET and MR parametric images is necessary to enhance visualization and integration of complex diagnostic information provided by both modalities that will lead to improved diagnostic performance.

  12. Data Acquisition and Image Reconstruction Systems from the miniPET Scanners to the CARDIOTOM Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valastván, I.; Imrek, J.; Hegyesi, G.; Molnár, J.; Novák, D.; Bone, D.; Kerek, A.

    2007-11-01

    Nuclear imaging devices play an important role in medical diagnosis as well as drug research. The first and second generation data acquisition systems and the image reconstruction library developed provide a unified hardware and software platform for the miniPET-I, miniPET-II small animal PET scanners and for the CARDIOTOM™.

  13. A small animal PET based on GAPDs and charge signal transmission approach for hybrid PET-MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jihoon; Choi, Yong; Hong, Key Jo; Hu, Wei; Jung, Jin Ho; Huh, Yoonsuk; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2011-08-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) employing Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GAPDs) and charge signal transmission approach was developed for small animal imaging. Animal PET contained 16 LYSO and GAPD detector modules that were arranged in a 70 mm diameter ring with an axial field of view of 13 mm. The GAPDs charge output signals were transmitted to a preamplifier located remotely using 300 cm flexible flat cables. The position decoder circuits (PDCs) were used to multiplex the PET signals from 256 to 4 channels. The outputs of the PDCs were digitized and further-processed in the data acquisition unit. The cross-compatibilities of the PET detectors and MRI were assessed outside and inside the MRI. Experimental studies of the developed full ring PET were performed to examine the spatial resolution and sensitivity. Phantom and mouse images were acquired to examine the imaging performance. The mean energy and time resolution of the PET detector were 17.6% and 1.5 ns, respectively. No obvious degradation on PET and MRI was observed during simultaneous PET-MRI data acquisition. The measured spatial resolution and sensitivity at the CFOV were 2.8 mm and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, a 3 mm diameter line source was clearly resolved in the hot-sphere phantom images. The reconstructed transaxial PET images of the mouse brain and tumor displaying the glucose metabolism patterns were imaged well. These results demonstrate GAPD and the charge signal transmission approach can allow the development of high performance small animal PET with improved MR compatibility.

  14. Gallium-68 Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Michael S; Iravani, Amir

    2017-04-01

    The role of gallium-68 ((68)Ga) prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET imaging is evolving and finding its place in the imaging armamentarium for prostate cancer (PCa). Despite the progress of conventional imaging strategies, significant limitations remain, including identification of small-volume disease and assessment of bone. Clinical studies have demonstrated that (68)Ga-PSMA is a promising tracer for detection of PCa metastases, even in patients with low prostate-specific antigen. To provide an accurate interpretation of (68)Ga-PSMA PET/computed tomography, nuclear medicine specialists and radiologists should be familiar with physiologic (68)Ga-PSMA uptake, common variants, patterns of locoregional and distant spread of PCa, and inherent pitfalls.

  15. Energy dependence of scatter components in multispectral PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Bentourkia, M; Msaki, P; Cadorette, J; Lecomte, R

    1995-01-01

    High resolution images in PET based on small individual detectors are obtained at the cost of low sensitivity and increased detector scatter. These limitations can be partially overcome by enlarging discrimination windows to include more low-energy events and by developing more efficient energy-dependent methods to correct for scatter radiation from all sources. The feasibility of multispectral scatter correction was assessed by decomposing response functions acquired in multiple energy windows into four basic components: object, collimator and detector scatter, and trues. The shape and intensity of these components are different and energy-dependent. They are shown to contribute to image formation in three ways: useful (true), potentially useful (detector scatter), and undesirable (object and collimator scatter) information to the image over the entire energy range. With the Sherbrooke animal PET system, restoration of detector scatter in every energy window would allow nearly 90% of all detected events to participate in image formation. These observations suggest that multispectral acquisition is a promising solution for increasing sensitivity in high resolution PET. This can be achieved without loss of image quality if energy-dependent methods are made available to preserve useful events as potentially useful events are restored and undesirable events removed.

  16. PET image reconstruction: mean, variance, and optimal minimax criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huafeng; Gao, Fei; Guo, Min; Xue, Liying; Nie, Jing; Shi, Pengcheng

    2015-04-01

    Given the noise nature of positron emission tomography (PET) measurements, it is critical to know the image quality and reliability as well as expected radioactivity map (mean image) for both qualitative interpretation and quantitative analysis. While existing efforts have often been devoted to providing only the reconstructed mean image, we present a unified framework for joint estimation of the mean and corresponding variance of the radioactivity map based on an efficient optimal min-max criterion. The proposed framework formulates the PET image reconstruction problem to be a transformation from system uncertainties to estimation errors, where the minimax criterion is adopted to minimize the estimation errors with possibly maximized system uncertainties. The estimation errors, in the form of a covariance matrix, express the measurement uncertainties in a complete way. The framework is then optimized by ∞-norm optimization and solved with the corresponding H∞ filter. Unlike conventional statistical reconstruction algorithms, that rely on the statistical modeling methods of the measurement data or noise, the proposed joint estimation stands from the point of view of signal energies and can handle from imperfect statistical assumptions to even no a priori statistical assumptions. The performance and accuracy of reconstructed mean and variance images are validated using Monte Carlo simulations. Experiments on phantom scans with a small animal PET scanner and real patient scans are also conducted for assessment of clinical potential.

  17. Hybrid PET/MR Imaging and Brain Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Aiello, Marco; Cavaliere, Carlo; Salvatore, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, brain connectivity is gaining ever-increasing interest from the interdisciplinary research community. The study of brain connectivity is characterized by a multifaceted approach providing both structural and functional evidence of the relationship between cerebral regions at different scales. Although magnetic resonance (MR) is the most established imaging modality for investigating connectivity in vivo, the recent advent of hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/MR scanners paved the way for more comprehensive investigation of brain organization and physiology. Due to the high sensitivity and biochemical specificity of radiotracers, combining MR with PET imaging may enrich our ability to investigate connectivity by introducing the concept of metabolic connectivity and cometomics and promoting new insights on the physiological and molecular bases underlying high-level neural organization. This review aims to describe and summarize the main methods of analysis of brain connectivity employed in MR imaging and nuclear medicine. Moreover, it will discuss practical aspects and state-of-the-art techniques for exploiting hybrid PET/MR imaging to investigate the relationship of physiological processes and brain connectivity. PMID:26973446

  18. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  19. LOR-interleaving image reconstruction for PET imaging with fractional-crystal collimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yusheng; Matej, Samuel; Karp, Joel S.; Metzler, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become an important modality in medical and molecular imaging. However, in most PET applications, the resolution is still mainly limited by the physical crystal sizes or the detector’s intrinsic spatial resolution. To achieve images with better spatial resolution in a central region of interest (ROI), we have previously proposed using collimation in PET scanners. The collimator is designed to partially mask detector crystals to detect lines of response (LORs) within fractional crystals. A sequence of collimator-encoded LORs is measured with different collimation configurations. This novel collimated scanner geometry makes the reconstruction problem challenging, as both detector and collimator effects need to be modeled to reconstruct high-resolution images from collimated LORs. In this paper, we present a LOR-interleaving (LORI) algorithm, which incorporates these effects and has the advantage of reusing existing reconstruction software, to reconstruct high-resolution images for PET with fractional-crystal collimation. We also develop a 3D ray-tracing model incorporating both the collimator and crystal penetration for simulations and reconstructions of the collimated PET. By registering the collimator-encoded LORs with the collimator configurations, high-resolution LORs are restored based on the modeled transfer matrices using the non-negative least-squares method and EM algorithm. The resolution-enhanced images are then reconstructed from the high-resolution LORs using the MLEM or OSEM algorithm. For validation, we applied the LORI method to a small-animal PET scanner, A-PET, with a specially designed collimator. We demonstrate through simulated reconstructions with a hot-rod phantom and MOBY phantom that the LORI reconstructions can substantially improve spatial resolution and quantification compared to the uncollimated reconstructions. The LORI algorithm is crucial to improve overall image quality of collimated PET, which

  20. LOR-interleaving image reconstruction for PET imaging with fractional-crystal collimation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yusheng; Matej, Samuel; Karp, Joel S.; Metzler, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become an important modality in medical and molecular imaging. However, in most PET applications, the resolution is still mainly limited by the physical crystal sizes or the detector’s intrinsic spatial resolution. To achieve images with better spatial resolution in a central region of interest (ROI), we have previously proposed using collimation in PET scanner. The collimator is designed to partially mask detector crystals to detect lines of response (LORs) within fractional crystals. A sequence of collimator-encoded LORs is measured with different collimation configurations. This novel collimated scanner geometry makes the reconstruction problem challenging, as both detector and collimator effects need to be modeled to reconstruct high-resolution images from collimated LORs. In this paper, we present an LOR-interleaving (LORI) algorithm, which incorporates these effects and has the advantage of reusing existing reconstruction software, to reconstruct high-resolution images for PET with fractional-crystal collimation. We also develop a 3-D ray-tracing model incorporating both the collimator and crystal penetration for simulations and reconstructions of the collimated PET. By registering the collimator-encoded LORs with the collimator configurations, high-resolution LORs are restored based on the modeled transfer matrices using the nonnegative least-squares method and EM algorithm. The resolution-enhanced images are then reconstructed from the high-resolution LORs using the MLEM or OSEM algorithm. For validation, we applied the LORI method to a small-animal PET scanner, A-PET, with a specially designed collimator. We demonstrate through simulated reconstructions with a hot-rod phantom and MOBY phantom that the LORI reconstructions can substantially improve spatial resolution and quantification compared to the uncollimated reconstructions. The LORI algorithm is crucial to improve overall image quality of collimated PET, which

  1. Simultaneous acquisition of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) data and positron emission tomography (PET) images with a prototype MR-compatible, small animal PET imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Majewski, Stan; Velan, S. Sendhil; Lemieux, Susan; Kross, Brian; Popov, Vladimir; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2007-06-01

    Multi-modality imaging (such as PET-CT) is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET, fused with anatomical images created by MRI, allow the correlation of form with function. Perhaps more exciting than the combination of anatomical MRI with PET, is the melding of PET with MR spectroscopy (MRS). Thus, two aspects of physiology could be combined in novel ways to produce new insights into the physiology of normal and pathological processes. Our team is developing a system to acquire MRI images and MRS spectra, and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype MR-compatible PET system consists of two opposed detector heads (appropriate in size for small animal imaging), operating in coincidence mode with an active field-of-view of ˜14 cm in diameter. Each detector consists of an array of LSO detector elements coupled through a 2-m long fiber optic light guide to a single position-sensitive photomultiplier tube. The use of light guides allows these magnetic field-sensitive elements of the PET imager to be positioned outside the strong magnetic field of our 3T MRI scanner. The PET scanner imager was integrated with a 12-cm diameter, 12-leg custom, birdcage coil. Simultaneous MRS spectra and PET images were successfully acquired from a multi-modality phantom consisting of a sphere filled with 17 brain relevant substances and a positron-emitting radionuclide. There were no significant changes in MRI or PET scanner performance when both were present in the MRI magnet bore. This successful initial test demonstrates the potential for using such a multi-modality to obtain complementary MRS and PET data.

  2. Imaging quality of (44)Sc in comparison with five other PET radionuclides using Derenzo phantoms and preclinical PET.

    PubMed

    Bunka, Maruta; Müller, Cristina; Vermeulen, Christiaan; Haller, Stephanie; Türler, Andreas; Schibli, Roger; van der Meulen, Nicholas P

    2016-04-01

    PET is the favored nuclear imaging technique because of the high sensitivity and resolution it provides, as well as the possibility for quantification of accumulated radioactivity. (44)Sc (T1/2=3.97h, Eβ(+)=632keV) was recently proposed as a potentially interesting radionuclide for PET. The aim of this study was to investigate the image quality, which can be obtained with (44)Sc, and compare it with five other, frequently employed PET nuclides using Derenzo phantoms and a small-animal PET scanner. The radionuclides were produced at the medical cyclotron at CRS, ETH Zurich ((11)C, (18)F), at the Injector II research cyclotron at CRS, PSI ((64)Cu, (89)Zr, (44)Sc), as well as via a generator system ((68)Ga). Derenzo phantoms, containing solutions of each of these radionuclides, were scanned using a GE Healthcare eXplore VISTA small-animal PET scanner. The image resolution was determined for each nuclide by analysis of the intensity signal using the reconstructed PET data of a hole diameter of 1.3mm. The image quality of (44)Sc was compared to five frequently-used PET radionuclides. In agreement with the positron range, an increasing relative resolution was determined in the sequence of (68)Ga<(44)Sc<(89)Zr<(11)C<(64)Cu<(18)F. The performance of (44)Sc was in agreement with the theoretical expectations based on the energy of the emitted positrons.

  3. Phosphoramidate-based Peptidomimetic Prostate Cancer PET Imaging Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    develop a PET imaging agent based on modifying the peptidomimetic PSMA inhibitor which will result in improved tumor uptake and clearance mechanism...Different fluorination approaches were attempted with PSMA module compounds such as direct labeling, cupper free chemistry and the use of...labeling approaches are established, and then the labeling of the modified PSMA inhibitor analogues will be investigated in vitro as well as in vivo. 15

  4. Phosphoramidate-based Peptidomimetic Prostate Cancer PET Imaging Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    goal is to develop a PET imaging agent based on modifying the peptidomimetic PSMA inhibitor which will result in improved tumor uptake and clearance...mechanism. Different fluorination approaches were attempted with PSMA module compounds such as direct labeling, cupper free chemistry and the use of...the labeling approaches are established, and then the labeling of the modified PSMA inhibitor analogues will be investigated in vitro as well as in

  5. Prediction of CT Substitutes from MR Images Based on Local Diffeomorphic Mapping for Brain PET Attenuation Correction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao; Yang, Wei; Lu, Lijun; Lu, Zhentai; Zhong, Liming; Huang, Meiyan; Feng, Yanqiu; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2016-10-01

    Attenuation correction is important for PET reconstruction. In PET/MR, MR intensities are not directly related to attenuation coefficients that are needed in PET imaging. The attenuation coefficient map can be derived from CT images. Therefore, prediction of CT substitutes from MR images is desired for attenuation correction in PET/MR.

  6. PET Imaging with 89Zr: From Radiochemistry to the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Deri, Melissa A.; Zeglis, Brian M.; Francesconi, Lynn C.; Lewis, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of antibody-based cancer therapeutics has led to the concomitant rise in the development of companion diagnostics for these therapies, particularly nuclear imaging agents. A number of radioisotopes have been employed for antibody-based PET and SPECT imaging, notably 64Cu, 124I, 111In, and 99mTc; in recent years, however, the field has increasingly focused on 89Zr, a radiometal with near ideal physical and chemical properties for immunoPET imaging. In the review at hand, we seek to provide a comprehensive portrait of the current state of 89Zr radiochemical and imaging research, including work into the production and purification of the isotope, the synthesis of new chelators, the development of new bioconjugation strategies, the creation of novel 89Zr-based agents for preclinical imaging studies, and the translation of 89Zr-labeled radiopharmaceuticals to the clinic. Particular attention will also be dedicated to emerging trends in the field, 89Zr-based imaging applications using vectors other than antibodies, the comparative advantages and limitations of 89Zr-based imaging compared to that with other isotopes, and areas that would benefit from more extensive investigation. At bottom, it is hoped that this review will provide both the experienced investigator and new scientist with a full and critical overview of this exciting and fast-developing field. PMID:22998840

  7. Quantification of Lung PET Images: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Delphine L; Cheriyan, Joseph; Chilvers, Edwin R; Choudhury, Gourab; Coello, Christopher; Connell, Martin; Fisk, Marie; Groves, Ashley M; Gunn, Roger N; Holman, Beverley F; Hutton, Brian F; Lee, Sarah; MacNee, William; Mohan, Divya; Parr, David; Subramanian, Deepak; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Thielemans, Kris; van Beek, Edwin J R; Vass, Laurence; Wellen, Jeremy W; Wilkinson, Ian; Wilson, Frederick J

    2017-02-01

    Millions of people are affected by respiratory diseases, leading to a significant health burden globally. Because of the current insufficient knowledge of the underlying mechanisms that lead to the development and progression of respiratory diseases, treatment options remain limited. To overcome this limitation and understand the associated molecular changes, noninvasive imaging techniques such as PET and SPECT have been explored for biomarker development, with (18)F-FDG PET imaging being the most studied. The quantification of pulmonary molecular imaging data remains challenging because of variations in tissue, air, blood, and water fractions within the lungs. The proportions of these components further differ depending on the lung disease. Therefore, different quantification approaches have been proposed to address these variabilities. However, no standardized approach has been developed to date. This article reviews the data evaluating (18)F-FDG PET quantification approaches in lung diseases, focusing on methods to account for variations in lung components and the interpretation of the derived parameters. The diseases reviewed include acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and interstitial lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Based on review of prior literature, ongoing research, and discussions among the authors, suggested considerations are presented to assist with the interpretation of the derived parameters from these approaches and the design of future studies.

  8. Image reconstruction for PET/CT scanners: past achievements and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shan; Alessio, Adam M; Kinahan, Paul E

    2011-01-01

    PET is a medical imaging modality with proven clinical value for disease diagnosis and treatment monitoring. The integration of PET and CT on modern scanners provides a synergy of the two imaging modalities. Through different mathematical algorithms, PET data can be reconstructed into the spatial distribution of the injected radiotracer. With dynamic imaging, kinetic parameters of specific biological processes can also be determined. Numerous efforts have been devoted to the development of PET image reconstruction methods over the last four decades, encompassing analytic and iterative reconstruction methods. This article provides an overview of the commonly used methods. Current challenges in PET image reconstruction include more accurate quantitation, TOF imaging, system modeling, motion correction and dynamic reconstruction. Advances in these aspects could enhance the use of PET/CT imaging in patient care and in clinical research studies of pathophysiology and therapeutic interventions. PMID:21339831

  9. Performance evaluation of the microPET P4: a PET system dedicated to animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Y. C.; Chatziioannou, A.; Siegel, S.; Young, J.; Newport, D.; Goble, R. N.; Nutt, R. E.; Cherry, S. R.

    2001-07-01

    The microPET Primate 4-ring system (P4) is an animal PET tomograph with a 7.8 cm axial extent, a 19 cm diameter transaxial field of view (FOV) and a 22 cm animal port. The system is composed of 168 detector modules, each with an 8×8 array of 2.2×2.2×10 mm3 lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals, arranged as 32 crystal rings 26 cm in diameter. The detector crystals are coupled to a Hamamatsu R5900-C8 PS-PMT via a 10 cm long optical fibre bundle. The detectors have a timing resolution of 3.2 ns, an average energy resolution of 26%, and an average intrinsic spatial resolution of 1.75 mm. The system operates in 3D mode without inter-plane septa, acquiring data in list mode. The reconstructed image spatial resolution ranges from 1.8 mm at the centre to 3 mm at 4 cm radial offset. The tomograph has a peak system sensitivity of 2.25% at the centre of the FOV with a 250-750 keV energy window. The noise equivalent count rate peaks at 100-290 kcps for representative object sizes. Images from two phantoms and three different types of laboratory animal demonstrate the advantage of the P4 system over the original prototype microPET, including its threefold improvement in sensitivity and a large axial FOV sufficient to image an entire mouse in a single bed position.

  10. Optimizing modelling in iterative image reconstruction for preclinical pinhole PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goorden, Marlies C.; van Roosmalen, Jarno; van der Have, Frans; Beekman, Freek J.

    2016-05-01

    The recently developed versatile emission computed tomography (VECTor) technology enables high-energy SPECT and simultaneous SPECT and PET of small animals at sub-mm resolutions. VECTor uses dedicated clustered pinhole collimators mounted in a scanner with three stationary large-area NaI(Tl) gamma detectors. Here, we develop and validate dedicated image reconstruction methods that compensate for image degradation by incorporating accurate models for the transport of high-energy annihilation gamma photons. Ray tracing software was used to calculate photon transport through the collimator structures and into the gamma detector. Input to this code are several geometric parameters estimated from system calibration with a scanning 99mTc point source. Effects on reconstructed images of (i) modelling variable depth-of-interaction (DOI) in the detector, (ii) incorporating photon paths that go through multiple pinholes (‘multiple-pinhole paths’ (MPP)), and (iii) including various amounts of point spread function (PSF) tail were evaluated. Imaging 18F in resolution and uniformity phantoms showed that including large parts of PSFs is essential to obtain good contrast-noise characteristics and that DOI modelling is highly effective in removing deformations of small structures, together leading to 0.75 mm resolution PET images of a hot-rod Derenzo phantom. Moreover, MPP modelling reduced the level of background noise. These improvements were also clearly visible in mouse images. Performance of VECTor can thus be significantly improved by accurately modelling annihilation gamma photon transport.

  11. Simultaneous water activation and glucose metabolic rate imaging with PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaeghe, Jeroen; Reader, Andrew J.

    2013-02-01

    A novel imaging and signal separation strategy is proposed to be able to separate [18F]FDG and multiple [15O]H2O signals from a simultaneously acquired dynamic PET acquisition of the two tracers. The technique is based on the fact that the dynamics of the two tracers are very distinct. By adopting an appropriate bolus injection strategy and by defining tailored sets of basis functions that model either the FDG or water component, it is possible to separate the FDG and water signal. The basis functions are inspired from the spectral analysis description of dynamic PET studies and are defined as the convolution of estimated generating functions (GFs) with a set of decaying exponential functions. The GFs are estimated from the overall measured head curve, while the decaying exponential functions are pre-determined. In this work, the time activity curves (TACs) are modelled post-reconstruction but the model can be incorporated in a global 4D reconstruction strategy. Extensive PET simulation studies are performed considering single [18F]FDG and 6 [15O]H2O bolus injections for a total acquisition time of 75 min. The proposed method is evaluated at multiple noise levels and different parameters were estimated such as [18F]FDG uptake and blood flow estimated from the [15O]H2O component, requiring a full dynamic analysis of the two components, static images of [18F]FDG and the water components as well as [15O]H2O activation. It is shown that the resulting images and parametric values in ROIs are comparable to images obtained from separate imaging, illustrating the feasibility of simultaneous imaging of [18F]FDG and [15O]H2O components. For more information on this article, see medicalphysicsweb.org

  12. PET/SPECT imaging agents for neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lin; Ploessl, Karl; Kung, Hank F.

    2014-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission computed tomography (PET) imaging agents for neurodegenerative disease have a significant impact on clinical diagnosis and patient care. The examples of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) imaging agents described in this paper provide a general view on how imaging agents, ie radioactive drugs, are selected, chemically prepared and applied in humans. Imaging the living human brain can provide unique information on the pathology and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD and PD. The imaging method will also facilitate preclinical and clinical trials of new drugs offering specific information related to drug binding sites in the brain. In the future, chemists will continue to play important roles in identifying specific targets, synthesizing target-specific probes for screening and ultimately testing them by in vitro and in vivo assays. PMID:24676152

  13. An MR image-guided, voxel-based partial volume correction method for PET images

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hesheng; Fei, Baowei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Partial volume effect in positron emission tomography (PET) can cause incorrect quantification of radiopharmaceutical uptake in functional imaging. A PET partial volume correction method is presented to attenuate partial volume blurring and to yield voxel-based corrected PET images. Methods: By modeling partial volume effect as a convolution of point spread function of the PET scanner, the reconstructed PET images are corrected by iterative deconvolution with an edge-preserving smoothness constraint. The constraint is constructed to restore discontinuities extracted from coregistered MR images but maintains the smoothness in radioactivity distribution. The correction is implemented in a Bayesian deconvolution framework and is solved by a conjugate gradient method. The performance of the method was compared with the geometric transfer matrix (GTM) method on a simulated dataset. The method was evaluated on synthesized brain FDG–PET data and phantom MRI–PET experiments. Results: The true PET activity of objects with a size of greater than the full-width at half maximum of the point spread function has been effectively restored in the simulated data. The partial volume correction method is quantitatively comparable to the GTM method. For synthesized FDG–PET with true activity 0 μci/cc for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 228 μci/cc for white matter (WM), and 621 μci/cc for gray matter (GM), the method has improved the radioactivity quantification from 186 ± 16 μci/cc to 30 ± 7 μci/cc in CSF, 317 ± 15 μci/cc to 236 ± 10 μci/cc for WM, 438 ± 4 μci/cc to 592 ± 5 μci/cc for GM. Both visual and quantitative assessments show improvement of partial volume correction in the synthesized and phantom experiments. Conclusions: The partial volume correction method improves the quantification of PET images. The method is comparable to the GTM method but does not need MR image segmentation or prior tracer distribution information. The

  14. Microfluidics for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging Probe Development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Wei-Yu; Liu, Kan; Masterman-Smith, Michael; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Due to increased needs for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanning, high demands for a wide variety of radiolabeled compounds will have to be met by exploiting novel radiochemistry and engineering technologies to improve the production and development of PET probes. The application of microfluidic reactors to perform radiosyntheses is currently attracting a great deal of interest because of their potential to deliver many advantages over conventional labeling systems. Microfluidic-based radiochemistry can lead to the use of smaller quantities of precursors, accelerated reaction rates and easier purification processes with greater yield and higher specific activity of desired probes. Several ‘proof-of-principle’ examples, along with basics of device architecture and operation, and potential limitations of each design are discussed here. Along with the concept of radioisotope distribution from centralized cyclotron facilities to individual imaging centers and laboratories (“decentralized model”), an easy-to-use, standalone, flexible, fully-automated radiochemical microfluidic platform can open up to simpler and more cost-effective procedures for molecular imaging using PET. PMID:20643021

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of PET and SPECT imaging of {sup 90}Y

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Akihiko Sasaki, Masayuki; Himuro, Kazuhiko; Yamashita, Yasuo; Komiya, Isao; Baba, Shingo

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Yittrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) is traditionally thought of as a pure beta emitter, and is used in targeted radionuclide therapy, with imaging performed using bremsstrahlung single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, because {sup 90}Y also emits positrons through internal pair production with a very small branching ratio, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is also available. Because of the insufficient image quality of {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT, PET imaging has been suggested as an alternative. In this paper, the authors present the Monte Carlo-based simulation–reconstruction framework for {sup 90}Y to comprehensively analyze the PET and SPECT imaging techniques and to quantitatively consider the disadvantages associated with them. Methods: Our PET and SPECT simulation modules were developed using Monte Carlo simulation of Electrons and Photons (MCEP), developed by Dr. S. Uehara. PET code (MCEP-PET) generates a sinogram, and reconstructs the tomography image using a time-of-flight ordered subset expectation maximization (TOF-OSEM) algorithm with attenuation compensation. To evaluate MCEP-PET, simulated results of {sup 18}F PET imaging were compared with the experimental results. The results confirmed that MCEP-PET can simulate the experimental results very well. The SPECT code (MCEP-SPECT) models the collimator and NaI detector system, and generates the projection images and projection data. To save the computational time, the authors adopt the prerecorded {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung photon data calculated by MCEP. The projection data are also reconstructed using the OSEM algorithm. The authors simulated PET and SPECT images of a water phantom containing six hot spheres filled with different concentrations of {sup 90}Y without background activity. The amount of activity was 163 MBq, with an acquisition time of 40 min. Results: The simulated {sup 90}Y-PET image accurately simulated the experimental results. PET image is visually

  16. Pretargeted PET Imaging Using a Site-Specifically Labeled Immunoconjugate.

    PubMed

    Cook, Brendon E; Adumeau, Pierre; Membreno, Rosemery; Carnazza, Kathryn E; Brand, Christian; Reiner, Thomas; Agnew, Brian J; Lewis, Jason S; Zeglis, Brian M

    2016-08-17

    In recent years, both site-specific bioconjugation techniques and bioorthogonal pretargeting strategies have emerged as exciting technologies with the potential to improve the safety and efficacy of antibody-based nuclear imaging. In the work at hand, we have combined these two approaches to create a pretargeted PET imaging strategy based on the rapid and bioorthogonal inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction between a (64)Cu-labeled tetrazine radioligand ((64)Cu-Tz-SarAr) and a site-specifically modified huA33-trans-cyclooctene immunoconjugate ((ss)huA33-PEG12-TCO). A bioconjugation strategy that harnesses enzymatic transformations and strain-promoted azide-alkyne click chemistry was used to site-specifically append PEGylated TCO moieties to the heavy chain glycans of the colorectal cancer-targeting huA33 antibody. Preclinical in vivo validation studies were performed in athymic nude mice bearing A33 antigen-expressing SW1222 human colorectal carcinoma xenografts. To this end, mice were administered (ss)huA33-PEG12-TCO via tail vein injection and-following accumulation intervals of 24 or 48 h-(64)Cu-Tz-SarAr. PET imaging and biodistribution studies reveal that this strategy clearly delineates tumor tissue as early as 1 h post-injection (6.7 ± 1.7%ID/g at 1 h p.i.), producing images with excellent contrast and high tumor-to-background activity concentration ratios (tumor:muscle = 21.5 ± 5.6 at 24 h p.i.). Furthermore, dosimetric calculations illustrate that this pretargeting approach produces only a fraction of the overall effective dose (0.0214 mSv/MBq; 0.079 rem/mCi) of directly labeled radioimmunoconjugates. Ultimately, this method effectively facilitates the high contrast pretargeted PET imaging of colorectal carcinoma using a site-specifically modified immunoconjugate.

  17. Investigation of optimization-based reconstruction with an image-total-variation constraint in PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Ye, Jinghan; Chen, Buxin; Perkins, Amy E.; Rose, Sean; Sidky, Emil Y.; Kao, Chien-Min; Xia, Dan; Tung, Chi-Hua; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2016-08-01

    Interest remains in reconstruction-algorithm research and development for possible improvement of image quality in current PET imaging and for enabling innovative PET systems to enhance existing, and facilitate new, preclinical and clinical applications. Optimization-based image reconstruction has been demonstrated in recent years of potential utility for CT imaging applications. In this work, we investigate tailoring the optimization-based techniques to image reconstruction for PET systems with standard and non-standard scan configurations. Specifically, given an image-total-variation (TV) constraint, we investigated how the selection of different data divergences and associated parameters impacts the optimization-based reconstruction of PET images. The reconstruction robustness was explored also with respect to different data conditions and activity up-takes of practical relevance. A study was conducted particularly for image reconstruction from data collected by use of a PET configuration with sparsely populated detectors. Overall, the study demonstrates the robustness of the TV-constrained, optimization-based reconstruction for considerably different data conditions in PET imaging, as well as its potential to enable PET configurations with reduced numbers of detectors. Insights gained in the study may be exploited for developing algorithms for PET-image reconstruction and for enabling PET-configuration design of practical usefulness in preclinical and clinical applications.

  18. NEMA NU 4-2008 Comparison of Preclinical PET Imaging Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goertzen, Andrew L.; Bao, Qinan; Bergeron, Mélanie; Blankemeyer, Eric; Blinder, Stephan; Cañadas, Mario; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Dinelle, Katherine; Elhami, Esmat; Jans, Hans-Sonke; Lage, Eduardo; Lecomte, Roger; Sossi, Vesna; Surti, Suleman; Tai, Yuan-Chuan; Vaquero, Juan José; Vicente, Esther; Williams, Darin A.; Laforest, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) standard NU 4-2008 for performance measurements of small-animal tomographs was recently published. Before this standard, there were no standard testing procedures for preclinical PET systems, and manufacturers could not provide clear specifications similar to those available for clinical systems under NEMA NU 2-1994 and 2-2001. Consequently, performance evaluation papers used methods that were modified ad hoc from the clinical PET NEMA standard, thus making comparisons between systems difficult. Methods We acquired NEMA NU 4-2008 performance data for a collection of commercial animal PET systems manufactured since 2000: micro- PET P4, microPET R4, microPET Focus 120, microPET Focus 220, Inveon, ClearPET, Mosaic HP, Argus (formerly eXplore Vista), VrPET, LabPET 8, and LabPET 12. The data included spatial resolution, counting-rate performance, scatter fraction, sensitivity, and image quality and were acquired using settings for routine PET. Results The data showed a steady improvement in system performance for newer systems as compared with first-generation systems, with notable improvements in spatial resolution and sensitivity. Conclusion Variation in system design makes direct comparisons between systems from different vendors difficult. When considering the results from NEMA testing, one must also consider the suitability of the PET system for the specific imaging task at hand. PMID:22699999

  19. Bimodal Thrombus Imaging: Simultaneous PET/MR Imaging with a Fibrin-targeted Dual PET/MR Probe—Feasibility Study in Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Uppal, Ritika; Catana, Ciprian; Ay, Ilknur; Benner, Thomas; Sorensen, A. Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To image thrombus by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) simultaneously in a rat arterial thrombus model with a dual PET/MR probe. Materials and Methods: Animal studies were approved by the institutional animal use committee. A dual PET/MR probe was synthesized by means of partial exchange of gadolinium for copper 64 (64Cu) in the fibrin-targeted MR probe EP-2104R. A preformed 25-mm thrombus was injected into the right internal carotid artery of a rat. Imaging was performed with a clinical 3.0-T MR imager with an MR-compatible human PET imager. Rats (n = 5) were imaged prior to and after systemic administration of the dual probe by using simultaneous PET/MR. The organ distribution of 64Cu and gadolinium was determined ex vivo (n = 8), 2 hours after injection by using well counting and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, respectively. Signal intensity ratios (SIRs) between the thrombus-containing and contralateral vessel were computed from PET images and MR data before and after probe administration. Results: The dual probe was synthesized with greater than 98% radiochemical purity. Thrombus enhancement was observed in all five animals at both MR (SIR[postprobe]/SIR[preprobe] = 1.71 ± 0.35, P = .0053) and PET (SIR = 1.85 ± 0.48, P = .0087) after injection of the dual PET/MR probe. Ex vivo analysis at 2 hours after injection showed the highest 64Cu and gadolinium concentrations, after the excretory organs (kidney and liver), to be in the thrombus. Conclusion: A fibrin-targeted dual PET/MR probe enables simultaneous, direct MR and PET imaging of thrombus. © RSNA, 2010 PMID:21177389

  20. PET imaging of dopamine receptors in MPTP-induced parkinsonism

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; DiChiro, G.; Burns, R.S.; Dannals, R.F.; Kopin, I.J.; Brooks, R.A.; Kessler, R.M.; Wagner, R.F.; Eckelman, W.C.; Margolin, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    MPTP(N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) induces parkinsonism in animals and man by selectively destroying dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. The postsynaptic neurons (and presumably the dopamine receptors) are intact. The authors have imaged dopamine receptors in a patient with MPTP induced parkinsonism, using /sup 11/CMS (3-N(/sup 11/C) methylspiperone. Seven and 9 mCi's, respectively, were injected at one week intervals while the patient was first off, and then on, L-dopa. As measured by NeuroPET (NIH), putamen to cerebellum concentration ratios rose progressively to 5.5:1, by 90 min. after injection. At this time the concentration of /sup 11/CMS was 10 picomole/cc (off L-dopa), and 14 picomole/cc (on L-dopa). The Duvoisin scale was used to assess the severity of the patient's parkinsonism immediately prior and at the end of PET imaging. On both occasions, despite the small mass amount of /sup 11/CMS injected, (1.1 g/kg), a transient worsening of symptoms was seen. The effect of L-Dopa was almost completely reversed by the /sup 11/CMS. In contrast, off L-Dopa the patients severe basal state was worsened only slightly. The PET scans suggested that dopamine receptors are not reduced in MPTP-induced parkinsonism. The findings were consistent with the hypotheses that PET may identify patients who will benefit from L-Dopa, and that expression of parkinsonian symptoms reflects desaturation of dopamine receptors in striatum.

  1. MR-based motion correction for PET imaging using wired active MR microcoils in simultaneous PET-MR: Phantom study

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chuan; Brady, Thomas J.; El Fakhri, Georges; Ouyang, Jinsong; Ackerman, Jerome L.; Petibon, Yoann

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Artifacts caused by head motion present a major challenge in brain positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The authors investigated the feasibility of using wired active MR microcoils to track head motion and incorporate the measured rigid motion fields into iterative PET reconstruction. Methods: Several wired active MR microcoils and a dedicated MR coil-tracking sequence were developed. The microcoils were attached to the outer surface of an anthropomorphic{sup 18}F-filled Hoffman phantom to mimic a brain PET scan. Complex rotation/translation motion of the phantom was induced by a balloon, which was connected to a ventilator. PET list-mode and MR tracking data were acquired simultaneously on a PET-MR scanner. The acquired dynamic PET data were reconstructed iteratively with and without motion correction. Additionally, static phantom data were acquired and used as the gold standard. Results: Motion artifacts in PET images were effectively removed by wired active MR microcoil based motion correction. Motion correction yielded an activity concentration bias ranging from −0.6% to 3.4% as compared to a bias ranging from −25.0% to 16.6% if no motion correction was applied. The contrast recovery values were improved by 37%–156% with motion correction as compared to no motion correction. The image correlation (mean ± standard deviation) between the motion corrected (uncorrected) images of 20 independent noise realizations and static reference was R{sup 2} = 0.978 ± 0.007 (0.588 ± 0.010, respectively). Conclusions: Wired active MR microcoil based motion correction significantly improves brain PET quantitative accuracy and image contrast.

  2. Comparison between two super-resolution implementations in PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Chang, Guoping; Pan, Tinsu; Qiao, Feng; Clark, John W; Mawlawi, Osama R

    2009-04-01

    Super-resolution (SR) techniques are used in PET imaging to generate a high-resolution image by combining multiple low-resolution images that have been acquired from different points of view (POV). In this article, the authors propose a novel implementation of the SR technique whereby the required multiple low-resolution images are generated by shifting the reconstruction pixel grid during the image reconstruction process rather than being acquired from different POVs. The objective of this article is to compare the performances of the two SR implementations using theoretical and experimental studies. A mathematical framework is first provided to support the hypothesis that the two SR implementations have similar performance in current PET/CT scanners that use block detectors. Based on this framework, a simulation study, a point source study, and a NEMA/IEC phantom study were conducted to compare the performance of these two SR implementations with respect to contrast, resolution, noise, and SNR. For reference purposes, a comparison with a native reconstruction (NR) image using a high-resolution pixel grid was also performed. The mathematical framework showed that the two SR implementations are expected to achieve similar contrast and resolution but different noise contents. These results were confirmed by the simulation and experimental studies. The simulation study showed that the two SR implementations have an average contrast difference of 2.3%, while the point source study showed that their average differences in contrast and resolution were 0.5% and 1.2%, respectively. Comparisons between the SR and NR images for the point source study showed that the NR image exhibited averages of 30% and 8% lower contrast and resolution, respectively. The NEMA/IEC phantom study showed that the three images (two SR and NR) exhibited different noise structures. The SNR of the new SR implementation was, on average, 21.5% lower than the original implementation largely due to an

  3. RGD-based PET tracers for imaging receptor integrin αv β3 expression.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hancheng; Conti, Peter S

    2013-05-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of receptor integrin αv β3 expression may play a key role in the early detection of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, monitoring disease progression, evaluating therapeutic response, and aiding anti-angiogenic drugs discovery and development. The last decade has seen the development of new PET tracers for in vivo imaging of integrin αv β3 expression along with advances in PET chemistry. In this review, we will focus on the radiochemistry development of PET tracers based on arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide, present an overview of general strategies for preparing RGD-based PET tracers, and review the recent advances in preparations of (18) F-labeled, (64) Cu-labeled, and (68) Ga-labeled RGD tracers, RGD-based PET multivalent probes, and RGD-based PET multimodality probes for imaging receptor integrin αv β3 expression.

  4. Iodine-124 as a label for pharmacological PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Belov, Vasily V; Bonab, Ali A; Fischman, Alan J; Heartlein, Michael; Calias, Pericles; Papisov, Mikhail I

    2011-06-06

    With the growing number of biotechnology products and drug delivery systems entering preclinical and clinical studies, pharmacological imaging studies with PET play an increasingly significant role. Such studies often require investigation of slow and complex pharmacokinetics (PK). This suggests labeling of the drug candidate with radionuclides that have long physical half-lives. Among the currently available PET positron emitters, ¹²⁴I has the longest physical half-life (4.2 days). This, combined with the well-investigated behavior of iodine in vivo, makes ¹²⁴I very attractive for pharmacological studies. However, the high energy of the positrons emitted by ¹²⁴I and the presence of single photons in the ¹²⁴I emission can potentially introduce limitations in the quantitative analysis of the images. The objective of this research was to determine whether the use of ¹²⁴I as a PET label provides data quality suitable for PK studies. The study was carried out using MicroPET P4 scanner (Siemens/Concorde Microsystems). Spatial resolution, count-rate performance, sensitivity and scatter fraction were measured using a line source and a cylindrical phantom. Model animal studies in rats and cynomolgus monkeys were carried out using human recombinant proteins. The proteins were labeled with ¹²⁴I, up to 185 MBq/mg. The transaxial and axial spatial resolutions in the center of the camera were satisfactory and higher for OSEM3D/MAP than FORE-2DFBP (FWHM 2.52 vs 3.31 mm, and 3.10 vs 3.69 mm). Linearity of the true coincidence count-rate was observed up to 44 MBq. Animal studies demonstrated excellent delineation and resolution of even very small organs. At optimal doses, 2-10 MBq per animal for rodents and 4-10 MBq per kg of body weight for larger animals, the quality of numerical data was appropriate for PK analysis in all experimental timeframes from minutes (dynamic studies) to 10 days. Overall, the data suggest that ¹²⁴I is an excellent label for

  5. PET Radiotracers for Imaging the Proliferative Status of Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Robert H.; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Wheeler, Kenneth T.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Two different strategies have been developed for imaging the proliferative status of solid tumors with the functional imaging technique, Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The first strategy uses carbon-11 labeled thymidine and/or, more recently, fluorine-18 labeled thymidine analogs. These agents are a substrate for the enzyme thymidine kinase-1 (TK-1) and provide a pulse label of the number of cells in S phase. The second method for imaging the proliferative status of a tumor uses radiolabeled ligands that bind to the sigma-2 receptor which has a 10-fold higher density in proliferating (P) tumor cells versus quiescent (Q) tumor cells. This article compares and contrasts the two different strategies for imaging the proliferative status of solid tumors, and describes the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. PMID:20046891

  6. Physiological imaging with PET and SPECT in Dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Jagust, W.J. . Dept. of Neurology Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1989-10-01

    Dementia is a medical problem of increasingly obvious importance. The most common cause of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounts for at least 50% of all cases of dementia, with multi-infarct dementia the next most common cause of the syndrome. While the accuracy of diagnosis of AD may range from 80 to 90%, there is currently no laboratory test to confirm the diagnosis. Functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) offer diagnostic advantages since brain function is unequivocally disturbed in all dementing illnesses. Both PET and SPECT have been utilized in the study of dementia. While both techniques rely on principles of emission tomography to produce three dimensional maps of injected radiotracers, the differences between positron and single photon emission have important consequences for the practical applications of the two procedures. This briefly reviews the technical differences between PET and SPECT, and discusses how both techniques have been used in our laboratory to elucidate the pathophysiology of dementia. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Detector Technologies for Sub-500um High-Sensitivity PET Imaging via a Novel PET Insert Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2011-12-21

    The objective of this project was to develop detector technologies that would enable an ultrahigh resolution Virtual Pinhole (VP) PET insert device to provide sub-500 um resolution high-sensitivity PET imaging of a mouse in the future. To achieve this goal, we proposed to develop and characterize finely pixellated cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors and the associated readout electronics with the following specific aims: 1. Develop pixellated CZT detectors with 350um pitches using 2-5 mm substrates; characterize their spatial, energy and timing performance through experiments; and optimize the anode design with steering grid if found necessary. 2. Develop a high-bandwidth readout system using a novel ASIC that can be directly bonded to CZT detectors with 2048 anodes of 350um pitches; optimize its overall performance for VP-PET applications considering the tradeoffs between spatial resolution (in 3D), count rate capability, timing and energy resolutions. 3. Evaluate the performance of a VP-PET insert based on the proposed detector technology through Monte Carlo simulation and experimental validation. Overall, we have completed all three specific aims and demonstrated that pixelated CZT detectors of 350um pitches, combined with VP-PET geometry, can provide PET image resolution of ~460 um FWHM for small animal imaging applications.

  8. MO-FG-207-00: Technological Advances in PET/MR Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    The use of integrated PET/MRI systems in clinical applications can best benefit from understanding their technological advances and limitations. The currently available clinical PET/MRI systems have their own characteristics. Thorough analyses of existing technical data and evaluation of necessary performance metrics for quality assurances could be conducted to optimize application-specific PET/MRI protocols. This Symposium will focus on technical advances and limitations of clinical PET/MRI systems, and how this exciting imaging modality can be utilized in applications that can benefit from both PET and MRI. Learning Objectives: To understand the technological advances of clinical PET/MRI systems To correctly identify clinical applications that can benefit from PET/MRI To understand ongoing work to further improve the current PET/MRI technology Floris Jansen is a GE Healthcare employee.

  9. Comparison of Imaging Characteristics of (124)I PET for Determination of Optimal Energy Window on the Siemens Inveon PET.

    PubMed

    Yu, A Ram; Kim, Hee-Joung; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Jin Su

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. (124)I has a half-life of 4.2 days, which makes it suitable for imaging over several days over its uptake and washout phases. However, it has a low positron branching ratio (23%), because of prompt gamma coincidence due to high-energy γ-photons (602 to 1,691 keV), which are emitted in cascade with positrons. Methods. In this study, we investigated the optimal PET energy window for (124)I PET based on image characteristics of reconstructed PET. Image characteristics such as nonuniformities, recovery coefficients (RCs), and the spillover ratios (SORs) of (124)I were measured as described in NEMA NU 4-2008 standards. Results. The maximum and minimum prompt gamma coincidence fraction (PGF) were 33% and 2% in 350~800 and 400~590 keV, respectively. The difference between best and worst uniformity in the various energy windows was less than 1%. The lowest SORs of (124)I were obtained at 350~750 keV in nonradioactive water compartment. Conclusion. Optimal energy window should be determined based on image characteristics. Our developed correction method would be useful for the correction of high-energy prompt gamma photon in (124)I PET. In terms of the image quality of (124)I PET, our findings indicate that an energy window of 350~750 keV would be optimal.

  10. Imaging performance of LabPET APD-based digital PET scanners for pre-clinical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Mélanie; Cadorette, Jules; Tétrault, Marc-André; Beaudoin, Jean-François; Leroux, Jean-Daniel; Fontaine, Réjean; Lecomte, Roger

    2014-02-01

    The LabPET is an avalanche photodiode (APD) based digital PET scanner with quasi-individual detector read-out and highly parallel electronic architecture for high-performance in vivo molecular imaging of small animals. The scanner is based on LYSO and LGSO scintillation crystals (2×2×12/14 mm3), assembled side-by-side in phoswich pairs read out by an APD. High spatial resolution is achieved through the individual and independent read-out of an individual APD detector for recording impinging annihilation photons. The LabPET exists in three versions, LabPET4 (3.75 cm axial length), LabPET8 (7.5 cm axial length) and LabPET12 (11.4 cm axial length). This paper focuses on the systematic characterization of the three LabPET versions using two different energy window settings to implement a high-efficiency mode (250-650 keV) and a high-resolution mode (350-650 keV) in the most suitable operating conditions. Prior to measurements, a global timing alignment of the scanners and optimization of the APD operating bias have been carried out. Characteristics such as spatial resolution, absolute sensitivity, count rate performance and image quality have been thoroughly investigated following the NEMA NU 4-2008 protocol. Phantom and small animal images were acquired to assess the scanners' suitability for the most demanding imaging tasks in preclinical biomedical research. The three systems achieve the same radial FBP spatial resolution at 5 mm from the field-of-view center: 1.65/3.40 mm (FWHM/FWTM) for an energy threshold of 250 keV and 1.51/2.97 mm for an energy threshold of 350 keV. The absolute sensitivity for an energy window of 250-650 keV is 1.4%/2.6%/4.3% for LabPET4/8/12, respectively. The best count rate performance peaking at 362 kcps is achieved by the LabPET12 with an energy window of 250-650 keV and a mouse phantom (2.5 cm diameter) at an activity of 2.4 MBq ml-1. With the same phantom, the scatter fraction for all scanners is about 17% for an energy threshold of

  11. PET Imaging and Biodistribution of Silicon Quantum Dots in Mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of nanomaterial disposition and fate in the body is critical before such material can be translated into clinical application. Herein a new macrocyclic ligand−64Cu2+ complex was synthesized and used to label dextran-coated silicon quantum dots (QD), with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 15.1 ± 7.6 nm. The chelate showed exceptional stability, demonstrated by no loss radiolabel under a ligand competition reaction with EDTA. The QDs’ biodistribution in mice was quantitatively evaluated by in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and ex vivo gamma counting. Results showed that they were excreted via renal filtration shortly postinjection and also accumulated in the liver. PMID:21546997

  12. Segmentation of dynamic PET images with kinetic spectral clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouysset, S.; Zbib, H.; Stute, S.; Girault, J. M.; Charara, J.; Noailles, J.; Chalon, S.; Buvat, I.; Tauber, C.

    2013-10-01

    Segmentation is often required for the analysis of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) images. However, noise and low spatial resolution make it a difficult task and several supervised and unsupervised methods have been proposed in the literature to perform the segmentation based on semi-automatic clustering of the time activity curves of voxels. In this paper we propose a new method based on spectral clustering that does not require any prior information on the shape of clusters in the space in which they are identified. In our approach, the p-dimensional data, where p is the number of time frames, is first mapped into a high dimensional space and then clustering is performed in a low-dimensional space of the Laplacian matrix. An estimation of the bounds for the scale parameter involved in the spectral clustering is derived. The method is assessed using dynamic brain PET images simulated with GATE and results on real images are presented. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method and its superior performance over three other clustering methods from the literature. The proposed approach appears as a promising pre-processing tool before parametric map calculation or ROI-based quantification tasks.

  13. Radiolabeling of Nanoparticles and Polymers for PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Stockhofe, Katharina; Postema, Johannes M.; Schieferstein, Hanno; Ross, Tobias L.

    2014-01-01

    Nanomedicine has become an emerging field in imaging and therapy of malignancies. Nanodimensional drug delivery systems have already been used in the clinic, as carriers for sensitive chemotherapeutics or highly toxic substances. In addition, those nanodimensional structures are further able to carry and deliver radionuclides. In the development process, non-invasive imaging by means of positron emission tomography (PET) represents an ideal tool for investigations of pharmacological profiles and to find the optimal nanodimensional architecture of the aimed-at drug delivery system. Furthermore, in a personalized therapy approach, molecular imaging modalities are essential for patient screening/selection and monitoring. Hence, labeling methods for potential drug delivery systems are an indispensable need to provide the radiolabeled analog. In this review, we describe and discuss various approaches and methods for the labeling of potential drug delivery systems using positron emitters. PMID:24699244

  14. PET imaging of neurogenic activity in the adult brain: Toward in vivo imaging of human neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yasuhisa; Kataoka, Yosky

    2017-01-01

    Neural stem cells are present in 2 neurogenic regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), and continue to generate new neurons throughout life. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is linked to a variety of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety, and to the therapeutic effects of antidepressants, as well as learning and memory. In vivo imaging for hippocampal neurogenic activity may be used to diagnose psychiatric disorders and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants. However, these imaging techniques remain to be established until now. Recently, we established a quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique for neurogenic activity in the adult brain with 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluoro-L-thymidine ([(18)F]FLT) and probenecid, a drug transporter inhibitor in blood-brain barrier. Moreover, we showed that this PET imaging technique can monitor alterations in neurogenic activity in the hippocampus of adult rats with depression and following treatment with an antidepressant. This PET imaging method may assist in diagnosing depression and in monitoring the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants. In this commentary, we discuss the possibility of in vivo PET imaging for neurogenic activity in adult non-human primates and humans.

  15. Clinical Utility of Positron Emission Tomography Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET-MRI) in Gastrointestinal Cancers.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Robert; Choi, Minsig

    2016-09-09

    Anatomic imaging utilizing both CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) limits the assessment of cancer metastases in lymph nodes and distant organs while functional imaging like PET (positron emission tomography) scan has its limitation in spatial resolution capacity. Hybrid imaging utilizing PET-CT and PET-MRI are novel imaging modalities that are changing the current landscape in cancer diagnosis, staging, and treatment response. MRI has shown to have higher sensitivity in soft tissue, head and neck pathology, and pelvic disease, as well as, detecting small metastases in the liver and bone compared to CT. Combining MRI with PET allows for detection of metastases that may have been missed with current imaging modalities. In this review, we will examine the clinical utility of FDG PET-MRI in the diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal cancers with focus on esophageal, stomach, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers. We will also explore its role in treatment response and future directions associated with it.

  16. Impact of motion and partial volume effects correction on PET myocardial perfusion imaging using simultaneous PET-MR

    PubMed Central

    Petibon, Yoann; Guehl, Nicolas J.; Reese, Timothy G.; Ebrahimi, Behzad; Normandin, Marc D.; Shoup, Timothy M.; Alpert, Nathaniel M.; El Fakhri, Georges; Ouyang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    PET is an established modality for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) which enables quantification of absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) using dynamic imaging and kinetic modeling. However, heart motion and Partial Volume Effects (PVE) significantly limit the spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy of PET MPI. Simultaneous PET-MR offers a solution to the motion problem in PET by enabling MR-based motion correction of PET data. The aim of this study was to develop a motion and PVE correction methodology for PET MPI using simultaneous PET-MR, and to assess its impact on both static and dynamic PET MPI using 18F-Flurpiridaz, a novel 18F-labeled perfusion tracer. Two dynamic 18F-Flurpiridaz MPI scans were performed on healthy pigs using a PET-MR scanner. Cardiac motion was tracked using a dedicated tagged-MRI (tMR) sequence. Motion fields were estimated using non-rigid registration of tMR images and used to calculate motion-dependent attenuation maps. Motion correction of PET data was achieved by incorporating tMR-based motion fields and motion-dependent attenuation coefficients into image reconstruction. Dynamic and static PET datasets were created for each scan. Each dataset was reconstructed as (i) Ungated, (ii) Gated (end-diastolic phase), and (iii) Motion-Corrected (MoCo), each without and with point spread function (PSF) modeling for PVE correction. Myocardium-to-blood concentration ratios (MBR) and apparent wall thickness were calculated to assess image quality for static MPI. For dynamic MPI, segment- and voxel-wise myocardial blood flow (MBF) values were estimated by non-linear fitting of a 2-tissue compartment model to tissue time-activity-curves. MoCo and Gating respectively decreased mean apparent wall thickness by 15.1% and 14.4% and increased MBR by 20.3% and 13.6% compared to Ungated images (P<0.01). Combined motion and PSF correction (MoCo-PSF) yielded 30.9% (15.7%) lower wall thickness and 82.2% (20.5%) higher MBR compared to Ungated data

  17. Impact of motion and partial volume effects correction on PET myocardial perfusion imaging using simultaneous PET-MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibon, Yoann; Guehl, Nicolas J.; Reese, Timothy G.; Ebrahimi, Behzad; Normandin, Marc D.; Shoup, Timothy M.; Alpert, Nathaniel M.; El Fakhri, Georges; Ouyang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    PET is an established modality for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) which enables quantification of absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) using dynamic imaging and kinetic modeling. However, heart motion and partial volume effects (PVE) significantly limit the spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy of PET MPI. Simultaneous PET-MR offers a solution to the motion problem in PET by enabling MR-based motion correction of PET data. The aim of this study was to develop a motion and PVE correction methodology for PET MPI using simultaneous PET-MR, and to assess its impact on both static and dynamic PET MPI using 18F-Flurpiridaz, a novel 18F-labeled perfusion tracer. Two dynamic 18F-Flurpiridaz MPI scans were performed on healthy pigs using a PET-MR scanner. Cardiac motion was tracked using a dedicated tagged-MRI (tMR) sequence. Motion fields were estimated using non-rigid registration of tMR images and used to calculate motion-dependent attenuation maps. Motion correction of PET data was achieved by incorporating tMR-based motion fields and motion-dependent attenuation coefficients into image reconstruction. Dynamic and static PET datasets were created for each scan. Each dataset was reconstructed as (i) Ungated, (ii) Gated (end-diastolic phase), and (iii) Motion-Corrected (MoCo), each without and with point spread function (PSF) modeling for PVE correction. Myocardium-to-blood concentration ratios (MBR) and apparent wall thickness were calculated to assess image quality for static MPI. For dynamic MPI, segment- and voxel-wise MBF values were estimated by non-linear fitting of a 2-tissue compartment model to tissue time-activity-curves. MoCo and Gating respectively decreased mean apparent wall thickness by 15.1% and 14.4% and increased MBR by 20.3% and 13.6% compared to Ungated images (P  <  0.01). Combined motion and PSF correction (MoCo-PSF) yielded 30.9% (15.7%) lower wall thickness and 82.2% (20.5%) higher MBR compared to Ungated data reconstructed

  18. Development of PET imaging-based dose-painting prescriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Stephen R.

    Historically, prescriptions in radiation therapy are based on physician experience drawn from the results of extensive clinical trials in order to establish standard-of-care guidelines. The doses of radiation are generally uniform across target volumes to reflect a fixed level of local neoplastic disease control of the population mean. However, inter-patient and intra-tumor variation in response to uniform doses can result in diminished tumor control and poor clinical outcome for certain patients. Recent research endeavors are emphasizing the need to individualize prescriptions by incorporating patient-specific biological markers with prognostic and predictive value. Quantitative imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) of tumor glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, and hypoxia has been suggested as a sensitive and specific technique to tailor patient prescriptions in a manner that may significantly improve clinical outcome. The concept of prescribing and delivering non-uniform dose based on molecular imaging, termed dose painting, hinges on the establishment of a dose-response relationship at the image voxel scale that optimizes a particular clinical endpoint. This doctoral thesis presented two methods of defining dose-painting prescriptions based on PET imaging: the first was a heuristic model derivation of hypoxia dose-painting prescriptions in head-and-neck cancer patients; the second was an empirical imaging surrogate endpoint derivation of prescriptions in veterinary sinonasal cancer patients. The clinical implementation of these dose painting prescriptions was investigated, which emphasized treatment planning and delivery solutions. Lastly, a summary and discussion of the future of dose painting to forge links between tumor biology and clinical outcome was presented. The compelling dose painting concept is fast becoming a clinical reality that may positively impact cancer patient lives.

  19. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2011-08-28

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  20. Stereotactic PET atlas of the human brain: Aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images

    SciTech Connect

    Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, A.; Ishihara, M.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1994-06-01

    In the routine analysis of functional brain images obtained by PET, subjective visual interpretation is often used for anatomic localization. To enhance the accuracy and consistency of the anatomic interpretation, a PET stereotactic atlas and localization approach was designed for functional brain images. The PET atlas was constructed from a high-resolution [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) image set of a normal volunteer (a 41-yr-ld woman). The image set was reoriented stereotactically, according to the intercommissural (anterior and posterior commissures) line and transformed to the standard stereotactic atlas coordinates. Cerebral structures were annotated on the transaxial planes using a proportional grid system and surface-rendered images. The stereotactic localization technique was applied to image sets from patients with Alzheimer`s disease, and areas of functional alteration were localized visually by referring to the PET atlas. Major brain structures were identified on both transaxial planes and surface-rendered images. In the stereotactic system, anatomic correspondence between the PET atlas and stereotactically reoriented individual image sets of patients with Alzheimer`s disease facilitated both indirect and direct localization of the cerebral structures. Because rapid stereotactic alignment methods for PET images are now available for routine use, the PET atlas will serve as an aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images in the stereotactic system. Widespread application of stereotactic localization may be used in functional brain images, not only in the research setting, but also in routine clinical situations. 41 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Polyglucose nanoparticles with renal elimination and macrophage avidity facilitate PET imaging in ischaemic heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Keliher, Edmund J.; Ye, Yu-Xiang; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Tricot, Benoit; Senders, Max L.; Groenen, Hannah; Fay, Francois; Perez-Medina, Carlos; Calcagno, Claudia; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Reiner, Thomas; Sun, Yuan; Courties, Gabriel; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Kim, Hye-Yeong; Wang, Cuihua; Chen, John W.; Swirski, Filip K.; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Hooker, Jacob; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Weissleder, Ralph; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Tissue macrophage numbers vary during health versus disease. Abundant inflammatory macrophages destruct tissues, leading to atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and heart failure. Emerging therapeutic options create interest in monitoring macrophages in patients. Here we describe positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18F-Macroflor, a modified polyglucose nanoparticle with high avidity for macrophages. Due to its small size, Macroflor is excreted renally, a prerequisite for imaging with the isotope flourine-18. The particle's short blood half-life, measured in three species, including a primate, enables macrophage imaging in inflamed cardiovascular tissues. Macroflor enriches in cardiac and plaque macrophages, thereby increasing PET signal in murine infarcts and both mouse and rabbit atherosclerotic plaques. In PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments, Macroflor PET imaging detects changes in macrophage population size while molecular MRI reports on increasing or resolving inflammation. These data suggest that Macroflor PET/MRI could be a clinical tool to non-invasively monitor macrophage biology. PMID:28091604

  2. Positron emitting magnetic nanoconstructs for PET/MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Santosh; Key, Jaehong; Stigliano, Cinzia; Landis, Melissa D; Lee, Daniel Y; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2014-07-09

    Hybrid PET/MRI scanners have the potential to provide fundamental molecular, cellular, and anatomic information essential for optimizing therapeutic and surgical interventions. However, their full utilization is currently limited by the lack of truly multi-modal contrast agents capable of exploiting the strengths of each modality. Here, we report on the development of long-circulating positron-emitting magnetic nanoconstructs (PEM) designed to image solid tumors for combined PET/MRI. PEMs are synthesized by a modified nano-precipitation method mixing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), lipids, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains with 5 nm iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIOs). PEM lipids are coupled with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and subsequently chelated to (64)Cu. PEMs show a diameter of 140 ± 7 nm and a transversal relaxivity r2 of 265.0 ± 10.0 (mM × s)(-1), with a r2/r1 ratio of 123. Using a murine xenograft model bearing human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231), intravenously administered PEMs progressively accumulate in tumors reaching a maximum of 3.5 ± 0.25% ID/g tumor at 20 h post-injection. Correlation of PET and MRI signals revealed non-uniform intratumoral distribution of PEMs with focal areas of accumulation at the tumor periphery. These long-circulating PEMs with high transversal relaxivity and tumor accumulation may allow for detailed interrogation over multiple scales in a clinically relevant setting.

  3. Quantitative image reconstruction for total-body PET imaging using the 2-meter long EXPLORER scanner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Cherry, Simon R; Badawi, Ramsey D; Qi, Jinyi

    2017-03-21

    The EXPLORER project aims to build a 2 meter long total-body PET scanner, which will provide extremely high sensitivity for imaging the entire human body. It will possess a range of capabilities currently unavailable to state-of-the-art clinical PET scanners with a limited axial field-of-view. The huge number of lines-of-response (LORs) of the EXPLORER poses a challenge to the data handling and image reconstruction. The objective of this study is to develop a quantitative image reconstruction method for the EXPLORER and compare its performance with current whole-body scanners. Fully 3D image reconstruction was performed using time-of-flight list-mode data with parallel computation. To recover the resolution loss caused by the parallax error between crystal pairs at a large axial ring difference or transaxial radial offset, we applied an image domain resolution model estimated from point source data. To evaluate the image quality, we conducted computer simulations using the SimSET Monte-Carlo toolkit and XCAT 2.0 anthropomorphic phantom to mimic a 20 min whole-body PET scan with an injection of 25 MBq (18)F-FDG. We compare the performance of the EXPLORER with a current clinical scanner that has an axial FOV of 22 cm. The comparison results demonstrated superior image quality from the EXPLORER with a 6.9-fold reduction in noise standard deviation comparing with multi-bed imaging using the clinical scanner.

  4. Quantitative image reconstruction for total-body PET imaging using the 2-meter long EXPLORER scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Qi, Jinyi

    2017-03-01

    The EXPLORER project aims to build a 2 meter long total-body PET scanner, which will provide extremely high sensitivity for imaging the entire human body. It will possess a range of capabilities currently unavailable to state-of-the-art clinical PET scanners with a limited axial field-of-view. The huge number of lines-of-response (LORs) of the EXPLORER poses a challenge to the data handling and image reconstruction. The objective of this study is to develop a quantitative image reconstruction method for the EXPLORER and compare its performance with current whole-body scanners. Fully 3D image reconstruction was performed using time-of-flight list-mode data with parallel computation. To recover the resolution loss caused by the parallax error between crystal pairs at a large axial ring difference or transaxial radial offset, we applied an image domain resolution model estimated from point source data. To evaluate the image quality, we conducted computer simulations using the SimSET Monte–Carlo toolkit and XCAT 2.0 anthropomorphic phantom to mimic a 20 min whole-body PET scan with an injection of 25 MBq 18F-FDG. We compare the performance of the EXPLORER with a current clinical scanner that has an axial FOV of 22 cm. The comparison results demonstrated superior image quality from the EXPLORER with a 6.9-fold reduction in noise standard deviation comparing with multi-bed imaging using the clinical scanner.

  5. In Vivo Imaging of GLP-1R with a Targeted Bimodal PET/Fluorescence Imaging Agent

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Accurate visualization and quantification of β-cell mass is critical for the improved understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and insulinoma. Here, we describe the synthesis of a bimodal imaging probe (PET/fluorescence) for imaging GLP-1R expression in the pancreas and in pancreatic islet cell tumors. The conjugation of a bimodal imaging tag containing a near-infrared fluorescent dye, and the copper chelator sarcophagine to the GLP-1R targeting peptide exendin-4 provided the basis for the bimodal imaging probe. Conjugation was performed via a novel sequential one-pot synthetic procedure including 64Cu radiolabeling and copper-catalyzed click-conjugation. The bimodal imaging agent 64Cu-E4-Fl was synthesized in good radiochemical yield and specific activity (RCY = 36%, specific activity: 141 μCi/μg, >98% radiochemical purity). The agent showed good performance in vivo and ex vivo, visualizing small xenografts (<2 mm) with PET and pancreatic β-cell mass by phosphor autoradiography. Using the fluorescent properties of the probe, we were able to detect individual pancreatic islets, confirming specific binding to GLP-1R and surpassing the sensitivity of the radioactive label. The use of bimodal PET/fluorescent imaging probes is promising for preoperative imaging and fluorescence-assisted analysis of patient tissues. We believe that our procedure could become relevant as a protocol for the development of bimodal imaging agents. PMID:24856928

  6. Nonrigid Image Registration for Head and Neck Cancer Radiotherapy Treatment Planning With PET/CT

    SciTech Connect

    Ireland, Rob H. . E-mail: r.ireland@sheffield.ac.uk; Dyker, Karen E.; Barber, David C.; Wood, Steven M.; Hanney, Michael B.; Tindale, Wendy B.; Woodhouse, Neil; Hoggard, Nigel; Conway, John; Robinson, Martin H.

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: Head and neck radiotherapy planning with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) requires the images to be reliably registered with treatment planning CT. Acquiring PET/CT in treatment position is problematic, and in practice for some patients it may be beneficial to use diagnostic PET/CT for radiotherapy planning. Therefore, the aim of this study was first to quantify the image registration accuracy of PET/CT to radiotherapy CT and, second, to assess whether PET/CT acquired in diagnostic position can be registered to planning CT. Methods and Materials: Positron emission tomography/CT acquired in diagnostic and treatment position for five patients with head and neck cancer was registered to radiotherapy planning CT using both rigid and nonrigid image registration. The root mean squared error for each method was calculated from a set of anatomic landmarks marked by four independent observers. Results: Nonrigid and rigid registration errors for treatment position PET/CT to planning CT were 2.77 {+-} 0.80 mm and 4.96 {+-} 2.38 mm, respectively, p = 0.001. Applying the nonrigid registration to diagnostic position PET/CT produced a more accurate match to the planning CT than rigid registration of treatment position PET/CT (3.20 {+-} 1.22 mm and 4.96 {+-} 2.38 mm, respectively, p = 0.012). Conclusions: Nonrigid registration provides a more accurate registration of head and neck PET/CT to treatment planning CT than rigid registration. In addition, nonrigid registration of PET/CT acquired with patients in a standardized, diagnostic position can provide images registered to planning CT with greater accuracy than a rigid registration of PET/CT images acquired in treatment position. This may allow greater flexibility in the timing of PET/CT for head and neck cancer patients due to undergo radiotherapy.

  7. Optimising rigid motion compensation for small animal brain PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler-Bickell, Matthew G.; Zhou, Lin; Kyme, Andre Z.; De Laat, Bart; Fulton, Roger R.; Nuyts, Johan

    2016-10-01

    Motion compensation (MC) in PET brain imaging of awake small animals is attracting increased attention in preclinical studies since it avoids the confounding effects of anaesthesia and enables behavioural tests during the scan. A popular MC technique is to use multiple external cameras to track the motion of the animal’s head, which is assumed to be represented by the motion of a marker attached to its forehead. In this study we have explored several methods to improve the experimental setup and the reconstruction procedures of this method: optimising the camera-marker separation; improving the temporal synchronisation between the motion tracker measurements and the list-mode stream; post-acquisition smoothing and interpolation of the motion data; and list-mode reconstruction with appropriately selected subsets. These techniques have been tested and verified on measurements of a moving resolution phantom and brain scans of an awake rat. The proposed techniques improved the reconstructed spatial resolution of the phantom by 27% and of the rat brain by 14%. We suggest a set of optimal parameter values to use for awake animal PET studies and discuss the relative significance of each parameter choice.

  8. Brain tissue segmentation in PET-CT images using probabilistic atlas and variational Bayes inference.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yong; Wang, Jiabin; Eberl, Stefan; Fulham, Michael; Feng, David Dagan

    2011-01-01

    PET-CT provides aligned anatomical (CT) and functional (PET) images in a single scan, and has the potential to improve brain PET image segmentation, which can in turn improve quantitative clinical analyses. We propose a statistical segmentation algorithm that incorporates the prior anatomical knowledge represented by probabilistic brain atlas into the variational Bayes inference to delineate gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in brain PET-CT images. Our approach adds an additional novel aspect by allowing voxels to have variable and adaptive prior probabilities of belonging to each class. We compared our algorithm to the segmentation approaches implemented in the expectation maximization segmentation (EMS) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) packages in 26 clinical cases. The results show that our algorithm improves the accuracy of brain PET-CT image segmentation.

  9. Effects of injected dose, BMI and scanner type on NECR and image noise in PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tingting; Chang, Guoping; Kohlmyer, Steve; Clark, John W; Rohren, Eric; Mawlawi, Osama R

    2011-08-21

    Noise equivalent count rate (NECR) and image noise are two different but related metrics that have been used to predict and assess image quality, respectively. The aim of this study is to investigate, using patient studies, the relationships between injected dose (ID), body mass index (BMI) and scanner type on NECR and image noise measurements in PET imaging. Two groups of 90 patients each were imaged on a GE DSTE and a DRX PET/CT scanner, respectively. The patients in each group were divided into nine subgroups according to three BMI (20-24.9, 25-29.9, 30-45 kg m(-2)) and three ID (296-444, 444-555, 555-740 MBq) ranges, resulting in ten patients/subgroup. All PET data were acquired in 3D mode and reconstructed using the VuePoint HD® fully 3D OSEM algorithm (2 iterations, 21(DRX) or 20 (DSTE) subsets). NECR and image noise measurements for bed positions covering the liver were calculated for each patient. NECR was calculated from the trues, randoms and scatter events recorded in the DICOM header of each patient study, while image noise was determined as the standard deviation of 50 non-neighboring voxels in the liver of each patient. A t-test compared the NECR and image noise for different scanners but with the same BMI and ID. An ANOVA test on the other hand was used to compare the results of patients with different BMI but the same ID and scanner type as well as different ID but the same BMI and scanner type. As expected the t-test showed a significant difference in NECR between the two scanners for all BMI and ID subgroups. However, contrary to what is expected no such findings were observed for image noise measurement. The ANOVA results showed a statistically significant difference in both NECR and image noise among the different BMI for each ID and scanner subgroup. However, there was no statistically significant difference in NECR and image noise across different ID for each BMI and scanner subgroup. Although the GE DRX PET/CT scanner has better count rate

  10. Heterogeneity in stabilization phenomena in FLT PET images of canines

    PubMed Central

    Simoncic, Urban; Jeraj, Robert

    2014-01-01

    3′-(18F)fluoro-3′-deoxy-L-thymidine (FLT) is a PET marker of cellular proliferation. Its tissue uptake rate is often quantified with a Standardized Uptake Value (SUV), although kinetic analysis provides a more accurate quantification. The purpose of this study is to investigate the heterogeneity in FLT stabilization phenomena. The study was done on 15 canines with spontaneously occurring sinonasal tumours. They were imaged dynamically for 90 min with FLT PET/CT twice; before and during the radiotherapy. Images were analyzed for kinetics on a voxel basis through compartmental analysis. Stabilization curves were calculated as a time-dependant correlation between the time-dependant SUV and the kinetic parameters (voxel values within the tumour were correlated). Stabilization curves were analyzed for stabilization speed, maximal correlation and correlation decrease following the maximal correlation. These stabilization parameters were correlated with the region-averaged kinetic parameters. The FLT SUV was highly correlated with vasculature fraction immediately post-injection, followed by maximum in correlation with the perfusion/permeability. At later times post-injection the FLT SUV was highly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient above 0.95) with the FLT influx parameter for cases with tumour-averaged SUV30–50min above 2, while others were indeterminate (correlation coefficients from 0.1 to 0.97). All cases with highly correlated SUV and FLT influx parameter had correlation coefficient within 0.5% of its maximum in the period of 30–50 min post-injection. Stabilization time was inversely proportional to the FLT influx rate. Correlation between the FLT SUV and FLT influx parameter dropped at later times post-injection with drop being proportional to the dephosphorylation rate. The FLT was found to be metabolically stable in canines. FLT PET imaging protocol should define minimal and maximal FLT uptake period, which would be 30–50 min for our patients

  11. Towards integration of PET/MR hybrid imaging into radiation therapy treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, Daniel H.; Thorwath, Daniela; Schmidt, Holger; Quick, Harald H.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Multimodality imaging has become an important adjunct of state-of-the-art radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning. Recently, simultaneous PET/MR hybrid imaging has become clinically available and may also contribute to target volume delineation and biological individualization in RT planning. For integration of PET/MR hybrid imaging into RT treatment planning, compatible dedicated RT devices are required for accurate patient positioning. In this study, prototype RT positioning devices intended for PET/MR hybrid imaging are introduced and tested toward PET/MR compatibility and image quality. Methods: A prototype flat RT table overlay and two radiofrequency (RF) coil holders that each fix one flexible body matrix RF coil for RT head/neck imaging have been evaluated within this study. MR image quality with the RT head setup was compared to the actual PET/MR setup with a dedicated head RF coil. PET photon attenuation and CT-based attenuation correction (AC) of the hardware components has been quantitatively evaluated by phantom scans. Clinical application of the new RT setup in PET/MR imaging was evaluated in anin vivo study. Results: The RT table overlay and RF coil holders are fully PET/MR compatible. MR phantom and volunteer imaging with the RT head setup revealed high image quality, comparable to images acquired with the dedicated PET/MR head RF coil, albeit with 25% reduced SNR. Repositioning accuracy of the RF coil holders was below 1 mm. PET photon attenuation of the RT table overlay was calculated to be 3.8% and 13.8% for the RF coil holders. With CT-based AC of the devices, the underestimation error was reduced to 0.6% and 0.8%, respectively. Comparable results were found within the patient study. Conclusions: The newly designed RT devices for hybrid PET/MR imaging are PET and MR compatible. The mechanically rigid design and the reproducible positioning allow for straightforward CT-based AC. The systematic evaluation within this study provides the

  12. PET Imaging of Skeletal Metastases and Its Role in Personalizing Further Management.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Abhishek; Azad, Gurdip Kaur; Cook, Gary J

    2016-07-01

    In oncology, the skeleton is one of the most frequently encountered sites for metastatic disease and thus early detection not only has an impact on an individual patient's management but also on the overall outcome. Multiparametric and multimodal hybrid PET/computed tomography and PET/MR imaging have revolutionized imaging for bone metastases, but irrespective of tumor biology or morphology of the bone lesion it remains unclear which imaging modality is the most clinically relevant to guide individualized cancer care. In this review, we highlight the current clinical challenges of PET imaging in evaluation and quantification of skeletal tumor burden and its impact on personalized cancer management.

  13. EXPLORER: Changing the molecular imaging paradigm with total-body PET/CT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Jones, Terry

    2016-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is the highest sensitivity technique for human whole-body imaging studies. However, current clinical PET scanners do not make full use of the available signal, as they only permit imaging of a 15-25 cm segment of the body at one time. Given the limited sensitive region, whole-body imaging with clinical PET scanners requires relatively long scan times and subjects the patient to higher than necessary radiation doses. The EXPLORER initiative aims to build a 2-meter axial length PET scanner to allow imaging the entire subject at once, capturing nearly the entire available PET signal. EXPLORER will acquire data with ~40-fold greater sensitivity leading to a six-fold increase in reconstructed signal-to-noise ratio for imaging the total body. Alternatively, total-body images with the EXPLORER scanner will be able to be acquired in ~30 seconds or with ~0.15 mSv injected dose, while maintaining current PET image quality. The superior sensitivity will open many new avenues for biomedical research. Specifically for cancer applications, high sensitivity PET will enable detection of smaller lesions. Additionally, greater sensitivity will allow imaging out to 10 half-lives of positron emitting radiotracers. This will enable 1) metabolic ultra-staging with FDG by extending the uptake and clearance time to 3-5 hours to significantly improve contrast and 2) improved kinetic imaging with short-lived radioisotopes such as C-11, crucial for drug development studies. Frequent imaging studies of the same subject to study disease progression or to track response to therapy will be possible with the low dose capabilities of the EXPLORER scanner. The low dose capabilities will also open up new imaging possibilities in pediatrics and adolescents to better study developmental disorders. This talk will review the basis for developing total-body PET, potential applications, and review progress to date in developing EXPLORER, the first total-body PET scanner.

  14. Respiration-Averaged CT for Attenuation Correction of PET Images – Impact on PET Texture Features in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Nai-Ming; Fang, Yu-Hua Dean; Tsan, Din-Li

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We compared attenuation correction of PET images with helical CT (PET/HCT) and respiration-averaged CT (PET/ACT) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with the goal of investigating the impact of respiration-averaged CT on 18F FDG PET texture parameters. Materials and Methods A total of 56 patients were enrolled. Tumors were segmented on pretreatment PET images using the adaptive threshold. Twelve different texture parameters were computed: standard uptake value (SUV) entropy, uniformity, entropy, dissimilarity, homogeneity, coarseness, busyness, contrast, complexity, grey-level nonuniformity, zone-size nonuniformity, and high grey-level large zone emphasis. Comparisons of PET/HCT and PET/ACT were performed using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, intraclass correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves as well as univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify the parameters significantly associated with disease-specific survival (DSS). A fixed threshold at 45% of the maximum SUV (T45) was used for validation. Results SUV maximum and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were significantly higher in PET/ACT. However, texture parameters obtained with PET/ACT and PET/HCT showed a high degree of agreement. The lowest levels of variation between the two modalities were observed for SUV entropy (9.7%) and entropy (9.8%). SUV entropy, entropy, and coarseness from both PET/ACT and PET/HCT were significantly associated with DSS. Validation analyses using T45 confirmed the usefulness of SUV entropy and entropy in both PET/HCT and PET/ACT for the prediction of DSS, but only coarseness from PET/ACT achieved the statistical significance threshold. Conclusions Our results indicate that 1) texture parameters from PET/ACT are clinically useful in the prediction of survival in NSCLC patients and 2) SUV entropy and entropy are robust to attenuation correction methods. PMID:26930211

  15. Automatic co-segmentation of lung tumor based on random forest in PET-CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xueqing; Xiang, Dehui; Zhang, Bin; Zhu, Weifang; Shi, Fei; Chen, Xinjian

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a fully automatic method is proposed to segment the lung tumor in clinical 3D PET-CT images. The proposed method effectively combines PET and CT information to make full use of the high contrast of PET images and superior spatial resolution of CT images. Our approach consists of three main parts: (1) initial segmentation, in which spines are removed in CT images and initial connected regions achieved by thresholding based segmentation in PET images; (2) coarse segmentation, in which monotonic downhill function is applied to rule out structures which have similar standardized uptake values (SUV) to the lung tumor but do not satisfy a monotonic property in PET images; (3) fine segmentation, random forests method is applied to accurately segment the lung tumor by extracting effective features from PET and CT images simultaneously. We validated our algorithm on a dataset which consists of 24 3D PET-CT images from different patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The average TPVF, FPVF and accuracy rate (ACC) were 83.65%, 0.05% and 99.93%, respectively. The correlation analysis shows our segmented lung tumor volumes has strong correlation ( average 0.985) with the ground truth 1 and ground truth 2 labeled by a clinical expert.

  16. Performance of three-photon PET imaging: Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Kacperski, Krzysztof; Spyrou, Nicholas M

    2005-12-07

    We have recently introduced the idea of making use of three-photon positron annihilations in positron emission tomography. In this paper, the basic characteristics of the three-gamma imaging in PET are studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations and analytical computations. Two typical configurations of human and small animal scanners are considered. Three-photon imaging requires high-energy resolution detectors. Parameters currently attainable by CdZnTe semiconductor detectors, the technology of choice for the future development of radiation imaging, are assumed. Spatial resolution is calculated as a function of detector energy resolution and size, position in the field of view, scanner size and the energies of the three-gamma annihilation photons. Possible ways to improve the spatial resolution obtained for nominal parameters, 1.5 cm and 3.2 mm FWHM for human and small animal scanners, respectively, are indicated. Counting rates of true and random three-photon events for typical human and small animal scanning configurations are assessed. A simple formula for minimum size of lesions detectable in the three-gamma based images is derived. Depending on the contrast and total number of registered counts, lesions of a few mm size for human and sub mm for small animal scanners can be detected.

  17. Development of [F-18]-Labeled Amyloid Imaging Agents for PET

    SciTech Connect

    Mathis, CA

    2007-05-09

    The applicant proposes to design and synthesize a series of fluorine-18-labeled radiopharmaceuticals to be used as amyloid imaging agents for positron emission tomography (PET). The investigators will conduct comprehensive iterative in vitro and in vivo studies based upon well defined acceptance criteria in order to identify lead agents suitable for human studies. The long term goals are to apply the selected radiotracers as potential diagnostic agents of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as surrogate markers of amyloid in the brain to determine the efficacy of anti-amyloid therapeutic drugs, and as tools to help address basic scientific questions regarding the progression of the neuropathology of AD, such as testing the "amyloid cascade hypothesis" which holds that amyloid accumulation is the primary cause of AD.

  18. Comparison of bootstrap resampling methods for 3-D PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Lartizien, C; Aubin, J-B; Buvat, I

    2010-07-01

    Two groups of bootstrap methods have been proposed to estimate the statistical properties of positron emission tomography (PET) images by generating multiple statistically equivalent data sets from few data samples. The first group generates resampled data based on a parametric approach assuming that data from which resampling is performed follows a Poisson distribution while the second group consists of nonparametric approaches. These methods either require a unique original sample or a series of statistically equivalent data that can be list-mode files or sinograms. Previous reports regarding these bootstrap approaches suggest different results. This work compares the accuracy of three of these bootstrap methods for 3-D PET imaging based on simulated data. Two methods are based on a unique file, namely a list-mode based nonparametric (LMNP) method and a sinogram based parametric (SP) method. The third method is a sinogram-based nonparametric (SNP) method. Another original method (extended LMNP) was also investigated, which is an extension of the LMNP methods based on deriving a resampled list-mode file by drawings events from multiple original list-mode files. Our comparison is based on the analysis of the statistical moments estimated on the repeated and resampled data. This includes the probability density function and the moments of order 1 and 2. Results show that the two methods based on multiple original data (SNP and extended LMNP) are the only methods that correctly estimate the statistical parameters. Performances of the LMNP and SP methods are variable. Simulated data used in this study were characterized by a high noise level. Differences among the tested strategies might be reduced with clinical data sets with lower noise.

  19. Combined SPECT/CT and PET/CT for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Paolo; Larobina, Michele; Di Lillo, Francesca; Del Vecchio, Silvana; Mettivier, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    In the field of nuclear medicine imaging, breast imaging for cancer diagnosis is still mainly based on 2D imaging techniques. Three-dimensional tomographic imaging with whole-body PET or SPECT scanners, when used for imaging the breast, has performance limits in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity, which can be overcome only with a dedicated instrumentation. However, only few hybrid imaging systems for PET/CT or SPECT/CT dedicated to the breast have been developed in the last decade, providing complementary functional and anatomical information on normal breast tissue and lesions. These systems are still under development and clinical trials on just few patients have been reported; no commercial dedicated breast PET/CT or SPECT/CT is available. This paper reviews combined dedicated breast PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners described in the recent literature, with focus on their technological aspects.

  20. In Vivo ¹⁸F-FDG-PET Imaging in Mouse Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Jesús; Bilbao, Izaskun; Vaquero, Juan José; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús; España, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an important technique in cardiovascular research. Vascular inflammation detected by fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET has been shown to predict cardiovascular (CV) events independent of traditional risk factors and is also highly associated with overall burden of atherosclerosis. The use of PET imaging in mouse models of atherosclerosis is challenged by the reduced size of the scanned organs. However, the last generation of dedicated PET scanners has an improved spatial resolution (<1 mm) and increased sensitivity allowing those studies to be performed. Here, we describe a procedure to perform FDG-PET experiments in atherosclerosis mouse models, the required equipment for animal handling and imaging, and the tools and procedures for image analysis and validation of the results.

  1. Antibody-based PET imaging of amyloid beta in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Sehlin, Dag; Fang, Xiaotian T.; Cato, Linda; Antoni, Gunnar; Lannfelt, Lars; Syvänen, Stina

    2016-01-01

    Owing to their specificity and high-affinity binding, monoclonal antibodies have potential as positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands and are currently used to image various targets in peripheral organs. However, in the central nervous system, antibody uptake is limited by the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Here we present a PET ligand to be used for diagnosis and evaluation of treatment effects in Alzheimer's disease. The amyloid β (Aβ) antibody mAb158 is radiolabelled and conjugated to a transferrin receptor antibody to enable receptor-mediated transcytosis across the BBB. PET imaging of two different mouse models with Aβ pathology clearly visualize Aβ in the brain. The PET signal increases with age and correlates closely with brain Aβ levels. Thus, we demonstrate that antibody-based PET ligands can be successfully used for brain imaging. PMID:26892305

  2. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine: PET/Computed Tomography and Therapy Response Assessment in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Mena, Esther; Pattanayak, Puskar; Taghipour, Mehdi; Solnes, Lilja B; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2017-01-01

    A variety of methods have been developed to assess tumor response to therapy. Standardized qualitative criteria based on 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose PET/computed tomography have been proposed to evaluate the treatment effectiveness in specific cancers and these allow more accurate therapy response assessment and survival prognostication. Multiple studies have addressed the utility of the volumetric PET biomarkers as prognostic indicators but there is no consensus about the preferred segmentation methodology for these metrics. Heterogeneous intratumoral uptake was proposed as a novel PET metric for therapy response assessment. PET imaging techniques will be used to study the biological behavior of cancers during therapy.

  3. Impact of metal artefacts due to EEG electrodes in brain PET/CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, Catherine; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Nuyts, Johan; Ratib, Osman; Dupont, Patrick; Zaidi, Habib

    2008-08-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes on the visual quality and quantification of 18F-FDG PET images in neurological PET/CT examinations. For this purpose, the scans of 20 epilepsy patients with EEG monitoring were used. The CT data were reconstructed with filtered backprojection (FBP) and with a metal artefact reduction (MAR) algorithm. Both data sets were used for CT-based attenuation correction (AC) of the PET data. Also, a calculated AC (CALC) technique was considered. A volume of interest (VOI)-based analysis and a voxel-based quantitative analysis were performed to compare the different AC methods. Images were also evaluated visually by two observers. It was shown with simulations and phantom measurements that from the considered AC methods, the MAR-AC can be used as the reference in this setting. The visual assessment of PET images showed local hot spots outside the brain corresponding to the locations of the electrodes when using FBP-AC. In the brain, no abnormalities were observed. The quantitative analysis showed a very good correlation between PET-FBP-AC and PET-MAR-AC, with a statistically significant positive bias in the PET-FBP-AC images of about 5-7% in most brain voxels. There was also good correlation between PET-CALC-AC and PET-MAR-AC, but in the PET-CALC-AC images, regions with both a significant positive and negative bias were observed. EEG electrodes give rise to local hot spots outside the brain and a positive quantification bias in the brain. However, when diagnosis is made by mere visual assessment, the presence of EEG electrodes does not seem to alter the diagnosis. When quantification is performed, the bias becomes an issue especially when comparing brain images with and without EEG monitoring.

  4. New targets for the development of PET tracers for imaging neurodegeneration in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Mach, Robert H

    2014-08-01

    The field of molecular imaging has experienced significant advances in the area of Alzheimer disease (AD), the most significant being the development of PET radiotracers for imaging β-amyloid burden in the brain of individuals at risk for or in the early stages of AD. More recent advances include the development of PET radiotracers for imaging aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in neurofibrillary tangles, a process that occurs late in the disease process. This article highlights advances in the neurobiology of AD and describes how PET can be used to study the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in AD.

  5. Transmission imaging for integrated PET-MR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Spencer L.; Fuin, Niccolò; Levine, Michael A.; Catana, Ciprian

    2016-08-01

    Attenuation correction for PET-MR systems continues to be a challenging problem, particularly for body regions outside the head. The simultaneous acquisition of transmission scan based μ-maps and MR images on integrated PET-MR systems may significantly increase the performance of and offer validation for new MR-based μ-map algorithms. For the Biograph mMR (Siemens Healthcare), however, use of conventional transmission schemes is not practical as the patient table and relatively small diameter scanner bore significantly restrict radioactive source motion and limit source placement. We propose a method for emission-free coincidence transmission imaging on the Biograph mMR. The intended application is not for routine subject imaging, but rather to improve and validate MR-based μ-map algorithms; particularly for patient implant and scanner hardware attenuation correction. In this study we optimized source geometry and assessed the method’s performance with Monte Carlo simulations and phantom scans. We utilized a Bayesian reconstruction algorithm, which directly generates μ-map estimates from multiple bed positions, combined with a robust scatter correction method. For simulations with a pelvis phantom a single torus produced peak noise equivalent count rates (34.8 kcps) dramatically larger than a full axial length ring (11.32 kcps) and conventional rotating source configurations. Bias in reconstructed μ-maps for head and pelvis simulations was  ⩽4% for soft tissue and  ⩽11% for bone ROIs. An implementation of the single torus source was filled with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and the proposed method quantified for several test cases alone or in comparison with CT-derived μ-maps. A volume average of 0.095 cm-1 was recorded for an experimental uniform cylinder phantom scan, while a bias of  <2% was measured for the cortical bone equivalent insert of the multi-compartment phantom. Single torus μ-maps of a hip implant phantom showed significantly less

  6. Transmission imaging for integrated PET-MR systems.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Spencer L; Fuin, Niccolò; Levine, Michael A; Catana, Ciprian

    2016-08-07

    Attenuation correction for PET-MR systems continues to be a challenging problem, particularly for body regions outside the head. The simultaneous acquisition of transmission scan based μ-maps and MR images on integrated PET-MR systems may significantly increase the performance of and offer validation for new MR-based μ-map algorithms. For the Biograph mMR (Siemens Healthcare), however, use of conventional transmission schemes is not practical as the patient table and relatively small diameter scanner bore significantly restrict radioactive source motion and limit source placement. We propose a method for emission-free coincidence transmission imaging on the Biograph mMR. The intended application is not for routine subject imaging, but rather to improve and validate MR-based μ-map algorithms; particularly for patient implant and scanner hardware attenuation correction. In this study we optimized source geometry and assessed the method's performance with Monte Carlo simulations and phantom scans. We utilized a Bayesian reconstruction algorithm, which directly generates μ-map estimates from multiple bed positions, combined with a robust scatter correction method. For simulations with a pelvis phantom a single torus produced peak noise equivalent count rates (34.8 kcps) dramatically larger than a full axial length ring (11.32 kcps) and conventional rotating source configurations. Bias in reconstructed μ-maps for head and pelvis simulations was  ⩽4% for soft tissue and  ⩽11% for bone ROIs. An implementation of the single torus source was filled with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and the proposed method quantified for several test cases alone or in comparison with CT-derived μ-maps. A volume average of 0.095 cm(-1) was recorded for an experimental uniform cylinder phantom scan, while a bias of  <2% was measured for the cortical bone equivalent insert of the multi-compartment phantom. Single torus μ-maps of a hip implant phantom showed significantly

  7. What Does PET Imaging Add to Conventional Staging of Head and Neck Cancer Patients?

    SciTech Connect

    Pohar, Surjeet . E-mail: poharss@evms.edu; Brown, Robert B.S.; Newman, Nancy; Koniarczyk, Michael; Hsu, Jack; Feiglin, David

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of PET scans in the staging of patients with head and neck carcinoma. Methods and Materials: The charts of 25 patients who underwent neck dissection, computed tomography (CT) scan, and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging as part of their initial work-up for a head and neck squamous cell cancer between 2000-2003 were reviewed. All patients underwent clinical examination, triple endoscopy, and chest radiograph as part of their clinical staging, adhering to American Joint Commission for Cancer criteria. In addition to the clinical nodal (N) stage, PET findings were incorporated to determine a second type of N staging: clinical N + PET stage. The number of neck sides and nodal levels involved on CT or PET and on pathologic examination were recorded. Results: The sensitivity and specificity for detection of nodal disease were similar for CT and FDG-PET. Positive and negative likelihood ratios were similar for both diagnostic tests. None of our 25 patients had unsuspected distant disease detected by PET. Conclusion: The addition of PET imaging did not improve diagnostic accuracy in our patients compared with CT. PET scanning did not alter clinical management in any of the patients.

  8. TU-AB-BRA-06: Texture Feature Reproducibility Between PET/CT and PET/MR Imaging Modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Galavis, P; Friedman, K; Chandarana, H; Jackson, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Radiomics involves the extraction of texture features from different imaging modalities with the purpose of developing models to predict patient treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate texture feature reproducibility across [18F]FDG PET/CT and [18F]FDG PET/MR imaging in patients with primary malignancies. Methods: Twenty five prospective patients with solid tumors underwent clinical [18F]FDG PET/CT scan followed by [18F]FDG PET/MR scans. In all patients the lesions were identified using nuclear medicine reports. The images were co-registered and segmented using an in-house auto-segmentation method. Fifty features, based on the intensity histogram, second and high order matrices, were extracted from the segmented regions from both image data sets. One-way random-effects ANOVA model of the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to establish texture feature correlations between both data sets. Results: Fifty features were classified based on their ICC values, which were found in the range from 0.1 to 0.86, in three categories: high, intermediate, and low. Ten features extracted from second and high-order matrices showed large ICC ≥ 0.70. Seventeen features presented intermediate 0.5 ≤ ICC ≤ 0.65 and the remaining twenty three presented low ICC ≤ 0.45. Conclusion: Features with large ICC values could be reliable candidates for quantification as they lead to similar results from both imaging modalities. Features with small ICC indicates a lack of correlation. Therefore, the use of these features as a quantitative measure will lead to different assessments of the same lesion depending on the imaging modality from where they are extracted. This study shows the importance of the need for further investigation and standardization of features across multiple imaging modalities.

  9. Segmentation of brain PET-CT images based on adaptive use of complementary information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yong; Wen, Lingfeng; Eberl, Stefan; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan

    2009-02-01

    Dual modality PET-CT imaging provides aligned anatomical (CT) and functional (PET) images in a single scanning session, which can potentially be used to improve image segmentation of PET-CT data. The ability to distinguish structures for segmentation is a function of structure and modality and varies across voxels. Thus optimal contribution of a particular modality to segmentation is spatially variant. Existing segmentation algorithms, however, seldom account for this characteristic of PET-CT data and the results using these algorithms are not optimal. In this study, we propose a relative discrimination index (RDI) to characterize the relative abilities of PET and CT to correctly classify each voxel into the correct structure for segmentation. The definition of RDI is based on the information entropy of the probability distribution of the voxel's class label. If the class label derived from CT data for a particular voxel has more certainty than that derived from PET data, the corresponding RDI will have a higher value. We applied the RDI matrix to balance adaptively the contributions of PET and CT data to segmentation of brain PET-CT images on a voxel-by-voxel basis, with the aim to give the modality with higher discriminatory power a larger weight. The resultant segmentation approach is distinguished from traditional approaches by its innovative and adaptive use of the dual-modality information. We compared our approach to the non-RDI version and two commonly used PET-only based segmentation algorithms for simulation and clinical data. Our results show that the RDI matrix markedly improved PET-CT image segmentation.

  10. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  11. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs.

  12. MR-PET image coregistration for quantitation of striatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Levy, A.V.

    1996-05-01

    Our goal was to assess the utility of MR-PET image coregistration to quantify dopamine D{sub 2} receptors in striatum. Twenty-nine normal subjects were investigated with PET and [{sup 11}C]raclopride and with MRI. D{sub 2} receptors were quantified using the ratio of the distribution volume in striatum to that in cerebellum. Measures obtained using regions selected directly from the PET images were compared with those obtained from MR images and then projected to coregistered PET images. There were no differences between measures selected from the PET images (3.9 {+-} 0.5) and those from the MR images (3.9 {+-} 0.65). The values for these two measures were significantly correlated and corresponded to r = 0.9, P < 0.0001. Regions of interest selected directly from PET images, where there is a large contrast between the region of interest and background, as for the case of dopamine D{sub 2} ligands, are almost identical to those obtained from coregistered MR images. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Respiratory motion correction in 4D-PET by simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantari, Faraz; Li, Tianfang; Jin, Mingwu; Wang, Jing

    2016-08-01

    In conventional 4D positron emission tomography (4D-PET), images from different frames are reconstructed individually and aligned by registration methods. Two issues that arise with this approach are as follows: (1) the reconstruction algorithms do not make full use of projection statistics; and (2) the registration between noisy images can result in poor alignment. In this study, we investigated the use of simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) methods for motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET. A modified ordered-subset expectation maximization algorithm coupled with total variation minimization (OSEM-TV) was used to obtain a primary motion-compensated PET (pmc-PET) from all projection data, using Demons derived deformation vector fields (DVFs) as initial motion vectors. A motion model update was performed to obtain an optimal set of DVFs in the pmc-PET and other phases, by matching the forward projection of the deformed pmc-PET with measured projections from other phases. The OSEM-TV image reconstruction was repeated using updated DVFs, and new DVFs were estimated based on updated images. A 4D-XCAT phantom with typical FDG biodistribution was generated to evaluate the performance of the SMEIR algorithm in lung and liver tumors with different contrasts and different diameters (10-40 mm). The image quality of the 4D-PET was greatly improved by the SMEIR algorithm. When all projections were used to reconstruct 3D-PET without motion compensation, motion blurring artifacts were present, leading up to 150% tumor size overestimation and significant quantitative errors, including 50% underestimation of tumor contrast and 59% underestimation of tumor uptake. Errors were reduced to less than 10% in most images by using the SMEIR algorithm, showing its potential in motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET.

  14. TH-E-202-01: Pitfalls and Remedies in PET/CT Imaging for RT Planning.

    PubMed

    Pan, T

    2016-06-01

    PET/CT is a very important imaging tool in the management of oncology patients. PET/CT has been applied for treatment planning and response evaluation in radiation therapy. This educational session will discuss: 1. Pitfalls and remedies in PET/CT imaging for RT planning 2. The use of hypoxia PET imaging for radiotherapy 3. PET for tumor response evaluation The first presentation will address the issue of mis-registration between the CT and PET images in the thorax and the abdomen. We will discuss the challenges of respiratory gating and introduce an average CT technique to improve the registration for dose calculation and image-guidance in radiation therapy. The second presentation will discuss the use of hypoxia PET Imaging for radiation therapy. We will discuss various hypoxia radiotracers, the choice of clinical acquisition protocol (in particular a single late static acquisition versus a dynamic acquisition), and the compartmental modeling with different transfer rate constants explained. We will demonstrate applications of hypoxia imaging for dose escalation/de-escalation in clinical trials. The last presentation will discuss the use of PET/CT for tumor response evaluation. We will discuss anatomic response assessment vs. metabolic response assessment, visual evaluation and semi-quantitative evaluation, and limitations of current PET/CT assessment. We will summarize clinical trials using PET response in guiding adaptive radiotherapy. Finally, we will summarize recent advancements in PET/CT radiomics and non-FDG PET tracers for response assessment.

  15. A Survey of FDG- and Amyloid-PET Imaging in Dementia and GRADE Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Daniela, Perani; Orazio, Schillaci; Alessandro, Padovani; Mariano, Nobili Flavio; Leonardo, Iaccarino; Pasquale Anthony, Della Rosa; Giovanni, Frisoni; Carlo, Caltagirone

    2014-01-01

    PET based tools can improve the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and differential diagnosis of dementia. The importance of identifying individuals at risk of developing dementia among people with subjective cognitive complaints or mild cognitive impairment has clinical, social, and therapeutic implications. Within the two major classes of AD biomarkers currently identified, that is, markers of pathology and neurodegeneration, amyloid- and FDG-PET imaging represent decisive tools for their measurement. As a consequence, the PET tools have been recognized to be of crucial value in the recent guidelines for the early diagnosis of AD and other dementia conditions. The references based recommendations, however, include large PET imaging literature based on visual methods that greatly reduces sensitivity and specificity and lacks a clear cut-off between normal and pathological findings. PET imaging can be assessed using parametric or voxel-wise analyses by comparing the subject's scan with a normative data set, significantly increasing the diagnostic accuracy. This paper is a survey of the relevant literature on FDG and amyloid-PET imaging aimed at providing the value of quantification for the early and differential diagnosis of AD. This allowed a meta-analysis and GRADE analysis revealing high values for PET imaging that might be useful in considering recommendations. PMID:24772437

  16. A survey of FDG- and amyloid-PET imaging in dementia and GRADE analysis.

    PubMed

    Perani, Daniela; Daniela, Perani; Schillaci, Orazio; Orazio, Schillaci; Padovani, Alessandro; Alessandro, Padovani; Nobili, Flavio Mariano; Mariano, Nobili Flavio; Iaccarino, Leonardo; Leonardo, Iaccarino; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Pasquale Anthony, Della Rosa; Frisoni, Giovanni; Giovanni, Frisoni; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlo, Caltagirone

    2014-01-01

    PET based tools can improve the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and differential diagnosis of dementia. The importance of identifying individuals at risk of developing dementia among people with subjective cognitive complaints or mild cognitive impairment has clinical, social, and therapeutic implications. Within the two major classes of AD biomarkers currently identified, that is, markers of pathology and neurodegeneration, amyloid- and FDG-PET imaging represent decisive tools for their measurement. As a consequence, the PET tools have been recognized to be of crucial value in the recent guidelines for the early diagnosis of AD and other dementia conditions. The references based recommendations, however, include large PET imaging literature based on visual methods that greatly reduces sensitivity and specificity and lacks a clear cut-off between normal and pathological findings. PET imaging can be assessed using parametric or voxel-wise analyses by comparing the subject's scan with a normative data set, significantly increasing the diagnostic accuracy. This paper is a survey of the relevant literature on FDG and amyloid-PET imaging aimed at providing the value of quantification for the early and differential diagnosis of AD. This allowed a meta-analysis and GRADE analysis revealing high values for PET imaging that might be useful in considering recommendations.

  17. (68)Ga-PSMA PET/MR with multimodality image analysis for primary prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Eiber, Matthias; Nekolla, Stephan G; Maurer, Tobias; Weirich, Gregor; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Schwaiger, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Current imaging procedures for prostate cancer including positron emission tomography (PET) exhibit considerable limitations and are not always able to meet the diagnostic needs. Recently, a (68)Gallium-labeled ligand of the prostate-specific membrane antigen ((68)Ga-PSMA) has been introduced in PET-imaging of prostate cancer with first promising results. Due to relatively exclusive expression of PSMA in prostatic tissue as well as increased expression in prostate cancer, 68 Ga-PSMA was reported to exhibit a favorable lesion to background ratio. Together with the novel development of combined PET/MRI, the combination of excellent morphological detail, multiparametric functional information, and molecular PET data might lead to a significant improvement in detection of prostate cancer. We present an exemplarily case of primary staging using multiparametric (68)Ga-PSMA PET/MR by combining molecular and structural information.

  18. The use of PET imaging in studying cognition, genetics and pharmacotherapeutic interventions in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Nora S; Patel, Neva H; Nijran, Kuldip S; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Puri, Basant K

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) offers a strategic imaging platform to provide a map of functional neural correlates associated with the underlying cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. It enables regional cerebral glucose metabolism and dopaminergic and serotonergic receptor function to be studied. PET neuroimaging can therefore be used in drug development and to study putative treatments. Recent PET studies of the first-generation antipsychotics flupentixol and haloperidol, and of the second-generation antipsychotics risperidone, aripiprazole, quetiapine, sertindole, ziprasidone, paliperidone and olanzapine, have been carried out; modulation of limbic circuitry has been found to be a predictor of treatment response. PET can also be used to predict and monitor likely extrapyramidal side effects from antipsychotic treatment. PET and neuropsychological testing can together also allow the study of putative molecular genetic changes associated with schizophrenia. Advances in the imaging, cognition and molecular genetics are likely to lead to the development of future diagnostics, treatments and novel pharmacological agents.

  19. Quantitative Evaluation of Atlas-based Attenuation Correction for Brain PET in an Integrated Time-of-Flight PET/MR Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jaewon; Jian, Yiqiang; Jenkins, Nathaniel; Behr, Spencer C; Hope, Thomas A; Larson, Peder E Z; Vigneron, Daniel; Seo, Youngho

    2017-02-23

    Purpose To assess the patient-dependent accuracy of atlas-based attenuation correction (ATAC) for brain positron emission tomography (PET) in an integrated time-of-flight (TOF) PET/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging system. Materials and Methods Thirty recruited patients provided informed consent in this institutional review board-approved study. All patients underwent whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography (CT) followed by TOF PET/MR imaging. With use of TOF PET data, PET images were reconstructed with four different attenuation correction (AC) methods: PET with patient CT-based AC (CTAC), PET with ATAC (air and bone from an atlas), PET with ATACpatientBone (air and tissue from the atlas with patient bone), and PET with ATACboneless (air and tissue from the atlas without bone). For quantitative evaluation, PET mean activity concentration values were measured in 14 1-mL volumes of interest (VOIs) distributed throughout the brain and statistical significance was tested with a paired t test. Results The mean overall difference (±standard deviation) of PET with ATAC compared with PET with CTAC was -0.69 kBq/mL ± 0.60 (-4.0% ± 3.2) (P < .001). The results were patient dependent (range, -9.3% to 0.57%) and VOI dependent (range, -5.9 to -2.2). In addition, when bone was not included for AC, the overall difference of PET with ATACboneless (-9.4% ± 3.7) was significantly worse than that of PET with ATAC (-4.0% ± 3.2) (P < .001). Finally, when patient bone was used for AC instead of atlas bone, the overall difference of PET with ATACpatientBone (-1.5% ± 1.5) improved over that of PET with ATAC (-4.0% ± 3.2) (P < .001). Conclusion ATAC in PET/MR imaging achieves similar quantification accuracy to that from CTAC by means of atlas-based bone compensation. However, patient-specific anatomic differences from the atlas causes bone attenuation differences and misclassified sinuses, which result in patient-dependent performance variation of ATAC. (©) RSNA, 2017

  20. Characterization of a PET Camera Optimized for ProstateImaging

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W.; Qi,Jinyi; Hu, Jicun; Wang, G.C.; Wilson, David; Oh, Sang; Huesman, RonaldH.; Derenzo, Stephen E.

    2005-11-11

    We present the characterization of a positron emission tomograph for prostate imaging that centers a patient between a pair of external curved detector banks (ellipse: 45 cm minor, 70 cm major axis). The distance between detector banks adjusts to allow patient access and to position the detectors as closely as possible for maximum sensitivity with patients of various sizes. Each bank is composed of two axial rows of 20 HR+ block detectors for a total of 80 detectors in the camera. The individual detectors are angled in the transaxial plane to point towards the prostate to reduce resolution degradation in that region. The detectors are read out by modified HRRT data acquisition electronics. Compared to a standard whole-body PET camera, our dedicated-prostate camera has the same sensitivity and resolution, less background (less randoms and lower scatter fraction) and a lower cost. We have completed construction of the camera. Characterization data and reconstructed images of several phantoms are shown. Sensitivity of a point source in the center is 946 cps/mu Ci. Spatial resolution is 4 mm FWHM in the central region.

  1. A pretargeting system for tumor PET imaging and radioimmunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Frampas, Eric; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Rauscher, Aurore; Sharkey, Robert M.; Goldenberg, David M.; Chatal, Jean-François; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Labeled antibodies, as well as their fragments and antibody-derived recombinant constructs, have long been proposed as general vectors to target radionuclides to tumor lesions for imaging and therapy. They have indeed shown promise in both imaging and therapeutic applications, but they have not fulfilled the original expectations of achieving sufficient image contrast for tumor detection or sufficient radiation dose delivered to tumors for therapy. Pretargeting was originally developed for tumor immunoscintigraphy. It was assumed that directly-radiolabled antibodies could be replaced by an unlabeled immunoconjugate capable of binding both a tumor-specific antigen and a small molecular weight molecule. The small molecular weight molecule would carry the radioactive payload and would be injected after the bispecific immunoconjugate. It has been demonstrated that this approach does allow for both antibody-specific recognition and fast clearance of the radioactive molecule, thus resulting in improved tumor-to-normal tissue contrast ratios. It was subsequently shown that pretargeting also held promise for tumor therapy, translating improved tumor-to-normal tissue contrast ratios into more specific delivery of absorbed radiation doses. Many technical approaches have been proposed to implement pretargeting, and two have been extensively documented. One is based on the avidin-biotin system, and the other on bispecific antibodies binding a tumor-specific antigen and a hapten. Both have been studied in preclinical models, as well as in several clinical studies, and have shown improved targeting efficiency. This article reviews the historical and recent preclinical and clinical advances in the use of bispecific-antibody-based pretargeting for radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of cancer. The results of recent evaluation of pretargeting in PET imaging also are discussed. PMID:25873896

  2. Metal artifact reduction strategies for improved attenuation correction in hybrid PET/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Abdoli, Mehrsima; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Zaidi, Habib

    2012-06-15

    Metallic implants are known to generate bright and dark streaking artifacts in x-ray computed tomography (CT) images, which in turn propagate to corresponding functional positron emission tomography (PET) images during the CT-based attenuation correction procedure commonly used on hybrid clinical PET/CT scanners. Therefore, visual artifacts and overestimation and/or underestimation of the tracer uptake in regions adjacent to metallic implants are likely to occur and as such, inaccurate quantification of the tracer uptake and potential erroneous clinical interpretation of PET images is expected. Accurate quantification of PET data requires metal artifact reduction (MAR) of the CT images prior to the application of the CT-based attenuation correction procedure. In this review, the origins of metallic artifacts and their impact on clinical PET/CT imaging are discussed. Moreover, a brief overview of proposed MAR methods and their advantages and drawbacks is presented. Although most of the presented MAR methods are mainly developed for diagnostic CT imaging, their potential application in PET/CT imaging is highlighted. The challenges associated with comparative evaluation of these methods in a clinical environment in the absence of a gold standard are also discussed.

  3. Initial Characterization of a Dedicated Breast PET/CT Scanner During Human Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Spencer L.; Wu, Yibao; Chaudhari, Abhijit J.; Fu, Lin; Packard, Nathan J.; Burkett, George W.; Yang, Kai; Lindfors, Karen K.; Shelton, David K.; Hagge, Rosalie; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Martinez, Steve R.; Qi, Jinyi; Boone, John M.; Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2010-01-01

    We have constructed a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner capable of high-resolution functional and anatomic imaging. Here, we present an initial characterization of scanner performance during patient imaging. Methods The system consisted of a lutetium oxyorthosilicate–based dual–planar head PET camera (crystal size, 3 × 3 × 20 mm) and 768-slice cone-beam CT. The position of the PET heads (separation and height) could be adjusted for varying breast dimensions. For scanning, the patient lay prone on a specialized bed and inserted a single pendent breast through an aperture in the table top. Compression of the breast as used in mammography is not required. PET and CT systems rotate in the coronal plane underneath the patient sequentially to collect fully tomographic datasets. PET images were reconstructed with the fully 3-dimensional maximum a posteriori method, and CT images were reconstructed with the Feldkamp algorithm, then spatially registered and fused for display. Phantom scans were obtained to assess the registration accuracy between PET and CT images and the influence of PET electronics and activity on CT image quality. We imaged 4 women with mammographic findings highly suggestive of breast cancer (breast imaging reporting and data system, category 5) in an ongoing clinical trial. Patients were injected with 18F-FDG and imaged for 12.5 min per breast. From patient data, noise-equivalent counting rates and the singles-to-trues ratio (a surrogate for the randoms fraction) were calculated. Results The average registration error between PET and CT images was 0.18 mm. PET electronics and activity did not significantly affect CT image quality. For the patient trial, biopsy-confirmed cancers were visualized on dedicated breast PET/CT on all patient scans, including the detection of ductal carcinoma in situ in 1 case. The singles-to-trues ratio was found to be inversely correlated with breast volume in the field of view, suggesting that larger breasts trend

  4. DigiPET: sub-millimeter spatial resolution small-animal PET imaging using thin monolithic scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    España, Samuel; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw; Keereman, Vincent; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Van Holen, Roel

    2014-07-01

    A new preclinical PET system based on dSiPMs, called DigiPET, is presented. The system is based on thin monolithic scintillation crystals and exhibits superior spatial resolution at low-cost compared to systems based on pixelated crystals. Current dedicated small-rodent PET scanners have a spatial resolution in the order of 1 mm. Most of them have a large footprint, requiring considerable laboratory space. For rodent brain imaging, a PET scanner with sub-millimeter resolution is desired. To achieve this, crystals with a pixel pitch down to 0.5 mm have been used. However, fine pixels are difficult to produce and will render systems expensive. In this work, we present the first results with a high-resolution preclinical PET scanner based on thin monolithic scintillators and a large solid angle. The design is dedicated to rat-brain imaging and therefore has a very compact geometry. Four detectors were placed in a square arrangement with a distance of 34.5 mm between two opposing detector modules, defining a field of view (FOV) of 32 × 32 × 32 mm3. Each detector consists of a thin monolithic LYSO crystal of 32 × 32 × 2 mm3 optically coupled to a digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM). Event positioning within each detector was obtained using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method. To evaluate the system performance, we measured the energy resolution, coincidence resolving time (CRT), sensitivity and spatial resolution. The image quality was evaluated by acquiring a hot-rod phantom filled with 18F-FDG and a rat head one hour after an 18F-FDG injection. The MLE yielded an average intrinsic spatial resolution on the detector of 0.54 mm FWHM. We obtained a CRT of 680 ps and an energy resolution of 18% FWHM at 511 keV. The sensitivity and spatial resolution obtained at the center of the FOV were 6.0 cps kBq-1 and 0.7 mm, respectively. In the reconstructed images of the hot-rod phantom, hot rods down to 0.7 mm can be discriminated. In conclusion, a compact PET

  5. Feasibility study of small animal imaging using clinical PET/CT scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Wen-Lin; Chen, Chia-Lin; Wang, Ze-Jing; Wu, Tung-Hsin; Liu, Dai-Wei; Lee, Jason J. S.

    2007-02-01

    The feasibility of small animal imaging using a clinical positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanner with [F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy- D-glucose (FDG) was evaluated. Two protocols in PET/CT system, single-mouse high-resolution mode (SHR) and multi-mouse high throughput mode (MHT) protocol were employed to investigate the ability of the scanner and also explored the performance differences between microPET and clinical PET/CT. In this study, we have found that even the clinical PET/CT scanner could not compete with the microPET scanner, especially in spatial resolution; the high-resolution CT image could advance the anatomical information to sub-millimeter level. Besides, CT-based attenuation correction can improve the image uniformity characteristics and quantification accuracy, and the large bore of a human whole-body scanner broadens the possibility of high throughput studies. Considering all the benefits, clinical PET/CT imaging might be a potential alternative for small animal study.

  6. Optimal Co-segmentation of Tumor in PET-CT Images with Context Information

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qi; Bai, Junjie; Han, Dongfeng; Bhatia, Sudershan; Sun, Wenqing; Rockey, William; Bayouth, John E.; Buatti, John M.

    2014-01-01

    PET-CT images have been widely used in clinical practice for radiotherapy treatment planning of the radiotherapy. Many existing segmentation approaches only work for a single imaging modality, which suffer from the low spatial resolution in PET or low contrast in CT. In this work we propose a novel method for the co-segmentation of the tumor in both PET and CT images, which makes use of advantages from each modality: the functionality information from PET and the anatomical structure information from CT. The approach formulates the segmentation problem as a minimization problem of a Markov Random Field (MRF) model, which encodes the information from both modalities. The optimization is solved using a graph-cut based method. Two sub-graphs are constructed for the segmentation of the PET and the CT images, respectively. To achieve consistent results in two modalities, an adaptive context cost is enforced by adding context arcs between the two subgraphs. An optimal solution can be obtained by solving a single maximum flow problem, which leads to simultaneous segmentation of the tumor volumes in both modalities. The proposed algorithm was validated in robust delineation of lung tumors on 23 PET-CT datasets and two head-and-neck cancer subjects. Both qualitative and quantitative results show significant improvement compared to the graph cut methods solely using PET or CT. PMID:23693127

  7. Evolution of bombesin conjugates for targeted PET imaging of tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanwen; Abiraj, Keelara; Thorek, Daniel L J; Waser, Beatrice; Smith-Jones, Peter M; Honer, Michael; Reubi, Jean Claude; Maecke, Helmut R

    2012-01-01

    Bombesin receptors are under intense investigation as molecular targets since they are overexpressed in several prevalent solid tumors. We rationally designed and synthesized a series of modified bombesin (BN) peptide analogs to study the influence of charge and spacers at the N-terminus, as well as amino acid substitutions, on both receptor binding affinity and pharmacokinetics. This enabled development of a novel (64/67)Cu-labeled BN peptide for PET imaging and targeted radiotherapy of BN receptor-positive tumors. Our results show that N-terminally positively charged peptide ligands had significantly higher affinity to human gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPr) than negatively charged or uncharged ligands (IC(50): 3.2±0.5 vs 26.3±3.5 vs 41.5±2.5 nM). The replacement of Nle(14) by Met, and deletion of D-Tyr(6), further resulted in 8-fold higher affinity. Contrary to significant changes to human GRPr binding, modifications at the N-terminal and at the 6(th), 11(th), and 14(th) position of BN induced only slight influences on affinity to mouse GRPr. [Cu(II)]-CPTA-[βAla(11)] BN(7-14) ([Cu(II)]-BZH7) showed the highest internalization rate into PC-3 cells with relatively slow efflux because of its subnanomolar affinity to GRPr. Interestingly, [(64/67)Cu]-BZH7 also displayed similar affinities to the other 2 human BN receptor subtypes. In vivo studies showed that [(64/67)Cu]-BZH7 had a high accumulation in PC-3 xenografts and allowed for clear-cut visualization of the tumor in PET imaging. In addition, a CPTA-glycine derivative, forming a hippurane-type spacer, enhanced kidney clearance of the radiotracer. These data indicate that the species variation of BN receptor plays an important role in screening radiolabeled BN. As well, the positive charge from the metallated complex at the N-terminal significantly increases affinity to human GRPr. Application of these observations enabled the novel ligand [(64/67)Cu]-BZH7 to clearly visualize PC-3 tumors in vivo

  8. MRI-guided brain PET image filtering and partial volume correction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jianhua; Lim, Jason Chu-Shern; Townsend, David W

    2015-02-07

    Positron emission tomography (PET) image quantification is a challenging problem due to limited spatial resolution of acquired data and the resulting partial volume effects (PVE), which depend on the size of the structure studied in relation to the spatial resolution and which may lead to over or underestimation of the true tissue tracer concentration. In addition, it is usually necessary to perform image smoothing either during image reconstruction or afterwards to achieve a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. Typically, an isotropic Gaussian filtering (GF) is used for this purpose. However, the noise suppression is at the cost of deteriorating spatial resolution. As hybrid imaging devices such as PET/MRI have become available, the complementary information derived from high definition morphologic images could be used to improve the quality of PET images. In this study, first of all, we propose an MRI-guided PET filtering method by adapting a recently proposed local linear model and then incorporate PVE into the model to get a new partial volume correction (PVC) method without parcellation of MRI. In addition, both the new filtering and PVC are voxel-wise non-iterative methods. The performance of the proposed methods were investigated with simulated dynamic FDG brain dataset and (18)F-FDG brain data of a cervical cancer patient acquired with a simultaneous hybrid PET/MR scanner. The initial simulation results demonstrated that MRI-guided PET image filtering can produce less noisy images than traditional GF and bias and coefficient of variation can be further reduced by MRI-guided PET PVC. Moreover, structures can be much better delineated in MRI-guided PET PVC for real brain data.

  9. MRI-guided brain PET image filtering and partial volume correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jianhua; Chu-Shern Lim, Jason; Townsend, David W.

    2015-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) image quantification is a challenging problem due to limited spatial resolution of acquired data and the resulting partial volume effects (PVE), which depend on the size of the structure studied in relation to the spatial resolution and which may lead to over or underestimation of the true tissue tracer concentration. In addition, it is usually necessary to perform image smoothing either during image reconstruction or afterwards to achieve a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. Typically, an isotropic Gaussian filtering (GF) is used for this purpose. However, the noise suppression is at the cost of deteriorating spatial resolution. As hybrid imaging devices such as PET/MRI have become available, the complementary information derived from high definition morphologic images could be used to improve the quality of PET images. In this study, first of all, we propose an MRI-guided PET filtering method by adapting a recently proposed local linear model and then incorporate PVE into the model to get a new partial volume correction (PVC) method without parcellation of MRI. In addition, both the new filtering and PVC are voxel-wise non-iterative methods. The performance of the proposed methods were investigated with simulated dynamic FDG brain dataset and 18F-FDG brain data of a cervical cancer patient acquired with a simultaneous hybrid PET/MR scanner. The initial simulation results demonstrated that MRI-guided PET image filtering can produce less noisy images than traditional GF and bias and coefficient of variation can be further reduced by MRI-guided PET PVC. Moreover, structures can be much better delineated in MRI-guided PET PVC for real brain data.

  10. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT Imaging in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Sasikumar, Arun; Joy, Ajith; Pillai, M R A; Nanabala, Raviteja; Thomas, Boben

    2017-02-01

    The potential applications of Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT in the imaging of prostate cancer are now well established. A few case reports regarding the potential use of Ga-PSMA PET/CT in nonprostate cancer malignancies are also published. Apparently, the tumor neoangiogenesis is the mechanism attributed to increased Ga-PSMA uptake in the tumor sites in nonprostatic malignancies. We describe the use of Ga-PSMA PET/CT in imaging multiple myeloma. The intense Ga-PSMA avidity of the lesions also opens up the possibility of theranostics with Lu-PSMA.

  11. Simultaneous reconstruction of the activity image and registration of the CT image in TOF-PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Ahmadreza; Michel, Christian; Casey, Michael E.; Nuyts, Johan

    2016-02-01

    Previously, maximum-likelihood methods have been proposed to jointly estimate the activity image and the attenuation image or the attenuation sinogram from time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) data. In this contribution, we propose a method that addresses the possible alignment problem of the TOF-PET emission data and the computed tomography (CT) attenuation data, by combining reconstruction and registration. The method, called MLRR, iteratively reconstructs the activity image while registering the available CT-based attenuation image, so that the pair of activity and attenuation images maximise the likelihood of the TOF emission sinogram. The algorithm is slow to converge, but some acceleration could be achieved by using Nesterov’s momentum method and by applying a multi-resolution scheme for the non-rigid displacement estimation. The latter also helps to avoid local optima, although convergence to the global optimum cannot be guaranteed. The results are evaluated on 2D and 3D simulations as well as a respiratory gated clinical scan. Our experiments indicate that the proposed method is able to correct for possible misalignment of the CT-based attenuation image, and is therefore a very promising approach to suppressing attenuation artefacts in clinical PET/CT. When applied to respiratory gated data of a patient scan, it produced deformations that are compatible with breathing motion and which reduced the well known attenuation artefact near the dome of the liver. Since the method makes use of the energy-converted CT attenuation image, the scale problem of joint reconstruction is automatically solved.

  12. Algorithm for lung cancer detection based on PET/CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saita, Shinsuke; Ishimatsu, Keita; Kubo, Mitsuru; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Ohtsuka, Hideki; Nishitani, Hiromu; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    The five year survival rate of the lung cancer is low with about twenty-five percent. In addition it is an obstinate lung cancer wherein three out of four people die within five years. Then, the early stage detection and treatment of the lung cancer are important. Recently, we can obtain CT and PET image at the same time because PET/CT device has been developed. PET/CT is possible for a highly accurate cancer diagnosis because it analyzes quantitative shape information from CT image and FDG distribution from PET image. However, neither benign-malignant classification nor staging intended for lung cancer have been established still enough by using PET/CT images. In this study, we detect lung nodules based on internal organs extracted from CT image, and we also develop algorithm which classifies benignmalignant and metastatic or non metastatic lung cancer using lung structure and FDG distribution(one and two hour after administering FDG). We apply the algorithm to 59 PET/CT images (malignant 43 cases [Ad:31, Sq:9, sm:3], benign 16 cases) and show the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  13. Contribution of nonattenuation-corrected images on FDG-PET/CT in the assessment of solitary pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Ertan; Kara, Ahmet; Elboğa, Umut

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we aim to determine the diagnostic performance of nonattenuation-corrected (NAC) and attenuation-corrected (AC) FDG-PET/CT images in the assessment of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN). We reviewed the images of 41 patients who underwent FDG-PET/CT to diagnose SPNs. The visual analysis of FDG uptake intensity in SPN on AC and NAC PET images was made using a four-point score from 1 to 4 on both AC and NAC PET images. The cutoff value of SUVmax and visual uptake scores for malignancy were defined as ≥2.5 and ≥3, respectively. The significant visual uptake (≥2 visual point score) on AC and NAC PET images was considered to be positive 18F-FDG PET findings for lesion detectability. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were calculated for AC and NAC PET images. Based on the histopathology and imaging data, 22 of the SPNs (54 %) were malignant and 19 of them (46 %) were benign. The sensitivity and NPV were found to be 100 % in the detection of SPNs for AC and NAC PET images. For all SPNs and SPNs ≤2 cm, NAC PET image had a higher diagnostic performance for the SPN characterization as malignant or benign, when compared with AC PET image. The success rates of AC and NAC PET images were found to be similar for the detection of SPNs. NAC PET image had a higher diagnostic performance for the SPN characterization. It is thought that NAC PET image may provide additional contributions for characterization of SPNs.

  14. Image Quality Performance Measurement of the microPET Focus 120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballado, Fernando Trejo; López, Nayelli Ortega; Flores, Rafael Ojeda; Ávila-Rodríguez, Miguel A.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the characteristics involved in the image reconstruction of the microPET Focus 120. For this evaluation were used two different phantoms; a miniature hot-rod Derenzo phantom and a National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU4-2008 image quality (IQ) phantom. The best image quality was obtained when using OSEM3D as the reconstruction method reaching a spatial resolution of 1.5 mm with the Derenzo phantom filled with 18F. Image quality test results indicate a superior image quality for the Focus 120 when compared to previous microPET models.

  15. PET imaging with the non-pure positron emitters: 55Co, 86Y and 124I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braad, P. E. N.; Hansen, S. B.; Thisgaard, H.; Høilund-Carlsen, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    PET/CT with non-pure positron emitters is a highly valuable tool in immuno-PET and for pretherapeutic dosimetry. However, imaging is complicated by prompt gamma coincidences (PGCs) that add an undesired background activity to the images. Time-of-flight (TOF) reconstruction improves lesion detectability in 18F-PET and can potentially also improve the signal-to-noise ratio in images acquired with non-pure positron emitters. Using the GE Discovery 690 PET/CT system, we evaluated the image quality with 55Co, 86Y and 124I, and the effect of PGC-correction and TOF-reconstruction on image quality and quantitation in a series of phantom studies. PET image quality and quantitation for all isotopes were significantly affected by PGCs. The effect was most severe with 86Y, and less, but comparable, with 55Co and 124I. PGC-correction improved the image quality and the quantitation accuracy dramatically for all isotopes, especially when the activity was limited to a few hot lesions in a warm background. In imaging situations, where high levels of activity were present in the background, activity concentrations were overestimated. TOF-reconstruction improved image quality in isolated lesions but worsened the accuracy of quantitation and uniformity in homogeneous activity distributions. Better modelling of PGCs in the scatter correction can potentially improve the situation.

  16. OpenPET: A Flexible Electronics System for Radiotracer Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Moses, W. W.; Buckley, S.; Vu, C.; Peng, Q.; Pavlov, N.; Choong, W.-S.; Wu, J.; Jackson, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present the design for OpenPET, an electronics readout system designed for prototype radiotracer imaging instruments. The critical requirements are that it has sufficient performance, channel count, channel density, and power consumption to service a complete camera, and yet be simple, flexible, and customizable enough to be used with almost any detector or camera design. An important feature of this system is that each analog input is processed independently. Each input can be configured to accept signals of either polarity as well as either differential or ground referenced signals. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled ADC, which is processed by an FPGA to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is “time stamped” by a TDC implemented inside the FPGA. This digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc. As all of this processing is controlled by firmware and software, it can be modified / customized easily. The system is open source, meaning that all technical data (specifications, schematics and board layout files, source code, and instructions) will be publicly available. PMID:21297894

  17. Current status of PET in breast cancer imaging, staging, and therapy.

    PubMed

    Wahl, R L

    2001-07-01

    The exact roles of PET in the imaging management of patients with known or suspected breast cancer are still in evolution. For assessing primary lesions, it is sometimes possible with PET to detect cancers occult on standard methods. This could be useful in high-risk patient populations, but in dense breasts, background FDG uptake is often higher than in women with fatty breasts, making identification of lesions < 1 cm in size improbable with current technologies. Distinguishing malignant from benign primary breast disease would seem better addressed by biopsy. With a positive predictive value of FDG PET for cancer over 96%, any FDG-avid breast lesion is highly suspicious and merits biopsy. Although PET in theory should be useful for depicting multifocal disease before surgery, the limitations in detecting small lesions in the breast limit the contribution of PET at present. It is most likely that PET will have a greater role in depicting primary breast lesions as dedicated PET imaging devices for the breast evolve. For axillary and internal mammary nodal staging, results with FDG PET are variable. Small nodal metastases < or = 5 mm will be missed by PET, whereas larger ones are more likely to be detected. PET can depict internal mammary nodes, but the accuracy of the method in this setting is not known, nor is there consensus on how identifying internal mammary node metastases will change treatment. Based on the available data, for pT1 breast lesions, PET, if negative, is not an adequate replacement for sentinel node surgery or axillary dissection. Results from the multicenter trial will be of great interest. Clearly PET can stage metastatic disease well. Bone scans with 18F- are exquisitely sensitive for metastases, and FDG is also very good. However, FDG PET can miss some blastic metastases to bone so at present FDG is not capable of excluding the presence of bone metastases. PET seems very well suited to detecting recurrences in soft tissues and the brachial

  18. The Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT Integrated Imaging in Distinguishing Malignant from Benign Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yajuan; Yu, Hongjuan; Ma, Jingquan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging in differentiating malignant from benign pleural effusion. Methods A total of 176 patients with pleural effusion who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT examination to differentiate malignancy from benignancy were retrospectively researched. The images of CT imaging, 18F-FDG PET imaging and 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging were visually analyzed. The suspected malignant effusion was characterized by the presence of nodular or irregular pleural thickening on CT imaging. Whereas on PET imaging, pleural 18F-FDG uptake higher than mediastinal activity was interpreted as malignant effusion. Images of 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging were interpreted by combining the morphologic feature of pleura on CT imaging with the degree and form of pleural 18F-FDG uptake on PET imaging. Results One hundred and eight patients had malignant effusion, including 86 with pleural metastasis and 22 with pleural mesothelioma, whereas 68 patients had benign effusion. The sensitivities of CT imaging, 18F-FDG PET imaging and 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging in detecting malignant effusion were 75.0%, 91.7% and 93.5%, respectively, which were 69.8%, 91.9% and 93.0% in distinguishing metastatic effusion. The sensitivity of 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging in detecting malignant effusion was higher than that of CT imaging (p = 0.000). For metastatic effusion, 18F-FDG PET imaging had higher sensitivity (p = 0.000) and better diagnostic consistency with 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging compared with CT imaging (Kappa = 0.917 and Kappa = 0.295, respectively). The specificities of CT imaging, 18F-FDG PET imaging and 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging were 94.1%, 63.2% and 92.6% in detecting benign effusion. The specificities of CT imaging and 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging were higher than that of 18F-FDG PET imaging (p = 0.000 and p = 0.000, respectively), and CT imaging had better diagnostic consistency with

  19. Twelve automated thresholding methods for segmentation of PET images: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Elena; Lecumberri, Pablo; Pagola, Miguel; Gómez, Marisol; Bilbao, Izaskun; Ecay, Margarita; Peñuelas, Iván; Martí-Climent, Josep M.

    2012-06-01

    Tumor volume delineation over positron emission tomography (PET) images is of great interest for proper diagnosis and therapy planning. However, standard segmentation techniques (manual or semi-automated) are operator dependent and time consuming while fully automated procedures are cumbersome or require complex mathematical development. The aim of this study was to segment PET images in a fully automated way by implementing a set of 12 automated thresholding algorithms, classical in the fields of optical character recognition, tissue engineering or non-destructive testing images in high-tech structures. Automated thresholding algorithms select a specific threshold for each image without any a priori spatial information of the segmented object or any special calibration of the tomograph, as opposed to usual thresholding methods for PET. Spherical 18F-filled objects of different volumes were acquired on clinical PET/CT and on a small animal PET scanner, with three different signal-to-background ratios. Images were segmented with 12 automatic thresholding algorithms and results were compared with the standard segmentation reference, a threshold at 42% of the maximum uptake. Ridler and Ramesh thresholding algorithms based on clustering and histogram-shape information, respectively, provided better results that the classical 42%-based threshold (p < 0.05). We have herein demonstrated that fully automated thresholding algorithms can provide better results than classical PET segmentation tools.

  20. Twelve automated thresholding methods for segmentation of PET images: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Elena; Lecumberri, Pablo; Pagola, Miguel; Gómez, Marisol; Bilbao, Izaskun; Ecay, Margarita; Peñuelas, Iván; Martí-Climent, Josep M

    2012-06-21

    Tumor volume delineation over positron emission tomography (PET) images is of great interest for proper diagnosis and therapy planning. However, standard segmentation techniques (manual or semi-automated) are operator dependent and time consuming while fully automated procedures are cumbersome or require complex mathematical development. The aim of this study was to segment PET images in a fully automated way by implementing a set of 12 automated thresholding algorithms, classical in the fields of optical character recognition, tissue engineering or non-destructive testing images in high-tech structures. Automated thresholding algorithms select a specific threshold for each image without any a priori spatial information of the segmented object or any special calibration of the tomograph, as opposed to usual thresholding methods for PET. Spherical (18)F-filled objects of different volumes were acquired on clinical PET/CT and on a small animal PET scanner, with three different signal-to-background ratios. Images were segmented with 12 automatic thresholding algorithms and results were compared with the standard segmentation reference, a threshold at 42% of the maximum uptake. Ridler and Ramesh thresholding algorithms based on clustering and histogram-shape information, respectively, provided better results that the classical 42%-based threshold (p < 0.05). We have herein demonstrated that fully automated thresholding algorithms can provide better results than classical PET segmentation tools.

  1. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18F-based radiotracers

    PubMed Central

    Alauddin, Mian M

    2012-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine imaging technique that is widely used in early detection and treatment follow up of many diseases, including cancer. This modality requires positron-emitting isotope labeled biomolecules, which are synthesized prior to perform imaging studies. Fluorine-18 is one of the several isotopes of fluorine that is routinely used in radiolabeling of biomolecules for PET; because of its positron emitting property and favorable half-life of 109.8 min. The biologically active molecule most commonly used for PET is 2-deoxy-2-18F-fluoro-β-D-glucose (18F-FDG), an analogue of glucose, for early detection of tumors. The concentrations of tracer accumulation (PET image) demonstrate the metabolic activity of tissues in terms of regional glucose metabolism and accumulation. Other tracers are also used in PET to image the tissue concentration. In this review, information on fluorination and radiofluorination reactions, radiofluorinating agents, and radiolabeling of various compounds and their application in PET imaging is presented. PMID:23133802

  2. Application of 18F-FDG PET and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in multiple myeloma: comparison of functional imaging modalities

    PubMed Central

    Sachpekidis, Christos; Mosebach, Jennifer; Freitag, Martin T; Wilhelm, Thomas; Mai, Elias K; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Haberkorn, Uwe; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Delorme, Stefan; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this prospective study was to assess the sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in detecting multiple myeloma (MM) lesions, using the well-established morphologic modalities magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) as the standard of reference (RS). The study included 24 MM patients (15 newly diagnosed, 9 pre-treated). All underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT and wholebody DWI. The findings in PET and DWI were compared to matching imaging findings in combined non-enhanced T1w, fat-saturated T2w (TIRM)- MRI, and low-dose CT. Patient-based analysis revealed that 15/24 patients (10 primary MM, 5 pre-treated) had myeloma lesions according to our RS. PET was positive in 13/24 patients (11 primary MM, 2 pre-treated) and DWI in 18/24 patients (12 primary MM, 6 pre-treated). Lesion-based analysis demonstrated 128 MM lesions, of which PET depicted 60/128 lesions (sensitivity 47%), while DWI depicted 99/128 lesions (sensitivity 77%). Further analysis including only the 15 untreated MM patients revealed a sensitivity of 90% for both PET and DWI and an overall concordance of PET and DWI of 72%. In conclusion, DWI was more sensitive than 18F-FDG PET in detecting myeloma lesions in a mixed population of primary and pre-treated MM patients. However, 18F-FDG PET and DWI demonstrated equivalent sensitivities in the sub-population of primary, untreated MM patients. This higher sensitivity of DWI in pre-treated patients may be due to the fact that 18F-FDG PET becomes negative earlier in the course of treatment in contrary to MRI, in which already treated lesions can remain visible. PMID:26550539

  3. Dual-modality brain PET-CT image segmentation based on adaptive use of functional and anatomical information.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yong; Eberl, Stefan; Wen, Lingfeng; Fulham, Michael; Feng, David Dagan

    2012-01-01

    Dual medical imaging modalities, such as PET-CT, are now a routine component of clinical practice. Medical image segmentation methods, however, have generally only been applied to single modality images. In this paper, we propose the dual-modality image segmentation model to segment brain PET-CT images into gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid. This model converts PET-CT image segmentation into an optimization process controlled simultaneously by PET and CT voxel values and spatial constraints. It is innovative in the creation and application of the modality discriminatory power (MDP) coefficient as a weighting scheme to adaptively combine the functional (PET) and anatomical (CT) information on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Our approach relies upon allowing the modality with higher discriminatory power to play a more important role in the segmentation process. We compared the proposed approach to three other image segmentation strategies, including PET-only based segmentation, combination of the results of independent PET image segmentation and CT image segmentation, and simultaneous segmentation of joint PET and CT images without an adaptive weighting scheme. Our results in 21 clinical studies showed that our approach provides the most accurate and reliable segmentation for brain PET-CT images.

  4. Approaches using molecular imaging technology -- use of PET in clinical microdose studies.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Claudia C; Langer, Oliver

    2011-06-19

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging uses minute amounts of radiolabeled drug tracers and thereby meets the criteria for clinical microdose studies. The advantage of PET, when compared to other analytical methods used in microdose studies, is that the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a drug can be determined in the tissue targeted for drug treatment. PET microdosing already offers interesting applications in clinical oncology and in the development of central nervous system pharmaceuticals and is extending its range of application to many other fields of pharmaceutical medicine. Although requirements for preclinical safety testing for microdose studies have been cut down by regulatory authorities, radiopharmaceuticals increasingly need to be produced under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions, which increases the costs of PET microdosing studies. Further challenges in PET microdosing include combining PET with other ultrasensitive analytical methods, such as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), to gain plasma PK data of drugs, beyond the short PET examination periods. Finally, conducting clinical PET studies with radiolabeled drugs both at micro- and therapeutic doses is encouraged to answer the question of dose linearity in clinical microdosing.

  5. Approaches using molecular imaging technology - use of PET in clinical microdose studies§

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Claudia C; Langer, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging uses minute amounts of radiolabeled drug tracers and thereby meets the criteria for clinical microdose studies. The advantage of PET, when compared to other analytical methods used in microdose studies, is that the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a drug can be determined in the tissue targeted for drug treatment. PET microdosing already offers interesting applications in clinical oncology and in the development of central nervous system pharmaceuticals and is extending its range of application to many other fields of pharmaceutical medicine. Although requirements for preclinical safety testing for microdose studies have been cut down by regulatory authorities, radiopharmaceuticals increasingly need to be produced under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions, which increases the costs of PET microdosing studies. Further challenges in PET microdosing include combining PET with other ultrasensitive analytical methods, such as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), to gain plasma PK data of drugs, beyond the short PET examination periods. Finally, conducting clinical PET studies with radiolabeled drugs both at micro- and therapeutic doses is encouraged to answer the question of dose linearity in clinical microdosing. PMID:20887762

  6. SU-C-9A-06: The Impact of CT Image Used for Attenuation Correction in 4D-PET

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Y; Bowsher, J; Yan, S; Cai, J; Das, S; Yin, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the appropriateness of using 3D non-gated CT image for attenuation correction (AC) in a 4D-PET (gated PET) imaging protocol used in radiotherapy treatment planning simulation. Methods: The 4D-PET imaging protocol in a Siemens PET/CT simulator (Biograph mCT, Siemens Medical Solutions, Hoffman Estates, IL) was evaluated. CIRS Dynamic Thorax Phantom (CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA) with a moving glass sphere (8 mL) in the middle of its thorax portion was used in the experiments. The glass was filled with {sup 18}F-FDG and was in a longitudinal motion derived from a real patient breathing pattern. Varian RPM system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was used for respiratory gating. Both phase-gating and amplitude-gating methods were tested. The clinical imaging protocol was modified to use three different CT images for AC in 4D-PET reconstruction: first is to use a single-phase CT image to mimic actual clinical protocol (single-CT-PET); second is to use the average intensity projection CT (AveIP-CT) derived from 4D-CT scanning (AveIP-CT-PET); third is to use 4D-CT image to do the phase-matched AC (phase-matching- PET). Maximum SUV (SUVmax) and volume of the moving target (glass sphere) with threshold of 40% SUVmax were calculated for comparison between 4D-PET images derived with different AC methods. Results: The SUVmax varied 7.3%±6.9% over the breathing cycle in single-CT-PET, compared to 2.5%±2.8% in AveIP-CT-PET and 1.3%±1.2% in phasematching PET. The SUVmax in single-CT-PET differed by up to 15% from those in phase-matching-PET. The target volumes measured from single- CT-PET images also presented variations up to 10% among different phases of 4D PET in both phase-gating and amplitude-gating experiments. Conclusion: Attenuation correction using non-gated CT in 4D-PET imaging is not optimal process for quantitative analysis. Clinical 4D-PET imaging protocols should consider phase-matched 4D-CT image if available to achieve better accuracy.

  7. PET-MRI: a review of challenges and solutions in the development of integrated multimodality imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Marsden, Paul K.

    2015-02-01

    The integration of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been an ongoing research topic for the last 20 years. This paper gives an overview of the different developments and the technical problems associated with combining PET and MRI in one system. After explaining the different detector concepts for integrating PET-MRI and minimising interference the limitations and advantages of different solutions for the detector and system are described for preclinical and clinical imaging systems. The different integrated PET-MRI systems are described in detail. Besides detector concepts and system integration the challenges and proposed solutions for attenuation correction and the potential for motion correction and resolution recovery are also discussed in this topical review.

  8. Quality control for quantitative multicenter whole-body PET/MR studies: A NEMA image quality phantom study with three current PET/MR systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boellaard, Ronald; Rausch, Ivo; Beyer, Thomas; Delso, Gaspar; Yaqub, Maqsood; Quick, Harald H.; Sattler, Bernhard

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Integrated positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems derive the PET attenuation correction (AC) from dedicated MR sequences. While MR-AC performs reasonably well in clinical patient imaging, it may fail for phantom-based quality control (QC). The authors assess the applicability of different protocols for PET QC in multicenter PET/MR imaging. Methods: The National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU 2 2007 image quality phantom was imaged on three combined PET/MR systems: a Philips Ingenuity TF PET/MR, a Siemens Biograph mMR, and a GE SIGNA PET/MR (prototype) system. The phantom was filled according to the EANM FDG-PET/CT guideline 1.0 and scanned for 5 min over 1 bed. Two MR-AC imaging protocols were tested: standard clinical procedures and a dedicated protocol for phantom tests. Depending on the system, the dedicated phantom protocol employs a two-class (water and air) segmentation of the MR data or a CT-based template. Differences in attenuation- and SUV recovery coefficients (RC) are reported. PET/CT-based simulations were performed to simulate the various artifacts seen in the AC maps (μ-map) and their impact on the accuracy of phantom-based QC. Results: Clinical MR-AC protocols caused substantial errors and artifacts in the AC maps, resulting in underestimations of the reconstructed PET activity of up to 27%, depending on the PET/MR system. Using dedicated phantom MR-AC protocols, PET bias was reduced to −8%. Mean and max SUV RC met EARL multicenter PET performance specifications for most contrast objects, but only when using the dedicated phantom protocol. Simulations confirmed the bias in experimental data to be caused by incorrect AC maps resulting from the use of clinical MR-AC protocols. Conclusions: Phantom-based quality control of PET/MR systems in a multicenter, multivendor setting may be performed with sufficient accuracy, but only when dedicated phantom acquisition and processing protocols are used for

  9. ImmunoPET Imaging of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor in a Subcutaneous Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-30

    imaging, tumor- bearing mice were injected intravenously with ∼200 μCi of 89Zr-Df-1A2G11. PET scans were performed using an Inveon microPET/microCT rodent...Serial PET imaging was performed at 12, 24, 48, 72, and 120 h after 89Zr-Df-1A2G11 was injected into MIA PaCa-2, BxPC-3, and AsPC-1 tumor- bearing mice...displayed low expression. Figure 3. PET imaging of IGF-1R expression in three pancreatic cancer tumor- bearing mice. Maximum intensity projection images

  10. Netupitant PET imaging and ADME studies in humans

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, Tulla; Calcagnile, Selma; Giuliano, Claudio; Rossi, Giorgia; Lanzarotti, Corinna; Mair, Stuart; Stevens, Lloyd; Nisbet, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Netupitant is a new, selective NK1 receptor antagonist under development for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the brain receptor occupancy (RO) and disposition (ADME) of netupitant in humans. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with the NK1 receptor-binding–selective tracer [11C]-GR205171 was used to evaluate the brain penetration of different doses of netupitant (100, 300, and 450 mg) and to determine the NK1-RO duration. A NK1-RO of 90% or higher was achieved with all doses in the majority of the tested brain regions at Cmax, with a long duration of RO. The netupitant minimal plasma concentration predicted to achieve a NK1-RO of 90%, C90%, in the striatum was 225 ng/mL; after administration of netupitant 300 mg, concentrations exceeded the C90%. In the ADME study, a single nominal dose of [14C]-netupitant 300 mg was used to assess its disposition. Absorption was rapid and netupitant was extensively metabolized via Phase I and II hepatic metabolism. Elimination of >90% was predicted at day 29 and was principally via hepatic/biliary route (>85%) with a minor contribution of the renal route (<5%). In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that netupitant is a potent agent targeting NK1 receptors with long lasting RO. In addition, netupitant is extensively metabolized and is mainly eliminated through the hepatic/biliary route and to a lesser extent via the kidneys. PMID:24122871

  11. Automatic lung tumor segmentation on PET/CT images using fuzzy Markov random field model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Feng, Yuanming; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Wang; Sa, Yu; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and CT images provides complementary functional and anatomical information of human tissues and it has been used for better tumor volume definition of lung cancer. This paper proposed a robust method for automatic lung tumor segmentation on PET/CT images. The new method is based on fuzzy Markov random field (MRF) model. The combination of PET and CT image information is achieved by using a proper joint posterior probability distribution of observed features in the fuzzy MRF model which performs better than the commonly used Gaussian joint distribution. In this study, the PET and CT simulation images of 7 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were used to evaluate the proposed method. Tumor segmentations with the proposed method and manual method by an experienced radiation oncologist on the fused images were performed, respectively. Segmentation results obtained with the two methods were similar and Dice's similarity coefficient (DSC) was 0.85 ± 0.013. It has been shown that effective and automatic segmentations can be achieved with this method for lung tumors which locate near other organs with similar intensities in PET and CT images, such as when the tumors extend into chest wall or mediastinum.

  12. Automatic Lung Tumor Segmentation on PET/CT Images Using Fuzzy Markov Random Field Model

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu; Feng, Yuanming; Sun, Jian; Lin, Wang; Sa, Yu; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and CT images provides complementary functional and anatomical information of human tissues and it has been used for better tumor volume definition of lung cancer. This paper proposed a robust method for automatic lung tumor segmentation on PET/CT images. The new method is based on fuzzy Markov random field (MRF) model. The combination of PET and CT image information is achieved by using a proper joint posterior probability distribution of observed features in the fuzzy MRF model which performs better than the commonly used Gaussian joint distribution. In this study, the PET and CT simulation images of 7 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were used to evaluate the proposed method. Tumor segmentations with the proposed method and manual method by an experienced radiation oncologist on the fused images were performed, respectively. Segmentation results obtained with the two methods were similar and Dice's similarity coefficient (DSC) was 0.85 ± 0.013. It has been shown that effective and automatic segmentations can be achieved with this method for lung tumors which locate near other organs with similar intensities in PET and CT images, such as when the tumors extend into chest wall or mediastinum. PMID:24987451

  13. Clinical Utility of Positron Emission Tomography Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET-MRI) in Gastrointestinal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Robert; Choi, Minsig

    2016-01-01

    Anatomic imaging utilizing both CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) limits the assessment of cancer metastases in lymph nodes and distant organs while functional imaging like PET (positron emission tomography) scan has its limitation in spatial resolution capacity. Hybrid imaging utilizing PET-CT and PET-MRI are novel imaging modalities that are changing the current landscape in cancer diagnosis, staging, and treatment response. MRI has shown to have higher sensitivity in soft tissue, head and neck pathology, and pelvic disease, as well as, detecting small metastases in the liver and bone compared to CT. Combining MRI with PET allows for detection of metastases that may have been missed with current imaging modalities. In this review, we will examine the clinical utility of FDG PET-MRI in the diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal cancers with focus on esophageal, stomach, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers. We will also explore its role in treatment response and future directions associated with it. PMID:27618106

  14. Potential medical applications of the plasma focus in the radioisotope production for PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshan, M. V.; Razaghi, S.; Asghari, F.; Rawat, R. S.; Springham, S. V.; Lee, P.; Lee, S.; Tan, T. L.

    2014-06-01

    Devices other than the accelerators are desired to be investigated for generating high energy particles to induce nuclear reaction and positron emission tomography (PET) producing radioisotopes. The experimental data of plasma focus devices (PF) are studied and the activity scaling law for External Solid Target (EST) activation is established. Based on the scaling law and the techniques to enhance the radioisotopes production, the feasibility of generating the required activity for PET imaging is studied.

  15. Diffusion-weighted and PET/MR Imaging after Radiation Therapy for Malignant Head and Neck Tumors.

    PubMed

    Varoquaux, Arthur; Rager, Olivier; Dulguerov, Pavel; Burkhardt, Karim; Ailianou, Angeliki; Becker, Minerva

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting imaging studies of the irradiated neck constitutes a challenge because of radiation therapy-induced tissue alterations, the variable appearances of recurrent tumors, and functional and metabolic phenomena that mimic disease. Therefore, morphologic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging, positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT), and software fusion of PET and MR imaging data sets are increasingly used to facilitate diagnosis in clinical practice. Because MR imaging and PET often yield complementary information, PET/MR imaging holds promise to facilitate differentiation of tumor recurrence from radiation therapy-induced changes and complications. This review focuses on clinical applications of DW and PET/MR imaging in the irradiated neck and discusses the added value of multiparametric imaging to solve diagnostic dilemmas. Radiologists should understand key features of radiation therapy-induced tissue alterations and potential complications seen at DW and PET/MR imaging, including edema, fibrosis, scar tissue, soft-tissue necrosis, bone and cartilage necrosis, cranial nerve palsy, and radiation therapy-induced arteriosclerosis, brain necrosis, and thyroid disorders. DW and PET/MR imaging also play a complementary role in detection of residual and recurrent disease. Interpretation pitfalls due to technical, functional, and metabolic phenomena should be recognized and avoided. Familiarity with DW and PET/MR imaging features of expected findings, potential complications, and treatment failure after radiation therapy increases diagnostic confidence when interpreting images of the irradiated neck. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  16. Pulmonary nodule detection in PET/CT images: improved approach using combined nodule detection and hybrid FP reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teramoto, Atsushi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Tomita, Yoya; Takahashi, Katsuaki; Yamamuro, Osamu; Tamaki, Tsuneo

    2012-03-01

    In this study, an automated scheme for detecting pulmonary nodules in PET/CT images has been proposed using combined detection and hybrid false-positive (FP) reduction techniques. The initial nodule candidates were detected separately from CT and PET images. FPs were then eliminated in the initial candidates by using support vector machine with characteristic values obtained from CT and PET images. In the experiment, we evaluated proposed method using 105 cases of PET/CT images that were obtained in the cancer-screening program. We evaluated true positive fraction (TPF) and FP / case. As a result, TPFs of CT and PET detections were 0.76 and 0.44, respectively. However, by integrating the both results, TPF was reached to 0.82 with 5.14 FPs/case. These results indicate that our method may be of practical use for the detection of pulmonary nodules using PET/CT images.

  17. Dedicated mobile high resolution prostate PET imager with an insertable transrectal probe

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2010-12-28

    A dedicated mobile PET imaging system to image the prostate and surrounding organs. The imaging system includes an outside high resolution PET imager placed close to the patient's torso and an insertable and compact transrectal probe that is placed in close proximity to the prostate and operates in conjunction with the outside imager. The two detector systems are spatially co-registered to each other. The outside imager is mounted on an open rotating gantry to provide torso-wide 3D images of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs. The insertable probe provides closer imaging, high sensitivity, and very high resolution predominately 2D view of the prostate and immediate surroundings. The probe is operated in conjunction with the outside imager and a fast data acquisition system to provide very high resolution reconstruction of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs.

  18. Synergistic role of simultaneous PET/MRI-MRS in soft tissue sarcoma metabolism imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomeng; Chen, Yen-Lin E; Lim, Ruth; Huang, Chuan; Chebib, Ivan A; El Fakhri, Georges

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to develop and validate simultaneous PET/MRI-MRS as a novel biological image-guided approach to neoadjuvant radiotherapy (RT) and/or chemoradiation (chemoRT) in soft tissue sarcomas (STS). A patient with sarcoma of the right thigh underwent PET/MRI scan before and after neoadjuvant (preoperative) radiotherapy. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-D-glucose-Positron Emission Tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET) scans were performed simultaneously. In the post-radiation scan, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was subsequently acquired with volume of interest positioned in a residual hyper-metabolic region detected by PET. Post-radiation PET/MRI showed a residual T2-hyperintense mass with significantly reduced (18)F-FDG-uptake, compatible with near complete response to radiotherapy. However, a small region of residual high (18)F-FDG uptake was detected at the tumor margin. MRS of this region had similar metabolite profile as normal tissue, and was thus considered false positive on PET scan. Pathology results were obtained after surgery for confirmation of imaging findings.

  19. PET guidance in prostate cancer radiotherapy: Quantitative imaging to predict response and guide treatment.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, G M; Bettinardi, V; Mapelli, P; Picchio, M

    2016-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows a monitoring and recording of the spatial and temporal distribution of molecular/cellular processes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The aim of this review is to describe the current applications and to explore the role of PET in prostate cancer management, mainly in the radiation therapy (RT) scenario. The state-of-the art of PET for prostate cancer will be presented together with the impact of new specific PET tracers and technological developments aiming at obtaining better imaging quality, increased tumor detectability and more accurate volume delineation. An increased number of studies have been focusing on PET quantification methods as predictive biomarkers capable of guiding individualized treatment and improving patient outcome; the sophisticated advanced intensity modulated and imaged guided radiation therapy techniques (IMRT/IGRT) are capable of boosting more radioresistant tumor (sub)volumes. The use of advanced feature analyses of PET images is an approach that holds great promise with regard to several oncological diseases, but needs further validation in managing prostate diseases.

  20. Relative role of motion and PSF compensation in whole-body oncologic PET-MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Petibon, Yoann; Syrkina, Aleksandra; Huang, Chuan; Ouyang, Jinsong; Li, Quanzheng; El Fakhri, Georges; Reese, Timothy G.; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Respiratory motion and partial-volume effects are the two main sources of image degradation in whole-body PET imaging. Simultaneous PET-MR allows measurement of respiratory motion using MRI while collecting PET events. Improved PET images may be obtained by modeling respiratory motion and point spread function (PSF) within the PET iterative reconstruction process. In this study, the authors assessed the relative impact of PSF modeling and MR-based respiratory motion correction in phantoms and patient studies using a whole-body PET-MR scanner. Methods: An asymmetric exponential PSF model accounting for radially varying and axial detector blurring effects was obtained from point source acquisitions performed in the PET-MR scanner. A dedicated MRI acquisition protocol using single-slice steady state free-precession MR acquisitions interleaved with pencil-beam navigator echoes was developed to track respiratory motion during PET-MR studies. An iterative ordinary Poisson fully 3D OSEM PET reconstruction algorithm modeling all the physical effects of the acquisition (attenuation, scatters, random events, detectors efficiencies, PSF), as well as MR-based nonrigid respiratory deformations of tissues (in both emission and attenuation maps) was developed. Phantom and{sup 18}F-FDG PET-MR patient studies were performed to evaluate the proposed quantitative PET-MR methods. Results: The phantom experiment results showed that PSF modeling significantly improved contrast recovery while limiting noise propagation in the reconstruction process. In patients with soft-tissue static lesions, PSF modeling improved lesion contrast by 19.7%–109%, enhancing the detectability and assessment of small tumor foci. In a patient study with small moving hepatic lesions, the proposed reconstruction technique improved lesion contrast by 54.4%–98.1% and reduced apparent lesion size by 21.8%–34.2%. Improvements were particularly important for the smallest lesion undergoing large motion

  1. Automatic anatomy recognition in whole-body PET/CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huiqian; Udupa, Jayaram K. Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.; Zhao, Liming

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become a standard method of imaging patients with various disease conditions, especially cancer. Body-wide accurate quantification of disease burden in PET/CT images is important for characterizing lesions, staging disease, prognosticating patient outcome, planning treatment, and evaluating disease response to therapeutic interventions. However, body-wide anatomy recognition in PET/CT is a critical first step for accurately and automatically quantifying disease body-wide, body-region-wise, and organwise. This latter process, however, has remained a challenge due to the lower quality of the anatomic information portrayed in the CT component of this imaging modality and the paucity of anatomic details in the PET component. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the adaptation of a recently developed automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodology [Udupa et al., “Body-wide hierarchical fuzzy modeling, recognition, and delineation of anatomy in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 18, 752–771 (2014)] to PET/CT images. Their goal was to test what level of object localization accuracy can be achieved on PET/CT compared to that achieved on diagnostic CT images. Methods: The authors advance the AAR approach in this work in three fronts: (i) from body-region-wise treatment in the work of Udupa et al. to whole body; (ii) from the use of image intensity in optimal object recognition in the work of Udupa et al. to intensity plus object-specific texture properties, and (iii) from the intramodality model-building-recognition strategy to the intermodality approach. The whole-body approach allows consideration of relationships among objects in different body regions, which was previously not possible. Consideration of object texture allows generalizing the previous optimal threshold-based fuzzy model recognition method from intensity images to any derived fuzzy membership image, and in the process

  2. Optimization of super-resolution processing using incomplete image sets in PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Chang, Guoping; Pan, Tinsu; Clark, John W; Mawlawi, Osama R

    2008-12-01

    Super-resolution (SR) techniques are used in PET imaging to generate a high-resolution image by combining multiple low-resolution images that have been acquired from different points of view (POVs). The number of low-resolution images used defines the processing time and memory storage necessary to generate the SR image. In this paper, the authors propose two optimized SR implementations (ISR-1 and ISR-2) that require only a subset of the low-resolution images (two sides and diagonal of the image matrix, respectively), thereby reducing the overall processing time and memory storage. In an N x N matrix of low-resolution images, ISR-1 would be generated using images from the two sides of the N x N matrix, while ISR-2 would be generated from images across the diagonal of the image matrix. The objective of this paper is to investigate whether the two proposed SR methods can achieve similar performance in contrast and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the SR image generated from a complete set of low-resolution images (CSR) using simulation and experimental studies. A simulation, a point source, and a NEMA/IEC phantom study were conducted for this investigation. In each study, 4 (2 x 2) or 16 (4 x 4) low-resolution images were reconstructed from the same acquired data set while shifting the reconstruction grid to generate images from different POVs. SR processing was then applied in each study to combine all as well as two different subsets of the low-resolution images to generate the CSR, ISR-1, and ISR-2 images, respectively. For reference purpose, a native reconstruction (NR) image using the same matrix size as the three SR images was also generated. The resultant images (CSR, ISR-1, ISR-2, and NR) were then analyzed using visual inspection, line profiles, SNR plots, and background noise spectra. The simulation study showed that the contrast and the SNR difference between the two ISR images and the CSR image were on average 0.4% and 0.3%, respectively. Line profiles of

  3. Structured light 3D tracking system for measuring motions in PET brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesen, Oline V.; Jørgensen, Morten R.; Paulsen, Rasmus R.; Højgaard, Liselotte; Roed, Bjarne; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-02-01

    Patient motion during scanning deteriorates image quality, especially for high resolution PET scanners. A new proposal for a 3D head tracking system for motion correction in high resolution PET brain imaging is set up and demonstrated. A prototype tracking system based on structured light with a DLP projector and a CCD camera is set up on a model of the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT). Methods to reconstruct 3D point clouds of simple surfaces based on phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) are demonstrated. The projector and camera are calibrated using a simple stereo vision procedure where the projector is treated as a camera. Additionally, the surface reconstructions are corrected for the non-linear projector output prior to image capture. The results are convincing and a first step toward a fully automated tracking system for measuring head motions in PET imaging.

  4. Variability of Image Features Computed from Conventional and Respiratory-Gated PET/CT Images of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Jasmine A.; Budzevich, Mikalai; Zhang, Geoffrey G.; Dilling, Thomas J.; Latifi, Kujtim; Moros, Eduardo G.

    2015-01-01

    Radiomics is being explored for potential applications in radiation therapy. How various imaging protocols affect quantitative image features is currently a highly active area of research. To assess the variability of image features derived from conventional [three-dimensional (3D)] and respiratory-gated (RG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) images of lung cancer patients, image features were computed from 23 lung cancer patients. Both protocols for each patient were acquired during the same imaging session. PET tumor volumes were segmented using an adaptive technique which accounted for background. CT tumor volumes were delineated with a commercial segmentation tool. Using RG PET images, the tumor center of mass motion, length, and rotation were calculated. Fifty-six image features were extracted from all images consisting of shape descriptors, first-order features, and second-order texture features. Overall, 26.6% and 26.2% of total features demonstrated less than 5% difference between 3D and RG protocols for CT and PET, respectively. Between 10 RG phases in PET, 53.4% of features demonstrated percent differences less than 5%. The features with least variability for PET were sphericity, spherical disproportion, entropy (first and second order), sum entropy, information measure of correlation 2, Short Run Emphasis (SRE), Long Run Emphasis (LRE), and Run Percentage (RPC); and those for CT were minimum intensity, mean intensity, Root Mean Square (RMS), Short Run Emphasis (SRE), and RPC. Quantitative analysis using a 3D acquisition versus RG acquisition (to reduce the effects of motion) provided notably different image feature values. This study suggests that the variability between 3D and RG features is mainly due to the impact of respiratory motion. PMID:26692535

  5. [Metabolically active volumes automatic delineation methodologies in PET imaging: review and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Hatt, M; Boussion, N; Cheze-Le Rest, C; Visvikis, D; Pradier, O

    2012-02-01

    PET imaging is now considered a gold standard tool in clinical oncology, especially for diagnosis purposes. More recent applications such as therapy follow-up or tumor targeting in radiotherapy require a fast, accurate and robust metabolically active tumor volumes delineation on emission images, which cannot be obtained through manual contouring. This clinical need has sprung a large number of methodological developments regarding automatic methods to define tumor volumes on PET images. This paper reviews most of the methodologies that have been recently proposed and discusses their framework and methodological and/or clinical validation. Perspectives regarding the future work to be done are also suggested.

  6. PET/CT imaging of abdominal aorta with intramural hematomas, penetrating ulcer, and saccular pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vien X; Nguyen, Ba D

    2014-05-01

    Acute aortic syndromes, encompassing intramural hematoma, penetrating ulcer, and pseudoaneurysm, are best demonstrated by angiographic CT and magnetic resonance imaging. These imaging modalities provide an accurate evaluation and allow timely therapies of these frequently symptomatic lesions, thus reducing their morbidity and mortality. The inflammatory pathogenesis of these acute aortic syndromes may exhibit positive PET findings predictive of prognosis and outcomes of these vascular events. The authors present a case of PET/CT imaging showing asymptomatic intramural hematomas with penetrating ulcer and saccular pseudoaneurysm of the proximal abdominal aorta.

  7. Anatomy-guided brain PET imaging incorporating a joint prior model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lijun; Ma, Jianhua; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan; Rahmim, Arman

    2015-03-01

    We proposed a maximum a posterior (MAP) framework for incorporating information from co-registered anatomical images into PET image reconstruction through a novel anato-functional joint prior. The characteristic of the utilized hyperbolic potential function is determinate by the voxel intensity differences within the anatomical image, while the penalization is computed based on voxel intensity differences in reconstructed PET images. Using realistic simulated 18FDG PET scan data, we optimized the performance of the proposed MAP reconstruction with the joint prior (JP-MAP) and compared its performance with conventional 3D MLEM and 3D MAP reconstructions. The proposed JP-MAP reconstruction algorithm resulted in quantitatively enhanced reconstructed images, as demonstrated in extensive FDG PET simulation study. The proposed method was also tested on a 20 min Florbetapir patient study performed on the high-resolution research tomograph. It was shown to outperform conventional methods in visual as well as quantitative accuracy assessment (in terms of regional noise versus activity value performance). The JP-MAP method was also compared with another MR-guided MAP reconstruction method, utilizing the Bowsher prior and was seen to result in some quantitative enhancements, especially in the case of MR-PET mis-registrations, and a definitive improvement in computational performance.

  8. Potential of PET-MRI for imaging of non-oncologic musculoskeletal disease

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Audrey P.; Gold, Garry E.

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of musculoskeletal disease leads to improved therapies and patient outcomes, and would benefit greatly from imaging at the cellular and molecular level. As it becomes clear that assessment of multiple tissues and functional processes are often necessary to study the complex pathogenesis of musculoskeletal disorders, the role of multi-modality molecular imaging becomes increasingly important. New positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) systems offer to combine high-resolution MRI with simultaneous molecular information from PET to study the multifaceted processes involved in numerous musculoskeletal disorders. In this article, we aim to outline the potential clinical utility of hybrid PET-MRI to these non-oncologic musculoskeletal diseases. We summarize current applications of PET molecular imaging in osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), metabolic bone diseases and neuropathic peripheral pain. Advanced MRI approaches that reveal biochemical and functional information offer complementary assessment in soft tissues. Additionally, we discuss technical considerations for hybrid PET-MR imaging including MR attenuation correction, workflow, radiation dose, and quantification. PMID:28090451

  9. FDG-PET imaging in mild traumatic brain injury: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Kimberly R; Wilson, Colin M; Brabazon, Fiona; von Leden, Ramona; Jurgens, Jennifer S; Oakes, Terrence R; Selwyn, Reed G

    2014-01-09

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects an estimated 1.7 million people in the United States and is a contributing factor to one third of all injury related deaths annually. According to the CDC, approximately 75% of all reported TBIs are concussions or considered mild in form, although the number of unreported mild TBIs (mTBI) and patients not seeking medical attention is unknown. Currently, classification of mTBI or concussion is a clinical assessment since diagnostic imaging is typically inconclusive due to subtle, obscure, or absent changes in anatomical or physiological parameters measured using standard magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography (CT) imaging protocols. Molecular imaging techniques that examine functional processes within the brain, such as measurement of glucose uptake and metabolism using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), have the ability to detect changes after mTBI. Recent technological improvements in the resolution of PET systems, the integration of PET with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the availability of normal healthy human databases and commercial image analysis software contribute to the growing use of molecular imaging in basic science research and advances in clinical imaging. This review will discuss the technological considerations and limitations of FDG-PET, including differentiation between glucose uptake and glucose metabolism and the significance of these measurements. In addition, the current state of FDG-PET imaging in assessing mTBI in clinical and preclinical research will be considered. Finally, this review will provide insight into potential critical data elements and recommended standardization to improve the application of FDG-PET to mTBI research and clinical practice.

  10. FDG-PET imaging in mild traumatic brain injury: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Kimberly R.; Wilson, Colin M.; Brabazon, Fiona; von Leden, Ramona; Jurgens, Jennifer S.; Oakes, Terrence R.; Selwyn, Reed G.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects an estimated 1.7 million people in the United States and is a contributing factor to one third of all injury related deaths annually. According to the CDC, approximately 75% of all reported TBIs are concussions or considered mild in form, although the number of unreported mild TBIs (mTBI) and patients not seeking medical attention is unknown. Currently, classification of mTBI or concussion is a clinical assessment since diagnostic imaging is typically inconclusive due to subtle, obscure, or absent changes in anatomical or physiological parameters measured using standard magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography (CT) imaging protocols. Molecular imaging techniques that examine functional processes within the brain, such as measurement of glucose uptake and metabolism using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), have the ability to detect changes after mTBI. Recent technological improvements in the resolution of PET systems, the integration of PET with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the availability of normal healthy human databases and commercial image analysis software contribute to the growing use of molecular imaging in basic science research and advances in clinical imaging. This review will discuss the technological considerations and limitations of FDG-PET, including differentiation between glucose uptake and glucose metabolism and the significance of these measurements. In addition, the current state of FDG-PET imaging in assessing mTBI in clinical and preclinical research will be considered. Finally, this review will provide insight into potential critical data elements and recommended standardization to improve the application of FDG-PET to mTBI research and clinical practice. PMID:24409143

  11. Diagnostic imaging in dermatology: utility of PET-CT in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sánchez, R; Serrano-Falcón, C; Rebollo Aguirre, A C

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma accounts for 5% of all malignant skin tumors and its incidence is increasing. In the natural course of melanoma, tumors grow locally and can spread via the lymph system or the blood. Because survival is directly related to the stage of the disease at diagnosis, early detection (secondary prevention) has an impact on prognosis. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine technique that generates images using molecules labeled with positron-emitting isotopes. The most widely used molecule is fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Because of the elevated glycolytic rate in tumor cells, which results in increased FDG uptake, greater quantities of FDG become trapped in tumor cells, enabling external detection. Today, most PET scanners are multimodal PET-computed tomography (CT) scanners, which provide more detailed information by combining morphological information with functional PET findings. The possible utility of PET-CT in patients with malignant melanoma is a subject of debate. Various questions have been raised: when the scan should be performed, whether PET-CT has advantages over conventional diagnostic methods, and whether PET-CT provides a real benefit to patients. In this review of the literature, we will analyze each of these questions.

  12. PET Imaging of Tau Deposition in the Aging Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Schonhaut, Daniel R.; O’Neil, James P.; Janabi, Mustafa; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Baker, Suzanne L.; Vogel, Jacob W.; Faria, Jamie; Schwimmer, Henry D.; Rabinovici, Gil D.; Jagust, William J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Tau pathology is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but also occurs in normal cognitive aging. Using the tau PET agent 18F-AV-1451, we examined retention patterns in cognitively normal older people in relation to young controls and AD patients. Age and β-amyloid (measured using PiB PET) were differentially associated with tau tracer retention in healthy aging. Older age was related to increased tracer retention in regions of the medial temporal lobe, which predicted worse episodic memory performance. PET detection of tau in other isocortical regions required the presence of cortical β-amyloid, and was associated with decline in global cognition. Furthermore, patterns of tracer retention corresponded well with Braak staging of neurofibrillary tau pathology. The present study defined patterns of tau tracer retention in normal aging in relation to age, cognition, and β-amyloid deposition. PMID:26938442

  13. State of the art imaging of multiple myeloma: comparative review of FDG PET/CT imaging in various clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Mesguich, Charles; Fardanesh, Reza; Tanenbaum, Lawrence; Chari, Ajai; Jagannath, Sundar; Kostakoglu, Lale

    2014-12-01

    18-Flurodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography with computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have higher sensitivity and specificity than whole-body X-ray (WBXR) survey in evaluating disease extent in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Both modalities are now recommended by the Durie-Salmon Plus classification although the emphasis is more on MRI than PET/CT. The presence of extra-medullary disease (EMD) as evaluated by PET/CT imaging, initial SUVmax and number of focal lesions (FL) are deemed to be strong prognostic parameters at staging. MRI remains the most sensitive technique for the detection of diffuse bone marrow involvement in both the pre and post-therapy setting. Compression fractures are best characterized with MRI signal changes, for determining vertebroplasty candidates. While PET/CT allows for earlier and more specific evaluation of therapeutic efficacy compared to MRI, when signal abnormalities persist years after treatment. PET/CT interpretation, however, can be challenging in the vertebral column and pelvis as well as in cases with post-therapy changes. Hence, a reading approach combining the high sensitivity of MRI and superior specificity of FDG PET/CT would be preferred to increase the diagnostic accuracy. In summary, the established management methods in MM, mainly relying on biological tumor parameters should be complemented with functional imaging data, both at staging and restaging for optimal management of MM.

  14. Method for transforming CT images for attenuation correction in PET/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, Jonathan P.J.; Townsend, David W.; Rappoport, Vitaliy; Bendriem, Bernard

    2006-04-15

    A tube-voltage-dependent scheme is presented for transforming Hounsfield units (HU) measured by different computed tomography (CT) scanners at different x-ray tube voltages (kVp) to 511 keV linear attenuation values for attenuation correction in positron emission tomography (PET) data reconstruction. A Gammex 467 electron density CT phantom was imaged using a Siemens Sensation 16-slice CT, a Siemens Emotion 6-slice CT, a GE Lightspeed 16-slice CT, a Hitachi CXR 4-slice CT, and a Toshiba Aquilion 16-slice CT at kVp ranging from 80 to 140 kVp. All of these CT scanners are also available in combination with a PET scanner as a PET/CT tomograph. HU obtained for various reference tissue substitutes in the phantom were compared with the known linear attenuation values at 511 keV. The transformation, appropriate for lung, soft tissue, and bone, yields the function 9.6x10{sup -5}{center_dot}(HU+1000) below a threshold of {approx}50 HU and a{center_dot}(HU+1000)+b above the threshold, where a and b are fixed parameters that depend on the kVp setting. The use of the kVp-dependent scaling procedure leads to a significant improvement in reconstructed PET activity levels in phantom measurements, resolving errors of almost 40% otherwise seen for the case of dense bone phantoms at 80 kVp. Results are also presented for patient studies involving multiple CT scans at different kVp settings, which should all lead to the same 511 keV linear attenuation values. A linear fit to values obtained from 140 kVp CT images using the kVp-dependent scaling plotted as a function of the corresponding values obtained from 80 kVp CT images yielded y=1.003x-0.001 with an R{sup 2} value of 0.999, indicating that the same values are obtained to a high degree of accuracy.

  15. Diagnostic evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) using PET-FDG imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.; Chandramouli, B.; Reeb, S.

    1994-05-01

    We have reported high sensitivity of PET-FDG imaging in detecting malignancy in SPNs. We now report clinical utility of PET-FDG imaging in pre-intervention workup of 66 pts (age 24-89 yrs) with radiographically indeterminate SPNs (0.5-3 cm) in size. All pts had PET imaging performed 1 hr after injection of 10 mCi of F-18 FDG. Images were analyzed qualitatively and semi-quantitatively to compute DUR indices using ROI analysis. Final diagnosis was established by histology in 65/66 pts (thoracotomy 47, needle biopsy 13, bronchoscopy 5, stable nodule 1). PET-FDG imaging demonstrates sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy of 94%, 87% and 92% respectively. All 3 false negative cases were SPNs <1.5 cm in size and histologically adenoca. True positive malignant SPNs were adenoca 18, small cell 5, squamous cell 12, nonsmall cell 7, and others 6. Among 15 benign lesions (granuloma 6, histoplasmosis 4, nonspecific inflammation 2, hamartoma 1, stable nodule 1, organizing pneumonia 1), 2 false positive cases were seen in histoplasmosis. In 10 patients hilar/mediastinal lymph node lesions were accurately classified as benign (5) or malignant (5). Mean DUR in malignant lesions (5.41{plus_minus}2.63) was significantly greater (p value <0.001) than benign lesions (1.12{plus_minus}0.78). In conclusion, PET-FDG imaging is highly accurate in differentiating benign from malignant lung modules and lymph node lesions. PET-FDG imaging may thus optimize surgical management of pts with radiographically SPNs.

  16. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation.

    PubMed

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-21

    In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (~15-20 cm) of a single-bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole-body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study

  17. Carbon-11 radiolabeling of iron-oxide nanoparticles for dual-modality PET/MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ramesh; Xu, Youwen; Kim, Sung Won; Schueller, Michael J.; Alexoff, David; Smith, S. David; Wang, Wei; Schlyer, David

    2013-07-01

    Dual-modality imaging, using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) simultaneously, is a powerful tool to gain valuable information correlating structure with function in biomedicine. The advantage of this dual approach is that the strengths of one modality can balance the weaknesses of the other. However, success of this technique requires developing imaging probes suitable for both. Here, we report on the development of a nanoparticle labeling procedure via covalent bonding with carbon-11 PET isotope. Carbon-11 in the form of [11C]methyl iodide was used as a methylation agent to react with carboxylic acid (-COOH) and amine (-NH2) functional groups of ligands bound to the nanoparticles (NPs). The surface coating ligands present on superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) were radiolabeled to achieve dual-modality PET/MR imaging capabilities. The proof-of-concept dual-modality PET/MR imaging using the radiolabeled SPIO NPs was demonstrated in an in vivo experiment.Dual-modality imaging, using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) simultaneously, is a powerful tool to gain valuable information correlating structure with function in biomedicine. The advantage of this dual approach is that the strengths of one modality can balance the weaknesses of the other. However, success of this technique requires developing imaging probes suitable for both. Here, we report on the development of a nanoparticle labeling procedure via covalent bonding with carbon-11 PET isotope. Carbon-11 in the form of [11C]methyl iodide was used as a methylation agent to react with carboxylic acid (-COOH) and amine (-NH2) functional groups of ligands bound to the nanoparticles (NPs). The surface coating ligands present on superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) were radiolabeled to achieve dual-modality PET/MR imaging capabilities. The proof-of-concept dual-modality PET/MR imaging using the radiolabeled

  18. Quantitative Comparison of PET and Bremsstrahlung SPECT for Imaging the In Vivo Yttrium-90 Microsphere Distribution after Liver Radioembolization

    PubMed Central

    Elschot, Mattijs; Vermolen, Bart J.; Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; de Keizer, Bart; van den Bosch, Maurice A. A. J.; de Jong, Hugo W. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background After yttrium-90 (90Y) microsphere radioembolization (RE), evaluation of extrahepatic activity and liver dosimetry is typically performed on 90Y Bremsstrahlung SPECT images. Since these images demonstrate a low quantitative accuracy, 90Y PET has been suggested as an alternative. The aim of this study is to quantitatively compare SPECT and state-of-the-art PET on the ability to detect small accumulations of 90Y and on the accuracy of liver dosimetry. Methodology/Principal Findings SPECT/CT and PET/CT phantom data were acquired using several acquisition and reconstruction protocols, including resolution recovery and Time-Of-Flight (TOF) PET. Image contrast and noise were compared using a torso-shaped phantom containing six hot spheres of various sizes. The ability to detect extra- and intrahepatic accumulations of activity was tested by quantitative evaluation of the visibility and unique detectability of the phantom hot spheres. Image-based dose estimates of the phantom were compared to the true dose. For clinical illustration, the SPECT and PET-based estimated liver dose distributions of five RE patients were compared. At equal noise level, PET showed higher contrast recovery coefficients than SPECT. The highest contrast recovery coefficients were obtained with TOF PET reconstruction including resolution recovery. All six spheres were consistently visible on SPECT and PET images, but PET was able to uniquely detect smaller spheres than SPECT. TOF PET-based estimates of the dose in the phantom spheres were more accurate than SPECT-based dose estimates, with underestimations ranging from 45% (10-mm sphere) to 11% (37-mm sphere) for PET, and 75% to 58% for SPECT, respectively. The differences between TOF PET and SPECT dose-estimates were supported by the patient data. Conclusions/Significance In this study we quantitatively demonstrated that the image quality of state-of-the-art PET is superior over Bremsstrahlung SPECT for the assessment of the 90Y

  19. Advances in PET imaging of P-glycoprotein function at the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Syvänen, Stina; Eriksson, Jonas

    2013-02-20

    Efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts substrate compounds from entering the brain and may thus contribute to pharmacoresistance observed in patient groups with refractory epilepsy and HIV. Altered P-gp function has also been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Positron emission tomography (PET), a molecular imaging modality, has become a promising method to study the role of P-gp at the BBB. The first PET study of P-gp function was conducted in 1998, and during the past 15 years two main categories of P-gp PET tracers have been investigated: tracers that are substrates of P-gp efflux and tracers that are inhibitors of P-gp function. PET, as a noninvasive imaging technique, allows translational research. Examples of this are preclinical investigations of P-gp function before and after administering P-gp modulating drugs, investigations in various animal and disease models, and clinical investigations regarding disease and aging. The objective of the present review is to give an overview of available PET radiotracers for studies of P-gp and to discuss how such studies can be designed. Further, the review summarizes results from PET studies of P-gp function in different central nervous system disorders.

  20. Sensitivity study of voxel-based PET image comparison to image registration algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, Stephen Chen, Aileen B.; Berbeco, Ross; Aerts, Hugo J. W. L.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Accurate deformable registration is essential for voxel-based comparison of sequential positron emission tomography (PET) images for proper adaptation of treatment plan and treatment response assessment. The comparison may be sensitive to the method of deformable registration as the optimal algorithm is unknown. This study investigated the impact of registration algorithm choice on therapy response evaluation. Methods: Sixteen patients with 20 lung tumors underwent a pre- and post-treatment computed tomography (CT) and 4D FDG-PET scans before and after chemoradiotherapy. All CT images were coregistered using a rigid and ten deformable registration algorithms. The resulting transformations were then applied to the respective PET images. Moreover, the tumor region defined by a physician on the registered PET images was classified into progressor, stable-disease, and responder subvolumes. Particularly, voxels with standardized uptake value (SUV) decreases >30% were classified as responder, while voxels with SUV increases >30% were progressor. All other voxels were considered stable-disease. The agreement of the subvolumes resulting from difference registration algorithms was assessed by Dice similarity index (DSI). Coefficient of variation (CV) was computed to assess variability of DSI between individual tumors. Root mean square difference (RMS{sub rigid}) of the rigidly registered CT images was used to measure the degree of tumor deformation. RMS{sub rigid} and DSI were correlated by Spearman correlation coefficient (R) to investigate the effect of tumor deformation on DSI. Results: Median DSI{sub rigid} was found to be 72%, 66%, and 80%, for progressor, stable-disease, and responder, respectively. Median DSI{sub deformable} was 63%–84%, 65%–81%, and 82%–89%. Variability of DSI was substantial and similar for both rigid and deformable algorithms with CV > 10% for all subvolumes. Tumor deformation had moderate to significant impact on DSI for progressor

  1. Parametric PET/MR Fusion Imaging to Differentiate Aggressive from Indolent Primary Prostate Cancer with Application for Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Biopsies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The study investigates whether fusion PET/ MRI imaging with 18F-choline PET/CT and...diffusion-weighted MRI can be successfully applied to target prostate cancer using image-guided prostate biopsies. The study further aims to establish...whether fusion PET/ MRI -derived parametric imaging parameters identify significant prostate cancer better than standard prostate biopsies. In order to

  2. Spatial resolution recovery utilizing multi-ray tracing and graphic processing unit in PET image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yicheng; Peng, Hao

    2015-02-07

    Depth-of-interaction (DOI) poses a major challenge for a PET system to achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view, particularly for small animal and organ-dedicated PET systems. In this work, we implemented an analytical method to model system matrix for resolution recovery, which was then incorporated in PET image reconstruction on a graphical processing unit platform, due to its parallel processing capacity. The method utilizes the concepts of virtual DOI layers and multi-ray tracing to calculate the coincidence detection response function for a given line-of-response. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated for a small-bore PET insert to be used for simultaneous PET/MR breast imaging. In addition, the performance comparisons were studied among the following three cases: 1) no physical DOI and no resolution modeling; 2) two physical DOI layers and no resolution modeling; and 3) no physical DOI design but with a different number of virtual DOI layers. The image quality was quantitatively evaluated in terms of spatial resolution (full-width-half-maximum and position offset), contrast recovery coefficient and noise. The results indicate that the proposed method has the potential to be used as an alternative to other physical DOI designs and achieve comparable imaging performances, while reducing detector/system design cost and complexity.

  3. Proposed helmet PET geometries with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-10-07

    For dedicated brain PET, we can significantly improve sensitivity for the cerebrum region by arranging detectors in a compact hemisphere. The geometrical sensitivity for the top region of the hemisphere is increased compared with conventional cylindrical PET consisting of the same number of detectors. However, the geometrical sensitivity at the center region of the hemisphere is still low because the bottom edge of the field-of-view is open, the same as for the cylindrical PET. In this paper, we proposed a helmet PET with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain PET imaging for both center and top regions. The key point is the add-on detectors covering some portion of the spherical surface in addition to the hemisphere. As the location of the add-on detectors, we proposed three choices: a chin detector, ear detectors, and a neck detector. For example, the geometrical sensitivity for the region-of-interest at the center was increased by 200% by adding the chin detector which increased the size by 12% of the size of the hemisphere detector. The other add-on detectors gave almost the same increased sensitivity effect as the chin detector did. Compared with standard whole-body-cylindrical PET, the proposed geometries can achieve 2.6 times higher sensitivity for brain region even with less than 1/4 detectors. In addition, we conducted imaging simulations for geometries with a diameter of 250 mm and with high resolution depth-of-interaction detectors. The simulation results showed that the proposed geometries increased image quality, and all of the add-on detectors were equivalently effective. In conclusion, the proposed geometries have high potential for widespread applications in high-sensitivity, high-resolution, and low-cost brain PET imaging.

  4. Proposed helmet PET geometries with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-10-01

    For dedicated brain PET, we can significantly improve sensitivity for the cerebrum region by arranging detectors in a compact hemisphere. The geometrical sensitivity for the top region of the hemisphere is increased compared with conventional cylindrical PET consisting of the same number of detectors. However, the geometrical sensitivity at the center region of the hemisphere is still low because the bottom edge of the field-of-view is open, the same as for the cylindrical PET. In this paper, we proposed a helmet PET with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain PET imaging for both center and top regions. The key point is the add-on detectors covering some portion of the spherical surface in addition to the hemisphere. As the location of the add-on detectors, we proposed three choices: a chin detector, ear detectors, and a neck detector. For example, the geometrical sensitivity for the region-of-interest at the center was increased by 200% by adding the chin detector which increased the size by 12% of the size of the hemisphere detector. The other add-on detectors gave almost the same increased sensitivity effect as the chin detector did. Compared with standard whole-body-cylindrical PET, the proposed geometries can achieve 2.6 times higher sensitivity for brain region even with less than 1/4 detectors. In addition, we conducted imaging simulations for geometries with a diameter of 250 mm and with high resolution depth-of-interaction detectors. The simulation results showed that the proposed geometries increased image quality, and all of the add-on detectors were equivalently effective. In conclusion, the proposed geometries have high potential for widespread applications in high-sensitivity, high-resolution, and low-cost brain PET imaging.

  5. Askin tumor: CT and FDG-PET/CT imaging findings and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tingting; Guan, Yubao; Chen, Yongxin; Li, Jingxu

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the imaging findings of Askin tumors on computed tomography (CT) and fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET/CT).Seventeen cases of Askin tumors confirmed by histopathology were retrospectively analyzed in terms of CT (17 cases) and FDG-PET/CT data (6 cases).Fifteen of the tumors were located in the chest wall and the other 2 were in the anterior middle mediastinum. Of the 15 chest wall cases, 13 demonstrated irregular, heterogeneous soft tissue masses with cystic degeneration and necrosis, and 2 demonstrated homogeneous soft tissue masses on unenhanced CT scans. Two mediastinal tumors demonstrated the irregular, heterogeneous soft tissue masses. Calcifications were found in 2 tumors. The tumors demonstrated heterogeneously enhancement in 16 cases and homogeneous enhancement in 1 case on contrast-enhanced scans. FDG-PET/CT images revealed increased metabolic activity in all 6 cases undergone FDG-PET/CT scan, and the lesion SUVmax ranged from 4.0 to 18.6. At initial diagnosis, CT and FDG-PET/CT scans revealed rib destruction in 9 cases, pleural effusion in 9 cases, and lung metastasis in 1 case. At follow-up, 12 cases showed recurrence and/or metastases, 4 cases showed improvement or remained stable, and 1 was lost to follow-up.In summary, CT and FDG-PET/CT images of Askin tumors showed heterogeneous soft tissue masses in the chest wall and the mediastinum, accompanied by rib destruction, pleural effusion, and increased FDG uptake. CT and FDG-PET/CT imaging play important roles in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Askin tumors.

  6. Continuous Scintillator Detector Blocks for Simultaneous Pet-Mr Imaging of the Human Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rato Mendes, Pedro

    2010-04-01

    Continuous scintillator detector blocks have several advantages over pixelated designs, presenting a larger active volume and a lower cost with comparable or better energy and spatial resolutions. In this paper we describe the operation of continuous detector blocks for positron emission tomography (PET) and their suitability for multimodality imaging operating inside a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. This detector technology is being used on a full-scale clinical scanner for human brain PET studies presently under development at Ciemat. Results will be presented on the laboratory characterization of monolithic scintillators coupled to APD matrices with ASIC readout, including images of point sources from a prototype dual-head demonstrator illustrating the potential of continuous scintillator detector blocks for high-resolution PET-MR imaging.

  7. PET imaging of leptin biodistribution and metabolism in rodents and primates.

    PubMed

    Ceccarini, Giovanni; Flavell, Robert R; Butelman, Eduardo R; Synan, Michael; Willnow, Thomas E; Bar-Dagan, Maya; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Kreek, Mary J; Kothari, Paresh; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Muir, Tom W; Friedman, Jeffrey M

    2009-08-01

    We have determined the systemic biodistribution of the hormone leptin by PET imaging. PET imaging using (18)F- and (68)Ga-labeled leptin revealed that, in mouse, the hormone was rapidly taken up by megalin (gp330/LRP2), a multiligand endocytic receptor localized in renal tubules. In addition, in rhesus monkeys, 15% of labeled leptin localized to red bone marrow, which was consistent with hormone uptake in rodent tissues. These data confirm a megalin-dependent mechanism for renal uptake in vivo. The significant binding to immune cells and blood cell precursors in bone marrow is also consistent with prior evidence showing that leptin modulates immune function. These experiments set the stage for similar studies in humans to assess the extent to which alterations of leptin's biodistribution might contribute to obesity; they also provide a general chemical strategy for (18)F labeling of proteins for PET imaging of other polypeptide hormones.

  8. PET imaging of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Shan, Hong; Conti, Peter; Li, Zibo

    2012-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) belong to a family of G-protein coupled receptors involved in the modulation of fast excitatory transmission. In particular, the subtype-5 receptor (mGluR5) was found to be an attractive target for the treatment and diagnosis of variety of psychiatric and neurological disease including anxiety, depression, epilepsy, drug addiction, and Parkinson's disease. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive imaging technique that holds great potential for the diagnosis of a brain disorder. In the study published in the American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, a 18F labelled PET probe was developed targeting mGluR5. This paper represents the efforts and challenges on the design and development of novel PET tracers for mGluR5 imaging. PMID:23133800

  9. 18F-fluorothymidine-pet imaging of glioblastoma multiforme: effects of radiation therapy on radiotracer uptake and molecular biomarker patterns.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Sanjay; Hollander, Andrew; Xu, Xiangsheng; Benci, Joseph L; Davis, James J; Dorsey, Jay F; Kao, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. PET imaging is a useful clinical tool for studying tumor progression and treatment effects. Conventional (18)F-FDG-PET imaging is of limited usefulness for imaging Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) due to high levels of glucose uptake by normal brain and the resultant signal-to-noise intensity. (18)F-Fluorothymidine (FLT) in contrast has shown promise for imaging GBM, as thymidine is taken up preferentially by proliferating cells. These studies were undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of (18)F-FLT-PET in a GBM mouse model, especially after radiation therapy (RT), and its correlation with useful biomarkers, including proliferation and DNA damage. Methods. Nude/athymic mice with human GBM orthografts were assessed by microPET imaging with (18)F-FDG and (18)F-FLT. Patterns of tumor PET imaging were then compared to immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence for markers of proliferation (Ki-67), DNA damage and repair (γH2AX), hypoxia (HIF-1α), and angiogenesis (VEGF). Results. We confirmed that (18)F-FLT-PET uptake is limited in healthy mice but enhanced in the intracranial tumors. Our data further demonstrate that (18)F-FLT-PET imaging usefully reflects the inhibition of tumor by RT and correlates with changes in biomarker expression. Conclusions. (18)F-FLT-PET imaging is a promising tumor imaging modality for GBM, including assessing RT effects and biologically relevant biomarkers.

  10. Dual-Modality Prostate Imaging with PET and Transrectal Ultrasound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    concentrations than the “pelvis.” Both TMMs were hardened at room temperature. These PET- TRUS-CT-MRI phantoms are stored with a thin layer of safflower ...hardened at room temperature. Theses phantoms are stored with a thin layer of safflower oil on top to minimize dehydration and shrinkage. Fig. 2

  11. Clustering-Based Linear Least Square Fitting Method for Generation of Parametric Images in Dynamic FDG PET Studies

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xinrui; Zhou, Yun; Bao, Shangliang; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Parametric images generated from dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) studies are useful for presenting functional/biological information in the 3-dimensional space, but usually suffer from their high sensitivity to image noise. To improve the quality of these images, we proposed in this study a modified linear least square (LLS) fitting method named cLLS that incorporates a clustering-based spatial constraint for generation of parametric images from dynamic PET data of high noise levels. In this method, the combination of K-means and hierarchical cluster analysis was used to classify dynamic PET data. Compared with conventional LLS, cLLS can achieve high statistical reliability in the generated parametric images without incurring a high computational burden. The effectiveness of the method was demonstrated both with computer simulation and with a human brain dynamic FDG PET study. The cLLS method is expected to be useful for generation of parametric images from dynamic FDG PET study. PMID:18273393

  12. Post-mortem histopathology underlying β-amyloid PET imaging following flutemetamol F 18 injection.

    PubMed

    Ikonomovic, Milos D; Buckley, Chris J; Heurling, Kerstin; Sherwin, Paul; Jones, Paul A; Zanette, Michelle; Mathis, Chester A; Klunk, William E; Chakrabarty, Aruna; Ironside, James; Ismail, Azzam; Smith, Colin; Thal, Dietmar R; Beach, Thomas G; Farrar, Gill; Smith, Adrian P L

    2016-12-12

    In vivo imaging of fibrillar β-amyloid deposits may assist clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), aid treatment selection for patients, assist clinical trials of therapeutic drugs through subject selection, and be used as an outcome measure. A recent phase III trial of [(18)F]flutemetamol positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in 106 end-of-life subjects demonstrated the ability to identify fibrillar β-amyloid by comparing in vivo PET to post-mortem histopathology. Post-mortem analyses demonstrated a broad and continuous spectrum of β-amyloid pathology in AD and other dementing and non-dementing disease groups. The GE067-026 trial demonstrated 91% sensitivity and 90% specificity of [(18)F]flutemetamol PET by majority read for the presence of moderate or frequent plaques. The probability of an abnormal [(18)F]flutemetamol scan increased with neocortical plaque density and AD diagnosis. All dementia cases with non-AD neurodegenerative diseases and those without histopathological features of β-amyloid deposits were [(18)F]flutemetamol negative. Majority PET assessments accurately reflected the amyloid plaque burden in 90% of cases. However, ten cases demonstrated a mismatch between PET image interpretations and post-mortem findings. Although tracer retention was best associated with amyloid in neuritic plaques, amyloid in diffuse plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy best explain three [(18)F]flutemetamol positive cases with mismatched (sparse) neuritic plaque burden. Advanced cortical atrophy was associated with the seven false negative [(18)F]flutemetamol images. The interpretation of images from pathologically equivocal cases was associated with low reader confidence and inter-reader agreement. Our results support that amyloid in neuritic plaque burden is the primary form of β-amyloid pathology detectable with [(18)F]flutemetamol PET imaging. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01165554. Registered June 21, 2010; NCT02090855. Registered March 11, 2014.

  13. In-beam PET imaging for on-line adaptive proton therapy: an initial phantom study.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lou, Kai; Zhu, Xiaorong R; Mirkovic, Dragon; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David

    2014-07-07

    We developed and investigated a positron emission tomography (PET) system for use with on-line (both in-beam and intra-fraction) image-guided adaptive proton therapy applications. The PET has dual rotating depth-of-interaction measurable detector panels by using solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays and LYSO scintillators. It has a 44 mm diameter trans-axial and 30 mm axial field-of-view (FOV). A 38 mm diameter polymethyl methacrylate phantom was placed inside the FOV. Both PET and phantom axes were aligned with a collimated 179.2 MeV beam. Each beam delivered ∼50 spills (0.5 s spill and 1.5 s inter-spill time, 3.8 Gy at Bragg peak). Data from each beam were acquired with detectors at a given angle. Nine datasets for nine beams with detectors at nine different angles over 180° were acquired for full-tomographic imaging. Each dataset included data both during and 5 min after irradiations. The positron activity-range was measured from the PET image reconstructed from all nine datasets and compared to the results from simulated images. A (22)Na disc-source was also imaged after each beam to monitor the PET system's performance. PET performed well except for slight shifts of energy photo-peak positions (<1%) after each beam, due mainly to the neutron exposure of SSPM that increased the dark-count noise. This minor effect was corrected offline with a shifting 350-650 keV energy window for each dataset. The results show a fast converging of activity-ranges measured by the prototype PET with high sensitivity and uniform resolution. Sub-mm activity-ranges were achieved with minimal 6 s acquisition time and three spill irradiations. These results indicate the feasibility of PET for intra-fraction beam-range verification. Further studies are needed to develop and apply a novel clinical PET system for on-line image-guided adaptive proton therapy.

  14. In-beam PET imaging for on-line adaptive proton therapy: an initial phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lou, Kai; Zhu, Xiaorong R.; Mirkovic, Dragon; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David

    2014-07-01

    We developed and investigated a positron emission tomography (PET) system for use with on-line (both in-beam and intra-fraction) image-guided adaptive proton therapy applications. The PET has dual rotating depth-of-interaction measurable detector panels by using solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays and LYSO scintillators. It has a 44 mm diameter trans-axial and 30 mm axial field-of-view (FOV). A 38 mm diameter polymethyl methacrylate phantom was placed inside the FOV. Both PET and phantom axes were aligned with a collimated 179.2 MeV beam. Each beam delivered ˜50 spills (0.5 s spill and 1.5 s inter-spill time, 3.8 Gy at Bragg peak). Data from each beam were acquired with detectors at a given angle. Nine datasets for nine beams with detectors at nine different angles over 180° were acquired for full-tomographic imaging. Each dataset included data both during and 5 min after irradiations. The positron activity-range was measured from the PET image reconstructed from all nine datasets and compared to the results from simulated images. A 22Na disc-source was also imaged after each beam to monitor the PET system's performance. PET performed well except for slight shifts of energy photo-peak positions (<1%) after each beam, due mainly to the neutron exposure of SSPM that increased the dark-count noise. This minor effect was corrected offline with a shifting 350-650 keV energy window for each dataset. The results show a fast converging of activity-ranges measured by the prototype PET with high sensitivity and uniform resolution. Sub-mm activity-ranges were achieved with minimal 6 s acquisition time and three spill irradiations. These results indicate the feasibility of PET for intra-fraction beam-range verification. Further studies are needed to develop and apply a novel clinical PET system for on-line image-guided adaptive proton therapy.

  15. F-18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography imaging in primary staging of patients with malignant melanoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this systematic review was to systematically assess the potential patient-relevant benefit (primary aim) and diagnostic and prognostic accuracy (secondary aim) of positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography (CT) in primary staging of malignant melanoma. This systematic review updates the previous evidence for PET(/CT) in malignant melanoma. Materials and methods For the first aim, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating patient-relevant outcomes and comparing PET and PET(/CT) with each other or with conventional imaging were considered. For the secondary aim, a review of reviews was conducted, which was amended by an update search for primary studies. MEDLINE, EMBASE and four databases of the Cochrane Library were searched. The risk of bias was assessed using a modified QUADAS tool. Results No RCTs investigating the patient-relevant benefit of PET(/CT) and no prognostic accuracy studies were found. Seventeen diagnostic accuracy studies of varying quality were identified. For patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages I and II, sensitivity mostly ranged from 0 to 67%. Specificity ranged from 77 to 100%. For AJCC stages III and IV, sensitivity ranged from 68 to 87% and specificity from 92 to 98%. Conclusion There is currently no evidence of a patient-relevant benefit of PET(/CT) in the primary staging of malignant melanoma. RCTs investigating patient-relevant outcomes are therefore required. The diagnostic accuracy of PET(/CT) appears to increase with higher AJCC stages. PMID:23237499

  16. An Internet-Based “Kinetic Imaging System” (KIS) for MicroPET

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sung-Cheng; Truong, David; Wu, Hsiao-Ming; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Shao, Weber; Wu, Anna M.; Phelps, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Many considerations, involving understanding and selection of multiple experimental parameters, are required to perform MicroPET studies properly. The large number of these parameters/variables and their complicated interdependence make their optimal choice nontrivial. We have a developed kinetic imaging system (KIS), an integrated software system, to assist the planning, design, and data analysis of MicroPET studies. The system serves multiple functions–education, virtual experimentation, experimental design, and image analysis of simulated/experimental data–and consists of four main functional modules–“Dictionary,” “Virtual Experimentation,” “Image Analysis,” and “Model Fitting.” The “Dictionary” module provides didactic information on tracer kinetics, pharmacokinetic, MicroPET imaging, and relevant biological/pharmacological information. The “Virtual Experimentation” module allows users to examine via computer simulations the effect of biochemical/pharmacokinetic parameters on tissue tracer kinetics. It generates dynamic MicroPET images based on the user's assignment of kinetics or kinetic parameters to different tissue organs in a 3-D digital mouse phantom. Experimental parameters can be adjusted to investigate the design options of a MicroPET experiment. The “Image Analysis” module is a full-fledged image display/manipulation program. The “Model Fitting” module provides model-fitting capability for measured/simulated tissue kinetics. The system can be run either through the Web or as a stand-alone process. With KIS, radiotracer characteristics, administration method, dose level, imaging sequence, and image resolution-to-noise tradeoff can be evaluated using virtual experimentation. KIS is designed for biology/pharmaceutical scientists to make learning and applying tracer kinetics fun and easy. PMID:16132473

  17. Patch-based image reconstruction for PET using prior-image derived dictionaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahaei, Marzieh S.; Reader, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    In PET image reconstruction, regularization is often needed to reduce the noise in the resulting images. Patch-based image processing techniques have recently been successfully used for regularization in medical image reconstruction through a penalized likelihood framework. Re-parameterization within reconstruction is another powerful regularization technique in which the object in the scanner is re-parameterized using coefficients for spatially-extensive basis vectors. In this work, a method for extracting patch-based basis vectors from the subject’s MR image is proposed. The coefficients for these basis vectors are then estimated using the conventional MLEM algorithm. Furthermore, using the alternating direction method of multipliers, an algorithm for optimizing the Poisson log-likelihood while imposing sparsity on the parameters is also proposed. This novel method is then utilized to find sparse coefficients for the patch-based basis vectors extracted from the MR image. The results indicate the superiority of the proposed methods to patch-based regularization using the penalized likelihood framework.

  18. MR-based motion correction for PET imaging using wired active MR microcoils in simultaneous PET-MR: Phantom study1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chuan; Ackerman, Jerome L.; Petibon, Yoann; Brady, Thomas J.; El Fakhri, Georges; Ouyang, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Artifacts caused by head motion present a major challenge in brain positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The authors investigated the feasibility of using wired active MR microcoils to track head motion and incorporate the measured rigid motion fields into iterative PET reconstruction. Methods: Several wired active MR microcoils and a dedicated MR coil-tracking sequence were developed. The microcoils were attached to the outer surface of an anthropomorphic 18F-filled Hoffman phantom to mimic a brain PET scan. Complex rotation/translation motion of the phantom was induced by a balloon, which was connected to a ventilator. PET list-mode and MR tracking data were acquired simultaneously on a PET-MR scanner. The acquired dynamic PET data were reconstructed iteratively with and without motion correction. Additionally, static phantom data were acquired and used as the gold standard. Results: Motion artifacts in PET images were effectively removed by wired active MR microcoil based motion correction. Motion correction yielded an activity concentration bias ranging from −0.6% to 3.4% as compared to a bias ranging from −25.0% to 16.6% if no motion correction was applied. The contrast recovery values were improved by 37%–156% with motion correction as compared to no motion correction. The image correlation (mean ± standard deviation) between the motion corrected (uncorrected) images of 20 independent noise realizations and static reference was R2 = 0.978 ± 0.007 (0.588 ± 0.010, respectively). Conclusions: Wired active MR microcoil based motion correction significantly improves brain PET quantitative accuracy and image contrast. PMID:24694141

  19. PET/MR Versus PET/CT Imaging: Impact on the Clinical Management of Small-Bowel Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pellino, Gianluca; Nicolai, Emanuele; Catalano, Onofrio A.; Campione, Severo; D’Armiento, Francesco P.; Salvatore, Marco; Cuocolo, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy and clinical impact of hybrid positron emission tomography [PET]/magnetic resonance-enterography [MR-E] and PET/computed tomography-enterography [CT-E] in patients with Crohn’s disease [CD]. Methods: A total of 35 patients with symptomatic small-bowel CD who were scheduled to undergo operation were evaluated before operation by same-day PET/CT-E and PET/MR-E. PET/MR-E was also compared with MR-E alone. Imaging accuracy for detecting pathological sites and discriminating between fibrotic and inflammatory strictures was assessed. Treatment was adjusted according to imaging findings and change in medical/surgical strategy was also evaluated. Results: PET/CT-E, PET/MR-E, and MR-E were equally accurate in detecting CD sites. PET/MR-E was more accurate in assessing extra-luminal disease [p = 0.002], which was associated with higher need for stoma [p = 0.022] and distant localisation [p = 0.002]. When the latter was observed, laparoscopy was started with hand-assisted device, reducing operative time [p = 0.022]. PET/MR-E was also more accurate in detecting a fibrotic component compared with PET/CT-E [p = 0.043] and with MR-E [p = 0.024]. Fibrosis was more frequently classified as inflammation with MR-E compared with PET/MR-E [p = 0.019]. Out of 8 patients with predominantly inflammatory CD who received medical treatment, 6 [75%] remained surgery free. Overall, 29 patients received surgery. At median follow-up of 9 [6–22] months, no recurrences occurred in either the medical or the surgical group. Conclusions: Preoperative PET/MR-E imaging is highly accurate for assessing CD lesions before operation and contributed to clinical management of patients with small-bowel CD more often than PET/CT-E. PMID:26574490

  20. A Generator-Produced Gallium-68 Radiopharmaceutical for PET Imaging of Myocardial Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vijay; Sivapackiam, Jothilingam; Harpstrite, Scott E.; Prior, Julie L.; Gu, Hannah; Rath, Nigam P.; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2014-01-01

    Lipophilic cationic technetium-99m-complexes are widely used for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). However, inherent uncertainties in the supply chain of molybdenum-99, the parent isotope required for manufacturing 99Mo/99mTc generators, intensifies the need for discovery of novel MPI agents incorporating alternative radionuclides. Recently, germanium/gallium (Ge/Ga) generators capable of producing high quality 68Ga, an isotope with excellent emission characteristics for clinical PET imaging, have emerged. Herein, we report a novel 68Ga-complex identified through mechanism-based cell screening that holds promise as a generator-produced radiopharmaceutical for PET MPI. PMID:25353349

  1. 4D MR and attenuation map generation in PET/MR imaging using 4D PET derived deformation matrices: a feasibility study for lung cancer applications.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Hadi; Schmidt, Holger; Kuestner, Thomas; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2016-10-13

    Respiratory motion may reduce accuracy in fusion of functional and anatomical images using combined Positron emission tomography / Magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems. Methodologies for the correction of respiratory motion in PET acquisitions using such systems are mostly based on the use of respiratory synchronized MR acquisitions to derive motion fields. Existing approaches based on tagging acquisitions may introduce artifacts in the MR images, while motion model approaches require the acquisition of training datasets. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility of generating 4D MR images and associated attenuation maps (AMs) from a single static MR image combined with motion fields obtained from simultaneously acquired 4D non-attenuation corrected (NAC) PET images.

  2. Neuroradiological advances detect abnormal neuroanatomy underlying neuropsychological impairments: the power of PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Hayempour, Benjamin Jacob; Alavi, Abass

    2013-09-01

    Medical imaging has made a major contribution to cerebral dysfunction due to inherited diseases, as well as injuries sustained with modern living, such as car accidents, falling down, and work-related injuries. These injuries, up until the introduction of sensitive techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET), were overlooked because of heavy reliance on structural imaging techniques such as MRI and CT. These techniques are extremely insensitive for dysfunction caused by such underlying disorders. We believe that the use of these highly powerful functional neuroimaging technologies, such as PET, has substantially improved our ability to assess these patients properly in the clinical setting, to determine their natural course, and to assess the efficacy of various interventional detections. As such the contribution from the evolution of PET technology has substantially improved our knowledge and ability over the past 3 decades to help patients who are the victims of serious deficiencies due to these injuries. In particular, in recent years the use of PET/CT and soon PET/MRI will provide the best option for a structure-function relationship in these patients. We are of the belief that the clinical effectiveness of PET in managing these patients can be translated to the use of this important approach in bringing justice to the victims of many patients who are otherwise uncompensated for disorders that they have suffered without any justification. Therefore, legally opposing views about the relevance of PET in the court system by some research groups may not be justifiable. This has proven to be the case in many court cases, where such imaging techniques have been employed either for criminal or financial compensation purposes in the past 2 decades.

  3. PET imaging of osteosarcoma in dogs using a fluorine-18-labeled monoclonal antibody fab fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Page, R.L.; Garg, P.K.; Gard, S. ||

    1994-09-01

    Four dogs with histologically confirmed osteogenic sarcoma were studied with PET following intravenous injection of the {sup 18}F-labeled Fab fragment of TP-3, a monoclonal antibody specific for human and canine osteosarcomas. The antibody fragment was labeled using the N-succinimidyl (8-(4{prime}-({sup 18}F)fluorobenzyl)amino)suberate acylation agent. Blood clearance of activity was biphasic in all dogs but half-times were variable (T{sub 1/2{beta}} = 2-13 hr). Catabolism of labeled Fab was reflected by the decrease in protein-associated activity in serum from more than 90% at 1 min to 60%-80% at 4 hr. PET images demonstrated increased accumulation of {sup 18}F at the primary tumor site relative to normal contralateral bone in one dog as early as 15 min after injection. Biopsies obtained after euthanasia indicated higher uptake at the edges of the tumor as observed on the PET scans. Tumor uptake was 1-3 x 10{sup -3}% injected dose/g, a level similar to that reported for other Fab fragments in human tumors. In the three dogs with metastatic disease, early PET images reflected activity in the blood pool but later uptake was observed in suspected metastatic sites. These results, although preliminary, suggest that PET imaging of {sup 18}F-labeled antibody fragments is feasible and that dogs with spontaneous tumors could be a valuable model for preclinical research with radioimmunoconjugates. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Design of an Image Fusion Phantom for a Small Animal microPET/CT Scanner Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava-García, Dante; Alva-Sánchez, Héctor; Murrieta-Rodríguez, Tirso; Martínez-Dávalos, Arnulfo; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    Two separate microtomography systems recently developed at Instituto de Física, UNAM, produce anatomical (microCT) and physiological images (microPET) of small animals. In this work, the development and initial tests of an image fusion method based on fiducial markers for image registration between the two modalities are presented. A modular Helix/Line-Sources phantom was designed and constructed; this phantom contains fiducial markers that can be visualized in both imaging systems. The registration was carried out by solving the rigid body alignment problem of Procrustes to obtain rotation and translation matrices required to align the two sets of images. The microCT/microPET image fusion of the Helix/Line-Sources phantom shows excellent visual coincidence between different structures, showing a calculated target-registration-error of 0.32 mm.

  5. Development of a simultaneous optical/PET imaging system for awake mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Ikoma, Yoko; Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Shinaji, Tetsuya; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-09-01

    Simultaneous measurements of multiple physiological parameters are essential for the study of brain disease mechanisms and the development of suitable therapies to treat them. In this study, we developed a measurement system for simultaneous optical imaging and PET for awake mice. The key elements of this system are the OpenPET, optical imaging and fixation apparatus for an awake mouse. The OpenPET is our original open-type PET geometry, which can be used in combination with another device because of the easily accessible open space of the former. A small prototype of the axial shift single-ring OpenPET was used. The objective lens for optical imaging with a mounted charge-coupled device camera was placed inside the open space of the AS-SROP. Our original fixation apparatus to hold an awake mouse was also applied. As a first application of this system, simultaneous measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by laser speckle imaging (LSI) and [11C]raclopride-PET were performed under control and 5% CO2 inhalation (hypercapnia) conditions. Our system successfully obtained the CBF and [11C]raclopride radioactivity concentration simultaneously. Accumulation of [11C]raclopride was observed in the striatum where the density of dopamine D2 receptors is high. LSI measurements could be stably performed for more than 60 minutes. Increased CBF induced by hypercapnia was observed while CBF under the control condition was stable. We concluded that our imaging system should be useful for investigating the mechanisms of brain diseases in awake animal models.

  6. Towards coronary plaque imaging using simultaneous PET-MR: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibon, Y.; El Fakhri, G.; Nezafat, R.; Johnson, N.; Brady, T.; Ouyang, J.

    2014-03-01

    Coronary atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the main cause of myocardial infarction and the leading killer in the US. Inflammation is a known bio-marker of plaque vulnerability and can be assessed non-invasively using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography imaging (FDG-PET). However, cardiac and respiratory motion of the heart makes PET detection of coronary plaque very challenging. Fat surrounding coronary arteries allows the use of MRI to track plaque motion during simultaneous PET-MR examination. In this study, we proposed and assessed the performance of a fat-MR based coronary motion correction technique for improved FDG-PET coronary plaque imaging in simultaneous PET-MR. The proposed methods were evaluated in a realistic four-dimensional PET-MR simulation study obtained by combining patient water-fat separated MRI and XCAT anthropomorphic phantom. Five small lesions were digitally inserted inside the patients coronary vessels to mimic coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The heart of the XCAT phantom was digitally replaced with the patient's heart. Motion-dependent activity distributions, attenuation maps, and fat-MR volumes of the heart, were generated using the XCAT cardiac and respiratory motion fields. A full Monte Carlo simulation using Siemens mMR's geometry was performed for each motion phase. Cardiac/respiratory motion fields were estimated using non-rigid registration of the transformed fat-MR volumes and incorporated directly into the system matrix of PET reconstruction along with motion-dependent attenuation maps. The proposed motion correction method was compared to conventional PET reconstruction techniques such as no motion correction, cardiac gating, and dual cardiac-respiratory gating. Compared to uncorrected reconstructions, fat-MR based motion compensation yielded an average improvement of plaque-to-background contrast of 29.6%, 43.7%, 57.2%, and 70.6% for true plaque-to-blood ratios of 10, 15, 20 and 25:1, respectively. Channelized

  7. SU-E-J-222: Evaluation of Deformable Registration of PET/CT Images for Cervical Cancer Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Y; Turian, J; Templeton, A; Kiel, K; Chu, J; Kadir, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: PET/CT provides important functional information for radiotherapy targeting of cervical cancer. However, repeated PET/CT procedures for external beam and subsequent brachytherapy expose patients to additional radiation and are not cost effective. Our goal is to investigate the possibility of propagating PET-active volumes for brachytherapy procedures through deformable image registration (DIR) of earlier PET/CT and ultimately to minimize the number of PET/CT image sessions required. Methods: Nine cervical cancer patients each received their brachytherapy preplanning PET/CT at the end of EBRT with a Syed template in place. The planning PET/CT was acquired on the day of brachytherapy treatment with the actual applicator (Syed or Tandem and Ring) and rigidly registered. The PET/CT images were then deformably registered creating a third (deformed) image set for target prediction. Regions of interest with standardized uptake values (SUV) greater than 65% of maximum SUV were contoured as target volumes in all three sets of PET images. The predictive value of the registered images was evaluated by comparing the preplanning and deformed PET volumes with the planning PET volume using Dice's coefficient (DC) and center-of-mass (COM) displacement. Results: The average DCs were 0.12±0.14 and 0.19±0.16 for rigid and deformable predicted target volumes, respectively. The average COM displacements were 1.9±0.9 cm and 1.7±0.7 cm for rigid and deformable registration, respectively. The DCs were improved by deformable registration, however, both were lower than published data for DIR in other modalities and clinical sites. Anatomical changes caused by different brachytherapy applicators could have posed a challenge to the DIR algorithm. The physiological change from interstitial needle placement may also contribute to lower DC. Conclusion: The clinical use of DIR in PET/CT for cervical cancer brachytherapy appears to be limited by applicator choice and requires further

  8. Quantification of F-18 FDG PET images in temporal lobe epilepsy patients using probabilistic brain atlas.

    PubMed

    Kang, K W; Lee, D S; Cho, J H; Lee, J S; Yeo, J S; Lee, S K; Chung, J K; Lee, M C

    2001-07-01

    A probabilistic atlas of the human brain (Statistical Probabilistic Anatomical Maps: SPAM) was developed by the international consortium for brain mapping (ICBM). It is a good frame for calculating volume of interest (VOI) in many fields of brain images. After calculating the counts in VOI using the product of probability of SPAM images and counts in FDG images, asymmetric indices (AI) were calculated and used for finding epileptogenic zones in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). FDG PET images from 18 surgically confirmed mTLE patients and 22 age-matched controls were spatially normalized to the average brain MRI template of ICBM. Counts from normalized PET images were multiplied with the probability of 12 VOIs from SPAM images in both temporal lobes. Finally AI were calculated on each pair of VOIs, and compared with visual assessment. If AI of mTLE patients were not within 2.9 standard deviation from those of normal control group (P < 0.008; Bonferroni correction for P < 0.05), epileptogenic zones were considered to be found successfully. The counts of VOIs in the normal control group were symmetric (AI < 4.3%, paired t test P > 0.05) except for those of the inferior temporal gyrus (P < 0.001). By AIs in six pairs of VOIs, PET in mTLE had deficit on one side (P < 0.05). Lateralization was correct in only 14/18 of patients by AI, but 17/18 were consistent with visual inspection. In three patients with normal AI, PET images were symmetric on visual inspection. The asymmetric indices obtained by taking the product of the statistical probability anatomical map and FDG PET, correlated well with visual assessment in mTLE patients. SPAM is useful for the quantification of VOIs in functional images.

  9. Dynamic functional imaging of brain glucose utilization using fPET-FDG

    SciTech Connect

    Villien, Marjorie; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Catana, Ciprian; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Sander, Christin Y.; Zürcher, Nicole R.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Hooker, Jacob M.

    2014-06-14

    We report that glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and yet the dynamic response of glucose utilization to changes in brain activity is still not fully understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative measurement of glucose metabolism using 2-[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, FDG PET in its current form provides an integral (or average) of glucose consumption over tens of minutes and lacks the temporal information to capture physiological alterations associated with changes in brain activity induced by tasks or drug challenges. Traditionally, changes in glucose utilization are inferred by comparing two separate scans, which significantly limits the utility of the method. We report a novel method to track changes in FDG metabolism dynamically, with higher temporal resolution than exists to date and within a single session. Using a constant infusion of FDG, we demonstrate that our technique (termed fPET-FDG) can be used in an analysis pipeline similar to fMRI to define within-session differential metabolic responses. We use visual stimulation to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Ultimately, this new method has a great potential to be used in research protocols and clinical settings since fPET-FDG imaging can be performed with most PET scanners and data acquisition and analysis are straightforward. fPET-FDG is a highly complementary technique to MRI and provides a rich new way to observe functional changes in brain metabolism.

  10. Dynamic functional imaging of brain glucose utilization using fPET-FDG

    DOE PAGES

    Villien, Marjorie; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Mandeville, Joseph B.; ...

    2014-06-14

    We report that glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and yet the dynamic response of glucose utilization to changes in brain activity is still not fully understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative measurement of glucose metabolism using 2-[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, FDG PET in its current form provides an integral (or average) of glucose consumption over tens of minutes and lacks the temporal information to capture physiological alterations associated with changes in brain activity induced by tasks or drug challenges. Traditionally, changes in glucose utilization are inferred by comparing two separate scans, which significantly limits themore » utility of the method. We report a novel method to track changes in FDG metabolism dynamically, with higher temporal resolution than exists to date and within a single session. Using a constant infusion of FDG, we demonstrate that our technique (termed fPET-FDG) can be used in an analysis pipeline similar to fMRI to define within-session differential metabolic responses. We use visual stimulation to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Ultimately, this new method has a great potential to be used in research protocols and clinical settings since fPET-FDG imaging can be performed with most PET scanners and data acquisition and analysis are straightforward. fPET-FDG is a highly complementary technique to MRI and provides a rich new way to observe functional changes in brain metabolism.« less

  11. Dynamic Functional Imaging of Brain Glucose Utilization using fPET-FDG

    PubMed Central

    Villien, Marjorie; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Catana, Ciprian; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Sander, Christin Y.; Zürcher, Nicole R.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Hooker, Jacob M.

    2014-01-01

    Glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and yet the dynamic response of glucose utilization to changes in brain activity is still not fully understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative measurement of glucose metabolism using 2-[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, FDG PET in its current form provides an integral (or average) of glucose consumption over tens of minutes and lacks the temporal information to capture physiological alterations associated with changes in brain activity induced by tasks or drug challenges. Traditionally, changes in glucose utilization are inferred by comparing two separate scans, which significantly limits the utility of the method. We report a novel method to track changes in FDG metabolism dynamically, with higher temporal resolution than exists to date and within a single session. Using a constant infusion of FDG, we demonstrate that our technique (termed fPET-FDG) can be used in an analysis pipeline similar to fMRI to define within-session differential metabolic responses. We use visual stimulation to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. This new method has a great potential to be used in research protocols and clinical settings since fPET-FDG imaging can be performed with most PET scanners and data acquisition and analysis is straightforward. fPET-FDG is a highly complementary technique to MRI and provides a rich new way to observe functional changes in brain metabolism. PMID:24936683

  12. Dynamic functional imaging of brain glucose utilization using fPET-FDG.

    PubMed

    Villien, Marjorie; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Mandeville, Joseph B; Catana, Ciprian; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Sander, Christin Y; Zürcher, Nicole R; Chonde, Daniel B; Fowler, Joanna S; Rosen, Bruce R; Hooker, Jacob M

    2014-10-15

    Glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and yet the dynamic response of glucose utilization to changes in brain activity is still not fully understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative measurement of glucose metabolism using 2-[(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, FDG PET in its current form provides an integral (or average) of glucose consumption over tens of minutes and lacks the temporal information to capture physiological alterations associated with changes in brain activity induced by tasks or drug challenges. Traditionally, changes in glucose utilization are inferred by comparing two separate scans, which significantly limits the utility of the method. We report a novel method to track changes in FDG metabolism dynamically, with higher temporal resolution than exists to date and within a single session. Using a constant infusion of FDG, we demonstrate that our technique (termed fPET-FDG) can be used in an analysis pipeline similar to fMRI to define within-session differential metabolic responses. We use visual stimulation to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. This new method has a great potential to be used in research protocols and clinical settings since fPET-FDG imaging can be performed with most PET scanners and data acquisition and analysis are straightforward. fPET-FDG is a highly complementary technique to MRI and provides a rich new way to observe functional changes in brain metabolism.

  13. PET Imaging of Estrogen Metabolism in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    patient suffering with breast cancer; (2) initiate PET studies in human subjects (female normal controls and females with grade III and IV breast...radiotracer will be quantitatively different between normal controls and grade III and IV breast carcinomas. It is believed that the localization and...measures i. Primary outcome measure ii. Secondary outcome measures 6 iii . Descriptive measures 6 F. Sample size and analysis plan 6 G. Recruitment i

  14. Imaging of Prostate Cancer Using Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor PET.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Persson, Morten; Kjaer, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) overexpression is an important biomarker for aggressiveness in cancer including prostate cancer (PC) and provides independent clinical information in addition to prostate-specific antigen and Gleason score. This article focuses on uPAR PET as a new diagnostic and prognostic imaging biomarker in PC. Many preclinical uPAR-targeted PET imaging studies using AE105 in cancer models have been undertaken with promising results. A major breakthrough was obtained with the recent human translation of uPAR PET in using (64)Cu- and (68)Ga-labelled versions of AE105, respectively. Clinical results from patients with PC included in these studies are encouraging and support continuation with large-scale clinical trials.

  15. Non-routine Tracers for PET Imaging of High-grade Glioma.

    PubMed

    Frosina, Guido

    2016-07-01

    Thorough imaging is crucial for diagnosis and treatment of high-grade gliomas (HGG), lethal brain tumours with median survival ranging 1-5 years after diagnosis. Positron-emission tomography (PET) is acquiring importance in imaging of HGG since it has the formidable advantage of providing information on tumour metabolism that may be critical for correct diagnosis and treatment planning. Recently employed PET tracers designed for the non-routine investigation of specific aspects of HGG metabolism, including hypoxia, neoangiogenesis, expression of integrins and stem cell markers, are reviewed herein. A thorough choice from among these non-routine tracers may provide important metabolic information complementing those obtained with more common PET analyses, for the sake of diagnostic, prognostic, treatment planning or research purposes.

  16. Hydroxypyridinone Chelators: From Iron Scavenging to Radiopharmaceuticals for PET Imaging with Gallium-68

    PubMed Central

    Cusnir, Ruslan; Imberti, Cinzia; Hider, Robert C.; Blower, Philip J.; Ma, Michelle T.

    2017-01-01

    Derivatives of 3,4-hydroxypyridinones have been extensively studied for in vivo Fe3+ sequestration. Deferiprone, a 1,2-dimethyl-3,4-hydroxypyridinone, is now routinely used for clinical treatment of iron overload disease. Hexadentate tris(3,4-hydroxypyridinone) ligands (THP) complex Fe3+ at very low iron concentrations, and their high affinities for oxophilic trivalent metal ions have led to their development for new applications as bifunctional chelators for the positron emitting radiometal, 68Ga3+, which is clinically used for molecular imaging in positron emission tomography (PET). THP-peptide bioconjugates rapidly and quantitatively complex 68Ga3+ at ambient temperature, neutral pH and micromolar concentrations of ligand, making them amenable to kit-based radiosynthesis of 68Ga PET radiopharmaceuticals. 68Ga-labelled THP-peptides accumulate at target tissue in vivo, and are excreted largely via a renal pathway, providing high quality PET images. PMID:28075350

  17. PET imaging in a case of the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Küper, M; Zöller, M; Liebeskind, S; Wiltfang, J; Benninghoff, J

    2013-07-01

    A 64-year-old right-handed Caucasian presented with a four-year history of word-finding deficits and otherwise fluent speech production. Neurological examination remained unremarkable apart from the word finding impairment. Likewise, neuropsychological evaluation confirmed significantly reduced semantic word fluency. While brain MRI depicted only discrete anterior temporal atrophy, 18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET showed clear hypometabolism of the anterior temporal pole bilaterally with left predominance. An imaging-supported diagnosis of the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia was established in close accordance to recently published diagnostic criteria.The PET findings can be regarded as typical for this condition and PET imaging proved helpful to delineate other variants (non-fluent and logopenic) of primary progressive aphasia.

  18. A Factor-Image Framework to Quantification of Brain Receptor Dynamic PET Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z. Jane; Szabo, Zsolt; Lei, Peng; Varga, József; Liu, K. J. Ray

    2007-01-01

    The positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique enables the measurement of receptor distribution or neurotransmitter release in the living brain and the changes of the distribution with time and thus allows quantification of binding sites as well as the affinity of a radioligand. However, quantification of receptor binding studies obtained with PET is complicated by tissue heterogeneity in the sampling image elements (i.e., voxels, pixels). This effect is caused by a limited spatial resolution of the PET scanner. Spatial heterogeneity is often essential in understanding the underlying receptor binding process. Tracer kinetic modeling also often requires an intrusive collection of arterial blood samples. In this paper, we propose a likelihood-based framework in the voxel domain for quantitative imaging with or without the blood sampling of the input function. Radioligand kinetic parameters are estimated together with the input function. The parameters are initialized by a subspace-based algorithm and further refined by an iterative likelihood-based estimation procedure. The performance of the proposed scheme is examined by simulations. The results show that the proposed scheme provides reliable estimation of factor time-activity curves (TACs) and the underlying parametric images. A good match is noted between the result of the proposed approach and that of the Logan plot. Real brain PET data are also examined, and good performance is observed in determining the TACs and the underlying factor images. PMID:18769527

  19. Performance evaluation of a PET demonstrator for PET-MR imaging based on monolithic LYSO:Ce scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarasola, I.; Cuerdo, R.; Navarrete, J.; García de Acilu, P.; Rato Mendes, P.; Cela, J. M.; Oller, J. C.; Romero, L.; Willmott, C.

    2011-12-01

    We are developing a positron emission tomography (PET) insert based on avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays and monolithic LYSO:Ce scintillators for human brain functional studies to be used inside a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment. In a previous work [1], we demonstrated the performance of our detectors by implementing an experimental setup consisting of two monolithic blocks working in coincidence, which were read out by the first version of an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), VATA240, followed by external coincidence and digitalization modules. This preliminary demonstrator showed good spatial resolution at detector level on the order of 2.2 mm full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and good imaging qualities, which achieved reconstructed images of 22Na point sources with spatial resolutions of 2.1 mm FWHM. Nevertheless, we detected image distortions and compressions due to the non-linearities close to the edge of the crystals and the simplicity of that demonstrator with the absence of neighbor blocks [1]. In this work we have implemented a larger scale PET demonstrator, which is based on the new updated ASIC (VATA241) [2] and is formed by two sectors of four monolithic detector blocks placed face-to-face. This new prototype demonstrator has been built for validating the data readout architecture, the coincidence processing implemented in a Xilinx Virtex 5 field programmable gate array (FPGA), as well as the continuous neural networks (NN) training method required to determine the points of entrance over the surface of our monolithic detector blocks.

  20. Monte Carlo modeling of cascade gamma rays in (86)Y PET imaging: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuping; El Fakhri, Georges

    2009-07-07

    (86)Y is a PET agent that could be used as an ideal surrogate to allow personalized dosimetry in (90)Y radionuclide therapy. However, (86)Y also emits cascade gamma rays. We have developed a Monte Carlo program based on SimSET (Simulation System for Emission Tomography) to model cascade gamma rays in PET imaging. The new simulation was validated with the GATE simulation package. Agreements within 15% were found in spatial resolution, apparent scatter fraction (ratio of coincidences outside peak regions in line source sinograms), single and coincidence statistics and detected photons energy distribution within the PET energy window. A discrepancy of 20% was observed in the absolute scatter fraction, likely caused by differences in the tracking of higher energy cascade gamma photons. On average, the new simulation is 6 times faster than GATE, and the computing time can be further improved by using variance reduction techniques currently available in SimSET. Comparison with phantom acquisitions showed agreements in spatial resolutions and the general shape of projection profiles; however, the standard scatter correction method on the scanner is not directly applicable to (86)Y PET as it leads to incorrect scatter fractions. The new simulation was used to characterize (86)Y PET. Compared with conventional (18)F PET, in which major contamination at low count rates comes from scattered events, cascade gamma-involved events are more important in (86)Y PET. The two types of contaminations have completely different distribution patterns, which should be considered for the corrections of their effects. Our approach will be further improved in the future in the modeling of random coincidences and tracking of high-energy photons, and simulation results will be used for the development of correction methods in (86)Y PET.

  1. Current status of PET imaging of differentiated thyroid cancer with second generation radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Lauri, C; Di Traglia, S; Galli, F; Pizzichini, P; Signore, A

    2015-03-01

    Although the prognosis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is favorable, some histotypes show worst clinical outcome and higher risk of recurrence. Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels and 131I-whole-body-scan (WBS), together with neck ultrasound (US), represent the golden standard for DTC follow-up. Nevertheless, the relatively high frequency of patients with high Tg levels and negative WBS requires further investigations by using new imaging modalities. The availability of whole body positron emission tomography (PET) methods, in parallel with the advances in radiochemistry, offer a wide substrate for many solutions. To this day ¹⁸F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (¹⁸F-FDG) PET/CT still represents the imaging of choice in follow-up of patients with high serum Tg and negative ¹³¹I-WBS but in the last decades the research has focused on finding "second generation" radiopharmaceuticals for PET imaging, with both diagnostic and prognostic purposes, aiming to change the way to image thyroid cancer. Moreover, the use of various PET radiopharmaceuticals, that offer the possibility to explore different pathways involved in thyroid cancer, could find important applications in the near future for clinical decision making in order to program tailored treatments and follow-up. It would be desirable to use the same radiopharmaceutical for both imaging and dosimetric purpose to achieve a tailored therapy. Many efforts are focused in this direction and ¹²⁴I-PET/CT is now emerging as a valid tool in restaging and therapy management of DTC with promising results. Although the preliminary data available in literature require a confirmation in larger studies with longer follow-up, we think that in next future ¹²⁴I-PET/CT could gain an important role for management of DTC. The aim of this review was to perform a systematic analysis of literature describing the state of art of "second generation" PET-radiopharmaceuticals for imaging DTC. Discussion is focused on the utility of ¹²⁴I-PET

  2. Predicting Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with PET Imaging Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ypsilantis, Petros-Pavlos; Siddique, Musib; Sohn, Hyon-Mok; Davies, Andrew; Cook, Gary; Goh, Vicky; Montana, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Imaging of cancer with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) has become a standard component of diagnosis and staging in oncology, and is becoming more important as a quantitative monitor of individual response to therapy. In this article we investigate the challenging problem of predicting a patient’s response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy from a single 18F-FDG PET scan taken prior to treatment. We take a “radiomics” approach whereby a large amount of quantitative features is automatically extracted from pretherapy PET images in order to build a comprehensive quantification of the tumor phenotype. While the dominant methodology relies on hand-crafted texture features, we explore the potential of automatically learning low- to high-level features directly from PET scans. We report on a study that compares the performance of two competing radiomics strategies: an approach based on state-of-the-art statistical classifiers using over 100 quantitative imaging descriptors, including texture features as well as standardized uptake values, and a convolutional neural network, 3S-CNN, trained directly from PET scans by taking sets of adjacent intra-tumor slices. Our experimental results, based on a sample of 107 patients with esophageal cancer, provide initial evidence that convolutional neural networks have the potential to extract PET imaging representations that are highly predictive of response to therapy. On this dataset, 3S-CNN achieves an average 80.7% sensitivity and 81.6% specificity in predicting non-responders, and outperforms other competing predictive models. PMID:26355298

  3. Predicting Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with PET Imaging Using Convolutional Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Ypsilantis, Petros-Pavlos; Siddique, Musib; Sohn, Hyon-Mok; Davies, Andrew; Cook, Gary; Goh, Vicky; Montana, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Imaging of cancer with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) has become a standard component of diagnosis and staging in oncology, and is becoming more important as a quantitative monitor of individual response to therapy. In this article we investigate the challenging problem of predicting a patient's response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy from a single 18F-FDG PET scan taken prior to treatment. We take a "radiomics" approach whereby a large amount of quantitative features is automatically extracted from pretherapy PET images in order to build a comprehensive quantification of the tumor phenotype. While the dominant methodology relies on hand-crafted texture features, we explore the potential of automatically learning low- to high-level features directly from PET scans. We report on a study that compares the performance of two competing radiomics strategies: an approach based on state-of-the-art statistical classifiers using over 100 quantitative imaging descriptors, including texture features as well as standardized uptake values, and a convolutional neural network, 3S-CNN, trained directly from PET scans by taking sets of adjacent intra-tumor slices. Our experimental results, based on a sample of 107 patients with esophageal cancer, provide initial evidence that convolutional neural networks have the potential to extract PET imaging representations that are highly predictive of response to therapy. On this dataset, 3S-CNN achieves an average 80.7% sensitivity and 81.6% specificity in predicting non-responders, and outperforms other competing predictive models.

  4. Transmission-less attenuation estimation from time-of-flight PET histo-images using consistency equations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yusheng; Defrise, Michel; Metzler, Scott D; Matej, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    In positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, attenuation correction with accurate attenuation estimation is crucial for quantitative patient studies. Recent research showed that the attenuation sinogram can be determined up to a scaling constant utilizing the time-of-flight information. The TOF-PET data can be naturally and efficiently stored in a histo-image without information loss, and the radioactive tracer distribution can be efficiently reconstructed using the DIRECT approaches. In this paper, we explore transmission-less attenuation estimation from TOF-PET histo-images. We first present the TOF-PET histo-image formation and the consistency equations in the histo-image parameterization, then we derive a least-squares solution for estimating the directional derivatives of the attenuation factors from the measured emission histo-images. Finally, we present a fast solver to estimate the attenuation factors from their directional derivatives using the discrete sine transform and fast Fourier transform while considering the boundary conditions. We find that the attenuation histo-images can be uniquely determined from the TOF-PET histo-images by considering boundary conditions. Since the estimate of the attenuation directional derivatives can be inaccurate for LORs tangent to the patient boundary, external sources, e.g., a ring or annulus source, might be needed to give an accurate estimate of the attenuation gradient for such LORs. The attenuation estimation from TOF-PET emission histo-images is demonstrated using simulated 2D TOF-PET data. PMID:26267223

  5. Transmission-less attenuation estimation from time-of-flight PET histo-images using consistency equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yusheng; Defrise, Michel; Metzler, Scott D.; Matej, Samuel

    2015-08-01

    In positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, attenuation correction with accurate attenuation estimation is crucial for quantitative patient studies. Recent research showed that the attenuation sinogram can be determined up to a scaling constant utilizing the time-of-flight information. The TOF-PET data can be naturally and efficiently stored in a histo-image without information loss, and the radioactive tracer distribution can be efficiently reconstructed using the DIRECT approaches. In this paper, we explore transmission-less attenuation estimation from TOF-PET histo-images. We first present the TOF-PET histo-image formation and the consistency equations in the histo-image parameterization, then we derive a least-squares solution for estimating the directional derivatives of the attenuation factors from the measured emission histo-images. Finally, we present a fast solver to estimate the attenuation factors from their directional derivatives using the discrete sine transform and fast Fourier transform while considering the boundary conditions. We find that the attenuation histo-images can be uniquely determined from the TOF-PET histo-images by considering boundary conditions. Since the estimate of the attenuation directional derivatives can be inaccurate for LORs tangent to the patient boundary, external sources, e.g. a ring or annulus source, might be needed to give an accurate estimate of the attenuation gradient for such LORs. The attenuation estimation from TOF-PET emission histo-images is demonstrated using simulated 2D TOF-PET data.

  6. TOF capability evaluation on a panel PET for human body imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, P.; Cao, X.; Wan, L.; Li, Y.; Xie, Q.

    2013-04-01

    Due to its unique structure, parallel panel configuration may lead to novel applications for positron emission tomography (PET). The major challenge of panel PET imaging is the limited angle problem, to which the time-of-flight (TOF) information seems to be a promising solution. This work investigated the required TOF capability of a panel PET design, which has a feasible size of field of view (FOV) for human torso. Such a system's corresponding angular coverage can vary from 70 to 102 degrees. The recovery ability of small lesions was assessed, and the contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were analyzed, with a full ring PET as the benchmark system. We also varied the timing resolution and the distance between panels, to evaluate their impacts on image quality. Encouraging results were obtained in simulation study. Distortions and artifacts caused by the limited angular coverage were greatly reduced with timing resolutions better than 300 ps. The recovery ability of small lesions in most part of FOV was desirable. Meanwhile, varying panel distance in the range of 25 to 45 cm seemed to have trivial influence, when timing resolution was fixed at 300 ps. That means that such changes of panel distance might not affect the requirement on TOF capability, allowing more flexibility in panel PET's design and applications.

  7. A statistical method for lung tumor segmentation uncertainty in PET images based on user inference.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chaojie; Wang, Xiuying; Feng, Dagan

    2015-01-01

    PET has been widely accepted as an effective imaging modality for lung tumor diagnosis and treatment. However, standard criteria for delineating tumor boundary from PET are yet to develop largely due to relatively low quality of PET images, uncertain tumor boundary definition, and variety of tumor characteristics. In this paper, we propose a statistical solution to segmentation uncertainty on the basis of user inference. We firstly define the uncertainty segmentation band on the basis of segmentation probability map constructed from Random Walks (RW) algorithm; and then based on the extracted features of the user inference, we use Principle Component Analysis (PCA) to formulate the statistical model for labeling the uncertainty band. We validated our method on 10 lung PET-CT phantom studies from the public RIDER collections [1] and 16 clinical PET studies where tumors were manually delineated by two experienced radiologists. The methods were validated using Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) to measure the spatial volume overlap. Our method achieved an average DSC of 0.878 ± 0.078 on phantom studies and 0.835 ± 0.039 on clinical studies.

  8. Automated detection of lung tumors in PET/CT images using active contour filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teramoto, Atsushi; Adachi, Hayato; Tsujimoto, Masakazu; Fujita, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Katsuaki; Yamamuro, Osamu; Tamaki, Tsuneo; Nishio, Masami; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    2015-03-01

    In a previous study, we developed a hybrid tumor detection method that used both computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) images. However, similar to existing computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes, it was difficult to detect low-contrast lesions that touch to the normal organs such as the chest wall or blood vessels in the lung. In the current study, we proposed a novel lung tumor detection method that uses active contour filters to detect the nodules deemed "difficult" in previous CAD schemes. The proposed scheme detects lung tumors using both CT and PET images. As for the detection in CT images, the massive region was first enhanced using an active contour filter (ACF), which is a type of contrast enhancement filter that has a deformable kernel shape. The kernel shape involves closed curves that are connected by several nodes that move iteratively in order to enclose the massive region. The final output of ACF is the difference between the maximum pixel value on the deformable kernel, and pixel value on the center of the filter kernel. Subsequently, the PET images were binarized to detect the regions of increased uptake. The results were integrated, followed by the false positive reduction using 21 characteristic features and three support vector machines. In the experiment, we evaluated the proposed method using 100 PET/CT images. More than half of nodules missed using previous methods were accurately detected. The results indicate that our method may be useful for the detection of lung tumors using PET/CT images.

  9. 5-HT Radioligands for Human Brain Imaging With PET and SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Louise M.; Kornum, Birgitte R.; Nutt, David J.; Pike, Victor W.; Knudsen, Gitte M.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonergic system plays a key modulatory role in the brain and is the target for many drug treatments for brain disorders either through reuptake blockade or via interactions at the 14 subtypes of 5-HT receptors. This review provides the history and current status of radioligands used for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging of human brain serotonin (5-HT) receptors, the 5-HT transporter (SERT), and 5-HT synthesis rate. Currently available radioligands for in vivo brain imaging of the 5-HT system in humans include antagonists for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4 receptors, and for SERT. Here we describe the evolution of these radioligands, along with the attempts made to develop radioligands for additional serotonergic targets. We describe the properties needed for a radioligand to become successful and the main caveats. The success of a PET or SPECT radioligand can ultimately be assessed by its frequency of use, its utility in humans, and the number of research sites using it relative to its invention date, and so these aspects are also covered. In conclusion, the development of PET and SPECT radioligands to image serotonergic targets is of high interest, and successful evaluation in humans is leading to invaluable insight into normal and abnormal brain function, emphasizing the need for continued development of both SPECT and PET radioligands for human brain imaging. PMID:21674551

  10. Moving Beyond "Lumpology": PET/CT Imaging of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Michael S; Hicks, Rodney J

    2015-09-01

    High somatostatin receptor expression on the cell membrane of succinate dehydrogenase mutation-related pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma provides a potential target for imaging and therapy. (68)Ga-DOTATATE positron emission PET/CT may represent a new gold standard for staging pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and have future therapeutic implications.

  11. Multi-observation PET image analysis for patient follow-up quantitation and therapy assessment.

    PubMed

    David, S; Visvikis, D; Roux, C; Hatt, M

    2011-09-21

    In positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, an early therapeutic response is usually characterized by variations of semi-quantitative parameters restricted to maximum SUV measured in PET scans during the treatment. Such measurements do not reflect overall tumor volume and radiotracer uptake variations. The proposed approach is based on multi-observation image analysis for merging several PET acquisitions to assess tumor metabolic volume and uptake variations. The fusion algorithm is based on iterative estimation using a stochastic expectation maximization (SEM) algorithm. The proposed method was applied to simulated and clinical follow-up PET images. We compared the multi-observation fusion performance to threshold-based methods, proposed for the assessment of the therapeutic response based on functional volumes. On simulated datasets the adaptive threshold applied independently on both images led to higher errors than the ASEM fusion and on clinical datasets it failed to provide coherent measurements for four patients out of seven due to aberrant delineations. The ASEM method demonstrated improved and more robust estimation of the evaluation leading to more pertinent measurements. Future work will consist in extending the methodology and applying it to clinical multi-tracer datasets in order to evaluate its potential impact on the biological tumor volume definition for radiotherapy applications.

  12. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET Imaging of Response to Androgen Receptor Inhibition: First Human Experience.

    PubMed

    Hope, Thomas A; Truillet, Charles; Ehman, Eric C; Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Aggarwal, Rahul; Ryan, Charles J; Carroll, Peter R; Small, Eric J; Evans, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of androgen receptor (AR) inhibition on prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) uptake imaged using (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET in a mouse xenograft model and in a patient with castration-sensitive prostate cancer.

  13. Multi-observation PET image analysis for patient follow-up quantitation and therapy assessment

    PubMed Central

    David, Simon; Visvikis, Dimitris; Roux, Christian; Hatt, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    In Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging, an early therapeutic response is usually characterized by variations of semi-quantitative parameters restricted to maximum SUV measured in PET scans during the treatment. Such measurements do not reflect overall tumour volume and radiotracer uptake variations. The proposed approach is based on multi-observation image analysis for merging several PET acquisitions to assess tumour metabolic volume and uptake variations. The fusion algorithm is based on iterative estimation using stochastic expectation maximization (SEM) algorithm. The proposed method was applied to simulated and clinical follow-up PET images. We compared the multi-observation fusion performance to threshold-based methods, proposed for the assessment of the therapeutic response based on functional volumes. On simulated datasets, the adaptive threshold applied independently on both images led to higher errors than the ASEM fusion and on the clinical datasets, it failed to provide coherent measurements for four patients out of seven due to aberrant delineations. The ASEM method demonstrated improved and more robust estimation of the evaluation leading to more pertinent measurements. Future work will consist in extending the methodology and applying it to clinical multi-tracers datasets in order to evaluate its potential impact on the biological tumour volume definition for radiotherapy applications. PMID:21846937

  14. Graph cut based co-segmentation of lung tumor in PET-CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Wei; Xiang, Dehui; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Xinjian

    2015-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of pulmonary tumor is important for clinicians to make appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Computed Tomography (CT) are two commonly used imaging technologies for image-guided radiation therapy. In this study, we present a graph-based method to integrate the two modalities to segment the tumor simultaneously on PET and CT images. The co-segmentation problem is formulated as an energy minimization problem. Two weighted sub-graphs are constructed for PET and CT. The characteristic information of the two modalities is encoded on the edges of the graph. A context cost is enforced by adding context arcs to achieve consistent results between the two modalities. An optimal solution can be achieved by solving a maximum flow problem. The proposed segmentation method was validated on 18 sets of PET-CT images from different patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The quantitative results show significant improvement of our method with a mean DSC value 0.82.

  15. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kotasidis, Fotis A.; Angelis, Georgios I.; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C.; Reader, Andrew J.; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution

  16. Deblurring of breathing motion artifacts in thoracic PET images by deconvolution methods

    SciTech Connect

    Naqa, Issam El; Low, Daniel A.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Vicic, Milos; Deasy, Joseph O.

    2006-10-15

    In FDG-PET imaging of thoracic tumors, blurring due to breathing motion often significantly degrades the quality of the observed image, which then obscures the tumor boundary. We demonstrate a deblurring technique that combines patient-specific motion estimates of tissue trajectories with image deconvolution techniques, thereby partially eliminating breathing-motion induced artifacts. Two data sets were used to evaluate the methodology including mobile phantoms and clinical images. The clinical images consist of PET/CT co-registered images of patients diagnosed with lung cancer. A breathing motion model was used to locally estimate the location-dependent tissue location probability function (TLP) due to breathing. The deconvolution process is carried by an expectation-maximization (EM) iterative algorithm using the motion-based TLP. Several methods were used to improve the robustness of the deblurring process by mitigating noise amplification and compensating for motion estimate uncertainties. The mobile phantom study with controlled settings demonstrated significant reduction in underestimation error of concentration in high activity case without significant superiority between the different applied methods. In case of medium activity concentration (moderate noise levels), less improvement was reported (10%-15% reduction in underestimation error relative to 15%-20% reduction in high concentration). Residual denoising using wavelets offered the best performance for this case. In the clinical data case, the image spatial resolution was significantly improved, especially in the direction of greatest motion (cranio-caudal). The EM algorithm converged within 15 and 5 iterations in the large and small tumor cases, respectively. A compromise between a figure-of-merit and entropy minimization was suggested as a stopping criterion. Regularization techniques such as wavelets and Bayesian methods provided further refinement by suppressing noise amplification. Our initial

  17. 3.5D dynamic PET image reconstruction incorporating kinetics-based clusters

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lijun; Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Tang, Jing; Chen, Wufan; Rahmim, Arman

    2012-01-01

    Standard 3D dynamic PET imaging consists of independent image reconstructions of individual frames followed by application of appropriate kinetic model to the time activity curves (TACs) at the voxel or region-of-interest. The emerging field of 4D PET reconstruction, by contrast, seeks to move beyond this scheme and incorporate information from multiple frames within the image reconstruction task. Here we propose a novel reconstruction framework aiming to enhance quantitative accuracy of parametric images via introduction of priors based on voxel kinetics, as generated via clustering of preliminary reconstructed dynamic images to define clustered neighborhoods of voxels with similar kinetics. This is then followed by straightforward maximum a posterior (MAP) 3D PET reconstruction as applied to individual frames; and as such the method is labeled “3.5D” image reconstruction. The use of cluster-based priors has the advantage of further enhancing quantitative performance in dynamic PET imaging, because: (a) there are typically more voxels in clusters than in conventional local neighborhoods, and (b) neighboring voxels with distinct kinetics are less likely to be clustered together. Using realistic simulated 11C-raclopride dynamic PET data, the quantitative performance of the proposed method was investigated. Parametric distribution-volume (DV) and DV ratio (DVR) images were estimated from dynamic image reconstructions using (a) MLEM, and MAP reconstructions using (b) the quadratic prior (QP-MAP), (c) the Green prior (GP-MAP) and (d, e) two proposed cluster-based priors (CP-U-MAP and CP-W-MAP), followed by graphical modeling, and were qualitatively and quantitatively compared for 11 regions-of-interest (ROIs). Overall, the proposed dynamic PET reconstruction methodology resulted in substantial visual as well as quantitative accuracy improvements (in terms of noise vs. bias performance) for parametric DV and DVR images. The method was also tested on a 90 min 11C

  18. Radiochemistry, PET Imaging, and the Internet of Chemical Things.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephen; Kilbourn, Michael R; Scott, Peter J H

    2016-08-24

    The Internet of Chemical Things (IoCT), a growing network of computers, mobile devices, online resources, software suites, laboratory equipment, synthesis apparatus, analytical devices, and a host of other machines, all interconnected to users, manufacturers, and others through the infrastructure of the Internet, is changing how we do chemistry. While in its infancy across many chemistry laboratories and departments, it became apparent when considering our own work synthesizing radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET) that a more mature incarnation of the IoCT already exists. How does the IoCT impact our lives today, and what does it hold for the smart (radio)chemical laboratories of the future?

  19. Improved correction for the tissue fraction effect in lung PET/CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Beverley F.; Cuplov, Vesna; Millner, Lynn; Hutton, Brian F.; Maher, Toby M.; Groves, Ashley M.; Thielemans, Kris

    2015-09-01

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in imaging different pulmonary disorders using PET techniques. Previous work has shown, for static PET/CT, that air content in the lung influences reconstructed image values and that it is vital to correct for this ‘tissue fraction effect’ (TFE). In this paper, we extend this work to include the blood component and also investigate the TFE in dynamic imaging. CT imaging and PET kinetic modelling are used to determine fractional air and blood voxel volumes in six patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. These values are used to illustrate best and worst case scenarios when interpreting images without correcting for the TFE. In addition, the fractional volumes were used to determine correction factors for the SUV and the kinetic parameters. These were then applied to the patient images. The kinetic parameters K1 and Ki along with the static parameter SUV were all found to be affected by the TFE with both air and blood providing a significant contribution to the errors. Without corrections, errors range from 34-80% in the best case and 29-96% in the worst case. In the patient data, without correcting for the TFE, regions of high density (fibrosis) appeared to have a higher uptake than lower density (normal appearing tissue), however this was reversed after air and blood correction. The proposed correction methods are vital for quantitative and relative accuracy. Without these corrections, images may be misinterpreted.

  20. Short-lived positron emitters in beam-on PET imaging during proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Dendooven, P; Buitenhuis, H J T; Diblen, F; Heeres, P N; Biegun, A K; Fiedler, F; van Goethem, M-J; van der Graaf, E R; Brandenburg, S

    2015-12-07

    The only method for in vivo dose delivery verification in proton beam radiotherapy in clinical use today is positron emission tomography (PET) of the positron emitters produced in the patient during irradiation. PET imaging while the beam is on (so called beam-on PET) is an attractive option, providing the largest number of counts, the least biological washout and the fastest feedback. In this implementation, all nuclides, independent of their half-life, will contribute. As a first step towards assessing the relevance of short-lived nuclides (half-life shorter than that of (10)C, T1/2  =  19 s) for in vivo dose delivery verification using beam-on PET, we measured their production in the stopping of 55 MeV protons in water, carbon, phosphorus and calcium The most copiously produced short-lived nuclides and their production rates relative to the relevant long-lived nuclides are: (12)N (T1/2  =  11 ms) on carbon (9% of (11)C), (29)P (T1/2  =  4.1 s) on phosphorus (20% of (30)P) and (38m)K (T1/2  =  0.92 s) on calcium (113% of (38g)K). No short-lived nuclides are produced on oxygen. The number of decays integrated from the start of an irradiation as a function of time during the irradiation of PMMA and 4 tissue materials has been determined. For (carbon-rich) adipose tissue, (12)N dominates up to 70 s. On bone tissue, (12)N dominates over (15)O during the first 8-15 s (depending on carbon-to-oxygen ratio). The short-lived nuclides created on phosphorus and calcium provide 2.5 times more beam-on PET counts than the long-lived ones produced on these elements during a 70 s irradiation. From the estimated number of (12)N PET counts, we conclude that, for any tissue, (12)N PET imaging potentially provides equal to superior proton range information compared to prompt gamma imaging with an optimized knife-edge slit camera. The practical implementation of (12)N PET imaging is discussed.

  1. Short-lived positron emitters in beam-on PET imaging during proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendooven, P.; Buitenhuis, H. J. T.; Diblen, F.; Heeres, P. N.; Biegun, A. K.; Fiedler, F.; van Goethem, M.-J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; Brandenburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    The only method for in vivo dose delivery verification in proton beam radiotherapy in clinical use today is positron emission tomography (PET) of the positron emitters produced in the patient during irradiation. PET imaging while the beam is on (so called beam-on PET) is an attractive option, providing the largest number of counts, the least biological washout and the fastest feedback. In this implementation, all nuclides, independent of their half-life, will contribute. As a first step towards assessing the relevance of short-lived nuclides (half-life shorter than that of 10C, T1/2  =  19 s) for in vivo dose delivery verification using beam-on PET, we measured their production in the stopping of 55 MeV protons in water, carbon, phosphorus and calcium The most copiously produced short-lived nuclides and their production rates relative to the relevant long-lived nuclides are: 12N (T1/2  =  11 ms) on carbon (9% of 11C), 29P (T1/2  =  4.1 s) on phosphorus (20% of 30P) and 38mK (T1/2  =  0.92 s) on calcium (113% of 38gK). No short-lived nuclides are produced on oxygen. The number of decays integrated from the start of an irradiation as a function of time during the irradiation of PMMA and 4 tissue materials has been determined. For (carbon-rich) adipose tissue, 12N dominates up to 70 s. On bone tissue, 12N dominates over 15O during the first 8-15 s (depending on carbon-to-oxygen ratio). The short-lived nuclides created on phosphorus and calcium provide 2.5 times more beam-on PET counts than the long-lived ones produced on these elements during a 70 s irradiation. From the estimated number of 12N PET counts, we conclude that, for any tissue, 12N PET imaging potentially provides equal to superior proton range information compared to prompt gamma imaging with an optimized knife-edge slit camera. The practical implementation of 12N PET imaging is discussed.

  2. (18)F-NaF PET/CT: EANM procedure guidelines for bone imaging.

    PubMed

    Beheshti, M; Mottaghy, F M; Payche, F; Behrendt, F F F; Van den Wyngaert, T; Fogelman, I; Strobel, K; Celli, M; Fanti, S; Giammarile, F; Krause, B; Langsteger, W

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this guideline is to provide minimum standards for the performance and interpretation of (18)F-NaF PET/CT scans. Standard acquisition and interpretation of nuclear imaging modalities will help to provide consistent data acquisition and numeric values between different platforms and institutes and to promote the use of PET/CT modality as an established diagnostic modality in routine clinical practice. This will also improve the value of scientific work and its contribution to evidence-based medicine.

  3. Review: comparison of PET rubidium-82 with conventional SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Ghotbi, Adam A; Kjaer, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Nuclear cardiology has for many years been focused on gamma camera technology. With ever improving cameras and software applications, this modality has developed into an important assessment tool for ischaemic heart disease. However, the development of new perfusion tracers has been scarce. While cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) so far largely has been limited to centres with on-site cyclotron, recent developments with generator produced perfusion tracers such as rubidium-82, as well as an increasing number of PET scanners installed, may enable a larger patient flow that may supersede that of gamma camera myocardial perfusion imaging.

  4. Primary Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma on Dual-Time Point FDG PET/CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Zhao, Qian; He, Lirong; Zhuang, Xiaoqing; Li, Fang

    2016-08-01

    A 59-year-old man presented cough, chest pain, and shortness of breath for 2 weeks and fever for 4 days. A contrast chest CT revealed a large right pulmonary artery filling defect, suggestive of pulmonary embolism that failed to respond to anticoagulation therapy. FDG PET/CT was performed to evaluate possible malignancy, which revealed intense activity in the right main pulmonary artery without any extrathoracic abnormality. The ratio of the SUVmax of this lesion to the liver was significantly increased in the delayed PET images. The pathological examination demonstrated primary pulmonary artery sarcoma.

  5. A contextual based double watermarking of PET images by patient ID and ECG signal.

    PubMed

    Nambakhsh, Mohammad-Saleh; Ahmadian, Alireza; Zaidi, Habib

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a novel digital watermarking framework using electrocardiograph (ECG) and demographic text data as double watermarks. It protects patient medical information and prevents mismatching diagnostic information. The watermarks are embedded in selected texture regions of a PET image using multi-resolution wavelet decomposition. Experimental results show that modifications in these locations are visually imperceptible. The robustness of the watermarks is verified through measurement of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), cross-correlation (CC%), structural similarity measure (SSIM) and universal image quality index (UIQI). Their robustness is also computed using pixel-based metrics and human visual system metrics. Additionally, beta factor (β) as an edge preservation measure is used for degradation evaluation of the image boundaries throughout the watermarked PET image. Assessment of the extracted watermarks shows watermarking robustness to common attacks such as embedded zero-tree wavelet (EZW) compression and median filtering.

  6. Quantitative imaging of (124)I with PET/ CT in pretherapy lesion dosimetry. Effects impairing image quantification and their corrections.

    PubMed

    Jentzen, W; Freudenberg, L; Bockisch, A

    2011-02-01

    Iodine-131-labelled agents are successfully used in cancer treatment. In the pretherapy dosimetry approach, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using (124)I provides a modality to estimate absorbed dose to tumours and can be considered as the preferred imaging method for this purpose in (131)I radiopharmaceutical therapies. For accurate dosimetry, serial measurements of activity concentrations (ACs) over an appropriate time period are necessary. Consequently, accurate AC determination is of paramount importance in PET/CT-based lesion dosimetry using (124)I-labelled agents. After presenting an historical overview of (124)I clinical application, this review focuses on factors impairing PET image quantification accuracy and on methods of correcting for these effects. Specifically, the emission of prompt gamma photons in the (124)I decay process that are detected in coincidence with each other and with the annihilation photon, and the low (124)I positron branching ration of only 23% raise concerns regarding image quantification accuracy. This review discusses this prompt gamma effect, its impact and approaches to correct for this phenomenon. In (124)I lesion dosimetry, recovery coefficients (RCs) are commonly used to compensate primarily for partial-volume effect but also, in a simplistic way, for prompt gamma coincidence effect; the main methodological factors affecting the RC-corrected (124)I AC are described. Finally, special issues in image (124)I quantification are reviewed, including coadministration of high therapeutic activities of 131I, shine-through artefact, and transmission-contamination effect occurring in stand-alone PET systems.

  7. Evaluation of MLACF based calculated attenuation brain PET imaging for FDG patient studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Harshali; Panin, Vladimir Y.; Platsch, Guenther; Defrise, Michel; Hayden, Charles; Hutton, Chloe; Serrano, Benjamin; Paulmier, Benoit; Casey, Michael E.

    2017-04-01

    Calculating attenuation correction for brain PET imaging rather than using CT presents opportunities for low radiation dose applications such as pediatric imaging and serial scans to monitor disease progression. Our goal is to evaluate the iterative time-of-flight based maximum-likelihood activity and attenuation correction factors estimation (MLACF) method for clinical FDG brain PET imaging. FDG PET/CT brain studies were performed in 57 patients using the Biograph mCT (Siemens) four-ring scanner. The time-of-flight PET sinograms were acquired using the standard clinical protocol consisting of a CT scan followed by 10 min of single-bed PET acquisition. Images were reconstructed using CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) and used as a gold standard for comparison. Two methods were compared with respect to CTAC: a calculated brain attenuation correction (CBAC) and MLACF based PET reconstruction. Plane-by-plane scaling was performed for MLACF images in order to fix the variable axial scaling observed. The noise structure of the MLACF images was different compared to those obtained using CTAC and the reconstruction required a higher number of iterations to obtain comparable image quality. To analyze the pooled data, each dataset was registered to a standard template and standard regions of interest were extracted. An SUVr analysis of the brain regions of interest showed that CBAC and MLACF were each well correlated with CTAC SUVrs. A plane-by-plane error analysis indicated that there were local differences for both CBAC and MLACF images with respect to CTAC. Mean relative error in the standard regions of interest was less than 5% for both methods and the mean absolute relative errors for both methods were similar (3.4%  ±  3.1% for CBAC and 3.5%  ±  3.1% for MLACF). However, the MLACF method recovered activity adjoining the frontal sinus regions more accurately than CBAC method. The use of plane-by-plane scaling of MLACF images was found to be a

  8. Whole-body FDG-PET imaging for staging of Hodgkin`s disease and lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hoh, C.K.; Glaspy, J.; Rosen, P.

    1997-03-01

    Accurate staging of Hodgkin`s disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma (NHL) is important for treatment management. In this study, the utility of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) wholebody PET was evaluated as an imaging modality for initial staging or restaging of 7 HD and 11 NHL patients. Whole-body PET-based staging results were compared to the patient`s clinical stage based on conventional staging studies, which included combinations of CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, MRI scans, gallium scans, lymphangiograms, staging laparatomies and bone scans. Accurate staging was performed in 17 of 18 patients using a whole-body PET-based staging algorithm compared to the conventional staging algorithm in 15 of 18 patients. In 5 of 18 patients, whole-body PET-based staging showed additional lesions not detected by conventional staging modalities, whereas conventional staging demonstrated additional lesions in 4 of 18 patients not detected by whole-body PET. The total cost of conventional staging was $66,292 for 16 CT chest scans, 16 CT abdominal/pelvis scans, three limited MRI scans, four bone scans, give gallium scans, two laparotomies and one lymphangiogram. In contrast, scans cost $36,250 for 18 whole-body PET studies and additional selected correlative studies: one plain film radiograph, one limited CT, one bone marrow san, one upper GI and one endoscopy. A whole-body FDG-PET-based staging algorithm may be an accurate and cost-effective method for staging or restaging HD and NHL. 10 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. A Pretargeted Approach for the Multimodal PET/NIRF Imaging of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Adumeau, Pierre; Carnazza, Kathryn E.; Brand, Christian; Carlin, Sean D.; Reiner, Thomas; Agnew, Brian J.; Lewis, Jason S.; Zeglis, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    The complementary nature of positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging makes the development of strategies for the multimodal PET/NIRF imaging of cancer a very enticing prospect. Indeed, in the context of colorectal cancer, a single multimodal PET/NIRF imaging agent could be used to stage the disease, identify candidates for surgical intervention, and facilitate the image-guided resection of the disease. While antibodies have proven to be highly effective vectors for the delivery of radioisotopes and fluorophores to malignant tissues, the use of radioimmunoconjugates labeled with long-lived nuclides such as 89Zr poses two important clinical complications: high radiation doses to the patient and the need for significant lag time between imaging and surgery. In vivo pretargeting strategies that decouple the targeting vector from the radioactivity at the time of injection have the potential to circumvent these issues by facilitating the use of positron-emitting radioisotopes with far shorter half-lives. Here, we report the synthesis, characterization, and in vivo validation of a pretargeted strategy for the multimodal PET and NIRF imaging of colorectal carcinoma. This approach is based on the rapid and bioorthogonal ligation between a trans-cyclooctene- and fluorophore-bearing immunoconjugate of the huA33 antibody (huA33-Dye800-TCO) and a 64Cu-labeled tetrazine radioligand (64Cu-Tz-SarAr). In vivo imaging experiments in mice bearing A33 antigen-expressing SW1222 colorectal cancer xenografts clearly demonstrate that this approach enables the non-invasive visualization of tumors and the image-guided resection of malignant tissue, all at only a fraction of the radiation dose created by a directly labeled radioimmunoconjugate. Additional in vivo experiments in peritoneal and patient-derived xenograft models of colorectal carcinoma reinforce the efficacy of this methodology and underscore its potential as an innovative and useful

  10. A Pretargeted Approach for the Multimodal PET/NIRF Imaging of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Adumeau, Pierre; Carnazza, Kathryn E; Brand, Christian; Carlin, Sean D; Reiner, Thomas; Agnew, Brian J; Lewis, Jason S; Zeglis, Brian M

    2016-01-01

    The complementary nature of positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging makes the development of strategies for the multimodal PET/NIRF imaging of cancer a very enticing prospect. Indeed, in the context of colorectal cancer, a single multimodal PET/NIRF imaging agent could be used to stage the disease, identify candidates for surgical intervention, and facilitate the image-guided resection of the disease. While antibodies have proven to be highly effective vectors for the delivery of radioisotopes and fluorophores to malignant tissues, the use of radioimmunoconjugates labeled with long-lived nuclides such as (89)Zr poses two important clinical complications: high radiation doses to the patient and the need for significant lag time between imaging and surgery. In vivo pretargeting strategies that decouple the targeting vector from the radioactivity at the time of injection have the potential to circumvent these issues by facilitating the use of positron-emitting radioisotopes with far shorter half-lives. Here, we report the synthesis, characterization, and in vivo validation of a pretargeted strategy for the multimodal PET and NIRF imaging of colorectal carcinoma. This approach is based on the rapid and bioorthogonal ligation between a trans-cyclooctene- and fluorophore-bearing immunoconjugate of the huA33 antibody (huA33-Dye800-TCO) and a (64)Cu-labeled tetrazine radioligand ((64)Cu-Tz-SarAr). In vivo imaging experiments in mice bearing A33 antigen-expressing SW1222 colorectal cancer xenografts clearly demonstrate that this approach enables the non-invasive visualization of tumors and the image-guided resection of malignant tissue, all at only a fraction of the radiation dose created by a directly labeled radioimmunoconjugate. Additional in vivo experiments in peritoneal and patient-derived xenograft models of colorectal carcinoma reinforce the efficacy of this methodology and underscore its potential as an innovative and useful

  11. In Vivo Pet Imaging of Myelin Damage and Repair in the Spinal Cord

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    synergistic collaboration to develop an imaging guided drug discovery approach to myelin repair in MS. Body With the continuation of this...screening of drugs targeted at myelination . In addition, DBT showed no adverse pharmacological or behavioral effects in vivo when up to 50 mg/kg of...powerful tool for drug screening at preclinical stage to directly monitor time course of myelin changes. Figure 19. [11C]CIC-PET imaging of the

  12. Molecular Drug Imaging: 89Zr-bevacizumab PET in Children with Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Marc; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Sophie Em; Van Vuurden, Dannis G; Huisman, Marc; Vugts, Danielle J; Hoekstra, Otto S; van Dongen, Guus A M S; Kaspers, Gert-Jan Jl

    2016-10-20

    Predictive tools to guide therapy in children with brain tumors are urgently needed. We introduced molecular imaging to facilitate this. We investigated whether bevacizumab can reach the tumor in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) by measuring the tumor uptake of zirconium-89((89)Zr)-labeled bevacizumab by PET. In addition we evaluated the safety of the procedure in children and determined the optimal timing of imaging.

  13. Novel Strategy for Preparing Dual-Modality Optical/PET Imaging Probes via Photo-Click Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingyi; Ding, Jiule; Xing, Wei; Gai, Yongkang; Sheng, Jing; Zeng, Dexing

    2016-05-18

    Preparation of small molecule based dual-modality probes remains a challenging task due to the complicated synthetic procedure. In this study, a novel concise and generic strategy for preparing dual-modality optical/PET imaging probes via photo-click chemistry was developed, in which the diazole photo-click linker functioned not only as a bridge between the targeting-ligand and the PET imaging moiety, but also as the fluorophore for optical imaging. A dual-modality AE105 peptidic probe was successfully generated via this strategy and subsequently applied in the fluorescent staining of U87MG cells and the (68)Ga based PET imaging of mice bearing U87MG xenograft. In addition, dual-modality monoclonal antibody cetuximab has also been generated via this strategy and labeled with (64)Cu for PET imaging studies, broadening the application of this strategy to include the preparation of macromolecule based imaging probes.

  14. Alternative approaches for PET radiotracer development in Alzheimer's disease: imaging beyond plaque.

    PubMed

    Holland, Jason P; Liang, Steven H; Rotstein, Benjamin H; Collier, Thomas L; Stephenson, Nickeisha A; Greguric, Ivan; Vasdev, Neil

    2014-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias show increasing clinical prevalence, yet our understanding of the etiology and pathobiology of disease-related neurodegeneration remains limited. In this regard, noninvasive imaging with radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET) presents a unique tool for quantifying spatial and temporal changes in characteristic biological markers of brain disease and for assessing potential drug efficacy. PET radiotracers targeting different protein markers are being developed to address questions pertaining to the molecular and/or genetic heterogeneity of AD and related dementias. For example, radiotracers including [(11) C]-PiB and [(18) F]-AV-45 (Florbetapir) are being used to measure the density of Aβ-plaques in AD patients and to interrogate the biological mechanisms of disease initiation and progression. Our focus is on the development of novel PET imaging agents, targeting proteins beyond Aβ-plaques, which can be used to investigate the broader mechanism of AD pathogenesis. Here, we present the chemical basis of various radiotracers which show promise in preclinical or clinical studies for use in evaluating the phenotypic or biochemical characteristics of AD. Radiotracers for PET imaging neuroinflammation, metal ion association with Aβ-plaques, tau protein, cholinergic and cannabinoid receptors, and enzymes including glycogen-synthase kinase-3β and monoamine oxidase B amongst others, and their connection to AD are highlighted.

  15. Evaluation of Potential PET Imaging Probes for the Orexin 2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changning; Wilson, Colin M.; Moseley, Christian K.; Carlin, Stephen M.; Hsu, Shirley; Arabasz, Grae; Schroeder, Frederick A.; Sander, Christin Y.; Hooker, Jacob M.

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, particularly those related to sleep, are associated with the abnormal function of orexin (OX) receptors. Several orexin receptor antagonists have been reported in recent years, but currently there are no imaging tools to probe the density and function of orexin receptors in vivo. To date there are no published data on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and accumulation of some lead orexin receptor antagonists. Evaluation of CNS pharmacokinetics in the pursuit of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer development could be used to elucidate the association of orexin receptors with diseases and to facilitate the drug discovery and development. To this end, we designed and evaluated carbon-11 labeled compounds based on diazepane orexin receptor antagonists previously described. One of the synthesized compounds, [11C]CW4 showed high brain uptake in rats and further evaluated in non-human primate (NHP) using PET-MR imaging. PET scans performed in a baboon showed appropriate early brain uptake for consideration as a radiotracer. However, [11C]CW4 exhibited fast kinetics and high nonspecific binding, as determined after co-administration of [11C]CW4 and unlabeled CW4. These properties indicate that [11C]CW4 has excellent brain penetrance and could be used as a lead compound for developing new CNS-penetrant PET imaging probes of orexin receptors. PMID:23953751

  16. PET radiopharmaceuticals for imaging of tumor hypoxia: a review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Lopci, Egesta; Grassi, Ilaria; Chiti, Arturo; Nanni, Cristina; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Toschi, Luca; Fonti, Cristina; Lodi, Filippo; Mattioli, Sandro; Fanti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is a pathological condition arising in living tissues when oxygen supply does not adequately cover the cellular metabolic demand. Detection of this phenomenon in tumors is of the utmost clinical relevance because tumor aggressiveness, metastatic spread, failure to achieve tumor control, increased rate of recurrence, and ultimate poor outcome are all associated with hypoxia. Consequently, in recent decades there has been increasing interest in developing methods for measurement of oxygen levels in tumors. Among the image-based modalities for hypoxia assessment, positron emission tomography (PET) is one of the most extensively investigated based on the various advantages it offers, i.e., broad range of radiopharmaceuticals, good intrinsic resolution, three-dimensional tumor representation, possibility of semiquantification/quantification of the amount of hypoxic tumor burden, overall patient friendliness, and ease of repetition. Compared with the other non-invasive techniques, the biggest advantage of PET imaging is that it offers the highest specificity for detection of hypoxic tissue. Starting with the 2-nitroimidazole family of compounds in the early 1980s, a great number of PET tracers have been developed for the identification of hypoxia in living tissue and solid tumors. This paper provides an overview of the principal PET tracers applied in cancer imaging of hypoxia and discusses in detail their advantages and pitfalls. PMID:24982822

  17. Accelerating Image Reconstruction in Dual-Head PET System by GPU and Symmetry Properties

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Cheng-Ying; Kao, Yu-Jiun; Wang, Weichung; Kao, Chien-Min; Chen, Chin-Tu

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an important imaging modality in both clinical usage and research studies. We have developed a compact high-sensitivity PET system that consisted of two large-area panel PET detector heads, which produce more than 224 million lines of response and thus request dramatic computational demands. In this work, we employed a state-of-the-art graphics processing unit (GPU), NVIDIA Tesla C2070, to yield an efficient reconstruction process. Our approaches ingeniously integrate the distinguished features of the symmetry properties of the imaging system and GPU architectures, including block/warp/thread assignments and effective memory usage, to accelerate the computations for ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) image reconstruction. The OSEM reconstruction algorithms were implemented employing both CPU-based and GPU-based codes, and their computational performance was quantitatively analyzed and compared. The results showed that the GPU-accelerated scheme can drastically reduce the reconstruction time and thus can largely expand the applicability of the dual-head PET system. PMID:23300527

  18. ImmunoPET/MR imaging allows specific detection of Aspergillus fumigatus lung infection in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rolle, Anna-Maria; Hasenberg, Mike; Thornton, Christopher R.; Solouk-Saran, Djamschid; Männ, Linda; Weski, Juliane; Maurer, Andreas; Fischer, Eliane; Spycher, Philipp R.; Schibli, Roger; Boschetti, Frederic; Stegemann-Koniszewski, Sabine; Bruder, Dunja; Severin, Gregory W.; Autenrieth, Stella E.; Krappmann, Sven; Davies, Genna; Pichler, Bernd J.; Gunzer, Matthias; Wiehr, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening lung disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, and is a leading cause of invasive fungal infection-related mortality and morbidity in patients with hematological malignancies and bone marrow transplants. We developed and tested a novel probe for noninvasive detection of A. fumigatus lung infection based on antibody-guided positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance (immunoPET/MR) imaging. Administration of a [64Cu]DOTA-labeled A. fumigatus-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), JF5, to neutrophil-depleted A. fumigatus-infected mice allowed specific localization of lung infection when combined with PET. Optical imaging with a fluorochrome-labeled version of the mAb showed colocalization with invasive hyphae. The mAb-based newly developed PET tracer [64Cu]DOTA-JF5 distinguished IPA from bacterial lung infections and, in contrast to [18F]FDG-PET, discriminated IPA from a general increase in metabolic activity associated with lung inflammation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that antibody-guided in vivo imaging has been used for noninvasive diagnosis of a fungal lung disease (IPA) of humans, an approach with enormous potential for diagnosis of infectious diseases and with potential for clinical translation. PMID:26787852

  19. Site-specifically labeled CA19.9-targeted immunoconjugates for the PET, NIRF, and multimodal PET/NIRF imaging of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Jacob L.; Zeglis, Brian M.; Abdel-Atti, Dalya; Aggeler, Robert; Sawada, Ritsuko; Agnew, Brian J.; Scholz, Wolfgang W.; Lewis, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging agents for preoperative positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF)-guided delineation of surgical margins could greatly enhance the diagnosis, staging, and resection of pancreatic cancer. PET and NIRF optical imaging offer complementary clinical applications, enabling the noninvasive whole-body imaging to localize disease and identification of tumor margins during surgery, respectively. We report the development of PET, NIRF, and dual-modal (PET/NIRF) imaging agents, using 5B1, a fully human monoclonal antibody that targets CA19.9, a well-established pancreatic cancer biomarker. Desferrioxamine (DFO) and/or a NIRF dye (FL) were conjugated to the heavy-chain glycans of 5B1, using a robust and reproducible site-specific (ss) labeling methodology to generate three constructs (ssDFO-5B1, ssFL-5B1, and ssdual-5B1) in which the immunoreactivity was not affected by the conjugation of either label. Each construct was evaluated in a s.c. xenograft model, using CA19.9-positive (BxPC3) and -negative (MIAPaCa-2) human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Each construct showed exceptional uptake and contrast in antigen-positive tumors with negligible nonspecific uptake in antigen-negative tumors. Additionally, the dual-modal construct was evaluated in an orthotopic murine pancreatic cancer model, using the human pancreatic cancer cell line, Suit-2. The ssdual-5B1 demonstrated a remarkable capacity to delineate metastases and to map the sentinel lymph nodes via tandem PET-computed tomography (PET/CT) and NIRF imaging. Fluorescence microscopy, histopathology, and autoradiography were performed on representative sections of excised tumors to visualize the distribution of the constructs within the tumors. These imaging tools have tremendous potential for further preclinical research and for clinical translation. PMID:26668398

  20. MR-guided PET motion correction in LOR space using generic projection data for image reconstruction with PRESTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheins, J.; Ullisch, M.; Tellmann, L.; Weirich, C.; Rota Kops, E.; Herzog, H.; Shah, N. J.

    2013-02-01

    The BrainPET scanner from Siemens, designed as hybrid MR/PET system for simultaneous acquisition of both modalities, provides high-resolution PET images with an optimum resolution of 3 mm. However, significant head motion often compromises the achievable image quality, e.g. in neuroreceptor studies of human brain. This limitation can be omitted when tracking the head motion and accurately correcting measured Lines-of-Response (LORs). For this purpose, we present a novel method, which advantageously combines MR-guided motion tracking with the capabilities of the reconstruction software PRESTO (PET Reconstruction Software Toolkit) to convert motion-corrected LORs into highly accurate generic projection data. In this way, the high-resolution PET images achievable with PRESTO can also be obtained in presence of severe head motion.

  1. MRI-based elastic-mapping method for inter-subject comparison of brain FDG-PET images

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Huang, S.C.; Lin, K.P.; Small, G.; Phelps, M.E.

    1996-12-31

    Inter-subject anatomic differences prohibits direct image-wise statistical evaluation of brain FDG-PET images of Alzheimer`s disease (AD) patients. In this study, we propose a MRI-based elastic-mapping method which enables image-wise evaluation. The method involves intra-subject MR-PET registration, 3-D elastic mapping of two set of MR images, and elastically transforming the co-registered PET images. The MR-PET registration used simulated PET images, which were based on segmentation of MR images. In the 3-D elastic mapping stage, first a global linear scaling was applied to compensate for brain size difference, then a deformation field was obtained by minimizing the regional sum of squared difference between the two sets of MR images. Two groups (AD patient and normal control), each with three subjects, were included in the current study. After processing, images from all subjects have similar shapes. Averaging the images across all subjects (either within the individual group or for both groups) give images indistinguishable from original single subject FDG images (i.e. without much spatial resolution loss), except with lower image noise level. The method is expected to allow statistical image-wise analysis to be performed across different subjects.

  2. PET/SPECT molecular imaging in clinical neuroscience: recent advances in the investigation of CNS diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Feng-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is an attractive technology widely used in clinical practice that greatly enhances our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. It is a novel multidisciplinary technique that can be defined as real-time visualization, in vivo characterization and qualification of biological processes at the molecular and cellular level. It involves the imaging modalities and the corresponding imaging agents. Nowadays, molecular imaging in neuroscience has provided tremendous insights into disturbed human brain function. Among all of the molecular imaging modalities, positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have occupied a particular position that visualize and measure the physiological processes using high-affinity and high-specificity molecular radioactive tracers as imaging probes in intact living brain. In this review, we will put emphasis on the PET/SPECT applications in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) as major CNS disorders. We will first give an overview of the main classical molecular neuroimaging modalities. Then, the major clinical applications of PET and SPECT along with molecular probes in the fields of psychiatry and neurology will be discussed. PMID:26029646

  3. Amino Acid PET – An Imaging Option to Identify Treatment Response, Posttherapeutic Effects, and Tumor Recurrence?

    PubMed Central

    Galldiks, Norbert; Langen, Karl-Josef

    2016-01-01

    Routine diagnostics and treatment monitoring in patients with primary and secondary brain tumors is usually based on contrast-enhanced standard MRI. However, the capacity of standard MRI to differentiate neoplastic tissue from non-specific posttreatment effects may be limited particularly after therapeutic interventions such as radio- and/or chemotherapy or newer treatment options, e.g., immune therapy. Metabolic imaging using PET may provide relevant additional information on tumor metabolism, which allows a more accurate diagnosis especially in clinically equivocal situations, particularly when radiolabeled amino acids are used. Amino acid PET allows a sensitive monitoring of a response to various treatment options, the early detection of tumor recurrence, and an improved differentiation of tumor recurrence from posttherapeutic effects. In the past, this method had only limited availability due to the use of PET tracers with a short half-life, e.g., C-11. In recent years, however, novel amino acid PET tracers labeled with positron emitters with a longer half-life (F-18) have been developed and clinically validated, which allow a more efficient and cost-effective application. These developments and the well-documented diagnostic performance of PET using radiolabeled amino acids suggest that its application continues to spread and that this technique may be available as a routine diagnostic tool for several indications in the field of neuro-oncology. PMID:27516754

  4. Search for PET probes for imaging the globus pallidus studied with rat brain ex vivo autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, K; Ogi, N; Shimada, J; Wang, W; Ishii, K; Tanaka, A; Suzuki, F; Senda, M

    2000-12-01

    We have evaluated the feasibility of using four positron emission tomography (PET) tracers for imaging the globus pallidus by ex vivo autoradiography in rats. The tracers investigated were [11C]KF18446, [11C]SCH 23390 and [11C]raclopride for mapping adenosine A2A, dopamine D1 and dopamine D2 receptors, respectively, and [18F]FDG. The highest uptake by the globus pallidus was found for [11C]SCH 23390, followed by [18F]FDG, [11C]KF18446 and [11C]raclopride. The receptor-specific uptake by the globus pallidus was observed in [11C]KF18446 and [11C]SCH 23390, but not in [11C]raclopride. Uptake ratios of globus pallidus to the striatum for [18F]FDG and [11C]KF18446 were approximately 0.6, which was twice as large as that for [11C]SCH 23390. In a rat model of degeneration of striatopallidal gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic-enkephalin neurons induced by intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid, the uptake of [11C]KF18446 by the striatum and globus pallidus was remarkably reduced. To prove the visualization of the globus pallidus by PET with [18F]FDG and [11C]KF18446, PET-MRI registration technique and advances in PET technologies providing high-resolution PET scanner will be required. The metabolic activity of the globus pallidus could then be measured by PET with [18F]FDG, and [11C]KF18446 may be a candidate tracer for imaging the pallidal terminals projecting from the striatum.

  5. Effects of magnetic fields of up to 9.4 T on resolution and contrast of PET images as measured with an MR-BrainPET.

    PubMed

    Shah, N Jon; Herzog, Hans; Weirich, Christoph; Tellmann, Lutz; Kaffanke, Joachim; Caldeira, Liliana; Kops, Elena Rota; Qaim, Syed M; Coenen, Heinz H; Iida, Hidehiro

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous, hybrid MR-PET is expected to improve PET image resolution in the plane perpendicular to the static magnetic field of the scanner. Previous papers have reported this either by simulation or experiment with simple sources and detector arrangements. Here, we extend those studies using a realistic brain phantom in a recently installed MR-PET system comprising a 9.4 T MRI-scanner and an APD-based BrainPET insert in the magnet bore. Point and line sources and a 3D brain phantom were filled with 18F (low-energy positron emitter), 68Ga (medium energy positron emitter) or 120I, a non-standard positron emitter (high positron energies of up to 4.6 MeV). Using the BrainPET insert, emission scans of the phantoms were recorded at different positions inside and outside the magnet bore such that the magnetic field was 0 T, 3 T, 7 T or 9.4 T. Brain phantom images, with the 'grey matter' compartment filled with 18F, showed no obvious resolution improvement with increasing field. This is confirmed by practically unchanged transaxial FWHM and 'grey/white matter' ratio values between at 0T and 9.4T. Field-dependent improvements in the resolution and contrast of transaxial PET images were clearly evident when the brain phantom was filled with 68Ga or 120I. The grey/white matter ratio increased by 7.3% and 16.3%, respectively. The greater reduction of the FWTM compared to FWHM in 68Ga or 120I line-spread images was in agreement with the improved contrast of 68Ga or 120I images. Notwithstanding elongations seen in the z-direction of 68Ga or 120I point source images acquired in foam, brain phantom images show no comparable extension. Our experimental study confirms that integrated MR-PET delivers improved PET image resolution and contrast for medium- and high-energy positron emitters even though the positron range is reduced only in directions perpendicular to the magnetic field.

  6. Effects of Magnetic Fields of up to 9.4 T on Resolution and Contrast of PET Images as Measured with an MR-BrainPET

    PubMed Central

    Shah, N. Jon; Herzog, Hans; Weirich, Christoph; Tellmann, Lutz; Kaffanke, Joachim; Caldeira, Liliana; Kops, Elena Rota; Qaim, Syed M.; Coenen, Heinz H.; Iida, Hidehiro

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous, hybrid MR-PET is expected to improve PET image resolution in the plane perpendicular to the static magnetic field of the scanner. Previous papers have reported this either by simulation or experiment with simple sources and detector arrangements. Here, we extend those studies using a realistic brain phantom in a recently installed MR-PET system comprising a 9.4 T MRI-scanner and an APD-based BrainPET insert in the magnet bore. Point and line sources and a 3D brain phantom were filled with 18F (low-energy positron emitter), 68Ga (medium energy positron emitter) or 120I, a non-standard positron emitter (high positron energies of up to 4.6 MeV). Using the BrainPET insert, emission scans of the phantoms were recorded at different positions inside and outside the magnet bore such that the magnetic field was 0 T, 3 T, 7 T or 9.4 T. Brain phantom images, with the ‘grey matter’ compartment filled with 18F, showed no obvious resolution improvement with increasing field. This is confirmed by practically unchanged transaxial FWHM and ‘grey/white matter’ ratio values between at 0T and 9.4T. Field-dependent improvements in the resolution and contrast of transaxial PET images were clearly evident when the brain phantom was filled with 68Ga or 120I. The grey/white matter ratio increased by 7.3% and 16.3%, respectively. The greater reduction of the FWTM compared to FWHM in 68Ga or 120I line-spread images was in agreement with the improved contrast of 68Ga or 120I images. Notwithstanding elongations seen in the z-direction of 68Ga or 120I point source images acquired in foam, brain phantom images show no comparable extension. Our experimental study confirms that integrated MR-PET delivers improved PET image resolution and contrast for medium- and high-energy positron emitters even though the positron range is reduced only in directions perpendicular to the magnetic field. PMID:24755872

  7. Molecular PET/CT imaging-guided radiation therapy treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Habib; Vees, Hansjörg; Wissmeyer, Michael

    2009-09-01

    The role of positron emission tomography (PET) during the past decade has evolved rapidly from that of a pure research tool to a methodology of enormous clinical potential. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET is currently the most widely used probe in the diagnosis, staging, assessment of tumor response to treatment, and radiation therapy planning because metabolic changes generally precede the more conventionally measured parameter of change in tumor size. Data accumulated rapidly during the last decade, thus validating the efficacy of FDG imaging and many other tracers in a wide variety of malignant tumors with sensitivities and specificities often in the high 90 percentile range. As a result, PET/computed tomography (CT) had a significant impact on the management of patients because it obviated the need for further evaluation, guided further diagnostic procedures, and assisted in planning therapy for a considerable number of patients. On the other hand, the progress in radiation therapy technology has been enormous during the last two decades, now offering the possibility to plan highly conformal radiation dose distributions through the use of sophisticated beam targeting techniques such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using tomotherapy, volumetric modulated arc therapy, and many other promising technologies for sculpted three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution. The foundation of molecular imaging-guided radiation therapy lies in the use of advanced imaging technology for improved definition of tumor target volumes, thus relating the absorbed dose information to image-based patient representations. This review documents technological advancements in the field concentrating on the conceptual role of molecular PET/CT imaging in radiation therapy treatment planning and related image processing issues with special emphasis on segmentation of medical images for the purpose of defining target volumes. There is still much more work to be done and many of

  8. Combination of pet imaging with viral vectors for identification of cancer metastases.

    PubMed

    Brader, Peter; Wong, Richard J; Horowitz, Gilad; Gil, Ziv

    2012-06-01

    There are three main ways for dissemination of solid tumors: direct invasion, lymphatic spread and hematogenic spread. The presence of metastases is the most significant factor in predicting prognosis and therefore evidence of metastases will influence decision-making regarding treatment. Conventional imaging techniques are limited in the evaluation and localization of metastases due to their restricted ability to identify subcentimeter neoplastic disease. Hence, there is a need for an effective noninvasive modality that can accurately identify occult metastases in cancer patients. One such method is the combination of positron emission tomography (PET) with vectors designed for delivery of reporter genes into target cells. Vectors expressing the herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) reporter system have recently been shown to allow localization of micrometastases in animal models of cancer using non invasive imaging. Combination of HSV1-tk and PET imaging is based on the virtues of vectors which can carry and selectively express the HSV1-tk reporter gene in a variety of cancer cells but not in normal tissue. A radioactive tracer which is applied systemically is phosphorylated by the HSV1-tk enzyme, and as a consequence, the tracer accumulates in proportion to the level of HSV1-tk expression which can be imaged by PET. In this paper we review the recent developments in molecular imaging of micrometastases using replication-competent viral or nonviral vectors carrying the HSV1-tk gene using PET imaging. These diagnostic paradigms introduce an advantageous new concept in noninvasive molecular imaging with the potential benefits for improving patient care by providing guidance for therapy to patients with risk for metastases.

  9. Using compressive sensing to recover images from PET scanners with partial detector rings

    SciTech Connect

    Valiollahzadeh, SeyyedMajid; Clark, John W.; Mawlawi, Osama

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Most positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanners consist of tightly packed discrete detector rings to improve scanner efficiency. The authors’ aim was to use compressive sensing (CS) techniques in PET imaging to investigate the possibility of decreasing the number of detector elements per ring (introducing gaps) while maintaining image quality. Methods: A CS model based on a combination of gradient magnitude and wavelet domains (wavelet-TV) was developed to recover missing observations in PET data acquisition. The model was designed to minimize the total variation (TV) and L1-norm of wavelet coefficients while constrained by the partially observed data. The CS model also incorporated a Poisson noise term that modeled the observed noise while suppressing its contribution by penalizing the Poisson log likelihood function. Three experiments were performed to evaluate the proposed CS recovery algorithm: a simulation study, a phantom study, and six patient studies. The simulation dataset comprised six disks of various sizes in a uniform background with an activity concentration of 5:1. The simulated image was multiplied by the system matrix to obtain the corresponding sinogram and then Poisson noise was added. The resultant sinogram was masked to create the effect of partial detector removal and then the proposed CS algorithm was applied to recover the missing PET data. In addition, different levels of noise were simulated to assess the performance of the proposed algorithm. For the phantom study, an IEC phantom with six internal spheres each filled with F-18 at an activity-to-background ratio of 10:1 was used. The phantom was imaged twice on a RX PET/CT scanner: once with all detectors operational (baseline) and once with four detector blocks (11%) turned off at each of 0 °, 90 °, 180 °, and 270° (partially sampled). The partially acquired sinograms were then recovered using the proposed algorithm. For the third test, PET images

  10. An inter-laboratory comparison study of image quality of PET scanners using the NEMA NU 2-2001 procedure for assessment of image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Helmar; Dobrozemsky, Georg; Minear, Gregory; Nicoletti, Rudolf; Samal, Martin

    2005-05-01

    An inter-laboratory comparison study was conducted to assess the image quality of PET scanners in Austria. The survey included both dedicated PET scanners (D-PET, n = 8) and coincidence cameras (GC-PET, n = 7). Measurement of image quality was based on the NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) NU 2-2001 protocol and the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) body phantom. The latter contains six fillable spheres ranging in diameter from 37 mm down to 10 mm and a 'lung' insert. The two largest lesions L1-2 simulate cold lesions, the four smaller ones (L3-6) are filled with 18F and activity concentration ratios relative to background of 8:1 and 4:1, respectively. Acquisition and reconstruction in the study employed the participating institutes' standard oncological processing protocol. Calculation of contrast of the spheres was performed with a fully automated procedure. Contrast quality indices (CQIs) reflecting global performance were obtained by summing individual contrast values. Other image quality parameters calculated according to the NEMA protocol were background variability and relative error for correction of attenuation and scatter. Contrast values obtained were 61 ± 16 and 37 ± 14 for L1 (per cent contrast ± SD for D-PET and GC-PET, respectively), 57 ± 16 and 29 ± 16 for L2, 46 ± 10 and 26 ± 6.3 for L3, 37 ± 10 and 15 ± 4.3 for L4, 26 ± 11.5 and 6.1 ± 2.5 for L5, 14 ± 7.1 and 2.6 ± 2.6 for L6, with D-PET systems consistently being superior to GC-PET systems. CQIs permitted ranking of the scanners, also demonstrating a clear distinction between D-PET and GC-PET systems. Background variability was largest for GC-PET systems; the relative error of attenuation and scatter correction was significantly correlated with image quality for D-PET systems only. The study demonstrated considerable differences in image quality not only between GC-PET and D-PET systems but also between individual D-PET systems with possible

  11. PET/MR in oncology: an introduction with focus on MR and future perspectives for hybrid imaging.

    PubMed

    Balyasnikova, Svetlana; Löfgren, Johan; de Nijs, Robin; Zamogilnaya, Yanna; Højgaard, Liselotte; Fischer, Barbara M

    2012-01-01

    After more than 20 years of research, a fully integrated PET/MR scanner was launched in 2010 enabling simultaneous acquisition of PET and MR imaging. Currently, no clinical indication for combined PET/MR has been established, however the expectations are high. In this paper we will discuss some of the challenges inherent in this new technology, but focus on potential applications for simultaneous PET/MR in the field of oncology. Methods and tracers for use with the PET technology will be familiar to most readers of this journal; thus this paper aims to provide a short and basic introduction to a number of different MRI techniques, such as DWI-MR (diffusion weighted imaging MR), DCE-MR (dynamic contrast enhanced MR), MRS (MR spectroscopy) and MR for attenuation correction of PET. All MR techniques presented in this paper have shown promising results in the treatment of patients with solid tumors and could be applied together with PET increasing the amount of information about the tissues of interest. The potential clinical benefit of applying PET/MR in staging, radiotherapy planning and treatment evaluation in oncology, as well as the research perspectives for the use of PET/MR in the development of new tracers and drugs will be discussed.

  12. Radiochemistry, PET Imaging, and the Internet of Chemical Things

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Chemical Things (IoCT), a growing network of computers, mobile devices, online resources, software suites, laboratory equipment, synthesis apparatus, analytical devices, and a host of other machines, all interconnected to users, manufacturers, and others through the infrastructure of the Internet, is changing how we do chemistry. While in its infancy across many chemistry laboratories and departments, it became apparent when considering our own work synthesizing radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET) that a more mature incarnation of the IoCT already exists. How does the IoCT impact our lives today, and what does it hold for the smart (radio)chemical laboratories of the future? PMID:27610410

  13. Random Walk and Graph Cut for Co-Segmentation of Lung Tumor on PET-CT Images.

    PubMed

    Ju, Wei; Xiang, Dehui; Xiang, Deihui; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Lirong; Kopriva, Ivica; Chen, Xinjian

    2015-12-01

    Accurate lung tumor delineation plays an important role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Since the lung tumor has poor boundary in positron emission tomography (PET) images and low contrast in computed tomography (CT) images, segmentation of tumor in the PET and CT images is a challenging task. In this paper, we effectively integrate the two modalities by making fully use of the superior contrast of PET images and superior spatial resolution of CT images. Random walk and graph cut method is integrated to solve the segmentation problem, in which random walk is utilized as an initialization tool to provide object seeds for graph cut segmentation on the PET and CT images. The co-segmentation problem is formulated as an energy minimization problem which is solved by max-flow/min-cut method. A graph, including two sub-graphs and a special link, is constructed, in which one sub-graph is for the PET and another is for CT, and the special link encodes a context term which penalizes the difference of the tumor segmentation on the two modalities. To fully utilize the characteristics of PET and CT images, a novel energy representation is devised. For the PET, a downhill cost and a 3D derivative cost are proposed. For the CT, a shape penalty cost is integrated into the energy function which helps to constrain the tumor region during the segmentation. We validate our algorithm on a data set which consists of 18 PET-CT images. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is superior to the graph cut method solely using the PET or CT is more accurate compared with the random walk method, random walk co-segmentation method, and non-improved graph cut method.

  14. Registration of micro-PET and high-resolution MR images of mice for monitoring photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Baowei; Muzic, Raymond F.; Lee, Zhenghong; Flask, Chris A.; Morris, Rachel L.; Duerk, Jeffery L.; Oleinick, Nancy; Wilson, David L.

    2004-04-01

    We are investigating imaging techniques to study the rapid biochemical and physiological response of tumors to photodynamic therapy (PDT). Positron emission tomography (PET) can provide physiological and functional images of cancers. While MRI can provide high resolution anatomical images and generate serial, noninvasive, in vivo observations of morphological changes. In this study, we investigate image registration methods to combine MRI and micro-PETPET) images for improved tumor monitoring. We acquired high resolution MR and PET 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) images from mice with RIF-1 tumors. We used rigid body registration with three translations and three angular variables. We used normalized mutual information as the similarity measure. To assess the quality of registration, we performed slice by slice review of both image volumes, manually segmented feature organs such as the left and right kidneys and the bladder in each slice, and computed the distance between corresponding centroids of the organs. We also used visual inspection techniques such as color overlay displays. Over 40 volume registration experiments were performed with MR and μPET images acquired from three C3H mice. The color overlays showed that the MR images and the PET images matched well. The distance between corresponding centroids of organs was 1.5 +/- 0.4 mm which is about 2 pixels of μPET. In conclusion, registration of high resolution MR and μPET images of mice may be useful to combine anatomical and functional information that could be used for the potential application in photodynamic therapy.

  15. A new assessment model for tumor heterogeneity analysis with [18]F-FDG PET images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Xu, Wengui; Sun, Jian; Yang, Chengwen; Wang, Gang; Sa, Yu; Hu, Xin-Hua; Feng, Yuanming

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that the intratumor heterogeneity can be characterized with quantitative analysis of the [18]F-FDG PET image data. The existing models employ multiple parameters for feature extraction which makes it difficult to implement in clinical settings for the quantitative characterization. This article reports an easy-to-use and differential SUV based model for quantitative assessment of the intratumor heterogeneity from 3D [18]F-FDG PET image data. An H index is defined to assess tumor heterogeneity by summing voxel-wise distribution of differential SUV from the [18]F-FDG PET image data. The summation is weighted by the distance of SUV difference among neighboring voxels from the center of the tumor and can thus yield increased values for tumors with peripheral sub-regions of high SUV that often serves as an indicator of augmented malignancy. Furthermore, the sign of H index is used to differentiate the rate of change for volume averaged SUV from its center to periphery. The new model with the H index has been compared with a widely-used model of gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) for image texture characterization with phantoms of different configurations and the [18]F-FDG PET image data of 6 lung cancer patients to evaluate its effectiveness and feasibility for clinical uses. The comparison of the H index and GLCM parameters with the phantoms demonstrate that the H index can characterize the SUV heterogeneity in all of 6 2D phantoms while only 1 GLCM parameter can do for 1 and fail to differentiate for other 2D phantoms. For the 8 3D phantoms, the H index can clearly differentiate all of them while the 4 GLCM parameters provide complicated patterns in the characterization. Feasibility study with the PET image data from 6 lung cancer patients show that the H index provides an effective single-parameter metric to characterize tumor heterogeneity in terms of the local SUV variation, and it has higher correlation with tumor volume change after

  16. A new assessment model for tumor heterogeneity analysis with [18]F-FDG PET images

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Xu, Wengui; Sun, Jian; Yang, Chengwen; Wang, Gang; Sa, Yu; Hu, Xin-Hua; Feng, Yuanming

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that the intratumor heterogeneity can be characterized with quantitative analysis of the [18]F-FDG PET image data. The existing models employ multiple parameters for feature extraction which makes it difficult to implement in clinical settings for the quantitative characterization. This article reports an easy-to-use and differential SUV based model for quantitative assessment of the intratumor heterogeneity from 3D [18]F-FDG PET image data. An H index is defined to assess tumor heterogeneity by summing voxel-wise distribution of differential SUV from the [18]F-FDG PET image data. The summation is weighted by the distance of SUV difference among neighboring voxels from the center of the tumor and can thus yield increased values for tumors with peripheral sub-regions of high SUV that often serves as an indicator of augmented malignancy. Furthermore, the sign of H index is used to differentiate the rate of change for volume averaged SUV from its center to periphery. The new model with the H index has been compared with a widely-used model of gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) for image texture characterization with phantoms of different configurations and the [18]F-FDG PET image data of 6 lung cancer patients to evaluate its effectiveness and feasibility for clinical uses. The comparison of the H index and GLCM parameters with the phantoms demonstrate that the H index can characterize the SUV heterogeneity in all of 6 2D phantoms while only 1 GLCM parameter can do for 1 and fail to differentiate for other 2D phantoms. For the 8 3D phantoms, the H index can clearly differentiate all of them while the 4 GLCM parameters provide complicated patterns in the characterization. Feasibility study with the PET image data from 6 lung cancer patients show that the H index provides an effective single-parameter metric to characterize tumor heterogeneity in terms of the local SUV variation, and it has higher correlation with tumor volume change after

  17. Quantitative PET image reconstruction employing nested expectation-maximization deconvolution for motion compensation.

    PubMed

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Tsoumpas, Charalampos; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-11-16

    Bulk body motion may randomly occur during PET acquisitions introducing blurring, attenuation-emission mismatches and, in dynamic PET, discontinuities in the measured time activity curves between consecutive frames. Meanwhile, dynamic PET scans are longer, thus increasing the probability of bulk motion. In this study, we propose a streamlined 3D PET motion-compensated image reconstruction (3D-MCIR) framework, capable of robustly deconvolving intra-frame motion from a static or dynamic 3D sinogram. The presented 3D-MCIR methods need not partition the data into multiple gates, such as 4D MCIR algorithms, or access list-mode (LM) data, such as LM MCIR methods, both associated with increased computation or memory resources. The proposed algorithms can support compensation for any periodic and non-periodic motion, such as cardio-respiratory or bulk motion, the latter including rolling, twisting or drifting. Inspired from the widely adopted point-spread function (PSF) deconvolution 3D PET reconstruction techniques, here we introduce an image-based 3D generalized motion deconvolution method within the standard 3D maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) reconstruction framework. In particular, we initially integrate a motion blurring kernel, accounting for every tracked motion within a frame, as an additional MLEM modeling component in the image space (integrated 3D-MCIR). Subsequently, we replaced the integrated model component with a nested iterative Richardson-Lucy (RL) image-based deconvolution method to accelerate the MLEM algorithm convergence rate (RL-3D-MCIR). The final method was evaluated with realistic simulations of whole-body dynamic PET data employing the XCAT phantom and real human bulk motion profiles, the latter estimated from volunteer dynamic MRI scans. In addition, metabolic uptake rate Ki parametric images were generated with the standard Patlak method. Our results demonstrate significant improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and

  18. Quantitative imaging of protein targets in the human brain with PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, Roger N.; Slifstein, Mark; Searle, Graham E.; Price, Julie C.

    2015-11-01

    PET imaging of proteins in the human brain with high affinity radiolabelled molecules has a history stretching back over 30 years. During this period the portfolio of protein targets that can be imaged has increased significantly through successes in radioligand discovery and development. This portfolio now spans six major categories of proteins; G-protein coupled receptors, membrane transporters, ligand gated ion channels, enzymes, misfolded proteins and tryptophan-rich sensory proteins. In parallel to these achievements in radiochemical sciences there have also been significant advances in the quantitative analysis and interpretation of the imaging data including the development of methods for image registration, image segmentation, tracer compartmental modeling, reference tissue kinetic analysis and partial volume correction. In this review, we analyze the activity of the field around each of the protein targets in order to give a perspective on the historical focus and the possible future trajectory of the field. The important neurobiology and pharmacology is introduced for each of the six protein classes and we present established radioligands for each that have successfully transitioned to quantitative imaging in humans. We present a standard quantitative analysis workflow for these radioligands which takes the dynamic PET data, associated blood and anatomical MRI data as the inputs to a series of image processing and bio-mathematical modeling steps before outputting the outcome measure of interest on either a regional or parametric image basis. The quantitative outcome measures are then used in a range of different imaging studies including tracer discovery and development studies, cross sectional studies, classification studies, intervention studies and longitudinal studies. Finally we consider some of the confounds, challenges and subtleties that arise in practice when trying to quantify and interpret PET neuroimaging data including motion artifacts

  19. A fluoride-derived electrophilic late-stage fluorination reagent for PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunsung; Kamlet, Adam S; Powers, David C; Neumann, Constanze N; Boursalian, Gregory B; Furuya, Takeru; Choi, Daniel C; Hooker, Jacob M; Ritter, Tobias

    2011-11-04

    The unnatural isotope fluorine-18 ((18)F) is used as a positron emitter in molecular imaging. Currently, many potentially useful (18)F-labeled probe molecules are inaccessible for imaging because no fluorination chemistry is available to make them. The 110-minute half-life of (18)F requires rapid syntheses for which [(18)F]fluoride is the preferred source of fluorine because of its practical access and suitable isotope enrichment. However, conventional [(18)F]fluoride chemistry has been limited to nucleophilic fluorination reactions. We report the development of a palladium-based electrophilic fluorination reagent derived from fluoride and its application to the synthesis of aromatic (18)F-labeled molecules via late-stage fluorination. Late-stage fluorination enables the synthesis of conventionally unavailable positron emission tomography (PET) tracers for anticipated applications in pharmaceutical development as well as preclinical and clinical PET imaging.

  20. Denoising of PET images by context modelling using local neighbourhood correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerga, Carlos; Castro, Pablo; Corredoira, Eva; Coronado, Monica; Delgado, Victor; Guibelalde, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) images are characterised by low signal-to-noise ratio and blurred edges when compared with other image modalities. It is therefore advisable to use noise reduction methods for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Given the importance of the maximum and mean uptake values, it is necessary to avoid signal loss, which could modify the clinical significance. This paper proposes a method of non-linear image denoising for PET. It is based on spatially adaptive wavelet-shrinkage and uses context modelling, which explicitly considers the correlation between neighbouring pixels. This context modelling is able to maintain the uptake values and preserve the edges in significant regions. The algorithm is proposed as an alternative to the usual filtering that is performed after reconstruction.

  1. MRI-PET image fusion based on NSCT transform using local energy and local variance fusion rules.

    PubMed

    Amini, Nasrin; Fatemizadeh, E; Behnam, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    Image fusion means to integrate information from one image to another image. Medical images according to the nature of the images are divided into structural (such as CT and MRI) and functional (such as SPECT, PET). This article fused MRI and PET images and the purpose is adding structural information from MRI to functional information of PET images. The images decomposed with Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform and then two images were fused with applying fusion rules. The coefficients of the low frequency band are combined by a maximal energy rule and coefficients of the high frequency bands are combined by a maximal variance rule. Finally, visual and quantitative criteria were used to evaluate the fusion result. In visual evaluation the opinion of two radiologists was used and in quantitative evaluation the proposed fusion method was compared with six existing methods and used criteria were entropy, mutual information, discrepancy and overall performance.

  2. 64CuCl2 PET/CT imaging of mouse muscular injury induced by electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Fang; Cai, Huawei; Peng, Fangyu

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injury is common in body injuries suffered in sports and car accidents. Development of new tracers is significant for assessing muscular injury with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and monitoring repair of muscle injury in response to treatment. Copper is required for wound healing and increased copper ions were detected in the soft tissue of wound in rodents and human. Based on the recent finding of increased 64Cu uptake in the traumatic brain injury, this study aimed to explore use of 64CuCl2 as a radiotracer for molecular imaging of muscular injury using PET/CT. Focally increased 64Cu uptake by the injured muscular tissue (5.4 ± 1.2% ID/g) was detected in the C57BL/6 mice with electroporation-induced skeletal muscle injury by PET/CT after intravenous injection of 64CuCl2 as a tracer, compared to low 64Cu uptake associated with muscular inflammation induced by intramuscular injection of lipopolysaccharides (0.82 ± 0.26% ID/g, P < 0.01) or physiological 64Cu uptake of the non-injured muscular tissues (0.78 ± 0.20% ID/g, P < 0.01). The findings support further investigation of 64CuCl2 as a new radiotracer for molecular imaging of skeletal muscle injury using PET/CT. PMID:28123866

  3. Longitudinal PET imaging demonstrates biphasic CAR T cell responses in survivors

    PubMed Central

    Vedvyas, Yogindra; Shevlin, Enda; Zaman, Marjan; Min, Irene M.; Park, Spencer; Park, Susan; Kwon, Keon-Woo; Smith, Turner; Luo, Yonghua; Kim, Dohyun; Kim, Young; Law, Benedict; Ting, Richard; Jin, Moonsoo M.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical monitoring of adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) utilizes serial blood analyses to discern T cell activity. While useful, these data are 1-dimensional and lack spatiotemporal information related to treatment efficacy or toxicity. We utilized a human genetic reporter, somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2), and PET, to quantitatively and longitudinally visualize whole-body T cell distribution and antitumor dynamics using a clinically approved radiotracer. Initial evaluations determined that SSTR2-expressing T cells were detectable at low densities with high sensitivity and specificity. SSTR2-based PET was applied to ACT of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells targeting intercellular adhesion molecule-1, which is overexpressed in anaplastic thyroid tumors. Timely CAR T cell infusions resulted in survival of tumor-bearing mice, while later infusions led to uniform death. Real-time PET imaging revealed biphasic T cell expansion and contraction at tumor sites among survivors, with peak tumor burden preceding peak T cell burden by several days. In contrast, nonsurvivors displayed unrelenting increases in tumor and T cell burden, indicating that tumor growth was outpacing T cell killing. Thus, longitudinal PET imaging of SSTR2-positive ACT dynamics enables prognostic, spatiotemporal monitoring with unprecedented clarity and detail to facilitate comprehensive therapy evaluation with potential for clinical translation. PMID:27882353

  4. Detector development for microPET II: a 1 μl resolution PET scanner for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatziioannou, A.; Tai, Y. C.; Doshi, N.; Cherry, S. R.

    2001-11-01

    We are currently developing a small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner with a design goal of 1 microlitre (1 mm3) image resolution. The detectors consist of a 12 × 12 array of 1 × 1 × 10 mm lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator crystals coupled to a 64-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) via 5 cm long optical fibre bundles. The optical fibre connection allows a high detector packing fraction despite the dead space surrounding the active region of the PMT. Optical fibre bundles made from different types of glass were tested for light transmission, and also their effects on crystal identification and energy resolution, and compared to direct coupling of the LSO arrays to the PMTs. We also investigated the effects of extramural absorber (EMA) in the fibre bundles. Based on these results, fibre bundles manufactured from F2 glass were selected. We built three pairs of prototype detectors (directly coupled LSO array, fibre bundle without EMA and fibre bundle with EMA) and measured flood histograms, energy resolution, intrinsic spatial resolution and timing resolution. The results demonstrated an intrinsic spatial resolution (FWHM) of 1.12 mm (directly coupled), 1.23 mm (fibre bundle without EMA coupling) and 1.27 mm (fibre bundle with EMA coupling) using an approximately 500 μm diameter Na-22 point source. Using a 330 μm outer diameter steel needle line source filled with F-18, spatial resolution for the detector with the EMA optical fibre bundle improved to 1.05 mm. The respective timing and energy FWHM values were 1.96 ns, 21% (directly coupled), 2.20 ns, 23% (fibre bundle without EMA) and 2.99 ns, 30% (fibre bundle with EMA). The peak-to-valley ratio in the flood histograms was better with EMA (5:1) compared to the optical fibre bundle without EMA (2.5:1), due to the decreased optical cross-talk. In comparison to the detectors used in our current generation microPET scanner, these detectors substantially improve on the spatial resolution

  5. Development of dose delivery verification by PET imaging of photonuclear reactions following high energy photon therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janek, S.; Svensson, R.; Jonsson, C.; Brahme, A.

    2006-11-01

    A method for dose delivery monitoring after high energy photon therapy has been investigated based on positron emission tomography (PET). The technique is based on the activation of body tissues by high energy bremsstrahlung beams, preferably with energies well above 20 MeV, resulting primarily in 11C and 15O but also 13N, all positron-emitting radionuclides produced by photoneutron reactions in the nuclei of 12C, 16O and 14N. A PMMA phantom and animal tissue, a frozen hind leg of a pig, were irradiated to 10 Gy and the induced positron activity distributions were measured off-line in a PET camera a couple of minutes after irradiation. The accelerator used was a Racetrack Microtron at the Karolinska University Hospital using 50 MV scanned photon beams. From photonuclear cross-section data integrated over the 50 MV photon fluence spectrum the predicted PET signal was calculated and compared with experimental measurements. Since measured PET images change with time post irradiation, as a result of the different decay times of the radionuclides, the signals from activated 12C, 16O and 14N within the irradiated volume could be separated from each other. Most information is obtained from the carbon and oxygen radionuclides which are the most abundant elements in soft tissue. The predicted and measured overall positron activities are almost equal (-3%) while the predicted activity originating from nitrogen is overestimated by almost a factor of two, possibly due to experimental noise. Based on the results obtained in this first feasibility study the great value of a combined radiotherapy-PET-CT unit is indicated in order to fully exploit the high activity signal from oxygen immediately after treatment and to avoid patient repositioning. With an RT-PET-CT unit a high signal could be collected even at a dose level of 2 Gy and the acquisition time for the PET could be reduced considerably. Real patient dose delivery verification by means of PET imaging seems to be

  6. Development of dose delivery verification by PET imaging of photonuclear reactions following high energy photon therapy.

    PubMed

    Janek, S; Svensson, R; Jonsson, C; Brahme, A

    2006-11-21

    A method for dose delivery monitoring after high energy photon therapy has been investigated based on positron emission tomography (PET). The technique is based on the activation of body tissues by high energy bremsstrahlung beams, preferably with energies well above 20 MeV, resulting primarily in 11C and 15O but also 13N, all positron-emitting radionuclides produced by photoneutron reactions in the nuclei of 12C, 16O and 14N. A PMMA phantom and animal tissue, a frozen hind leg of a pig, were irradiated to 10 Gy and the induced positron activity distributions were measured off-line in a PET camera a couple of minutes after irradiation. The accelerator used was a Racetrack Microtron at the Karolinska University Hospital using 50 MV scanned photon beams. From photonuclear cross-section data integrated over the 50 MV photon fluence spectrum the predicted PET signal was calculated and compared with experimental measurements. Since measured PET images change with time post irradiation, as a result of the different decay times of the radionuclides, the signals from activated 12C, 16O and 14N within the irradiated volume could be separated from each other. Most information is obtained from the carbon and oxygen radionuclides which are the most abundant elements in soft tissue. The predicted and measured overall positron activities are almost equal (-3%) while the predicted activity originating from nitrogen is overestimated by almost a factor of two, possibly due to experimental noise. Based on the results obtained in this first feasibility study the great value of a combined radiotherapy-PET-CT unit is indicated in order to fully exploit the high activity signal from oxygen immediately after treatment and to avoid patient repositioning. With an RT-PET-CT unit a high signal could be collected even at a dose level of 2 Gy and the acquisition time for the PET could be reduced considerably. Real patient dose delivery verification by means of PET imaging seems to be

  7. Precision Medicine in Multiple Sclerosis: Future of PET Imaging of Inflammation and Reactive Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Poutiainen, Pekka; Jaronen, Merja; Quintana, Francisco J.; Brownell, Anna-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive molecular imaging techniques can enhance diagnosis to achieve successful treatment, as well as reveal underlying pathogenic mechanisms in disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The cooperation of advanced multimodal imaging techniques and increased knowledge of the MS disease mechanism allows both monitoring of neuronal network and therapeutic outcome as well as the tools to discover novel therapeutic targets. Diverse imaging modalities provide reliable diagnostic and prognostic platforms to better achieve precision medicine. Traditionally, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been considered the golden standard in MS research and diagnosis. However, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging can provide functional information of molecular biology in detail even prior to anatomic changes, allowing close follow up of disease progression and treatment response. The recent findings support three major neuroinflammation components in MS: astrogliosis, cytokine elevation, and significant changes in specific proteins, which offer a great variety of specific targets for imaging purposes. Regardless of the fact that imaging of astrocyte function is still a young field and in need for development of suitable imaging ligands, recent studies have shown that inflammation and astrocyte activation are related to progression of MS. MS is a complex disease, which requires understanding of disease mechanisms for successful treatment. PET is a precise non-invasive imaging method for biochemical functions and has potential to enhance early and accurate diagnosis for precision therapy of MS. In this review we focus on modulation of different receptor systems and inflammatory aspect of MS, especially on activation of glial cells, and summarize the recent findings of PET imaging in MS and present the most potent targets for new biomarkers with the main focus on experimental MS research. PMID:27695400

  8. Crossed Cerebellar Diaschisis: Three Case Reports Imaging Using a Tri-Modality PET/CT-MR System.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuguang; Wang, Xiaopeng; Xu, Kai; Hu, Chunfeng

    2016-01-01

    Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) describes a depression of oxidative metabolism glucose and blood flow in the cerebellum secondary to a supratentorial lesion in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. PET/MR has the potential to become a powerful tool for demonstrating and imaging intracranial lesions .We herein report 3 cases of CCD imaging using a tri-modality PET/CT-MR set-up for investigating the value of adding MRI rather than CT to PET in clinical routine.We describe 3 patients with CCD and neurological symptoms in conjunction with abnormal cerebral fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET/CT-MR) manifestations including arterial spin-labeling (ASL) and T2-weighted images. In all, 18FDG-PET/CT detected positive FDG uptake in supratentorial lesions, and hypometabolism with atrophy in the contralateral cerebellum. More than that, hybrid PET/MRI provided a more accurate anatomic localization and ASL indicated disruption of the cortico-ponto-cerebellar pathway.Using pathology or long-term clinical follow-up to confirm the PET and ASL findings, the supratentorial lesions of the 3 patients were respectively diagnosed with cerebral infarction, recurrent glioma, and metastasis.The reports emphasize the significance of multimodality radiological examinations. Multimodality imaging contributes to proper diagnosis, management, and follow-up of supratentorial lesions with CCD.

  9. Image-based Modeling of PSF Deformation with Application to Limited Angle PET Data.

    PubMed

    Matej, Samuel; Li, Yusheng; Panetta, Joseph; Karp, Joel S; Surti, Suleman

    2016-10-01

    The point-spread-functions (PSFs) of reconstructed images can be deformed due to detector effects such as resolution blurring and parallax error, data acquisition geometry such as insufficient sampling or limited angular coverage in dual-panel PET systems, or reconstruction imperfections/simplifications. PSF deformation decreases quantitative accuracy and its spatial variation lowers consistency of lesion uptake measurement across the imaging field-of-view (FOV). This can be a significant problem with dual panel PET systems even when using TOF data and image reconstruction models of the detector and data acquisition process. To correct for the spatially variant reconstructed PSF distortions we propose to use an image-based resolution model (IRM) that includes such image PSF deformation effects. Originally the IRM was mostly used for approximating data resolution effects of standard PET systems with full angular coverage in a computationally efficient way, but recently it was also used to mitigate effects of simplified geometric projectors. Our work goes beyond this by including into the IRM reconstruction imperfections caused by combination of the limited angle, parallax errors, and any other (residual) deformation effects and testing it for challenging dual panel data with strongly asymmetric and variable PSF deformations. We applied and tested these concepts using simulated data based on our design for a dedicated breast imaging geometry (B-PET) consisting of dual-panel, time-of-flight (TOF) detectors. We compared two image-based resolution models; i) a simple spatially invariant approximation to PSF deformation, which captures only the general PSF shape through an elongated 3D Gaussian function, and ii) a spatially variant model using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to more accurately capture the asymmetric PSF shape in images reconstructed from data acquired with the B-PET scanner geometry. Results demonstrate that while both IRMs decrease the overall uptake

  10. Registration and Summation of Respiratory-Gated or Breath-Hold PET Images Based on Deformation Estimation of Lung from CT Image

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Masayuki; Tamai, Yoshitaka; Sakohira, Atsushi; Suga, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Lung motion due to respiration causes image degradation in medical imaging, especially in nuclear medicine which requires long acquisition times. We have developed a method for image correction between the respiratory-gated (RG) PET images in different respiration phases or breath-hold (BH) PET images in an inconsistent respiration phase. In the method, the RG or BH-PET images in different respiration phases are deformed under two criteria: similarity of the image intensity distribution and smoothness of the estimated motion vector field (MVF). However, only these criteria may cause unnatural motion estimation of lung. In this paper, assuming the use of a PET-CT scanner, we add another criterion that is the similarity for the motion direction estimated from inhalation and exhalation CT images. The proposed method was first applied to a numerical phantom XCAT with tumors and then applied to BH-PET image data for seven patients. The resultant tumor contrasts and the estimated motion vector fields were compared with those obtained by our previous method. Through those experiments we confirmed that the proposed method can provide an improved and more stable image quality for both RG and BH-PET images. PMID:28096896

  11. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Tahari, Abdel K.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-01

    Static whole-body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, dynamic protocols have been confined to single-bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ˜15-20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of dynamic frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel dynamic (4D) whole-body PET acquisition protocol of ˜45 min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6 min dynamic PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (six passes × seven bed positions, each scanned for 45 s). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to optimize the acquisition protocol from a range of ten different clinically

  12. Story of Rubidium-82 and Advantages for Myocardial Perfusion PET Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chatal, Jean-François; Rouzet, François; Haddad, Ferid; Bourdeau, Cécile; Mathieu, Cédric; Le Guludec, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Rubidium-82 has a long story, starting in 1954. After preclinical studies in dogs showing that myocardial uptake of this radionuclide was directly proportional to myocardial blood flow (MBF), clinical studies were performed in the 80s leading to an approval in the USA in 1989. From that time, thousands of patients have been tested and their results have been reported in three meta-analyses. Pooled patient-based sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 0.91 and 0.90. By comparison with (99m)Tc-SPECT, (82)Rb PET had a much better diagnostic accuracy, especially in obese patients with body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) (85 versus 67% with SPECT) and in women with large breasts. A great advantage of (82)Rb PET is its capacity to accurately quantify MBF. Quite importantly, it has been recently shown that coronary flow reserve is associated with adverse cardiovascular events independently of luminal angiographic severity. Moreover, coronary flow reserve is a functional parameter particularly useful in the estimate of microvascular dysfunction, such as in diabetes mellitus. Due to the very short half-life of rubidium-82, the effective dose calculated for a rest/stress test is roughly equivalent to the annual natural exposure and even less when stress-only is performed with a low activity compatible with a good image quality with the last generation 3D PET scanners. There is still some debate on the relative advantages of (82)Rb PET with regard to (99m)Tc-SPECT. For the last 10 years, great technological advances substantially improved performances of SPECT with its accuracy getting closer to this of (82)Rb/PET. Currently, the main advantages of PET are its capacity to accurately quantify MBF and to deliver a low radiation exposure.

  13. Story of Rubidium-82 and Advantages for Myocardial Perfusion PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chatal, Jean-François; Rouzet, François; Haddad, Ferid; Bourdeau, Cécile; Mathieu, Cédric; Le Guludec, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Rubidium-82 has a long story, starting in 1954. After preclinical studies in dogs showing that myocardial uptake of this radionuclide was directly proportional to myocardial blood flow (MBF), clinical studies were performed in the 80s leading to an approval in the USA in 1989. From that time, thousands of patients have been tested and their results have been reported in three meta-analyses. Pooled patient-based sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 0.91 and 0.90. By comparison with 99mTc-SPECT, 82Rb PET had a much better diagnostic accuracy, especially in obese patients with body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (85 versus 67% with SPECT) and in women with large breasts. A great advantage of 82Rb PET is its capacity to accurately quantify MBF. Quite importantly, it has been recently shown that coronary flow reserve is associated with adverse cardiovascular events independently of luminal angiographic severity. Moreover, coronary flow reserve is a functional parameter particularly useful in the estimate of microvascular dysfunction, such as in diabetes mellitus. Due to the very short half-life of rubidium-82, the effective dose calculated for a rest/stress test is roughly equivalent to the annual natural exposure and even less when stress-only is performed with a low activity compatible with a good image quality with the last generation 3D PET scanners. There is still some debate on the relative advantages of 82Rb PET with regard to 99mTc-SPECT. For the last 10 years, great technological advances substantially improved performances of SPECT with its accuracy getting closer to this of 82Rb/PET. Currently, the main advantages of PET are its capacity to accurately quantify MBF and to deliver a low radiation exposure. PMID:26442267

  14. Transconvolution and the virtual positron emission tomograph-A new method for cross calibration in quantitative PET/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Prenosil, George A.; Weitzel, Thilo; Hentschel, Michael; Klaeser, Bernd; Krause, Thomas

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) measurements on small lesions are impaired by the partial volume effect, which is intrinsically tied to the point spread function of the actual imaging system, including the reconstruction algorithms. The variability resulting from different point spread functions hinders the assessment of quantitative measurements in clinical routine and especially degrades comparability within multicenter trials. To improve quantitative comparability there is a need for methods to match different PET/CT systems through elimination of this systemic variability. Consequently, a new method was developed and tested that transforms the image of an object as produced by one tomograph to another image of the same object as it would have been seen by a different tomograph. The proposed new method, termed Transconvolution, compensates for differing imaging properties of different tomographs and particularly aims at quantitative comparability of PET/CT in the context of multicenter trials. Methods: To solve the problem of image normalization, the theory of Transconvolution was mathematically established together with new methods to handle point spread functions of different PET/CT systems. Knowing the point spread functions of two different imaging systems allows determining a Transconvolution function to convert one image into the other. This function is calculated by convolving one point spread function with the inverse of the other point spread function which, when adhering to certain boundary conditions such as the use of linear acquisition and image reconstruction methods, is a numerically accessible operation. For reliable measurement of such point spread functions characterizing different PET/CT systems, a dedicated solid-state phantom incorporating {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga filled spheres was developed. To iteratively determine and represent such point spread functions, exponential density functions in combination

  15. Affibody-mediated PET imaging of HER3 expression in malignant tumours

    PubMed Central

    Rosestedt, Maria; Andersson, Ken G.; Mitran, Bogdan; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Löfblom, John; Orlova, Anna; Ståhl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) is involved in the progression of various cancers and in resistance to therapies targeting the HER family. In vivo imaging of HER3 expression would enable patient stratification for anti-HER3 immunotherapy. Key challenges with HER3-targeting are the relatively low expression in HER3-positive tumours and HER3 expression in normal tissues. The use of positron-emission tomography (PET) provides advantages of high resolution, sensitivity and quantification accuracy compared to SPECT. Affibody molecules, imaging probes based on a non-immunoglobulin scaffold, provide high imaging contrast shortly after injection. The aim of this study was to evaluate feasibility of PET imaging of HER3 expression using 68Ga-labeled affibody molecules. The anti-HER3 affibody molecule HEHEHE-Z08698-NOTA was successfully labelled with 68Ga with high yield, purity and stability. The agent bound specifically to HER3-expressing cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. At 3 h pi, uptake of 68Ga-HEHEHE-Z08698-NOTA was significantly higher in xenografts with high HER3 expression (BT474, BxPC-3) than in xenografts with low HER3 expression (A431). In xenografts with high expression, tumour-to-blood ratios were >20, tumour-to-muscle >15, and tumour-to-bone >7. HER3-positive xenografts were visualised using microPET 3 h pi. In conclusion, PET imaging of HER3 expression is feasible using 68Ga-HEHEHE-Z08698-NOTA shortly after administration. PMID:26477646

  16. Synthesis of fluorine-18 radio-labeled serum albumins for PET blood pool imaging.

    PubMed

    Basuli, Falguni; Li, Changhui; Xu, Biying; Williams, Mark; Wong, Karen; Coble, Vincent L; Vasalatiy, Olga; Seidel, Jurgen; Green, Michael V; Griffiths, Gary L; Choyke, Peter L; Jagoda, Elaine M

    2015-03-01

    We sought to develop a practical, reproducible and clinically translatable method of radiolabeling serum albumins with fluorine-18 for use as a PET blood pool imaging agent in animals and man. Fluorine-18 radiolabeled fluoronicotinic acid-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl ester, [(18)F]F-Py-TFP was prepared first by the reaction of its quaternary ammonium triflate precursor with [(18)F]tetrabutylammonium fluoride ([(18)F]TBAF) according to a previously published method for peptides, with minor modifications. The incubation of [(18)F]F-Py-TFP with rat serum albumin (RSA) in phosphate buffer (pH9) for 15 min at 37-40 °C produced fluorine-18-radiolabeled RSA and the product was purified using a mini-PD MiniTrap G-25 column. The overall radiochemical yield of the reaction was 18-35% (n=30, uncorrected) in a 90-min synthesis. This procedure, repeated with human serum albumin (HSA), yielded similar results. Fluorine-18-radiolabeled RSA demonstrated prolonged blood retention (biological half-life of 4.8 hours) in healthy awake rats. The distribution of major organ radioactivity remained relatively unchanged during the 4 hour observation periods either by direct tissue counting or by dynamic PET whole-body imaging except for a gradual accumulation of labeled metabolic products in the bladder. This manual method for synthesizing radiolabeled serum albumins uses fluorine-18, a widely available PET radionuclide, and natural protein available in both pure and recombinant forms which could be scaled up for widespread clinical applications. These preclinical biodistribution and PET imaging results indicate that [(18)F]RSA is an effective blood pool imaging agent in rats and might, as [(18)F]HSA, prove similarly useful as a clinical imaging agent.

  17. Quantification of radiotracer uptake with a dedicated breast PET imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Smith, Mark F.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Majewski, Stan

    2008-01-01

    Tomographic breast imaging techniques can be used to quantify radiotracer uptake in breast and tumor tissue. However, physical processes common to PET imaging can confound accurate quantification. In this investigation, we assessed the effects of these phenomena and tested correction schemes for our new positron emission mammography–tomography system (PEM–PET). The PEM–PET scanner utilizes two sets of rotating planar detector heads. Each unit consists of a 4×3 array of Hamamatsu H8500 flat panel position sensitive photomultipliers coupled to a 96×72 array of 2×2×15 mm3 LYSO detector elements (pitch=2.1 mm). Image reconstruction is performed with a 3D-OSEM algorithm parallelized to run on a multiprocessor computer system. The reconstructed field-of-view is 15×15×15 cm3. Much of the testing procedures were based on NEMA-NU2∕2001 protocols. Count rate losses due to pulse pile-up, image contamination due to acceptance of random coincidences and Compton scatter, and image artifacts produced by photon attenuation were measured. It was found that the system was susceptible to count rate losses when moderate levels of radiation were present in the scanner due to the current design of the event trigger electronics. Application of corrections for Compton scattering, photon attenuation and dead time resulted in improved estimations of 18F concentration in simplified phantom studies. Results from these preliminary studies indicate that the PEM–PET scanner will be useful for the quantification of radiotracer uptake in breast tumors, possibly facilitating early assessment of cancer treatments. PMID:19070233

  18. Clinical translation of an ultrasmall inorganic optical-PET imaging nanoparticle probe

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Evan; Penate-Medina, Oula; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Carvajal, Richard D.; Mohan, Pauliah; Ye, Yunpeng; Humm, John; Gönen, Mithat; Kalaigian, Hovanes; Schöder, Heiko; Strauss, H. William; Larson, Steven M.; Wiesner, Ulrich; Bradbury, Michelle S.

    2015-01-01

    A first-in-human clinical trial of ultrasmall inorganic hybrid nanoparticles, “C dots” (Cornell dots), in patients with metastatic melanoma is described for the imaging of cancer. These renally excreted silica particles were labeled with 124I for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and modified with cRGDY peptides for molecular targeting. 124I-cRGDY–PEG–C dot particles are inherently fluorescent, containing the dye, Cy5, so they may be used as hybrid PET-optical imaging agents for lesion detection, cancer staging, and treatment management in humans. However, the clinical translation of nanoparticle probes, including quantum dots, has not kept pace with the accelerated growth in minimally invasive surgical tools that rely on optical imaging agents. The safety, pharmacokinetics, clearance properties, and radiation dosimetry of 124I-cRGDY–PEG–C dots were assessed by serial PET and computerized tomography after intravenous administration in patients. Metabolic profiles and laboratory tests of blood and urine specimens, obtained before and after particle injection, were monitored over a 2-week interval. Findings are consistent with a well-tolerated inorganic particle tracer exhibiting in vivo stability and distinct, reproducible pharmacokinetic signatures defined by renal excretion. No toxic or adverse events attributable to the particles were observed. Coupled with preferential uptake and localization of the probe at sites of disease, these first-in-human results suggest safe use of these particles in human cancer diagnostics. PMID:25355699

  19. Automated Method for Small-Animal PET Image Registration with Intrinsic Validation

    PubMed Central

    Pascau, Javier; Gispert, Juan Domingo; Michaelides, Michael; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Volkow, Nora D.; Vaquero, Juan José; Soto-Montenegro, Maria Luisa; Desco, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: We propose and compare different registration approaches to align small-animal PET studies and a procedure to validate the results by means of objective registration consistency measurements. Procedures: We have applied a registration algorithm based on information theory, using different approaches to mask the reference image. The registration consistency allows for the detection of incorrect registrations. This methodology has been evaluated on a test dataset (FDG-PET rat brain images). Results: The results show that a multiresolution two-step registration approach based on the use of the whole image at the low resolution step, while masking the brain at the high resolution step, provides the best robustness (87.5% registration success) and highest accuracy (0.67-mm average). Conclusions: The major advantages of our approach are minimal user interaction and automatic assessment of the registration error, avoiding visual inspection of the results, thus facilitating the accurate, objective, and rapid analysis of large groups of rodent PET images. PMID:18670824

  20. The imaging performance of a LaBr3-based PET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daube-Witherspoon, M. E.; Surti, S.; Perkins, A.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Wiener, R.; Werner, M. E.; Kulp, R.; Karp, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    A prototype time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanner based on cerium-doped lanthanum bromide [LaBr3 (5% Ce)] has been developed. LaBr3 has a high light output, excellent energy resolution and fast timing properties that have been predicted to lead to good image quality. Intrinsic performance measurements of spatial resolution, sensitivity and scatter fraction demonstrate good conventional PET performance; the results agree with previous simulation studies. Phantom measurements show the excellent image quality achievable with the prototype system. Phantom measurements and corresponding simulations show a faster and more uniform convergence rate, as well as more uniform quantification, for TOF reconstruction of the data, which have 375 ps intrinsic timing resolution, compared to non-TOF images. Measurements and simulations of a hot and cold sphere phantom show that the 7% energy resolution helps to mitigate residual errors in the scatter estimate because a high energy threshold (>480 keV) can be used to restrict the amount of scatter accepted without a loss of true events. Preliminary results with incorporation of a model of detector blurring in the iterative reconstruction algorithm not only show improved contrast recovery but also point out the importance of an accurate resolution model of the tails of LaBr3's point spread function. The LaBr3 TOF-PET scanner demonstrated the impact of superior timing and energy resolutions on image quality.

  1. A Study on the Basic Criteria for Selecting Heterogeneity Parameters of F18-FDG PET Images

    PubMed Central

    Forgacs, Attila; Pall Jonsson, Hermann; Dahlbom, Magnus; Daver, Freddie; D. DiFranco, Matthew; Opposits, Gabor; K. Krizsan, Aron; Garai, Ildiko; Czernin, Johannes; Varga, Jozsef; Tron, Lajos; Balkay, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Textural analysis might give new insights into the quantitative characterization of metabolically active tumors. More than thirty textural parameters have been investigated in former F18-FDG studies already. The purpose of the paper is to declare basic requirements as a selection strategy to identify the most appropriate heterogeneity parameters to measure textural features. Our predefined requirements were: a reliable heterogeneity parameter has to be volume independent, reproducible, and suitable for expressing quantitatively the degree of heterogeneity. Based on this criteria, we compared various suggested measures of homogeneity. A homogeneous cylindrical phantom was measured on three different PET/CT scanners using the commonly used protocol. In addition, a custom-made inhomogeneous tumor insert placed into the NEMA image quality phantom was imaged with a set of acquisition times and several different reconstruction protocols. PET data of 65 patients with proven lung lesions were retrospectively analyzed as well. Four heterogeneity parameters out of 27 were found as the most attractive ones to characterize the textural properties of metabolically active tumors in FDG PET images. These four parameters included Entropy, Contrast, Correlation, and Coefficient of Variation. These parameters were independent of delineated tumor volume (bigger than 25–30 ml), provided reproducible values (relative standard deviation< 10%), and showed high sensitivity to changes in heterogeneity. Phantom measurements are a viable way to test the reliability of heterogeneity parameters that would be of interest to nuclear imaging clinicians. PMID:27736888

  2. Motion correction of PET brain images through deconvolution: II. Practical implementation and algorithm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunath, N.; Faber, T. L.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Votaw, J. R.

    2009-02-01

    Image quality is significantly degraded even by small amounts of patient motion in very high-resolution PET scanners. When patient motion is known, deconvolution methods can be used to correct the reconstructed image and reduce motion blur. This paper describes the implementation and optimization of an iterative deconvolution method that uses an ordered subset approach to make it practical and clinically viable. We performed ten separate FDG PET scans using the Hoffman brain phantom and simultaneously measured its motion using the Polaris Vicra tracking system (Northern Digital Inc., Ontario, Canada). The feasibility and effectiveness of the technique was studied by performing scans with different motion and deconvolution parameters. Deconvolution resulted in visually better images and significant improvement as quantified by the Universal Quality Index (UQI) and contrast measures. Finally, the technique was applied to human studies to demonstrate marked improvement. Thus, the deconvolution technique presented here appears promising as a valid alternative to existing motion correction methods for PET. It has the potential for deblurring an image from any modality if the causative motion is known and its effect can be represented in a system matrix.

  3. Endothelial targeting of polymeric nanoparticles stably labeled with the PET imaging radioisotope iodine-124.

    PubMed

    Simone, Eric A; Zern, Blaine J; Chacko, Ann-Marie; Mikitsh, John L; Blankemeyer, Eric R; Muro, Silvia; Stan, Radu V; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2012-07-01

    Targeting of therapeutics or imaging agents to the endothelium has the potential to improve specificity and effectiveness of treatment for many diseases. One strategy to achieve this goal is the use of nanoparticles (NPs) targeted to the endothelium by ligands of protein determinants present on this tissue, including cell adhesion molecules, peptidases, and cell receptors. However, detachment of the radiolabel probes from NPs poses a significant problem. In this study, we devised polymeric NPs directly labeled with radioiodine isotopes including the positron emission tomography (PET) isotope (124)I, and characterized their targeting to specific endothelial determinants. This approach provided sizable, targetable probes for specific detection of endothelial surface determinants non-invasively in live animals. Direct conjugation of radiolabel to NPs allowed for stable longitudinal tracking of tissue distribution without label detachment even in an aggressive proteolytic environment. Further, this approach permits tracking of NP pharmacokinetics in real-time and non-invasive imaging of the lung in mice using micro-PET imaging. The use of this strategy will considerably improve investigation of NP interactions with target cells and PET imaging in small animals, which ultimately can aid in the optimization of targeted drug delivery.

  4. Tryptophan PET Imaging of the Kynurenine Pathway in Patient-Derived Xenograft Models of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Guastella, Anthony R.; Michelhaugh, Sharon K.; Klinger, Neil V.; Kupsky, William J.; Polin, Lisa A.; Muzik, Otto; Juhász, Csaba; Mittal, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates the immunosuppressive kynurenine pathway’s (KP) role in the pathophysiology of human gliomas. To study the KP in vivo, we used the noninvasive molecular imaging tracer α-[11C]-methyl-l-tryptophan (AMT). The AMT-positron emission tomography (PET) has shown high uptake in high-grade gliomas and predicted survival in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). We generated patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models from dissociated cells, or tumor fragments, from 5 patients with GBM. Mice bearing subcutaneous tumors were imaged with AMT-PET, and tumors were analyzed to detect the KP enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) 1, IDO2, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, kynureninase, and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase. Overall, PET imaging showed robust tumoral AMT uptake in PDX mice with prolonged tracer accumulation over 60 minutes, consistent with AMT trapping seen in humans. Immunostained tumor tissues demonstrated positive detection of multiple KP enzymes. Furthermore, intracranial implantation of GBM cells was performed with imaging at both 9 and 14 days postimplant, with a marked increase in AMT uptake at 14 days and a corresponding high level of tissue immunostaining for KP enzymes. These results indicate that our PDX mouse models recapitulate human GBM, including aberrant tryptophan metabolism, and offer an in vivo system for development of targeted therapeutics for patients with GBM. PMID:27151136

  5. Targeted Molecular Imaging in Adrenal Disease—An Emerging Role for Metomidate PET-CT

    PubMed Central

    Mendichovszky, Iosif A.; Powlson, Andrew S.; Manavaki, Roido; Aigbirhio, Franklin I.; Cheow, Heok; Buscombe, John R.; Gurnell, Mark; Gilbert, Fiona J.

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal lesions present a significant diagnostic burden for both radiologists and endocrinologists, especially with the increasing number of adrenal ‘incidentalomas’ detected on modern computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A key objective is the reliable distinction of benign disease from either primary adrenal malignancy (e.g., adrenocortical carcinoma or malignant forms of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PPGL)) or metastases (e.g., bronchial, renal). Benign lesions may still be associated with adverse sequelae through autonomous hormone hypersecretion (e.g., primary aldosteronism, Cushing’s syndrome, phaeochromocytoma). Here, identifying a causative lesion, or lateralising the disease to a single adrenal gland, is key to effective management, as unilateral adrenalectomy may offer the potential for curing conditions that are typically associated with significant excess morbidity and mortality. This review considers the evolving role of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in addressing the limitations of traditional cross-sectional imaging and adjunctive techniques, such as venous sampling, in the management of adrenal disorders. We review the development of targeted molecular imaging to the adrenocortical enzymes CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 with different radiolabeled metomidate compounds. Particular consideration is given to iodo-metomidate PET tracers for the diagnosis and management of adrenocortical carcinoma, and the increasingly recognized utility of 11C-metomidate PET-CT in primary aldosteronism. PMID:27869719

  6. Segmentation of PET Images for Computer-Aided Functional Quantification of Tuberculosis in Small Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Brent; Bagci, Ulas; Xu, Ziyue; Dey, Bappaditya; Luna, Brian; Bishai, William; Jain, Sanjay; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary infections often cause spatially diffuse and multi-focal radiotracer uptake in positron emission tomography (PET) images, which makes accurate quantification of the disease extent challenging. Image segmentation plays a vital role in quantifying uptake due to the distributed nature of immuno-pathology and associated metabolic activities in pulmonary infection, specifically tuberculosis (TB). For this task, thresholding-based segmentation methods may be better suited over other methods; however, performance of the thresholding-based methods depend on the selection of thresholding parameters, which are often suboptimal. Several optimal thresholding techniques have been proposed in the literature, but there is currently no consensus on how to determine the optimal threshold for precise identification of spatially diffuse and multi-focal radiotracer uptake. In this study, we propose a method to select optimal thresholding levels by utilizing a novel intensity affinity metric within the affinity propagation clustering framework. We tested the proposed method against 70 longitudinal PET images of rabbits infected with TB. The overall dice similarity coefficient between the segmentation from the proposed method and two expert segmentations was found to be 91.25 ± 8.01% with a sensitivity of 88.80 ± 12.59% and a specificity of 96.01 ± 9.20%. High accuracy and heightened efficiency of our proposed method, as compared to other PET image segmentation methods, were reported with various quantification metrics. PMID:24235292

  7. Imaging performance of a LaBr3-based PET scanner

    PubMed Central

    Daube-Witherspoon, M E; Surti, S; Perkins, A; Kyba, C C M; Wiener, R; Werner, M E; Kulp, R; Karp, J S

    2010-01-01

    A prototype time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanner based on cerium-doped lanthanum bromide [LaBr3 (5% Ce)] has been developed. LaBr3 has high light output, excellent energy resolution, and fast timing properties that have been predicted to lead to good image quality. Intrinsic performance measurements of spatial resolution, sensitivity, and scatter fraction demonstrate good conventional PET performance; the results agree with previous simulation studies. Phantom measurements show the excellent image quality achievable with the prototype system. Phantom measurements and corresponding simulations show a faster and more uniform convergence rate, as well as more uniform quantification, for TOF reconstruction of the data, which have 375-ps intrinsic timing resolution, compared to non-TOF images. Measurements and simulations of a hot and cold sphere phantom show that the 7% energy resolution helps to mitigate residual errors in the scatter estimate because a high energy threshold (>480 keV) can be used to restrict the amount of scatter accepted without a loss of true events. Preliminary results with incorporation of a model of detector blurring in the iterative reconstruction algorithm show improved contrast recovery but also point out the importance of an accurate resolution model of the tails of LaBr3’s point spread function. The LaBr3 TOF-PET scanner has demonstrated the impact of superior timing and energy resolutions on image quality. PMID:19949259

  8. A Study on the Basic Criteria for Selecting Heterogeneity Parameters of F18-FDG PET Images.

    PubMed

    Forgacs, Attila; Pall Jonsson, Hermann; Dahlbom, Magnus; Daver, Freddie; D DiFranco, Matthew; Opposits, Gabor; K Krizsan, Aron; Garai, Ildiko; Czernin, Johannes; Varga, Jozsef; Tron, Lajos; Balkay, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Textural analysis might give new insights into the quantitative characterization of metabolically active tumors. More than thirty textural parameters have been investigated in former F18-FDG studies already. The purpose of the paper is to declare basic requirements as a selection strategy to identify the most appropriate heterogeneity parameters to measure textural features. Our predefined requirements were: a reliable heterogeneity parameter has to be volume independent, reproducible, and suitable for expressing quantitatively the degree of heterogeneity. Based on this criteria, we compared various suggested measures of homogeneity. A homogeneous cylindrical phantom was measured on three different PET/CT scanners using the commonly used protocol. In addition, a custom-made inhomogeneous tumor insert placed into the NEMA image quality phantom was imaged with a set of acquisition times and several different reconstruction protocols. PET data of 65 patients with proven lung lesions were retrospectively analyzed as well. Four heterogeneity parameters out of 27 were found as the most attractive ones to characterize the textural properties of metabolically active tumors in FDG PET images. These four parameters included Entropy, Contrast, Correlation, and Coefficient of Variation. These parameters were independent of delineated tumor volume (bigger than 25-30 ml), provided reproducible values (relative standard deviation< 10%), and showed high sensitivity to changes in heterogeneity. Phantom measurements are a viable way to test the reliability of heterogeneity parameters that would be of interest to nuclear imaging clinicians.

  9. Anatomy assisted PET image reconstruction incorporating multi-resolution joint entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing; Rahmim, Arman

    2015-01-01

    A promising approach in PET image reconstruction is to incorporate high resolution anatomical information (measured from MR or CT) taking the anato-functional similarity measures such as mutual information or joint entropy (JE) as the prior. These similarity measures only classify voxels based on intensity values, while neglecting structural spatial information. In this work, we developed an anatomy-assisted maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction algorithm wherein the JE measure is supplied by spatial information generated using wavelet multi-resolution analysis. The proposed wavelet-based JE (WJE) MAP algorithm involves calculation of derivatives of the subband JE measures with respect to individual PET image voxel intensities, which we have shown can be computed very similarly to how the inverse wavelet transform is implemented. We performed a simulation study with the BrainWeb phantom creating PET data corresponding to different noise levels. Realistically simulated T1-weighted MR images provided by BrainWeb modeling were applied in the anatomy-assisted reconstruction with the WJE-MAP algorithm and the intensity-only JE-MAP algorithm. Quantitative analysis showed that the WJE-MAP algorithm performed similarly to the JE-MAP algorithm at low noise level in the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) regions in terms of noise versus bias tradeoff. When noise increased to medium level in the simulated data, the WJE-MAP algorithm started to surpass the JE-MAP algorithm in the GM region, which is less uniform with smaller isolated structures compared to the WM region. In the high noise level simulation, the WJE-MAP algorithm presented clear improvement over the JE-MAP algorithm in both the GM and WM regions. In addition to the simulation study, we applied the reconstruction algorithms to real patient studies involving DPA-173 PET data and Florbetapir PET data with corresponding T1-MPRAGE MRI images. Compared to the intensity-only JE-MAP algorithm, the WJE

  10. Nasal neuron PET imaging quantifies neuron generation and degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Van de Bittner, Genevieve C.; Riley, Misha M.; Cao, Luxiang; Herrick, Scott P.; Ricq, Emily L.; O’Neill, Michael J.; Ahmed, Zeshan; Murray, Tracey K.; Smith, Jaclyn E.; Wang, Changning; Schroeder, Frederick A.; Albers, Mark W.; Hooker, Jacob M.

    2017-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is broadly associated with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases and predicts increased mortality rates in healthy individuals. Conventional measurements of olfactory health assess odor processing pathways within the brain and provide a limited understanding of primary odor detection. Quantification of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which detect odors within the nasal cavity, would provide insight into the etiology of olfactory dysfunction associated with disease and mortality. Notably, OSNs are continually replenished by adult neurogenesis in mammals, including humans, so OSN measurements are primed to provide specialized insights into neurological disease. Here, we have evaluated a PET radiotracer, [11C]GV1-57, that specifically binds mature OSNs and quantifies the mature OSN population in vivo. [11C]GV1-57 monitored native OSN population dynamics in rodents, detecting OSN generation during postnatal development and aging-associated neurodegeneration. [11C]GV1-57 additionally measured rates of neuron regeneration after acute injury and early-stage OSN deficits in a rodent tauopathy model of neurodegenerative disease. Preliminary assessment in nonhuman primates suggested maintained uptake and saturable binding of [18F]GV1-57 in primate nasal epithelium, supporting its translational potential. Future applications for GV1-57 include monitoring additional diseases or conditions associated with olfactory dysregulation, including cognitive decline, as well as monitoring effects of neuroregenerative or neuroprotective therapeutics. PMID:28112682

  11. Nasal neuron PET imaging quantifies neuron generation and degeneration.

    PubMed

    Van de Bittner, Genevieve C; Riley, Misha M; Cao, Luxiang; Ehses, Janina; Herrick, Scott P; Ricq, Emily L; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; O'Neill, Michael J; Ahmed, Zeshan; Murray, Tracey K; Smith, Jaclyn E; Wang, Changning; Schroeder, Frederick A; Albers, Mark W; Hooker, Jacob M

    2017-02-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is broadly associated with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases and predicts increased mortality rates in healthy individuals. Conventional measurements of olfactory health assess odor processing pathways within the brain and provide a limited understanding of primary odor detection. Quantification of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which detect odors within the nasal cavity, would provide insight into the etiology of olfactory dysfunction associated with disease and mortality. Notably, OSNs are continually replenished by adult neurogenesis in mammals, including humans, so OSN measurements are primed to provide specialized insights into neurological disease. Here, we have evaluated a PET radiotracer, [11C]GV1-57, that specifically binds mature OSNs and quantifies the mature OSN population in vivo. [11C]GV1-57 monitored native OSN population dynamics in rodents, detecting OSN generation during postnatal development and aging-associated neurodegeneration. [11C]GV1-57 additionally measured rates of neuron regeneration after acute injury and early-stage OSN deficits in a rodent tauopathy model of neurodegenerative disease. Preliminary assessment in nonhuman primates suggested maintained uptake and saturable binding of [18F]GV1-57 in primate nasal epithelium, supporting its translational potential. Future applications for GV1-57 include monitoring additional diseases or conditions associated with olfactory dysregulation, including cognitive decline, as well as monitoring effects of neuroregenerative or neuroprotective therapeutics.

  12. Principles of nuclear medicine imaging: planar, SPECT, PET, multi-modality, and autoradiography systems.

    PubMed

    Zanzonico, Pat

    2012-04-01

    The underlying principles of nuclear medicine imaging involve the use of unsealed sources of radioactivity in the form of radiopharmaceuticals. The ionizing radiations that accompany the decay of the administered radioactivity can be quantitatively detected, measured, and imaged in vivo with instruments such as gamma cameras. This paper reviews the design and operating principles, as well as the capabilities and limitations, of instruments used clinically and preclinically for in vivo radionuclide imaging. These include gamma cameras, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanners, and positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. The technical basis of autoradiography is reviewed as well.

  13. MO-G-17A-05: PET Image Deblurring Using Adaptive Dictionary Learning

    SciTech Connect

    Valiollahzadeh, S; Clark, J; Mawlawi, O

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to deblur PET images while suppressing Poisson noise effects using adaptive dictionary learning (DL) techniques. Methods: The model that relates a blurred and noisy PET image to the desired image is described as a linear transform y=Hm+n where m is the desired image, H is a blur kernel, n is Poisson noise and y is the blurred image. The approach we follow to recover m involves the sparse representation of y over a learned dictionary, since the image has lots of repeated patterns, edges, textures and smooth regions. The recovery is based on an optimization of a cost function having four major terms: adaptive dictionary learning term, sparsity term, regularization term, and MLEM Poisson noise estimation term. The optimization is solved by a variable splitting method that introduces additional variables. We simulated a 128×128 Hoffman brain PET image (baseline) with varying kernel types and sizes (Gaussian 9×9, σ=5.4mm; Uniform 5×5, σ=2.9mm) with additive Poisson noise (Blurred). Image recovery was performed once when the kernel type was included in the model optimization and once with the model blinded to kernel type. The recovered image was compared to the baseline as well as another recovery algorithm PIDSPLIT+ (Setzer et. al.) by calculating PSNR (Peak SNR) and normalized average differences in pixel intensities (NADPI) of line profiles across the images. Results: For known kernel types, the PSNR of the Gaussian (Uniform) was 28.73 (25.1) and 25.18 (23.4) for DL and PIDSPLIT+ respectively. For blinded deblurring the PSNRs were 25.32 and 22.86 for DL and PIDSPLIT+ respectively. NADPI between baseline and DL, and baseline and blurred for the Gaussian kernel was 2.5 and 10.8 respectively. Conclusion: PET image deblurring using dictionary learning seems to be a good approach to restore image resolution in presence of Poisson noise. GE Health Care.

  14. Quantitative comparison of OSEM and penalized likelihood image reconstruction using relative difference penalties for clinical PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sangtae; Ross, Steven G.; Asma, Evren; Miao, Jun; Jin, Xiao; Cheng, Lishui; Wollenweber, Scott D.; Manjeshwar, Ravindra M.

    2015-08-01

    Ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) is the most widely used algorithm for clinical PET image reconstruction. OSEM is usually stopped early and post-filtered to control image noise and does not necessarily achieve optimal quantitation accuracy. As an alternative to OSEM, we have recently implemented a penalized likelihood (PL) image reconstruction algorithm for clinical PET using the relative difference penalty with the aim of improving quantitation accuracy without compromising visual image quality. Preliminary clinical studies have demonstrated visual image quality including lesion conspicuity in images reconstructed by the PL algorithm is better than or at least as good as that in OSEM images. In this paper we evaluate lesion quantitation accuracy of the PL algorithm with the relative difference penalty compared to OSEM by using various data sets including phantom data acquired with an anthropomorphic torso phantom, an extended oval phantom and the NEMA image quality phantom; clinical data; and hybrid clinical data generated by adding simulated lesion data to clinical data. We focus on mean standardized uptake values and compare them for PL and OSEM using both time-of-flight (TOF) and non-TOF data. The results demonstrate improvements of PL in lesion quantitation accuracy compared to OSEM with a particular improvement in cold background regions such as lungs.

  15. Penalized likelihood PET image reconstruction using patch-based edge-preserving regularization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guobao; Qi, Jinyi

    2012-12-01

    Iterative image reconstruction for positron emission tomography (PET) can improve image quality by using spatial regularization that penalizes image intensity difference between neighboring pixels. The most commonly used quadratic penalty often oversmoothes edges and fine features in reconstructed images. Nonquadratic penalties can preserve edges but often introduce piece-wise constant blocky artifacts and the results are also sensitive to the hyper-parameter that controls the shape of the penalty function. This paper presents a patch-based regularization for iterative image reconstruction that uses neighborhood patches instead of individual pixels in computing the nonquadratic penalty. The new regularization is more robust than the conventional pixel-based regularization in differentiating sharp edges from random fluctuations due to noise. An optimization transfer algorithm is developed for the penalized maximum likelihood estimation. Each iteration of the algorithm can be implemented in three simple steps: an EM-like image update, an image smoothing and a pixel-by-pixel image fusion. Computer simulations show that the proposed patch-based regularization can achieve higher contrast recovery for small objects without increasing background variation compared with the quadratic regularization. The reconstruction is also more robust to the hyper-parameter than conventional pixel-based nonquadratic regularizations. The proposed regularization method has been applied to real 3-D PET data.

  16. Efficient sinogram smoothing for dynamic neuroreceptor PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaochuan; La Riviere, Patrick J.; Ye, James; Mukherjee, J.; Chen, Chin-Tu

    1997-05-01

    We have developed image-restoration techniques applicable to dynamic positron emission tomography that improve the visual quality and quantitative accuracy of neuroreceptor images. Starting wit data from a study of dopamine D-2 receptors in rhesus monkey striata using selective radioligands such as fallypride, we performed a novel effective 3D smoothing of the dynamic sinogram at a much lower computational cost than a truly 3D, adaptive smoothing. The processed sinogram was then input to a standard filtered back-projection algorithm and the resulting images were sharper and less noisy than images reconstructed from the unprocessed sinogram. Simulations were performed and the radioligand binding curves extracted from the restored images were found to be smoother and more accurate than those extracted form the unprocessed reconstructions. Comparison was also made to reconstructions from sinograms processed by the principal component analysis/projection onto convex sets algorithm.

  17. High resolution image reconstruction method for a double-plane PET system with changeable spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiao-Yue; Zhou, Wei; Li, Lin; Wei, Long; Yin, Peng-Fei; Shang, Lei-Min; Yun, Ming-Kai; Lu, Zhen-Rui; Huang, Xian-Chao

    2016-05-01

    Breast-dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) imaging techniques have been developed in recent years. Their capacities to detect millimeter-sized breast tumors have been the subject of many studies. Some of them have been confirmed with good results in clinical applications. With regard to biopsy application, a double-plane detector arrangement is practicable, as it offers the convenience of breast immobilization. However, the serious blurring effect of the double-plane PET, with changeable spacing for different breast sizes, should be studied. We investigated a high resolution reconstruction method applicable for a double-plane PET. The distance between the detector planes is changeable. Geometric and blurring components were calculated in real-time for different detector distances, and accurate geometric sensitivity was obtained with a new tube area model. Resolution recovery was achieved by estimating blurring effects derived from simulated single gamma response information. The results showed that the new geometric modeling gave a more finite and smooth sensitivity weight in the double-plane PET. The blurring component yielded contrast recovery levels that could not be reached without blurring modeling, and improved visual recovery of the smallest spheres and better delineation of the structures in the reconstructed images were achieved with the blurring component. Statistical noise had lower variance at the voxel level with blurring modeling at matched resolution, compared to without blurring modeling. In distance-changeable double-plane PET, finite resolution modeling during reconstruction achieved resolution recovery, without noise amplification. Supported by Knowledge Innovation Project of The Chinese Academy of Sciences (KJCX2-EW-N06)

  18. (18)F-Based Pretargeted PET Imaging Based on Bioorthogonal Diels-Alder Click Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jan-Philip; Houghton, Jacob L; Kozlowski, Paul; Abdel-Atti, Dalya; Reiner, Thomas; Pillarsetty, Naga Vara Kishore; Scholz, Wolfgang W; Zeglis, Brian M; Lewis, Jason S

    2016-02-17

    A first-of-its-kind (18)F pretargeted PET imaging approach based on the bioorthogonal inverse electron demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) reaction between tetrazine (Tz) and trans-cyclooctene (TCO) is presented. As proof-of-principle, a TCO-bearing immunoconjugate of the anti-CA19.9 antibody 5B1 and an Al[(18)F]NOTA-labeled tetrazine radioligand were harnessed for the visualization of CA19.9-expressing BxPC3 pancreatic cancer xenografts. Biodistribution and (18)F-PET imaging data clearly demonstrate that this methodology effectively delineates tumor mass with activity concentrations up to 6.4 %ID/g at 4 h after injection of the radioligand.

  19. Nonhuman primate models of addiction and PET imaging: dopamine system dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Gould, Robert W; Porrino, Linda J; Nader, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of nonhuman primate models of cocaine addiction and the use of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to study the role of individual differences in vulnerability and how environmental and pharmacological variables can impact cocaine abuse. The chapter will describe studies related to the dopamine (DA) neurotransmitter system, and focus primarily on the D2-like DA receptor, the DA transporter and the use of fluorodeoxyglucose to better understand the neuropharmacology of cocaine abuse. The use of nonhuman primates allows for within-subject, longitudinal studies that have provided insight into the human condition and serve as an ideal model of translational research. The combination of nonhuman primate behavior, pharmacology and state-of-the-art brain imaging using PET will provide the foundation for future studies aimed at developing behavioral and pharmacological treatments for drug addiction in humans.

  20. Internet2-based 3D PET image reconstruction using a PC cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shattuck, D. W.; Rapela, J.; Asma, E.; Chatzioannou, A.; Qi, J.; Leahy, R. M.

    2002-08-01

    We describe an approach to fast iterative reconstruction from fully three-dimensional (3D) PET data using a network of PentiumIII PCs configured as a Beowulf cluster. To facilitate the use of this system, we have developed a browser-based interface using Java. The system compresses PET data on the user's machine, sends these data over a network, and instructs the PC cluster to reconstruct the image. The cluster implements a parallelized version of our preconditioned conjugate gradient method for fully 3D MAP image reconstruction. We report on the speed-up factors using the Beowulf approach and the impacts of communication latencies in the local cluster network and the network connection between the user's machine and our PC cluster.

  1. Internet2-based 3D PET image reconstruction using a PC cluster.

    PubMed

    Shattuck, D W; Rapela, J; Asma, E; Chatzioannou, A; Qi, J; Leahy, R M

    2002-08-07

    We describe an approach to fast iterative reconstruction from fully three-dimensional (3D) PET data using a network of PentiumIII PCs configured as a Beowulf cluster. To facilitate the use of this system, we have developed a browser-based interface using Java. The system compresses PET data on the user's machine, sends these data over a network, and instructs the PC cluster to reconstruct the image. The cluster implements a parallelized version of our preconditioned conjugate gradient method for fully 3D MAP image reconstruction. We report on the speed-up factors using the Beowulf approach and the impacts of communication latencies in the local cluster network and the network connection between the user's machine and our PC cluster.

  2. Microwave accelerated synthesis of PET image contrast agents for AD research.

    PubMed

    Kallmerten, A E; Jones, G B

    2010-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) offers the potential to provide early onset diagnosis and subsequent intervention, including guided treatment regimens. One of the restricting factors in clinical application of PET technology is the limited availability of radioligands with affinity to specific targets of interest. Given the short half-life of the most popular positron emitter currently used ((18)F; approximately 120 min.) extremely rapid and efficient radiochemistry methods are needed to ensure required compounds are prepared and purified for administration within the 2-3 half life practical limit. Recent efforts to combine microwave mediated synthesis with advanced catalysis in the synthesis of specific categories of AD imaging agents will be presented.

  3. Nonhuman Primate Models of Addiction and PET Imaging: Dopamine System Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Robert W.; Porrino, Linda J.; Nader, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of nonhuman primate models of cocaine addiction and the use of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to study the role of individual differences in vulnerability and how environmental and pharmacological variables can impact cocaine abuse. The chapter will describe studies related to the dopamine (DA) neurotransmitter system, and focus primarily on the D2-like DA receptor, the DA transporter and the use of fluorodeoxyglucose to better understand the neuropharmacology of cocaine abuse. The use of nonhuman primates allows for within-subject, longitudinal studies that have provided insight into the human condition and serve as an ideal model of translational research. The combination of nonhuman primate behavior, pharmacology and state-of-the-art brain imaging using PET will provide the foundation for future studies aimed at developing behavioral and pharmacological treatments for drug addiction in humans. PMID:22020537

  4. Intrinsically germanium-69-labeled iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis and in-vivo dual-modality PET/MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Valdovinos, Hector F; Chen, Feng; Lewis, Christina M; Ellison, Paul A; Luo, Haiming; Meyerand, M Elizabeth; Nickles, Robert J; Cai, Weibo

    2014-08-13

    Intrinsically germanium-69-labeled super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are synthesized via a newly developed, fast and highly specific chelator-free approach. The biodistribution pattern and the feasibility of (69) Ge-SPION@PEG for in vivo dual-modality positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) imaging and lymph-node mapping are investigated, which represents the first example of the successful utilization of a (69) Ge-based agent for PET/MR imaging.

  5. Adrenal tuberculosis masquerading as disseminated malignancy: A pitfall of (18)F-FDG PET/CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Gorla, A K R; Gupta, K; Sood, A; Biswal, C K; Bhansali, A; Mittal, B R

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive characterization of adrenal lesions is a commonly encountered diagnostic challenge. Characteristic clinical and correlative imaging findings may assist in only arriving at a probable diagnosis. Currently, (18)F-FDG PET/CT is considered to provide the most comprehensive imaging information. We here present a case of bilateral adrenal tuberculosis that highlights the need for caution during the interpretation of (18)F-FDG PET/CT and also the need to suggest histopathological correlation.

  6. Incidental Malignancies identified during staging for Prostate Cancer with (68)Ga -PSMA HBED-CC PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Andre; Nicholson, Cheryl; Rhee, Handoo; Gustafson, Sonja; Miles, Ken; Vela, Ian

    2017-03-20

    The rapid uptake of 68Ga Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) HBED-CC PET imaging for prostate cancer staging has led to concerns regarding its specificity, with uptake in both malignant and non-malignant tissues. We describe three separate malignancies identified on 68Ga PSMA HBED-CC PET imaging. The misnomer of "prostate specific membrane antigen" is demonstrated by this case and highlights the importance of continued investigation of the potential role for 68Ga PSMA HBED-CC PET in other malignancies.

  7. Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology working group and European Association for Neuro-Oncology recommendations for the clinical use of PET imaging in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nathalie L; Weller, Michael; Suchorska, Bogdana; Galldiks, Norbert; Soffietti, Riccardo; Kim, Michelle M; la Fougère, Christian; Pope, Whitney; Law, Ian; Arbizu, Javier; Chamberlain, Marc C; Vogelbaum, Michael; Ellingson, Ben M; Tonn, Joerg C

    2016-09-01

    This guideline provides recommendations for the use of PET imaging in gliomas. The review examines established clinical benefit in glioma patients of PET using glucose ((18)F-FDG) and amino acid tracers ((11)C-MET, (18)F-FET, and (18)F-FDOPA). An increasing number of studies have been published on PET imaging in the setting of diagnosis, biopsy, and resection as well radiotherapy planning, treatment monitoring, and response assessment. Recommendations are based on evidence generated from studies which validated PET findings by histology or clinical course. This guideline emphasizes the clinical value of PET imaging with superiority of amino acid PET over glucose PET and provides a framework for the use of PET to assist in the management of patients with gliomas.

  8. Posttreatment PET/CT Rather Than Interim PET/CT Using Deauville Criteria Predicts Outcome in Pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Prospective Study Comparing PET/CT with Conventional Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Sameer; Bhethanabhotla, Sainath; Kumar, Rakesh; Agarwal, Krishankant; Sharma, Punit; Thulkar, Sanjay; Malhotra, Arun; Dhawan, Deepa; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas

    2017-04-01

    Data about the significance of (18)F-FDG PET at interim assessment and end of treatment in pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are limited. Methods: Patients (≤18 y) with HL were prospectively evaluated with contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) and PET combined with low-dose CT (PET/CT) at baseline, after 2 cycles of chemotherapy, and after completion of treatment. Revised International Working Group (RIW) criteria and Deauville 5 point-scale for response assessment by PET/CT were used. All patients received doxorubicin (Adriamycin), bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine chemotherapy along with involved-field radiotherapy (25 Gy) for early stage (IA, IB, and IIA) and advanced stage (IIB-IV) with bulky disease. Results: Of the 57 enrolled patients, median follow-up was 81.6 mo (range, 11-97.5 mo). Treatment decisions were based on CECT. At baseline, PET/CT versus CECT identified 67 more disease sites; 23 patients (40.3%) were upstaged and of them in 9 patients (39%) upstaging would have affected treatment decision; notably none of these patients relapsed. The specificity of interim PET/CT based on RIW criteria (61.5%) and Deauville criteria (91.4%) for predicting relapse was higher than CECT (40.3%) (P = 0.03 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Event-free survival based on interim PET/CT (RIW) response was 93.3 ± 4.1 versus 89.6 ± 3.8 (positive vs. negative scan, respectively; P = 0.44). The specificity of posttreatment PET/CT (Deauville) was 95.7% versus 76.4% by CECT (P = 0.006). Posttreatment PET/CT (Deauville) showed significantly inferior overall survival in patients with positive scan versus negative scan results (66.4 ± 22.5 vs. 94.5 ± 2.0, P = 0.029). Conclusion: Interim PET/CT has better specificity, and use of Deauville criteria further improves it. Escalation of therapy based on interim PET in pediatric HL needs further conclusive evidence to justify its use. Posttreatment PET/CT (Deauville) predicts overall survival and has better specificity in comparison to

  9. Accuracy of CT-based attenuation correction in PET/CT bone imaging.

    PubMed

    Abella, Monica; Alessio, Adam M; Mankoff, David A; MacDonald, Lawrence R; Vaquero, Juan Jose; Desco, Manuel; Kinahan, Paul E

    2012-05-07

    We evaluate the accuracy of scaling CT images for attenuation correction of PET data measured for bone. While the standard tri-linear approach has been well tested for soft tissues, the impact of CT-based attenuation correction on the accuracy of tracer uptake in bone has not been reported in detail. We measured the accuracy of attenuation coefficients of bovine femur segments and patient data using a tri-linear method applied to CT images obtained at different kVp settings. Attenuation values at 511 keV obtained with a (68)Ga/(68)Ge transmission scan were used as a reference standard. The impact of inaccurate attenuation images on PET standardized uptake values (SUVs) was then evaluated using simulated emission images and emission images from five patients with elevated levels of FDG uptake in bone at disease sites. The CT-based linear attenuation images of the bovine femur segments underestimated the true values by 2.9 ± 0.3% for cancellous bone regardless of kVp. For compact bone the underestimation ranged from 1.3% at 140 kVp to 14.1% at 80 kVp. In the patient scans at 140 kVp the underestimation was approximately 2% averaged over all bony regions. The sensitivity analysis indicated that errors in PET SUVs in bone are approximately proportional to errors in the estimated attenuation coefficients for the same regions. The variability in SUV bias also increased approximately linearly with the error in linear attenuation coefficients. These results suggest that bias in bone uptake SUVs of PET tracers ranges from 2.4% to 5.9% when using CT scans at 140 and 120 kVp for attenuation correction. Lower kVp scans have the potential for considerably more error in dense bone. This bias is present in any PET tracer with bone uptake but may be clinically insignificant for many imaging tasks. However, errors from CT-based attenuation correction methods should be carefully evaluated if quantitation of tracer uptake in bone is important.

  10. Accuracy of CT-Based Attenuation Correction in PET/CT Bone Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Abella, Monica; Alessio, Adam M.; Mankoff, David A.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Vaquero, Juan Jose; Desco, Manuel; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the accuracy of scaling CT images for attenuation correction of PET data measured for bone. While the standard tri-linear approach has been well-tested for soft tissues, the impact of CT-based attenuation correction on the accuracy of tracer uptake in bone has not been reported in detail. We measured the accuracy of attenuation coefficients of bovine femur segments and patient data using a tri-linear method applied to CT images obtained at different kVp settings. Attenuation values at 511 keV obtained with a 68Ga/68Ge transmission scan were used as a reference standard. The impact of inaccurate attenuation images on PET standardized uptake values (SUVs) was then evaluated using simulated emission images and emission images from five patients with elevated levels of FDG uptake in bone at disease sites. The CT-based linear attenuation images of the bovine femur segments underestimated the true values by 2.9±0.3% for cancellous bone regardless of kVp. For compact bone the underestimation ranged from 1.3% at 140 kVp to 14.1% at 80 kVp. In the patient scans at 140 kVp the underestimation was approximately 2% averaged over all bony regions. The sensitivity analysis indicated that errors in PET SUVs in bone are approximately proportional to errors in the estimated attenuation coefficients for the same regions. The variability in SUV bias also increased approximately linearly with the error in linear attenuation coefficients. These results suggest that bias in bone uptake SUVs of PET tracers range from 2.4% to 5.9% when using CT scans at 140 and 120 kVp for attenuation correction. Lower kVp scans have the potential for considerably more error in dense bone. This bias is present in any PET tracer with bone uptake but may be clinically insignificant for many imaging tasks. However, errors from CT-based attenuation correction methods should be carefully evaluated if quantitation of tracer uptake in bone is important. PMID:22481547

  11. Reconstruction of an input function from a dynamic PET water image using multiple tissue curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Yukito; Yamamoto, Yuka; Nishiyama, Yoshihiro

    2016-08-01

    Quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is important for the understanding of normal and pathologic brain physiology. When CBF is assessed using PET with {{\\text{H}}2} 15O or C15O2, its calculation requires an arterial input function, which generally requires invasive arterial blood sampling. The aim of the present study was to develop a new technique to reconstruct an image derived input function (IDIF) from a dynamic {{\\text{H}}2} 15O PET image as a completely non-invasive approach. Our technique consisted of using a formula to express the input using tissue curve with rate constant parameter. For multiple tissue curves extracted from the dynamic image, the rate constants were estimated so as to minimize the sum of the differences of the reproduced inputs expressed by the extracted tissue curves. The estimated rates were used to express the inputs and the mean of the estimated inputs was used as an IDIF. The method was tested in human subjects (n  =  29) and was compared to the blood sampling method. Simulation studies were performed to examine the magnitude of potential biases in CBF and to optimize the number of multiple tissue curves used for the input reconstruction. In the PET study, the estimated IDIFs were well reproduced against the measured ones. The difference between the calculated CBF values obtained using the two methods was small as around  <8% and the calculated CBF values showed a tight correlation (r  =  0.97). The simulation showed that errors associated with the assumed parameters were  <10%, and that the optimal number of tissue curves to be used was around 500. Our results demonstrate that IDIF can be reconstructed directly from tissue curves obtained through {{\\text{H}}2} 15O PET imaging. This suggests the possibility of using a completely non-invasive technique to assess CBF in patho-physiological studies.

  12. F18 EF5 PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    with Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lilie Lin, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Pennsylvania...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 01 July 2012 to 30 June 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE F18 EF5 PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Brain Metastases from Breast 5a...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to estimate the degree of residual hypoxia after whole brain radiation therapy in patients

  13. Particle Disease on Fluoride-18 (NaF) PET/CT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Jonathan; Foster, Cameron; Shelton, David

    2011-01-01

    Particle disease is a loss of bone that commonly occurs about five years after arthroplasty. The cause is secondary to microabrasive wear and shedding of any portion of the prosthesis, and the microscopic foreign bodies activate inflammation which can lead to pain. This report describes the imaging findings of an 80-year-old female with particle disease detected with 18F-fluoride PET/CT. PMID:22470793

  14. Quantitative CD3 PET Imaging Predicts Tumor Growth Response to Anti-CTLA-4 Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Larimer, Benjamin M.; Wehrenberg-Klee, Eric; Caraballo, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors have made rapid advances, resulting in multiple Food and Drug Administration–approved therapeutics that have markedly improved survival. However, these benefits are limited to a minority subpopulation that achieves a response. Predicting which patients are most likely to benefit would be valuable for individual therapy optimization. T-cell markers such as CD3—by examining active recruitment of the T cells responsible for cancer-cell death—represent a more direct approach to monitoring tumor immune response than pretreatment biopsy or genetic screening. This approach could be especially effective as numerous different therapeutic strategies emerge, decreasing the need for drug-specific biomarkers and instead focusing on T-cell infiltration, which has been previously correlated with treatment response. Methods: A CD3 PET imaging agent targeting T cells was synthesized to test the role of such imaging as a predictive marker. The 89Zr-p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-deferoxamine-CD3 PET probe was assessed in a murine tumor xenograft model of anti–cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) immunotherapy of colon cancer. Results: Imaging on day 14 revealed 2 distinct groups of mice stratified by PET signal intensity. Although there was no significant difference in tumor volume on the day of imaging, in the high-uptake group subsequent measurements revealed significantly smaller tumors than in either the low-uptake group or the untreated controls. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the size of tumors between the low-uptake and untreated control mice. Conclusion: These findings indicate that high CD3 PET uptake in the anti-CTLA-4–treated mice correlated with subsequent reduced tumor volume and was a predictive biomarker of response. PMID:27230929

  15. Low Dose PET Image Reconstruction with Total Variation Using Alternating Direction Method

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xingjian; Wang, Chenye; Hu, Hongjie; Liu, Huafeng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a total variation (TV) minimization strategy is proposed to overcome the problem of sparse spatial resolution and large amounts of noise in low dose positron emission tomography (PET) imaging reconstruction. Two types of objective function were established based on two statistical models of measured PET data, least-square (LS) TV for the Gaussian distribution and Poisson-TV for the Poisson distribution. To efficiently obtain high quality reconstructed images, the alternating direction method (ADM) is used to solve these objective functions. As compared with the iterative shrinkage/thresholding (IST) based algorithms, the proposed ADM can make full use of the TV constraint and its convergence rate is faster. The performance of the proposed approach is validated through comparisons with the expectation-maximization (EM) method using synthetic and experimental biological data. In the comparisons, the results of both LS-TV and Poisson-TV are taken into consideration to find which models are more suitable for PET imaging, in particular low-dose PET. To evaluate the results quantitatively, we computed bias, variance, and the contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) and drew profiles of the reconstructed images produced by the different methods. The results show that both Poisson-TV and LS-TV can provide a high visual quality at a low dose level. The bias and variance of the proposed LS-TV and Poisson-TV methods are 20% to 74% less at all counting levels than those of the EM method. Poisson-TV gives the best performance in terms of high-accuracy reconstruction with the lowest bias and variance as compared to the ground truth (14.3% less bias and 21.9% less variance). In contrast, LS-TV gives the best performance in terms of the high contrast of the reconstruction with the highest CRC. PMID:28005929

  16. High Resolution PET Imaging Probe for the Detection, Molecular Characterization and Treatment Monitoring of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Compton camera in nuclear medical imaging. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci 2002; 49:812–16. [15] Linhart V, Burdette D, Chessi E, et al. Spectroscopy study of...applications can be recognized in both emission modalities, SPECT and PET. Compton camera is a subspecies of SPECT, where a silicon based scatter as a MR...Introducing a Compton camera also relaxes requirements of the radiotracers used, extending the range of conceivable photon energies beyond 140.5 keV of the

  17. Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging as a Modality to Evaluate Antibody-Based PET Radiotracers.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Jimson W; Hensley, Harvey; Doss, Mohan; Beigarten, Charles; Torgov, Michael; Olafsen, Tove; Yu, Jian Q; Robinson, Matthew K

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies, and engineered antibody fragments, labeled with radioisotopes are being developed as radiotracers for the detection and phenotyping of diseases such as cancer. The development of antibody-based radiotracers requires extensive characterization of their in vitro and in vivo properties, including their ability to target tumors in an antigen-selective manner. In this study, we investigated the use of Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) as compared with PET as a modality for evaluating the in vivo behavior of antibody-based radiotracers.

  18. Prognostic value of metabolic metrics extracted from baseline PET images in NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Sara; Leijenaar, Ralph T.H.; Velazquez, Emmanuel Rios; Oberije, Cary; Parmar, Chintan; van Elmpt, Wouter; Reymen, Bart; Troost, Esther G.C.; Oellers, Michel; Dekker, Andre; Gillies, Robert; Aerts, Hugo J.W.L.; Lambin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Maximum, mean and peak SUV of primary tumor at baseline FDG-PET scans, have often been found predictive for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In this study we further investigated the prognostic power of advanced metabolic metrics derived from Intensity-Volume Histograms (IVH) extracted from PET imaging. Methods A cohort of 220 NSCLC patients (mean age, 66.6 years; 149 men, 71 women), stages I-IIIB, treated with radiotherapy with curative intent were included (NCT00522639). Each patient underwent standardized pre-treatment CT-PET imaging. Primary GTV was delineated by an experienced radiation oncologist on CT-PET images. Common PET descriptors such as maximum, mean and peak SUV, and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) were quantified. Advanced descriptors of metabolic activity were quantified by IVH. These comprised 5 groups of features: Absolute and Relative Volume above Relative Intensity threshold (AVRI and RVRI), Absolute and Relative Volume above Absolute Intensity threshold (AVAI and RVAI), and Absolute Intensity above Relative Volume threshold (AIRV). MTV was derived from the IVH curves for volumes with SUV above 2.5, 3 and 4, and of 40% and 50% maximum SUV. Univariable analysis using Cox Proportional Hazard Regression was performed for overall survival assessment. Results Relative volume above higher SUV (80 %) was an independent predictor of OS (p = 0.05). None of the possible surrogates for MTV based on volumes above SUV of 3, 40% and 50% of maximum SUV showed significant associations with OS (p (AVAI3) = 0.10, p (AVAI4) = 0.22, p (AVRI40%) = 0.15, p (AVRI50%) = 0.17). Maximum and peak SUV (r = 0.99) revealed no prognostic value for OS (p (maximum SUV) = 0.20, p (peak SUV) = 0.22). Conclusions New methods using more advanced imaging features extracted from PET were analyzed. Best prognostic value for OS of NSCLC patients was found for relative portions of the tumor above higher uptakes (80% SUV). PMID:24047338

  19. Errors in MR-based attenuation correction for brain imaging with PET/MR scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota Kops, Elena; Herzog, Hans

    2013-02-01

    AimAttenuation correction of PET data acquired by hybrid MR/PET scanners remains a challenge, even if several methods for brain and whole-body measurements have been developed recently. A template-based attenuation correction for brain imaging proposed by our group is easy to handle and delivers reliable attenuation maps in a short time. However, some potential error sources are analyzed in this study. We investigated the choice of template reference head among all the available data (error A), and possible skull anomalies of the specific patient, such as discontinuities due to surgery (error B). Materials and methodsAn anatomical MR measurement and a 2-bed-position transmission scan covering the whole head and neck region were performed in eight normal subjects (4 females, 4 males). Error A: Taking alternatively one of the eight heads as reference, eight different templates were created by nonlinearly registering the images to the reference and calculating the average. Eight patients (4 females, 4 males; 4 with brain lesions, 4 w/o brain lesions) were measured in the Siemens BrainPET/MR scanner. The eight templates were used to generate the patients' attenuation maps required for reconstruction. ROI and VOI atlas-based comparisons were performed employing all the reconstructed images. Error B: CT-based attenuation maps of two volunteers were manipulated by manually inserting several skull lesions and filling a nasal cavity. The corresponding attenuation coefficients were substituted with the water's coefficient (0.096/cm). ResultsError A: The mean SUVs over the eight templates pairs for all eight patients and all VOIs did not differ significantly one from each other. Standard deviations up to 1.24% were found. Error B: After reconstruction of the volunteers' BrainPET data with the CT-based attenuation maps without and with skull anomalies, a VOI-atlas analysis was performed revealing very little influence of the skull lesions (less than 3%), while the filled nasal

  20. Whole-body hybrid imaging concept for the integration of PET/MR into radiation therapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, Daniel H.; Oehmigen, Mark; Grueneisen, Johannes; Umutlu, Lale; Quick, Harald H.

    2016-05-01

    Modern radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning is based on multimodality imaging. With the recent availability of whole-body PET/MR hybrid imaging new opportunities arise to improve target volume delineation in RT treatment planning. This, however, requires dedicated RT equipment for reproducible patient positioning on the PET/MR system, which has to be compatible with MR and PET imaging. A prototype flat RT table overlay, radiofrequency (RF) coil holders for head imaging, and RF body bridges for body imaging were developed and tested towards PET/MR system integration. Attenuation correction (AC) of all individual RT components was performed by generating 3D CT-based template models. A custom-built program for μ-map generation assembles all AC templates depending on the presence and position of each RT component. All RT devices were evaluated in phantom experiments with regards to MR and PET imaging compatibility, attenuation correction, PET quantification, and position accuracy. The entire RT setup was then evaluated in a first PET/MR patient study on five patients at different body regions. All tested devices are PET/MR compatible and do not produce visible artifacts or disturb image quality. The RT components showed a repositioning accuracy of better than 2 mm. Photon attenuation of  -11.8% in the top part of the phantom was observable, which was reduced to  -1.7% with AC using the μ-map generator. Active lesions of 3 subjects were evaluated in terms of SUVmean and an underestimation of  -10.0% and  -2.4% was calculated without and with AC of the RF body bridges, respectively. The new dedicated RT equipment for hybrid PET/MR imaging enables acquisitions in all body regions. It is compatible with PET/MR imaging and all hardware components can be corrected in hardware AC by using the suggested μ-map generator. These developments provide the technical and methodological basis for integration of PET/MR hybrid imaging into RT planning.

  1. Whole-body hybrid imaging concept for the integration of PET/MR into radiation therapy treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Daniel H; Oehmigen, Mark; Grüneisen, Johannes; Umutlu, Lale; Quick, Harald H

    2016-05-07

    Modern radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning is based on multimodality imaging. With the recent availability of whole-body PET/MR hybrid imaging new opportunities arise to improve target volume delineation in RT treatment planning. This, however, requires dedicated RT equipment for reproducible patient positioning on the PET/MR system, which has to be compatible with MR and PET imaging. A prototype flat RT table overlay, radiofrequency (RF) coil holders for head imaging, and RF body bridges for body imaging were developed and tested towards PET/MR system integration. Attenuation correction (AC) of all individual RT components was performed by generating 3D CT-based template models. A custom-built program for μ-map generation assembles all AC templates depending on the presence and position of each RT component. All RT devices were evaluated in phantom experiments with regards to MR and PET imaging compatibility, attenuation correction, PET quantification, and position accuracy. The entire RT setup was then evaluated in a first PET/MR patient study on five patients at different body regions. All tested devices are PET/MR compatible and do not produce visible artifacts or disturb image quality. The RT components showed a repositioning accuracy of better than 2 mm. Photon attenuation of  -11.8% in the top part of the phantom was observable, which was reduced to  -1.7% with AC using the μ-map generator. Active lesions of 3 subjects were evaluated in terms of SUVmean and an underestimation of  -10.0% and  -2.4% was calculated without and with AC of the RF body bridges, respectively. The new dedicated RT equipment for hybrid PET/MR imaging enables acquisitions in all body regions. It is compatible with PET/MR imaging and all hardware components can be corrected in hardware AC by using the suggested μ-map generator. These developments provide the technical and methodological basis for integration of PET/MR hybrid imaging into RT planning.

  2. (68)Ga-Pentixafor-PET/CT for Imaging of Chemokine Receptor 4 Expression in Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Lapa, Constantin; Lückerath, Katharina; Kleinlein, Irene; Monoranu, Camelia Maria; Linsenmann, Thomas; Kessler, Almuth F; Rudelius, Martina; Kropf, Saskia; Buck, Andreas K; Ernestus, Ralf-Ingo; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Löhr, Mario; Herrmann, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) has been reported to be overexpressed in glioblastoma (GBM) and to be associated with poor survival. This study investigated the feasibility of non-invasive CXCR4-directed imaging with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using the radiolabelled chemokine receptor ligand (68)Ga-Pentixafor. 15 patients with clinical suspicion on primary or recurrent glioblastoma (13 primary, 2 recurrent tumors) underwent (68)Ga-Pentixafor-PET/CT for assessment of CXCR4 expression prior to surgery. O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) PET/CT images were available in 11/15 cases and were compared visually and semi-quantitatively (SUVmax, SUVmean). Tumor-to-background ratios (TBR) were calculated for both PET probes. (68)Ga-Pentixafor-PET/CT results were also compared to histological CXCR4 expression on neuronavigated surgical samples. (68)Ga-Pentixafor-PET/CT was visually positive in 13/15 cases with SUVmean and SUVmax of 3.0±1.5 and 3.9±2.0 respectively. Respective values for (18)F-FET were 4.4±2.0 (SUVmean) and 5.3±2.3 (SUVmax). TBR for SUVmean and SUVmax were higher for (68)Ga-Pentixafor than for (18)F-FET (SUVmean 154.0±90.7 vs. 4.1±1.3; SUVmax 70.3±44.0 and 3.8±1.2, p<0.01), respectively. Histological analysis confirmed CXCR4 expression in tumor areas with high (68)Ga-Pentixafor uptake; regions of the same tumor without apparent (68)Ga-Pentixafor uptake showed no or low receptor expression. In this pilot study, (68)Ga-Pentixafor retention has been observed in the vast majority of glioblastoma lesions and served as readout for non-invasive determination of CXCR4 expression. Given the paramount importance of the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis in tumor biology, (68)Ga-Pentixafor-PET/CT might prove a useful tool for sensitive, non-invasive in-vivo quantification of CXCR4 as well as selection of patients who might benefit from CXCR4-directed therapy.

  3. VPAC1 targeted 64Cu-TP3805 PET imaging of prostate cancer: preliminary evaluation in man

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Sushil; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Gomella, Leonard; Kim, Sung; McCue, Peter; Intenzo, Charles; Birbe, Ruth; Gandhe, Ashish; Kumar, Pardeep; Thakur, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate 64Cu-TP3805 as a novel biomolecule, to PET image prostate cancer (PC), at the onset of which VPAC1, the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors, is expressed in high density on PC cells, but not on normal cells. Methods 25 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were PET/CT imaged preoperatively with 64Cu-TP3805. Standardized uptake values (SUVmax) were determined, malignant lesions (SUV > 1.0) counted, and compared with histologic findings. Whole mount pathology slides from 6 VPAC1 PET imaged patients, 3 BPH patients, one malignant and one benign lymph node underwent digital autoradiography (DAR) after 64Cu-TP3805 incubation and compared to H&E stained slides. Results In 25 patient PET imaging, 212 prostate gland lesions had SUVmax > 1.0 vs.127 lesions identified by histology of biopsy tissues. The status of the additional 85 PET identified prostate lesions remains to be determined. In 68 histological slides from 6 PET imaged patients, DAR identified 105/107 PC foci, 19/19 HGPIN, and ejaculatory ducts and verumontanum involved with cancer. Additionally, DAR found 9 PC lesions not previously identified histologically. The positive and negative lymph nodes were correctly identified and in 3/3 BPH patients and 5/5 cysts, DAR was negative. Conclusion This feasibility study demonstrated that 64Cu-TP3805 delineates PC in vivo and ex vivo, provided normal images for benign masses, and is worthy of further studies. PMID:26519886

  4. PET imaging of cerebral perfusion and oxygen consumption in acute ischemic stroke: Relation to outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Marchal, G.; Serrati, C.; Rioux, P.; Petit-Taboue, M.C.; Viader, F.; Sayette, V. de la; Doze, F. le; Lonchon, P; Derlon, J.M.; Orgogozo, J.M.; Baron, J.C.

    1993-04-10

    The authors used positron emission tomography (PET) to assess the relation between combined imaging of cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption 5-18 h after first middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke and neurological outcome at 2 months. All 18 patients could be classified into three visually defined PET patterns of perfusion and oxygen consumption changes. Pattern 1 suggested extensive irreversible damage and was consistently associated with poor outcome. Pattern 2 suggested continuing ischemia and was associated with variable outcome. Pattern 3 with hyperperfusion and little or no metabolic alteration, was associated with excellent recovery, which suggests that early reperfusion is beneficial. This relation between PET and outcome was highly significant. The results suggest that within 5-18 h of stroke onset, PET is a good predictor of outcome in patterns 1 and 3, for which therapy seems limited. The absence of predictive value for pattern 2 suggests that it is due to a reversible ischemic state that is possibly amenable to therapy. These findings may have important implications for acute MCA stroke management and for patients' selection for therapeutic trials.

  5. (18)F Fluorocholine PET/MR Imaging in Patients with Primary Hyperparathyroidism and Inconclusive Conventional Imaging: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kluijfhout, Wouter P; Pasternak, Jesse D; Gosnell, Jessica E; Shen, Wen T; Duh, Quan-Yang; Vriens, Menno R; de Keizer, Bart; Hope, Thomas A; Glastonbury, Christine M; Pampaloni, Miguel H; Suh, Insoo

    2017-01-25

    Purpose To investigate the performance of flourine 18 ((18)F) fluorocholine (FCH) positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with hyperparathyroidism and nonlocalized disease who have negative or inconclusive results at ultrasonography (US) and technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) sestamibi scintigraphy. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board. Between May and December 2015, 10 patients (mean age, 70.4 years; range, 58-82 years) with biochemical primary hyperparathyroidism and inconclusive results at US and (99m)Tc sestamibi scintigraphy were prospectively enrolled. All patients gave informed consent. Directly after administration of 3 MBq/kg of FCH, PET imaging was performed, followed by T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging before and after gadolinium enhancement. Intraoperative localization and histologic results were the reference standard for calculating sensitivity and positive predictive value. The Wilcoxon rank test was used to calculate the mean difference in maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) between abnormal parathyroid uptake and physiologic thyroid uptake. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was performed. Results MR imaging alone showed true-positive lesions in five patients and a false-positive lesion in one patient. FCH PET/MR imaging allowed correct localization of nine of 10 adenomas (90% sensitivity), without any false-positive results (100% positive predictive value). One patient had four-gland hyperplasia, of which three hyperplastic glands were not localized. The median SUVmax of the nine preoperatively identified adenomas was 4.9 (interquartile range, 2.45-7.35), which was significantly higher than the SUV, 2.7 (interquartile range, 1.6-3.8), of the thyroid (P = .008). Conclusion FCH PET/MR imaging allowed localization of adenomas with high accuracy when conventional imaging results were inconclusive and provided detailed anatomic information. More patients must be examined to confirm

  6. Improving lesion detectability in PET imaging with a penalized likelihood reconstruction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wangerin, Kristen A.; Ahn, Sangtae; Ross, Steven G.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Manjeshwar, Ravindra M.

    2015-03-01

    Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM) is currently the most widely used image reconstruction algorithm for clinical PET. However, OSEM does not necessarily provide optimal image quality, and a number of alternative algorithms have been explored. We have recently shown that a penalized likelihood image reconstruction algorithm using the relative difference penalty, block sequential regularized expectation maximization (BSREM), achieves more accurate lesion quantitation than OSEM, and importantly, maintains acceptable visual image quality in clinical wholebody PET. The goal of this work was to evaluate lesion detectability with BSREM versus OSEM. We performed a twoalternative forced choice study using 81 patient datasets with lesions of varying contrast inserted into the liver and lung. At matched imaging noise, BSREM and OSEM showed equivalent detectability in the lungs, and BSREM outperformed OSEM in the liver. These results suggest that BSREM provides not only improved quantitation and clinically acceptable visual image quality as previously shown but also improved lesion detectability compared to OSEM. We then modeled this detectability study, applying both nonprewhitening (NPW) and channelized Hotelling (CHO) model observers to the reconstructed images. The CHO model observer showed good agreement with the human observers, suggesting that we can apply this model to future studies with varying simulation and reconstruction parameters.

  7. Is STAPLE algorithm confident to assess segmentation methods in PET imaging?

    PubMed

    Dewalle-Vignion, Anne-Sophie; Betrouni, Nacim; Baillet, Clio; Vermandel, Maximilien

    2015-12-21

    Accurate tumor segmentation in [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is crucial for tumor response assessment and target volume definition in radiation therapy. Evaluation of segmentation methods from clinical data without ground truth is usually based on physicians' manual delineations. In this context, the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm could be useful to manage the multi-observers variability. In this paper, we evaluated how this algorithm could accurately estimate the ground truth in PET imaging. Complete evaluation study using different criteria was performed on simulated data. The STAPLE algorithm was applied to manual and automatic segmentation results. A specific configuration of the implementation provided by the Computational Radiology Laboratory was used. Consensus obtained by the STAPLE algorithm from manual delineations appeared to be more accurate than manual delineations themselves (80% of overlap). An improvement of the accuracy was also observed when applying the STAPLE algorithm to automatic segmentations results. The STAPLE algorithm, with the configuration used in this paper, is more appropriate than manual delineations alone or automatic segmentations results alone to estimate the ground truth in PET imaging. Therefore, it might be preferred to assess the accuracy of tumor segmentation methods in PET imaging.

  8. 89Zr-Labeled Paramagnetic Octreotide-Liposomes for PET-MR Imaging of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abou, Diane S.; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Ramos, Nicholas N.; Pinkse, Martijn W. H.; Wolterbeek, Hubert T.; Carlin, Sean D.; Beattie, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Dual-modality PET/MR platforms add a new dimension to patient diagnosis with high resolution, functional, and anatomical imaging. The full potential of this emerging hybrid modality could be realized by using a corresponding dual-modality probe. Here, we report pegylated liposome (LP) formulations, housing a MR T1 contrast agent (Gd) and the positron-emitting 89Zr (half-life: 3.27 days), for simultaneous PET and MR tumor imaging capabilities. Methods 89Zr oxophilicity was unexpectedly found advantageous for direct radiolabeling of preformed paramagnetic LPs. LPs were conjugated with octreotide to selectively target neuroendocrine tumors via human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTr2). 89Zr-Gd-LPs and octreotide-conjugated homolog were physically, chemically and biologically characterized. Results 89Zr-LPs showed reasonable stability over serum proteins and chelator challenges for proof-of-concept in vitro and in vivo investigations. Nuclear and paramagnetic tracking quantified superior SSTr2-recognition of octreotide-LP compared to controls. Conclusions This study demonstrated SSTr2-targeting specificity along with direct chelator-free 89Zr-labeling of LPs and dual PET/MR imaging properties. PMID:23224977

  9. Molecular PET imaging for biology-guided adaptive radiotherapy of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoeben, Bianca A W; Bussink, Johan; Troost, Esther G C; Oyen, Wim J G; Kaanders, Johannes H A M

    2013-10-01

    Integration of molecular imaging PET techniques into therapy selection strategies and radiation treatment planning for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) can serve several purposes. First, pre-treatment assessments can steer decisions about radiotherapy modifications or combinations with other modalities. Second, biology-based objective functions can be introduced to the radiation treatment planning process by co-registration of molecular imaging with planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Thus, customized heterogeneous dose distributions can be generated with escalated doses to tumor areas where radiotherapy resistance mechanisms are most prevalent. Third, monitoring of temporal and spatial variations in these radiotherapy resistance mechanisms early during the course of treatment can discriminate responders from non-responders. With such information available shortly after the start of treatment, modifications can be implemented or the radiation treatment plan can be adapted tailing the biological response pattern. Currently, these strategies are in various phases of clinical testing, mostly in single-center studies. Further validation in multicenter set-up is needed. Ultimately, this should result in availability for routine clinical practice requiring stable production and accessibility of tracers, reproducibility and standardization of imaging and analysis methods, as well as general availability of knowledge and expertise. Small studies employing adaptive radiotherapy based on functional dynamics and early response mechanisms demonstrate promising results. In this context, we focus this review on the widely used PET tracer (18)F-FDG and PET tracers depicting hypoxia and proliferation; two well-known radiation resistance mechanisms.

  10. Is STAPLE algorithm confident to assess segmentation methods in PET imaging?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewalle-Vignion, Anne-Sophie; Betrouni, Nacim; Baillet, Clio; Vermandel, Maximilien

    2015-12-01

    Accurate tumor segmentation in [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is crucial for tumor response assessment and target volume definition in radiation therapy. Evaluation of segmentation methods from clinical data without ground truth is usually based on physicians’ manual delineations. In this context, the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm could be useful to manage the multi-observers variability. In this paper, we evaluated how this algorithm could accurately estimate the ground truth in PET imaging. Complete evaluation study using different criteria was performed on simulated data. The STAPLE algorithm was applied to manual and automatic segmentation results. A specific configuration of the implementation provided by the Computational Radiology Laboratory was used. Consensus obtained by the STAPLE algorithm from manual delineations appeared to be more accurate than manual delineations themselves (80% of overlap). An improvement of the accuracy was also observed when applying the STAPLE algorithm to automatic segmentations results. The STAPLE algorithm, with the configuration used in this paper, is more appropriate than manual delineations alone or automatic segmentations results alone to estimate the ground truth in PET imaging. Therefore, it might be preferred to assess the accuracy of tumor segmentation methods in PET imaging.

  11. Enhancing ejection fraction measurement through 4D respiratory motion compensation in cardiac PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Wang, Xinhui; Gao, Xiangzhen; Segars, Paul; Lodge, Martin; Rahmim, Arman

    2017-03-02

    ECG gated cardiac PET imaging measures functional parameters such as left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (EF), providing diagnostic and prognostic information for management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Respiratory motion degrades spatial resolution and affects the accuracy in measuring the LV volumes for EF calculation. The goal of this study is to systematically investigate the effect of respiratory motion correction on the estimation of end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), and EF, especially on the separation of normal and abnormal EFs. We developed a respiratory motion incorporated 4D PET image reconstruction technique which uses all gated-frame data to acquire a motion-suppressed image. Using the standard XCAT phantom and two individual-specific volunteer XCAT phantoms, we simulated dual-gated myocardial perfusion imaging data for normally and abnormally beating hearts. With and without respiratory motion correction, we measured the EDV, ESV, and EF from the cardiac gated reconstructed images. For all the phantoms, the estimated volumes increased and the biases significantly reduced with motion correction compared with those without. Furthermore, the improvement of ESV measurement in the abnormally beating heart led to better separation of normal and abnormal EFs. The simulation study demonstrated the significant effect of respiratory motion correction on cardiac imaging data with motion amplitude as small as 0.7 cm. The larger the motion amplitude the more improvement respiratory motion correction brought about on the measurement of EF. Using data-driven respiratory gating, we also demonstrated the effect of respiratory motion correction on estimation of the above functional parameters from list mode patient data. Respiratory motion correction is shown to improve the accuracy of EF measurement in clinical cardiac PET imaging.

  12. Using 3-D OFEM for movement correction and quantitative evaluation in dynamic cardiac NH3 PET images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hong-Dun; Yang, Bang-Hung; Chen, Chih-Hao; Wu, Liang-Chih; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Chung, Being-Tau; Lin, Kang-Ping

    2005-04-01

    Various forms of cardiac pathology, such as myocardial ischemia and infarction, can be characterized with 13NH3-PET images. In clinical situation, polar map (bullseye image), which derived by combining images from multiple planes (designated by the circle around the myocardium in the above images), so that information of the entire myocardium can be displayed in a single image for diagnosis. However, image artifact problem always arises from body movement or breathing motion in image acquisition period and results in indefinite myocardium disorder region shown in bullseye image. In this study, a 3-D motion and movement correction method is developed to solve the image artifact problem to improve the accuracy of diagnostic bullseye image. The proposed method is based on 3-D optical flow estimation method (OFEM) and cooperates with the particular dynamic imaging protocol, which snaps serial PET images (5 frames) in later half imaging period. The 3-D OFEM assigns to each image point in the visual 3-D flow velocity field, which associates with the non-rigid motion of the time-varying brightness of a sequence of images. It presents vectors of corresponding images position between frames for motion correction. To validate the performance of proposed method, 10 normal and 20 abnormal whole-body dynamic PET imaging studies were applied, and the results show that the bullseye images, which generated by corrected images, present clear and definite tissue region for clinical diagnosis.

  13. [18F]CFA as a clinically translatable probe for PET imaging of deoxycytidine kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woosuk; Le, Thuc M.; Wei, Liu; Poddar, Soumya; Bazzy, Jimmy; Wang, Xuemeng; Uong, Nhu T.; Abt, Evan R.; Capri, Joseph R.; Austin, Wayne R.; Van Valkenburgh, Juno S.; Steele, Dalton; Gipson, Raymond M.; Slavik, Roger; Cabebe, Anthony E.; Taechariyakul, Thotsophon; Yaghoubi, Shahriar S.; Lee, Jason T.; Sadeghi, Saman; Lavie, Arnon; Faull, Kym F.; Witte, Owen N.; Donahue, Timothy R.; Phelps, Michael E.; Herschman, Harvey R.; Herrmann, Ken; Czernin, Johannes; Radu, Caius G.

    2016-01-01

    Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), a rate-limiting enzyme in the cytosolic deoxyribonucleoside (dN) salvage pathway, is an important therapeutic and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging target in cancer. PET probes for dCK have been developed and are effective in mice but have suboptimal specificity and sensitivity in humans. To identify a more suitable probe for clinical dCK PET imaging, we compared the selectivity of two candidate compounds—[18F]Clofarabine; 2-chloro-2′-deoxy-2′-[18F]fluoro-9-β-d-arabinofuranosyl-adenine ([18F]CFA) and 2′-deoxy-2′-[18F]fluoro-9-β-d-arabinofuranosyl-guanine ([18F]F-AraG)—for dCK and deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK), a dCK-related mitochondrial enzyme. We demonstrate that, in the tracer concentration range used for PET imaging, [18F]CFA is primarily a substrate for dCK, with minimal cross-reactivity. In contrast, [18F]F-AraG is a better substrate for dGK than for dCK. [18F]CFA accumulation in leukemia cells correlated with dCK expression and was abrogated by treatment with a dCK inhibitor. Although [18F]CFA uptake was reduced by deoxycytidine (dC) competition, this inhibition required high dC concentrations present in murine, but not human, plasma. Expression of cytidine deaminase, a dC-catabolizing enzyme, in leukemia cells both in cell culture and in mice reduced the competition between dC and [18F]CFA, leading to increased dCK-dependent probe accumulation. First-in-human, to our knowledge, [18F]CFA PET/CT studies showed probe accumulation in tissues with high dCK expression: e.g., hematopoietic bone marrow and secondary lymphoid organs. The selectivity of [18F]CFA for dCK and its favorable biodistribution in humans justify further studies to validate [18F]CFA PET as a new cancer biomarker for treatment stratification and monitoring. PMID:27035974

  14. [18F]CFA as a clinically translatable probe for PET imaging of deoxycytidine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woosuk; Le, Thuc M; Wei, Liu; Poddar, Soumya; Bazzy, Jimmy; Wang, Xuemeng; Uong, Nhu T; Abt, Evan R; Capri, Joseph R; Austin, Wayne R; Van Valkenburgh, Juno S; Steele, Dalton; Gipson, Raymond M; Slavik, Roger; Cabebe, Anthony E; Taechariyakul, Thotsophon; Yaghoubi, Shahriar S; Lee, Jason T; Sadeghi, Saman; Lavie, Arnon; Faull, Kym F; Witte, Owen N; Donahue, Timothy R; Phelps, Michael E; Herschman, Harvey R; Herrmann, Ken; Czernin, Johannes; Radu, Caius G

    2016-04-12

    Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), a rate-limiting enzyme in the cytosolic deoxyribonucleoside (dN) salvage pathway, is an important therapeutic and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging target in cancer. PET probes for dCK have been developed and are effective in mice but have suboptimal specificity and sensitivity in humans. To identify a more suitable probe for clinical dCK PET imaging, we compared the selectivity of two candidate compounds-[(18)F]Clofarabine; 2-chloro-2'-deoxy-2'-[(18)F]fluoro-9-β-d-arabinofuranosyl-adenine ([(18)F]CFA) and 2'-deoxy-2'-[(18)F]fluoro-9-β-d-arabinofuranosyl-guanine ([(18)F]F-AraG)-for dCK and deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK), a dCK-related mitochondrial enzyme. We demonstrate that, in the tracer concentration range used for PET imaging, [(18)F]CFA is primarily a substrate for dCK, with minimal cross-reactivity. In contrast, [(18)F]F-AraG is a better substrate for dGK than for dCK. [(18)F]CFA accumulation in leukemia cells correlated with dCK expression and was abrogated by treatment with a dCK inhibitor. Although [(18)F]CFA uptake was reduced by deoxycytidine (dC) competition, this inhibition required high dC concentrations present in murine, but not human, plasma. Expression of cytidine deaminase, a dC-catabolizing enzyme, in leukemia cells both in cell culture and in mice reduced the competition between dC and [(18)F]CFA, leading to increased dCK-dependent probe accumulation. First-in-human, to our knowledge, [(18)F]CFA PET/CT studies showed probe accumulation in tissues with high dCK expression: e.g., hematopoietic bone marrow and secondary lymphoid organs. The selectivity of [(18)F]CFA for dCK and its favorable biodistribution in humans justify further studies to validate [(18)F]CFA PET as a new cancer biomarker for treatment stratification and monitoring.

  15. Qualification of NCI-Designated Cancer Centers for Quantitative PET/CT Imaging in Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Scheuermann, Joshua S; Reddin, Janet S; Opanowski, Adam; Kinahan, Paul E; Siegel, Barry A; Shankar, Lalitha K; Karp, Joel S

    2017-03-02

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed the Centers for Quantitative Imaging Excellence (CQIE) initiative in 2010 to pre-qualify imaging facilities at all of the NCI-designated Comprehensive and Clinical Cancer Centers for oncology trials using advanced imaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET). This paper reviews the CQIE PET/CT (Computed Tomography) scanner qualification process and results in detail. Methods: Over a period of approximately 5 years, sites were requested to submit a variety of phantom, including uniform and ACR (American College of Radiology) phantoms, PET/CT images, as well as examples of clinical images. Submissions were divided into 3 distinct time points: initial submission (T0), followed by two requalification submissions (T1 and T2). Images were analyzed using standardized procedures and scanners received a pass or fail designation. Sites had the opportunity to submit new data for failed scanners. Quantitative results were compared: across scanners within a given time point and across time points for a given scanner. Results: 65 unique PET/CT scanners across 42 sites were submitted for CQIE T0 qualification, with 64 passing qualification. 44 (68%) of the scanners from T0 had data submitted for T2. From T0 to T2 the percentage of scanners passing the CQIE qualification on the first attempt rose from 38% in T1 to 67% in T2. The most common reasons for failure were: standardized uptake value (SUV) out of specifications, incomplete data submission and uniformity issues. Uniform phantom and ACR phantom results between scanner manufacturers are similar. Conclusion: The results of the CQIE process show that periodic requalification may decrease the frequency of deficient data submissions. The CQIE project also highlighted the concern within imaging facilities about the burden of maintaining different qualifications and accreditations. Finally, we note that for quantitative imaging-based trials the relationships between

  16. PET/CT (and CT) instrumentation, image reconstruction and data transfer for radiotherapy planning.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Bernhard; Lee, John A; Lonsdale, Markus; Coche, Emmanuel

    2010-09-01

    The positron emission tomography in combination with CT in hybrid, cross-modality imaging systems (PET/CT) gains more and more importance as a part of the treatment-planning procedure in radiotherapy. Positron emission tomography (PET), as a integral part of nuclear medicine imaging and non-invasive imaging technique, offers the visualization and quantification of pre-selected tracer metabolism. In combination with the structural information from CT, this molecular imaging technique has great potential to support and improve the outcome of the treatment-planning procedure prior to radiotherapy. By the choice of the PET-Tracer, a variety of different metabolic processes can be visualized. First and foremost, this is the glucose metabolism of a tissue as well as for instance hypoxia or cell proliferation. This paper comprises the system characteristics of hybrid PET/CT systems. Acquisition and processing protocols are described in general and modifications to cope with the special needs in radiooncology. This starts with the different position of the patient on a special table top, continues with the use of the same fixation material as used for positioning of the patient in radiooncology while simulation and irradiation and leads to special processing protocols that include the delineation of the volumes that are subject to treatment planning and irradiation (PTV, GTV, CTV, etc.). General CT acquisition and processing parameters as well as the use of contrast enhancement of the CT are described. The possible risks and pitfalls the investigator could face during the hybrid-imaging procedure are explained and listed. The interdisciplinary use of different imaging modalities implies a increase of the volume of data created. These data need to be stored and communicated fast, safe and correct. Therefore, the DICOM-Standard provides objects and classes for this purpose (DICOM RT). Furthermore, the standard DICOM objects and classes for nuclear medicine (NM, PT) and

  17. In vivo verification of proton beam path by using post-treatment PET/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hsi, Wen C.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Vargas, Carlos; Duvvuri, Srividya; Li Zuofeng; Palta, Jatinder

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to establish the in vivo verification of proton beam path by using proton-activated positron emission distributions. Methods: A total of 50 PET/CT imaging studies were performed on ten prostate cancer patients immediately after daily proton therapy treatment through a single lateral portal. The PET/CT and planning CT were registered by matching the pelvic bones, and the beam path of delivered protons was defined in vivo by the positron emission distribution seen only within the pelvic bones, referred to as the PET-defined beam path. Because of the patient position correction at each fraction, the marker-defined beam path, determined by the centroid of implanted markers seen in the post-treatment (post-Tx) CT, is used for the planned beam path. The angular variation and discordance between the PET- and marker-defined paths were derived to investigate the intrafraction prostate motion. For studies with large discordance, the relative location between the centroid and pelvic bones seen in the post-Tx CT was examined. The PET/CT studies are categorized for distinguishing the prostate motion that occurred before or after beam delivery. The post-PET CT was acquired after PET imaging to investigate prostate motion due to physiological changes during the extended PET acquisition. Results: The less than 2 deg. of angular variation indicates that the patient roll was minimal within the immobilization device. Thirty of the 50 studies with small discordance, referred as good cases, show a consistent alignment between the field edges and the positron emission distributions from the entrance to the distal edge. For those good cases, average displacements are 0.6 and 1.3 mm along the anterior-posterior (D{sub AP}) and superior-inferior (D{sub SI}) directions, respectively, with 1.6 mm standard deviations in both directions. For the remaining 20 studies demonstrating a large discordance (more than 6 mm in either D{sub AP} or D{sub SI}), 13

  18. Diagnostic Imaging of Dental Disease in Pet Rabbits and Rodents.

    PubMed

    Capello, Vittorio

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic imaging techniques are of paramount importance for dentistry and oral disorders of rabbits, rodents, and other exotic companion mammals. Aside from standard radiography, stomatoscopy is a complementary tool allowing a thorough and detailed inspection of the oral cavity. Computed tomography (CT) generates multiple 2-dimensional views and 3-dimensional reconstructions providing superior diagnostic accuracy also useful for prognosis and treatment of advanced dental disease and its related complications. MRI is a diagnostic imaging technique additional to CT used primarily to enhance soft tissues, including complex odontogenic abscesses.

  19. Lymph node detection in IASLC-defined zones on PET/CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yihua; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.

    2016-03-01

    Lymph node detection is challenging due to the low contrast between lymph nodes as well as surrounding soft tissues and the variation in nodal size and shape. In this paper, we propose several novel ideas which are combined into a system to operate on positron emission tomography/ computed tomography (PET/CT) images to detect abnormal thoracic nodes. First, our previous Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) approach is modified where lymph node zones predominantly following International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) specifications are modeled as objects arranged in a hierarchy along with key anatomic anchor objects. This fuzzy anatomy model built from diagnostic CT images is then deployed on PET/CT images for automatically recognizing the zones. A novel globular filter (g-filter) to detect blob-like objects over a specified range of sizes is designed to detect the most likely locations and sizes of diseased nodes. Abnormal nodes within each automatically localized zone are subsequently detected via combined use of different items of information at various scales: lymph node zone model poses found at recognition indicating the geographic layout at the global level of node clusters, g-filter response which hones in on and carefully selects node-like globular objects at the node level, and CT and PET gray value but within only the most plausible nodal regions for node presence at the voxel level. The models are built from 25 diagnostic CT scans and refined for an object hierarchy based on a separate set of 20 diagnostic CT scans. Node detection is tested on an additional set of 20 PET/CT scans. Our preliminary results indicate node detection sensitivity and specificity at around 90% and 85%, respectively.

  20. Markerless attenuation correction for carotid MRI surface receiver coils in combined PET/MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldib, Mootaz; Bini, Jason; Robson, Philip M.; Calcagno, Claudia; Faul, David D.; Tsoumpas, Charalampos; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of attenuation of MR coils on quantitative carotid PET/MR exams. Additionally, an automated attenuation correction method for flexible carotid MR coils was developed and evaluated. The attenuation of the carotid coil was measured by imaging a uniform water phantom injected with 37 MBq of 18F-FDG in a combined PET/MR scanner for 24 min with and without the coil. In the same session, an ultra-short echo time (UTE) image of the coil on top of the phantom was acquired. Using a combination of rigid and non-rigid registration, a CT-based attenuation map was registered to the UTE image of the coil for attenuation and scatter correction. After phantom validation, the effect of the carotid coil attenuation and the attenuation correction method were evaluated in five subjects. Phantom studies indicated that the overall loss of PET counts due to the coil was 6.3% with local region-of-interest (ROI) errors reaching up to 18.8%. Our registration method to correct for attenuation from the coil decreased the global error and local error (ROI) to 0.8% and 3.8%, respectively. The proposed registration method accurately captured the location and shape of the coil with a maximum spatial error of 2.6 mm. Quantitative analysis in human studies correlated with the phantom findings, but was dependent on the size of the ROI used in the analysis. MR coils result in significant error in PET quantification and thus attenuation correction is needed. The proposed strategy provides an operator-free method for attenuation and scatter correction for a flexible MRI carotid surface coil for routine clinical use.