Science.gov

Sample records for 18s rrna processing

  1. 18S rRNA processing requires base pairings of snR30 H/ACA snoRNA to eukaryote-specific 18S sequences.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Lebaron, Eléonore; Atzorn, Vera; Henry, Yves; Kiss, Tamás

    2009-05-06

    The H/ACA RNAs represent an abundant, evolutionarily conserved and functionally diverse class of non-coding RNAs. Many H/ACA RNAs direct pseudouridylation of rRNAs and snRNAs, while members of the rapidly growing group of 'orphan' H/ACA RNAs participate in pre-rRNA processing, telomere synthesis and probably, in other nuclear processes. The yeast snR30 'orphan' H/ACA snoRNA has long been known to function in the nucleolytic processing of 18S rRNA, but its molecular role remained unknown. Here, we provide biochemical and genetic evidence demonstrating that during pre-rRNA processing, two evolutionarily conserved sequence elements in the 3'-hairpin of snR30 base-pair with short pre-rRNA sequences located in the eukaryote-specific internal region of 18S rRNA. The newly discovered snR30-18S base-pairing interactions are essential for 18S rRNA production and they constitute a complex snoRNA target RNA transient structure that is novel to H/ACA RNAs. We also demonstrate that besides the 18S recognition motifs, the distal part of the 3'-hairpin of snR30 contains an additional snoRNA element that is essential for 18S rRNA processing and that functions most likely as a snoRNP protein-binding site.

  2. Analysis of rRNA processing and translation in mammalian cells using a synthetic 18S rRNA expression system.

    PubMed

    Burman, Luke G; Mauro, Vincent P

    2012-09-01

    Analysis of processing, assembly, and function of higher eukaryotic ribosomal RNA (rRNA) has been hindered by the lack of an expression system that enables rRNA to be modified and then examined functionally. Given the potential usefulness of such a system, we have developed one for mammalian 18S rRNA. We inserted a sequence tag into expansion segment 3 of mouse 18S rRNA to monitor expression and cleavage by hybridization. Mutations were identified that confer resistance to pactamycin, allowing functional analysis of 40S ribosomal subunits containing synthetic 18S rRNAs by selectively blocking translation from endogenous (pactamycin-sensitive) subunits. rRNA constructs were suitably expressed in transfected cells, shown to process correctly, incorporate into ≈ 15% of 40S subunits, and function normally based on various criteria. After rigorous analysis, the system was used to investigate the importance of sequences that flank 18S rRNA in precursor transcripts. Although deletion analysis supported the requirement of binding sites for the U3 snoRNA, it showed that a large segment of the 5' external transcribed spacer and the entire first internal transcribed spacer, both of which flank 18S rRNA, are not required. The success of this approach opens the possibility of functional analyses of ribosomes, with applications in basic research and synthetic biology.

  3. Analysis of rRNA processing and translation in mammalian cells using a synthetic 18S rRNA expression system

    PubMed Central

    Burman, Luke G.; Mauro, Vincent P.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of processing, assembly, and function of higher eukaryotic ribosomal RNA (rRNA) has been hindered by the lack of an expression system that enables rRNA to be modified and then examined functionally. Given the potential usefulness of such a system, we have developed one for mammalian 18S rRNA. We inserted a sequence tag into expansion segment 3 of mouse 18S rRNA to monitor expression and cleavage by hybridization. Mutations were identified that confer resistance to pactamycin, allowing functional analysis of 40S ribosomal subunits containing synthetic 18S rRNAs by selectively blocking translation from endogenous (pactamycin-sensitive) subunits. rRNA constructs were suitably expressed in transfected cells, shown to process correctly, incorporate into ≈15% of 40S subunits, and function normally based on various criteria. After rigorous analysis, the system was used to investigate the importance of sequences that flank 18S rRNA in precursor transcripts. Although deletion analysis supported the requirement of binding sites for the U3 snoRNA, it showed that a large segment of the 5′ external transcribed spacer and the entire first internal transcribed spacer, both of which flank 18S rRNA, are not required. The success of this approach opens the possibility of functional analyses of ribosomes, with applications in basic research and synthetic biology. PMID:22718970

  4. The ATPase hCINAP regulates 18S rRNA processing and is essential for embryogenesis and tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Dongmei; Zhang, Jinfang; Li, Tingting; Hang, Runlai; Liu, Yong; Tian, Yonglu; Huang, Dadu; Qu, Linglong; Cao, Xiaofeng; Ji, Jiafu; Zheng, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunctions in ribosome biogenesis cause developmental defects and increased cancer susceptibility; however, the connection between ribosome assembly and tumorigenesis remains unestablished. Here we show that hCINAP (also named AK6) is required for human 18S rRNA processing and 40S subunit assembly. Homozygous CINAP−/− mice show embryonic lethality. The heterozygotes are viable and show defects in 18S rRNA processing, whereas no delayed cell growth is observed. However, during rapid growth, CINAP haploinsufficiency impairs protein synthesis. Consistently, hCINAP depletion in fast-growing cancer cells inhibits ribosome assembly and abolishes tumorigenesis. These data demonstrate that hCINAP reduction is a specific rate-limiting controller during rapid growth. Notably, hCINAP is highly expressed in cancers and correlated with a worse prognosis. Genome-wide polysome profiling shows that hCINAP selectively modulates cancer-associated translatome to promote malignancy. Our results connect the role of hCINAP in ribosome assembly with tumorigenesis. Modulation of hCINAP expression may be a promising target for cancer therapy. PMID:27477389

  5. Molecular diversity of eukaryotes in municipal wastewater treatment processes as revealed by 18S rRNA gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Kengo; Kubota, Kengo; Harada, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic communities involved in sewage treatment processes have been investigated by morphological identification, but have not yet been well-characterized using molecular approaches. In the present study, eukaryotic communities were characterized by constructing 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. The phylogenetic affiliations of a total of 843 clones were Alveolata, Fungi, Rhizaria, Euglenozoa, Stramenopiles, Amoebozoa, and Viridiplantae as protozoans and Rotifera, Gastrotricha, and Nematoda as metazoans. Sixty percent of the clones had <97% sequence identity to described eukaryotes, indicating the greater diversity of eukaryotes than previously recognized. A core OTU closely related to Epistylis chrysemydis was identified, and several OTUs were shared by 4-8 libraries. Members of the uncultured lineage LKM11 in Cryptomycota were predominant fungi in sewage treatment processes. This comparative study represents an initial step in furthering understanding of the diversity and role of eukaryotes in sewage treatment processes.

  6. Molecular Diversity of Eukaryotes in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Processes as Revealed by 18S rRNA Gene Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Kengo; Kubota, Kengo; Harada, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic communities involved in sewage treatment processes have been investigated by morphological identification, but have not yet been well-characterized using molecular approaches. In the present study, eukaryotic communities were characterized by constructing 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. The phylogenetic affiliations of a total of 843 clones were Alveolata, Fungi, Rhizaria, Euglenozoa, Stramenopiles, Amoebozoa, and Viridiplantae as protozoans and Rotifera, Gastrotricha, and Nematoda as metazoans. Sixty percent of the clones had <97% sequence identity to described eukaryotes, indicating the greater diversity of eukaryotes than previously recognized. A core OTU closely related to Epistylis chrysemydis was identified, and several OTUs were shared by 4–8 libraries. Members of the uncultured lineage LKM11 in Cryptomycota were predominant fungi in sewage treatment processes. This comparative study represents an initial step in furthering understanding of the diversity and role of eukaryotes in sewage treatment processes. PMID:25491751

  7. Gradual processing of the ITS1 from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm during synthesis of the human 18S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Preti, Milena; O'Donohue, Marie-Françoise; Montel-Lehry, Nathalie; Bortolin-Cavaillé, Marie-Line; Choesmel, Valérie; Gleizes, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2013-04-01

    Defects in ribosome biogenesis trigger stress response pathways, which perturb cell proliferation and differentiation in several genetic diseases. In Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a congenital erythroblastopenia, mutations in ribosomal protein genes often interfere with the processing of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), the mechanism of which remains elusive in human cells. Using loss-of-function experiments and extensive RNA analysis, we have defined the precise position of the endonucleolytic cleavage E in the ITS1, which generates the 18S-E intermediate, the last precursor to the 18S rRNA. Unexpectedly, this cleavage is followed by 3'-5' exonucleolytic trimming of the 18S-E precursor during nuclear export of the pre-40S particle, which sets a new mechanism for 18S rRNA formation clearly different from that established in yeast. In addition, cleavage at site E is also followed by 5'-3' exonucleolytic trimming of the ITS1 by exonuclease XRN2. Perturbation of this step on knockdown of the large subunit ribosomal protein RPL26, which was recently associated to DBA, reveals the putative role of a highly conserved cis-acting sequence in ITS1 processing. These data cast new light on the original mechanism of ITS1 elimination in human cells and provide a mechanistic framework to further study the interplay of DBA-linked ribosomal proteins in this process.

  8. Gradual processing of the ITS1 from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm during synthesis of the human 18S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Preti, Milena; O'Donohue, Marie-Françoise; Montel-Lehry, Nathalie; Bortolin-Cavaillé, Marie-Line; Choesmel, Valérie; Gleizes, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Defects in ribosome biogenesis trigger stress response pathways, which perturb cell proliferation and differentiation in several genetic diseases. In Diamond–Blackfan anemia (DBA), a congenital erythroblastopenia, mutations in ribosomal protein genes often interfere with the processing of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), the mechanism of which remains elusive in human cells. Using loss-of-function experiments and extensive RNA analysis, we have defined the precise position of the endonucleolytic cleavage E in the ITS1, which generates the 18S-E intermediate, the last precursor to the 18S rRNA. Unexpectedly, this cleavage is followed by 3′–5′ exonucleolytic trimming of the 18S-E precursor during nuclear export of the pre-40S particle, which sets a new mechanism for 18S rRNA formation clearly different from that established in yeast. In addition, cleavage at site E is also followed by 5′–3′ exonucleolytic trimming of the ITS1 by exonuclease XRN2. Perturbation of this step on knockdown of the large subunit ribosomal protein RPL26, which was recently associated to DBA, reveals the putative role of a highly conserved cis-acting sequence in ITS1 processing. These data cast new light on the original mechanism of ITS1 elimination in human cells and provide a mechanistic framework to further study the interplay of DBA-linked ribosomal proteins in this process. PMID:23482395

  9. A Local Role for the Small Ribosomal Subunit Primary Binder rpS5 in Final 18S rRNA Processing in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Neueder, Andreas; Jakob, Steffen; Pöll, Gisela; Linnemann, Jan; Deutzmann, Rainer; Tschochner, Herbert; Milkereit, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    In vivo depletion of the yeast small ribosomal subunit (SSU) protein S5 (rpS5) leads to nuclear degradation of nascent SSUs and to a perturbed global assembly state of the SSU head domain. Here, we report that rpS5 plays an additional local role at the head/platform interface in efficient SSU maturation. We find that yeast small ribosomal subunits which incorporated an rpS5 variant lacking the seven C-terminal amino acids have a largely assembled head domain and are exported to the cytoplasm. On the other hand, 3′ processing of 18S rRNA precursors is inhibited in these ribosomal particles, although they associate with the putative endonuclease Nob1p and other late acting 40S biogenesis factors. We suggest that the SSU head component rpS5 and platform components as rpS14 are crucial constituents of a highly defined spatial arrangement in the head – platform interface of nascent SSUs, which is required for efficient processing of the therein predicted SSU rRNA 3′ end. Positioning of rpS5 in nascent SSUs, including its relative orientation towards platform components in the head-platform cleft, will depend on the general assembly and folding state of the head domain. Therefore, the suggested model can explain 18S precursor rRNA 3′ processing phenotypes observed in many eukaryotic SSU head assembly mutants. PMID:20419091

  10. RRP20, a component of the 90S preribosome, is required for pre-18S rRNA processing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Senapin, Saengchan; Desmond Clark-Walker, G.; Jie Chen, Xin; Séraphin, Bertrand; Daugeron, Marie-Claire

    2003-01-01

    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, defective in small subunit ribosomal RNA processing, has a mutation in YOR145c ORF that converts Gly235 to Asp. Yor145c is a nucleolar protein required for cell viability and has been reported recently to be present in 90S pre-ribosomal particles. The Gly235Asp mutation in YOR145c is found in a KH-type RNA-binding domain and causes a marked deficiency in 18S rRNA production. Detailed studies by northern blotting and primer extension analyses show that the mutant strain impairs the early pre-rRNA processing cleavage essentially at sites A1 and A2, leading to accumulation of a 22S dead-end processing product that is found in only a few rRNA processing mutants. Furthermore, U3, U14, snR10 and snR30 snoRNAs, involved in early pre-rRNA cleavages, are not destabilized by the YOR145c mutation. As the protein encoded by YOR145c is found in pre-ribosomal particles and the mutant strain is defective in ribosomal RNA processing, we have renamed it as RRP20. PMID:12736301

  11. RRP20, a component of the 90S preribosome, is required for pre-18S rRNA processing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Senapin, Saengchan; Clark-Walker, G Desmond; Chen, Xin Jie; Séraphin, Bertrand; Daugeron, Marie-Claire

    2003-05-15

    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, defective in small subunit ribosomal RNA processing, has a mutation in YOR145c ORF that converts Gly235 to Asp. Yor145c is a nucleolar protein required for cell viability and has been reported recently to be present in 90S pre-ribosomal particles. The Gly235Asp mutation in YOR145c is found in a KH-type RNA-binding domain and causes a marked deficiency in 18S rRNA production. Detailed studies by northern blotting and primer extension analyses show that the mutant strain impairs the early pre-rRNA processing cleavage essentially at sites A1 and A2, leading to accumulation of a 22S dead-end processing product that is found in only a few rRNA processing mutants. Furthermore, U3, U14, snR10 and snR30 snoRNAs, involved in early pre-rRNA cleavages, are not destabilized by the YOR145c mutation. As the protein encoded by YOR145c is found in pre-ribosomal particles and the mutant strain is defective in ribosomal RNA processing, we have renamed it as RRP20.

  12. Nop9 is a PUF-like protein that prevents premature cleavage to correctly process pre-18S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; McCann, Kathleen L.; Qiu, Chen; Gonzalez, Lauren E.; Baserga, Susan J.; Hall, Traci M. Tanaka

    2016-01-01

    Numerous factors direct eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis, and defects in a single ribosome assembly factor may be lethal or produce tissue-specific human ribosomopathies. Pre-ribosomal RNAs (pre-rRNAs) must be processed stepwise and at the correct subcellular locations to produce the mature rRNAs. Nop9 is a conserved small ribosomal subunit biogenesis factor, essential in yeast. Here we report a 2.1-Å crystal structure of Nop9 and a small-angle X-ray-scattering model of a Nop9:RNA complex that reveals a ‘C'-shaped fold formed from 11 Pumilio repeats. We show that Nop9 recognizes sequence and structural features of the 20S pre-rRNA near the cleavage site of the nuclease, Nob1. We further demonstrate that Nop9 inhibits Nob1 cleavage, the final processing step to produce mature small ribosomal subunit 18S rRNA. Together, our results suggest that Nop9 is critical for timely cleavage of the 20S pre-rRNA. Moreover, the Nop9 structure exemplifies a new class of Pumilio repeat proteins. PMID:27725644

  13. Structure of a human pre-40S particle points to a role for RACK1 in the final steps of 18S rRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Larburu, Natacha; Montellese, Christian; O'Donohue, Marie-Françoise; Kutay, Ulrike; Gleizes, Pierre-Emmanuel; Plisson-Chastang, Célia

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes is a complex and tightly regulated process that has been mostly characterized in yeast. The discovery of a growing number of diseases linked to defects in ribosome biogenesis calls for a deeper understanding of these mechanisms and of the specificities of human ribosome maturation. We present the 19 Å resolution cryo-EM reconstruction of a cytoplasmic precursor to the human small ribosomal subunit, purified by using the tagged ribosome biogenesis factor LTV1 as bait. Compared to yeast pre-40S particles, this first three-dimensional structure of a human 40S subunit precursor shows noticeable differences with respect to the position of ribosome biogenesis factors and uncovers the early deposition of the ribosomal protein RACK1 during subunit maturation. Consistently, RACK1 is required for efficient processing of the 18S rRNA 3′-end, which might be related to its role in translation initiation. This first structural analysis of a human pre-ribosomal particle sets the grounds for high-resolution studies of conformational transitions accompanying ribosomal subunit maturation. PMID:27530427

  14. Structure of a human pre-40S particle points to a role for RACK1 in the final steps of 18S rRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Larburu, Natacha; Montellese, Christian; O'Donohue, Marie-Françoise; Kutay, Ulrike; Gleizes, Pierre-Emmanuel; Plisson-Chastang, Célia

    2016-09-30

    Synthesis of ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes is a complex and tightly regulated process that has been mostly characterized in yeast. The discovery of a growing number of diseases linked to defects in ribosome biogenesis calls for a deeper understanding of these mechanisms and of the specificities of human ribosome maturation. We present the 19 Å resolution cryo-EM reconstruction of a cytoplasmic precursor to the human small ribosomal subunit, purified by using the tagged ribosome biogenesis factor LTV1 as bait. Compared to yeast pre-40S particles, this first three-dimensional structure of a human 40S subunit precursor shows noticeable differences with respect to the position of ribosome biogenesis factors and uncovers the early deposition of the ribosomal protein RACK1 during subunit maturation. Consistently, RACK1 is required for efficient processing of the 18S rRNA 3'-end, which might be related to its role in translation initiation. This first structural analysis of a human pre-ribosomal particle sets the grounds for high-resolution studies of conformational transitions accompanying ribosomal subunit maturation. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Nop9 is a PUF-like protein that prevents premature cleavage to correctly process pre-18S rRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; McCann, Kathleen L.; Qiu, Chen; Gonzalez, Lauren E.; Baserga, Susan J.; Hall, Traci M. Tanaka

    2016-10-11

    Numerous factors direct eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis, and defects in a single ribosome assembly factor may be lethal or produce tissue-specific human ribosomopathies. Pre-ribosomal RNAs (pre-rRNAs) must be processed stepwise and at the correct subcellular locations to produce the mature rRNAs. Nop9 is a conserved small ribosomal subunit biogenesis factor, essential in yeast. Here we report a 2.1-Å crystal structure of Nop9 and a small-angle X-ray-scattering model of a Nop9:RNA complex that reveals a ‘C’-shaped fold formed from 11 Pumilio repeats. We show that Nop9 recognizes sequence and structural features of the 20S pre-rRNA near the cleavage site of the nuclease, Nob1. We further demonstrate that Nop9 inhibits Nob1 cleavage, the final processing step to produce mature small ribosomal subunit 18S rRNA. Together, our results suggest that Nop9 is critical for timely cleavage of the 20S pre-rRNA. Moreover, the Nop9 structure exemplifies a new class of Pumilio repeat proteins.

  16. An RNA conformational switch regulates pre-18S rRNA cleavage.

    PubMed

    Lamanna, Allison C; Karbstein, Katrin

    2011-01-07

    To produce mature ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), polycistronic rRNA transcripts are cleaved in an ordered series of events. We have uncovered the molecular basis for the ordering of two essential cleavage steps at the 3'-end of 18S rRNA. Using in vitro and in vivo structure probing, RNA binding and cleavage experiments, and yeast genetics, we demonstrate that a conserved RNA sequence in the spacer region between the 18S and 5.8S rRNAs base-pairs with the decoding site of 18S rRNA in early assembly intermediates. Nucleolar cleavage at site A(2) excises this sequence element, leading to a conformational switch in pre-18S rRNA, by which the ribosomal decoding site is formed. This conformational switch positions the nuclease Nob1 for cytoplasmic cleavage at the 3'-end of 18S rRNA and is required for the final maturation step of 18S rRNA in vivo and in vitro. More generally, our data show that the intrinsic ability of RNA to form stable structural switches is exploited to order and regulate RNA-dependent biological processes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An RNA Conformational Switch Regulates Pre-18S rRNA Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Lamanna, Allison C.; Karbstein, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    To produce mature ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), polycistronic rRNA transcripts are cleaved in an ordered series of events. We have uncovered the molecular basis for the ordering of two essential cleavage steps at the 3′-end of 18S rRNA. Using in vitro and in vivo structure probing, RNA binding and cleavage experiments, and yeast genetics, we demonstrate that a conserved RNA sequence in the spacer region between the 18S and 5.8S rRNAs base pairs with the decoding site of 18S rRNA in early assembly intermediates. Nucleolar cleavage at site A2 excises this sequence element, leading to a conformational switch in pre-18S rRNA by which the ribosomal decoding site is formed. This conformational switch positions the nuclease Nob1 for cytoplasmic cleavage at the 3′-end of 18S rRNA and is required for the final maturation step of 18S rRNA in vivo and in vitro. More generally, our data show that the intrinsic ability of RNA to form stable structural switches is exploited to order and regulate RNA-dependent biological processes. PMID:20934433

  18. WBSCR22/Merm1 is required for late nuclear pre-ribosomal RNA processing and mediates N7-methylation of G1639 in human 18S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Haag, Sara; Kretschmer, Jens; Bohnsack, Markus T

    2015-02-01

    Ribosomal (r)RNAs are extensively modified during ribosome synthesis and their modification is required for the fidelity and efficiency of translation. Besides numerous small nucleolar RNA-guided 2'-O methylations and pseudouridinylations, a number of individual RNA methyltransferases are involved in rRNA modification. WBSCR22/Merm1, which is affected in Williams-Beuren syndrome and has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis formation, was recently shown to be involved in ribosome synthesis, but its molecular functions have remained elusive. Here we show that depletion of WBSCR22 leads to nuclear accumulation of 3'-extended 18SE pre-rRNA intermediates resulting in impaired 18S rRNA maturation. We map the 3' ends of the 18SE pre-rRNA intermediates accumulating after depletion of WBSCR22 and in control cells using 3'-RACE and deep sequencing. Furthermore, we demonstrate that WBSCR22 is required for N(7)-methylation of G1639 in human 18S rRNA in vivo. Interestingly, the catalytic activity of WBSCR22 is not required for 18S pre-rRNA processing, suggesting that the key role of WBSCR22 in 40S subunit biogenesis is independent of its function as an RNA methyltransferase. © 2015 Haag et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  19. WBSCR22/Merm1 is required for late nuclear pre-ribosomal RNA processing and mediates N7-methylation of G1639 in human 18S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Sara; Kretschmer, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal (r)RNAs are extensively modified during ribosome synthesis and their modification is required for the fidelity and efficiency of translation. Besides numerous small nucleolar RNA-guided 2′-O methylations and pseudouridinylations, a number of individual RNA methyltransferases are involved in rRNA modification. WBSCR22/Merm1, which is affected in Williams–Beuren syndrome and has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis formation, was recently shown to be involved in ribosome synthesis, but its molecular functions have remained elusive. Here we show that depletion of WBSCR22 leads to nuclear accumulation of 3′-extended 18SE pre-rRNA intermediates resulting in impaired 18S rRNA maturation. We map the 3′ ends of the 18SE pre-rRNA intermediates accumulating after depletion of WBSCR22 and in control cells using 3′-RACE and deep sequencing. Furthermore, we demonstrate that WBSCR22 is required for N7-methylation of G1639 in human 18S rRNA in vivo. Interestingly, the catalytic activity of WBSCR22 is not required for 18S pre-rRNA processing, suggesting that the key role of WBSCR22 in 40S subunit biogenesis is independent of its function as an RNA methyltransferase. PMID:25525153

  20. Mutation of EMG1 causing Bowen–Conradi syndrome results in reduced cell proliferation rates concomitant with G2/M arrest and 18S rRNA processing delay

    PubMed Central

    Armistead, Joy; Hemming, Richard; Patel, Nehal; Triggs-Raine, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Bowen–Conradi syndrome (BCS) is a lethal autosomal recessive disorder caused by a D86G substitution in the protein, Essential for Mitotic Growth 1 (EMG1). EMG1 is essential for 18S rRNA maturation and 40S ribosome biogenesis in yeast, but no studies of its role in ribosome biogenesis have been done in mammals. To assess the effect of the EMG1 mutation on cell growth and ribosomal biogenesis in humans, we employed BCS patient cells. The D86G substitution did not interfere with EMG1 nucleolar localization. In BCS patient lymphoblasts, cells accumulated in G2/M, resulting in reduced proliferation rates; however, patient fibroblasts showed normal proliferation. The rate of 18S rRNA processing was consistently delayed in patient cells, although this did not lead to a difference in the levels of 40S ribosomes, or a change in protein synthesis rates. These results demonstrate that as in yeast, EMG1 in mammals has a role in ribosome biogenesis. The obvious phenotype in lymphoblasts compared to fibroblasts suggests a greater need for EMG1 in rapidly dividing cells. Tissue-specific effects have been seen in other ribosomal biogenesis disorders, and it seems likely that the impact of EMG1 deficiency would be larger in the rapidly proliferating cells of the developing embryo. PMID:26676230

  1. Investigation of molluscan phylogeny on the basis of 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Winnepenninckx, B; Backeljau, T; De Wachter, R

    1996-12-01

    The 18S rRNA sequences of 12 molluscs, representing the extant classes Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Polyplacophora, Scaphopoda, and Caudofoveata, were determined and compared with selected known 18S rRNA sequences of Metazoa, including other Mollusca. These data do not provide support for a close relationship between Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria) and Mollusca, but rather suggest that the latter group belongs to a clade of eutrochozoan coelomates. The 18S rRNA data fail to recover molluscan, bivalve, or gastropod monophyly. However, the branching pattern of the eutrochozoan phyla and classes is unstable, probably due to the explosive Cambrian radiation during which these groups arose. Similarly, the 18S rRNA data do not provide a reliable signal for the molluscan interclass relationships. Nevertheless, we obtained strong preliminary support for phylogenetic inferences at more restricted taxonomic levels, such as the monophyly of Polyplacophora, Caenogastropoda, Euthyneura, Heterodonta, and Arcoida.

  2. Detection of Babesia microti parasites by highly sensitive 18S rRNA reverse transcription PCR.

    PubMed

    Hanron, Amelia E; Billman, Zachary P; Seilie, Annette M; Chang, Ming; Murphy, Sean C

    2017-03-01

    Babesia are increasingly appreciated as a cause of transfusion-transmitted infection. Sensitive methods are needed to screen blood products. We report herein that B. microti 18S rRNA is over 1,000-fold more abundant than its coding genes, making reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) much more sensitive than PCR. Babesia 18S rRNA may be useful for screening the blood supply. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring human 40S ribosomal proteins binding to the 18S rRNA fragment containing major 3'-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Gopanenko, Alexander V; Malygin, Alexey A; Karpova, Galina G

    2015-02-01

    Association of ribosomal proteins with rRNA during assembly of ribosomal subunits is an intricate process, which is strictly regulated in vivo. As for the assembly in vitro, it was reported so far only for prokaryotic subunits. Bacterial ribosomal proteins are capable of selective binding to 16S rRNA as well as to its separate morphological domains. In this work, we explored binding of total protein of human 40S ribosomal subunit to the RNA transcript corresponding to the major 3'-domain of 18S rRNA. We showed that the resulting ribonucleoprotein particles contained almost all of the expected ribosomal proteins, whose binding sites are located in this 18S rRNA domain in the 40S subunit, together with several nonspecific proteins. The binding in solution was accompanied with aggregation of the RNA-protein complexes. Ribosomal proteins bound to the RNA transcript protected from chemical modification mostly those 18S rRNA nucleotides that are known to be involved in binding with the proteins in the 40S subunit and thereby demonstrated their ability to selectively bind to the rRNA in vitro. The possible implication of unstructured extensions of eukaryotic ribosomal proteins in their nonspecific binding with rRNA and in subsequent aggregation of the resulting complexes is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Taxonomic resolutions based on 18S rRNA genes: a case study of subclass copepoda.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu; Xiong, Jie; Yu, Yuhe

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity studies are commonly conducted using 18S rRNA genes. In this study, we compared the inter-species divergence of variable regions (V1-9) within the copepod 18S rRNA gene, and tested their taxonomic resolutions at different taxonomic levels. Our results indicate that the 18S rRNA gene is a good molecular marker for the study of copepod biodiversity, and our conclusions are as follows: 1) 18S rRNA genes are highly conserved intra-species (intra-species similarities are close to 100%); and could aid in species-level analyses, but with some limitations; 2) nearly-whole-length sequences and some partial regions (around V2, V4, and V9) of the 18S rRNA gene can be used to discriminate between samples at both the family and order levels (with a success rate of about 80%); 3) compared with other regions, V9 has a higher resolution at the genus level (with an identification success rate of about 80%); and 4) V7 is most divergent in length, and would be a good candidate marker for the phylogenetic study of Acartia species. This study also evaluated the correlation between similarity thresholds and the accuracy of using nuclear 18S rRNA genes for the classification of organisms in the subclass Copepoda. We suggest that sample identification accuracy should be considered when a molecular sequence divergence threshold is used for taxonomic identification, and that the lowest similarity threshold should be determined based on a pre-designated level of acceptable accuracy.

  5. Taxonomic Resolutions Based on 18S rRNA Genes: A Case Study of Subclass Copepoda

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shu; Xiong, Jie; Yu, Yuhe

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity studies are commonly conducted using 18S rRNA genes. In this study, we compared the inter-species divergence of variable regions (V1–9) within the copepod 18S rRNA gene, and tested their taxonomic resolutions at different taxonomic levels. Our results indicate that the 18S rRNA gene is a good molecular marker for the study of copepod biodiversity, and our conclusions are as follows: 1) 18S rRNA genes are highly conserved intra-species (intra-species similarities are close to 100%); and could aid in species-level analyses, but with some limitations; 2) nearly-whole-length sequences and some partial regions (around V2, V4, and V9) of the 18S rRNA gene can be used to discriminate between samples at both the family and order levels (with a success rate of about 80%); 3) compared with other regions, V9 has a higher resolution at the genus level (with an identification success rate of about 80%); and 4) V7 is most divergent in length, and would be a good candidate marker for the phylogenetic study of Acartia species. This study also evaluated the correlation between similarity thresholds and the accuracy of using nuclear 18S rRNA genes for the classification of organisms in the subclass Copepoda. We suggest that sample identification accuracy should be considered when a molecular sequence divergence threshold is used for taxonomic identification, and that the lowest similarity threshold should be determined based on a pre-designated level of acceptable accuracy. PMID:26107258

  6. Phylogeny of protostome worms derived from 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Winnepenninckx, B; Backeljau, T; De Wachter, R

    1995-07-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of protostome worms were studied by comparing new complete 18S rRNA sequences of Vestimentifera, Pogonophora, Sipuncula, Echiura, Nemertea, and Annelida with existing 18S rRNA sequences of Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata, and Platyhelminthes. Phylogenetic trees were inferred via neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony analyses. These suggest that (1) Sipuncula and Echiura are not sister groups; (2) Nemertea are protostomes; (3) Vestimentifera and Pogonophora are protostomes that have a common ancestor with Echiura; and (4) Vestimentifera and Pogonophora are a monophyletic clade.

  7. Partial methylation at Am100 in 18S rRNA of baker's yeast reveals ribosome heterogeneity on the level of eukaryotic rRNA modification.

    PubMed

    Buchhaupt, Markus; Sharma, Sunny; Kellner, Stefanie; Oswald, Stefanie; Paetzold, Melanie; Peifer, Christian; Watzinger, Peter; Schrader, Jens; Helm, Mark; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome heterogeneity is of increasing biological significance and several examples have been described for multicellular and single cells organisms. In here we show for the first time a variation in ribose methylation within the 18S rRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using RNA-cleaving DNAzymes, we could specifically demonstrate that a significant amount of S. cerevisiae ribosomes are not methylated at 2'-O-ribose of A100 residue in the 18S rRNA. Furthermore, using LC-UV-MS/MS of a respective 18S rRNA fragment, we could not only corroborate the partial methylation at A100, but could also quantify the methylated versus non-methylated A100 residue. Here, we exhibit that only 68% of A100 in the 18S rRNA of S.cerevisiae are methylated at 2'-O ribose sugar. Polysomes also contain a similar heterogeneity for methylated Am100, which shows that 40S ribosome subunits with and without Am100 participate in translation. Introduction of a multicopy plasmid containing the corresponding methylation guide snoRNA gene SNR51 led to an increased A100 methylation, suggesting the cellular snR51 level to limit the extent of this modification. Partial rRNA modification demonstrates a new level of ribosome heterogeneity in eukaryotic cells that might have substantial impact on regulation and fine-tuning of the translation process.

  8. Partial Methylation at Am100 in 18S rRNA of Baker's Yeast Reveals Ribosome Heterogeneity on the Level of Eukaryotic rRNA Modification

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Stefanie; Oswald, Stefanie; Paetzold, Melanie; Peifer, Christian; Watzinger, Peter; Schrader, Jens; Helm, Mark; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome heterogeneity is of increasing biological significance and several examples have been described for multicellular and single cells organisms. In here we show for the first time a variation in ribose methylation within the 18S rRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using RNA-cleaving DNAzymes, we could specifically demonstrate that a significant amount of S. cerevisiae ribosomes are not methylated at 2′-O-ribose of A100 residue in the 18S rRNA. Furthermore, using LC-UV-MS/MS of a respective 18S rRNA fragment, we could not only corroborate the partial methylation at A100, but could also quantify the methylated versus non-methylated A100 residue. Here, we exhibit that only 68% of A100 in the 18S rRNA of S.cerevisiae are methylated at 2′-O ribose sugar. Polysomes also contain a similar heterogeneity for methylated Am100, which shows that 40S ribosome subunits with and without Am100 participate in translation. Introduction of a multicopy plasmid containing the corresponding methylation guide snoRNA gene SNR51 led to an increased A100 methylation, suggesting the cellular snR51 level to limit the extent of this modification. Partial rRNA modification demonstrates a new level of ribosome heterogeneity in eukaryotic cells that might have substantial impact on regulation and fine-tuning of the translation process. PMID:24586927

  9. Identification of a new ribose methylation in the 18S rRNA of S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Sharma, Sunny; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2015-02-27

    Methylation of ribose sugars at the 2'-OH group is one of the major chemical modifications in rRNA, and is catalyzed by snoRNA directed C/D box snoRNPs. Previous biochemical and computational analyses of the C/D box snoRNAs have identified and mapped a large number of 2'-OH ribose methylations in rRNAs. In the present study, we systematically analyzed ribose methylations of 18S rRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using mung bean nuclease protection assay and RP-HPLC. Unexpectedly, we identified a hitherto unknown ribose methylation at position G562 in the helix 18 of 5' central domain of yeast 18S rRNA. Furthermore, we identified snR40 as being responsible to guide snoRNP complex to catalyze G562 ribose methylation, which makes it only second snoRNA known so far to target three ribose methylation sites: Gm562, Gm1271 in 18S rRNA, and Um898 in 25S rRNA. Our sequence and mutational analysis of snR40 revealed that snR40 uses the same D' box and methylation guide sequence for both Gm562 and Gm1271 methylation. With the identification of Gm562 and its corresponding snoRNA, complete set of ribose methylations of 18S rRNA and their corresponding snoRNAs have finally been established opening great prospects to understand the physiological function of these modifications. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Identification of a new ribose methylation in the 18S rRNA of S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Sharma, Sunny; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Methylation of ribose sugars at the 2′-OH group is one of the major chemical modifications in rRNA, and is catalyzed by snoRNA directed C/D box snoRNPs. Previous biochemical and computational analyses of the C/D box snoRNAs have identified and mapped a large number of 2′-OH ribose methylations in rRNAs. In the present study, we systematically analyzed ribose methylations of 18S rRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using mung bean nuclease protection assay and RP-HPLC. Unexpectedly, we identified a hitherto unknown ribose methylation at position G562 in the helix 18 of 5′ central domain of yeast 18S rRNA. Furthermore, we identified snR40 as being responsible to guide snoRNP complex to catalyze G562 ribose methylation, which makes it only second snoRNA known so far to target three ribose methylation sites: Gm562, Gm1271 in 18S rRNA, and Um898 in 25S rRNA. Our sequence and mutational analysis of snR40 revealed that snR40 uses the same D′ box and methylation guide sequence for both Gm562 and Gm1271 methylation. With the identification of Gm562 and its corresponding snoRNA, complete set of ribose methylations of 18S rRNA and their corresponding snoRNAs have finally been established opening great prospects to understand the physiological function of these modifications. PMID:25653162

  11. Molecular systematics of Volvocales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) based on exhaustive 18S rRNA phylogenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Takashi; Misawa, Kazuharu; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2008-07-01

    The taxonomy of Volvocales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) was traditionally based solely on morphological characteristics. However, because recent molecular phylogeny largely contradicts the traditional subordinal and familial classifications, no classification system has yet been established that describes the subdivision of Volvocales in a manner consistent with the phylogenetic relationships. Towards development of a natural classification system at and above the generic level, identification and sorting of hundreds of sequences based on subjective phylogenetic definitions is a significant step. We constructed an 18S rRNA gene phylogeny based on 449 volvocalean sequences collected using exhaustive BLAST searches of the GenBank database. Many chimeric sequences, which can cause fallacious phylogenetic trees, were detected and excluded during data collection. The results revealed 21 strongly supported primary clades within phylogenetically redefined Volvocales. Phylogenetic classification following PhyloCode was proposed based on the presented 18S rRNA gene phylogeny along with the results of previous combined 18S and 26S rRNA and chloroplast multigene analyses.

  12. Poly(A)-specific ribonuclease is a nuclear ribosome biogenesis factor involved in human 18S rRNA maturation.

    PubMed

    Montellese, Christian; Montel-Lehry, Nathalie; Henras, Anthony K; Kutay, Ulrike; Gleizes, Pierre-Emmanuel; O'Donohue, Marie-Françoise

    2017-04-10

    The poly-A specific ribonuclease (PARN), initially characterized for its role in mRNA catabolism, supports the processing of different types of non-coding RNAs including telomerase RNA. Mutations in PARN are linked to dyskeratosis congenita and pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we show that PARN is part of the enzymatic machinery that matures the human 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Consistent with its nucleolar steady-state localization, PARN is required for 40S ribosomal subunit production and co-purifies with 40S subunit precursors. Depletion of PARN or expression of a catalytically-compromised PARN mutant results in accumulation of 3΄ extended 18S rRNA precursors. Analysis of these processing intermediates reveals a defect in 3΄ to 5΄ trimming of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region, subsequent to endonucleolytic cleavage at site E. Consistent with a function of PARN in exonucleolytic trimming of 18S-E pre-rRNA, recombinant PARN can process the corresponding ITS1 RNA fragment in vitro. Trimming of 18S-E pre-rRNA by PARN occurs in the nucleus, upstream of the final endonucleolytic cleavage by the endonuclease NOB1 in the cytoplasm. These results identify PARN as a new component of the ribosome biogenesis machinery in human cells. Defects in ribosome biogenesis could therefore underlie the pathologies linked to mutations in PARN. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Poly(A)-specific ribonuclease is a nuclear ribosome biogenesis factor involved in human 18S rRNA maturation

    PubMed Central

    Montellese, Christian; Montel-Lehry, Nathalie; Henras, Anthony K.; Kutay, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The poly-A specific ribonuclease (PARN), initially characterized for its role in mRNA catabolism, supports the processing of different types of non-coding RNAs including telomerase RNA. Mutations in PARN are linked to dyskeratosis congenita and pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we show that PARN is part of the enzymatic machinery that matures the human 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Consistent with its nucleolar steady-state localization, PARN is required for 40S ribosomal subunit production and co-purifies with 40S subunit precursors. Depletion of PARN or expression of a catalytically-compromised PARN mutant results in accumulation of 3΄ extended 18S rRNA precursors. Analysis of these processing intermediates reveals a defect in 3΄ to 5΄ trimming of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region, subsequent to endonucleolytic cleavage at site E. Consistent with a function of PARN in exonucleolytic trimming of 18S-E pre-rRNA, recombinant PARN can process the corresponding ITS1 RNA fragment in vitro. Trimming of 18S-E pre-rRNA by PARN occurs in the nucleus, upstream of the final endonucleolytic cleavage by the endonuclease NOB1 in the cytoplasm. These results identify PARN as a new component of the ribosome biogenesis machinery in human cells. Defects in ribosome biogenesis could therefore underlie the pathologies linked to mutations in PARN. PMID:28402503

  14. The human 18S rRNA base methyltransferases DIMT1L and WBSCR22-TRMT112 but not rRNA modification are required for ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zorbas, Christiane; Nicolas, Emilien; Wacheul, Ludivine; Huvelle, Emmeline; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.

    2015-01-01

    At the heart of the ribosome lie rRNAs, whose catalytic function in translation is subtly modulated by posttranscriptional modifications. In the small ribosomal subunit of budding yeast, on the 18S rRNA, two adjacent adenosines (A1781/A1782) are N6-dimethylated by Dim1 near the decoding site, and one guanosine (G1575) is N7-methylated by Bud23-Trm112 at a ridge between the P- and E-site tRNAs. Here we establish human DIMT1L and WBSCR22-TRMT112 as the functional homologues of yeast Dim1 and Bud23-Trm112. We report that these enzymes are required for distinct pre-rRNA processing reactions leading to synthesis of 18S rRNA, and we demonstrate that in human cells, as in budding yeast, ribosome biogenesis requires the presence of the modification enzyme rather than its RNA-modifying catalytic activity. We conclude that a quality control mechanism has been conserved from yeast to human by which binding of a methyltransferase to nascent pre-rRNAs is a prerequisite to processing, so that all cleaved RNAs are committed to faithful modification. We further report that 18S rRNA dimethylation is nuclear in human cells, in contrast to yeast, where it is cytoplasmic. Yeast and human ribosome biogenesis thus have both conserved and distinctive features. PMID:25851604

  15. An updated 18S rRNA phylogeny of tunicates based on mixture and secondary structure models.

    PubMed

    Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Turon, Xavier; Hopcroft, Russell R; Tilak, Marie-Ka; Feldstein, Tamar; Shenkar, Noa; Loya, Yossi; Huchon, Dorothée; Douzery, Emmanuel J P; Delsuc, Frédéric

    2009-08-05

    Tunicates have been recently revealed to be the closest living relatives of vertebrates. Yet, with more than 2500 described species, details of their evolutionary history are still obscure. From a molecular point of view, tunicate phylogenetic relationships have been mostly studied based on analyses of 18S rRNA sequences, which indicate several major clades at odds with the traditional class-level arrangements. Nonetheless, substantial uncertainty remains about the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic status of key groups such as the Aplousobranchia, Appendicularia, and Thaliacea. Thirty new complete 18S rRNA sequences were acquired from previously unsampled tunicate species, with special focus on groups presenting high evolutionary rate. The updated 18S rRNA dataset has been aligned with respect to the constraint on homology imposed by the rRNA secondary structure. A probabilistic framework of phylogenetic reconstruction was adopted to accommodate the particular evolutionary dynamics of this ribosomal marker. Detailed Bayesian analyses were conducted under the non-parametric CAT mixture model accounting for site-specific heterogeneity of the evolutionary process, and under RNA-specific doublet models accommodating the occurrence of compensatory substitutions in stem regions. Our results support the division of tunicates into three major clades: 1) Phlebobranchia + Thaliacea + Aplousobranchia, 2) Appendicularia, and 3) Stolidobranchia, but the position of Appendicularia could not be firmly resolved. Our study additionally reveals that most Aplousobranchia evolve at extremely high rates involving changes in secondary structure of their 18S rRNA, with the exception of the family Clavelinidae, which appears to be slowly evolving. This extreme rate heterogeneity precluded resolving with certainty the exact phylogenetic placement of Aplousobranchia. Finally, the best fitting secondary-structure and CAT-mixture models suggest a sister-group relationship between

  16. An updated 18S rRNA phylogeny of tunicates based on mixture and secondary structure models

    PubMed Central

    Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Turon, Xavier; Hopcroft, Russell R; Tilak, Marie-Ka; Feldstein, Tamar; Shenkar, Noa; Loya, Yossi; Huchon, Dorothée; Douzery, Emmanuel JP; Delsuc, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Background Tunicates have been recently revealed to be the closest living relatives of vertebrates. Yet, with more than 2500 described species, details of their evolutionary history are still obscure. From a molecular point of view, tunicate phylogenetic relationships have been mostly studied based on analyses of 18S rRNA sequences, which indicate several major clades at odds with the traditional class-level arrangements. Nonetheless, substantial uncertainty remains about the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic status of key groups such as the Aplousobranchia, Appendicularia, and Thaliacea. Results Thirty new complete 18S rRNA sequences were acquired from previously unsampled tunicate species, with special focus on groups presenting high evolutionary rate. The updated 18S rRNA dataset has been aligned with respect to the constraint on homology imposed by the rRNA secondary structure. A probabilistic framework of phylogenetic reconstruction was adopted to accommodate the particular evolutionary dynamics of this ribosomal marker. Detailed Bayesian analyses were conducted under the non-parametric CAT mixture model accounting for site-specific heterogeneity of the evolutionary process, and under RNA-specific doublet models accommodating the occurrence of compensatory substitutions in stem regions. Our results support the division of tunicates into three major clades: 1) Phlebobranchia + Thaliacea + Aplousobranchia, 2) Appendicularia, and 3) Stolidobranchia, but the position of Appendicularia could not be firmly resolved. Our study additionally reveals that most Aplousobranchia evolve at extremely high rates involving changes in secondary structure of their 18S rRNA, with the exception of the family Clavelinidae, which appears to be slowly evolving. This extreme rate heterogeneity precluded resolving with certainty the exact phylogenetic placement of Aplousobranchia. Finally, the best fitting secondary-structure and CAT-mixture models suggest a sister

  17. Highly divergent 18S rRNA gene paralogs in a Cryptosporidium genotype from eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus).

    PubMed

    Stenger, Brianna L S; Clark, Mark E; Kváč, Martin; Khan, Eakalak; Giddings, Catherine W; Dyer, Neil W; Schultz, Jessie L; McEvoy, John M

    2015-06-01

    Cryptosporidium is an apicomplexan parasite that causes the disease cryptosporidiosis in humans, livestock, and other vertebrates. Much of the knowledge on Cryptosporidium diversity is derived from 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) phylogenies. Eukaryote genomes generally have multiple 18S rDNA copies that evolve in concert, which is necessary for the accurate inference of phylogenetic relationships. However, 18S rDNA copies in some genomes evolve by a birth-and-death process that can result in sequence divergence among copies. Most notably, divergent 18S rDNA paralogs in the apicomplexan Plasmodium share only 89-95% sequence similarity, encode structurally distinct rRNA molecules, and are expressed at different life cycle stages. In the present study, Cryptosporidium 18S rDNA was amplified from 28/72 (38.9%) eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus). Phylogenetic analyses showed the co-occurrence of two 18S rDNA types, Type A and Type B, in 26 chipmunks, and Type B clustered with a sequence previously identified as Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II. Types A and B had a sister group relationship but shared less than 93% sequence similarity. In contrast, actin and heat shock protein 70 gene sequences were homogeneous in samples with both Types A and B present. It was therefore concluded that Types A and B are divergent 18S rDNA paralogs in Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II. Substitution patterns in Types A and B were consistent with functionally constrained evolution; however, Type B evolved more rapidly than Type A and had a higher G+C content (46.3% versus 41.0%). Oocysts of Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II measured 4.17 μm (3.73-5.04 μm) × 3.94 μm (3.50-4.98 μm) with a length-to-width ratio of 1.06 ± 0.06 μm, and infection occurred naturally in the jejunum, cecum, and colon of eastern chipmunks. The findings of this study have implications for the use of 18S rDNA sequences to infer phylogenetic relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Highly divergent 18S rRNA gene paralogs in a Cryptosporidium genotype from eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus)1

    PubMed Central

    Stenger, Brianna L.S.; Clark, Mark E.; Kváč, Martin; Khan, Eakalak; Giddings, Catherine W.; Dyer, Neil W.; Schultz, Jessie L.; McEvoy, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an apicomplexan parasite that causes the disease cryptosporidiosis in humans, livestock, and other vertebrates. Much of the knowledge on Cryptosporidium diversity is derived from 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) phylogenies. Eukaryote genomes generally have multiple 18S rDNA copies that evolve in concert, which is necessary for the accurate inference of phylogenetic relationships. However, 18S rDNA copies in some genomes evolve by a birth-and-death process that can result in sequence divergence among copies. Most notably, divergent 18S rDNA paralogs in the apicomplexan Plasmodium share only 89–95% sequence similarity, encode structurally distinct rRNA molecules, and are expressed at different life cycle stages. In the present study, Cryptosporidium 18S rDNA was amplified from 28/72 (38.9%) eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus). Phylogenetic analyses showed the co-occurrence of two 18S rDNA types, Type A and Type B, in 26 chipmunks, and Type B clustered with a sequence previously identified as Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II. Types A and B had a sister group relationship but shared less than 93% sequence similarity. In contrast, actin and heat shock protein 70 gene sequences were homogeneous in samples with both Types A and B present. It was therefore concluded that Types A and B are divergent 18S rDNA paralogs in Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II. Substitution patterns in Types A and B were consistent with functionally constrained evolution; however, Type B evolved more rapidly than Type A and had a higher G+C content (46.3% versus 41.0%). Oocysts of Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II measured 4.17 μm (3.73–5.04 μm) × 3.94 μm (3.50–4.98 μm) with a length-to-width ratio of 1.06 ± 0.06 μm, and infection occurred naturally in the jejunum, cecum, and colon of eastern chipmunks. The findings of this study have implications for the use of 18S rDNA sequences to infer phylogenetic relationships. PMID:25772204

  19. Nop9 binds the central pseudoknot region of 18S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes requires numerous factors that transiently associate with evolving pre-ribosomal particles. The Pumilio repeat-containing protein Nop9 briefly associates with the 90S pre-ribosome during its co-transcriptional assembly. Here, we show that Nop9 specifically binds an 11-nucleotide sequence of 18S rRNA that forms the 3΄ side of the central pseudoknot and helix 28 in the mature subunit. Crystal structures of Nop9 in the free and RNA-bound states reveal a new type of Pumilio repeat protein with a distinct structure, target sequence and RNA-binding mode. Nop9 contains 10 Pumilio repeats arranged into a U-shaped scaffold. The target RNA is recognized by two stretches of repeats in a bipartite manner, and three central bases are unrecognized as a result of the degeneracy of repeats 6 and 7. Our data suggest that Nop9 regulates the folding of 18S rRNA at early assembly stages of 90S. PMID:28053123

  20. Nop9 binds the central pseudoknot region of 18S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Ye, Keqiong

    2017-04-07

    The assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes requires numerous factors that transiently associate with evolving pre-ribosomal particles. The Pumilio repeat-containing protein Nop9 briefly associates with the 90S pre-ribosome during its co-transcriptional assembly. Here, we show that Nop9 specifically binds an 11-nucleotide sequence of 18S rRNA that forms the 3΄ side of the central pseudoknot and helix 28 in the mature subunit. Crystal structures of Nop9 in the free and RNA-bound states reveal a new type of Pumilio repeat protein with a distinct structure, target sequence and RNA-binding mode. Nop9 contains 10 Pumilio repeats arranged into a U-shaped scaffold. The target RNA is recognized by two stretches of repeats in a bipartite manner, and three central bases are unrecognized as a result of the degeneracy of repeats 6 and 7. Our data suggest that Nop9 regulates the folding of 18S rRNA at early assembly stages of 90S. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Ribosomal 18S rRNA base pairs with mRNA during eukaryotic translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Franck; Ménétret, Jean-François; Simonetti, Angelita; Myasnikov, Alexander G.; Vicens, Quentin; Prongidi-Fix, Lydia; Natchiar, S. Kundhavai; Klaholz, Bruno P.; Eriani, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNAs often contain a Kozak sequence that helps tether the ribosome to the AUG start codon. The mRNA of histone H4 (h4) does not undergo classical ribosome scanning but has evolved a specific tethering mechanism. The cryo-EM structure of the rabbit ribosome complex with mouse h4 shows that the mRNA forms a folded, repressive structure at the mRNA entry site on the 40S subunit next to the tip of helix 16 of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Toe-printing and mutational assays reveal that an interaction exists between a purine-rich sequence in h4 mRNA and a complementary UUUC sequence of helix h16. Together the present data establish that the h4 mRNA harbours a sequence complementary to an 18S rRNA sequence which tethers the mRNA to the ribosome to promote proper start codon positioning, complementing the interactions of the 40S subunit with the Kozak sequence that flanks the AUG start codon. PMID:27554013

  2. Séance: reference-based phylogenetic analysis for 18S rRNA studies.

    PubMed

    Medlar, Alan; Aivelo, Tuomas; Löytynoja, Ari

    2014-11-30

    Marker gene studies often use short amplicons spanning one or more hypervariable regions from an rRNA gene to interrogate the community structure of uncultured environmental samples. Target regions are chosen for their discriminatory power, but the limited phylogenetic signal of short high-throughput sequencing reads precludes accurate phylogenetic analysis. This is particularly unfortunate in the study of microscopic eukaryotes where horizontal gene flow is limited and the rRNA gene is expected to accurately reflect the species phylogeny. A promising alternative to full phylogenetic analysis is phylogenetic placement, where a reference phylogeny is inferred using the complete marker gene and iteratively extended with the short sequences from a metagenetic sample under study. Based on the phylogenetic placement approach we built Séance, a community analysis pipeline focused on the analysis of 18S marker gene data. Séance combines the alignment extension and phylogenetic placement capabilities of the Pagan multiple sequence alignment program with a suite of tools to preprocess, cluster and visualise datasets composed of many samples. We showcase Séance by analysing 454 data from a longitudinal study of intestinal parasite communities in wild rufous mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus) as well as in simulation. We demonstrate both improved OTU picking at higher levels of sequence similarity for 454 data and show the accuracy of phylogenetic placement to be comparable to maximum likelihood methods for lower numbers of taxa. Séance is an open source community analysis pipeline that provides reference-based phylogenetic analysis for rRNA marker gene studies. Whilst in this article we focus on studying nematodes using the 18S marker gene, the concepts are generic and reference data for alternative marker genes can be easily created. Séance can be downloaded from http://wasabiapp.org/software/seance/ .

  3. Effect of DNA methylation on 18S rRNA gene sequences during culture of Taxus chinensis cells.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Fu; Li, Liqing; Yin, Rui; Jin, Wenwen; Yu, Longjiang

    2009-01-01

    * Author for correspondence and reprint requests Z. Naturforsch. 64c, 418-420 (2009); received December 15, 2008 Cell suspension culture has rapidly become an alternative source of taxol, an anticancer compound. To investigate the role of DNA methylation in the cultural course of Taxus chinensis cells, analyses of 18S rRNA gene sequences of cultured T chinensis cells and related species were conducted. The phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences indicated that HG-1 (the cultured T chinensis cells), like T mairei (the natural variety of T chinensis), should be a new variety of T chinensis, and cell culture can change the 18S rRNA gene sequence at the level of species despite 18S rRNA is the most conserved gene. The analyses of the CpG and TpG+CpA relative abundance and GC content of the 18S rRNA gene sequences made clear that DNA methylation contributed to changes of the 18S rRNA gene sequence of HG-1 at the level of species, which can make HG-1 to become a new variety of 7 chinensis.

  4. [Estimation of postmortem interval using microRNA and 18S rRNA degradation in rat cardiac muscle].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-can; Ma, Kai-jun; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Hui-jun; Shen, Yi-wen; Zhou, Yue-qin; Zhao, Zi-qin; Ma, Duan; Chen, Long

    2010-12-01

    To explore the relationship between the time-dependent level changes of microRNA and 18S rRNA and the different postmortem interval (PMI) in rat cardiac muscle. SD rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and placed at ambient temperature 25 degrees C with a humidity of 50%. Total RNA was extracted from the rat cardiac muscle at different time points after death. The levels of miR-1-2 and 18S rRNA were examined using real-time PCR in rat cardiac muscle. The results were expressed by cycle threshold (Ct) value to explore relationship between PMI and Ct value, and the regression functions were established to estimate PMI. The miR-1-2 level in rat myocardial tissue showed no significant changes within 120 h after death, and then began to decline. The 18S rRNA level increased gradually within 96 h after death, and then declined slowly. The nonlinear relationships were established between Ct value (18S rRNA), deltaCt value (difference between 18S rRNA and miR-1-2) and PMI. The R2 of conics fitting were 0.9487 and 0.8072, respectively. Ct value of 18S rRNA and deltaCt value present a good correlation with PMI, and can be markers for estimating early PMI.

  5. 18S rRNA suggests that Entoprocta are protostomes, unrelated to Ectoprocta.

    PubMed

    Mackey, L Y; Winnepenninckx, B; De Wachter, R; Backeljau, T; Emschermann, P; Garey, J R

    1996-05-01

    The Ento- and Ectoprocta are sometimes placed together in the Bryozoa, which have variously been regarded as proto- or deuterostomes. However, Entoprocta have also been allied to the pseudocoelomates, while Ectoprocta are often united with the Brachiopoda and Phoronida in the (super)phylum Lophophorata. Hence, the phylogenetic relationships of these taxa are still much debated. We determined complete 18S rRNA sequences of two entoprocts, an ectoproct, an inarticulate brachiopod, a phoronid, two annelids, and a platyhelminth. Phylogenetic analyses of these data show that (1) entoprocts and lophophorates have spiralian, protostomous affinities, (2) Ento- and Ectoprocta are not sister taxa, (3) phoronids and brachiopods form a monophyletic clade, and (4) neither Ectoprocta or Annelida appear to be monophyletic. Both deuterostomous and pseudocoelomate features may have arisen at least two times in evolutionary history. These results advocate a Spiralia-Radialia-based classification rather than one based on the Protostomia-Deuterostomia concept.

  6. Novelty in phylogeny of gastrotricha: evidence from 18S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Wirz, A; Pucciarelli, S; Miceli, C; Tongiorgi, P; Balsamo, M

    1999-11-01

    Gastrotricha form a phylum which is crucial for defining the origin of pseudocoelomates, in that they share a number of characters with Rotifera and Nematoda but also with acoelomates, and even the evolutionary relationships within the phylum are anything but defined. For this reason the first extensive molecular data on Gastrotricha from the 18S rRNA sequences of both orders have been obtained and analyzed. Sequence analyses show that the phylum Gastrotricha is strictly monophyletic along an evolutionary line quite distinct from that of both Rotifera and Nematoda. A new view of the evolutionary history of the phylum Gastrotricha is put forward, in which Chaetonotida, and not Macrodasyida, are the most primitive forms of the group, contrary to the commonly held view. A polyphyletic origin of aschelminthes is supported, and the misleading term pseudocoelomates should be discarded. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. The human 18S rRNA base methyltransferases DIMT1L and WBSCR22-TRMT112 but not rRNA modification are required for ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zorbas, Christiane; Nicolas, Emilien; Wacheul, Ludivine; Huvelle, Emmeline; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Lafontaine, Denis L J

    2015-06-01

    At the heart of the ribosome lie rRNAs, whose catalytic function in translation is subtly modulated by posttranscriptional modifications. In the small ribosomal subunit of budding yeast, on the 18S rRNA, two adjacent adenosines (A1781/A1782) are N(6)-dimethylated by Dim1 near the decoding site, and one guanosine (G1575) is N(7)-methylated by Bud23-Trm112 at a ridge between the P- and E-site tRNAs. Here we establish human DIMT1L and WBSCR22-TRMT112 as the functional homologues of yeast Dim1 and Bud23-Trm112. We report that these enzymes are required for distinct pre-rRNA processing reactions leading to synthesis of 18S rRNA, and we demonstrate that in human cells, as in budding yeast, ribosome biogenesis requires the presence of the modification enzyme rather than its RNA-modifying catalytic activity. We conclude that a quality control mechanism has been conserved from yeast to human by which binding of a methyltransferase to nascent pre-rRNAs is a prerequisite to processing, so that all cleaved RNAs are committed to faithful modification. We further report that 18S rRNA dimethylation is nuclear in human cells, in contrast to yeast, where it is cytoplasmic. Yeast and human ribosome biogenesis thus have both conserved and distinctive features. © 2015 Zorbas, Nicolas et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. The phylogenetic status of arthropods, as inferred from 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Turbeville, J M; Pfeifer, D M; Field, K G; Raff, R A

    1991-09-01

    Partial 18S rRNA sequences of five chelicerate arthropods plus a crustacean, myriapod, insect, chordate, echinoderm, annelid, and platyhelminth were compared. The sequence data were used to infer phylogeny by using a maximum-parsimony method, an evolutionary-distance method, and the evolutionary-parsimony method. The phylogenetic inferences generated by maximum-parsimony and distance methods support both monophyly of the Arthropoda and monophyly of the Chelicerata within the Arthropoda. These results are congruent with phylogenies based on rigorous cladistic analyses of morphological characters. Results support the inclusion of the Arthropoda within a spiralian or protostome coelomate clade that is the sister group of a deuterostome clade, refuting the hypothesis that the arthropods represent the "primitive" sister group of a protostome coelomate clade. Bootstrap analyses and consideration of all trees within 1% of the length of the most parsimonious tree suggest that relationships between the nonchelicerate arthropods and relationships within the chelicerate clade cannot be reliably inferred with the partial 18S rRNA sequence data. With the evolutionary-parsimony method, support for monophyly of the Arthropoda is found in the majority of the combinations analyzed if the coelomates are used as "outgroups." Monophyly of the Chelicerata is supported in most combinations assessed. Our analyses also indicate that the evolutionary-parsimony method, like distance and parsimony, may be biased by taxa with long branches. We suggest that a previous study's inference of the Arthropoda as paraphyletic may be the result of (a) having two few arthropod taxa available for analysis and (b) including long-branched taxa.

  9. Characterization of the 18S rRNA Gene for Designing Universal Eukaryote Specific Primers

    PubMed Central

    Hadziavdic, Kenan; Lekang, Katrine; Lanzen, Anders; Jonassen, Inge; Thompson, Eric M.; Troedsson, Christofer

    2014-01-01

    High throughput sequencing technology has great promise for biodiversity studies. However, an underlying assumption is that the primers used in these studies are universal for the prokaryotic or eukaryotic groups of interest. Full primer universality is difficult or impossible to achieve and studies using different primer sets make biodiversity comparisons problematic. The aim of this study was to design and optimize universal eukaryotic primers that could be used as a standard in future biodiversity studies. Using the alignment of all eukaryotic sequences from the publicly available SILVA database, we generated a full characterization of variable versus conserved regions in the 18S rRNA gene. All variable regions within this gene were analyzed and our results suggested that the V2, V4 and V9 regions were best suited for biodiversity assessments. Previously published universal eukaryotic primers as well as a number of self-designed primers were mapped to the alignment. Primer selection will depend on sequencing technology used, and this study focused on the 454 pyrosequencing GS FLX Titanium platform. The results generated a primer pair yielding theoretical matches to 80% of the eukaryotic and 0% of the prokaryotic sequences in the SILVA database. An empirical test of marine sediments using the AmpliconNoise pipeline for analysis of the high throughput sequencing data yielded amplification of sequences for 71% of all eukaryotic phyla with no isolation of prokaryotic sequences. To our knowledge this is the first characterization of the complete 18S rRNA gene using all eukaryotes present in the SILVA database, providing a robust test for universal eukaryotic primers. Since both in silico and empirical tests using high throughput sequencing retained high inclusion of eukaryotic phyla and exclusion of prokaryotes, we conclude that these primers are well suited for assessing eukaryote diversity, and can be used as a standard in biodiversity studies. PMID:24516555

  10. Characterization of the 18S rRNA gene for designing universal eukaryote specific primers.

    PubMed

    Hadziavdic, Kenan; Lekang, Katrine; Lanzen, Anders; Jonassen, Inge; Thompson, Eric M; Troedsson, Christofer

    2014-01-01

    High throughput sequencing technology has great promise for biodiversity studies. However, an underlying assumption is that the primers used in these studies are universal for the prokaryotic or eukaryotic groups of interest. Full primer universality is difficult or impossible to achieve and studies using different primer sets make biodiversity comparisons problematic. The aim of this study was to design and optimize universal eukaryotic primers that could be used as a standard in future biodiversity studies. Using the alignment of all eukaryotic sequences from the publicly available SILVA database, we generated a full characterization of variable versus conserved regions in the 18S rRNA gene. All variable regions within this gene were analyzed and our results suggested that the V2, V4 and V9 regions were best suited for biodiversity assessments. Previously published universal eukaryotic primers as well as a number of self-designed primers were mapped to the alignment. Primer selection will depend on sequencing technology used, and this study focused on the 454 pyrosequencing GS FLX Titanium platform. The results generated a primer pair yielding theoretical matches to 80% of the eukaryotic and 0% of the prokaryotic sequences in the SILVA database. An empirical test of marine sediments using the AmpliconNoise pipeline for analysis of the high throughput sequencing data yielded amplification of sequences for 71% of all eukaryotic phyla with no isolation of prokaryotic sequences. To our knowledge this is the first characterization of the complete 18S rRNA gene using all eukaryotes present in the SILVA database, providing a robust test for universal eukaryotic primers. Since both in silico and empirical tests using high throughput sequencing retained high inclusion of eukaryotic phyla and exclusion of prokaryotes, we conclude that these primers are well suited for assessing eukaryote diversity, and can be used as a standard in biodiversity studies.

  11. Structural diversity of eukaryotic 18S rRNA and its impact on alignment and phylogenetic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiang; Lin, Jinzhong; Qin, Yan; Zhou, Jianfu; Bu, Wenjun

    2011-02-01

    Ribosomal RNAs are important because they catalyze the synthesis of peptides and proteins. Comparative studies of the secondary structure of 18S rRNA have revealed the basic locations of its many length-conserved and length-variable regions. In recent years, many more sequences of 18S rDNA with unusual lengths have been documented in GenBank. These data make it possible to recognize the diversity of the secondary and tertiary structures of 18S rRNAs and to identify the length-conserved parts of 18S rDNAs. The longest 18S rDNA sequences of almost every known eukaryotic phylum were included in this study. We illustrated the bioinformatics-based structure to show that, the regions that are more length-variable, regions that are less length-variable, the splicing sites for introns, and the sites of A-minor interactions are mostly distributed in different parts of the 18S rRNA. Additionally, this study revealed that some length-variable regions or insertion positions could be quite close to the functional part of the 18S rRNA of Foraminifera organisms. The tertiary structure as well as the secondary structure of 18S rRNA can be more diverse than what was previously supposed. Besides revealing how this interesting gene evolves, it can help to remove ambiguity from the alignment of eukaryotic 18S rDNAs and to improve the performance of 18S rDNA in phylogenetic reconstruction. Six nucleotides shared by Archaea and Eukaryota but rarely by Bacteria are also reported here for the first time, which might further support the supposed origin of eukaryote from archaeans.

  12. Roles of eukaryotic ribosomal proteins in maturation and transport of pre-18S rRNA and ribosome function.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Cerca, Sébastien; Pöll, Gisela; Gleizes, Pierre-Emmanuel; Tschochner, Herbert; Milkereit, Philipp

    2005-10-28

    Despite the rising knowledge about ribosome function and structure and how ribosomal subunits assemble in vitro in bacteria, the in vivo role of many ribosomal proteins remains obscure both in pro- and eukaryotes. Our systematic analysis of yeast ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) of the small subunit revealed that most eukaryotic r-proteins fulfill different roles in ribosome biogenesis, making them indispensable for growth. Different r-proteins control distinct steps of nuclear and cytoplasmic pre-18S rRNA processing and, thus, ensure that only properly assembled ribosomes become engaged in translation. Comparative analysis of dynamic and steady-state maturation assays revealed that several r-proteins are required for efficient nuclear export of pre-18S rRNA, suggesting that they form an interaction platform with the export machinery. In contrast, the presence of other r-proteins is mainly required before nuclear export is initiated. Our studies draw a correlation between the in vitro assembly, structural localization, and in vivo function of r-proteins.

  13. Yeast 18 S rRNA Is Directly Involved in the Ribosomal Response to Stringent AUG Selection during Translation Initiation*

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, Naoki; Singh, Chingakham Ranjit; Udagawa, Tsuyoshi; Wang, Suzhi; Thorson, Elizabeth; Winter, Zachery; Ohira, Takahiro; Ii, Miki; Valášek, Leoš; Brown, Susan J.; Asano, Katsura

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the 40 S ribosomal subunit serves as the platform of initiation factor assembly, to place itself precisely on the AUG start codon. Structural arrangement of the 18 S rRNA determines the overall shape of the 40 S subunit. Here, we present genetic evaluation of yeast 18 S rRNA function using 10 point mutations altering the polysome profile. All the mutants reduce the abundance of the mutant 40 S, making it limiting for translation initiation. Two of the isolated mutations, G875A, altering the core of the platform domain that binds eIF1 and eIF2, and A1193U, changing the h31 loop located below the P-site tRNAiMet, show phenotypes indicating defective regulation of AUG selection. Evidence is provided that these mutations reduce the interaction with the components of the preinitiation complex, thereby inhibiting its function at different steps. These results indicate that the 18 S rRNA mutations impair the integrity of scanning-competent preinitiation complex, thereby altering the 40 S subunit response to stringent AUG selection. Interestingly, nine of the mutations alter the body/platform domains of 18 S rRNA, potentially affecting the bridges to the 60 S subunit, but they do not change the level of 18 S rRNA intermediates. Based on these results, we also discuss the mechanism of the selective degradation of the mutant 40 S subunits. PMID:20699223

  14. Soil DNA Extraction Procedure Influences Protist 18S rRNA Gene Community Profiling Outcome.

    PubMed

    Santos, Susana S; Nunes, Inês; Nielsen, Tue K; Jacquiod, Samuel; Hansen, Lars H; Winding, Anne

    2017-07-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies allow deeper studies of the soil protist diversity and function. However, little attention has been given to the impact of the chosen soil DNA extraction procedure to the overall results. We examined the effect of three acknowledged DNA recovery methods, two manual methods (ISOm-11063, GnS-GII) and one commercial kit (MoBio), on soil protist community structures obtained from different sites with different land uses. Results from 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing suggest that DNA extraction method significantly affect the replicate homogeneity, the total number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered and the overall taxonomic structure and diversity of soil protist communities. However, DNA extraction effects did not overwhelm the natural variation among samples, as the community data still strongly grouped by geographical location. The commercial DNA extraction kit was associated with the highest diversity estimates and with a corresponding higher retrieval of Excavata, Cercozoa and Amoebozoa-related taxa. Overall, our findings indicate that this extraction offers a compromise between rare and dominant taxa representation, while providing high replication reproducibility. A comprehensive understanding of the DNA extraction techniques impact on soil protist diversity can enable more accurate diversity assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of new 18S rRNA strains of Babesia canis isolated from dogs with subclinical babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Łyp, P; Adaszek, Ł; Furmaga, B; Winiarczyk, S

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used PCR to detect and characterize B. canis from naturally infected dogs in Poland with subclinical babesiosis by amplifying and sequencing a portion of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Venous blood samples were collected from ten dogs with subclinical babesiosis. A 559-bp fragment of the B. canis 18S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR. Sequencing of the PCR products led to the identification of a new variant of Babesia canis, differing from the previously detected protozoa genotypes (18S rRNA-A and 18S rRNA-B) with nucleotide substitutions in positions 150 and 151 of the tested gene fragment. The results indicate the emergence within the Polish territory of a new, previously unencountered Babesia canis genotype responsible for the development of subclinical babesiosis.

  16. Sequencing and characterization of full-length sequence of 18S rRNA gene from the reniform nematode

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 18S rRNA gene is fundamental to cellular and organismal protein synthesis and because of its stable persistence through generations it is also used in phylogenetic analysis among taxa. Variation within this gene is rare but it has been observed in few metazoan species. For the first time, we h...

  17. Conservation of the primary structure at the 3' end of 18S rRNA from eucaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Hagenbüchle, O; Santer, M; Steitz, J A; Mans, R J

    1978-03-01

    DNA sequencing methods have been used to determine a sequence of about 20 nucleotides at the 3' termini of various 18S (small ribosomal subunit) RNA molecules. Polyadenylated rRNA was first synthesized using the enzyme ATP:polynucleotidyl transferase from mainze. Then in the presence of an oligonucleotide primer uniquely complementary to the end of each adenylated rRNA, a cDNA copy was produced using AMV reverse transcriptase. In every case, the cDNA transcript was of finite size, which we ascribe to the appearance of an oligonucleotide containing m62A near the 3' end of the 18S rRNAs. Sequences at the 3' termini of 18S rRNA molecules from the four eucaryotic species examined here (mouse, silk worm, wheat embryo and slime mold) are highly conserved. They also exhibit strong homology to the 3' end of E. coli 16S rRNA. Two important differences, however, are apparent. First, the 16S sequence CCUCC, implicated in mRNA binding by E. coli ribosomes, is absent from each eucaryotic rRNA sequence. Second, a purine-rich region which exhibits extensive complementarity to the 5' noncoding regions of many eucaryotic mRNAs appears consistently.

  18. [Binding of human ribosomal protein S13 to the central domain of 18S rRNA].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A V; Malygin, A A; Karpova, G G

    2011-01-01

    Human ribosomal protein S13 is a structural element of the small subunit of ribosome. It is a homologue of eubacterial ribosomal protein S15, and, besides, it possesses an extended N-terminal region, characteristic of the S15p family in eukaryotes and archaea. In the present study, we investigated binding of recombinant ribosomal protein S13 and its mutants containing deletions or substitutions of amino acid residues in different regions with an RNA transcript corresponding to a fragment of the central domain of 18S rRNA. We found that replacement of ultra-conservative residues H101 and D108 as well as deletions of either 29 C-terminal or 27 N-terminal residues substantially reduced affinity of the protein to the RNA transcript. Deletion of 54 C-terminal or 80 N-terminal residues completely deprived the protein of binding capacity. Using a footprinting assay, we identified sites in the RNA transcript changing their accessibilities to action of hydroxyl radicals under binding of either full-length protein S13 or its mutant lacking 27 N-terminal residues. It is shown that these sites are located mainly in helix H22 of the 18S rRNA and in the region of its junction with helix H20 and are consistent predominantly with contacts of the rRNA with the conserved part of the protein. We concluded that binding of ribosomal protein S13 to 18S rRNA is provided mainly by conserved motifs of the protein corresponding to those motifs in its eubacterial homologue that are involved in the interaction with 16S rRNA in the 30S subunit. Role of the N-terminal region of the protein in its binding to the central domain of 18S rRNA is discussed.

  19. Nob1 binds the single-stranded cleavage site D at the 3'-end of 18S rRNA with its PIN domain.

    PubMed

    Lamanna, Allison C; Karbstein, Katrin

    2009-08-25

    Ribosome assembly is a hierarchical process that involves pre-rRNA folding, modification, and cleavage and assembly of ribosomal proteins. In eukaryotes, this process requires a macromolecular complex comprising over 200 proteins and RNAs. Whereas the rRNA modification machinery is well-characterized, rRNA cleavage to release mature rRNAs is poorly understood, and in yeast, only 2 of 8 endonucleases have been identified. The essential and conserved ribosome assembly factor Nob1 has been suggested to be the endonuclease responsible for generating the mature 3'-end of 18S rRNA by cleaving at site D. Here we provide evidence that recombinant Nob1 forms a tetramer that binds directly to pre-rRNA analogs containing cleavage site D. Analysis of Nob1's affinity to a series of RNA truncations, as well as Nob1-dependent protections of pre-rRNA in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that Nob1's binding site centers around the 3'-end of 18S rRNA, where our data also locate Nob1's suggested active site. Thus, Nob1 is poised for cleavage at the 3'-end of 18S rRNA. Together with prior data, these results strongly implicate Nob1 in cleavage at site D. In addition, our data provide evidence that the cleavage site at the 3'-end of 18S rRNA is single-stranded and not part of a duplex as commonly depicted. Using these results, we have built a model for Nob1's interaction with preribosomes.

  20. Metabolism of 18S rRNA in rat liver cells in different functional states of protein-synthesizing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Chirkov, G.P.; Druzhinina, M.K.; Todorov, I.N.

    1986-04-10

    The ratio of the absolute radioactivities of 28S and 18S RNAs in the fractions of membrane-bound and free polysomes and the fraction of free rat liver ribosomes was studied under conditions of inhibition of translation by cycloheximide, insulin, and cAMP. It was found that insulin and cAMP, in contrast to cycloheximide, do not induce selective degradation of 18S rRNA. The results are discussed from the standpoint of the possible role of the phosphorylation of protein S6 in the degradation of the 40S ribosomal subunit.

  1. Distinct 18S rRNA precursors are targets of the exosome complex, the exoribonuclease RRP6L2 and the terminal nucleotidyltransferase TRL in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Pawel J; Zuber, Hélène; Philippe, Lucas; Sement, François M; Canaday, Jean; Kufel, Joanna; Gagliardi, Dominique; Lange, Heike

    2015-09-01

    The biosynthesis of ribosomal RNA and its incorporation into functional ribosomes is an essential and intricate process that includes production of mature ribosomal RNA from large precursors. Here, we analyse the contribution of the plant exosome and its co-factors to processing and degradation of 18S pre-RNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our data show that, unlike in yeast and humans, an RRP6 homologue, the nucleolar exoribonuclease RRP6L2, and the exosome complex, together with RRP44, function in two distinct steps of pre-18S rRNA processing or degradation in Arabidopsis. In addition, we identify TRL (TRF4/5-like) as the terminal nucleotidyltransferase that is mainly responsible for oligoadenylation of rRNA precursors in Arabidopsis. We show that TRL is required for efficient elimination of the excised 5' external transcribed spacer and of 18S maturation intermediates that escaped 5' processing. Our data also suggest involvement of additional nucleotidyltransferases, including terminal uridylyltransferase(s), in modifying rRNA processing intermediates in plants. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Typification of virulent and low virulence Babesia bigemina clones by 18S rRNA and rap-1c.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C; Baravalle, M E; Valentini, B; Mangold, A; Torioni de Echaide, S; Ruybal, P; Farber, M; Echaide, I

    2014-06-01

    The population structure of original Babesia bigemina isolates and reference strains with a defined phenotypic profile was assessed using 18S rRNA and rap-1c genes. Two reference strains, BbiS2P-c (virulent) and BbiS1A-c (low virulence), were biologically cloned in vitro. The virulence profile of the strains and clones was assessed in vivo. One fully virulent and one low-virulence clone were mixed in identical proportions to evaluate their growth efficiency in vitro. Each clone was differentiated by two microsatellites and the gene gp45. The 18S rRNA and rap-1c genes sequences from B. bigemina biological clones and their parental strains, multiplied exclusively in vivo or in vitro, were compared with strain JG-29. The virulence of clones derived from the BbiS2P-c strain was variable. Virulent clone Bbi9P1 grew more efficiently in vitro than did the low-virulence clone Bbi2A1. The haplotypes generated by the nucleotide polymorphism, localized in the V4 region of the 18S rRNA, allowed the identification of three genotypes. The rap-1c haplotypes allowed defining four genotypes. Parental and original strains were defined by multiple haplotypes identified in both genes. The rap-1c gene, analyzed by high-resolution melting (HRM), allowed discrimination between two genotypes according to their phenotype, and both were different from JG-29. B. bigemina biological clones made it possible to define the population structure of isolates and strains. The polymorphic regions of the 18S rRNA and rap-1c genes allowed the identification of different subpopulations within original B. bigemina isolates by the definition of several haplotypes and the differentiation of fully virulent from low virulence clones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Single Acetylation of 18 S rRNA Is Essential for Biogenesis of the Small Ribosomal Subunit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Satoshi; Akamatsu, Yu; Noma, Akiko; Kimura, Satoshi; Miyauchi, Kenjyo; Ikeuchi, Yoshiho; Suzuki, Takeo; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Biogenesis of eukaryotic ribosome is a complex event involving a number of non-ribosomal factors. During assembly of the ribosome, rRNAs are post-transcriptionally modified by 2′-O-methylation, pseudouridylation, and several base-specific modifications, which are collectively involved in fine-tuning translational fidelity and/or modulating ribosome assembly. By mass-spectrometric analysis, we demonstrated that N4-acetylcytidine (ac4C) is present at position 1773 in the 18 S rRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, we found an essential gene, KRE33 (human homolog, NAT10), that we renamed RRA1 (ribosomal RNA cytidine acetyltransferase 1) encoding an RNA acetyltransferase responsible for ac4C1773 formation. Using recombinant Rra1p, we could successfully reconstitute ac4C1773 in a model rRNA fragment in the presence of both acetyl-CoA and ATP as substrates. Upon depletion of Rra1p, the 23 S precursor of 18 S rRNA was accumulated significantly, which resulted in complete loss of 18 S rRNA and small ribosomal subunit (40 S), suggesting that ac4C1773 formation catalyzed by Rra1p plays a critical role in processing of the 23 S precursor to yield 18 S rRNA. When nuclear acetyl-CoA was depleted by inactivation of acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACS2), we observed temporal accumulation of the 23 S precursor, indicating that Rra1p modulates biogenesis of 40 S subunit by sensing nuclear acetyl-CoA concentration. PMID:25086048

  4. Compositional properties and thermal adaptation of 18S rRNA in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Varriale, Annalisa; Torelli, Giuseppe; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of temperature on the GC level of the paired sequences of ribosomal 18S RNAs in vertebrates, we have studied their base composition in cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates using a stem-by-stem comparison. We observed that a number of stems of 18S ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are variable among species and that the majority of such stems are GC richer in warm-blooded than in cold-blooded vertebrates. We also constructed the secondary structures of the 18S rRNAs of a polar fish, a marsupial, and a monotreme to compare them with those of temperate/tropical fishes and of eutherians, respectively. In these cases, differences similar to those already mentioned were found. We conclude that there is a correlation between stem stability and body temperature even within the relatively limited temperature range of vertebrates. PMID:18567811

  5. A nanodiagnostic colorimetric assay for 18S rRNA of Leishmania pathogens using nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Alireza; Jorjani, Oghol-Niaz; Nikbakht, Hassan; Gill, Pooria

    2013-12-01

    We describe here a nanodiagnostic colorimetric assay for 18S rRNA of Leishmania pathogens that uses nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) and gold nanorods (GNRs). NASBA primers targeting 18S rRNA were used for amplification of RNA in an isothermal process. The electrostatic interactions between the phosphate groups of the RNA amplicons and the cetyl trimethylammonium bromide layer on the GNRs resulting in their aggregation. This phenomenon changes the color of the GNR solution from red to purple. Our data showed 100% sensitivity and 80% specificity with the colorimetric assay compared with results using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The nanodiagnostic method we describe simplifies the detection of NASBA amplicons without the need for gel electrophoresis.

  6. Monitoring the mycobiota during Greco di Tufo and Aglianico wine fermentation by 18S rRNA gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Francesca; La Storia, Antonietta; Blaiotta, Giuseppe

    2017-05-01

    Spontaneous alcoholic fermentation of grape must is a complex process, carried out by indigenous yeast populations arising from the vineyard or the winery environment and therefore representing an autochthonous microbial terroir of the production area. Microbial diversity at species and biotype level is extremely important in order to develop the composite and typical flavour profile of DOCG (Appellation of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin) wines. In this study, we monitored fungal populations involved in spontaneous fermentations of Aglianico and Greco di Tufo grape must by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of 18S rRNA gene amplicons. We firstly proposed an alternative/addition to ITS as target gene in HTS studies and highlighted consistency between the culture-dependent and -independent approaches. A complex mycobiota was found at the beginning of the fermentation, mainly characterized by non-Saccharomyces yeasts and several moulds, with differences between the two types of grapes. Moreover, Interdelta patterns revealed a succession of several Saccharomyces cerevisiae biotypes and a high genetic diversity within this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 18S rRNA is a reliable normalisation gene for real time PCR based on influenza virus infected cells.

    PubMed

    Kuchipudi, Suresh V; Tellabati, Meenu; Nelli, Rahul K; White, Gavin A; Perez, Belinda Baquero; Sebastian, Sujith; Slomka, Marek J; Brookes, Sharon M; Brown, Ian H; Dunham, Stephen P; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2012-10-08

    One requisite of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is to normalise the data with an internal reference gene that is invariant regardless of treatment, such as virus infection. Several studies have found variability in the expression of commonly used housekeeping genes, such as beta-actin (ACTB) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), under different experimental settings. However, ACTB and GAPDH remain widely used in the studies of host gene response to virus infections, including influenza viruses. To date no detailed study has been described that compares the suitability of commonly used housekeeping genes in influenza virus infections. The present study evaluated several commonly used housekeeping genes [ACTB, GAPDH, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, beta polypeptide (ATP5B) and ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9) (ATP5G1)] to identify the most stably expressed gene in human, pig, chicken and duck cells infected with a range of influenza A virus subtypes. The relative expression stability of commonly used housekeeping genes were determined in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), pig tracheal epithelial cells (PTECs), and chicken and duck primary lung-derived cells infected with five influenza A virus subtypes. Analysis of qRT-PCR data from virus and mock infected cells using NormFinder and BestKeeper software programmes found that 18S rRNA was the most stable gene in HBECs, PTECs and avian lung cells. Based on the presented data from cell culture models (HBECs, PTECs, chicken and duck lung cells) infected with a range of influenza viruses, we found that 18S rRNA is the most stable reference gene for normalising qRT-PCR data. Expression levels of the other housekeeping genes evaluated in this study (including ACTB and GPADH) were highly affected by influenza virus infection and hence are not reliable as reference genes for RNA

  8. Trm112 is required for Bud23-mediated methylation of the 18S rRNA at position G1575.

    PubMed

    Figaro, Sabine; Wacheul, Ludivine; Schillewaert, Stéphanie; Graille, Marc; Huvelle, Emmeline; Mongeard, Rémi; Zorbas, Christiane; Lafontaine, Denis L J; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie

    2012-06-01

    Posttranscriptional and posttranslational modification of macromolecules is known to fine-tune their functions. Trm112 is unique, acting as an activator of both tRNA and protein methyltransferases. Here we report that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trm112 is required for efficient ribosome synthesis and progression through mitosis. Trm112 copurifies with pre-rRNAs and with multiple ribosome synthesis trans-acting factors, including the 18S rRNA methyltransferase Bud23. Consistent with the known mechanisms of activation of methyltransferases by Trm112, we found that Trm112 interacts directly with Bud23 in vitro and that it is required for its stability in vivo. Consequently, trm112Δ cells are deficient for Bud23-mediated 18S rRNA methylation at position G1575 and for small ribosome subunit formation. Bud23 failure to bind nascent preribosomes activates a nucleolar surveillance pathway involving the TRAMP complexes, leading to preribosome degradation. Trm112 is thus active in rRNA, tRNA, and translation factor modification, ideally placing it at the interface between ribosome synthesis and function.

  9. Trm112 Is Required for Bud23-Mediated Methylation of the 18S rRNA at Position G1575

    PubMed Central

    Figaro, Sabine; Wacheul, Ludivine; Schillewaert, Stéphanie; Graille, Marc; Huvelle, Emmeline; Mongeard, Rémi; Zorbas, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Posttranscriptional and posttranslational modification of macromolecules is known to fine-tune their functions. Trm112 is unique, acting as an activator of both tRNA and protein methyltransferases. Here we report that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trm112 is required for efficient ribosome synthesis and progression through mitosis. Trm112 copurifies with pre-rRNAs and with multiple ribosome synthesis trans-acting factors, including the 18S rRNA methyltransferase Bud23. Consistent with the known mechanisms of activation of methyltransferases by Trm112, we found that Trm112 interacts directly with Bud23 in vitro and that it is required for its stability in vivo. Consequently, trm112Δ cells are deficient for Bud23-mediated 18S rRNA methylation at position G1575 and for small ribosome subunit formation. Bud23 failure to bind nascent preribosomes activates a nucleolar surveillance pathway involving the TRAMP complexes, leading to preribosome degradation. Trm112 is thus active in rRNA, tRNA, and translation factor modification, ideally placing it at the interface between ribosome synthesis and function. PMID:22493060

  10. 18S rRNA V9 metabarcoding for diet characterization: a critical evaluation with two sympatric zooplanktivorous fish species.

    PubMed

    Albaina, Aitor; Aguirre, Mikel; Abad, David; Santos, María; Estonba, Andone

    2016-03-01

    The potential of the 18S rRNA V9 metabarcoding approach for diet assessment was explored using MiSeq paired-end (PE; 2 × 150 bp) technology. To critically evaluate the method's performance with degraded/digested DNA, the diets of two zooplanktivorous fish species from the Bay of Biscay, European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and European sprat (Sprattus sprattus), were analysed. The taxonomic resolution and quantitative potential of the 18S V9 metabarcoding was first assessed both in silico and with mock and field plankton samples. Our method was capable of discriminating species within the reference database in a reliable way providing there was at least one variable position in the 18S V9 region. Furthermore, it successfully discriminated diet between both fish species, including habitat and diel differences among sardines, overcoming some of the limitations of traditional visual-based diet analysis methods. The high sensitivity and semi-quantitative nature of the 18S V9 metabarcoding approach was supported by both visual microscopy and qPCR-based results. This molecular approach provides an alternative cost and time effective tool for food-web analysis.

  11. Applied genomics: data mining reveals species-specific malaria diagnostic targets more sensitive than 18S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Demas, Allison; Oberstaller, Jenna; DeBarry, Jeremy; Lucchi, Naomi W; Srinivasamoorthy, Ganesh; Sumari, Deborah; Kabanywanyi, Abdunoor M; Villegas, Leopoldo; Escalante, Ananias A; Kachur, S Patrick; Barnwell, John W; Peterson, David S; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Kissinger, Jessica C

    2011-07-01

    Accurate and rapid diagnosis of malaria infections is crucial for implementing species-appropriate treatment and saving lives. Molecular diagnostic tools are the most accurate and sensitive method of detecting Plasmodium, differentiating between Plasmodium species, and detecting subclinical infections. Despite available whole-genome sequence data for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, the majority of PCR-based methods still rely on the 18S rRNA gene targets. Historically, this gene has served as the best target for diagnostic assays. However, it is limited in its ability to detect mixed infections in multiplex assay platforms without the use of nested PCR. New diagnostic targets are needed. Ideal targets will be species specific, highly sensitive, and amenable to both single-step and multiplex PCRs. We have mined the genomes of P. falciparum and P. vivax to identify species-specific, repetitive sequences that serve as new PCR targets for the detection of malaria. We show that these targets (Pvr47 and Pfr364) exist in 14 to 41 copies and are more sensitive than 18S rRNA when utilized in a single-step PCR. Parasites are routinely detected at levels of 1 to 10 parasites/μl. The reaction can be multiplexed to detect both species in a single reaction. We have examined 7 P. falciparum strains and 91 P. falciparum clinical isolates from Tanzania and 10 P. vivax strains and 96 P. vivax clinical isolates from Venezuela, and we have verified a sensitivity and specificity of ∼100% for both targets compared with a nested 18S rRNA approach. We show that bioinformatics approaches can be successfully applied to identify novel diagnostic targets and improve molecular methods for pathogen detection. These novel targets provide a powerful alternative molecular diagnostic method for the detection of P. falciparum and P. vivax in conventional or multiplex PCR platforms.

  12. Detecting morphological convergence in true fungi, using 18S rRNA gene sequence data.

    PubMed

    Berbee, M L; Taylor, J W

    1992-01-01

    For the true fungi, phylogenetic relationships inferred from 18S ribosomal DNA sequence data agree with morphology when (1) the fungi exhibit diagnostic morphological characters, (2) the sequence-based phylogenetic groups are statistically supported, and (3) the ribosomal DNA evolves at roughly the same rate in the lineages being compared. 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence data and biochemical data provide a congruent definition of true fungi. Sequence data support the traditional fungal subdivisions Ascomycotina and Basidiomycotina. In conflict with morphology, some zygomycetes group with chytrid water molds rather than with other terrestrial fungi, possibly owing to unequal rates of nucleotide substitutions among zygomycete lineages. Within the ascomycetes, the taxonomic consequence of simple or reduced morphology has been a proliferation of mutually incongruent classification systems. Sequence data provide plausible resolution of relationships for some cases where reduced morphology has created confusion. For example, phylogenetic trees from rDNA indicate that those morphologically simple ascomycetes classified as yeasts are polyphyletic and that forcible spore discharge was lost convergently from three lineages of ascomycetes producing flask-like fruiting bodies.

  13. Molecular phylogenetics of subclass Peritrichia (Ciliophora: Oligohymenophorea) based on expanded analyses of 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Utz, Laura R P; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among peritrich ciliates remain unclear in spite of recent progress. To expand the analyses performed in previous studies, and to statistically test hypotheses of monophyly, we analyzed a broad sample of 18s rRNA sequences (including 15 peritrich genera), applying a conservative alignment strategy and several phylogenetic approaches. The main results are that: (i) the monophyly of Peritrichia cannot be rejected; (ii) the two main clades of Sessilida do not correspond to formally recognized taxa; (iii) the monophyly of genera Vorticella and Epistylis is significantly rejected; and (iv) morphological structures commonly used in peritrich taxonomy may be evolutionarily labile.

  14. PCR-based diversity estimates of artificial and environmental 18S rRNA gene libraries.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Marianne; Lovejoy, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Environmental clone libraries constructed using small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) or other gene-specific primers have become the standard molecular approach for identifying microorganisms directly from their environment. This technique includes an initial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification step of a phylogenetically useful marker gene using universal primers. Although it is acknowledged that such primers introduce biases, there have been few studies if any to date systematically examining such bias in eukaryotic microbes. We investigated some implications of such bias by constructing clone libraries using several universal primer pairs targeting rRNA genes. Firstly, we constructed artificial libraries using a known mix of small cultured pelagic arctic algae with representatives from five major lineages and secondly we investigated environmental samples using several primer pairs. No primer pair retrieved all of the original algae in the artificial clone libraries and all showed a favorable bias toward the dinoflagellate Polarella glacialis and a bias against the prasinophyte Micromonas and a pennate diatom. Several other species were retrieved by only one primer pair tested. Despite this, sequences from nine environmental libraries were diverse and contained representatives from all major eukaryotic clades expected in marine samples. Further, libraries from the same sample grouped together using Bray-Curtis clustering, irrespective of primer pairs. We conclude that environmental PCR-based techniques are sufficient to compare samples, but the total diversity will probably always be underestimated and relative abundance estimates should be treated with caution.

  15. Feasibility of transferring fluorescent in situ hybridization probes to an 18S rRNA gene phylochip and mapping of signal intensities.

    PubMed

    Metfies, Katja; Medlin, Linda K

    2008-05-01

    DNA microarray technology offers the possibility to analyze microbial communities without cultivation, thus benefiting biodiversity studies. We developed a DNA phylochip to assess phytoplankton diversity and transferred 18S rRNA probes from dot blot or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses to a microarray format. Similar studies with 16S rRNA probes have been done determined that in order to achieve a signal on the microarray, the 16S rRNA molecule had to be fragmented, or PCR amplicons had to be <150 bp in length to minimize the formation of a secondary structure in the molecule so that the probe could bind to the target site. We found different results with the 18S rRNA molecule. Four out of 12 FISH probes exhibited false-negative signals on the microarray; eight exhibited strong but variable signals using full-length 18S RNA molecules. A systematic investigation of the probe's accessibility to the 18S rRNA gene was made using Prymenisum parvum as the target. Fourteen additional probes identical to this target covered the regions not tested with existing FISH probes. Probes with a binding site in the first 900 bp of the gene generated positive signals. Six out of nine probes binding in the last 900 bp of the gene produced no signal. Our results suggest that although secondary structure affected probe binding, the effect is not the same for the 18S rRNA gene and the 16S rRNA gene. For the 16S rRNA gene, the secondary structure is stronger in the first half of the molecule, whereas in the 18S rRNA gene, the last half of the molecule is critical. Probe-binding sites within 18S rRNA gene molecules are important for the probe design for DNA phylochips because signal intensity appears to be correlated with the secondary structure at the binding site in this molecule. If probes are designed from the first half of the 18S rRNA molecule, then full-length 18S rRNA molecules can be used in the hybridization on the chip, avoiding the fragmentation and the

  16. Evaluating multiple alternative hypotheses for the origin of Bilateria: an analysis of 18S rRNA molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Collins, A G

    1998-12-22

    Six alternative hypotheses for the phylogenetic origin of Bilateria are evaluated by using complete 18S rRNA gene sequences for 52 taxa. These data suggest that there is little support for three of these hypotheses. Bilateria is not likely to be the sister group of Radiata or Ctenophora, nor is it likely that Bilateria gave rise to Cnidaria or Ctenophora. Instead, these data reveal a close relationship between bilaterians, placozoans, and cnidarians. From this, several inferences can be drawn. Morphological features that previously have been identified as synapomorphies of Bilateria and Ctenophora, e.g., mesoderm, more likely evolved independently in each clade. The endomesodermal muscles of bilaterians may be homologous to the endodermal muscles of cnidarians, implying that the original bilaterian mesodermal muscles were myoepithelial. Placozoans should have a gastrulation stage during development. Of the three hypotheses that cannot be falsified with the 18S rRNA data, one is most strongly supported. This hypothesis states that Bilateria and Placozoa share a more recent common ancestor than either does to Cnidaria. If true, the simplicity of placozoan body architecture is secondarily derived from a more complex ancestor. This simplification may have occurred in association with a planula-type larva becoming reproductive before metamorphosis. If this simplification took place during the common history that placozoans share with bilaterians, then placozoan genes that contain a homeobox, such as Trox2, should be explored, for they may include the gene or genes most closely related to Hox genes of bilaterians.

  17. Evaluating multiple alternative hypotheses for the origin of Bilateria: An analysis of 18S rRNA molecular evidence

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Allen G.

    1998-01-01

    Six alternative hypotheses for the phylogenetic origin of Bilateria are evaluated by using complete 18S rRNA gene sequences for 52 taxa. These data suggest that there is little support for three of these hypotheses. Bilateria is not likely to be the sister group of Radiata or Ctenophora, nor is it likely that Bilateria gave rise to Cnidaria or Ctenophora. Instead, these data reveal a close relationship between bilaterians, placozoans, and cnidarians. From this, several inferences can be drawn. Morphological features that previously have been identified as synapomorphies of Bilateria and Ctenophora, e.g., mesoderm, more likely evolved independently in each clade. The endomesodermal muscles of bilaterians may be homologous to the endodermal muscles of cnidarians, implying that the original bilaterian mesodermal muscles were myoepithelial. Placozoans should have a gastrulation stage during development. Of the three hypotheses that cannot be falsified with the 18S rRNA data, one is most strongly supported. This hypothesis states that Bilateria and Placozoa share a more recent common ancestor than either does to Cnidaria. If true, the simplicity of placozoan body architecture is secondarily derived from a more complex ancestor. This simplification may have occurred in association with a planula-type larva becoming reproductive before metamorphosis. If this simplification took place during the common history that placozoans share with bilaterians, then placozoan genes that contain a homeobox, such as Trox2, should be explored, for they may include the gene or genes most closely related to Hox genes of bilaterians. PMID:9860990

  18. First description of heterogeneity in 18S rRNA genes in the haploid genome of Cryptosporidium andersoni Kawatabi type.

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Makoto; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Honma, Hajime; Kasai, Kenji; Kaneta, Yoshiyasu; Nakai, Yutaka

    2013-09-01

    The Apicomplexan Cryptosporidium andersoni, is a species of gastric Cryptosporidium, is frequently detected in older calves and adult cattle. Genotyping analyses based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences have been performed on a novel C. andersoni genotype, namely the Kawatabi type, and the oocysts were classified into two distinct groups genotypically: Type A (the sequence in GenBank) and Type B (with a thymine nucleotide insertion not in Type A). This study analyzed 3775 cattle at a slaughterhouse and 310 cattle at a farm using microscopy and found 175 Cryptosporidium-positive animals: 171 from the slaughterhouse and four from the farm, and all infecting parasites were determined to be C. andersoni from 18S rRNA gene sequences determined from fecal DNA. In genotyping analyses with single isolated oocysts, about a half of analyzed ones were clearly classified into well known two genotypes (Type A and B). In addition to these two known genotypes, we have detected some oocysts showing mixed signals of Types A and B in the electropherogram from the automated sequencer (the Type C genotype). To determine the genotypic composition of sporozoites carried by the Type C oocysts, we analyzed their 18S rRNA gene sequences using a single sporozoite isolation procedure. Some sporozoites were classified as either Type A or Type B. However, more than half of the analyzed isolated sporozoites showed a mixed signal identical to that of Type C oocysts, and both the Type A and B signals were surely detectable from such sporozoites after a cloning procedure. In conclusion, C. andersoni carries two different genotypes heterogeneously in its haploid genome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Yeast Kre33 and human NAT10 are conserved 18S rRNA cytosine acetyltransferases that modify tRNAs assisted by the adaptor Tan1/THUMPD1

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunny; Langhendries, Jean-Louis; Watzinger, Peter; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Lafontaine, Denis L.J.

    2015-01-01

    The function of RNA is subtly modulated by post-transcriptional modifications. Here, we report an important crosstalk in the covalent modification of two classes of RNAs. We demonstrate that yeast Kre33 and human NAT10 are RNA cytosine acetyltransferases with, surprisingly, specificity toward both 18S rRNA and tRNAs. tRNA acetylation requires the intervention of a specific and conserved adaptor: yeast Tan1/human THUMPD1. In budding and fission yeasts, and in human cells, we found two acetylated cytosines on 18S rRNA, one in helix 34 important for translation accuracy and another in helix 45 near the decoding site. Efficient 18S rRNA acetylation in helix 45 involves, in human cells, the vertebrate-specific box C/D snoRNA U13, which, we suggest, exposes the substrate cytosine to modification through Watson–Crick base pairing with 18S rRNA precursors during small subunit biogenesis. Finally, while Kre33 and NAT10 are essential for pre-rRNA processing reactions leading to 18S rRNA synthesis, we demonstrate that rRNA acetylation is dispensable to yeast cells growth. The inactivation of NAT10 was suggested to suppress nuclear morphological defects observed in laminopathic patient cells through loss of microtubules modification and cytoskeleton reorganization. We rather propose the effects of NAT10 on laminopathic cells are due to reduced ribosome biogenesis or function. PMID:25653167

  20. Detection of genetic homogeneity of Panax notoginseng cultivars by sequencing nuclear 18S rRNA and plastid matK genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Jin-Chao; Huang, Ming-Hui; Yang, Meng-Su; Cao, Hui

    2006-07-01

    The nuclear 18S rRNA and chloroplast MATK genes of 18 samples of Panax notoginseng and its processed material Sanqi (Radix Notoginseng) were analyzed. The two genes, regardless of cultivar origin, were found to be identical to genotype R1 and M1, respectively, of the published sequences (GenBank accession no. D85171 and AB027526). This phenomenon implies that the species is highly conserved, which is probably caused by the use of the same strain in cultivation and the lack of active mutation in these two genes.

  1. Genetic evidence for 18S rRNA binding and an Rps19p assembly function of yeast nucleolar protein Nep1p.

    PubMed

    Buchhaupt, Markus; Meyer, Britta; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2006-09-01

    The nucleolar protein Nep1 and its human homologue were previously shown to be involved in the maturation of 18S rRNA and to interfere directly or indirectly with a methylation reaction. Here, we report that the loss-of-function mutation Deltasnr57 and multicopy expression of the ribosomal 40S subunit protein 19 (Rps19p) can partially suppress the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Deltanep1 growth defect. SnR57 mediates 2'-O-ribose-methylation of G(1570) in the 18S rRNA. By performing a three-hybrid screen, we isolated several short RNA sequences with strong binding affinity to Nep1p. All isolated RNAs shared a six-nucleotide consensus motif C/UUCAAC. Furthermore, one of the isolated RNAs exactly corresponded to nucleotides 1553-1577 of the 18S rRNA, which includes G(1570), the site of snR57-dependent 18S rRNA methylation. From protein-protein crosslink data and the cryo-EM map of the S. cerevisiae small ribosomal subunit, we suggest that Rps19p is localized in close vicinity to the Nep1p 18S rRNA binding site. Our results suggest that Nep1p binds adjacent to helix 47 of the 18S rRNA and possibly supports the association of Rps19p to pre-ribosomal particles.

  2. Molecular phylogenetics of the spider family Micropholcommatidae (Arachnida: Araneae) using nuclear rRNA genes (18S and 28S).

    PubMed

    Rix, Michael G; Harvey, Mark S; Roberts, J Dale

    2008-03-01

    The spider family Micropholcommatidae is an enigmatic taxon of uncertain limits and uncertain affinities. Various phylogenetic hypotheses have been proposed for the family, but these hypotheses have never been tested with a robust phylogenetic analysis. The existence of similar Australasian and New World taxa, the possibility of morphological convergence associated with extreme 'smallness', and the apparent paucity of synapomorphic morphological characters, have all clouded generic relationships in this group. We used fragments from two nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (18S and 28S) to test the monophyly and phylogenetic position of the Micropholcommatidae. The analyses incorporated 50 ingroup spider species, including 23 micropholcommatid species and representatives from 14 other spider families. Ribosomal RNA secondary structures were inferred for the V3-V5 region of the 18S rRNA gene, and Domain II of the 28S rRNA gene of Hickmania troglodytes [Higgins, E.T., Petterd, W.F., 1883. Description of a new cave-inhabiting spider, together with notes on mammalian remains from a recently discovered cave in the Chudleigh district. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasman. 1882, 191-192]. These secondary structures were used to guide multiple sequence alignments, and determine the position and nature of indels in different taxa. Secondary structure information was also incorporated into a structurally partitioned rRNA analysis in MrBayes Version 3.1.2, using a doublet model of nucleotide substitution. This structurally partitioned rRNA analysis provided a less resolved but more conservative and informative estimate of phylogeny than an otherwise identical, unpartitioned rDNA analysis. With the exception of the Chilean species Teutoniella cekalovici [Platnick, N.I., Forster, R.R., 1986. On Teutoniella, an American genus of the spider family Micropholcommatidae (Araneae, Palpimanoidea). Am. Mus. Novit. 2854, 1-9], the family Micropholcommatidae was found to be monophyletic with three

  3. Analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences suggests significant molecular differences between Macrodasyida and Chaetonotida (Gastrotricha).

    PubMed

    Manylov, Oleg G; Vladychenskaya, Natalia S; Milyutina, Irina A; Kedrova, Olga S; Korokhov, Nikolai P; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady A; Aleshin, Vladimir V; Petrov, Nikolai B

    2004-03-01

    Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences of four macrodasyid and one chaetonotid gastrotrichs were obtained and compared with the available sequences of other gastrotrich species and representatives of various metazoan phyla. Contrary to the earlier molecular data, the gastrotrich sequences did not comprise a monophyletic group but formed two distinct clades, corresponding to the Macrodasyida and Chaetonotida, with the basal position occupied by the sequences of Tetranchyroderma sp. and Xenotrichula sp., respectively. Depending on the taxon sampling and methods of analysis, the two clades were separated by various combinations of clades Rotifera, Gnathostomulida, and Platyhelminthes, and never formed a clade with Nematoda. Thus, monophyly of the Gastrotricha is not confirmed by analysis of the presently available molecular data.

  4. Sequence heterogeneity in the 18S rRNA gene within Theileria equi and Babesia caballi from horses in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bhoora, Raksha; Franssen, Linda; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Guthrie, Alan J; Zweygarth, Erich; Penzhorn, Barend L; Jongejan, Frans; Collins, Nicola E

    2009-02-05

    A molecular epidemiological survey of the protozoal parasites that cause equine piroplasmosis was conducted using samples collected from horses and zebra from different geographical locations in South Africa. A total of 488 samples were tested for the presence of Theileria equi and/or Babesia caballi using the reverse line blot hybridization assay. Ten percent of the samples hybridized to the Theileria/Babesia genus-specific probe and not to the B. caballi or T. equi species-specific probes, suggesting the presence of a novel species or genotype. The small subunit of rRNA gene (18S; approximately 1600bp) was amplified and sequenced from 33 of these 488 samples. Sequences were compared with published sequences from the public sequence databases. Twelve distinct T. equi and six B. caballi 18S rRNA sequences were identified. Alignments demonstrated extensive sequence variation in the V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene within T. equi. Sequence variation was also found in B. caballi 18S rRNA genes, although there was less variation than observed for T. equi. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed three T. equi clades and two B. caballi clades in South Africa. The extent of sequence heterogeneity detected within T. equi and B. caballi 18S rRNA genes was unexpected since concerted evolution is thought to maintain homogeneity within repeated gene families, including rRNA genes, in eukaryotes. The findings reported here show that careful examination of variants of the 18S rRNA gene of T. equi and B. caballi is required prior to the development of molecular diagnostic tests to detect these parasites in horses. Species-specific probes must be in designed in regions of the gene that are both conserved within and unique to each species.

  5. Phylogeny of Intestinal Ciliates, Including Charonina ventriculi, and Comparison of Microscopy and 18S rRNA Gene Pyrosequencing for Rumen Ciliate Community Structure Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Devente, Savannah R.; Kirk, Michelle R.; Seedorf, Henning; Dehority, Burk A.

    2015-01-01

    The development of high-throughput methods, such as the construction of 18S rRNA gene clone or pyrosequencing libraries, has allowed evaluation of ciliate community composition in hundreds of samples from the rumen and other intestinal habitats. However, several genera of mammalian intestinal ciliates have been described based only on morphological features and, to date, have not been identified using molecular methods. Here, we isolated single cells of one of the smallest but widely distributed intestinal ciliates, Charonina ventriculi, and sequenced its 18S rRNA gene. We verified the sequence in a full-cycle rRNA approach using fluorescence in situ hybridization and thereby assigned an 18S rRNA gene sequence to this species previously known only by its morphology. Based on its full-length 18S rRNA gene sequence, Charonina ventriculi was positioned within the phylogeny of intestinal ciliates in the subclass Trichostomatia. The taxonomic framework derived from this phylogeny was used for taxonomic assignment of trichostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequence data stemming from high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing of rumen-derived DNA samples. The 18S rRNA gene-based ciliate community structure was compared to that obtained from microscopic counts using the same samples. Both methods allowed identification of dominant members of the ciliate communities and classification of the rumen ciliate community into one of the types first described by Eadie in 1962. Notably, each method is associated with advantages and disadvantages. Microscopy is a highly accurate method for evaluation of total numbers or relative abundances of different ciliate genera in a sample, while 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing represents a valuable alternative for comparison of ciliate community structure in a large number of samples from different animals or treatment groups. PMID:25616800

  6. Phylogeny of intestinal ciliates, including Charonina ventriculi, and comparison of microscopy and 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing for rumen ciliate community structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Devente, Savannah R; Kirk, Michelle R; Seedorf, Henning; Dehority, Burk A; Janssen, Peter H

    2015-04-01

    The development of high-throughput methods, such as the construction of 18S rRNA gene clone or pyrosequencing libraries, has allowed evaluation of ciliate community composition in hundreds of samples from the rumen and other intestinal habitats. However, several genera of mammalian intestinal ciliates have been described based only on morphological features and, to date, have not been identified using molecular methods. Here, we isolated single cells of one of the smallest but widely distributed intestinal ciliates, Charonina ventriculi, and sequenced its 18S rRNA gene. We verified the sequence in a full-cycle rRNA approach using fluorescence in situ hybridization and thereby assigned an 18S rRNA gene sequence to this species previously known only by its morphology. Based on its full-length 18S rRNA gene sequence, Charonina ventriculi was positioned within the phylogeny of intestinal ciliates in the subclass Trichostomatia. The taxonomic framework derived from this phylogeny was used for taxonomic assignment of trichostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequence data stemming from high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing of rumen-derived DNA samples. The 18S rRNA gene-based ciliate community structure was compared to that obtained from microscopic counts using the same samples. Both methods allowed identification of dominant members of the ciliate communities and classification of the rumen ciliate community into one of the types first described by Eadie in 1962. Notably, each method is associated with advantages and disadvantages. Microscopy is a highly accurate method for evaluation of total numbers or relative abundances of different ciliate genera in a sample, while 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing represents a valuable alternative for comparison of ciliate community structure in a large number of samples from different animals or treatment groups. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Molecular phylogeny of extant gymnosperms and seed plant evolution: analysis of nuclear 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Chaw, S M; Zharkikh, A; Sung, H M; Lau, T C; Li, W H

    1997-01-01

    To study the evolutionary relationships among the four living gymnosperm orders and the interfamilial relationships in each order, a set of 65 nuclear 18S rRNA sequences from ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms was analyzed using the neighbor-joining and maximum-parsimony methods. With Selaginella as the outgroup, the analysis strongly indicates that the seed plants form a monophyletic group with the ferns as a sister group. Within the seed plants the angiosperms are clearly a monophyletic group. Although the bootstrap support for the monophyly of the gymnosperm clade is moderate, the monophyly is further supported by its lack of angiosperm-specific indels. Within the gymnosperms there appear to be three monophyletic clades: Cycadales-Ginkgoales, Gnetales, and Coniferales. The cycad-ginkgo clade is the earliest gymnosperm lineage. Given the strong support for the sister group relationship between Gnetales and Coniferales, it is unlikely that Gnetales is a sister group of the angiosperms, contrary to the view of many plant taxonomists. Within Coniferales, Pinaceae is monophyletic and basal to the remaining conifer families, among which there are three monophyletic clades: Phyllocladaceae-Podocarpaceae, Araucariaceae, and Sciadopityaceae-Taxaceae-Cephalotaxaceae-Taxodiacea e-Cupressaceae. Within the latter clade, Sciadopityaceae may be an outgroup to the other four families. Among the angiosperms, no significant cluster at the level of subclass was found, but there was evidence that Nymphaeaceae branched off first. Within the remaining angiosperms, the monocots included in this study are nested and form a monophyletic group. This study attests to the utility of nuclear 18S rRNA sequences in addressing relationships among living gymnosperms. Considerable variation in substitution rates was observed among the ferns and seed plants.

  8. Sequence heterogeneity in the 18S rRNA gene in Theileria equi from horses presented in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Meli, Marina L; Zhang, Yi; Meili, Theres; Stirn, Martina; Riond, Barbara; Weibel, Beatrice; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2016-05-15

    A reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was adapted and applied for equine blood samples collected at the animal hospital of the University of Zurich to determine the presence of piroplasms in horses in Switzerland. A total of 100 equine blood samples were included in the study. The V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed using the RLB assay. Samples from seven horses hybridized to a Theileria/Babesia genus-specific and a Theileria genus-specific probe. Of these, two hybridized also to the Theileria equi-specific probe. The other five positive samples did not hybridize to any of the species-specific probes, suggesting the presence of unrecognized Theileria variants or genotypes. The 18S rRNA gene of the latter five samples were sequenced and found to be closely related to T. equi isolated from horses in Spain (AY534822) and China (KF559357) (≥98.4% identity). Four of the seven horses that tested positive had a documented travel history (France, Italy, and Spain) or lived abroad (Hungary). The present study adds new insight into the presence and sequence heterogeneity of T. equi in Switzerland. The results prompt that species-specific probes must be designed in regions of the gene unique to T. equi. Of note, none of the seven positive horses were suspected of having Theileria infection at the time of presentation to the clinic. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of equine piroplasma infections outside of endemic areas and in horses without signs of piroplasmosis.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of basal hexapods reconstructed from nearly complete 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Bu, Yun; Luan, Yun-Xia

    2008-11-01

    This study combined nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA gene sequences (>4100 nt long) to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of basal hexapods (Protura, Collembola, and Diplura). It sequenced more 28S genes, to expand on a previous study from this lab that used 18S plus only a tiny part of the 28S gene. Sixteen species of basal hexapods, five insects, six crustaceans, two myriapods, and two chelicerates were included in the analyses. Trees were constructed with maximum likelihood, Bayesian analysis, and minimum-evolution analysis of LogDet-transformed distances. All methods yielded consistent results: (1) Hexapoda was monophyletic and nested in a paraphyletic Crustacea, and Hexapoda was divided into Entognatha [Collembola+Nonoculata (Protura plus Diplura)] and Insecta (=Ectognatha), but the Nonoculata clade must be accepted with caution because of its strong nonstationarity of nucleotide composition. (2) Within Diplura, the monophyly of Campodeoidea and of Japygoidea were supported respectively, and all methods united Projapygoidea with Japygoidea. (3) Within Protura, Sinentomidae was the sister group to Acerentomata. (4) Within Collembola, the modern taxonomical hierarchy of Collembola (Poduromorpha, Entomobryomorpha, Symphypleona and Neelipleona) was confirmed.

  10. [Fragment of mRNA coding part that is complementary to region 1638-1650 of wheat 18S rRNA functions as a translational enhancer].

    PubMed

    Zhigaĭlov, A V; Babaĭlova, E S; Polimbetova, N S; Graĭfer, D M; Karpova, G G; Iskakov, B K

    2012-01-01

    Possible involvement of 18S rRNA fragment 1638-1650 including basements of the helices h44 and h28 and nucleotides of the ribosomal decoding site in the cap-independent translation initiation on plant ribosomes is studied. This rRNA fragment is shown to be accessible for complementary interactions within the 40S ribosomal subunit. It is found that the sequence complementary to the 18S rRNA fragment 1638-1650 is able to enhance efficiency of a reporter mRNA translation when placed just after the initiation codon. The results obtained indicate that in the course of the cap-independent translation initiation, complementary interactions can occur between mRNA coding sequence and 18S rRNA fragment in the region of the ribosomal decoding site.

  11. The initial U3 snoRNA:pre-rRNA base pairing interaction required for pre-18S rRNA folding revealed by in vivo chemical probing.

    PubMed

    Dutca, Laura M; Gallagher, Jennifer E G; Baserga, Susan J

    2011-07-01

    The synthesis of ribosomal subunits in the nucleolus is a conserved, essential process that results in cytoplasmic ribosomes with precisely processed and folded rRNAs assembled with ribosomal proteins. It has been proposed, but never directly demonstrated, that the U3 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), a nucleolar component required for ribosome biogenesis, is a chaperone for pre-18S rRNA folding. To test this, we used in vivo chemical probing with dimethyl sulfate to detect changes in pre-rRNA structure upon genetic manipulation of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on changes in nucleotide reactivity, we found that the U3 snoRNA is indeed required for folding of the pre-18S rRNA. Furthermore, we detected a new essential base pairing interaction that is likely the initial anchor that recruits the U3 snoRNA to the pre-rRNA, is a prerequisite for the subsequent interactions, and is required for the small subunit processome formation. Substitution of the 5'-ETS nucleotides of the pre-rRNA involved in this initial base pairing interaction is lethal, but growth is restored when a complementary U3 snoRNA is expressed. The U3 snoRNP, via base pairing, and its associated proteins, are part of the required machinery that orchestrates the folding of pre-rRNA that results in the assembly of the small ribosomal subunit.

  12. The initial U3 snoRNA:pre-rRNA base pairing interaction required for pre-18S rRNA folding revealed by in vivo chemical probing

    PubMed Central

    Dutca, Laura M.; Gallagher, Jennifer E. G.; Baserga, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of ribosomal subunits in the nucleolus is a conserved, essential process that results in cytoplasmic ribosomes with precisely processed and folded rRNAs assembled with ribosomal proteins. It has been proposed, but never directly demonstrated, that the U3 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), a nucleolar component required for ribosome biogenesis, is a chaperone for pre-18S rRNA folding. To test this, we used in vivo chemical probing with dimethyl sulfate to detect changes in pre-rRNA structure upon genetic manipulation of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on changes in nucleotide reactivity, we found that the U3 snoRNA is indeed required for folding of the pre-18S rRNA. Furthermore, we detected a new essential base pairing interaction that is likely the initial anchor that recruits the U3 snoRNA to the pre-rRNA, is a prerequisite for the subsequent interactions, and is required for the small subunit processome formation. Substitution of the 5′-ETS nucleotides of the pre-rRNA involved in this initial base pairing interaction is lethal, but growth is restored when a complementary U3 snoRNA is expressed. The U3 snoRNP, via base pairing, and its associated proteins, are part of the required machinery that orchestrates the folding of pre-rRNA that results in the assembly of the small ribosomal subunit. PMID:21349877

  13. The utility of diversity profiling using Illumina 18S rRNA gene amplicon deep sequencing to detect and discriminate Toxoplasma gondii among the cyst-forming coccidia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Madalyn K; Phalen, David N; Donahoe, Shannon L; Rose, Karrie; Šlapeta, Jan

    2016-01-30

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the capacity to screen a single DNA sample and detect pathogen DNA from thousands of host DNA sequence reads, making it a versatile and informative tool for investigation of pathogens in diseased animals. The technique is effective and labor saving in the initial identification of pathogens, and will complement conventional diagnostic tests to associate the candidate pathogen with a disease process. In this report, we investigated the utility of the diversity profiling NGS approach using Illumina small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene amplicon deep sequencing to detect Toxoplasma gondii in previously confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis. We then tested the diagnostic approach with species-specific PCR genotyping, histopathology and immunohistochemistry of toxoplasmosis in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) to systematically characterise the disease and associate causality. We show that the Euk7A/Euk570R primer set targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene can be used as a species-specific assay for cyst-forming coccidia and discriminate T. gondii. Overall, the approach is cost-effective and improves diagnostic decision support by narrowing the differential diagnosis list with more certainty than was previously possible. Furthermore, it supplements the limitations of cryptic protozoan morphology and surpasses the need for species-specific PCR primer combinations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Ultrastructural observation on nymphal Armillifer sp. by scanning electron microscopy and phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Shi, Yun-Liang; Shi, Wei; Fang, Fang; Zhou, Qing-An; Li, Wen-Wen; He, Guo-Sheng; Huang, Wei-Yi

    2012-04-30

    To observe the ultrastructure of nymphal Armillifer sp. isolated from Macaca fascicularis by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), and analyze the phylogenetic relationships based on 18S rRNA gene sequences. The parasite samples stored in 70% alcohol were fixed by glutaraldehyde and osmium peroxide. Ultrastructural characters of those samples were observed under SEM. Amplification and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene were performed following the extraction of total genome DNA. Sequence analysis was performed based on multiple alignment using ClustalX1.83, while phylogenetic analysis was made by Neighbor-Joining method using MEGA4.0. The nymphs were in cylindrical shape, the body slightly claviform tapering to posterior end. Abdominal annuli were gradually widened from anterior to posterior parts, the 12th-13th abdominal annuli of which were similar in width. The annuli ranged closer in the front half body, whereas in the latter part there were certain gaps between them. The circular-shaped mouth located in the middle of head ventrally. Folds were seen in inner margin of the mouth with a pair of curved hooks on both sides above it which practically disposed in a straight line. Two pairs of large sensory papillae were observed symmetrically over the last thoracic annulus of cephalothoraxs lying below the outer hook, and the first abdominal annulus was near the median ventral line. The number of abdominal annuli was 29, not including 2 incomplete terminal annuli. Rounded sensory papillae were fully distributed on the body surface, except the dorsal side of head and the ventral part of the terminal annulus. Agglomerate-like anus opening was observed at the end of ventral abdominal annuli and distinctly sub-terminal. These morphological features demonstrated that the nymphs were highly similar with that of Armillifer moniliformis Diesing, 1835. A fragment of 18SrRNA gene (1 836 bp) sequences was obtained by PCR combined with sequencing, and was registered to the Gene

  15. Phylogenetic analysis and the evolution of the 18S rRNA gene typing system of Acanthamoeba.

    PubMed

    Fuerst, Paul A; Booton, Gregory C; Crary, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Species of Acanthamoeba were first described using morphological characters including cyst structure and cytology of nuclear division. More than 20 nominal species were proposed using these methods. Morphology, especially cyst shape and size, has proven to be plastic and dependent upon culture conditions. The DNA sequence of the nuclear small-subunit (18S) rRNA, the Rns gene, has become the most widely accepted method for rapid diagnosis and classification of Acanthamoeba. The Byers-Fuerst lab first proposed an Rns typing system in 1996. Subsequent refinements, with an increasing DNA database and analysis of diagnostic fragments within the gene, have become widely accepted by the Acanthamoeba research community. The development of the typing system, including its current state of implementation is illustrated by three cases: (i) the division between sequence types T13 and T16; (ii) the diversity within sequence supertype T2/T6, and (iii) verification of a new sequence type, designated T20. Molecular studies make clear the disconnection between phylogenetic relatedness and species names, as applied for the genus Acanthamoeba. Future reconciliation of genetic types with species names must become a priority, but the possible shortcomings of the use of a single gene when reconstructing the evolutionary history of the acanthamoebidae must also be resolved. © 2014 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2014 International Society of Protistologists.

  16. Phylogenetic position of Loricifera inferred from nearly complete 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Shinta; Miyazaki, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Loricifera is an enigmatic metazoan phylum; its morphology appeared to place it with Priapulida and Kinorhyncha in the group Scalidophora which, along with Nematoida (Nematoda and Nematomorpha), comprised the group Cycloneuralia. Scarce molecular data have suggested an alternative phylogenetic hypothesis, that the phylum Loricifera is a sister taxon to Nematomorpha, although the actual phylogenetic position of the phylum remains unclear. Ecdysozoan phylogeny was reconstructed through maximum-likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses of nuclear 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequences from 60 species representing all eight ecdysozoan phyla, and including a newly collected loriciferan species. Ecdysozoa comprised two clades with high support values in both the ML and BI trees. One consisted of Priapulida and Kinorhyncha, and the other of Loricifera, Nematoida, and Panarthropoda (Tardigrada, Onychophora, and Arthropoda). The relationships between Loricifera, Nematoida, and Panarthropoda were not well resolved. Loricifera appears to be closely related to Nematoida and Panarthropoda, rather than grouping with Priapulida and Kinorhyncha, as had been suggested by previous studies. Thus, both Scalidophora and Cycloneuralia are a polyphyletic or paraphyletic groups. In addition, Loricifera and Nematomorpha did not emerge as sister groups.

  17. [Molecular phylogeny of gastrotricha based on 18S rRNA genes comparison: rejection of hypothesis of relatedness with nematodes].

    PubMed

    Petrov, N B; Pegova, A N; Manylov, O G; Vladychenskaia, N S; Miuge, N S; Aleshin, V V

    2007-01-01

    Gastrotrichs are meiobenthic free-living aquatic worms whose phylogenetic and intra-group relationships remain unclear despite some attempts to resolve them on the base of morphology or molecules. In this study we analysed complete sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of 15 taxa (8 new and 7 published) to test numerous hypotheses on gastrotrich phylogeny and to verify whether controversial interrelationships from previous molecular data could be due to the short region available for analysis and the poor taxa sampling. Data were analysed using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Results obtained suggest that gastrotrichs, together with Gnathostomulida, Plathelminthes, Syndermata (Rotifera + Acanthocephala), Nemertea and Lophotrochozoa, comprise a clade Spiralia. Statistical tests reject phylogenetic hypotheses regarding Gastrotricha as close relatives of Nematoda and other Ecdysozoa or placing them at the base of bilaterian tree close to acoels and nemertodermatides. Within Gastrotricha, Chaetonotida and Macrodasyida comprise two well supported clades. Our analysis confirmed the monophyly of the Chaetonotidae and Xenotrichulidae within Chaetonida as well as Turbanellidae and Thaumastodermatidae within Macrodasyida. Mesodasys is a sister group of the Turbanellidae, and Lepidodasyidae appears to be a polyphyletic group as Cephalodasys forms a separate lineage at the base of macrodasyids, whereas Lepidodasys groups with Neodasys between Thaumastodermatidae and Turbanellidae. To infer a more reliable Gastrotricha phylogeny many species and additional genes should be involved in future analyses.

  18. Limitations of metazoan 18S rRNA sequence data: implications for reconstructing a phylogeny of the animal kingdom and inferring the reality of the Cambrian explosion.

    PubMed

    Abouheif, E; Zardoya, R; Meyer, A

    1998-10-01

    We document the phylogenetic behavior of the 18S rRNA molecule in 67 taxa from 28 metazoan phyla and assess the effects of among-site rate variation on reconstructing phylogenies of the animal kingdom. This empirical assessment was undertaken to clarify further the limits of resolution of the 18S rRNA gene as a phylogenetic marker and to address the question of whether 18S rRNA phylogenies can be used as a source of evidence to infer the reality of a Cambrian explosion. A notable degree of among-site rate variation exists between different regions of the 18S rRNA molecule, as well as within all classes of secondary structure. There is a significant negative correlation between inferred number of nucleotide substitutions and phylogenetic information, as well as with the degree of substitutional saturation within the molecule. Base compositional differences both within and between taxa exist and, in certain lineages, may be associated with long branches and phylogenetic position. Importantly, excluding sites with different degrees of nucleotide substitution significantly influences the topology and degree of resolution of maximum-parsimony phylogenies as well as neighbor-joining phylogenies (corrected and uncorrected for among-site rate variation) reconstructed at the metazoan scale. Together, these data indicate that the 18S rRNA molecule is an unsuitable candidate for reconstructing the evolutionary history of all metazoan phyla, and that the polytomies, i.e., unresolved nodes within 18S rRNA phylogenies, cannot be used as a single or reliable source of evidence to support the hypothesis of a Cambrian explosion.

  19. Direct chemical probing of the conformation of the 3' functional domain of rabbit 18S rRNA in 40S subunits, 80S ribosomes and polyribosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Rubino, H.M.; Rairkar, A.; Lockard, R.E.

    1987-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the 3' minor domain of eukaryotic 18S rRNA, as in prokaryotes, is directly involved in protein biosynthesis. To determine regions of possible functional importance, they have probed the higher order structure of rabbit 18S rRNA in both 40S subunits and 80S ribosomes, as well as polyribosomes using the single-strand specific chemical probes dimethyl sulfate (DMS) and diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) which react with unpaired guanosine and adenosine residues, respectively. The modified 18S rRNA was isolated from these particles and the resultant modified nucleotides identified on polyacrylamide sequencing gels upon either aniline-induced strand scission of /sup 32/P-end-labeled intact rRNA or by DNA primer extension using sequence specific deoxyoligomers with reverse transcriptase. Their results indicate a decreased reactivity of residue C-1692 in rabbit 18S rRNA (corresponding to C-1400 E. coli) within the putative tRNA contact site in polyribosomes as compared with 40S subunits and 80S ribosomes. They have also determined varying reactivities of a number of other residues within specific regions of the 3' functional domain when 40S, 80S, and polyribosomes are compared, which may be important for both subunit association as well as mRNA binding.

  20. [Probable involvement of 3'-terminal segment of 18S rRNA in translation initiation of uncapped mRNAs in plants].

    PubMed

    Zhigaĭlov, A V; Babaĭlova, E S; Polimbetov, N S; Graĭfer, D M; Karpova, G G; Iskakov, B K

    2011-01-01

    A possibility of involvement of 3'-terminal 18S rRNA segment in the cap-independent initiation of translation on plant ribosomes was studied. It was shown that 3-terminal segment (nucleotides 1777-1811) of 18S rRNA including the last hairpin 45 is accessible for complementary interactions in 40S ribosomal subunits. Oligonucleotides complementary to this segment of rRNA when added to wheat germ cell-free protein synthesizing system were found to specifically inhibit translation of uncapped reporter mRNA coding for beta-glucuronidase, which bears in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) a leader sequence of potato virus Y (PVY) genomic RNA possessing fragments complementary to the region 1777-1811. It was shown that a sequence corresponding to nucleotides 291-316 of PVY, which is complementary to a major portion of the 3-terminal 18S rRNA segment 1777-1808, when placed into 5'-UTR, is able to enhance translational efficiency of the reporter mRNAs. The results obtained suggest that complementary interactions between mRNA 5'-UTR and 18S rRNA 3'-terminal segment can take place in the course of cap-independent translation initiation.

  1. Crystal Structure of Rcl1 an Essential Component of the Eukaryal pre-rRNA Processosome Implicated in 18s rRNA Biogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    T Tanaka; P Smith; S Shuman

    2011-12-31

    Rcl1 is an essential nucleolar protein required for U3 snoRNA-guided pre-rRNA processing at sites flanking the 18S rRNA sequence. A potential catalytic role for Rcl1 during pre-rRNA cleavage has been suggested based on its primary structure similarity to RNA 3'-terminal phosphate cyclase (Rtc) enzymes, which perform nucleotidyl transfer and phosphoryl transfer reactions at RNA ends. Here, we report the 2.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of a biologically active yeast Rcl1, which illuminates its modular 4-domain architecture and overall homology with RNA cyclases while revealing numerous local differences that account for why Rtcs possess metal-dependent adenylyltransferase activity and Rcls do not. A conserved oxyanion-binding site in Rcl1 was highlighted for possible catalytic or RNA-binding functions. However, the benign effects of mutations in and around the anion site on Rcl1 activity in vivo militate against such a role.

  2. Crystal structure of Rcl1, an essential component of the eukaryal pre-rRNA processosome implicated in 18s rRNA biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naoko; Smith, Paul; Shuman, Stewart

    2011-04-01

    Rcl1 is an essential nucleolar protein required for U3 snoRNA-guided pre-rRNA processing at sites flanking the 18S rRNA sequence. A potential catalytic role for Rcl1 during pre-rRNA cleavage has been suggested based on its primary structure similarity to RNA 3'-terminal phosphate cyclase (Rtc) enzymes, which perform nucleotidyl transfer and phosphoryl transfer reactions at RNA ends. Here, we report the 2.6 Å crystal structure of a biologically active yeast Rcl1, which illuminates its modular 4-domain architecture and overall homology with RNA cyclases while revealing numerous local differences that account for why Rtcs possess metal-dependent adenylyltransferase activity and Rcls do not. A conserved oxyanion-binding site in Rcl1 was highlighted for possible catalytic or RNA-binding functions. However, the benign effects of mutations in and around the anion site on Rcl1 activity in vivo militate against such a role.

  3. Primers to block the amplification of symbiotic apostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene in a PCR-based copepod diet study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Guangxing

    2014-05-01

    Pelagic copepods play an important role in the marine food web. However, a full understanding of the ecological status of this zooplankton group depends on the careful study of their natural diets. In previous PCR-based copepod diet studies, we found many apostome ciliates that live symbiotically under the exoskeleton of the copepods, and their sequences were often over-represented in the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) libraries. As a first step to address this issue, we designed three apostome ciliate 18S rDNA blocking primers, and tested their blocking efficiency against apostome ciliate 18s rDNA under various PCR conditions. Using a semi-quantitative PCR method, we optimized the conditions to efficiently amplify the 18S rDNA of the prey while simultaneously excluding the symbiotic apostome ciliates. This technique will facilitate PCR-based diet studies of copepods and other zooplankton in their natural environments.

  4. Yeast Kre33 and human NAT10 are conserved 18S rRNA cytosine acetyltransferases that modify tRNAs assisted by the adaptor Tan1/THUMPD1.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunny; Langhendries, Jean-Louis; Watzinger, Peter; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Lafontaine, Denis L J

    2015-02-27

    The function of RNA is subtly modulated by post-transcriptional modifications. Here, we report an important crosstalk in the covalent modification of two classes of RNAs. We demonstrate that yeast Kre33 and human NAT10 are RNA cytosine acetyltransferases with, surprisingly, specificity toward both 18S rRNA and tRNAs. tRNA acetylation requires the intervention of a specific and conserved adaptor: yeast Tan1/human THUMPD1. In budding and fission yeasts, and in human cells, we found two acetylated cytosines on 18S rRNA, one in helix 34 important for translation accuracy and another in helix 45 near the decoding site. Efficient 18S rRNA acetylation in helix 45 involves, in human cells, the vertebrate-specific box C/D snoRNA U13, which, we suggest, exposes the substrate cytosine to modification through Watson-Crick base pairing with 18S rRNA precursors during small subunit biogenesis. Finally, while Kre33 and NAT10 are essential for pre-rRNA processing reactions leading to 18S rRNA synthesis, we demonstrate that rRNA acetylation is dispensable to yeast cells growth. The inactivation of NAT10 was suggested to suppress nuclear morphological defects observed in laminopathic patient cells through loss of microtubules modification and cytoskeleton reorganization. We rather propose the effects of NAT10 on laminopathic cells are due to reduced ribosome biogenesis or function. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Characterization of the vaginal fungal flora in pregnant diabetic women by 18S rRNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, N-N; Guo, X-C; Lv, W; Chen, X-X; Feng, G-F

    2013-08-01

    Pregnancy and diabetes are regarded as individual risk factors for vaginal candidiasis. The high prevalence of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant diabetic women can be explained by disruption of the balance of the vaginal normal flora. However, little is known about the overall structure and composition of the vaginal fungal flora in pregnant diabetic women. In the present study, the diversity and richness of the vaginal fungal flora in healthy non-pregnant women (group HN), healthy pregnant women (group HP), women with gestational diabetes mellitus (group GDM), and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus type I (group T1DM) were investigated using an 18S rRNA gene clone library method. Our data demonstrated that the composition of the vaginal fungal flora in the four groups could be divided into two phyla (Ascomycetes, 20/26, and Basidiomycetes, 6/26). The most predominant vaginal fungal species belonged to the Candida and Saccharomyces genera, uncultured fungi, and a large number of low-abundance taxa that were unrecorded or underrepresented in previous studies using cultivation-dependent methods. Variation in operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between the study cohorts was generally high in the clone libraries, as 9, 13, 17, and 20 phylotypes were identified in groups HN, HP, GDM, and T1DM, respectively. The Shannon indices of groups GDM and T1DM (with poorer glycemic control) were significantly higher compared to groups HN and HP (p < 0.05). The data presented here revealed an increased diversity and varied composition of the vaginal fungal flora in pregnant diabetic women and demonstrated that poor glycemic control might be associated with disturbances in the vaginal fungal flora.

  6. Methods of identification of pseudogenes based on functionality: hybridization of 18S rRNA and mRNA during translation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Chuanhua

    2014-01-01

    Protein-coding sequences are characterized by a period-3 free energy signal that arises from the interaction between the 3'-terminal nucleotides of the 18S rRNA and the mRNA. Such a signal is not present in noncoding sequences such as introns and intergenic regions and can be used for pseudogene identification.

  7. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic relationships based on 18S rRNA and ITS1 region of small form of canine Babesia spp. from India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, M; Banerjee, P S; Garg, Rajat; Ram, Hira; Kundu, K; Kumar, Saroj; Kumar, G V P P S Ravi

    2014-10-01

    Canine babesiosis is a vector borne disease caused by intra-erythrocytic apicomplexan parasites Babesia canis (large form) and Babesia gibsoni (small form), throughout the globe. Apart from few sporadic reports on the occurrence of B. gibsoni infection in dogs, no attempt has been made to characterize Babesia spp. of dogs in India. Fifteen canine blood samples, positive for small form of Babesia, collected from northern to eastern parts of India, were used for amplification of 18S rRNA gene (∼1665bp) of Babesia sp. and partial ITS1 region (∼254bp) of B. gibsoni Asian genotype. Cloning and sequencing of the amplified products of each sample was performed separately. Based on sequences and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and ITS1 sequences, 13 were considered to be B. gibsoni. These thirteen isolates shared high sequence identity with each other and with B. gibsoni Asian genotype. The other two isolates could not be assigned to any particular species because of the difference(s) in 18S rRNA sequence with B. gibsoni and closer identity with Babesiaoccultans and Babesiaorientalis. In the phylogenetic tree, all the isolates of B. gibsoni Asian genotype formed a separate major clade named as Babesia spp. sensu stricto clade with high bootstrap support. The two unnamed Babesia sp. (Malbazar and Ludhiana isolates) clustered close together with B. orientalis, Babesia sp. (Kashi 1 isolate) and B. occultans of bovines. It can be inferred from this study that 18S rRNA gene and ITS1 region are highly conserved among 13 B. gibsoni isolates from India. It is the maiden attempt of genetic characterization by sequencing of 18S rRNA gene and ITS1 region of B. gibsoni from India and is also the first record on the occurrence of an unknown Babesia sp. of dogs from south and south-east Asia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Theileria annulata and identification of 18S rRNA gene and ITS regions sequences variants in apparently healthy buffaloes and cattle in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Kasib; He, Lan; Hussain, Altaf; Azam, Sabita; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Wang, Li-Xia; Zhang, Qing-Li; Hu, Min; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Junlong

    2013-01-01

    A molecular epidemiological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of piroplasms in buffaloes and cattle from Sheikhupura and Okara districts of Punjab, Pakistan using reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay. The genetic diversity within 18S rRNA gene and ITS regions sequences of various obtained Theileria species (spp.) was also investigated. Briefly, 102 blood samples from buffaloes and cattle in the study districts were collected on blood collection cards and brought to the laboratory. DNA was extracted; the V4 hypervariable region of 18S rRNA was amplified and analyzed using RLB. Out of total samples analyzed, 61 (59.8%) were hybridized with Babesia/Theileria (B/T) genus-specific probe. Only one species of piroplasm was detected in buffaloes and cattle in study districts, i.e. Theileria (T.) annulata. Six samples only hybridized with B/T genus-specific and Theileria genus-specific probes but not with any species-specific probe indicating the presence of novel species or variants. The sequences of 18S rRNA gene and ITS regions of these six samples revealed the presence of T. annulata variants as confirmed through sequence identity estimation and phylogenetic analyses. Meanwhile, an unexpected sequence variation was observed within the 18S rRNA gene and ITS regions sequences of T. annulata identified in the present study. This is the first report on the simultaneous detection of species of piroplasms infecting buffaloes and cattle in Pakistan and molecular characterization of T. annulata 18S rRNA gene and ITS regions. The present study may address the new insights into the epidemiology of theileriosis which will help researches in designing control strategies and developing various molecular diagnostic tools at national level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. New Primers Targeting Full-Length Ciliate 18S rRNA Genes and Evaluation of Dietary Effect on Rumen Ciliate Diversity in Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Shengguo; Zhang, Yangdong; Sun, Peng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of the full-length 18S rRNA gene sequences of rumen ciliates is more reliable for taxonomical classification and diversity assessment than the analysis of partial hypervariable regions only. The objective of this study was to develop new oligonucleotide primers targeting the full-length 18S rRNA genes of rumen ciliates, and to evaluate the effect of different sources of dietary fiber (corn stover or a mixture of alfalfa hay and corn silage) and protein (mixed rapeseed, cottonseed, and/or soybean meals) on rumen ciliate diversity in dairy cows. Primers were designed based on a total of 137 previously reported ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequences. The 3'-terminal sequences of the newly designed primers, P.1747r_2, P.324f, and P.1651r, demonstrated >99% base coverage. Primer pair D (P.324f and P.1747r_2) was selected for the cloning and sequencing of ciliate 18S rRNA genes because it produced a 1423-bp amplicon, and did not amply the sequences of other eukaryotic species, such as yeast. The optimal species-level cutoff value for distinguishing between the operational taxonomic units of different ciliate species was 0.015. The phylogenetic analysis of full-length ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequences showed that distinct ciliate profiles were induced by the different sources of dietary fiber and protein. Dasytricha and Entodinium were the predominant genera in the ruminal fluid of dairy cattle, and Dasytricha was significantly more abundant in cows fed with corn stover than in cows fed with alfalfa hay and corn silage.

  10. Sequence variation identified in the 18S rRNA gene of Theileria mutans and Theileria velifera from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Chaisi, Mamohale E; Collins, Nicola E; Potgieter, Fred T; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2013-01-16

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a natural reservoir host for both pathogenic and non-pathogenic Theileria species. These often occur naturally as mixed infections in buffalo. Although the benign and mildly pathogenic forms do not have any significant economic importance, their presence could complicate the interpretation of diagnostic test results aimed at the specific diagnosis of the pathogenic Theileria parva in cattle and buffalo in South Africa. The 18S rRNA gene has been used as the target in a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for the detection of T. parva infections. However, the extent of sequence variation within this gene in the non-pathogenic Theileria spp. of the Africa buffalo is not well known. The aim of this study was, therefore, to characterise the full-length 18S rRNA genes of Theileria mutans, Theileria sp. (strain MSD) and T. velifera and to determine the possible influence of any sequence variation on the specific detection of T. parva using the 18S rRNA qPCR. The reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was used to select samples which either tested positive for several different Theileria spp., or which hybridised only with the Babesia/Theileria genus-specific probe and not with any of the Babesia or Theileria species-specific probes. The full-length 18S rRNA genes from 14 samples, originating from 13 buffalo and one bovine from different localities in South Africa, were amplified, cloned and the resulting recombinants sequenced. Variations in the 18S rRNA gene sequences were identified in T. mutans, Theileria sp. (strain MSD) and T. velifera, with the greatest diversity observed amongst the T. mutans variants. This variation possibly explained why the RLB hybridization assay failed to detect T. mutans and T. velifera in some of the analysed samples.

  11. Bms1p, a G-domain-containing protein, associates with Rcl1p and is required for 18S rRNA biogenesis in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Wegierski, T; Billy, E; Nasr, F; Filipowicz, W

    2001-01-01

    Maturation of 18S rRNA and biogenesis of the 40S ribosomes in yeast requires a large number of trans-acting factors, including the U3 small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (U3 snoRNP), and the recently characterized cyclase-like protein Rcl1p. U3 snoRNP is a key particle orchestrating early 35S rRNA cleavage events. A unique property of Rcl1p is that it specifically associates with U3 snoRNP, but this association appears to occur only at the level of nascent ribosomes and not with the U3 monoparticle. Here we report the characterization of Bms1p, a protein that associates with Rcl1p in multiple structures, including a specific complex sedimenting at around 10S. Like Rcl1p, Bms1p is an essential, evolutionarily conserved, nucleolar protein, and its depletion interferes with processing of the 35S pre-rRNA at sites A0, A1, and A2, and the formation of 40S subunits. The N-terminal domain of Bms1p has structural features found in regulatory GTPases and we demonstrate that mutations of amino acids implicated in GTP/GDP binding affect Bms1p activity in vivo. The results indicate that Bms1p may act as a molecular switch during maturation of the 40S ribosomal subunit in the nucleolus. PMID:11565748

  12. Characterization of the two intra-individual sequence variants in the 18S rRNA gene in the plant parasitic nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis.

    PubMed

    Nyaku, Seloame T; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; Kantety, Ramesh V; Gu, Yong Q; Lawrence, Kathy; Sharma, Govind C

    2013-01-01

    The 18S rRNA gene is fundamental to cellular and organismal protein synthesis and because of its stable persistence through generations it is also used in phylogenetic analysis among taxa. Sequence variation in this gene within a single species is rare, but it has been observed in few metazoan organisms. More frequently it has mostly been reported in the non-transcribed spacer region. Here, we have identified two sequence variants within the near full coding region of 18S rRNA gene from a single reniform nematode (RN) Rotylenchulus reniformis labeled as reniform nematode variant 1 (RN_VAR1) and variant 2 (RN_VAR2). All sequences from three of the four isolates had both RN variants in their sequences; however, isolate 13B had only RN variant 2 sequence. Specific variable base sites (96 or 5.5%) were found within the 18S rRNA gene that can clearly distinguish the two 18S rDNA variants of RN, in 11 (25.0%) and 33 (75.0%) of the 44 RN clones, for RN_VAR1 and RN_VAR2, respectively. Neighbor-joining trees show that the RN_VAR1 is very similar to the previously existing R. reniformis sequence in GenBank, while the RN_VAR2 sequence is more divergent. This is the first report of the identification of two major variants of the 18S rRNA gene in the same single RN, and documents the specific base variation between the two variants, and hypothesizes on simultaneous co-existence of these two variants for this gene.

  13. Characterization of the Two Intra-Individual Sequence Variants in the 18S rRNA Gene in the Plant Parasitic Nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis

    PubMed Central

    Nyaku, Seloame T.; Sripathi, Venkateswara R.; Kantety, Ramesh V.; Gu, Yong Q.; Lawrence, Kathy; Sharma, Govind C.

    2013-01-01

    The 18S rRNA gene is fundamental to cellular and organismal protein synthesis and because of its stable persistence through generations it is also used in phylogenetic analysis among taxa. Sequence variation in this gene within a single species is rare, but it has been observed in few metazoan organisms. More frequently it has mostly been reported in the non-transcribed spacer region. Here, we have identified two sequence variants within the near full coding region of 18S rRNA gene from a single reniform nematode (RN) Rotylenchulus reniformis labeled as reniform nematode variant 1 (RN_VAR1) and variant 2 (RN_VAR2). All sequences from three of the four isolates had both RN variants in their sequences; however, isolate 13B had only RN variant 2 sequence. Specific variable base sites (96 or 5.5%) were found within the 18S rRNA gene that can clearly distinguish the two 18S rDNA variants of RN, in 11 (25.0%) and 33 (75.0%) of the 44 RN clones, for RN_VAR1 and RN_VAR2, respectively. Neighbor-joining trees show that the RN_VAR1 is very similar to the previously existing R. reniformis sequence in GenBank, while the RN_VAR2 sequence is more divergent. This is the first report of the identification of two major variants of the 18S rRNA gene in the same single RN, and documents the specific base variation between the two variants, and hypothesizes on simultaneous co-existence of these two variants for this gene. PMID:23593343

  14. Base pairing between hepatitis C virus RNA and 18S rRNA is required for IRES-dependent translation initiation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Daiki; Mauro, Vincent P.

    2014-01-01

    Degeneracy in eukaryotic translation initiation is evident in the initiation strategies of various viruses. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) provides an exceptional example—translation of the HCV RNA is facilitated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that can autonomously bind a 40S ribosomal subunit and accurately position it at the initiation codon. This binding involves both ribosomal protein and 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) interactions. In this study, we evaluate the functional significance of the rRNA interaction and show that HCV IRES activity requires a 3-nt Watson–Crick base-pairing interaction between the apical loop of subdomain IIId in the IRES and helix 26 in 18S rRNA. Mutations of these nucleotides in either RNA dramatically disrupted IRES activity. The activities of the mutated HCV IRESs could be restored by compensatory mutations in the 18S rRNA. The effects of the 18S rRNA mutations appeared to be specific inasmuch as ribosomes containing these mutations did not support translation mediated by the wild-type HCV IRES, but did not block translation mediated by the cap structure or other viral IRESs. The present study provides, to our knowledge, the first functional demonstration of mRNA–rRNA base pairing in mammalian cells. By contrast with other rRNA-binding sites in mRNAs that can enhance translation as independent elements, e.g., the Shine–Dalgarno sequence in prokaryotes, the rRNA-binding site in the HCV IRES functions as an essential component of a more complex interaction. PMID:25313046

  15. Base pairing between hepatitis C virus RNA and 18S rRNA is required for IRES-dependent translation initiation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Daiki; Mauro, Vincent P

    2014-10-28

    Degeneracy in eukaryotic translation initiation is evident in the initiation strategies of various viruses. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) provides an exceptional example--translation of the HCV RNA is facilitated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that can autonomously bind a 40S ribosomal subunit and accurately position it at the initiation codon. This binding involves both ribosomal protein and 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) interactions. In this study, we evaluate the functional significance of the rRNA interaction and show that HCV IRES activity requires a 3-nt Watson-Crick base-pairing interaction between the apical loop of subdomain IIId in the IRES and helix 26 in 18S rRNA. Mutations of these nucleotides in either RNA dramatically disrupted IRES activity. The activities of the mutated HCV IRESs could be restored by compensatory mutations in the 18S rRNA. The effects of the 18S rRNA mutations appeared to be specific inasmuch as ribosomes containing these mutations did not support translation mediated by the wild-type HCV IRES, but did not block translation mediated by the cap structure or other viral IRESs. The present study provides, to our knowledge, the first functional demonstration of mRNA-rRNA base pairing in mammalian cells. By contrast with other rRNA-binding sites in mRNAs that can enhance translation as independent elements, e.g., the Shine-Dalgarno sequence in prokaryotes, the rRNA-binding site in the HCV IRES functions as an essential component of a more complex interaction.

  16. Ribosomal protein S18e as a putative molecular staple for the 18S rRNA 3'-major domain core.

    PubMed

    Ilin, Aleksey A; Malygin, Alexey A; Karpova, Galina G

    2011-04-01

    Ribosomal protein S18e is a structural constituent of the 40S ribosomal subunit. We obtained recombinant human ribosomal protein S18e and studied its structural and functional properties. With the use of CD spectroscopy we showed that the protein secondary structure is mainly helical and stable in the neutral pH range and at low urea concentrations. Applying multiple sequence alignment, we revealed that the protein structure has characteristics of the eukaryotic members of the ribosomal protein S13p family with additional extensions in the N-terminal and central parts that contain α-helices according to our prediction. S18e binds specifically and independently to an RNA transcript corresponding to the evolutionary core of the 3'-major domain of 18S rRNA. Hydroxyl radical footprinting showed that the binding site of S18e on the 18S rRNA is similar in general to the binding site of S13p on the 16S rRNA in the 30S ribosomal subunit, albeit the rRNA regions attributed to binding of the eukaryote-specific extensions of S18e were also detected. With magnesium ion concentration close to cellular conditions (2mM), protein binding caused substantial rearrangements in the rRNA transcript making it compact in such a manner that helices H29/H30 and H41-H43 form a bundle resembling their arrangement in the ribosome. Thus, S18e seems to act as a molecular staple fixing the 18S rRNA 3'-major domain core. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. HCV IRES interacts with the 18S rRNA to activate the 40S ribosome for subsequent steps of translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Malygin, Alexey A; Kossinova, Olga A; Shatsky, Ivan N; Karpova, Galina G

    2013-10-01

    Previous analyses of complexes of 40S ribosomal subunits with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) have revealed contacts made by the IRES with ribosomal proteins. Here, using chemical probing, we show that the HCV IRES also contacts the backbone and bases of the CCC triplet in the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) expansion segment 7. These contacts presumably provide interplay between IRES domain II and the AUG codon close to ribosomal protein S5, which causes a rearrangement of 18S rRNA structure in the vicinity of the universally conserved nucleotide G1639. As a result, G1639 becomes exposed and the corresponding site of the 40S subunit implicated in transfer RNA discrimination can select . These data are the first demonstration at nucleotide resolution of direct IRES-rRNA interactions and how they induce conformational transition in the 40S subunit allowing the HCV IRES to function without AUG recognition initiation factors.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships among Linguatula serrata isolates from Iran based on 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Ghorashi, Seyed Ali; Tavassoli, Mousa; Peters, Andrew; Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Hajipour, Naser

    2016-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among seven Linguatula serrata (L. serrata) isolates collected from cattle, goats, sheep, dogs and camels in different geographical locations of Iran were investigated using partial 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences. The nucleotide sequences were analysed in order to determine the phylogenetic relationships between the isolates. Higher sequence diversity and intraspecies variation was observed in the cox1 gene compared to 18S rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the cox1 gene placed all L. serrata isolates in a sister clade to L. arctica. The Mantel regression analysis revealed no association between genetic variations and host species or geographical location, perhaps due to the small sample size. However, genetic variations between L. serrata isolates in Iran and those isolated in other parts of the world may exist and could reveal possible evolutionary relationships.

  19. Identification of Theileria parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) 18S rRNA gene sequence variants in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Chaisi, Mamohale E; Sibeko, Kgomotso P; Collins, Nicola E; Potgieter, Fred T; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2011-12-15

    Theileria parva is the causative agent of Corridor disease in cattle in South Africa. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the reservoir host, and, as these animals are important for eco-tourism in South Africa, it is compulsory to test and certify them disease free prior to translocation. A T. parva-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene is one of the tests used for the diagnosis of the parasite in buffalo and cattle in South Africa. However, because of the high similarity between the 18S rRNA gene sequences of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), the latter is also amplified by the real-time PCR primers, although it is not detected by the T. parva-specific hybridization probes. Preliminary sequencing studies have revealed a small number of sequence differences within the 18S rRNA gene in both species but the extent of this sequence variation is unknown. The aim of the current study was to sequence the 18S rRNA genes of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), and to determine whether all identified genotypes can be correctly detected by the real-time PCR assay. The reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was used to identify T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) positive samples from buffalo blood samples originating from the Kruger National Park, Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park, and a private game ranch in the Hoedspruit area. T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) were identified in 42% and 28%, respectively, of 252 samples, mainly as mixed infections. The full-length 18S rRNA gene of selected samples was amplified, cloned and sequenced. From a total of 20 sequences obtained, 10 grouped with previously published T. parva sequences from GenBank while 10 sequences grouped with a previously published Theileria sp. (buffalo) sequence. All these formed a monophyletic group with known pathogenic Theileria species. Our phylogenetic analyses confirm the

  20. Expression of distinct maternal and somatic 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNA types during zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Johanna F.B.; Girard, Geneviève; Ensink, Wim A.; van Olst, Marina; van Leeuwen, Selina; Nehrdich, Ulrike; Spaink, Herman P.; Rauwerda, Han; Jonker, Martijs J.; Dekker, Rob J.; Breit, Timo M.

    2017-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that the ribosome is not a static translation machinery, but a cell-specific, adaptive system. Ribosomal variations have mostly been studied at the protein level, even though the essential transcriptional functions are primarily performed by rRNAs. At the RNA level, oocyte-specific 5S rRNAs are long known for Xenopus. Recently, we described for zebrafish a similar system in which the sole maternal-type 5S rRNA present in eggs is replaced completely during embryonic development by a somatic-type. Here, we report the discovery of an analogous system for the 45S rDNA elements: 5.8S, 18S, and 28S. The maternal-type 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNA sequences differ substantially from those of the somatic-type, plus the maternal-type rRNAs are also replaced by the somatic-type rRNAs during embryogenesis. We discuss the structural and functional implications of the observed sequence differences with respect to the translational functions of the 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNA elements. Finally, in silico evidence suggests that expansion segments (ES) in 18S rRNA, previously implicated in ribosome–mRNA interaction, may have a preference for interacting with specific mRNA genes. Taken together, our findings indicate that two distinct types of ribosomes exist in zebrafish during development, each likely conducting the translation machinery in a unique way. PMID:28500251

  1. Expression of distinct maternal and somatic 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNA types during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Locati, Mauro D; Pagano, Johanna F B; Girard, Geneviève; Ensink, Wim A; van Olst, Marina; van Leeuwen, Selina; Nehrdich, Ulrike; Spaink, Herman P; Rauwerda, Han; Jonker, Martijs J; Dekker, Rob J; Breit, Timo M

    2017-08-01

    There is mounting evidence that the ribosome is not a static translation machinery, but a cell-specific, adaptive system. Ribosomal variations have mostly been studied at the protein level, even though the essential transcriptional functions are primarily performed by rRNAs. At the RNA level, oocyte-specific 5S rRNAs are long known for Xenopus. Recently, we described for zebrafish a similar system in which the sole maternal-type 5S rRNA present in eggs is replaced completely during embryonic development by a somatic-type. Here, we report the discovery of an analogous system for the 45S rDNA elements: 5.8S, 18S, and 28S. The maternal-type 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNA sequences differ substantially from those of the somatic-type, plus the maternal-type rRNAs are also replaced by the somatic-type rRNAs during embryogenesis. We discuss the structural and functional implications of the observed sequence differences with respect to the translational functions of the 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNA elements. Finally, in silico evidence suggests that expansion segments (ES) in 18S rRNA, previously implicated in ribosome-mRNA interaction, may have a preference for interacting with specific mRNA genes. Taken together, our findings indicate that two distinct types of ribosomes exist in zebrafish during development, each likely conducting the translation machinery in a unique way. © 2017 Locati et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  2. Genetic variation and identification of cultivated Fallopia multiflora and its wild relatives by using chloroplast matK and 18S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ping; Pang, Qi-Hua; Jiao, Xu-Wen; Zhao, Xuan; Shen, Yan-Jing; Zhao, Shu-Jin

    2008-10-01

    FALLOPIA MULTIFLORA (Thunb.) Harald . has been widely and discriminatingly used in China for the study and treatment of anemia, swirl, deobstruent, pyrosis, insomnia, amnesia, atheroma and also for regulating immune functions. However, there is still confusion about the herbal drug's botanical origins and the phylogenetic relationship between the cultivars and the wild relatives. In order to develop an efficient method for identification, a molecular analysis was performed based on 18 S rRNA gene and partial MATK gene sequences. The 18 S rRNA gene sequences of F. MULTIFLORA were 1809 bp in length and were highly conserved, indicating that the cultivars and the wild F. MULTIFLORA have the same botanical origin. Based on our 18 S rRNA gene sequences analysis, F. MULTIFLORA could be easily distinguished at the DNA level from adulterants and some herbs with similar components. The MATK gene partial sequences were found to span 1271 bp. The phylogenetic relation of F. MULTIFLORA based on the MATK gene showed that all samples in this paper were divided into four clades. The sequences of the partial MATK gene had many permutations, which were related to the geographical distributions of the samples. MATK gene sequences provided valuable information for the identification of F. MULTIFLORA. New taxonomic information could be obtained to authenticate the botanical origin of the F. MULTIFLORA, the species and the medicines made of it.

  3. Multiplex RT-PCR detection of Cucumber mosaic virus subgroups and Tobamoviruses infecting Tomato using 18S rRNA as an internal control.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoning; Gu, Hao; Wang, Xiaoming; Chen, Jishuang; Zhu, Weimin

    2011-06-01

    A multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol was developed for simultaneous detection and discrimination of subgroups of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), including its satellite RNA, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), using 18S rRNA as an internal control. Species- and subgroups-specific primers designed to differentiate CMV subgroups I and II, ToMV and TMV, were assessed using the cDNA clones of viral genomes, CMV satellite RNA and 18S rRNA gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) or tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum). Using total RNA extracted from artificial mixture of tomato leaf tissues infected by each virus, the reaction components and cycling parameters were optimized and a multiplex RT-PCR procedure was established. Six fragments of 704, 593, 512, 421, 385, 255 bp, specific to CMV subgroup II, CMV subgroup I, ToMV, TMV, satellite RNA and 18S rRNA, respectively, were simultaneously amplified. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR method for detecting CMV was 100 times higher than that of double-antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). This method was successfully used for field detection. Among 141 samples collected from East China through tomato growth seasons, 106 single infections with one of the above isolates were detected and 13 mixed infections were found. The results showed the potential use of this method for investigating the epidemiology of viral diseases infecting tomato.

  4. The HIV-1 Nef protein interacts with two components of the 40S small ribosomal subunit, the RPS10 protein and the 18S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Wasim; Dichamp, Isabelle; Herbein, Georges

    2012-07-10

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef-encoded protein plays key functions at almost all stages of the viral life cycle, but its role in translation is largely unknown. To determine the effect of Nef on translation we used an in vitro translation assay. The detection of Nef/RPS10 complexes and the presence of 18S rRNA and tRNAs in the complexes were performed by coimmunoprecipitation and RT-PCR assay. We observed that the HIV-1 Nef protein specifically impaired translation in vitro. We observed the interaction of Nef with RPS10 by coimmunoprecipitation assay. In addition 18S rRNA and tRNAs were present in the Nef/RPS10 complexes. Our results are consistent with a model in which the Nef protein by binding to two components of the 40S small ribosomal subunit, RPS10 and 18S rRNA, and to a lesser extent to tRNAs, could lead to decreased protein synthesis.

  5. Identification of Entamoeba polecki with Unique 18S rRNA Gene Sequences from Celebes Crested Macaques and Pigs in Tangkoko Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Tuda, Josef; Feng, Meng; Imada, Mihoko; Kobayashi, Seiki; Cheng, Xunjia; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Unique species of macaques are distributed across Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, and the details of Entamoeba infections in these macaques are unknown. A total of 77 stool samples from Celebes crested macaques (Macaca nigra) and 14 stool samples from pigs were collected in Tangkoko Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, and the prevalence of Entamoeba infection was examined by PCR. Entamoeba polecki was detected in 97% of the macaques and all of the pigs, but no other Entamoeba species were found. The nucleotide sequence of the 18S rRNA gene in E. polecki from M. nigra was unique and showed highest similarity with E. polecki subtype (ST) 4. This is the first case of identification of E. polecki ST4 from wild nonhuman primates. The sequence of the 18S rRNA gene in E. polecki from pigs was also unique and showed highest similarity with E. polecki ST1. These results suggest that the diversity of the 18S rRNA gene in E. polecki is associated with differences in host species and geographic localization, and that there has been no transmission of E. polecki between macaques and pigs in the study area. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  6. Molecular characterization of Argulus bengalensis and Argulus siamensis (Crustacea: Argulidae) infecting the cultured carps in West Bengal, India using 18S rRNA gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Avijit; Mondal, Anjan; Banerjee, Sayani; Adikesavalu, Harresh; Joardar, Siddhartha Narayan; Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar

    2016-01-01

    The present study characterized Argulus spp. infecting the cultured carps using 18S rRNA gene sequences, estimated the genetic similarity among Argulus spp. and established their phylogenetic relationship. Of the 320 fish samples screened, 34 fish (10.6%) had Argulus infection. The parasitic frequency index (PFI) was observed to be high (20%) in Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Labeo bata. The frequency of infection was high in September (PFI: 17%) and October (PFI: 12.9%). The 18S rRNA sequences of five A. bengalensis (KF583878, KF192316, KM016968, KM016969, and KM016970) and one A. siamensis (KF583879) of this study showed genetic heterogeneity and exhibited 77-99% homology among the 18S rRNA gene sequences of Argulus spp. of NCBI GenBank database. Among the Indian Argulus spp. the sequence homology was 87–100%. Evolutionary pair-wise distances between Indian Argulus spp. and other Argulus spp. ranged from 0 to 20.20%. In the phylogenetic tree, all the crustaceans were clustered together as a separate clade with two distinct lineages. The lineage-1 comprised exclusive of Branchiura (Argulus spp.). All Argulus bengalensis clustered together and A. siamensis (KF583879) was closely related to Argulus sp. JN558648. The results of the present study provided baseline data for future work on population structure analysis of Indian Argulus species. PMID:28097169

  7. Highly purified spermatozoal RNA obtained by a novel method indicates an unusual 28S/18S rRNA ratio and suggests impaired ribosome assembly.

    PubMed

    Cappallo-Obermann, Heike; Schulze, Wolfgang; Jastrow, Holger; Baukloh, Vera; Spiess, Andrej-Nikolai

    2011-11-01

    Human spermatozoal RNA features special characteristics such as a significantly reduced quantity within spermatozoa compared with somatic cells is described as being devoid of ribosomal RNAs and is difficult to isolate due to a massive excess of genomic DNA in the lysates. Using a novel two-round column-based protocol for human ejaculates delivering highly purified spermatozoal RNA, we uncovered a heterogeneous, but specific banding pattern in microelectrophoresis with 28S ribosomal RNA being indicative for the amount of round cell contamination. Ejaculates with different round cell quantities and density-purified spermatozoa revealed that 18S rRNA but not 28S rRNA is inherent to a pure spermatozoal fraction. Transmission electron microscopy showed monoribosomes and polyribosomes in spermatozoal cytoplasm, while immunohistochemical results suggest the presence of proteins from small and large ribosomal subunits in retained spermatozoal cytoplasm irrespective of 28S rRNA absence.

  8. Ecdysozoan phylogeny and Bayesian inference: first use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA gene sequences to classify the arthropods and their kin.

    PubMed

    Mallatt, Jon M; Garey, James R; Shultz, Jeffrey W

    2004-04-01

    Relationships among the ecdysozoans, or molting animals, have been difficult to resolve. Here, we use nearly complete 28S+18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences to estimate the relations of 35 ecdysozoan taxa, including newly obtained 28S sequences from 25 of these. The tree-building algorithms were likelihood-based Bayesian inference and minimum-evolution analysis of LogDet-transformed distances, and hypotheses were tested wth parametric bootstrapping. Better taxonomic resolution and recovery of established taxa were obtained here, especially with Bayesian inference, than in previous parsimony-based studies that used 18S rRNA sequences (or 18S plus small parts of 28S). In our gene trees, priapulan worms represent the basal ecdysozoans, followed by nematomorphs, or nematomorphs plus nematodes, followed by Panarthropoda. Panarthropoda was monophyletic with high support, although the relationships among its three phyla (arthropods, onychophorans, tardigrades) remain uncertain. The four groups of arthropods-hexapods (insects and related forms), crustaceans, chelicerates (spiders, scorpions, horseshoe crabs), and myriapods (centipedes, millipedes, and relatives)-formed two well-supported clades: Hexapoda in a paraphyletic crustacea (Pancrustacea), and 'Chelicerata+Myriapoda' (a clade that we name 'Paradoxopoda'). Pycnogonids (sea spiders) were either chelicerates or part of the 'chelicerate+myriapod' clade, but not basal arthropods. Certain clades derived from morphological taxonomy, such as Mandibulata, Atelocerata, Schizoramia, Maxillopoda and Cycloneuralia, are inconsistent with these rRNA data. The 28S gene contained more signal than the 18S gene, and contributed to the improved phylogenetic resolution. Our findings are similar to those obtained from mitochondrial and nuclear (e.g., elongation factor, RNA polymerase, Hox) protein-encoding genes, and should revive interest in using rRNA genes to study arthropod and ecdysozoan relationships.

  9. Gene cloning of the 18S rRNA of an ancient viable moss from the permafrost of northeastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsic, Damien; Hoover, Richard B.; Gilichinsky, David A.; Ng, Joseph D.

    1999-12-01

    A moss plant dating as much as 40,000 years old was collected from the permafrost of the Kolyma Lowlands of Northeastern Siberia. The plant tissue was revived and cultured for the extraction of its genomic DNA. Using the polymerase chain reaction technique, the 18S ribosomal RNA gene was cloned and its sequence studied. Comparative sequence analysis of the cloned ribosomal DNA to other known 18S RNA showed very high sequence identity and was revealed to be closest to the moss specie, Aulacomnium turgidum. The results of this study also show the ability of biological organisms to rest dormant in deep frozen environments where they can be revived and cultured under favorable conditions. This is significant in the notion that celestial icy bodies can be media to preserve biological function and genetic material during long term storage or transport.

  10. Systematic design of 18S rRNA gene primers for determining eukaryotic diversity in microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Hugerth, Luisa W; Muller, Emilie E L; Hu, Yue O O; Lebrun, Laura A M; Roume, Hugo; Lundin, Daniel; Wilmes, Paul; Andersson, Anders F

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) amplicons has opened up the door to large-scale comparative studies of microbial community structures. The short reads currently produced by massively parallel sequencing technologies make the choice of sequencing region crucial for accurate phylogenetic assignments. While for 16S rDNA, relevant regions have been well described, no truly systematic design of 18S rDNA primers aimed at resolving eukaryotic diversity has yet been reported. Here we used 31,862 18S rDNA sequences to design a set of broad-taxonomic range degenerate PCR primers. We simulated the phylogenetic information that each candidate primer pair would retrieve using paired- or single-end reads of various lengths, representing different sequencing technologies. Primer pairs targeting the V4 region performed best, allowing discrimination with paired-end reads as short as 150 bp (with 75% accuracy at genus level). The conditions for PCR amplification were optimised for one of these primer pairs and this was used to amplify 18S rDNA sequences from isolates as well as from a range of environmental samples which were then Illumina sequenced and analysed, revealing good concordance between expected and observed results. In summary, the reported primer sets will allow minimally biased assessment of eukaryotic diversity in different microbial ecosystems.

  11. [Mg2+ ions affect the structure of the central domain of the 18S rRNA in the vicinity of the ribosomal protein S13 binding site].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A V; Malygin, A A; Karpova, G G

    2013-01-01

    It is known that Mg2+ ions at high concentrations stabilize the structure of the 16S rRNA in a conformation favorable for binding to the ribosomal proteins in the course of the eubacterial 30S ribosomal subunits assembly in vitro. Effect of Mg2+ on the formation of the 18S rRNA structure at the 40S subunit assembly remains poorly explored. In this paper, we show that the sequentional increase of the Mg2+ concentration from 0.5 mM to 20 mM leads to a significant decrease of the affinity of recombinant human ribosomal protein S13 (rpS13e) to a RNA transcript corresponding to the central domain fragment of the 18S rRNA (18SCD). The regions near the rpS13e binding site in 18SCD (including the nucleotides of helices H20 and H22), whose availabilities to hydroxyl radicals were dependent on the Mg2+ concentration, were determined. It was found that increase of the concentrations of Mg2+ results in the enhanced accessibilities of nucleotides G933-C937 and C1006-A1009 in helix H22 and reduces those of nucleotides A1023, A1024, and A1028-S1026 in the helix H20. Comparison of the results obtained with the crystallographic data on the structure of the central domain of 18S rRNA in the 40S ribosomal subunit led to conclusion that increase of Mg2+ concentrations results in the reorientation of helices H20 and H24 relatively helices H22 and H23 to form a structure, in which these helices are positioned the same way as in 40S subunits. Hence, saturation of the central domain of 18S rRNA with coordinated Mg2+ ions causes the same changes in its structure as rpS13e binding does, and leads to decreasing of this domain affinity to the protein.

  12. Prasinoxanthin is absent in the green-colored dinoflagellate Lepidodinium chlorophorum strain NIES-1868: pigment composition and 18S rRNA phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Kawachi, Masanobu; Miyashita, Hideaki; Inagaki, Yuji

    2012-11-01

    Green-colored plastids in the dinoflagellates Lepidodinium chlorophorum and L. viride have been widely believed as the remnant of an endosymbiotic prasinophyte. This hypothesis for the origin of the Lepidodinium plastids is solely based on an unpublished result quoted in Elbrächter and Schnepf (Phycologia 35:381-393, 1996) hinting at the presence of a characteristic carotenoid in prasinophytes, prasinoxanthin, in the L. chlorophorum cells. On the other hand, a recent work failed to detect prasinoxanthin in a culture of L. chlorophorum. Unfortunately, we cannot conduct any additional experiments to examine whether the two strains considered in the previous studies are truly of L. chlorophorum, as neither of the two strains is publicly available. We here investigated the pigment composition of L. chlorophorum strain NIES-1868 maintained as a mono-algal culture under laboratory conditions, and detected no sign of prasinoxanthin. The pigment composition of strain NIES-1868 is consistent with previous phylogenetic analyses based on plastid-encoded genes of the same strain, which successfully excluded prasinoxanthin-containing algae from the origin of the L. chlorophorum plastid. We also determined nucleus-encoded 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes from four Lepidodinium strains (including strain NIES-1868). Analyses of 18S rRNA sequences showed an extremely close relationship among strain NIES-1868 and other Lepidodinium cells/strains originating from different geological locations, suggesting that the cells/strains corresponding to these rRNA sequences lack prasinoxanthin.

  13. An evolutionary conserved pattern of 18S rRNA sequence complementarity to mRNA 5′ UTRs and its implications for eukaryotic gene translation regulation

    PubMed Central

    Pánek, Josef; Kolář, Michal; Vohradský, Jiří; Shivaya Valášek, Leoš

    2013-01-01

    There are several key mechanisms regulating eukaryotic gene expression at the level of protein synthesis. Interestingly, the least explored mechanisms of translational control are those that involve the translating ribosome per se, mediated for example via predicted interactions between the ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and mRNAs. Here, we took advantage of robustly growing large-scale data sets of mRNA sequences for numerous organisms, solved ribosomal structures and computational power to computationally explore the mRNA–rRNA complementarity that is statistically significant across the species. Our predictions reveal highly specific sequence complementarity of 18S rRNA sequences with mRNA 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) forming a well-defined 3D pattern on the rRNA sequence of the 40S subunit. Broader evolutionary conservation of this pattern may imply that 5′ UTRs of eukaryotic mRNAs, which have already emerged from the mRNA-binding channel, may contact several complementary spots on 18S rRNA situated near the exit of the mRNA binding channel and on the middle-to-lower body of the solvent-exposed 40S ribosome including its left foot. We discuss physiological significance of this structurally conserved pattern and, in the context of previously published experimental results, propose that it modulates scanning of the 40S subunit through 5′ UTRs of mRNAs. PMID:23804757

  14. An evolutionary conserved pattern of 18S rRNA sequence complementarity to mRNA 5' UTRs and its implications for eukaryotic gene translation regulation.

    PubMed

    Pánek, Josef; Kolár, Michal; Vohradský, Jirí; Shivaya Valásek, Leos

    2013-09-01

    There are several key mechanisms regulating eukaryotic gene expression at the level of protein synthesis. Interestingly, the least explored mechanisms of translational control are those that involve the translating ribosome per se, mediated for example via predicted interactions between the ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and mRNAs. Here, we took advantage of robustly growing large-scale data sets of mRNA sequences for numerous organisms, solved ribosomal structures and computational power to computationally explore the mRNA-rRNA complementarity that is statistically significant across the species. Our predictions reveal highly specific sequence complementarity of 18S rRNA sequences with mRNA 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) forming a well-defined 3D pattern on the rRNA sequence of the 40S subunit. Broader evolutionary conservation of this pattern may imply that 5' UTRs of eukaryotic mRNAs, which have already emerged from the mRNA-binding channel, may contact several complementary spots on 18S rRNA situated near the exit of the mRNA binding channel and on the middle-to-lower body of the solvent-exposed 40S ribosome including its left foot. We discuss physiological significance of this structurally conserved pattern and, in the context of previously published experimental results, propose that it modulates scanning of the 40S subunit through 5' UTRs of mRNAs.

  15. Chromosomal mapping of 18S-28S and 5S rRNA genes by two-colour fluorescent in situ hybridization in six sturgeon species.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Francesco; Lanfredi, Massimo; Congiu, Leonardo; Leis, Marilena; Chicca, Milvia; Rossi, Remigio

    2003-06-01

    The number and distribution of the 18S-28S and 5S rRNA (rDNA) gene sequences were examined on mitotic chromosomes of six sturgeon species by two-colour in situ hybridization. Four of the six species, Huso huso, Acipenser stellatus, Acipenser sturio, and Acipenser ruthenus, with about 120 chromosomes, showed from six to eight 18S-28S rDNA signals, while 5S rDNA signals were on only one chromosome pair. The two species with 250-270 chromosomes, Acipenser baerii and Acipenser transmontanus, showed from 10 to 12 18S-28S sites and two chromosome pairs bearing 5S rDNA signals. In all examined species, the rather intense 5S rDNA signals apparently overlapped those of 18S-28S rDNA. These data support the diploid-tetraploid relationships between the two chromosome groups of sturgeons. The close association between the two rDNA families in species belonging to an ancestral fish order, such as Acipenseriformes, supports the hypothesis that the association represents a primitive condition.

  16. 18S rRNA Gene Variation among Common Airborne Fungi, and Development of Specific Oligonucleotide Probes for the Detection of Fungal Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhihong; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Blomquist, Göran; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced 18S rRNA genes (rDNA) from 49 fungal strains representing 31 species from 15 genera. Most of these species are common airborne fungi and pathogens that may cause various public health concerns. Sequence analysis revealed distinct divergence between Zygomycota and Ascomycota. Within Ascomycota, several strongly supported clades were identified that facilitate the taxonomic placement of several little-studied fungi. Wallemia appeared as the group most diverged from all the other Ascomycota species. Based on the 18S rDNA sequence variation, 108 oligonucleotide probes were designed for each genus and species included in this study. After homology searches and DNA hybridization evaluations, 33 probes were verified as genus or species specific. The optimal hybridization temperatures to achieve the best specificity for these 33 probes were determined. These new probes can contribute to the molecular diagnostic research for environmental monitoring. PMID:12957927

  17. Posttranscriptional down-regulation of small ribosomal subunit proteins correlates with reduction of 18S rRNA in RPS19 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Badhai, Jitendra; Fröjmark, Anne-Sophie; Razzaghian, Hamid Reza; Davey, Edward; Schuster, Jens; Dahl, Niklas

    2009-06-18

    Ribosomal protein S19 (RPS19) is mutated in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA). We hypothesized that decreased levels of RPS19 lead to a coordinated down-regulation of other ribosomal (r-)proteins at the subunit level. We show that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knock-down of RPS19 results in a relative decrease of small subunit (SSU) r-proteins (S20, S21 and S24) when compared to large subunit (LSU) r-proteins (L3, L9, L30 and L38). This correlates with a relative decrease in 18S rRNA with respect to 28S rRNA. The r-protein mRNA levels remain relatively unchanged indicating a post transcriptional regulation of r-proteins at the level of subunit formation.

  18. Identification of Habitat-Specific Biomes of Aquatic Fungal Communities Using a Comprehensive Nearly Full-Length 18S rRNA Dataset Enriched with Contextual Data.

    PubMed

    Panzer, Katrin; Yilmaz, Pelin; Weiß, Michael; Reich, Lothar; Richter, Michael; Wiese, Jutta; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Labes, Antje; Imhoff, Johannes F; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Reich, Marlis

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diversity surveys have demonstrated that aquatic fungi are highly diverse, and that they play fundamental ecological roles in aquatic systems. Unfortunately, comparative studies of aquatic fungal communities are few and far between, due to the scarcity of adequate datasets. We combined all publicly available fungal 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences with new sequence data from a marine fungi culture collection. We further enriched this dataset by adding validated contextual data. Specifically, we included data on the habitat type of the samples assigning fungal taxa to ten different habitat categories. This dataset has been created with the intention to serve as a valuable reference dataset for aquatic fungi including a phylogenetic reference tree. The combined data enabled us to infer fungal community patterns in aquatic systems. Pairwise habitat comparisons showed significant phylogenetic differences, indicating that habitat strongly affects fungal community structure. Fungal taxonomic composition differed considerably even on phylum and class level. Freshwater fungal assemblage was most different from all other habitat types and was dominated by basal fungal lineages. For most communities, phylogenetic signals indicated clustering of sequences suggesting that environmental factors were the main drivers of fungal community structure, rather than species competition. Thus, the diversification process of aquatic fungi must be highly clade specific in some cases.The combined data enabled us to infer fungal community patterns in aquatic systems. Pairwise habitat comparisons showed significant phylogenetic differences, indicating that habitat strongly affects fungal community structure. Fungal taxonomic composition differed considerably even on phylum and class level. Freshwater fungal assemblage was most different from all other habitat types and was dominated by basal fungal lineages. For most communities, phylogenetic signals indicated clustering of

  19. Identification of Habitat-Specific Biomes of Aquatic Fungal Communities Using a Comprehensive Nearly Full-Length 18S rRNA Dataset Enriched with Contextual Data

    PubMed Central

    Panzer, Katrin; Yilmaz, Pelin; Weiß, Michael; Reich, Lothar; Richter, Michael; Wiese, Jutta; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Labes, Antje; Imhoff, Johannes F.; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Reich, Marlis

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diversity surveys have demonstrated that aquatic fungi are highly diverse, and that they play fundamental ecological roles in aquatic systems. Unfortunately, comparative studies of aquatic fungal communities are few and far between, due to the scarcity of adequate datasets. We combined all publicly available fungal 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences with new sequence data from a marine fungi culture collection. We further enriched this dataset by adding validated contextual data. Specifically, we included data on the habitat type of the samples assigning fungal taxa to ten different habitat categories. This dataset has been created with the intention to serve as a valuable reference dataset for aquatic fungi including a phylogenetic reference tree. The combined data enabled us to infer fungal community patterns in aquatic systems. Pairwise habitat comparisons showed significant phylogenetic differences, indicating that habitat strongly affects fungal community structure. Fungal taxonomic composition differed considerably even on phylum and class level. Freshwater fungal assemblage was most different from all other habitat types and was dominated by basal fungal lineages. For most communities, phylogenetic signals indicated clustering of sequences suggesting that environmental factors were the main drivers of fungal community structure, rather than species competition. Thus, the diversification process of aquatic fungi must be highly clade specific in some cases.The combined data enabled us to infer fungal community patterns in aquatic systems. Pairwise habitat comparisons showed significant phylogenetic differences, indicating that habitat strongly affects fungal community structure. Fungal taxonomic composition differed considerably even on phylum and class level. Freshwater fungal assemblage was most different from all other habitat types and was dominated by basal fungal lineages. For most communities, phylogenetic signals indicated clustering of

  20. Interactions of human ribosomal proteins S16 and S5 with an 18S rRNA fragment containing their binding sites.

    PubMed

    Malygin, Alexey A; Yanshina, Darya D; Karpova, Galina G

    2009-09-01

    Human ribosomal proteins S5e and S16e are the homologues of prokaryotic S7p and S9p, respectively. It was shown that S5e and S16e are capable of the specific binding with a rRNA transcript corresponding to the region of human 18S rRNA containing helices H28-30 and H41-43 (3Dm), which is homologous to the region in 16S rRNA containing the entire binding site for S7p and the major part of the site for S9p. We have studied binding of S5e and S16e to 3Dm and demonstrated that while each of them is able to bind to the rRNA transcript independently, their simultaneous binding has a noticeable synergetic effect. Using enzymatic footprinting, we showed that these proteins protect 3Dm against hydrolysis with RNases mainly in the regions homologous to the sites of S7p and S9p binding on the 16S rRNA. At the same time, we found regions that correspond to 16S rRNA fragments distant from the binding sites of the respective homologous prokaryotic proteins. Comparison of these results with the data on 3Dm footprinting in binary complexes with S5e or S16e revealed that each of these proteins affects binding of another one to 3Dm, which is displayed in significant expansion of 3Dm sites protected by the proteins against hydrolysis in the ternary complex.

  1. gar2 is a nucleolar protein from Schizosaccharomyces pombe required for 18S rRNA and 40S ribosomal subunit accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Gulli, M P; Girard, J P; Zabetakis, D; Lapeyre, B; Melese, T; Caizergues-Ferrer, M

    1995-01-01

    Several nucleolar proteins, such as nucleolin, NOP1/fibrillarin, SSB1, NSR1 and GAR1 share a common glycine and arginine rich structural motif called the GAR domain. To identify novel nucleolar proteins from fission yeast we screened Schizosaccharomyces pombe genomic DNA libraries with a probe encompassing the GAR structural motif. Here we report the identification and characterization of a S.pombe gene coding for a novel nucleolar protein, designated gar2. The structure of the fission yeast gar2 is reminiscent of that of nucleolin from vertebrates and NSR1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, like these proteins, gar2 has a nucleolar localisation. The disruption of the gar2+ gene affects normal cell growth, leads to an accumulation of 35S pre-rRNA and a decrease of mature 18S rRNA steady state levels. Moreover, ribosomal profiles of the mutant show an increase of free 60S ribosomal subunits and an absence of free 40S ribosomal subunits. gar2 is able to rescue a S.cerevisiae mutant lacking NSR1, thus establishing gar2 as a functional homolog of NSR1. We propose that gar2 helps the assembly of pre-ribosomal particles containing 18S rRNA. Images PMID:7596817

  2. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Histomonas meleagridis infection in chickens targeting the 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinjun; Qu, Chanbao; Tao, Jianping

    2013-12-11

    Histomonas meleagridis is the causative agent of histomonosis, a disease of gallinaceous fowl characterized by necrotic typhlitis, hepatitis, and high mortality. To develop a rapid and sensitive method for specific detection of H. meleagridis, an assay based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting the 18S rRNA gene was established. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 10 copies for standard plasmids containing an 18S rRNA gene fragment, which was superior to that of a classical PCR method. Specificity tests revealed that there was no cross-reaction with other protozoa such as Trichomonas gallinae, Blastocytis sp, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum, Plasmodium gallinaceum, Toxoplasma gondii, Eimeria tenella, Leucocytozoon caulleryi, and Leucocytozoon sabrazesi. The assay was evaluated for its diagnostic utility using field liver and caeca samples collected from suspected cases, the detection rate was 100 and 97.92%, respectively. These results indicate that the LAMP assay may be a useful tool for rapid detection and identification of H. meleagridis in poultry.

  3. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Histomonas meleagridis infection in chickens targeting the 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinjun; Qu, Chanbao; Tao, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Histomonas meleagridis is the causative agent of histomonosis, a disease of gallinaceous fowl characterized by necrotic typhlitis, hepatitis, and high mortality. To develop a rapid and sensitive method for specific detection of H. meleagridis, an assay based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting the 18S rRNA gene was established. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 10 copies for standard plasmids containing an 18S rRNA gene fragment, which was superior to that of a classical PCR method. Specificity tests revealed that there was no cross-reaction with other protozoa such as Trichomonas gallinae, Blastocytis sp, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum, Plasmodium gallinaceum, Toxoplasma gondii, Eimeria tenella, Leucocytozoon caulleryi and Leucocytozoon sabrazesi. The assay was evaluated for its diagnostic utility using liver and caeca samples collected from suspected field cases, the detection rate was 100 and 97.92%, respectively. These results indicate that the LAMP assay may be a useful tool for rapid detection and identification of H. meleagridis in poultry.

  4. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the coccidian cephalopod parasites Aggregata octopiana and Aggregata eberthi (Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae) from the NE Atlantic coast using 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Martínez, Sheila; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Gestal, Camino

    2013-08-01

    The coccidia genus Aggregata is responsible for intestinal coccidiosis in wild and cultivated cephalopods. Two coccidia species, Aggregata octopiana, (infecting the common octopus Octopus vulgaris), and A. eberthi, (infecting the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis), are identified in European waters. Extensive investigation of their morphology resulted in a redescription of A. octopiana in octopuses from the NE Atlantic Coast (NW Spain) thus clarifying confusing descriptions recorded in the past. The present study sequenced the 18S rRNA gene in A. octopiana and A. eberthi from the NE Atlantic coast in order to assess their taxonomic and phylogenetic status. Phylogenetic analyses revealed conspecific genetic differences (2.5%) in 18S rRNA sequences between A. eberthi from the Ria of Vigo (NW Spain) and the Adriatic Sea. Larger congeneric differences (15.9%) were observed between A. octopiana samples from the same two areas, which suggest the existence of two species. Based on previous morphological evidence, host specificity data, and new molecular phylogenetic analyses, we suggest that A. octopiana from the Ria of Vigo is the valid type species. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. HCV IRES interacts with the 18S rRNA to activate the 40S ribosome for subsequent steps of translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Malygin, Alexey A.; Kossinova, Olga A.; Shatsky, Ivan N.; Karpova, Galina G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous analyses of complexes of 40S ribosomal subunits with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) have revealed contacts made by the IRES with ribosomal proteins. Here, using chemical probing, we show that the HCV IRES also contacts the backbone and bases of the CCC triplet in the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) expansion segment 7. These contacts presumably provide interplay between IRES domain II and the AUG codon close to ribosomal protein S5, which causes a rearrangement of 18S rRNA structure in the vicinity of the universally conserved nucleotide G1639. As a result, G1639 becomes exposed and the corresponding site of the 40S subunit implicated in transfer RNA discrimination can select . These data are the first demonstration at nucleotide resolution of direct IRES–rRNA interactions and how they induce conformational transition in the 40S subunit allowing the HCV IRES to function without AUG recognition initiation factors. PMID:23873958

  6. Nematode 18S rRNA gene is a reliable tool for environmental biosafety assessment of transgenic banana in confined field trials.

    PubMed

    Nakacwa, R; Kiggundu, A; Talwana, H; Namaganda, J; Lilley, C; Tushemereirwe, W; Atkinson, H

    2013-10-01

    Information on relatedness in nematodes is commonly obtained by DNA sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. However, the level of diversity at this locus is often insufficient for reliable species differentiation. Recent findings suggest that the sequences of a fragment of the small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (18S rRNA or SSU), identify genera of soil nematodes and can also distinguish between species in some cases. A database of soil nematode genera in a Ugandan soil was developed using 18S rRNA sequences of individual nematodes from a GM banana confined field trial site at the National Agricultural Research Laboratories, Kawanda in Uganda. The trial was planted to evaluate transgenic bananas for resistance to black Sigatoka disease. Search for relatedness of the sequences gained with entries in a public genomic database identified a range of 20 different genera and sometimes distinguished species. Molecular markers were designed from the sequence information to underpin nematode faunal analysis. This approach provides bio-indicators for disturbance of the soil environment and the condition of the soil food web. It is being developed to support environmental biosafety analysis by detecting any perturbance by transgenic banana or other GM crops on the soil environment.

  7. Molecular analysis of 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium parasites from patients living in Iran, Malawi, Nigeria and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Salman; Kalantari, Narges

    2012-01-01

    Cryptosporidium species are one of the most common causes of gastrointestinal infection in humans around the world. This study has aimed to investigate the hyper variable region of the 18S rRNA gene in Cryptosporidium for exact parasite identification. DNA was extracted from 26 fecal samples from which initially Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified by Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast , Auramine phenol and ELISA techniques. Nested PCR, targeting the most polymorphic region of the 18S rRNA gene and genotyping was performed by restriction endonuclease digestion of the PCR product followed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenic analysis. Among 26 isolates analyzed, three species of Cryptosporidium were identified; 38.5% of the isolates were C. hominis while 53.8% of the isolates were C. parvum and 7.7% of the isolates were C. meleagridis, which the last two species have the potentially zoonotic transmission. The only 11T subtype of C. hominis was demonstrated. These strains clustered distinctly into either human or animal origin regardless of the geographical origin, age, or immunity status of the patients. In summary, this work is the first report of C. meleagridis infecting human in Iran. Moreover, it suggested that multi-locus study of Cryptosporidium species in developing countries would be necessary to determine the extent of transmission of cryptosporidiosis in the populations.

  8. Comparison of Sanger and next generation sequencing performance for genotyping Cryptosporidium isolates at the 18S rRNA and actin loci.

    PubMed

    Paparini, Andrea; Gofton, Alexander; Yang, Rongchang; White, Nicole; Bunce, Michael; Ryan, Una M

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important enteric pathogen that infects a wide range of humans and animals. Rapid and reliable detection and characterisation methods are essential for understanding the transmission dynamics of the parasite. Sanger sequencing, and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) on an Ion Torrent platform, were compared with each other for their sensitivity and accuracy in detecting and characterising 25 Cryptosporidium-positive human and animal faecal samples. Ion Torrent reads (n = 123,857) were obtained at both 18S rRNA and actin loci for 21 of the 25 samples. Of these, one isolate at the actin locus (Cattle 05) and three at the 18S rRNA locus (HTS 10, HTS 11 and HTS 12), suffered PCR drop-out (i.e. PCR failures) when using fusion-tagged PCR. Sanger sequences were obtained for both loci for 23 of the 25 samples and showed good agreement with Ion Torrent-based genotyping. Two samples both from pythons (SK 02 and SK 05) produced mixed 18S and actin chromatograms by Sanger sequencing but were clearly identified by Ion Torrent sequencing as C. muris. One isolate (SK 03) was typed as C. muris by Sanger sequencing but was identified as a mixed C. muris and C. tyzzeri infection by HTS. 18S rRNA Type B sequences were identified in 4/6 C. parvum isolates when deep sequenced but were undetected in Sanger sequencing. Sanger was cheaper than Ion Torrent when sequencing a small numbers of samples, but when larger numbers of samples are considered (n = 60), the costs were comparative. Fusion-tagged amplicon based approaches are a powerful way of approaching mixtures, the only draw-back being the loss of PCR efficiency on low-template samples when using primers coupled to MID tags and adaptors. Taken together these data show that HTS has excellent potential for revealing the "true" composition of species/types in a Cryptosporidium infection, but that HTS workflows need to be carefully developed to ensure sensitivity, accuracy and contamination are

  9. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA gene and matK gene sequences of Panax vietnamensis and five related species.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, K; Zhu, S; Fushimi, H; Qui, T K; Cai, S; Kadota, S

    2001-07-01

    Panax vietnamensis was discovered recently in Vietnam. Its bamboo-like rhizomes, called Vietnamese Ginseng, have attracted considerable attention because of their specific pharmacological activities. In order to define the taxonomic position of this new species and include it in the molecular authentication of Ginseng drugs, the 18S ribosomal RNA gene and matK gene sequences of P. vietnamensis were determined and compared with those of its related taxa, P. japonicus var. major and P. pseudo-ginseng subsp. himalaicus, besides previously reported P. ginseng, P. japonicus and P. quinquefolius. The 18S rRNA gene sequences were found to be 1809 bps in length. The sequence of P. vietnamensis was identical to that of P. quinquefolius, and presented one base substitution from those of both P. japonicus var. major and P. pseudo-ginseng subsp. himalaicus. The matK gene sequences of 6 taxa were found to be 1509 bps in length. The sequence of P. vietnamensis differed from those of P. japonicus var. major, P. pseudo-ginseng subsp. himalaicus, P. ginseng, P. japonicus and P. quinquefolius at 4, 5, 9, 9 and 10 nucleotide positions, respectively. The phylogenetic tree reconstructed by the combined 18S rRNA-matK gene analysis using the maximum parsimony method showed that P. vietnamensis was sympatric with other Panax species and had a close relationship with P. japonicus var. major and P. pseudo-ginseng subsp. himalaicus.

  10. A PCR method based on 18S rRNA gene for detection of malaria parasite in Balochistan.

    PubMed

    Shahwani, Zubeda; Aleem, Abdul; Ahmed, Nazeer; Mushtaq, Muhammad; Afridi, Sarwat

    2016-12-01

    To establish a polymerase chain reaction method based on 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene for the detection of plasmodium deoxyribonucleic acid in patients suffering from malaria symptoms. This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2013 to October 2014 in district Quetta of Pakistan's Balochistan province. Blood samples were collected from patients suffering from general symptoms of malaria. A polymerase chain reaction-based technique was applied for the diagnosis of malaria and detection of responsible species in the patients who were suspected to carry the parasite. Performance of this polymerase chain reaction method was compared against the microscopy results. Parasite number was also calculated for microscopy positive samples.All samples after the genomic deoxyribonucleic acid isolation were subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification and agarose gel electrophoresis. Of the 200 samples, 114(57%) were confirmed as positive and 86(43%) as negative for malaria by microscopy. Polymerase chain reaction identified 124(62%) samples as positive and 76(38%) as negative for malaria. The comparative analysis of both diagnostic methods confirmed 109(54.5%) samples as positive by both techniques. Besides, 5(6.58%) samples were identified as false positive and 15(12.1%) samples as false negative by polymerase chain reaction. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values for polymerase chain reaction in comparison to microscopy were 87.98%, 93.42% and 96%, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction-based methods in malaria diagnosis and species identification were found to be more effective than other techniques.

  11. Predicted secondary structure for 28S and 18S rRNA from Ichneumonoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apocrita): impact on sequence alignment and phylogeny estimation.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Joseph J; Yoder, Matthew J; Wharton, Robert A

    2005-07-01

    We utilize the secondary structural properties of the 28S rRNA D2-D10 expansion segments to hypothesize a multiple sequence alignment for major lineages of the hymenopteran superfamily Ichneumonoidea (Braconidae, Ichneumonidae). The alignment consists of 290 sequences (originally analyzed in Belshaw and Quicke, Syst Biol 51:450-477, 2002) and provides the first global alignment template for this diverse group of insects. Predicted structures for these expansion segments as well as for over half of the 18S rRNA are given, with highly variable regions characterized and isolated within conserved structures. We demonstrate several pitfalls of optimization alignment and illustrate how these are potentially addressed with structure-based alignments. Our global alignment is presented online at (http://hymenoptera.tamu.edu/rna) with summary statistics, such as basepair frequency tables, along with novel tools for parsing structure-based alignments into input files for most commonly used phylogenetic software. These resources will be valuable for hymenopteran systematists, as well as researchers utilizing rRNA sequences for phylogeny estimation in any taxon. We explore the phylogenetic utility of our structure-based alignment by examining a subset of the data under a variety of optimality criteria using results from Belshaw and Quicke (2002) as a benchmark.

  12. Fast evolving 18S rRNA sequences from Solenogastres (Mollusca) resist standard PCR amplification and give new insights into mollusk substitution rate heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The 18S rRNA gene is one of the most important molecular markers, used in diverse applications such as molecular phylogenetic analyses and biodiversity screening. The Mollusca is the second largest phylum within the animal kingdom and mollusks show an outstanding high diversity in body plans and ecological adaptations. Although an enormous amount of 18S data is available for higher mollusks, data on some early branching lineages are still limited. Despite of some partial success in obtaining these data from Solenogastres, by some regarded to be the most "basal" mollusks, this taxon still remained problematic due to contamination with food organisms and general amplification difficulties. Results We report here the first authentic 18S genes of three Solenogastres species (Mollusca), each possessing a unique sequence composition with regions conspicuously rich in guanine and cytosine. For these GC-rich regions we calculated strong secondary structures. The observed high intra-molecular forces hamper standard amplification and appear to increase formation of chimerical sequences caused by contaminating foreign DNAs from potential prey organisms. In our analyses, contamination was avoided by using RNA as a template. Indication for contamination of previously published Solenogastres sequences is presented. Detailed phylogenetic analyses were conducted using RNA specific models that account for compensatory substitutions in stem regions. Conclusions The extreme morphological diversity of mollusks is mirrored in the molecular 18S data and shows elevated substitution rates mainly in three higher taxa: true limpets (Patellogastropoda), Cephalopoda and Solenogastres. Our phylogenetic tree based on 123 species, including representatives of all mollusk classes, shows limited resolution at the class level but illustrates the pitfalls of artificial groupings formed due to shared biased sequence composition. PMID:20214780

  13. Fast evolving 18S rRNA sequences from Solenogastres (Mollusca) resist standard PCR amplification and give new insights into mollusk substitution rate heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Achim; Todt, Christiane; Mikkelsen, Nina T; Lieb, Bernhard

    2010-03-09

    The 18S rRNA gene is one of the most important molecular markers, used in diverse applications such as molecular phylogenetic analyses and biodiversity screening. The Mollusca is the second largest phylum within the animal kingdom and mollusks show an outstanding high diversity in body plans and ecological adaptations. Although an enormous amount of 18S data is available for higher mollusks, data on some early branching lineages are still limited. Despite of some partial success in obtaining these data from Solenogastres, by some regarded to be the most "basal" mollusks, this taxon still remained problematic due to contamination with food organisms and general amplification difficulties. We report here the first authentic 18S genes of three Solenogastres species (Mollusca), each possessing a unique sequence composition with regions conspicuously rich in guanine and cytosine. For these GC-rich regions we calculated strong secondary structures. The observed high intra-molecular forces hamper standard amplification and appear to increase formation of chimerical sequences caused by contaminating foreign DNAs from potential prey organisms. In our analyses, contamination was avoided by using RNA as a template. Indication for contamination of previously published Solenogastres sequences is presented. Detailed phylogenetic analyses were conducted using RNA specific models that account for compensatory substitutions in stem regions. The extreme morphological diversity of mollusks is mirrored in the molecular 18S data and shows elevated substitution rates mainly in three higher taxa: true limpets (Patellogastropoda), Cephalopoda and Solenogastres. Our phylogenetic tree based on 123 species, including representatives of all mollusk classes, shows limited resolution at the class level but illustrates the pitfalls of artificial groupings formed due to shared biased sequence composition.

  14. Genus Tetrastemma Ehrenberg, 1831 (Phylum Nemertea)--a natural group? Phylogenetic relationships inferred from partial 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Strand, Malin; Sundberg, Per

    2005-10-01

    We investigated the monophyletic status of the hoplonemertean taxon Tetrastemma by reconstructing the phylogeny for 22 specimens assigned to this genus, together with another 25 specimens from closely related hoplonemertean genera. The phylogeny was based on partial 18S rRNA sequences using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The included Tetrastemma-species formed a well-supported clade, although the within-taxon relationships were unsettled. We conclude that the name Tetrastemma refers to a monophyletic taxon, but that it cannot be defined by morphological synapomorphies, and our results do not imply that all the over 100 species assigned to this genus belong to it. The results furthermore indicate that the genera Amphiporus and Emplectonema are non-monophyletic.

  15. Nop9 is an RNA binding protein present in pre-40S ribosomes and required for 18S rRNA synthesis in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Emma; Rappsilber, Juri; Tollervey, David

    2007-01-01

    Proteomic analyses in yeast have identified a large number of proteins that are associated with preribosomal particles. However, the product of the yeast ORF YJL010C, herein designated as Nop9, failed to be identified in any previous physical or genetic analysis of preribosomes. Here we report that Nop9 is a nucleolar protein, which is associated with 90S and 40S preribosomes. In cells depleted of Nop9p, early cleavages of the 35S pre-rRNA are inhibited, resulting in the nucleolar retention of accumulated precursors and a failure to synthesize 18S rRNA. Nop9 contains multiple pumilio-like putative RNA binding repeats and displays robust in vitro RNA binding activity. The identification of Nop9p as a novel, essential factor in the nuclear maturation of 90S and pre-40S ribosomal subunits shows that the complement of ribosome synthesis factors remains incomplete. PMID:17956976

  16. Protist 18S rRNA gene Sequence Analysis Reveals Multiple Sources of Organic Matter Contributing to Turbidity Maxima of the Columbia River Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; McCue, Lee Ann; Zuber, Peter A.

    2011-10-05

    The Columbia River estuary is traditionally considered a detritus-based ecosystem fueled in summer by organic matter (OM) from expired freshwater diatoms. Since Estuarine Turbidity Maxima (ETM) are sites of accumulation and transformation of this phytoplankton-derived OM, to further characterize the ETM protist assemblage, we collected in August 2007 bottom waters throughout an ETM event, as well as surface water during the peak of bottom turbidity, and performed biogeochemical, microscopic and molecular (18S rRNA gene clone libraries) analyses. These data confirmed that the majority of the particulate OM in ETMs is derived from chlorophyll a-poor particulate organic carbon tagged by DNA too damaged to be detected by molecular analysis.

  17. DIVERSITY OF THE TYPE 1 INTRON-ITS REGION OF THE 18S rRNA GENE IN PSEUDOGYMNOASCUS SPECIES FROM THE RED HILLS OF KANSAS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Crupper, Scott S

    2016-09-01

    Gypsum caves found throughout the Red Hills of Kansas have the state's most diverse and largest population of cave-roosting bats. White-nose syndrome (WNS), a disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which threatens all temperate bat species, has not been previously detected in the gypsum caves as this disease moves westward from the eastern United States. Cave soil was obtained from the gypsum caves, and using the polymerase chain reaction, a 624-nucleotide DNA fragment specific to the Type 1 intron-internal transcribed spacer region of the 18S rRNA gene from Pseudogymnoascus species was amplified. Subsequent cloning and DNA sequencing indicated P. destructans DNA was present, along with 26 uncharacterized Pseudogymnoascus DNA variants. However, no evidence of WNS was observed in bat populations residing in these caves.

  18. Comparative analysis of eukaryotic marine microbial assemblages from 18S rRNA gene and gene transcript clone libraries by using different methods of extraction.

    PubMed

    Koid, Amy; Nelson, William C; Mraz, Amy; Heidelberg, Karla B

    2012-06-01

    Eukaryotic marine microbes play pivotal roles in biogeochemical nutrient cycling and ecosystem function, but studies that focus on the protistan biogeography and genetic diversity lag-behind studies of other microbes. 18S rRNA PCR amplification and clone library sequencing are commonly used to assess diversity that is culture independent. However, molecular methods are not without potential biases and artifacts. In this study, we compare the community composition of clone libraries generated from the same water sample collected at the San Pedro Ocean Time Series (SPOTs) station in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Community composition was assessed using different cell lysis methods (chemical and mechanical) and the extraction of different nucleic acids (DNA and RNA reverse transcribed to cDNA) to build Sanger ABI clone libraries. We describe specific biases for ecologically important phylogenetic groups resulting from differences in nucleic acid extraction methods that will inform future designs of eukaryotic diversity studies, regardless of the target sequencing platform planned.

  19. Intracellular diversity of the V4 and V9 regions of the 18S rRNA in marine protists (radiolarians) assessed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Decelle, Johan; Romac, Sarah; Sasaki, Eriko; Not, Fabrice; Mahé, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Metabarcoding is a powerful tool for exploring microbial diversity in the environment, but its accurate interpretation is impeded by diverse technical (e.g. PCR and sequencing errors) and biological biases (e.g. intra-individual polymorphism) that remain poorly understood. To help interpret environmental metabarcoding datasets, we investigated the intracellular diversity of the V4 and V9 regions of the 18S rRNA gene from Acantharia and Nassellaria (radiolarians) using 454 pyrosequencing. Individual cells of radiolarians were isolated, and PCRs were performed with generalist primers to amplify the V4 and V9 regions. Different denoising procedures were employed to filter the pyrosequenced raw amplicons (Acacia, AmpliconNoise, Linkage method). For each of the six isolated cells, an average of 541 V4 and 562 V9 amplicons assigned to radiolarians were obtained, from which one numerically dominant sequence and several minor variants were found. At the 97% identity, a diversity metrics commonly used in environmental surveys, up to 5 distinct OTUs were detected in a single cell. However, most amplicons grouped within a single OTU whereas other OTUs contained very few amplicons. Different analytical methods provided evidence that most minor variants forming different OTUs correspond to PCR and sequencing artifacts. Duplicate PCR and sequencing from the same DNA extract of a single cell had only 9 to 16% of unique amplicons in common, and alignment visualization of V4 and V9 amplicons showed that most minor variants contained substitutions in highly-conserved regions. We conclude that intracellular variability of the 18S rRNA in radiolarians is very limited despite its multi-copy nature and the existence of multiple nuclei in these protists. Our study recommends some technical guidelines to conservatively discard artificial amplicons from metabarcoding datasets, and thus properly assess the diversity and richness of protists in the environment.

  20. Detection and Discovery of Crustacean Parasites in Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus) by Using 18S rRNA Gene-Targeted Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Troedsson, Christofer; Lee, Richard F.; Walters, Tina; Stokes, Vivica; Brinkley, Karrie; Naegele, Verena; Frischer, Marc E.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, we described a novel denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) approach useful for initial detection and identification of crustacean parasites. Because this approach utilizes general primers targeted to conserved regions of the 18S rRNA gene, a priori genetic sequence information on eukaryotic parasites is not required. This distinction provides a significant advantage over specifically targeted PCR assays that do not allow for the detection of unknown or unsuspected parasites. However, initial field evaluations of the DHPLC assay suggested that because of PCR-biased amplification of dominant host genes it was not possible to detect relatively rare parasite genes in infected crab tissue. Here, we describe the use of a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) PCR hybridization blocking probe in association with DHPLC (PNA-PCR DHPLC) to overcome inherent PCR bias associated with amplification of rare target genes by use of generic primers. This approach was utilized to detect infection of blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) by the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. Evaluation of 76 crabs caught in Wassaw Sound, GA, indicated a 97% correspondence between detection of the parasite by use of a specific PCR diagnostic assay and that by use of PNA-PCR DHPLC. During these studies, we discovered one crab with an association with a previously undescribed protist symbiont. Phylogenetic analysis of the amplified symbiont 18S rRNA gene indicated that it is most closely related to the free-living kinetoplastid parasite Procryptobia sorokini. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this parasite group in a decapod crab and of this organism exhibiting a presumably parasitic life history. PMID:18502913

  1. Genetic diversity among Babesia rossi detected in naturally infected dogs in Abeokuta, Nigeria, based on 18S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Takeet, Michael I; Oyewusi, Adeoye J; Abakpa, Simon A V; Daramola, Olukayode O; Peters, Sunday O

    2017-03-01

    Adequate knowledge of the genetic diversity among Babesia species infecting dogs is necessary for a better understanding of the epidemiology and control of canine babesiosis. Hence, this study determined the genetic diversity among the Babesia rossi detected in dogs presented for routine examination in Veterinary Hospitals in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Blood were randomly collected from 209 dogs. Field-stained thin smears were made and DNA extracted from the blood. Partial region of the 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was amplified, sequenced and analysed. Babesia species was detected in 16 (7.7%) of the dogs by microscopy. Electrophoresed PCR products from 39 (18.66%) dogs revealed band size of 450 bp and 2 (0.95%) dogs had band size of 430 bp. The sequences obtained from 450 bp amplicon displayed homology of 99.74% (387/388) with partial sequences of 18S rRNA gene of Babesia rossi in the GeneBank. Of the two sequences that had 430 bp amplicon, one was identified as T. annulata and second as T. ovis. A significantly (p<0.05) higher prevalence of B. rossi was detected by PCR compared to microscopy. The mean PCV of Babesia infected dogs was significantly (p<0.05) lower than non-infected dogs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed minimal diversity among B. rossi with the exception of one sequence that was greatly divergent from the others. This study suggests that more than one genotype of B. rossi may be in circulation among the dog population in the study area and this may have potential implication on clinical outcome of canine babesiosis.

  2. Development of a cob-18S rRNA gene real-time PCR assay for quantifying Pfiesteria shumwayae in the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2005-11-01

    Despite the fact that the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria shumwayae is an organism of high interest due to alleged toxicity, its abundance in natural environments is poorly understood. To address this inadequacy, a real-time quantitative PCR assay based on mitochondrial cytochrome b (cob) and 18S rRNA gene was developed and P. shumwayae abundance was investigated in several geographic locations. First, cob and its 5'-end region were isolated from a P. shumwayae culture, revealing three different copies, each consisting of an identical cob coding region and an unidentified region (X) of variable length and sequence. The unique sequences in cob and the X region were then used to develop a P. shumwayae-specific primer set. This primer set was used with reported P. shumwayae-specific 18S primers in parallel real-time PCRs to investigate P. shumwayae abundance from Maine to North Carolina along the U.S. east coast and along coasts in Chile, Hawaii, and China. Both genes generally gave similar results, indicating that this species was present, but at low abundance (mostly <10 cells x ml(-1)), in all the American coast locations investigated (with the exception of Long Island Sound, where which both genes gave negative results). Genetic variation was detected by use of both genes in most of the locations, and while cob consistently detected P. shumwayae or close genetic variants, some of the 18S PCR products were unrelated to P. shumwayae. We conclude that (i) the real-time PCR assay developed is useful for specific quantification of P. shumwayae, and (ii) P. shumwayae is distributed widely at the American coasts, but normally only as a minor component of plankton even in high-risk estuaries (Neuse River and the Chesapeake Bay).

  3. Development of a cob-18S rRNA Gene Real-Time PCR Assay for Quantifying Pfiesteria shumwayae in the Natural Environment†

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2005-01-01

    Despite the fact that the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria shumwayae is an organism of high interest due to alleged toxicity, its abundance in natural environments is poorly understood. To address this inadequacy, a real-time quantitative PCR assay based on mitochondrial cytochrome b (cob) and18S rRNA gene was developed and P. shumwayae abundance was investigated in several geographic locations. First, cob and its 5′-end region were isolated from a P. shumwayae culture, revealing three different copies, each consisting of an identical cob coding region and an unidentified region (X) of variable length and sequence. The unique sequences in cob and the X region were then used to develop a P. shumwayae-specific primer set. This primer set was used with reported P. shumwayae-specific 18S primers in parallel real-time PCRs to investigate P. shumwayae abundance from Maine to North Carolina along the U.S. east coast and along coasts in Chile, Hawaii, and China. Both genes generally gave similar results, indicating that this species was present, but at low abundance (mostly <10 cells · ml−1), in all the American coast locations investigated (with the exception of Long Island Sound, where which both genes gave negative results). Genetic variation was detected by use of both genes in most of the locations, and while cob consistently detected P. shumwayae or close genetic variants, some of the 18S PCR products were unrelated to P. shumwayae. We conclude that (i) the real-time PCR assay developed is useful for specific quantification of P. shumwayae, and (ii) P. shumwayae is distributed widely at the American coasts, but normally only as a minor component of plankton even in high-risk estuaries (Neuse River and the Chesapeake Bay). PMID:16269741

  4. Ribosome biogenesis factor Tsr3 is the aminocarboxypropyl transferase responsible for 18S rRNA hypermodification in yeast and humans.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Britta; Wurm, Jan Philip; Sharma, Sunny; Immer, Carina; Pogoryelov, Denys; Kötter, Peter; Lafontaine, Denis L J; Wöhnert, Jens; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2016-05-19

    The chemically most complex modification in eukaryotic rRNA is the conserved hypermodified nucleotide N1-methyl-N3-aminocarboxypropyl-pseudouridine (m(1)acp(3)Ψ) located next to the P-site tRNA on the small subunit 18S rRNA. While S-adenosylmethionine was identified as the source of the aminocarboxypropyl (acp) group more than 40 years ago the enzyme catalyzing the acp transfer remained elusive. Here we identify the cytoplasmic ribosome biogenesis protein Tsr3 as the responsible enzyme in yeast and human cells. In functionally impaired Tsr3-mutants, a reduced level of acp modification directly correlates with increased 20S pre-rRNA accumulation. The crystal structure of archaeal Tsr3 homologs revealed the same fold as in SPOUT-class RNA-methyltransferases but a distinct SAM binding mode. This unique SAM binding mode explains why Tsr3 transfers the acp and not the methyl group of SAM to its substrate. Structurally, Tsr3 therefore represents a novel class of acp transferase enzymes. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Ribosome biogenesis factor Tsr3 is the aminocarboxypropyl transferase responsible for 18S rRNA hypermodification in yeast and humans

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Britta; Wurm, Jan Philip; Sharma, Sunny; Immer, Carina; Pogoryelov, Denys; Kötter, Peter; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.; Wöhnert, Jens; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The chemically most complex modification in eukaryotic rRNA is the conserved hypermodified nucleotide N1-methyl-N3-aminocarboxypropyl-pseudouridine (m1acp3Ψ) located next to the P-site tRNA on the small subunit 18S rRNA. While S-adenosylmethionine was identified as the source of the aminocarboxypropyl (acp) group more than 40 years ago the enzyme catalyzing the acp transfer remained elusive. Here we identify the cytoplasmic ribosome biogenesis protein Tsr3 as the responsible enzyme in yeast and human cells. In functionally impaired Tsr3-mutants, a reduced level of acp modification directly correlates with increased 20S pre-rRNA accumulation. The crystal structure of archaeal Tsr3 homologs revealed the same fold as in SPOUT-class RNA-methyltransferases but a distinct SAM binding mode. This unique SAM binding mode explains why Tsr3 transfers the acp and not the methyl group of SAM to its substrate. Structurally, Tsr3 therefore represents a novel class of acp transferase enzymes. PMID:27084949

  6. Design and Evaluation of Illumina MiSeq-Compatible, 18S rRNA Gene-Specific Primers for Improved Characterization of Mixed Phototrophic Communities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of high-throughput sequencing technologies with the 16S rRNA gene for characterization of bacterial and archaeal communities has become routine. However, the adoption of sequencing methods for eukaryotes has been slow, despite their significance to natural and engineered systems. There are large variations among the target genes used for amplicon sequencing, and for the 18S rRNA gene, there is no consensus on which hypervariable region provides the most suitable representation of diversity. Additionally, it is unclear how much PCR/sequencing bias affects the depiction of community structure using current primers. The present study amplified the V4 and V8-V9 regions from seven microalgal mock communities as well as eukaryotic communities from freshwater, coastal, and wastewater samples to examine the effect of PCR/sequencing bias on community structure and membership. We found that degeneracies on the 3′ end of the current V4-specific primers impact read length and mean relative abundance. Furthermore, the PCR/sequencing error is markedly higher for GC-rich members than for communities with balanced GC content. Importantly, the V4 region failed to reliably capture 2 of the 12 mock community members, and the V8-V9 hypervariable region more accurately represents mean relative abundance and alpha and beta diversity. Overall, the V4 and V8-V9 regions show similar community representations over freshwater, coastal, and wastewater environments, but specific samples show markedly different communities. These results indicate that multiple primer sets may be advantageous for gaining a more complete understanding of community structure and highlight the importance of including mock communities composed of species of interest. IMPORTANCE The quantification of error associated with community representation by amplicon sequencing is a critical challenge that is often ignored. When target genes are amplified using currently available primers, differential

  7. Structural and functional studies of Bud23-Trm112 reveal 18S rRNA N7-G1575 methylation occurs on late 40S precursor ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Létoquart, Juliette; Huvelle, Emmeline; Wacheul, Ludivine; Bourgeois, Gabrielle; Zorbas, Christiane; Graille, Marc; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Lafontaine, Denis L J

    2014-12-23

    The eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit carries only four ribosomal (r) RNA methylated bases, all close to important functional sites. N(7)-methylguanosine (m(7)G) introduced at position 1575 on 18S rRNA by Bud23-Trm112 is at a ridge forming a steric block between P- and E-site tRNAs. Here we report atomic resolution structures of Bud23-Trm112 in the apo and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-bound forms. Bud23 and Trm112 interact through formation of a β-zipper involving main-chain atoms, burying an important hydrophobic surface and stabilizing the complex. The structures revealed that the coactivator Trm112 undergoes an induced fit to accommodate its methyltransferase (MTase) partner. We report important structural similarity between the active sites of Bud23 and Coffea canephora xanthosine MTase, leading us to propose and validate experimentally a model for G1575 coordination. We identify Bud23 residues important for Bud23-Trm112 complex formation and recruitment to pre-ribosomes. We report that though Bud23-Trm112 binds precursor ribosomes at an early nucleolar stage, m(7)G methylation occurs at a late step of small subunit biogenesis, implying specifically delayed catalytic activation. Finally, we show that Bud23-Trm112 interacts directly with the box C/D snoRNA U3-associated DEAH RNA helicase Dhr1 supposedly involved in central pseudoknot formation; this suggests that Bud23-Trm112 might also contribute to controlling formation of this irreversible and dramatic structural reorganization essential to overall folding of small subunit rRNA. Our study contributes important new elements to our understanding of key molecular aspects of human ribosomopathy syndromes associated with WBSCR22 (human Bud23) malfunction.

  8. Chromosomal mapping of 18S-28S rRNA genes and 10 cDNA clones of human chromosome 1 in the musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Kuroiwa, A; Matsubara, K; Nagase, T; Nomura, N; Seong, J K; Ishikawa, A; Anunciado, R V; Tanaka, K; Yamagata, T; Masangkay, J S; Dang, V B; Namikawa, T; Matsuda, Y

    2001-01-01

    The direct R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method was used to map 18S-28S ribosomal RNA genes and 10 human cDNA clones on the chromosomes of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus). The chromosomal locations of 18S-28S ribosomal RNA genes were examined in the five laboratory lines and wild animals captured in the Philippines and Vietnam, and the genes were found on chromosomes 5, 6, 9, and 13 with geographic variation. The comparative mapping of 10 cDNA clones of human chromosome 1 demonstrated that human chromosome 1 consisted of at least three segments homologous to Suncus chromosomes (chromosomes 7, 10, and 14). This approach with the direct R-banding FISH method is useful for constructing comparative maps between human and insectivore species and for explicating the process of chromosomal rearrangements during the evolution of mammals.

  9. The phylogenetic position of eriophyoid mites (superfamily Eriophyoidea) in Acariformes inferred from the sequences of mitochondrial genomes and nuclear small subunit (18S) rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Dong, Yan; Deng, Wei; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Shao, Renfu

    2017-04-01

    Eriophyoid mites (superfamily Eriophyoidea) comprise >4400 species worldwide. Despite over a century of study, the phylogenetic position of these mites within Acariformes is still poorly resolved. Currently, Eriophyoidea is placed in the order Trombidiformes. We inferred the high-level phylogeny of Acari with the mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences of 110 species including four eriophyoid species, and the nuclear small subunit (18S) rRNA gene sequences of 226 species including 25 eriophyoid species. Maximum likelihood (ML), Bayesian inference (BI) and Maximum parsimony (MP) methods were used to analyze the sequence data. Divergence times were estimated for major lineages of Acari using Bayesian approaches. Our analyses consistently recovered the monophyly of Eriophyoidea but rejected the monophyly of Trombidiformes. The eriophyoid mites were grouped with the sarcoptiform mites, or were the sister group of sarcoptiform mites+non-eriophyoid trombidiform mites, depending on data partition strategies. Eriophyoid mites diverged from other mites in the Devonian (384Mya, 95% HPD, 352-410Mya). The origin of eriophyoid mites was dated to the Permian (262Mya, 95% HPD 230-307Mya), mostly prior to the radiation of gymnosperms (Triassic-Jurassic) and angiosperms (early Cretaceous). We propose that the placement of Eriophyoidea in the order Trombidiformes under the current classification system should be reviewed.

  10. Phylogenetic position of phylum Nemertini, inferred from 18S rRNA sequences: molecular data as a test of morphological character homology.

    PubMed

    Turbeville, J M; Field, K G; Raff, R A

    1992-03-01

    Partial 18S rRNA sequence of the nemertine Cerebratulus lacteus was obtained and compared with those of coelomate metazoans and acoelomate platyhelminths to test whether nemertines share a most recent common ancestor with the platyhelminths, as traditionally has been implied, or whether nemertines lie within a protostome coelomate clade, as suggested by more recent morphological analyses. Maximum-parsimony analysis supports the inclusion of the nemertine within a protostome-coelomate clade that falls within a more inclusive coelomate clade. Bootstrap analysis indicates strong support for a monophyletic Coelomata composed of a deuterostome and protostome-coelomate clade. Support for a monophyletic protostome Coelomata is weak. Inference by distance analysis is consistent with that of maximum parsimony. Analysis of down-weighted paired sites by maximum parsimony reveals variation in topology only within the protostome-coelomate clade. The relationships among the protostome coelomates cannot be reliably inferred from the partial sequences, suggesting that coelomate protostomes diversified rapidly. Results with evolutionary parsimony are consistent with the inclusion of the nemertine in a coelomate clade. The molecular inference corroborates recent morphological character analyses that reveal no synapomorphies of nemertines and flatworms but instead suggest that the circulatory system and rhynchocoel of nemertines are homologous to coelomic cavities of protostome coelomates, thus supporting the corresponding hypothesis that nemertines belong within a protostome-coelomate clade. The sequence data provide an independent test of morphological character homology.

  11. The phylogenetic position of Myxoboluscarnaticus (Myxozoa, Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) infecting gill lamellae of Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822) based on 18S rRNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sayani; Patra, Avijit; Adikesavalu, Harresh; Mondal, Anjan; Jawahar Abraham, Thangapalam

    2015-09-01

    Myxozoans are an economically important group of microscopic parasites best known for the diseases they cause in commercially important fish hosts. The classification of myxosporeans is generally based on the morphology of their myxospores. Without molecular data, it is very difficult to identify new or existing species. DNA sequence information is therefore, a prerequisite to taxonomic and phylogenic studies of myxosporeans. In the present study, a myxozoan parasite, Myxobolus carnaticus, infecting the gill lamellae of mrigal carp, Cirrhinus mrigala, was characterized by the 18S rRNA gene sequence. The DNA sequence of M. carnaticus clustered phylogenetically with other gill infecting Myxobolus spp. of freshwater clades, forming a dichotomy with closely related M. pavlovskii (HM991164) that infects the gill lamellae epithelium of silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix with 95% similarity. Evolutionary pair-wise distances among M. carnaticus and other species of myxosporeans indicated high genetic diversity among myxosporeans. The present study demonstrated that tissue tropism, host specificity and habitat play important roles in phylogenetic relationships among myxozoan species.

  12. Prevalence of infection and 18S rRNA gene sequences of Cytauxzoon species in Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Millán, J; Naranjo, V; Rodríguez, A; de la Lastra, J M Pérez; Mangold, A J; de la Fuente, J

    2007-07-01

    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid in the world. Only about 160 individuals remain in 2 separate metapopulations in Southern Spain (Sierra Morena and Doñana). We obtained blood samples of 20 lynxes captured from 2004 to 2006, and determined the prevalence of infection and genetic diversity of Cytauxzoon spp. using 18S rRNA PCR and sequence analysis. Prevalence of infection was 15% (3 of 20). Cytauxzoon sp. was only detected in Sierra Morena. For phylogenetic analysis, we used the sequences reported in the present study and those characterized in different domestic and wild felids and ticks from North and South America, Asia and Europe. Three different Cytauxzoon sp. sequences were obtained. They were closely related to that obtained from a Spanish cat, but diverged in up to 1.0% with respect to the only previously reported sequence from an Iberian lynx. Conversely, the latter sequence clustered together with C. manul sequences obtained from Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul) in Mongolia. Our analysis yields a separate cluster of C. felis sequences from cats, wild felids and ticks in the United States and Brazil. These results suggest that at least 2 different Cytauxzoon spp. may be present in Iberian lynx. The apparent absence in one of the areas, together with the possibility of fatal cytauxzoonosis in lynxes makes necessary disease risks to be taken into account in management conservation strategies, such as translocations and re-introductions.

  13. High protists diversity in the plankton of sulfurous lakes and lagoons examined by 18s rRNA gene sequence analyses.

    PubMed

    Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Casamayor, Emilio O

    2015-12-01

    Diversity of small protists was studied in sulfidic and anoxic (euxinic) stratified karstic lakes and coastal lagoons by 18S rRNA gene analyses. We hypothesized a major sulfide effect, reducing protist diversity and richness with only a few specialized populations adapted to deal with low-redox conditions and high-sulfide concentrations. However, genetic fingerprinting suggested similar ecological diversity in anoxic and sulfurous than in upper oxygen rich water compartments with specific populations inhabiting euxinic waters. Many of them agreed with genera previously identified by microscopic observations, but also new and unexpected groups were detected. Most of the sequences matched a rich assemblage of Ciliophora (i.e., Coleps, Prorodon, Plagiopyla, Strombidium, Metopus, Vorticella and Caenomorpha, among others) and algae (mainly Cryptomonadales). Unidentified Cercozoa, Fungi, Stramenopiles and Discoba were recurrently found. The lack of GenBank counterparts was higher in deep hypolimnetic waters and appeared differentially allocated in the different taxa, being higher within Discoba and lower in Cryptophyceae. A larger number of populations than expected were specifically detected in the deep sulfurous waters, with unknown ecological interactions and metabolic capabilities. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The phylogenetic position of Myxobolus carnaticus (Myxozoa, Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) infecting gill lamellae of Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822) based on 18S rRNA sequence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sayani; Patra, Avijit; Adikesavalu, Harresh; Mondal, Anjan; Jawahar Abraham, Thangapalam

    2015-01-01

    Myxozoans are an economically important group of microscopic parasites best known for the diseases they cause in commercially important fish hosts. The classification of myxosporeans is generally based on the morphology of their myxospores. Without molecular data, it is very difficult to identify new or existing species. DNA sequence information is therefore, a prerequisite to taxonomic and phylogenic studies of myxosporeans. In the present study, a myxozoan parasite, Myxobolus carnaticus, infecting the gill lamellae of mrigal carp, Cirrhinus mrigala, was characterized by the 18S rRNA gene sequence. The DNA sequence of M. carnaticus clustered phylogenetically with other gill infecting Myxobolus spp. of freshwater clades, forming a dichotomy with closely related M. pavlovskii (HM991164) that infects the gill lamellae epithelium of silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix with 95% similarity. Evolutionary pair-wise distances among M. carnaticus and other species of myxosporeans indicated high genetic diversity among myxosporeans. The present study demonstrated that tissue tropism, host specificity and habitat play important roles in phylogenetic relationships among myxozoan species. PMID:27844004

  15. Design and validation of four new primers for next-generation sequencing to target the 18S rRNA genes of gastrointestinal ciliate protozoa.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Suzanne L; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-09-01

    Four new primers and one published primer were used to PCR amplify hypervariable regions within the protozoal 18S rRNA gene to determine which primer pair provided the best identification and statistical analysis. PCR amplicons of 394 to 498 bases were generated from three primer sets, sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with Titanium, and analyzed using the BLAST database (NCBI) and MOTHUR version 1.29. The protozoal diversity of rumen contents from moose in Alaska was assessed. In the present study, primer set 1, P-SSU-316F and GIC758R (amplicon of 482 bases), gave the best representation of diversity using BLAST classification, and the set amplified Entodinium simplex and Ostracodinium spp., which were not amplified by the other two primer sets. Primer set 2, GIC1080F and GIC1578R (amplicon of 498 bases), had similar BLAST results and a slightly higher percentage of sequences that were identified with a higher sequence identity. Primer sets 1 and 2 are recommended for use in ruminants. However, primer set 1 may be inadequate to determine protozoal diversity in nonruminants. The amplicons created by primer set 1 were indistinguishable for certain species within the genera Bandia, Blepharocorys, Polycosta, and Tetratoxum and between Hemiprorodon gymnoprosthium and Prorodonopsis coli, none of which are normally found in the rumen. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Phylogeny and classification of the Litostomatea (Protista, Ciliophora), with emphasis on free-living taxa and the 18S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Vd'ačný, Peter; Bourland, William A; Orsi, William; Epstein, Slava S; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2011-05-01

    The class Litostomatea is a highly diverse ciliate taxon comprising hundreds of species ranging from aerobic, free-living predators to anaerobic endocommensals. This is traditionally reflected by classifying the Litostomatea into the subclasses Haptoria and Trichostomatia. The morphological classifications of the Haptoria conflict with the molecular phylogenies, which indicate polyphyly and numerous homoplasies. Thus, we analyzed the genealogy of 53 in-group species with morphological and molecular methods, including 12 new sequences from free-living taxa. The phylogenetic analyses and some strong morphological traits show: (i) body polarization and simplification of the oral apparatus as main evolutionary trends in the Litostomatea and (ii) three distinct lineages (subclasses): the Rhynchostomatia comprising Tracheliida and Dileptida; the Haptoria comprising Lacrymariida, Haptorida, Didiniida, Pleurostomatida and Spathidiida; and the Trichostomatia. The curious Homalozoon cannot be assigned to any of the haptorian orders, but is basal to a clade containing the Didiniida and Pleurostomatida. The internal relationships of the Spathidiida remain obscure because many of them and some "traditional" haptorids form separate branches within the basal polytomy of the order, indicating one or several radiations and convergent evolution. Due to the high divergence in the 18S rRNA gene, the chaeneids and cyclotrichiids are classified incertae sedis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in Wild Rodents of Southwestern Iran Using 18s rRNA Gene Nested-PCR-RFLP and Sequencing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Jasem; Asadpouri, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background. Rodents could act as reservoir for Cryptosporidium spp. specially C. parvum, a zoonotic agent responsible for human infections. Since there is no information about Cryptosporidium infection in rodents of Ahvaz city, southwest of Iran, hence, this survey was performed to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in this region. Materials and Methods. One hundred rodents were trapped from different regions of Ahvaz city. Intestine contents and fecal specimens of rodents were studied using both microscopy examination to identify oocyst and nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for 18s rRNA gene detection. Eventually restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method using SspI and VspI restriction enzymes was carried out to genotype the species and then obtained results were sequenced. Results. Three out of 100 samples were diagnosed as positive and overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 3% using both modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining under light microscope and nested-PCR (830 bp) methods. Afterwards, PCR-RFLP was performed on positive samples and C. parvum pattern was identified. Finally PCR-RFLP findings were sequenced and presence of C. parvum was confirmed again. Conclusions. Our study showed rodents could be potential reservoir for C. parvum. So an integrated program for control and combat with them should be adopted and continued. PMID:27956905

  18. Design and Validation of Four New Primers for Next-Generation Sequencing To Target the 18S rRNA Genes of Gastrointestinal Ciliate Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Wright, André-Denis G.

    2014-01-01

    Four new primers and one published primer were used to PCR amplify hypervariable regions within the protozoal 18S rRNA gene to determine which primer pair provided the best identification and statistical analysis. PCR amplicons of 394 to 498 bases were generated from three primer sets, sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with Titanium, and analyzed using the BLAST database (NCBI) and MOTHUR version 1.29. The protozoal diversity of rumen contents from moose in Alaska was assessed. In the present study, primer set 1, P-SSU-316F and GIC758R (amplicon of 482 bases), gave the best representation of diversity using BLAST classification, and the set amplified Entodinium simplex and Ostracodinium spp., which were not amplified by the other two primer sets. Primer set 2, GIC1080F and GIC1578R (amplicon of 498 bases), had similar BLAST results and a slightly higher percentage of sequences that were identified with a higher sequence identity. Primer sets 1 and 2 are recommended for use in ruminants. However, primer set 1 may be inadequate to determine protozoal diversity in nonruminants. The amplicons created by primer set 1 were indistinguishable for certain species within the genera Bandia, Blepharocorys, Polycosta, and Tetratoxum and between Hemiprorodon gymnoprosthium and Prorodonopsis coli, none of which are normally found in the rumen. PMID:24973070

  19. Chromosomal localization of the 18S-28S and 5S rRNA genes and (TTAGGG)n sequences of butterfly lizards (Leiolepis belliana belliana and Leiolepis boehmei, Agamidae, Squamata).

    PubMed

    Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Uno, Yoshinobu; Matsubara, Kazumi; Thongpan, Amara; Suputtitada, Saowanee; Apisitwanich, Somsak; Nishida, Chizuko; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2011-10-01

    Chromosomal mapping of the butterfly lizards Leiolepis belliana belliana and L. boehmei was done using the 18S-28S and 5S rRNA genes and telomeric (TTAGGG)n sequences. The karyotype of L. b. belliana was 2n = 36, whereas that of L. boehmei was 2n = 34. The 18S-28S rRNA genes were located at the secondary constriction of the long arm of chromosome 1, while the 5S rRNA genes were found in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 6 in both species. Hybridization signals for the (TTAGGG)n sequence were observed at the telomeric ends of all chromosomes, as well as interstitially at the same position as the 18S-28S rRNA genes in L. boehmei. This finding suggests that in L. boehmei telomere-to-telomere fusion probably occurred between chromosome 1 and a microchromosome where the 18S-28S rRNA genes were located or, alternatively, at the secondary constriction of chromosome 1. The absence of telomeric sequence signals in chromosome 1 of L. b. belliana suggested that its chromosomes may have only a few copies of the (TTAGGG)n sequence or that there may have been a gradual loss of the repeat sequences during chromosomal evolution.

  20. Investigating the diversity of the 18S SSU rRNA hyper-variable region of Theileria in cattle and Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) from southern Africa using a next generation sequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Mans, Ben J; Pienaar, Ronel; Ratabane, John; Pule, Boitumelo; Latif, Abdalla A

    2016-07-01

    Molecular classification and systematics of the Theileria is based on the analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. Reverse line blot or conventional sequencing approaches have disadvantages in the study of 18S rRNA diversity and a next-generation 454 sequencing approach was investigated. The 18S rRNA gene was amplified using RLB primers coupled to 96 unique sequence identifiers (MIDs). Theileria positive samples from African buffalo (672) and cattle (480) from southern Africa were combined in batches of 96 and sequenced using the GS Junior 454 sequencer to produce 825711 informative sequences. Sequences were extracted based on MIDs and analysed to identify Theileria genotypes. Genotypes observed in buffalo and cattle were confirmed in the current study, while no new genotypes were discovered. Genotypes showed specific geographic distributions, most probably linked with vector distributions. Host specificity of buffalo and cattle specific genotypes were confirmed and prevalence data as well as relative parasitemia trends indicate preference for different hosts. Mixed infections are common with African buffalo carrying more genotypes compared to cattle. Associative or exclusion co-infection profiles were observed between genotypes that may have implications for speciation and systematics: specifically that more Theileria species may exist in cattle and buffalo than currently recognized. Analysis of primers used for Theileria parva diagnostics indicate that no new genotypes will be amplified by the current primer sets confirming their specificity. T. parva SNP variants that occur in the 18S rRNA hypervariable region were confirmed. A next generation sequencing approach is useful in obtaining comprehensive knowledge regarding 18S rRNA diversity and prevalence for the Theileria, allowing for the assessment of systematics and diagnostic assays based on the 18S gene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch.

    PubMed

    Mallatt, Jon; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2006-09-01

    This work expands on a study from 2004 by Mallatt, Garey, and Shultz [Mallatt, J.M., Garey, J.R., Shultz, J.W., 2004. Ecdysozoan phylogeny and Bayesian inference: first use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA gene sequences to classify the arthropods and their kin. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 31, 178-191] that evaluated the phylogenetic relationships in Ecdysozoa (molting animals), especially arthropods. Here, the number of rRNA gene-sequences was effectively doubled for each major group of arthropods, and sequences from the phylum Kinorhyncha (mud dragons) were also included, bringing the number of ecdysozoan taxa to over 80. The methods emphasized maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference and statistical testing with parametric bootstrapping, but also included parsimony and minimum evolution. Prominent findings from our combined analysis of both genes are as follows. The fundamental subdivisions of Hexapoda (insects and relatives) are Insecta and Entognatha, with the latter consisting of collembolans (springtails) and a clade of proturans plus diplurans. Our rRNA-gene data provide the strongest evidence to date that the sister group of Hexapoda is Branchiopoda (fairy shrimps, tadpole shrimps, etc.), not Malacostraca. The large, Pancrustacea clade (hexapods within a paraphyletic Crustacea) divided into a few basic subclades: hexapods plus branchiopods; cirripedes (barnacles) plus malacostracans (lobsters, crabs, true shrimps, isopods, etc.); and the basally located clades of (a) ostracods (seed shrimps) and (b) branchiurans (fish lice) plus the bizarre pentastomids (tongue worms). These findings about Pancrustacea agree with a recent study by Regier, Shultz, and Kambic that used entirely different genes [Regier, J.C., Shultz, J.W., Kambic, R.E., 2005a. Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic. Proc. R. Soc. B 272, 395-401]. In Malacostraca, the stomatopod (mantis shrimp) was not at the base of the eumalacostracans

  2. Time-series of water column alkenones and 18S rRNA confirm that Uk'37 is a viable SST proxy in Narragansett Bay, RI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salacup, J.; Theroux, S.; Herbert, T.; Prell, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    Alkenones, produced in the sunlit mixed layer by specific Haptophyte algae, are a well-established and widely-applied proxy for sea surface temperature (SST) in the world's open-oceans. However, the proxy's utility in estuarine environments remains largely untested. A reliable SST proxy is needed to identify the estuary's sensitivity and response to past and present global change because SST can exert strong control on stratification and circulation patterns, and thus oxygenation and ecosystem health, in these shallow basins. Knowing the estuaries response should help local managers and policy-makers plan mitigation and adaptation strategies. Additionally, the rapid deposition of both marine and terrestrial organic and inorganic material in estuarine systems makes them potential archives of high-resolution paleo-environmental information. A previous investigation of estuarine alkenones suggested that the Uk'37 proxy may be sensitive to the composition of the alkenone-producing Haptophyte population, which may be affected by local nutrient and fresh water fluxes. In particular, low-salinity coastal Haptophytes such as Isochrysis galbana may have a different relationship to SST than higher-salinity open-ocean Haptophytes and their presence may complicate interpretations of the Uk'37 proxy in estuaries. To better understand how the alkenone-based Uk'37 SST proxy is produced in estuarine systems, we present a two-year time-series (monthly-to-thrice-weekly resolution) of alkenone concentrations in particulate organic matter from Narragansett Bay. Alkenone concentrations are coupled with 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) measurements to identify the alkenone-producing population. Highest concentrations of alkenones are detected at different times in the upper and lower Bay such that the highest alkenone concentrations occur in the winter-spring (upper Bay) and summer/fall (lower Bay). This result is consistent with the established seasonal blooms and seasonal changes in nutrient

  3. Free-Living Protozoa in Two Unchlorinated Drinking Water Supplies, Identified by Phylogenic Analysis of 18S rRNA Gene Sequences▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Valster, Rinske M.; Wullings, Bart A.; Bakker, Geo; Smidt, Hauke; van der Kooij, Dick

    2009-01-01

    Free-living protozoan communities in water supplies may include hosts for Legionella pneumophila and other undesired bacteria, as well as pathogens. This study aimed at identifying free-living protozoa in two unchlorinated groundwater supplies, using cultivation-independent molecular approaches. For this purpose, samples (<20°C) of treated water, distributed water, and distribution system biofilms were collected from supply A, with a low concentration of natural organic matter (NOM) (<0.5 ppm of C), and from supply B, with a high NOM concentration (7.9 ppm of C). Eukaryotic communities were studied using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone library analyses of partial 18S rRNA gene fragments and a Hartmannella vermiformis-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR). In both supplies, highly diverse eukaryotic communities were observed, including free-living protozoa, fungi, and metazoa. Sequences of protozoa clustered with Amoebozoa (10 operational taxonomic units [OTUs]), Cercozoa (39 OTUs), Choanozoa (26 OTUs), Ciliophora (29 OTUs), Euglenozoa (13 OTUs), Myzozoa (5 OTUs), and Stramenopiles (5 OTUs). A large variety of protozoa were present in both supplies, but the estimated values for protozoan richness did not differ significantly. H. vermiformis was observed in both supplies but was not a predominant protozoan. One OTU with the highest similarity to Acanthamoeba polyphaga, an opportunistic human pathogen and a host for undesired bacteria, was observed in supply A. The high level of NOM in supply B corresponded with an elevated level of active biomass and with elevated concentrations of H. vermiformis in distributed water. Hence, the application of qPCR may be promising in elucidating the relationship between drinking water quality and the presence of specific protozoa. PMID:19465529

  4. [Common features in arrangements of ribosomal protein S26e binding sites on its own pre-mRNA and the 18S rRNA].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A V; Malygin, A A; Karpova, G G

    2014-01-01

    It is known that human ribosomal protein (rp) S26e can bind to the first intron of its own pre-mRNA and thereby inhibit its splicing. In this work, hydroxyl radical footprinting was applied for detailed mapping of the rpS26e binding site on an RNA transcript corresponding to the rpS26e pre-mRNA fragment containing the first intron flanked by the first exon and a part of the second exon sequences. Nucleotides of this RNA protected from hydroxyl radical attack in the presence of rpS26e were identified. Most of them are found in the region of the 3'-splice site of the first intron within a purine-rich sequence, which forms a loop connecting two helices in the predicted secondary structure of the rpS26e pre-mRNA fragment, and the remaining nucleotides are located near the 5'-splice site. Comparison of arrangements of rpS26e binding sites on the pre-mRNA and 18S rRNA secondary structures reveals similar elements in the organization of these sites. It was found that both sites contain a structural motif, represented by an extended purine-rich loop between two helices, which could be recognized by rpS26e upon binding to these RNAs. The data obtained shed light on the structural aspects of RNA-protein interactions underlying autoregulation of human RPS26e gene expression at the splicing step.

  5. Free-living protozoa in two unchlorinated drinking water supplies, identified by phylogenic analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Valster, Rinske M; Wullings, Bart A; Bakker, Geo; Smidt, Hauke; van der Kooij, Dick

    2009-07-01

    Free-living protozoan communities in water supplies may include hosts for Legionella pneumophila and other undesired bacteria, as well as pathogens. This study aimed at identifying free-living protozoa in two unchlorinated groundwater supplies, using cultivation-independent molecular approaches. For this purpose, samples (<20 degrees C) of treated water, distributed water, and distribution system biofilms were collected from supply A, with a low concentration of natural organic matter (NOM) (<0.5 ppm of C), and from supply B, with a high NOM concentration (7.9 ppm of C). Eukaryotic communities were studied using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone library analyses of partial 18S rRNA gene fragments and a Hartmannella vermiformis-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR). In both supplies, highly diverse eukaryotic communities were observed, including free-living protozoa, fungi, and metazoa. Sequences of protozoa clustered with Amoebozoa (10 operational taxonomic units [OTUs]), Cercozoa (39 OTUs), Choanozoa (26 OTUs), Ciliophora (29 OTUs), Euglenozoa (13 OTUs), Myzozoa (5 OTUs), and Stramenopiles (5 OTUs). A large variety of protozoa were present in both supplies, but the estimated values for protozoan richness did not differ significantly. H. vermiformis was observed in both supplies but was not a predominant protozoan. One OTU with the highest similarity to Acanthamoeba polyphaga, an opportunistic human pathogen and a host for undesired bacteria, was observed in supply A. The high level of NOM in supply B corresponded with an elevated level of active biomass and with elevated concentrations of H. vermiformis in distributed water. Hence, the application of qPCR may be promising in elucidating the relationship between drinking water quality and the presence of specific protozoa.

  6. Investigating Microbial Eukaryotic Diversity from a Global Census: Insights from a Comparison of Pyrotag and Full-Length Sequences of 18S rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenfeng; Hu, Sarah K.; Jones, Adriane C.; Kim, Diane Y.; Countway, Peter D.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.; Cary, S. Craig; Sherr, Evelyn B.; Sherr, Barry F.; Gast, Rebecca J.; Caron, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) approaches are rapidly surpassing Sanger sequencing for characterizing the diversity of natural microbial communities. Despite this rapid transition, few comparisons exist between Sanger sequences and the generally much shorter reads of NGS. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) derived from full-length (Sanger sequencing) and pyrotag (454 sequencing of the V9 hypervariable region) sequences of 18S rRNA genes from 10 global samples were analyzed in order to compare the resulting protistan community structures and species richness. Pyrotag OTUs called at 98% sequence similarity yielded numbers of OTUs that were similar overall to those for full-length sequences when the latter were called at 97% similarity. Singleton OTUs strongly influenced estimates of species richness but not the higher-level taxonomic composition of the community. The pyrotag and full-length sequence data sets had slightly different taxonomic compositions of rhizarians, stramenopiles, cryptophytes, and haptophytes, but the two data sets had similarly high compositions of alveolates. Pyrotag-based OTUs were often derived from sequences that mapped to multiple full-length OTUs at 100% similarity. Thus, pyrotags sequenced from a single hypervariable region might not be appropriate for establishing protistan species-level OTUs. However, nonmetric multidimensional scaling plots constructed with the two data sets yielded similar clusters, indicating that beta diversity analysis results were similar for the Sanger and NGS sequences. Short pyrotag sequences can provide holistic assessments of protistan communities, although care must be taken in interpreting the results. The longer reads (>500 bp) that are now becoming available through NGS should provide powerful tools for assessing the diversity of microbial eukaryotic assemblages. PMID:24814788

  7. Use of 18S rRNA gene-based PCR assay for diagnosis of acanthamoeba keratitis in non-contact lens wearers in India.

    PubMed

    Pasricha, Gunisha; Sharma, Savitri; Garg, Prashant; Aggarwal, Ramesh K

    2003-07-01

    Identification of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites in ocular tissues requires considerable expertise and is often time-consuming. An 18S rRNA gene-based PCR test, highly specific for the genus Acanthamoeba, has recently been reported in the molecular diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. This PCR assay was compared with conventional microbiological tests for the diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. In a pilot study, the PCR conditions with modifications were first tested on corneal scrapings from patients with culture-proven non-contact lens-related Acanthamoeba, bacterial, and fungal keratitis. This was followed by testing of corneal scrapings from 53 consecutive cases of microbial keratitis to determine sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the assay. All corneal scrapings from patients with proven Acanthamoeba keratitis showed a 463-bp amplicon, while no amplicon was obtained from patients with bacterial or fungal keratitis. Some of these amplified products were sequenced and compared with EMBL database reference sequences to validate these to be of Acanthamoeba origin. Out of 53 consecutive cases of microbial keratitis included for evaluating the PCR, 10 (18.9%) cases were diagnosed as Acanthamoeba keratitis on the basis of combined results of culture, smear, and PCR of corneal scrapings. Based on culture results as the "gold standard," the sensitivity of PCR was the same as that of the smear (87.5%); however, the specificity and the positive and negative predictive values of PCR were marginally higher than the smear examination (97.8 versus 95.6%, 87.5 versus 77.8%, and 97.8 versus 97.7%) although the difference was not significant. This study confirms the efficacy of the PCR assay and is the first study to evaluate a PCR-based assay against conventional methods of diagnosis in a clinical setting.

  8. Use of 18S rRNA Gene-Based PCR Assay for Diagnosis of Acanthamoeba Keratitis in Non-Contact Lens Wearers in India

    PubMed Central

    Pasricha, Gunisha; Sharma, Savitri; Garg, Prashant; Aggarwal, Ramesh K.

    2003-01-01

    Identification of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites in ocular tissues requires considerable expertise and is often time-consuming. An 18S rRNA gene-based PCR test, highly specific for the genus Acanthamoeba, has recently been reported in the molecular diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. This PCR assay was compared with conventional microbiological tests for the diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. In a pilot study, the PCR conditions with modifications were first tested on corneal scrapings from patients with culture-proven non-contact lens-related Acanthamoeba, bacterial, and fungal keratitis. This was followed by testing of corneal scrapings from 53 consecutive cases of microbial keratitis to determine sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the assay. All corneal scrapings from patients with proven Acanthamoeba keratitis showed a 463-bp amplicon, while no amplicon was obtained from patients with bacterial or fungal keratitis. Some of these amplified products were sequenced and compared with EMBL database reference sequences to validate these to be of Acanthamoeba origin. Out of 53 consecutive cases of microbial keratitis included for evaluating the PCR, 10 (18.9%) cases were diagnosed as Acanthamoeba keratitis on the basis of combined results of culture, smear, and PCR of corneal scrapings. Based on culture results as the “gold standard,” the sensitivity of PCR was the same as that of the smear (87.5%); however, the specificity and the positive and negative predictive values of PCR were marginally higher than the smear examination (97.8 versus 95.6%, 87.5 versus 77.8%, and 97.8 versus 97.7%) although the difference was not significant. This study confirms the efficacy of the PCR assay and is the first study to evaluate a PCR-based assay against conventional methods of diagnosis in a clinical setting. PMID:12843065

  9. Molecular phylogenetics of the spider infraorder Mygalomorphae using nuclear rRNA genes (18S and 28S): conflict and agreement with the current system of classification.

    PubMed

    Hedin, Marshal; Bond, Jason E

    2006-11-01

    Mygalomorph spiders, which include the tarantulas, trapdoor spiders, and their kin, represent one of three main spider lineages. Mygalomorphs are currently classified into 15 families, comprising roughly 2500 species and 300 genera. The few published phylogenies of mygalomorph relationships are based exclusively on morphological data and reveal areas of both conflict and congruence, suggesting the need for additional phylogenetic research utilizing new character systems. As part of a larger combined evidence study of global mygalomorph relationships, we have gathered approximately 3.7 kb of rRNA data (18S and 28S) for a sample of 80 genera, representing all 15 mygalomorph families. Taxon sampling was particularly intensive across families that are questionable in composition-Cyrtaucheniidae and Nemesiidae. The following primary results are supported by both Bayesian and parsimony analyses of combined matrices representing multiple 28S alignments: (1) the Atypoidea, a clade that includes the families Atypidae, Antrodiaetidae, and Mecicobothriidae, is recovered as a basal lineage sister to all other mygalomorphs, (2) diplurids and hexathelids form a paraphyletic grade at the base of the non-atypoid clade, but neither family is monophyletic in any of our analyses, (3) a clade consisting of all sampled nemesiids, Microstigmata and the cyrtaucheniid genera Kiama, Acontius, and Fufius is consistently recovered, (4) other sampled cyrtaucheniids are fragmented across three separate clades, including a monophyletic North American Euctenizinae and a South African clade, (5) of the Domiothelina, only idiopids are consistently recovered as monophyletic; ctenizids are polyphyletic and migids are only weakly supported. The Domiothelina is not monophyletic. The molecular results we present are consistent with more recent hypotheses of mygalomorph relationship; however, additional work remains before mygalomorph classification can be formally reassessed with confidence

  10. Phylogenetic position of the enigmatic clawless eutardigrade genus Apodibius Dastych, 1983 (Tardigrada), based on 18S and 28S rRNA sequence data from its type species A. confusus.

    PubMed

    Dabert, Miroslawa; Dastych, Hieronymus; Hohberg, Karin; Dabert, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The systematics of Eutardigrada, the largest lineage among the three classes of the phylum Tardigrada, is based mainly on the morphology of the leg claws and of the buccal apparatus. However, three members of the rarely recorded and poorly known limno-terrestrial eutardigrade genus Apodibius have no claws on their strongly reduced legs, a unique character among all tardigrades. This absence of all claws makes the systematic position of Apodibius one of the most enigmatic among the whole class. Until now all known associates of the genus Apodibius have been located in the incertae sedis species group or, quite recently, included into the Necopinatidae family. In the present study, phylogenetic analyses of 18S and 28S rRNA sequence data from 31 tardigrade species representing four parachelan superfamilies (Isohypsibioidea, Hypsibioidea, Macrobiotoidea, Eohypsibioidea), the apochelan Milnesium tardigradum, and the type species of the genus Apodibius, A. confusus, indicated close relationship of the Apodibius with tardigrade species recently included in the superfamily Isohypsibioidea. This result was well-supported and consistent across all markers (separate 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and combined 18S rRNA+28S rRNA datasets) and methods (MP, ML) applied.

  11. 18S rRNA gene sequencing identifies a novel species of Henneguya parasitizing the gills of the channel catfish (Ictaluridae).

    PubMed

    Rosser, Thomas G; Griffin, Matt J; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Khoo, Lester H; Pote, Linda M

    2014-12-01

    In the southeastern USA, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus is a host to at least eight different species of myxozoan parasites belonging to the genus Henneguya, four of which have been characterized molecularly using sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. However, only two of these have confirmed life cycles that involve the oligochaete Dero digitata as the definitive host. During a health screening of farm-raised channel catfish, several fish presented with deformed primary lamellae. Lamellae harbored large, nodular, white pseudocysts 1.25 mm in diameter, and upon rupturing, these pseudocysts released Henneguya myxospores, with a typical lanceolate-shaped spore body, measuring 17.1 ± 1.0 μm (mean ± SD; range = 15.0-19.3 μm) in length and 4.8 ± 0.4 μm (3.7-5.6 μm) in width. Pyriform-shaped polar capsules were 5.8 ± 0.3 μm in length (5.1-6.4 μm) and 1.7 ± 0.1 μm (1.4-1.9 μm) in width. The two caudal processes were 40.0 ± 5.1 μm in length (29.5-50.0 μm) with a spore length of 57.2 ± 4.7 (46.8-66.8 μm). The contiguous SSU rRNA gene sequence obtained from myxospores of five excised cysts did not match any Henneguya sp. in GenBank. The greatest sequence homology (91% over 1,900 bp) was with Henneguya pellis, associated with blister-like lesions on the skin of blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus. Based on the unique combination of pseudocyst and myxospore morphology, tissue location, host, and SSU rRNA gene sequence data, we report this isolate to be a previously unreported species, Henneguya bulbosus sp. nov.

  12. Comparison of potential diatom 'barcode' genes (the 18S rRNA gene and ITS, COI, rbcL) and their effectiveness in discriminating and determining species taxonomy in the Bacillariophyta.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liliang; Sui, Zhenghong; Zhang, Shu; Ren, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Diatoms form an enormous group of photoautotrophic micro-eukaryotes and play a crucial role in marine ecology. In this study, we evaluated typical genes to determine whether they were effective at different levels of diatom clustering analysis to assess the potential of these regions for barcoding taxa. Our test genes included nuclear rRNA genes (the nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene and the 5.8S rRNA gene+ITS-2), a mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c-oxidase subunit 1, COI), a chloroplast gene [ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL)] and the universal plastid amplicon (UPA). Calculated genetic divergence was highest for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS; 5.8S+ITS-2) (p-distance of 1.569, 85.84% parsimony-informative sites) and COI (6.084, 82.14%), followed by the 18S rRNA gene (0.139, 57.69%), rbcL (0.120, 42.01%) and UPA (0.050, 14.97%), which indicated that ITS and COI were highly divergent compared with the other tested genes, and that their nucleotide compositions were variable within the whole group of diatoms. Bayesian inference (BI) analysis showed that the phylogenetic trees generated from each gene clustered diatoms at different phylogenetic levels. The 18S rRNA gene was better than the other genes in clustering higher diatom taxa, and both the 18S rRNA gene and rbcL performed well in clustering some lower taxa. The COI region was able to barcode species of some genera within the Bacillariophyceae. ITS was a potential marker for DNA based-taxonomy and DNA barcoding of Thalassiosirales, while species of Cyclotella, Skeletonema and Stephanodiscus gathered in separate clades, and were paraphyletic with those of Thalassiosira. Finally, UPA was too conserved to serve as a diatom barcode.

  13. ARC-1, a sequence element complementary to an internal 18S rRNA segment, enhances translation efficiency in plants when present in the leader or intercistronic region of mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Akbergenov, R. Zh.; Zhanybekova, S. Sh.; Kryldakov, R. V.; Zhigailov, A.; Polimbetova, N. S.; Hohn, T.; Iskakov, B. K.

    2004-01-01

    The sequences of different plant viral leaders with known translation enhancer ability show partial complementarity to the central region of 18S rRNA. Such complementarity might serve as a means to attract 40S ribosomal subunits and explain in part the translation-enhancing property of these sequences. To verify this notion, we designed β-glucuronidase (GUS) mRNAs differing only in the nature of 10 nt inserts in the center of their 41 base leaders. These were complementary to consecutive domains of plant 18S rRNA. Sucrose gradient analysis revealed that leaders with inserts complementary to regions 1105–1114 and 1115–1124 (‘ARC-1’) of plant 18S rRNA bound most efficiently to the 40S ribosomal subunit after dissociation from 80S ribosomes under conditions of high ionic strength, a treatment known to remove translation initiation factors. Using wheat germ cell-free extracts, we could demonstrate that mRNAs with these leaders were translated more than three times more efficiently than a control lacking such a complementarity. Three linked copies of the insert enhanced translation of reporter mRNA to levels comparable with those directed by the natural translation enhancing leaders of tobacco mosaic virus and potato virus Y RNAs. Moreover, inserting the same leaders as intercistronic sequences in dicistronic mRNAs substantially increased translation of the second cistron, thereby revealing internal ribosome entry site activity. Thus, for plant systems, the complementary interaction between mRNA leader and the central region of 18S rRNA allows cap-independent binding of mRNA to the 43S pre-initiation complex without assistance of translation initiation factors. PMID:14718549

  14. Seasonal diversity of planktonic protists in Southwestern Alberta rivers over a 1-year period as revealed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and 18S rRNA gene library analyses.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Matthew C; Selinger, L Brent; Inglis, G Douglas

    2012-08-01

    The temporal dynamics of planktonic protists in river water have received limited attention despite their ecological significance and recent studies linking phagotrophic protists to the persistence of human-pathogenic bacteria. Using molecular-based techniques targeting the 18S rRNA gene, we studied the seasonal diversity of planktonic protists in Southwestern Alberta rivers (Oldman River Basin) over a 1-year period. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) data revealed distinct shifts in protistan community profiles that corresponded to season rather than geographical location. Community structures were examined by using clone library analysis; HaeIII restriction profiles of 18S rRNA gene amplicons were used to remove prevalent solanaceous plant clones prior to sequencing. Sanger sequencing of the V1-to-V3 region of the 18S rRNA gene libraries from spring, summer, fall, and winter supported the T-RFLP results and showed marked seasonal differences in the protistan community structure. The spring library was dominated by Chloroplastidae (29.8%), Centrohelida (28.1%), and Alveolata (25.5%), while the summer and fall libraries contained primarily fungal clones (83.0% and 88.0%, respectively). Alveolata (35.6%), Euglenozoa (24.4%), Chloroplastida (15.6%), and Fungi (15.6%) dominated the winter library. These data demonstrate that planktonic protists, including protozoa, are abundant in river water in Southwestern Alberta and that conspicuous seasonal shifts occur in the community structure.

  15. A time course study demonstrating mRNA, microRNA, 18S rRNA, and U6 snRNA changes to estimate PMI in deceased rat's spleen.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ye-hui; Ma, Kai-jun; Zhang, Heng; He, Meng; Zhang, Ping; Shen, Yi-wen; Jiang, Nan; Ma, Duan; Chen, Long

    2014-09-01

    Determining the postmortem interval (PMI) is important in criminal, civil, and forensic cases. We examined the feasibility of using the transcript abundances of mRNAs, 18S rRNA, U6 snRNA, and microRNAs as a means to estimate the PMI. We removed spleen tissues from rats at different PMIs under 4°C or 25°C and examined gene transcript abundances in these samples by RT-qPCR. Using the algorithm geNorm, we found that microRNAs to be appropriate control markers because they were less affected by PMI and temperature. We also characterized relationships between observed PMI and the transcript levels of the above-mentioned RNAs. GAPDH1 and ACTB1 fluctuated slightly like cubic curves, while GAPDH2 and ACTB2 decreased rapidly. 18S rRNA transcript level exhibited a parabolic-like trend at 25°C and exponential growth at 4°C, while U6 transcript level exhibited exponential decay at 25°C and a parabolic-like trend at 4°C. Following validation, we conclude that GAPDH2, ACTB2, and 18S rRNA are suitable makers in the accurate determination of PMI. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Seasonal Diversity of Planktonic Protists in Southwestern Alberta Rivers over a 1-Year Period as Revealed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and 18S rRNA Gene Library Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Matthew C.; Selinger, L. Brent

    2012-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of planktonic protists in river water have received limited attention despite their ecological significance and recent studies linking phagotrophic protists to the persistence of human-pathogenic bacteria. Using molecular-based techniques targeting the 18S rRNA gene, we studied the seasonal diversity of planktonic protists in Southwestern Alberta rivers (Oldman River Basin) over a 1-year period. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) data revealed distinct shifts in protistan community profiles that corresponded to season rather than geographical location. Community structures were examined by using clone library analysis; HaeIII restriction profiles of 18S rRNA gene amplicons were used to remove prevalent solanaceous plant clones prior to sequencing. Sanger sequencing of the V1-to-V3 region of the 18S rRNA gene libraries from spring, summer, fall, and winter supported the T-RFLP results and showed marked seasonal differences in the protistan community structure. The spring library was dominated by Chloroplastidae (29.8%), Centrohelida (28.1%), and Alveolata (25.5%), while the summer and fall libraries contained primarily fungal clones (83.0% and 88.0%, respectively). Alveolata (35.6%), Euglenozoa (24.4%), Chloroplastida (15.6%), and Fungi (15.6%) dominated the winter library. These data demonstrate that planktonic protists, including protozoa, are abundant in river water in Southwestern Alberta and that conspicuous seasonal shifts occur in the community structure. PMID:22685143

  17. TcBat a bat-exclusive lineage of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Panama Canal Zone, with comments on its classification and the use of the 18S rRNA gene for lineage identification.

    PubMed

    Pinto, C Miguel; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Cottontail, Iain; Wellinghausen, Nele; Cottontail, Veronika M

    2012-08-01

    We report TcBat, a recently described genetic lineage of Trypanosoma cruzi, in fruit-eating bats Artibeus from Panama. Infections were common (11.6% prevalence), but no other T. cruzi cruzi genotypes were detected. Phylogenetic analyses show an unambiguous association with Brazilian TcBat, but raise questions about the phylogenetic placement of this genotype using the 18S rRNA gene alone. However, analyses with three concatenated genes (18S rRNA, cytb, and H2B) moderately support TcBat as sister to the discrete typing unit (DTU) TcI. We demonstrate that short fragments (>500 bp) of the 18S rRNA gene are useful for identification of DTUs of T. cruzi, and provide reliable phylogenetic signal as long as they are analyzed within a matrix with reference taxa containing additional informative genes. TcBat forms a very distinctive monophyletic group that may be recognized as an additional DTU within T. cruzi cruzi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Taxonomic redescriptions of two ciliates, Protogastrostyla pulchra n. g., n. comb. and Hemigastrostyla enigmatica (ciliophora: spirotrichea, stichotrichia), with phylogenetic analyses based on 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jun; Kim, Se-Joo; Kim, Sun-Young; Min, Gi-Sik; Roberts, David McL; Warren, Alan; Choi, Joong-Ki

    2007-01-01

    The morphology and infraciliature of two stichotrichid ciliates, Gastrostyla pulchra(Perejaslawzewa 1886) Kahl, 1932 and Hemigastrostyla enigmatica(Dragesco and Dragesco-Kernéis 1986) Song & Wilbert, 1997, collected from marine and brackish sediments, were investigated by using living observations and protargol impregnations. Both 18S and 28S rRNA genes of these two species were sequenced. The 18S rDNA show high similarities (98.4%-99.7%) among populations of each species. There is about 94% similarity in 18S rDNA genes between G. pulchra and Gastrostyla steinii, the type species of the genus, which has been confirmed to be an oxytrichid by previous studies. In the phylogenetic trees of 18S, 28S, and combined 18S and 28S rDNA, both G. pulchra and H. enigmatica are consistently placed outside the well-established oxytrichid clade. Based on our analyses and previous ontogenetic data, we conclude that these two species may represent some lower groups in the subclass Stichotrichia, and that G. pulchra should represent a new genus, Protogastrostyla n. g. This new genus, which is morphologically similar to Gastrostyla, differs in its morphogenesis: the apical part of the old AZM is retained combining with the newly built membranelles that develop from the proter's oral primordium; the primary primordia of the dorsal kinety; and marginal primordia commence de novo without a definite contribution from the old structure.

  19. 18S rRNA gene sequencing identifies a novel species of Henneguya parasitizing the gills of the channel catfish (Ictaluridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the southeastern United States, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus is a host to at least eight different species of myxozoan parasites belonging to the genus Henneguya, four of which have been characterized molecularly using sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA). Howe...

  20. Effects of antioxidant supplementation on mRNA expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, β-actin and 18S rRNA in the anterior capsule of the lens in cataract patients.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Rijo; Hayashi, Shimmin; Arai, Kiyomi; Chikuda, Makoto; Obara, Yositaka

    2012-03-01

    This was a preliminary study of the effects of antioxidant supplementation on the peroxidation status of the lens by investigating mRNA expression of anti-oxidative enzymes in the lens. The mRNA expression levels of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), β-actin (β-ACT) and 18S rRNA (18S) were measured in this study because they are common reference genes for measuring mRNA levels by means of a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in various tissues. Thirteen patients with binocular cataracts of the same grade were included in the study after giving informed consent. A piece of the anterior capsule, along with a sample of lenticular epithelial cells (LECs), was collected as a pre-intake sample during cataract surgery. Ocuvite + Lutein(®), an antioxidant supplement, was administered orally beginning the day after surgery. Six weeks later, a piece of the anterior capsule along with a sample of LECs, was collected as a post-intake sample during cataract surgery of the opposite eye. RNA was purified from the homogenized samples, and cDNA was reverse transcribed to measure mRNA levels. The expression levels of G6PDH, 18S and β-ACT were measured using RT-PCR. The expression levels of G6PDH and 18S were significantly higher in the post-intake samples than they were in the pre-intake samples. Significant positive correlations between the expression levels of G6PDH and 18S were observed in both the pre- and post-intake samples. Following gender-specific analyses, the expression levels of G6PDH and 18S in the post-intake samples were found to be significantly higher among the female patients. A significant positive correlation between the expression levels of G6PDH and 18S was observed in the post-intake samples from the male patients. There were no significant changes in the gene expression levels of β-ACT after supplementation among male or female patients. β-ACT has been verified for use as a reference gene for measuring the

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of the spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae (Acari: Tetranychidae) based on the mitochondrial COI gene and the 18S and the 5' end of the 28S rRNA genes indicates that several genera are polyphyletic.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Tomoko; Morishita, Maiko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Gotoh, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    The spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae includes many agricultural pests. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of mitochondrial DNA have been used for species identification and phylogenetic reconstruction within the sub-family Tetranychinae, although they have not always been successful. The 18S and 28S rRNA genes should be more suitable for resolving higher levels of phylogeny, such as tribes or genera of Tetranychinae because these genes evolve more slowly and are made up of conserved regions and divergent domains. Therefore, we used both the 18S (1,825-1,901 bp) and 28S (the 5' end of 646-743 bp) rRNA genes to infer phylogenetic relationships within the sub-family Tetranychinae with a focus on the tribe Tetranychini. Then, we compared the phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes with that of the mitochondrial COI gene (618 bp). As observed in previous studies, our phylogeny based on the COI gene was not resolved because of the low bootstrap values for most nodes of the tree. On the other hand, our phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes revealed several well-supported clades within the sub-family Tetranychinae. The 18S and 28S phylogenetic trees suggest that the tribes Bryobiini, Petrobiini and Eurytetranychini are monophyletic and that the tribe Tetranychini is polyphyletic. At the genus level, six genera for which more than two species were sampled appear to be monophyletic, while four genera (Oligonychus, Tetranychus, Schizotetranychus and Eotetranychus) appear to be polyphyletic. The topology presented here does not fully agree with the current morphology-based taxonomy, so that the diagnostic morphological characters of Tetranychinae need to be reconsidered.

  2. Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Wheat Rhizosphere by Sequencing of Cloned PCR-Amplified Genes Encoding 18S rRNA and Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Eric; Leeflang, Paula; Glandorf, Boet; Dirk van Elsas, Jan; Wernars, Karel

    1999-01-01

    Like bacteria, fungi play an important role in the soil ecosystem. As only a small fraction of the fungi present in soil can be cultured, conventional microbiological techniques yield only limited information on the composition and dynamics of fungal communities in soil. DNA-based methods do not depend on the culturability of microorganisms, and therefore they offer an attractive alternative for the study of complex fungal community structures. For this purpose, we designed various PCR primers that allow the specific amplification of fungal 18S-ribosomal-DNA (rDNA) sequences, even in the presence of nonfungal 18S rDNA. DNA was extracted from the wheat rhizosphere, and 18S rDNA gene banks were constructed in Escherichia coli by cloning PCR products generated with primer pairs EF4-EF3 (1.4 kb) and EF4-fung5 (0.5 kb). Fragments of 0.5 kb from the cloned inserts were sequenced and compared to known rDNA sequences. Sequences from all major fungal taxa were amplified by using both primer pairs. As predicted by computer analysis, primer pair EF4-EF3 appeared slightly biased to amplify Basidiomycota and Zygomycota, whereas EF4-fung5 amplified mainly Ascomycota. The 61 clones that were sequenced matched the sequences of 24 different species in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) database. Similarity values ranged from 0.676 to 1. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) analysis of the fungal community in the wheat rhizosphere of a microcosm experiment was carried out after amplification of total DNA with both primer pairs. This resulted in reproducible, distinctive fingerprints, confirming the difference in amplification specificity. Clear banding patterns were obtained with soil and rhizosphere samples by using both primer sets in combination. By comparing the electrophoretic mobility of community fingerprint bands to that of the bands obtained with separate clones, some could be tentatively identified. While 18S-rDNA sequences do not always provide the taxonomic

  3. New record of Apoholosticha sinica (Ciliophora, Urostylida) from the UK: morphology, 18S rRNA gene phylogeny and notes on morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaozhong; Fan, Yangbo; Warren, Alan

    2015-08-01

    The benthic urostylid ciliate Apoholosticha sinicaFan et al., 2014 was isolated from a salt marsh at Blakeney, UK, and reinvestigated using light microscopy and small-subunit rRNA gene sequencing. Morphologically, it corresponds well with the original description. Several stages of divisional morphogenesis and physiological reorganization were also observed from which the following could be deduced: (i) the oral apparatus is completely newly built in the proter; (ii) frontal-ventral-transverse cirral anlage II does not produce a buccal cirrus; (iii) each of the posteriormost three or four anlagen contributes one transverse cirrus at its posterior end; (iv) a row of frontoterminal cirri originates from the rearmost frontal-ventral-transverse cirral anlage; (v) the last midventral row is formed from the penultimate frontal-ventral-transverse cirral anlage. Based on new data, two diagnostic features were added to the genus definition: (i) the midventral complex is composed of midventral pairs and midventral row and (ii) pretransverse ventral cirri are absent. Based on a combination of morphological and morphogenetic data, the genus Apoholosticha is assigned to the recently erected subfamily Nothoholostichinae Paiva et al., 2014, which is consistent with sequence comparison and phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA gene data. It is also concluded that this benthic species, previously reported only from China, is not an endemic form.

  4. Chloroplast development at low temperatures requires a homolog of DIM1, a yeast gene encoding the 18S rRNA dimethylase.

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhisa, J G; Vijayan, P; Feldmann, K A; Browse, J A

    1998-01-01

    Poikilothermic organisms require mechanisms that allow survival at chilling temperatures (2 to 15 degreesC). We have isolated chilling-sensitive mutants of Arabidopsis, a plant that is very chilling resistant, and are characterizing them to understand the genes involved in chilling resistance. The T-DNA-tagged mutant paleface1 (pfc1) grows normally at 22 degrees C but at 5 degrees C exhibits a pattern of chilling-induced chlorosis consistent with a disruption of chloroplast development. Genomic DNA flanking the T-DNA was cloned and used to isolate wild-type genomic and cDNA clones. The PFC1 transcript is present at a low level in wild-type plants and was not detected in pfc1 plants. Wild-type Arabidopsis expressing antisense constructs of PFC1 grew normally at 22 degrees C but showed chilling-induced chlorosis, confirming that the gene is essential for low-temperature development of chloroplasts. The deduced amino acid sequence of PFC1 has identity with rRNA methylases found in bacteria and yeast that modify specific adenosines of pre-rRNA transcripts. The pfc1 mutant does not have these modifications in the small subunit rRNA of the plastid. PMID:9596631

  5. Targeting single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 18S rRNA gene to differentiate Cyclospora species from Eimeria species by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Palmer A; Carter, Laurenda; Brinker, Anna Marie; da Silva, Alexandre J; Chu, Dan-My; Lampel, Keith A; Monday, Steven R

    2003-08-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis is a coccidian parasite that causes protracted diarrheal illness in humans. C. cayetanensis is the only species of this genus thus far associated with human illness, although Cyclospora species from other primates have been named. The current method to detect the parasite uses a nested PCR assay to amplify a 294-bp region of the small subunit rRNA gene, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or DNA sequence analysis. Since the amplicons generated from C. cayetanensis and Eimeria species are the same size, the latter step is required to distinguish between these different species. The current PCR-RFLP protocol, however, cannot distinguish between C. cayetanensis and these new isolates. The differential identification of such pathogenic and nonpathogenic parasites is essential in assessing the risks to human health from microorganisms that may be potential contaminants in food and water sources. Therefore, to expand the utility of PCR to detect and identify these parasites in a multiplex assay, a series of genus- and species-specific forward primers were designed that are able to distinguish sites of limited sequence heterogeneity in the target gene. The most effective of these unique primers were those that identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the 3' end of the primer. Under more stringent annealing and elongation conditions, these SNP primers were able to differentiate between C. cayetanensis, nonhuman primate species of Cyclospora, and Eimeria species. As a diagnostic tool, the SNP PCR protocol described here presents a more rapid and sensitive alternative to the currently available PCR-RFLP detection method. In addition, the specificity of these diagnostic primers removes the uncertainty that can be associated with analyses of foods or environmental sources suspected of harboring potential human parasitic pathogens.

  6. Conformation of yeast 18S rRNA. Direct chemical probing of the 5' domain in ribosomal subunits and in deproteinized RNA by reverse transcriptase mapping of dimethyl sulfate-accessible.

    PubMed Central

    Lempereur, L; Nicoloso, M; Riehl, N; Ehresmann, C; Ehresmann, B; Bachellerie, J P

    1985-01-01

    The structure of the 5' domain of yeast 18S rRNA has been probed by dimethyl sulfate (DMS), either in "native" deproteinized molecules or in the 40S ribosomal subunits. DMS-reacted RNA has been used as a template for reverse transcription and a large number of reactive sites, corresponding to all types of bases have been mapped by a primer extension procedure, taking advantage of blocks in cDNA elongation immediately upstream from bases methylated at atom positions involved in the base-pair recognition of the template. Since the same atom positions are protected from DMS in base-paired nucleotides, the secondary structure status of each nucleotide can be directly assessed in this procedure, thus allowing to evaluate the potential contribution of proteins in modulating subunit rRNA conformation. While the DMS probing of deproteinized rRNA confirms a number of helical stems predicted by phylogenetic comparisons, it is remarkable that a few additional base-pairings, while proven by the comparative analysis, appear to require the presence of the bound ribosomal subunit proteins to be stabilized. Images PMID:2417197

  7. The Bowen-Conradi syndrome protein Nep1 (Emg1) has a dual role in eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis, as an essential assembly factor and in the methylation of Ψ1191 in yeast 18S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Britta; Wurm, Jan Philip; Kötter, Peter; Leisegang, Matthias S; Schilling, Valeska; Buchhaupt, Markus; Held, Martin; Bahr, Ute; Karas, Michael; Heckel, Alexander; Bohnsack, Markus T; Wöhnert, Jens; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2011-03-01

    The Nep1 (Emg1) SPOUT-class methyltransferase is an essential ribosome assembly factor and the human Bowen-Conradi syndrome (BCS) is caused by a specific Nep1(D86G) mutation. We recently showed in vitro that Methanocaldococcus jannaschii Nep1 is a sequence-specific pseudouridine-N1-methyltransferase. Here, we show that in yeast the in vivo target site for Nep1-catalyzed methylation is located within loop 35 of the 18S rRNA that contains the unique hypermodification of U1191 to 1-methyl-3-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-pseudouri-dine (m1acp3Ψ). Specific (14)C-methionine labelling of 18S rRNA in yeast mutants showed that Nep1 is not required for acp-modification but suggested a function in Ψ1191 methylation. ESI MS analysis of acp-modified Ψ-nucleosides in a Δnep1-mutant showed that Nep1 catalyzes the Ψ1191 methylation in vivo. Remarkably, the restored growth of a nep1-1(ts) mutant upon addition of S-adenosylmethionine was even observed after preventing U1191 methylation in a Δsnr35 mutant. This strongly suggests a dual Nep1 function, as Ψ1191-methyltransferase and ribosome assembly factor. Interestingly, the Nep1 methyltransferase activity is not affected upon introduction of the BCS mutation. Instead, the mutated protein shows enhanced dimerization propensity and increased affinity for its RNA-target in vitro. Furthermore, the BCS mutation prevents nucleolar accumulation of Nep1, which could be the reason for reduced growth in yeast and the Bowen-Conradi syndrome.

  8. Polyamine stimulation of eEF1A synthesis based on the unusual position of a complementary sequence to 18S rRNA in eEF1A mRNA.

    PubMed

    Terui, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Akihiko; Yoshida, Taketo; Kasahara, Takuma; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Higashi, Kyohei; Igarashi, Kazuei; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2015-02-01

    It is thought that Shine-Dalgarno-like sequences, which exhibit complementarity to the nucleotide sequences at the 3'-end of 18S rRNA, are not present in eukaryotic mRNAs. However, complementary sequences consisting of more than 5 nucleotides to the 3'-end of 18S rRNA, i.e., a CR sequence, are present at -17 to -32 upstream from the initiation codon AUG in 18 mRNAs involved in protein synthesis except eEF1A mRNA. Thus, effects of the CR sequence in mRNAs and polyamines on protein synthesis were examined using control and polyamine-reduced FM3A and NIH3T3 cells. Polyamines did not stimulate protein synthesis encoded by 18 mRNAs possessing a normal CR sequence. When the CR sequence was deleted, protein synthetic activities decreased to less than 70% of intact mRNAs. In eEF1A mRNA, the CR sequence was located at -33 to -39 upstream from the initiation codon AUG, and polyamines stimulated eEF1A synthesis about threefold. When the CR sequence was shifted to -22 to -28 upstream from the AUG, eEF1A synthesis increased in polyamine-reduced cells and the degree of polyamine stimulation decreased greatly. The results indicate that the CR sequence exists in many eukaryotic mRNAs, and the location of a CR sequence in mRNAs influences polyamine stimulation of protein synthesis.

  9. Phylogenetic position of Linguatula arctica and Linguatula serrata (Pentastomida) as inferred from the nuclear 18S rRNA gene and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2013-10-01

    Genomic DNA was isolated from a Linguatula serrata female expelled from a dog imported to Norway from Romania and from four Linguatula arctica females collected from semi-domesticated reindeer from northern Norway and subjected to PCR amplification of the complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene and a 1,045-bp portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1). The two species differed at two of 1,830 nucleotide positions (99.9% identity) of the complete 18S rRNA gene sequences and at 102 of 1,045 nucleotide positions (90.2% identity) of the partial cox1 sequences. The four isolates of L. arctica showed no genetic variation in either gene. The new cox1 primers may facilitate the diagnosis of various developmental stages of L. arctica and L. serrata in their hosts. In separate phylogenetic analyses using the maximum likelihood method on sequence data from either gene, L. arctica and L. serrata clustered with members of the order Cephalobaenida rather than with members of the order Porocephalida, in which the genus Linguatula is currently placed based on morphological characters. The phylogenetic relationship of L. arctica, L. serrata and other pentastomids to other metazoan groups could not be clearly resolved, but the pentastomids did not seem to have a sister relationship to crustaceans of the subclass Branchiura as found in other studies. A more extensive taxon sampling, including molecular characterisation of more pentastomid taxa across different genera, seems to be necessary in order to estimate the true relationship of the Pentastomida to other metazoan groups.

  10. Characteristics of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) rRNA genes of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera): structure, organization, and retrotransposable elements

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, J J; Johnston, J S; Cannone, J J; Gutell, R R

    2006-01-01

    As an accompanying manuscript to the release of the honey bee genome, we report the entire sequence of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-encoding gene sequences (rDNA) and related internally and externally transcribed spacer regions of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apocrita). Additionally, we predict secondary structures for the mature rRNA molecules based on comparative sequence analyses with other arthropod taxa and reference to recently published crystal structures of the ribosome. In general, the structures of honey bee rRNAs are in agreement with previously predicted rRNA models from other arthropods in core regions of the rRNA, with little additional expansion in non-conserved regions. Our multiple sequence alignments are made available on several public databases and provide a preliminary establishment of a global structural model of all rRNAs from the insects. Additionally, we provide conserved stretches of sequences flanking the rDNA cistrons that comprise the externally transcribed spacer regions (ETS) and part of the intergenic spacer region (IGS), including several repetitive motifs. Finally, we report the occurrence of retrotransposition in the nuclear large subunit rDNA, as R2 elements are present in the usual insertion points found in other arthropods. Interestingly, functional R1 elements usually present in the genomes of insects were not detected in the honey bee rRNA genes. The reverse transcriptase products of the R2 elements are deduced from their putative open reading frames and structurally aligned with those from another hymenopteran insect, the jewel wasp Nasonia (Pteromalidae). Stretches of conserved amino acids shared between Apis and Nasonia are illustrated and serve as potential sites for primer design, as target amplicons within these R2 elements may serve as novel phylogenetic markers for Hymenoptera. Given the impending completion of the sequencing of the Nasonia genome

  11. Characteristics of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) rRNA genes of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera): structure, organization, and retrotransposable elements.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, J J; Johnston, J S; Cannone, J J; Gutell, R R

    2006-10-01

    As an accompanying manuscript to the release of the honey bee genome, we report the entire sequence of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-encoding gene sequences (rDNA) and related internally and externally transcribed spacer regions of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apocrita). Additionally, we predict secondary structures for the mature rRNA molecules based on comparative sequence analyses with other arthropod taxa and reference to recently published crystal structures of the ribosome. In general, the structures of honey bee rRNAs are in agreement with previously predicted rRNA models from other arthropods in core regions of the rRNA, with little additional expansion in non-conserved regions. Our multiple sequence alignments are made available on several public databases and provide a preliminary establishment of a global structural model of all rRNAs from the insects. Additionally, we provide conserved stretches of sequences flanking the rDNA cistrons that comprise the externally transcribed spacer regions (ETS) and part of the intergenic spacer region (IGS), including several repetitive motifs. Finally, we report the occurrence of retrotransposition in the nuclear large subunit rDNA, as R2 elements are present in the usual insertion points found in other arthropods. Interestingly, functional R1 elements usually present in the genomes of insects were not detected in the honey bee rRNA genes. The reverse transcriptase products of the R2 elements are deduced from their putative open reading frames and structurally aligned with those from another hymenopteran insect, the jewel wasp Nasonia (Pteromalidae). Stretches of conserved amino acids shared between Apis and Nasonia are illustrated and serve as potential sites for primer design, as target amplicons within these R2 elements may serve as novel phylogenetic markers for Hymenoptera. Given the impending completion of the sequencing of the Nasonia genome

  12. Structural and functional studies of Bud23–Trm112 reveal 18S rRNA N7-G1575 methylation occurs on late 40S precursor ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Létoquart, Juliette; Huvelle, Emmeline; Wacheul, Ludivine; Bourgeois, Gabrielle; Zorbas, Christiane; Graille, Marc; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit carries only four ribosomal (r) RNA methylated bases, all close to important functional sites. N7-methylguanosine (m7G) introduced at position 1575 on 18S rRNA by Bud23–Trm112 is at a ridge forming a steric block between P- and E-site tRNAs. Here we report atomic resolution structures of Bud23–Trm112 in the apo and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-bound forms. Bud23 and Trm112 interact through formation of a β-zipper involving main-chain atoms, burying an important hydrophobic surface and stabilizing the complex. The structures revealed that the coactivator Trm112 undergoes an induced fit to accommodate its methyltransferase (MTase) partner. We report important structural similarity between the active sites of Bud23 and Coffea canephora xanthosine MTase, leading us to propose and validate experimentally a model for G1575 coordination. We identify Bud23 residues important for Bud23–Trm112 complex formation and recruitment to pre-ribosomes. We report that though Bud23–Trm112 binds precursor ribosomes at an early nucleolar stage, m7G methylation occurs at a late step of small subunit biogenesis, implying specifically delayed catalytic activation. Finally, we show that Bud23–Trm112 interacts directly with the box C/D snoRNA U3-associated DEAH RNA helicase Dhr1 supposedly involved in central pseudoknot formation; this suggests that Bud23–Trm112 might also contribute to controlling formation of this irreversible and dramatic structural reorganization essential to overall folding of small subunit rRNA. Our study contributes important new elements to our understanding of key molecular aspects of human ribosomopathy syndromes associated with WBSCR22 (human Bud23) malfunction. PMID:25489090

  13. hUTP24 is essential for processing of the human rRNA precursor at site A1, but not at site A0.

    PubMed

    Tomecki, Rafal; Labno, Anna; Drazkowska, Karolina; Cysewski, Dominik; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Production of ribosomes relies on more than 200 accessory factors to ensure the proper sequence of steps and faultless assembly of ribonucleoprotein machinery. Among trans-acting factors are numerous enzymes, including ribonucleases responsible for processing the large rRNA precursor synthesized by RNA polymerase I that encompasses sequences corresponding to mature 18S, 5.8S, and 25/28S rRNA. In humans, the identity of most enzymes responsible for individual processing steps, including endoribonucleases that cleave pre-rRNA at specific sites within regions flanking and separating mature rRNA, remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of hUTP24 in rRNA maturation in human cells. hUTP24 is a human homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae putative PIN domain-containing endoribonuclease Utp24 (yUtp24), which was suggested to participate in the U3 snoRNA-dependent processing of yeast pre-rRNA at sites A0, A1, and A2. We demonstrate that hUTP24 interacts to some extent with proteins homologous to the components of the yeast small subunit (SSU) processome. Moreover, mutation in the putative catalytic site of hUTP24 results in slowed growth of cells and reduced metabolic activity. These effects are associated with a defect in biogenesis of the 40S ribosomal subunit, which results from decreased amounts of 18S rRNA as a consequence of inaccurate pre-rRNA processing at the 5'-end of the 18S rRNA segment (site A1). Interestingly, and in contrast to yeast, site A0 located upstream of A1 is efficiently processed upon UTP24 dysfunction. Finally, hUTP24 inactivation leads to aberrant processing of 18S rRNA 2 nucleotides downstream of the normal A1 cleavage site.

  14. hUTP24 is essential for processing of the human rRNA precursor at site A1, but not at site A0

    PubMed Central

    Tomecki, Rafal; Labno, Anna; Drazkowska, Karolina; Cysewski, Dominik; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Production of ribosomes relies on more than 200 accessory factors to ensure the proper sequence of steps and faultless assembly of ribonucleoprotein machinery. Among trans-acting factors are numerous enzymes, including ribonucleases responsible for processing the large rRNA precursor synthesized by RNA polymerase I that encompasses sequences corresponding to mature 18S, 5.8S, and 25/28S rRNA. In humans, the identity of most enzymes responsible for individual processing steps, including endoribonucleases that cleave pre-rRNA at specific sites within regions flanking and separating mature rRNA, remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of hUTP24 in rRNA maturation in human cells. hUTP24 is a human homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae putative PIN domain-containing endoribonuclease Utp24 (yUtp24), which was suggested to participate in the U3 snoRNA-dependent processing of yeast pre-rRNA at sites A0, A1, and A2. We demonstrate that hUTP24 interacts to some extent with proteins homologous to the components of the yeast small subunit (SSU) processome. Moreover, mutation in the putative catalytic site of hUTP24 results in slowed growth of cells and reduced metabolic activity. These effects are associated with a defect in biogenesis of the 40S ribosomal subunit, which results from decreased amounts of 18S rRNA as a consequence of inaccurate pre-rRNA processing at the 5′-end of the 18S rRNA segment (site A1). Interestingly, and in contrast to yeast, site A0 located upstream of A1 is efficiently processed upon UTP24 dysfunction. Finally, hUTP24 inactivation leads to aberrant processing of 18S rRNA 2 nucleotides downstream of the normal A1 cleavage site. PMID:26237581

  15. RNase MRP is required for entry of 35S precursor rRNA into the canonical processing pathway.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Lasse; Bommankanti, Ananth; Li, Xing; Hayden, Lauren; Jones, Adrienne; Khan, Miriam; Oni, Tolulope; Zengel, Janice M

    2009-07-01

    RNase MRP is a nucleolar RNA-protein enzyme that participates in the processing of rRNA during ribosome biogenesis. Previous experiments suggested that RNase MRP makes a nonessential cleavage in the first internal transcribed spacer. Here we report experiments with new temperature-sensitive RNase MRP mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that show that the abundance of all early intermediates in the processing pathway is severely reduced upon inactivation of RNase MRP. Transcription of rRNA continues unabated as determined by RNA polymerase run-on transcription, but the precursor rRNA transcript does not accumulate, and appears to be unstable. Taken together, these observations suggest that inactivation of RNase MRP blocks cleavage at sites A0, A1, A2, and A3, which in turn, prevents precursor rRNA from entering the canonical processing pathway (35S > 20S + 27S > 18S + 25S + 5.8S rRNA). Nevertheless, at least some cleavage at the processing site in the second internal transcribed spacer takes place to form an unusual 24S intermediate, suggesting that cleavage at C2 is not blocked. Furthermore, the long form of 5.8S rRNA is made in the absence of RNase MRP activity, but only in the presence of Xrn1p (exonuclease 1), an enzyme not required for the canonical pathway. We conclude that RNase MRP is a key enzyme for initiating the canonical processing of precursor rRNA transcripts, but alternative pathway(s) might provide a backup for production of small amounts of rRNA.

  16. RNase MRP is required for entry of 35S precursor rRNA into the canonical processing pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Lasse; Bommankanti, Ananth; Li, Xing; Hayden, Lauren; Jones, Adrienne; Khan, Miriam; Oni, Tolulope; Zengel, Janice M.

    2009-01-01

    RNase MRP is a nucleolar RNA–protein enzyme that participates in the processing of rRNA during ribosome biogenesis. Previous experiments suggested that RNase MRP makes a nonessential cleavage in the first internal transcribed spacer. Here we report experiments with new temperature-sensitive RNase MRP mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that show that the abundance of all early intermediates in the processing pathway is severely reduced upon inactivation of RNase MRP. Transcription of rRNA continues unabated as determined by RNA polymerase run-on transcription, but the precursor rRNA transcript does not accumulate, and appears to be unstable. Taken together, these observations suggest that inactivation of RNase MRP blocks cleavage at sites A0, A1, A2, and A3, which in turn, prevents precursor rRNA from entering the canonical processing pathway (35S > 20S + 27S > 18S + 25S + 5.8S rRNA). Nevertheless, at least some cleavage at the processing site in the second internal transcribed spacer takes place to form an unusual 24S intermediate, suggesting that cleavage at C2 is not blocked. Furthermore, the long form of 5.8S rRNA is made in the absence of RNase MRP activity, but only in the presence of Xrn1p (exonuclease 1), an enzyme not required for the canonical pathway. We conclude that RNase MRP is a key enzyme for initiating the canonical processing of precursor rRNA transcripts, but alternative pathway(s) might provide a backup for production of small amounts of rRNA. PMID:19465684

  17. Quantitative detection of Cryptosporidium oocyst in water source based on 18S rRNA by alternately binding probe competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (ABC-RT-PCR).

    PubMed

    Kishida, Naohiro; Miyata, Ryo; Furuta, Atsushi; Izumiyama, Shinji; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Noda, Naohiro; Akiba, Michihiro

    2012-01-01

    We describe an assay for simple and cost-effective quantification of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water samples using a recently developed quantification method named alternately binding probe competitive PCR (ABC-PCR). The assay is based on the detection of 18S rRNA specific for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The standard curve of the ABC-PCR assay had a good fitting to a rectangular hyperbola with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9997. Concentrations of Cryptosporidium oocysts in real river water samples were successfully quantified by the ABC-reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay. The quantified values by the ABC-RT-PCR assay very closely resemble those by the real-time RT-PCR assay. In addition, the quantified concentration in most water samples by the ABC-RT-PCR assay was comparable to that by conventional microscopic observation. Thus, Cryptosporidium oocysts in water samples can be accurately and specifically determined by the ABC-RT-PCR assay. As the only equipment that is needed for this end-point fluorescence assay is a simple fluorometer and a relatively inexpensive thermal cycler, this method can markedly reduce time and cost to quantify Cryptosporidium oocysts and other health-related water microorganisms.

  18. Microbial diversities (16S and 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing) and environmental pathogens within drinking water biofilms grown on the common premise plumbing materials unplasticized polyvinylchloride and copper.

    PubMed

    Buse, Helen Y; Lu, Jingrang; Lu, Xinxin; Mou, Xiaozhen; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2014-05-01

    Drinking water (DW) biofilm communities influence the survival of opportunistic pathogens, yet knowledge about the microbial composition of DW biofilms developed on common in-premise plumbing material is limited. Utilizing 16S and 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, this study characterized the microbial community structure within DW biofilms established on unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) and copper (Cu) surfaces and the impact of introducing Legionella pneumophila (Lp) and Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Mature (> 1 year old) biofilms were developed before inoculation with sterilized DW (control, Con), Lp, or Lp and A. polyphaga (LpAp). Comparison of uPVC and Cu biofilms indicated significant differences between bacterial (P = 0.001) and eukaryotic (P < 0.01) members attributable to the unique presence of several family taxa: Burkholderiaceae, Characeae, Epistylidae, Goniomonadaceae, Paramoebidae, Plasmodiophoridae, Plectidae, Sphenomonadidae, and Toxariaceae within uPVC biofilms; and Enterobacteriaceae, Erythrobacteraceae, Methylophilaceae, Acanthamoebidae, and Chlamydomonadaceae within Cu biofilms. Introduction of Lp alone or with A. polyphaga had no effect on bacterial community profiles (P > 0.05) but did affect eukaryotic members (uPVC, P < 0.01; Cu, P = 0.001). Thus, established DW biofilms host complex communities that may vary based on substratum matrix and maintain consistent bacterial communities despite introduction of Lp, an environmental pathogen.

  19. A new set of primers directed to 18S rRNA gene for molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. and their performance in the detection and differentiation of oocysts shed by synanthropic rodents.

    PubMed

    Silva, Sheila O S; Richtzenhain, Leonardo J; Barros, Iracema N; Gomes, Alessandra M M C; Silva, Aristeu V; Kozerski, Noemila D; de Araújo Ceranto, Jaqueline B; Keid, Lara B; Soares, Rodrigo M

    2013-11-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. are cosmopolitan protozoa that infect fishes, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals. More than 20 species are recognized within this genus. Rodents are a group of abundant and ubiquitous organisms that have been considered reservoirs of Cryptosporidium for humans and livestock. The aim of this study was to design specific primers for the gene encoding 18S rRNA, potentially capable of amplifying any species or genotype of Cryptosporidium spp. and evaluate the diagnostic attributes of the nested-PCR based on such probes. The primers were designed to amplify the shortest segment as possible to maximize the sensitivity of the test, but preserving the discriminatory potential of the amplified sequences for phylogenetic inferences. The nested-PCR standardized in this study (nPCR-SH) was compared in terms of sensitivity with another similar assay (nPCR-XIAO) that has been largely used for the detection and identification of Cryptosporidium spp. worldwide. We also aimed to molecularly characterize samples of Cryptosporidum spp. isolated from synanthropic rodents using these probes. Forty-five rodents were captured in urban areas of the municipality of Umuarama, Paraná State, Brazil. Fecal samples were submitted to three molecular tests (nested-PCRs), two of them targeted to the 18S rDNA gene (nPCR-SH and nPCR-XIAO) and the third targeted to the gene encoding actin (nPCR-actin). The nPCR-SH was tested positive on samples of Cryptosporidum parvum, Cryptosporidum andersoni, Cryptosporidum meleagridis, Cryptosporidum hominis, Cryptosporidum canis, and Cryptosporidum serpentis. Sixteen samples of rodents were positive by nPCR-SH, six by nPCR-XIAO and five by nPCR-actin. Sequencing of amplified fragments allowed the identification of Cryptosporidum muris in three samples of Rattus rattus, and two genotypes of Cryptosporidium, the genotypes mouse II and III. Cryptosporidium genotype mouse II was found in one sample of Mus musculus and genotype mouse III

  20. The final step in 5.8S rRNA processing is cytoplasmic in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Emma; Tollervey, David

    2010-02-01

    The 18S rRNA component of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) 40S ribosomes undergoes cytoplasmic 3' cleavage following nuclear export, whereas exported pre-60S subunits were believed to contain only mature 5.8S and 25S rRNAs. However, in situ hybridization detected 3'-extended forms of 5.8S rRNA in the cytoplasm, which were lost when Crm1-dependent preribosome export was blocked by treatment with leptomycin B (LMB). LMB treatment rapidly blocked processing of 6S pre-rRNA to 5.8S rRNA, leading to TRAMP-dependent pre-rRNA degradation. The 6S pre-rRNA was coprecipitated with the 60S export adapter Nmd3 and cytoplasmic 60S synthesis factor Lsg1. The longer 5.8S+30 pre-rRNA (a form of 5.8S rRNA 3' extended by approximately 30 nucleotides) is processed to 6S by the nuclear exonuclease Rrp6, and nuclear pre-rRNA accumulated in the absence of Rrp6. In contrast, 6S to 5.8S processing requires the cytoplasmic exonuclease Ngl2, and cytoplasmic pre-rRNA accumulated in strains lacking Ngl2. We conclude that nuclear pre-60S particles containing the 6S pre-rRNA bind Nmd3 and Crm1 and are exported to the cytoplasm prior to final maturation by Ngl2.

  1. The Final Step in 5.8S rRNA Processing Is Cytoplasmic in Saccharomyces cerevisiae▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Emma; Tollervey, David

    2010-01-01

    The 18S rRNA component of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) 40S ribosomes undergoes cytoplasmic 3′ cleavage following nuclear export, whereas exported pre-60S subunits were believed to contain only mature 5.8S and 25S rRNAs. However, in situ hybridization detected 3′-extended forms of 5.8S rRNA in the cytoplasm, which were lost when Crm1-dependent preribosome export was blocked by treatment with leptomycin B (LMB). LMB treatment rapidly blocked processing of 6S pre-rRNA to 5.8S rRNA, leading to TRAMP-dependent pre-rRNA degradation. The 6S pre-rRNA was coprecipitated with the 60S export adapter Nmd3 and cytoplasmic 60S synthesis factor Lsg1. The longer 5.8S+30 pre-rRNA (a form of 5.8S rRNA 3′ extended by ∼30 nucleotides) is processed to 6S by the nuclear exonuclease Rrp6, and nuclear pre-rRNA accumulated in the absence of Rrp6. In contrast, 6S to 5.8S processing requires the cytoplasmic exonuclease Ngl2, and cytoplasmic pre-rRNA accumulated in strains lacking Ngl2. We conclude that nuclear pre-60S particles containing the 6S pre-rRNA bind Nmd3 and Crm1 and are exported to the cytoplasm prior to final maturation by Ngl2. PMID:20008552

  2. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Spider Mite Sub-Family Tetranychinae (Acari: Tetranychidae) Based on the Mitochondrial COI Gene and the 18S and the 5′ End of the 28S rRNA Genes Indicates That Several Genera Are Polyphyletic

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Tomoko; Morishita, Maiko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Gotoh, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    The spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae includes many agricultural pests. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of mitochondrial DNA have been used for species identification and phylogenetic reconstruction within the sub-family Tetranychinae, although they have not always been successful. The 18S and 28S rRNA genes should be more suitable for resolving higher levels of phylogeny, such as tribes or genera of Tetranychinae because these genes evolve more slowly and are made up of conserved regions and divergent domains. Therefore, we used both the 18S (1,825–1,901 bp) and 28S (the 5′ end of 646–743 bp) rRNA genes to infer phylogenetic relationships within the sub-family Tetranychinae with a focus on the tribe Tetranychini. Then, we compared the phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes with that of the mitochondrial COI gene (618 bp). As observed in previous studies, our phylogeny based on the COI gene was not resolved because of the low bootstrap values for most nodes of the tree. On the other hand, our phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes revealed several well-supported clades within the sub-family Tetranychinae. The 18S and 28S phylogenetic trees suggest that the tribes Bryobiini, Petrobiini and Eurytetranychini are monophyletic and that the tribe Tetranychini is polyphyletic. At the genus level, six genera for which more than two species were sampled appear to be monophyletic, while four genera (Oligonychus, Tetranychus, Schizotetranychus and Eotetranychus) appear to be polyphyletic. The topology presented here does not fully agree with the current morphology-based taxonomy, so that the diagnostic morphological characters of Tetranychinae need to be reconsidered. PMID:25289639

  3. Crude Extracts, Flavokawain B and Alpinetin Compounds from the Rhizome of Alpinia mutica Induce Cell Death via UCK2 Enzyme Inhibition and in Turn Reduce 18S rRNA Biosynthesis in HT-29 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Rasedee; Kassim, Nur Kartinee Bt; Rosli, Rozita; Yeap, Swee Keong; Waziri, Peter; Etti, Imaobong Christopher; Bello, Muhammad Bashir

    2017-01-01

    Uridine-cytidine kinase 2 is an enzyme that is overexpressed in abnormal cell growth and its implication is considered a hallmark of cancer. Due to the selective expression of UCK2 in cancer cells, a selective inhibition of this key enzyme necessitates the discovery of its potential inhibitors for cancer chemotherapy. The present study was carried out to demonstrate the potentials of natural phytochemicals from the rhizome of Alpinia mutica to inhibit UCK2 useful for colorectal cancer. Here, we employed the used of in vitro to investigate the effectiveness of natural UCK2 inhibitors to cause HT-29 cell death. Extracts, flavokawain B, and alpinetin compound from the rhizome of Alpinia mutica was used in the study. The study demonstrated that the expression of UCK2 mRNA were substantially reduced in treated HT-29 cells. In addition, downregulation in expression of 18S ribosomal RNA was also observed in all treated HT-29 cells. This was confirmed by fluorescence imaging to measure the level of expression of 18S ribosomal RNA in live cell images. The study suggests the possibility of MDM2 protein was downregulated and its suppression subsequently activates the expression of p53 during inhibition of UCK2 enzyme. The expression of p53 is directly linked to a blockage of cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase and upregulates Bax, cytochrome c, and caspase 3 while Bcl2 was deregulated. In this respect, apoptosis induction and DNA fragmentation were observed in treated HT-29 cells. Initial results from in vitro studies have shown the ability of the bioactive compounds of flavokawain B and alpinetin to target UCK2 enzyme specifically, inducing cell cycle arrest and subsequently leading to cancer cell death, possibly through interfering the MDM2-p53 signalling pathway. These phenomena have proven that the bioactive compounds could be useful for future therapeutic use in colon cancer. PMID:28103302

  4. Crude Extracts, Flavokawain B and Alpinetin Compounds from the Rhizome of Alpinia mutica Induce Cell Death via UCK2 Enzyme Inhibition and in Turn Reduce 18S rRNA Biosynthesis in HT-29 Cells.

    PubMed

    Malami, Ibrahim; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Abdullah, Rasedee; Kassim, Nur Kartinee Bt; Rosli, Rozita; Yeap, Swee Keong; Waziri, Peter; Etti, Imaobong Christopher; Bello, Muhammad Bashir

    2017-01-01

    Uridine-cytidine kinase 2 is an enzyme that is overexpressed in abnormal cell growth and its implication is considered a hallmark of cancer. Due to the selective expression of UCK2 in cancer cells, a selective inhibition of this key enzyme necessitates the discovery of its potential inhibitors for cancer chemotherapy. The present study was carried out to demonstrate the potentials of natural phytochemicals from the rhizome of Alpinia mutica to inhibit UCK2 useful for colorectal cancer. Here, we employed the used of in vitro to investigate the effectiveness of natural UCK2 inhibitors to cause HT-29 cell death. Extracts, flavokawain B, and alpinetin compound from the rhizome of Alpinia mutica was used in the study. The study demonstrated that the expression of UCK2 mRNA were substantially reduced in treated HT-29 cells. In addition, downregulation in expression of 18S ribosomal RNA was also observed in all treated HT-29 cells. This was confirmed by fluorescence imaging to measure the level of expression of 18S ribosomal RNA in live cell images. The study suggests the possibility of MDM2 protein was downregulated and its suppression subsequently activates the expression of p53 during inhibition of UCK2 enzyme. The expression of p53 is directly linked to a blockage of cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase and upregulates Bax, cytochrome c, and caspase 3 while Bcl2 was deregulated. In this respect, apoptosis induction and DNA fragmentation were observed in treated HT-29 cells. Initial results from in vitro studies have shown the ability of the bioactive compounds of flavokawain B and alpinetin to target UCK2 enzyme specifically, inducing cell cycle arrest and subsequently leading to cancer cell death, possibly through interfering the MDM2-p53 signalling pathway. These phenomena have proven that the bioactive compounds could be useful for future therapeutic use in colon cancer.

  5. Composition of the summer photosynthetic pico and nanoplankton communities in the Beaufort Sea assessed by T-RFLP and sequences of the 18S rRNA gene from flow cytometry sorted samples

    PubMed Central

    Balzano, Sergio; Marie, Dominique; Gourvil, Priscillia; Vaulot, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The composition of photosynthetic pico and nanoeukaryotes was investigated in the North East Pacific and the Arctic Ocean with special emphasis on the Beaufort Sea during the MALINA cruise in summer 2009. Photosynthetic populations were sorted using flow cytometry based on their size and pigment fluorescence. Diversity of the sorted photosynthetic eukaryotes was determined using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and cloning/sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. Picoplankton was dominated by Mamiellophyceae, a class of small green algae previously included in the prasinophytes: in the North East Pacific, the contribution of an Arctic Micromonas ecotype increased steadily northward becoming the only taxon occurring at most stations throughout the Beaufort Sea. In contrast, nanoplankton was more diverse: North Pacific stations were dominated by Pseudo-nitzschia sp. whereas those in the Beaufort Sea were dominated by two distinct Chaetoceros species as well as by Chrysophyceae, Pelagophyceae and Chrysochromulina spp.. This study confirms the importance of Arctic Micromonas within picoplankton throughout the Beaufort Sea and demonstrates that the photosynthetic picoeukaryote community in the Arctic is much less diverse than at lower latitudes. Moreover, in contrast to what occurs in warmer waters, most of the key pico- and nanoplankton species found in the Beaufort Sea could be successfully established in culture. PMID:22278671

  6. Cytogenetic analysis of the tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis): a comparison of R-banded karyotype and chromosomal distribution of centromeric satellite DNAs, telomeric sequence, and 18S-28S rRNA genes with domestic water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Matsuda, Y; Masangkay, J S; Solis, C D; Anunciado, R V; Kuro-o, M; Namikawa, T

    2000-01-01

    The karyotype of the tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis, 2n = 46) was investigated by RBG-banding technique and compared with those of the river and the swamp cytotypes of domestic water buffalo (B. bubalis). The tamaraw karyotype consisted of 6 submetacentric and 16 acrocentric autosome pairs (NAA = 56), and X and Y chromosomes. The RBG-banded karyotype of the three taxa had a high degree of homology, and the tamaraw karyotype could be explained by a Robertsonian translocation between chromosomes 7 and 15 and by a telomere-centromere tandem fusion between chromosomes 4p and 12 of the standardized river buffalo cytotype (2n = 50, NAA = 58). The buffalo satellite I and II DNAs were localized to the centromeric regions of all the tamaraw chromosomes. The biarmed chromosome 2 of the tamaraw resulting from the fusion between chromosomes 7 and 15 of the standard contained much larger amounts of the satellite I DNA than the other biarmed chromosomes, suggesting that this chromosome was formed by a relatively recent Robertsonian fusion. The (TTAGGG)n telomeric sequence was specifically localized to the telomeric region of all the buffalo chromosomes. The 18S + 28S rDNA was localized to the telomeric regions of the chromosomes 5p, 7, 19, 21, and 22 of the tamaraw and of their homologous chromosomes in the river and swamp buffalo cytotypes.

  7. Xenopus U3 snoRNA GAC-Box A′ and Box A Sequences Play Distinct Functional Roles in rRNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Borovjagin, Anton V.; Gerbi, Susan A.

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in the 5′ portion of Xenopus U3 snoRNA were tested for function in oocytes. The results revealed a new cleavage site (A0) in the 3′ region of vertebrate external transcribed spacer sequences. In addition, U3 mutagenesis uncoupled cleavage at sites 1 and 2, flanking the 5′ and 3′ ends of 18S rRNA, and generated novel intermediates: 19S and 18.5S pre-rRNAs. Furthermore, specific nucleotides in Xenopus U3 snoRNA that are required for cleavages in pre-rRNA were identified: box A is essential for site A0 cleavage, the GAC-box A′ region is necessary for site 1 cleavage, and the 3′ end of box A′ and flanking nucleotides are required for site 2 cleavage. Differences between metazoan and yeast U3 snoRNA-mediated rRNA processing are enumerated. The data support a model where metazoan U3 snoRNA acts as a bridge to draw together the 5′ and 3′ ends of the 18S rRNA coding region within pre-rRNA to coordinate their cleavage. PMID:11509664

  8. Processing pathway of Escherichia coli 16S precursor rRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, A K; Schlessinger, D

    1989-01-01

    Immediate precursors of 16S rRNA are processed by endonucleolytic cleavage at both 5' and 3' mature termini, with the concomitant release of precursor fragments which are further metabolized by both exo- and endonucleases. In wild-type cells rapid cleavages by RNase III in precursor-specific sequences precede the subsequent formation of the mature ends; mature termini can, however, be formed directly from pre-16S rRNA with no intermediate species. The direct maturation is most evident in a strain deficient in RNase III, and the results in whole cells are consistent with results from maturation reactions in vitro. Thus, maturation does not require cleavages within the double-stranded stems that enclose mature rRNA sequences in the pre-16S rRNA. Images PMID:2646597

  9. Conservation of RNA sequence and cross-linking ability in ribosomes from a higher eukaryote: photochemical cross-linking of the anticodon of P site bound tRNA to the penultimate cytidine of the UACACACG sequence in Artemia salina 18S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Ciesiolka, J; Nurse, K; Klein, J; Ofengand, J

    1985-06-18

    The complex of Artemia salina ribosomes and Escherichia coli acetylvalyl-tRNA could be cross-linked by irradiation with near-UV light. Cross-linking required the presence of the codon GUU, GUA being ineffective. The acetylvalyl group could be released from the cross-linked tRNA by treatment with puromycin, demonstrating that cross-linking had occurred at the P site. This was true both for pGUU- and also for poly(U2,G)-dependent cross-linking. All of the cross-linking was to the 18S rRNA of the small ribosomal subunit. Photolysis of the cross-link at 254 nm occurred with the same kinetics as that for the known cyclobutane dimer between this tRNA and Escherichia coli 16S rRNA. T1 RNase digestion of the cross-linked tRNA yielded an oligonucleotide larger in molecular weight than any from un-cross-linked rRNA or tRNA or from a prephotolyzed complex. Extended electrophoresis showed this material to consist of two oligomers of similar mobility, a faster one-third component and a slower two-thirds component. Each oligomer yielded two components on 254-nm photolysis. The slower band from each was the tRNA T1 oligomer CACCUCCCUVACAAGp, which includes the anticodon. The faster band was the rRNA 9-mer UACACACCGp and its derivative UACACACUG. Unexpectedly, the dephosphorylated and slower moving 9-mer was derived from the faster moving dimer. Deamination of the penultimate C to U is probably due to cyclobutane dimer formation and was evidence for that nucleotide being the site of cross-linking. Direct confirmation of the cross-linking site was obtained by "Z"-gel analysis [Ehresmann, C., & Ofengand, J. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 438-445].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Novel essential gene Involved in 16S rRNA processing in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Tatsuaki; Nakanishi, Shinobu; Hashimoto, Masayuki; Taoka, Masato; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Isobe, Toshiaki; Kato, Jun-ichi

    2015-02-27

    Biogenesis of ribosomes is a complex process mediated by many factors. While its transcription proceeds, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) folds itself into a characteristic three-dimensional structure through interaction with ribosomal proteins, during which its ends are processed. Here, we show that the essential protein YqgF, a RuvC family protein with an RNase-H-like motif, is involved in the processing of pre-16S rRNA during ribosome maturation. Indeed, pre-16S rRNA accumulated in cells of a temperature-sensitive yqgF mutant (yqgF(ts)) cultured at a non-permissive temperature. In addition, purified YqgF was shown to process the 5' end of pre-16S rRNA within 70S ribosomes in vitro. Mass spectrometry analysis of the total proteins in the yqgF(ts) mutant cells showed that the expression of genes containing multiple Shine-Dalgarno-like sequences was observed to be lower than in wild type. These results are interpreted to indicate that YqgF is involved in a novel enzymic activity necessary for the processing of pre-16S rRNA, thereby affecting elongation of translation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Processing of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA with bacteriophage lambda leader sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Krych, M; Sirdeshmukh, R; Gourse, R; Schlessinger, D

    1987-01-01

    To test whether any specific 5' precursor sequences are required for the processing of pre-16S rRNA, constructs were studied in which large parts of the 5' leader sequence were replaced by the coliphage lambda pL promoter and adjacent sequences. Unexpectedly, few full-length transcripts of the rRNA were detected after the pL promoter was induced, implying that either transcription was poor or most of the rRNA chains with lambda leader sequences were unstable. Nevertheless, sufficient transcription occurred to permit the detection of processing by S1 nuclease analysis. RNA transcripts in which 2/3 of the normal rRNA leader was deleted (from the promoter up to the normal RNase III cleavage site) were processed to form the normal 5' terminus. Thus, most of the double-stranded stem that forms from sequences bracketing wild-type 16S pre-rRNA is apparently not required for proper processing; the expression of such modified transcripts, however, must be increased before the efficiency of processing of the 16S rRNA formed can be assessed. Images PMID:2445728

  12. RRP1, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene affecting rRNA processing and production of mature ribosomal subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, G R; Hopper, A K

    1987-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant ts351 had been shown to affect processing of 27S pre-rRNA to mature 25S and 5.8S rRNAs (C. Andrew, A. K. Hopper, and B. D. Hall, Mol. Gen. Genet. 144:29-37, 1976). We showed that this strain contains two mutations leading to temperature-sensitive lethality. The rRNA-processing defect, however, is a result of only one of the two mutations. We designated the lesion responsible for the rRNA-processing defect rrp1 and showed that it is located on the right arm of chromosome IV either allelic to or tightly linked to mak21. This rrp1 lesion also results in hypersensitivity to aminoglycoside antibiotics and a reduced 25S/18S rRNA ratio at semipermissive temperatures. We cloned the RRP1 gene and provide evidence that it encodes a moderately abundant mRNA which is in lower abundance and larger than most mRNAs encoding ribosomal proteins. Images PMID:3549696

  13. Oxidative damage of 18S and 5S ribosomal RNA in digestive gland of mussels exposed to trace metals.

    PubMed

    Kournoutou, Georgia G; Giannopoulou, Panagiota C; Sazakli, Eleni; Leotsinidis, Michel; Kalpaxis, Dimitrios L

    2017-09-06

    Numerous studies have shown the ability of trace metals to accumulate in marine organisms and cause oxidative stress that leads to perturbations in many important intracellular processes, including protein synthesis. This study is mainly focused on the exploration of structural changes, like base modifications, scissions, and conformational changes, caused in 18S and 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) isolated from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to 40μg/L Cu, 30μg/L Hg, or 100μg/L Cd, for 5 or 15days. 18S rRNA and 5S rRNA are components of the small and large ribosomal subunit, respectively, found in complex with ribosomal proteins, translation factors and other auxiliary components (metal ions, toxins etc). 18S rRNA plays crucial roles in all stages of protein synthesis, while 5S rRNA serves as a master signal transducer between several functional regions of 28S rRNA. Therefore, structural changes in these ribosomal constituents could affect the basic functions of ribosomes and hence the normal metabolism of cells. Especially, 18S rRNA along with ribosomal proteins forms the decoding centre that ensures the correct codon-anticodon pairing. As exemplified by ELISA, primer extension analysis and DMS footprinting analysis, each metal caused oxidative damage to rRNA, depending on the nature of metal ion and the duration of exposure. Interestingly, exposure of mussels to Cu or Hg caused structural alterations in 5S rRNA, localized in paired regions and within loops A, B, C, and E, leading to a continuous progressive loss of the 5S RNA structural integrity. In contrast, structural impairments of 5S rRNA in mussels exposed to Cd were accumulating for the initial 5days, and then progressively decreased to almost the normal level by day 15, probably due to the parallel elevation of metallothionein content that depletes the pools of free Cd. Regions of interest in 18S rRNA, such as the decoding centre, sites implicated in the binding of tRNAs (A- and P-sites) or

  14. Delayed rRNA Processing Results in Significant Ribosome Biogenesis and Functional Defects

    PubMed Central

    Meskauskas, Arturas; Baxter, Jennifer L.; Carr, Edward A.; Yasenchak, Jason; Gallagher, Jennifer E. G.; Baserga, Susan J.; Dinman, Jonathan D.

    2003-01-01

    mof6-1 was originally isolated as a recessive mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which promoted increased efficiencies of programmed −1 ribosomal frameshifting and rendered cells unable to maintain the killer virus. Here, we demonstrate that mof6-1 is a unique allele of the histone deacetylase RPD3, that the deacetylase function of Rpd3p is required for controlling wild-type levels of frameshifting and virus maintenance, and that the closest human homolog can fully complement these defects. Loss of the Rpd3p-associated histone deacetylase function, either by mutants of rpd3 or loss of the associated gene product Sin3p or Sap30p, results in a delay in rRNA processing rather than in an rRNA transcriptional defect. This results in production of ribosomes having lower affinities for aminoacyl-tRNA and diminished peptidyltransferase activities. We hypothesize that decreased rates of peptidyl transfer allow ribosomes with both A and P sites occupied by tRNAs to pause for longer periods of time at −1 frameshift signals, promoting increased programmed −1 ribosomal frameshifting efficiencies and subsequent loss of the killer virus. The frameshifting defect is accentuated when the demand for ribosomes is highest, suggesting that rRNA posttranscriptional modification is the bottleneck in ribosome biogenesis. PMID:12588980

  15. Optimal eukaryotic 18S and universal 16S/18S ribosomal RNA primers and their application in a study of symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Tian, Ren Mao; Gao, Zhao Ming; Bougouffa, Salim; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene primers that feature a wide coverage are critical in detecting the composition of eukaryotic microscopic organisms in ecosystems. Here, we predicted 18S rRNA primers based on consecutive conserved sites and evaluated their coverage efficiency and scope of application to different eukaryotic groups. After evaluation, eight of them were considered as qualified 18S primers based on coverage rate. Next, we examined common conserved regions in prokaryotic 16S and eukaryotic 18S rRNA sequences to design 16S/18S universal primers. Three 16S/18S candidate primers, U515, U1390 and U1492, were then considered to be suitable for simultaneous amplification of the rRNA sequences in three domains. Eukaryotic 18S and prokaryotic 16S rRNA genes in a sponge were amplified simultaneously using universal primers U515 and U1390, and the subsequent sorting of pyrosequenced reads revealed some distinctive communities in different parts of the sample. The real difference in biodiversity between prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts could be discerned as the dissimilarity between OTUs was increased from 0.005 to 0.1. A network of the communities in external and internal parts of the sponge illustrated the co-variation of some unique microbes in certain parts of the sponge, suggesting that the universal primers are useful in simultaneous detection of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities.

  16. Optimal Eukaryotic 18S and Universal 16S/18S Ribosomal RNA Primers and Their Application in a Study of Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Tian, Ren Mao; Gao, Zhao Ming; Bougouffa, Salim; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene primers that feature a wide coverage are critical in detecting the composition of eukaryotic microscopic organisms in ecosystems. Here, we predicted 18S rRNA primers based on consecutive conserved sites and evaluated their coverage efficiency and scope of application to different eukaryotic groups. After evaluation, eight of them were considered as qualified 18S primers based on coverage rate. Next, we examined common conserved regions in prokaryotic 16S and eukaryotic 18S rRNA sequences to design 16S/18S universal primers. Three 16S/18S candidate primers, U515, U1390 and U1492, were then considered to be suitable for simultaneous amplification of the rRNA sequences in three domains. Eukaryotic 18S and prokaryotic 16S rRNA genes in a sponge were amplified simultaneously using universal primers U515 and U1390, and the subsequent sorting of pyrosequenced reads revealed some distinctive communities in different parts of the sample. The real difference in biodiversity between prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts could be discerned as the dissimilarity between OTUs was increased from 0.005 to 0.1. A network of the communities in external and internal parts of the sponge illustrated the co-variation of some unique microbes in certain parts of the sponge, suggesting that the universal primers are useful in simultaneous detection of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities. PMID:24594623

  17. The cytoplasmic mRNA degradation factor Pat1 is required for rRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Muppavarapu, Mridula; Huch, Susanne; Nissan, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pat1 is a key cytoplasmic mRNA degradation factor, the loss of which severely increases mRNA half-lives. Several recent studies have shown that Pat1 can enter the nucleus and can shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. As a result, many nuclear roles have been proposed for Pat1. In this study, we analyzed four previously suggested nuclear roles of Pat1 and show that Pat1 is not required for efficient pre-mRNA splicing or pre-mRNA decay in yeast. However, lack of Pat1 results in accumulation of pre-rRNA processing intermediates. Intriguingly, we identified a novel genetic relationship between Pat1 and the rRNA decay machinery, specifically the exosome and the TRAMP complex. While the pre-rRNA processing intermediates that accumulate in the pat1 deletion mutant are, at least to some extent, recognized as aberrant by the rRNA degradation machinery, it is unlikely that these accumulations are the cause of their synthetic sick relationship. Here, we show that the dysregulation of the levels of mRNAs related to ribosome biogenesis could be the cause of the accumulation of the pre-rRNA processing intermediates. Although our results support a role for Pat1 in transcription, they nevertheless suggest that the primary cause of the dysregulated mRNA levels is most likely due to Pat1's role in mRNA decapping and mRNA degradation. PMID:26918764

  18. The cytoplasmic mRNA degradation factor Pat1 is required for rRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Muppavarapu, Mridula; Huch, Susanne; Nissan, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Pat1 is a key cytoplasmic mRNA degradation factor, the loss of which severely increases mRNA half-lives. Several recent studies have shown that Pat1 can enter the nucleus and can shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. As a result, many nuclear roles have been proposed for Pat1. In this study, we analyzed four previously suggested nuclear roles of Pat1 and show that Pat1 is not required for efficient pre-mRNA splicing or pre-mRNA decay in yeast. However, lack of Pat1 results in accumulation of pre-rRNA processing intermediates. Intriguingly, we identified a novel genetic relationship between Pat1 and the rRNA decay machinery, specifically the exosome and the TRAMP complex. While the pre-rRNA processing intermediates that accumulate in the pat1 deletion mutant are, at least to some extent, recognized as aberrant by the rRNA degradation machinery, it is unlikely that these accumulations are the cause of their synthetic sick relationship. Here, we show that the dysregulation of the levels of mRNAs related to ribosome biogenesis could be the cause of the accumulation of the pre-rRNA processing intermediates. Although our results support a role for Pat1 in transcription, they nevertheless suggest that the primary cause of the dysregulated mRNA levels is most likely due to Pat1's role in mRNA decapping and mRNA degradation.

  19. Postmortem interval determination using 18S-rRNA and microRNA.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Can; Ma, Kai-Jun; Lv, Ye-Hui; Zhang, Ping; Pan, Hui; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Hui-Jun; Ma, Duan; Chen, Long

    2014-07-01

    The importance of determining postmortem interval (PMI) is crucial to criminal, civil and forensic cases. The precise estimation of PMI is a critical step in many death investigations. A technique exploiting the level of RNA, 18S rRNA and microRNA to estimate PMI was investigated. 18S-rRNA is a main ribosomal RNA presented as part of the ribosomal protein complex, while microRNA is a class of small non-coding single-stranded RNA, only 21-25 nucleotides, which has a strong conservation between different species. In this study, heart tissues were removed from adult rats at various postmortem intervals. An efficient extraction and detection protocol to analyze the level of 18S-rRNA and microRNA in postmortem tissue was carried out. The process consists of total RNA extraction, transcription and visualization by quantitative real time PCR. The result indicates a characteristic parabola relationship between postmortem period and Ct values for 18S-rRNA in dead rat hearts. The result indicates that the degradation pattern of tissue 18S-rRNA and microRNA is useful in the determination of the postmortem interval within seven days. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Processing of the external transcribed spacer of murine rRNA and site of action of actinomycin D.

    PubMed Central

    Fetherston, J; Werner, E; Patterson, R

    1984-01-01

    The primary rRNA transcript contains a large external transcribed spacer (ETS) approximately 4,000 nucleotides in length. We have used subcloned DNA probes derived from the 5' end of the ETS in conjunction with Northern blot analysis of murine nuclear RNA to examine processing of this region. In agreement with the results of previous investigators, we find that the large rRNA precursor lacks part of the ETS region. These ETS sequences are also missing from subsequent rRNA processing intermediates. Experiments using actinomycin D confirm that the excision of portion of the ETS is an early event in rRNA processing. In addition, in the presence of actinomycin D small RNA species accumulate which hybridize to a probe specific for the 5' end of the ETS. The length of these abbreviated transcripts defines a region of rDNA which is probably a target for this drug. Images PMID:6091060

  1. High-resolution microscopy of active ribosomal genes and key members of the rRNA processing machinery inside nucleolus-like bodies of fully-grown mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Shishova, Kseniya V; Khodarovich, Yuriy M; Lavrentyeva, Elena A; Zatsepina, Olga V

    2015-10-01

    Nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) of fully-grown (germinal vesicle, GV) mammalian oocytes are traditionally considered as morphologically distinct entities, which, unlike normal nucleoli, contain transcribed ribosomal genes (rDNA) solely at their surface. In the current study, we for the first time showed that active ribosomal genes are present not only on the surface but also inside NLBs of the NSN-type oocytes. The "internal" rRNA synthesis was evidenced by cytoplasmic microinjections of BrUTP as precursor and by fluorescence in situ hybridization with a probe to the short-lived 5'ETS segment of the 47S pre-rRNA. We further showed that in the NLB mass of NSN-oocytes, distribution of active rDNA, RNA polymerase I (UBF) and rRNA processing (fibrillarin) protein factors, U3 snoRNA, pre-rRNAs and 18S/28S rRNAs is remarkably similar to that in somatic nucleoli capable to make pre-ribosomes. Overall, these observations support the occurrence of rDNA transcription, rRNA processing and pre-ribosome assembly in the NSN-type NLBs and so that their functional similarity to normal nucleoli. Unlike the NSN-type NLBs, the NLBs of more mature SN-oocytes do not contain transcribed rRNA genes, U3 snoRNA, pre-rRNAs, 18S and 28S rRNAs. These results favor the idea that in a process of transformation of NSN-oocytes to SN-oocytes, NLBs cease to produce pre-ribosomes and, moreover, lose their rRNAs. We also concluded that a denaturing fixative 70% ethanol used in the study to fix oocytes could be more appropriate for light microscopy analysis of nucleolar RNAs and proteins in mammalian fully-grown oocytes than a commonly used cross-linking aldehyde fixative, formalin.

  2. Chemical probing of adenine residues within the secondary structure of rabbit /sup 18/S ribosomal RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Rairkar, A.; Rubino, H.M.; Lockard, R.E.

    1988-01-26

    The location of unpaired adenine residues within the secondary structure of rabbit /sup 18/S ribosomal RNA was determined by chemical probing. Naked /sup 18/S rRNA was first prepared by digestion of purified 40S subunits with matrix-bound proteinase K in sodium dodecyl sulfate, thereby omitting the use of nucleic acid denaturants. Adenines within naked /sup 18/S rRNA were chemically probed by using either diethyl pyrocarbonate or dimethyl sulfate, which specifically react with unpaired nucleotides. Adenine modification sites were identified by polyacrylamide sequencing gel electrophoresis either upon aniline-induced strand scission of /sup 32/P-end-labeled intact and fragmented rRNA or by primer extension using sequence-specific DNA oligomers with reverse transcriptase. The data indicate good agreement between the general pattern of adenine reactivity and the location of unpaired regions in /sup 18/S rRNA determined by comparative sequence analysis. The overall reactivity of adenine residues toward single-strand-specific chemical probes was, also, similar for both rabbit and Escherichia coli small rRNA. The number of strongly reactive adenines appearing within phylogenetically determined helical segments, however, was greater in rabbit /sup 18/S rRNA than for E. coli /sup 16/S rRNA. Some of these adenines were found clustered in specific helices. Such differences suggest a greater irregularity of many of the helical elements within mammalian /sup 18/S rRNA, as compared with prokaryotic /sup 16/S rRNA. These helical irregularities could be important for protein association and also may represent biologically relevant flexible regions of the molecule.

  3. Role of Escherichia coli YbeY, a highly conserved protein, in rRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Bryan W.; Köhrer, Caroline; Jacob, Asha I.; Simmons, Lyle A.; Zhu, Jianyu; Aleman, Lourdes M.; RajBhandary, Uttam L.; Walker, Graham C.

    2010-01-01

    The UPF0054 protein family is highly conserved with homologs present in nearly every sequenced bacterium. In some bacteria, the respective gene is essential, while in others its loss results in a highly pleiotropic phenotype. Despite detailed structural studies, a cellular role for this protein family has remained unknown. We report here that deletion of the Escherichia coli homolog, YbeY, causes striking defects that affect ribosome activity, translational fidelity and ribosome assembly. Mapping of 16S, 23S and 5S rRNA termini reveals that YbeY influences the maturation of all three rRNAs, with a particularly strong effect on maturation at both the 5′- and 3′-ends of 16S rRNA as well as maturation of the 5′-termini of 23S and 5S rRNAs. Furthermore, we demonstrate strong genetic interactions between ybeY and rnc (encoding RNase III), ybeY and rnr (encoding RNase R), and ybeY and pnp (encoding PNPase), further suggesting a role for YbeY in rRNA maturation. Mutation of highly conserved amino acids in YbeY, allowed the identification of two residues (H114, R59) that were found to have a significant effect in vivo. We discuss the implications of these findings for rRNA maturation and ribosome assembly in bacteria. PMID:20807199

  4. The 28S-18S rDNA intergenic spacer from Crithidia fasciculata: repeated sequences, length heterogeneity, putative processing sites and potential interactions between U3 small nucleolar RNA and the ribosomal RNA precursor.

    PubMed

    Schnare, M N; Collings, J C; Spencer, D F; Gray, M W

    2000-09-15

    In Crithidia fasciculata, the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene repeats range in size from approximately 11 to 12 kb. This length heterogeneity is localized to a region of the intergenic spacer (IGS) that contains tandemly repeated copies of a 19mer sequence. The IGS also contains four copies of an approximately 55 nt repeat that has an internal inverted repeat and is also present in the IGS of Leishmania species. We have mapped the C.fasciculata transcription initiation site as well as two other reverse transcriptase stop sites that may be analogous to the A0 and A' pre-rRNA processing sites within the 5' external transcribed spacer (ETS) of other eukaryotes. Features that could influence processing at these sites include two stretches of conserved primary sequence and three secondary structure elements present in the 5' ETS. We also characterized the C.fasciculata U3 snoRNA, which has the potential for base-pairing with pre-rRNA sequences. Finally, we demonstrate that biosynthesis of large subunit rRNA in both C. fasciculata and Trypanosoma brucei involves 3'-terminal addition of three A residues that are not present in the corresponding DNA sequences.

  5. Differential stability of 28s and 18s rat liver ribosomal ribonucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Venkov, P V; Hadjiolov, A A

    1969-10-01

    Rat liver ribosomal RNA (rRNA) free from nuclease contaminants was isolated by a modification of the phenol technique. The 28s and 18s rRNA species were separated by preparative agar-gel electrophoresis. The two rRNA species were heated at different temperatures under various conditions and the amount of undegraded rRNA was determined by analytical agar-gel electrophoresis. The 18s rRNA remained unaltered after heating for up to 10min. at 90 degrees in water, acetate buffer, pH5.0, or phosphate buffer, pH7.0. Under similar or milder conditions 28s rRNA was partially degraded, giving rise to a well-delimited 6s peak and a heterogeneous material located in the zone between 28s and 6s. The dependence of degradation of 28s rRNA on the temperature and the ionic strength of the medium was studied. The greatest extent of degradation of 28s rRNA was observed on heating at 90 degrees in water. It is suggested that the instability of rat liver 28s rRNA is due to two factors: the presence of hidden breaks in the polymer chain and a higher susceptibility of some phosphodiester bonds to thermal hydrolysis.

  6. Phylogenetic Analysis of Myobia musculi (Schranck, 1781) by Using the 18S Small Ribosomal Subunit Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Sanford H; Ntenda, Abraham M

    2011-01-01

    We used high-fidelity PCR to amplify 2 overlapping regions of the ribosomal gene complex from the rodent fur mite Myobia musculi. The amplicons encompassed a large portion of the mite's ribosomal gene complex spanning 3128 nucleotides containing the entire 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1, 5.8S rRNA, ITS2, and a portion of the 5′-end of the 28S rRNA. M. musculi’s 179-nucleotide 5.8S rRNA nucleotide sequence was not conserved, so this region was identified by conservation of rRNA secondary structure. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses were performed by using multiple sequence alignment consisting of 1524 nucleotides of M. musculi 18S rRNA and homologous sequences from 42 prostigmatid mites and the tick Dermacentor andersoni. The phylograms produced by both methods were in agreement regarding terminal, secondary, and some tertiary phylogenetic relationships among mites. Bayesian inference discriminated most infraordinal relationships between Eleutherengona and Parasitengona mites in the suborder Anystina. Basal relationships between suborders Anystina and Eupodina historically determined by comparing differences in anatomic characteristics were less well-supported by our molecular analysis. Our results recapitulated similar 18S rRNA sequence analyses recently reported. Our study supports M. musculi as belonging to the suborder Anystina, infraorder Eleutherenona, and superfamily Cheyletoidea. PMID:22330574

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of Myobia musculi (Schranck, 1781) by using the 18S small ribosomal subunit sequence.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Sanford H; Ntenda, Abraham M

    2011-12-01

    We used high-fidelity PCR to amplify 2 overlapping regions of the ribosomal gene complex from the rodent fur mite Myobia musculi. The amplicons encompassed a large portion of the mite's ribosomal gene complex spanning 3128 nucleotides containing the entire 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1,5.8S rRNA, ITS2, and a portion of the 5'-end of the 28S rRNA. M. musculi's 179-nucleotide 5.8S rRNA nucleotide sequence was not conserved, so this region was identified by conservation of rRNA secondary structure. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses were performed by using multiple sequence alignment consisting of 1524 nucleotides of M. musculi 18S rRNA and homologous sequences from 42 prostigmatid mites and the tick Dermacentor andersoni. The phylograms produced by both methods were in agreement regarding terminal, secondary, and some tertiary phylogenetic relationships among mites. Bayesian inference discriminated most infraordinal relationships between Eleutherengona and Parasitengona mites in the suborder Anystina. Basal relationships between suborders Anystina and Eupodina historically determined by comparing differences in anatomic characteristics were less well-supported by our molecular analysis. Our results recapitulated similar 18S rRNA sequence analyses recently reported. Our study supports M. musculi as belonging to the suborder Anystina, infraorder Eleutherenona, and superfamily Cheyletoidea.

  8. Testing evolutionary models to explain the process of nucleotide substitution in gut bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose F

    2013-09-01

    The 16S rRNA gene has been widely used as a marker of gut bacterial diversity and phylogeny, yet we do not know the model of evolution that best explains the differences in its nucleotide composition within and among taxa. Over 46 000 good-quality near-full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences from five bacterial phyla were obtained from the ribosomal database project (RDP) by study and, when possible, by within-study characteristics (e.g. anatomical region). Using alignments (RDPX and MUSCLE) of unique sequences, the FINDMODEL tool available at http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ was utilized to find the model of character evolution (28 models were available) that best describes the input sequence data, based on the Akaike information criterion. The results showed variable levels of agreement (from 33% to 100%) in the chosen models between the RDP-based and the MUSCLE-based alignments among the taxa. Moreover, subgroups of sequences (using either alignment method) from the same study were often explained by different models. Nonetheless, the different representatives of the gut microbiota were explained by different proportions of the available models. This is the first report using evolutionary models to explain the process of nucleotide substitution in gut bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. IMNGS: A comprehensive open resource of processed 16S rRNA microbial profiles for ecology and diversity studies

    PubMed Central

    Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Joseph, Divya; Kapfhammer, Martin; Giritli, Sabahattin; Horn, Matthias; Haller, Dirk; Clavel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The SRA (Sequence Read Archive) serves as primary depository for massive amounts of Next Generation Sequencing data, and currently host over 100,000 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based microbial profiles from various host habitats and environments. This number is increasing rapidly and there is a dire need for approaches to utilize this pool of knowledge. Here we created IMNGS (Integrated Microbial Next Generation Sequencing), an innovative platform that uniformly and systematically screens for and processes all prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene amplicon datasets available in SRA and uses them to build sample-specific sequence databases and OTU-based profiles. Via a web interface, this integrative sequence resource can easily be queried by users. We show examples of how the approach allows testing the ecological importance of specific microorganisms in different hosts or ecosystems, and performing targeted diversity studies for selected taxonomic groups. The platform also offers a complete workflow for de novo analysis of users’ own raw 16S rRNA gene amplicon datasets for the sake of comparison with existing data. IMNGS can be accessed at www.imngs.org. PMID:27659943

  10. IMNGS: A comprehensive open resource of processed 16S rRNA microbial profiles for ecology and diversity studies.

    PubMed

    Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Joseph, Divya; Kapfhammer, Martin; Giritli, Sabahattin; Horn, Matthias; Haller, Dirk; Clavel, Thomas

    2016-09-23

    The SRA (Sequence Read Archive) serves as primary depository for massive amounts of Next Generation Sequencing data, and currently host over 100,000 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based microbial profiles from various host habitats and environments. This number is increasing rapidly and there is a dire need for approaches to utilize this pool of knowledge. Here we created IMNGS (Integrated Microbial Next Generation Sequencing), an innovative platform that uniformly and systematically screens for and processes all prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene amplicon datasets available in SRA and uses them to build sample-specific sequence databases and OTU-based profiles. Via a web interface, this integrative sequence resource can easily be queried by users. We show examples of how the approach allows testing the ecological importance of specific microorganisms in different hosts or ecosystems, and performing targeted diversity studies for selected taxonomic groups. The platform also offers a complete workflow for de novo analysis of users' own raw 16S rRNA gene amplicon datasets for the sake of comparison with existing data. IMNGS can be accessed at www.imngs.org.

  11. Coupled transcription and processing of mouse ribosomal RNA in a cell-free system.

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Y; Mitsuma, T; Ogata, K

    1985-01-01

    An in vitro processing system of mouse rRNA was achieved using an RNA polymerase I-specific transcription system, (S100) and recombinant plasmids consisting of mouse rRNA gene (rDNA) segments containing the transcription initiation and 5'-terminal region of 18S (or 41S) rRNA. Pulse-chase experiments showed that a specific processing occurred with transcripts of the plasmid DNAs when the direction of transcription was the correct orientation relative to the 18S rRNA coding sequence, but not with transcripts of the DNA templates in which this coding sequence was in the opposite orientation. From the S1 nuclease protection analyses, we concluded that there are several steps of endonucleolytic cleavage including one 105 nucleotides upstream from the 5' end of 18S rRNA. Intermediates cleaved at this site were identified in in vivo processing of rRNA. This result indicates that endonucleolytic cleavage takes place 105 nucleotides upstream from the 5' terminus of 18S rRNA prior to the formation of mature 18S rRNA. Trimming or cleavage of the 105 nucleotides may be involved in the formation of the 5' terminus of mature 18S rRNA. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3004977

  12. 18S Ribosomal RNA Evaluation as Preanalytical Quality Control for Animal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Meli, Marina L.; Novacco, Marilisa; Borel, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene is present in all eukaryotic cells. In this study, we evaluated the use of this gene to verify the presence of PCR-amplifiable host (animal) DNA as an indicator of sufficient sample quality for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis. We compared (i) samples from various animal species, tissues, and sample types, including swabs; (ii) multiple DNA extraction methods; and (iii) both fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. Results showed that 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplification was possible from all tissue samples evaluated, including avian, reptile, and FFPE samples and most swab samples. A single swine rectal swab, which showed sufficient DNA quantity and the demonstrated lack of PCR inhibitors, nonetheless was negative by 18S qPCR. Such a sample specifically illustrates the improvement of determination of sample integrity afforded by inclusion of 18S rRNA gene qPCR analysis in addition to spectrophotometric analysis and the use of internal controls for PCR inhibition. Other possible applications for the described 18S rRNA qPCR are preselection of optimal tissue specimens for studies or preliminary screening of archived samples prior to acceptance for biobanking projects. PMID:27672657

  13. Chloroplast RNA-Binding Protein RBD1 Promotes Chilling Tolerance through 23S rRNA Processing in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Leiyun; Yang, Fen; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Hua, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Plants have varying abilities to tolerate chilling (low but not freezing temperatures), and it is largely unknown how plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana achieve chilling tolerance. Here, we describe a genome-wide screen for genes important for chilling tolerance by their putative knockout mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Out of 11,000 T-DNA insertion mutant lines representing half of the genome, 54 lines associated with disruption of 49 genes had a drastic chilling sensitive phenotype. Sixteen of these genes encode proteins with chloroplast localization, suggesting a critical role of chloroplast function in chilling tolerance. Study of one of these proteins RBD1 with an RNA binding domain further reveals the importance of chloroplast translation in chilling tolerance. RBD1 is expressed in the green tissues and is localized in the chloroplast nucleoid. It binds directly to 23S rRNA and the binding is stronger under chilling than at normal growth temperatures. The rbd1 mutants are defective in generating mature 23S rRNAs and deficient in chloroplast protein synthesis especially under chilling conditions. Together, our study identifies RBD1 as a regulator of 23S rRNA processing and reveals the importance of chloroplast function especially protein translation in chilling tolerance. PMID:27138552

  14. The crystal structure of Mtr4 reveals a novel arch domain required for rRNA processing

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.N.; Robinson, H.; Klauer, A. A.; Hintze, B. J.; van Hoof, A.; Johnson, S. J.

    2010-07-01

    The essential RNA helicase, Mtr4, performs a critical role in RNA processing and degradation as an activator of the nuclear exosome. The molecular basis for this vital function is not understood and detailed analysis is significantly limited by the lack of structural data. In this study, we present the crystal structure of Mtr4. The structure reveals a new arch-like domain that is specific to Mtr4 and Ski2 (the cytosolic homologue of Mtr4). In vivo and in vitro analyses demonstrate that the Mtr4 arch domain is required for proper 5.8S rRNA processing, and suggest that the arch functions independently of canonical helicase activity. In addition, extensive conservation along the face of the putative RNA exit site highlights a potential interface with the exosome. These studies provide a molecular framework for understanding fundamental aspects of helicase function in exosome activation, and more broadly define the molecular architecture of Ski2-like helicases.

  15. The differential expression of ribosomal 18S RNA paralog genes from the chaetognath Spadella cephaloptera.

    PubMed

    Barthélémy, Roxane-Marie; Grino, Michel; Pontarotti, Pierre; Casanova, Jean-Paul; Faure, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Chaetognaths constitute a small marine phylum of approximately 120 species. Two classes of both 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequences have been evidenced in this phylum, even though significant intraindividual variation in the sequences of rRNA genes is unusual in animal genomes. These observations led to the hypothesis that this unusual genetic characteristic could play one or more physiological role(s). Using in situ hybridization on the frontal sections of the chaetognath Spadella cephaloptera, we found that the 18S Class I genes are expressed in the whole body, with a strong expression throughout the gut epithelium, whereas the expression of the 18S Class II genes is restricted to the oocytes. Our results could suggest that the paralog products of the 18S Class I genes are probably the "housekeeping" 18S rRNAs, whereas those of class II would only be essential in specific tissues. These results provide support for the idea that each type of 18S paralog is important for specific cellular functions and is under the control of selective factors.

  16. RNomics in Archaea reveals a further link between splicing of archaeal introns and rRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Thean Hock; Rozhdestvensky, Timofey S.; d’Orval, Béatrice Clouet; Bortolin, Marie-Line; Huber, Harald; Charpentier, Bruno; Branlant, Christiane; Bachellerie, Jean-Pierre; Brosius, Jürgen; Hüttenhofer, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    The bulge–helix–bulge (BHB) motif recognised by the archaeal splicing endonuclease is also found in the long processing stems of archaeal rRNA precursors in which it is cleaved to generate pre-16S and pre-23S rRNAs. We show that in two species, Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Sulfolobus solfataricus, representatives from the two major archaeal kingdoms Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota, respectively, the pre-rRNA spacers cleaved at the BHB motifs surrounding pre-16S and pre-23S rRNAs subsequently become ligated. In addition, we present evidence that this is accompanied by circularisation of ribosomal pre-16S and pre-23S rRNAs in both species. These data reveal a further link between intron splicing and pre-rRNA processing in Archaea, which might reflect a common evolutionary origin of the two processes. One spliced RNA species designated 16S-D RNA, resulting from religation at the BHB motif of 16S pre-rRNA, is a highly abundant and stable RNA which folds into a three-stem structure interrupted by two single-stranded regions as assessed by chemical probing. It spans a region of the pre-rRNA 5′ external transcribed spacer exhibiting a highly conserved folding pattern in Archaea. Surprisingly, 16S-D RNA contains structural motifs found in archaeal C/D box small RNAs and binds to the L7Ae protein, a core component of archaeal C/D box RNPs. This supports the notion that it might have an important but still unknown role in pre-rRNA biogenesis or might even target RNA molecules other than rRNA. PMID:11842103

  17. Chicken rRNA Gene Cluster Structure.

    PubMed

    Dyomin, Alexander G; Koshel, Elena I; Kiselev, Artem M; Saifitdinova, Alsu F; Galkina, Svetlana A; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Kostareva, Anna A; Gaginskaya, Elena R

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, whose activity results in nucleolus formation, constitute an extremely important part of genome. Despite the extensive exploration into avian genomes, no complete description of avian rRNA gene primary structure has been offered so far. We publish a complete chicken rRNA gene cluster sequence here, including 5'ETS (1836 bp), 18S rRNA gene (1823 bp), ITS1 (2530 bp), 5.8S rRNA gene (157 bp), ITS2 (733 bp), 28S rRNA gene (4441 bp) and 3'ETS (343 bp). The rRNA gene cluster sequence of 11863 bp was assembled from raw reads and deposited to GenBank under KT445934 accession number. The assembly was validated through in situ fluorescent hybridization analysis on chicken metaphase chromosomes using computed and synthesized specific probes, as well as through the reference assembly against de novo assembled rRNA gene cluster sequence using sequenced fragments of BAC-clone containing chicken NOR (nucleolus organizer region). The results have confirmed the chicken rRNA gene cluster validity.

  18. Chicken rRNA Gene Cluster Structure

    PubMed Central

    Dyomin, Alexander G.; Koshel, Elena I.; Kiselev, Artem M.; Saifitdinova, Alsu F.; Galkina, Svetlana A.; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Kostareva, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, whose activity results in nucleolus formation, constitute an extremely important part of genome. Despite the extensive exploration into avian genomes, no complete description of avian rRNA gene primary structure has been offered so far. We publish a complete chicken rRNA gene cluster sequence here, including 5’ETS (1836 bp), 18S rRNA gene (1823 bp), ITS1 (2530 bp), 5.8S rRNA gene (157 bp), ITS2 (733 bp), 28S rRNA gene (4441 bp) and 3’ETS (343 bp). The rRNA gene cluster sequence of 11863 bp was assembled from raw reads and deposited to GenBank under KT445934 accession number. The assembly was validated through in situ fluorescent hybridization analysis on chicken metaphase chromosomes using computed and synthesized specific probes, as well as through the reference assembly against de novo assembled rRNA gene cluster sequence using sequenced fragments of BAC-clone containing chicken NOR (nucleolus organizer region). The results have confirmed the chicken rRNA gene cluster validity. PMID:27299357

  19. Technical considerations in the use of 18s rRNA in gene expression studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene expression analysis is now commonly used in ecotoxicological studies to indicate exposure of an organism to xenobiotics. For example, the vitellogenin gene is used to diagnose exposure of fish to environmental estrogens. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PC...

  20. Technical considerations in the use of 18s rRNA in gene expression studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene expression analysis is now commonly used in ecotoxicological studies to indicate exposure of an organism to xenobiotics. For example, the vitellogenin gene is used to diagnose exposure of fish to environmental estrogens. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PC...

  1. Haptophyte Diversity and Vertical Distribution Explored by 18S and 28S Ribosomal RNA Gene Metabarcoding and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gran-Stadniczeñko, Sandra; Šupraha, Luka; Egge, Elianne D; Edvardsen, Bente

    2017-07-01

    Haptophyta encompasses more than 300 species of mostly marine pico- and nanoplanktonic flagellates. Our aims were to investigate the Oslofjorden haptophyte diversity and vertical distribution by metabarcoding, and to improve the approach to study haptophyte community composition, richness and proportional abundance by comparing two rRNA markers and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Samples were collected in August 2013 at the Outer Oslofjorden, Norway. Total RNA/cDNA was amplified by haptophyte-specific primers targeting the V4 region of the 18S, and the D1-D2 region of the 28S rRNA. Taxonomy was assigned using curated haptophyte reference databases and phylogenetic analyses. Both marker genes showed Chrysochromulinaceae and Prymnesiaceae to be the families with highest number of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), as well as proportional abundance. The 18S rRNA data set also contained OTUs assigned to eight supported and defined clades consisting of environmental sequences only, possibly representing novel lineages from family to class. We also recorded new species for the area. Comparing coccolithophores by SEM with metabarcoding shows a good correspondence with the 18S rRNA gene proportional abundances. Our results contribute to link morphological and molecular data and 28S to 18S rRNA gene sequences of haptophytes without cultured representatives, and to improve metabarcoding methodology. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.

  2. Secondary structure of rabbit 18S ribosomal RNA determined from biochemical and phylogenetic data

    SciTech Connect

    Rairkar, A.; Rubino, H.; Lockard, R.E.

    1986-05-01

    To understand the functional role of 18S rRNA in the eukaryotic 40S subunit, its higher order structure must first be determined. Native deproteinized 18S rRNA was isolated from purified rabbit 40S subunits, fractionated on SDS-sucrose density gradients and concentrated using centricon-30 microconcentrators. The structure of native 18S rRNA was probed chemically with both diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) and dimethyl sulfate (DMS) which react with unpaired adenosine and guanosine residues, respectively. After /sup 32/P-end-labeling of intact and fragmented RNA, the modified nucleotides were identified by polyacrylamide sequencing gel electrophoresis upon aniline induced strand scission. On the basis of both the biochemical and phylogenetic data, a secondary structure model is proposed which includes the two major G + C rich insertion elements. A comparison of the structure data with previously published phylogenetic models suggests an instability of certain predicted helices. These unstable helices may normally be stabilized by ribosomal proteins and could represent the flexible elements involved in biologically significant conformational switches within 40S subunit.

  3. Physical mapping of 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S RNA gene families in polyploid series of Cenchrus ciliaris Linnaeus, 1771 (Poaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kharrat-Souissi, Amina; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Pustahija, Fatima; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., Poaceae) is one of the most important pasturage grasses due to its high productivity and good forage qualities. This species possess a high adaptability to bioclimatic constraints of arid zones and may be used for the restoration of degraded arid ecosystems. Tunisian populations present three ploidy levels (4x, 5x and 6x) with a basic chromosome number x=9. This study reported for the first time the distribution of the ribosomal genes (rRNA) for pentaploid and hexaploid cytotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris. Molecular cytogenetic study using double fluorescence in situ hybridization has shown that the two rDNA families, 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S (18S), displayed intraspecific variation in number of loci among different ploidy levels. Each ploidy level was characterized by specific number of both 5S and 18S rDNA loci (two loci in tetraploid, five in pentaploid and six in hexaploid level). For three studied cytotypes (4x, 5x and 6x) all 5S rDNA loci were localized on the subcentromeric region of chromosomes, while 18S loci were situated on the telomeric region of short chromosome arms. Data of the FISH experiments show proportional increase of ribosomal loci number during polyploidization processes. PMID:24260668

  4. Phylogenetic analysis based on 28S rRNA of Babesia spp. in ruminants in China.

    PubMed

    Gou, Huitian; Guan, Guiquan; Ma, Miling; Liu, Aihong; Liu, Zhijie; Ren, Qiaoyun; Li, Youquan; Yang, Jifei; Chen, Ze; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2013-04-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses are mainly based on the small ribosomal RNA subunit (18S rRNA), internal transcribed spacer regions, and other molecular markers. We compared the phylogenetic relationships of Babesia spp. using large subunit ribosomal RNA, i.e., 28S rRNA, and the united 28S + 18S rRNA sequence fragments from 11 isolates of Babesia spp. collected in China. Due to sequence length and variability, the 28S rRNA gene contained more information than the 18S rRNA gene and could be used to elucidate the phlyogenetic relationships of B. motasi, B. major, and B. bovis. Thus, 28S rRNA is another candidate marker that can be used for the phylogenetic analysis of Babesia spp. However, the united fragment (28S + 18S) analysis provided better supported phylogenetic relationships than single genes for Babesia spp. in China.

  5. Eukaryotic diversity in premise drinking water using 18S rDNA sequencing: implications for health risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to characterize microbial eukaryotes over a 12 month period, so as to provide insight into the occurrence of potentially important predators and bacterial hosts in hot and cold premise plumbing. Nearly 6,300 partial (600 bp) 18S rRNA gene sequences from...

  6. Eukaryotic diversity in premise drinking water using 18S rDNA sequencing: implications for health risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to characterize microbial eukaryotes over a 12 month period, so as to provide insight into the occurrence of potentially important predators and bacterial hosts in hot and cold premise plumbing. Nearly 6,300 partial (600 bp) 18S rRNA gene sequences from...

  7. Microbial community of salt crystals processed from Mediterranean seawater based on 16S rRNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Baati, Houda; Guermazi, Sonda; Gharsallah, Neji; Sghir, Abdelghani; Ammar, Emna

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA was used to investigate for the first time the structure of the microbial community that inhabits salt crystals retrieved from the bottom of a solar saltern, located in the coastal area of the Mediterranean Sea (Sfax, Tunisia). This community lives in an extremely salty environment of 250-310 g/L total dissolved salt. A total of 78 bacterial 16S rRNA clone sequences making up to 21 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), determined by the DOTUR program to 97% sequence similarity, was analyzed. These OTUs were affiliated to Bacteroidetes (71.4% of OTUs), and gamma-Proteobacteria and alpha-Proteobacteria (equally represented by 14.2% of the OTUs observed). The archaeal community composition appeared more diverse with 68 clones, resulting in 44 OTUs, all affiliated with the Euryarchaeota phylum. Of the bacterial and archaeal clones showing <97% 16S rRNA sequence identity with sequences in public databases, 47.6% and 84.1% respectively were novel clones. Both rarefaction curves and diversity measurements (Simpson, Shannon-Weaver, Chao) showed a more diverse archaeal than bacterial community at the Tunisian solar saltern pond. The analysis of an increasing clone's number may reveal additional local diversity.

  8. Analysis of mRNA decay and rRNA processing in Escherichia coli multiple mutants carrying a deletion in RNase III.

    PubMed

    Babitzke, P; Granger, L; Olszewski, J; Kushner, S R

    1993-01-01

    RNase III is an endonuclease involved in processing both rRNA and certain mRNAs. To help determine whether RNase III (rnc) is required for general mRNA turnover in Escherichia coli, we have created a deletion-insertion mutation (delta rnc-38) in the structural gene. In addition, a series of multiple mutant strains containing deficiencies in RNase II (rnb-500), polynucleotide phosphorylase (pnp-7 or pnp-200), RNase E (rne-1 or rne-3071), and RNase III (delta rnc-38) were constructed. The delta rnc-38 single mutant was viable and led to the accumulation of 30S rRNA precursors, as has been previously observed with the rnc-105 allele (P. Gegenheimer, N. Watson, and D. Apirion, J. Biol. Chem. 252:3064-3073, 1977). In the multiple mutant strains, the presence of the delta rnc-38 allele resulted in the more rapid decay of pulse-labeled RNA but did not suppress conditional lethality, suggesting that the lethality associated with altered mRNA turnover may be due to the stabilization of specific mRNAs. In addition, these results indicate that RNase III is probably not required for general mRNA decay. Of particular interest was the observation that the delta rnc-38 rne-1 double mutant did not accumulate 30S rRNA precursors at 30 degrees C, while the delta rnc-38 rne-3071 double mutant did. Possible explanations of these results are discussed.

  9. [Phylogenetic relationships of Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii Brandt, 1869 based on 18S rDNA sequensing data].

    PubMed

    Rozhkovan, K V; Chelomina, G N; Ivanov, S A

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of phylogenetic relationships based on 18S rDNA sequences of Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii Brandt, 1869 with other acipenseriform species was performed in this study. Complete sequences (1746 b. p.) in seven individual clones of A. schrenckii 18S rRNA were determined. Mutation profile of Amur sturgeon 18S rDNA demonstrated high similarity with that of Lake Sturgeon A. fulvescens. Both presumably functional sequence and the specific mutation (insertion of adenine after position 658) of Amur sturgeon 18S rDNA were identified by structural-functional analyses. Phylogenetic reconstructions performed using different methods (NJ, MP, ML and Bayesian) support monophyly of the genus Acipenser and point to: 1) closer relationships Amur sturgeon with sterlet, than Baltic sturgeon, which is in agreement with Artyukhin's eco-morphological classification (Artyukhin, 1995, 2006); 2) sufficiently high differentiation between North-American (A. fulvescens) and Eurasian (A. schrenckii, A. ruthenus and A. sturio) sturgeons.

  10. Upstream binding factor-dependent and pre-rRNA transcription-independent association of pre-rRNA processing factors with rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Ueshima, Shuhei; Nagata, Kyosuke; Okuwaki, Mitsuru

    2014-01-03

    The nucleolus is the ribosome biogenesis center. The nucleolar structure is disrupted upon entry into mitosis and is formed in early G1 phase. To understand the molecular mechanisms of nucleolar assembly and disassembly, we have studied the mechanism of association between factors involved in pre-ribosome RNA (rRNA) processing and rRNA gene chromatin (r-chromatin). We found that the pre-rRNA transcription-processing linking factor Nopp140 and pre-rRNA processing factors such as DKC1 and fibrillarin (FBL) associate with r-chromatin during interphase, while Nopp140, DKC1, and FBL were released from r-chromatin in mitosis. The association of these factors with r-chromatin was found to be restored independent of pre-rRNA transcription in early G1 phase, but a mature nucleolar structure was not formed, suggesting that nucleolar assembly can be divided into at least two steps with respect to pre-rRNA transcription. Moreover, we found that the r-chromatin association of Nopp140, DKC1, and FBL was dependent on the transcription factor upstream binding factor (UBF). However, we demonstrated that UBF alone was not sufficient to recruit these pre-rRNA processing factors to r-chromatin. Thus, UBF is necessary but not sufficient for the associations between pre-rRNA processing factors and r-chromatin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Localization of 18S + 28S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes in the dog by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, A; Zijlstra, C; de Haan, N A; Mellink, C H; Bosma, A A

    1997-01-01

    The gene clusters encoding 18S + 28S and 5S rRNA in the dog (Canis familiaris) have been localized by using GTG-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The 18S + 28S rDNA maps to chromosome regions 7q2.5-->q2.7, 17q1.7, qter of a medium-sized, not yet numbered autosome, and Yq1.2-->q1.3. Our data show that there is one cluster of 5S rDNA in the dog, which maps to chromosome region 4q1.4.

  12. Molecular Phylogeny of Cypridoid Freshwater Ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda), Inferred from 18S and 28S rDNA Sequences.

    PubMed

    Hiruta, Shimpei F; Kobayashi, Norio; Katoh, Toru; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    With the aim of exploring phylogenetic relationships within Cypridoidea, the most species-rich superfamily among the podocopidan ostracods, we sequenced nearly the entire 18S rRNA gene (18S) and part of the 28S rRNA gene (28S) for 22 species in the order Podocopida, with representatives from all the major cypridoid families. We conducted phylogenetic analyses using the methods of maximum likelihood, minimum evolution, and Bayesian analysis. Our analyses showed monophyly for Cyprididae, one of the four families currently recognized in Cypridoidea. Candonidae turned out to be paraphyletic, and included three clades corresponding to the subfamilies Candoninae, Paracypridinae, and Cyclocypridinae. We propose restricting the name Candonidae s. str. to comprise what is now Candoninae, and raising Paracypridinae and Cyclocyprininae to family rank within the superfamily Cypridoidea.

  13. Ribosomal RNA processing in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Pendrak, Michael L.; Roberts, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Ribosome assembly begins with conversion of a polycistronic precursor into 18S, 5.8S, and 25S rRNAs. In the ascomycete fungus Candida albicans, rRNA transcription starts 604 nt upstream of the 18S rRNA junction (site A1). One major internal processing site in the 5′ external transcribed spacer (A0) occurs 108 nt from site A1. The A0–A1 fragment persists as a stable species during log phase growth and can be used to assess proliferation rates. Separation of the small and large subunit pre-rRNAs occurs at sites A2 and A3 in internal transcribed spacer-1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae pre-rRNA. However, the 5′ end of the 5.8S rRNA is represented by only a 5.8S (S) form, and a 7S rRNA precursor of the 5.8S rRNA extends into internal transcribed spacer 1 to site A2, which differs from S. cerevisiae. External transcribed spacer 1 and internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 show remarkable structural similarity with S. cerevisiae despite low sequence identity. Maturation of C. albicans rRNA resembles other eukaryotes in that processing can occur cotranscriptionally or post-transcriptionally. During rapid proliferation, U3 snoRNA-dependent processing occurs before large and small subunit rRNA separation, consistent with cotranscriptional processing. As cells pass the diauxic transition, the 18S pre-rRNA accumulates into stationary phase as a 23S species, possessing an intact 5′ external transcribed spacer extending to site A3. Nutrient addition to starved cells results in the disappearance of the 23S rRNA, indicating a potential role in normal physiology. Therefore, C. albicans reveals new mechanisms that regulate post- versus cotranscriptional rRNA processing. PMID:22028364

  14. atBRX1-1 and atBRX1-2 are involved in an alternative rRNA processing pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Benjamin L.; Palm, Denise; Missbach, Sandra; Bohnsack, Markus T.

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is an essential process in all organisms. In eukaryotes, multiple ribosome biogenesis factors (RBFs) act in the processing of ribosomal (r)RNAs, assembly of ribosomal subunits and their export to the cytoplasm. We characterized two genes in Arabidopsis thaliana coding for orthologs of yeast BRX1, a protein involved in maturation of the large ribosomal subunit. Both atBRX1 proteins, encoded by AT3G15460 and AT1G52930, respectively, are mainly localized in the nucleolus and are ubiquitously expressed throughout plant development and in various tissues. Mutant plant lines for both factors show a delay in development and pointed leaves can be observed in the brx1-2 mutant, implying a link between ribosome biogenesis and plant development. In addition, the pre-rRNA processing is affected in both mutants. Analysis of the pre-rRNA intermediates revealed that early processing steps can occur either in the 5′ external transcribed spacer (ETS) or internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1). Interestingly, we also find that in xrn2 mutants, early processing events can be bypassed and removal of the 5′ ETS is initiated by cleavage at the P′ processing site. While the pathways of pre-rRNA processing are comparable to those of yeast and mammalian cells, the balance between the two processing pathways is different in plants. Furthermore, plant-specific steps such as an additional processing site in the 5′ ETS, likely post-transcriptional processing of the early cleavage sites and accumulation of a 5′ extended 5.8S rRNA not observed in other eukaryotes can be detected. PMID:25605960

  15. ITS1 sequence variabilities correlate with 18S rDNA sequence types in the genus Acanthamoeba (Protozoa: Amoebozoa).

    PubMed

    Köhsler, Martina; Leitner, Brigitte; Blaschitz, Marion; Michel, Rolf; Aspöck, Horst; Walochnik, Julia

    2006-01-01

    The subgenus classification of the ubiquitously spread and potentially pathogenic acanthamoebae still poses a great challenge. Fifteen 18S rDNA sequence types (T1-T15) have been established, but the vast majority of isolates fall into sequence type T4, and so far, there is no means to reliably differentiate within T4. In this study, the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1), a more variable region than the 18S rRNA gene, was sequenced, and the sequences of 15 different Acanthamoeba isolates were compared to reveal if ITS1 sequence variability correlates with 18S rDNA sequence typing and if the ITS1 sequencing allows a differentiation within T4. It was shown that the variability in ITS1 is tenfold higher than in the 18S rDNA, and that ITS1 clusters correlate with the 18S rDNA clusters and thus corroborate the Acanthamoeba sequence type system. Moreover, high sequence dissimilarities and distinctive microsatellite patterns could enable a more detailed differentiation within T4.

  16. Update on Acanthamoeba jacobsi genotype T15, including full-length 18S rDNA molecular phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Köhsler, Martina; Montalbano Di Filippo, Margherita; Venditti, Danielle; Monno, Rosa; Di Cave, David; Berrilli, Federica; Walochnik, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are worldwide present in natural and artificial environments, and are also clinically important, as causative agents of diseases in humans and other animals. Acanthamoeba comprises several species, historically assigned to one of the three groups based on their cyst morphology, but presently recognized as at least 20 genotypes (T1-T20) on the basis of their nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene (18S rDNA) sequences. While strain identification may usually be achieved targeting short (<500 bp) 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments, the use of full-length gene sequences (>2200 bp) is necessary for correct genotype description and reliable molecular phylogenetic inference. The genotype T15, corresponding to Acanthamoeba jacobsi, is the only genotype described on the basis of partial sequences (~1500 bp). While this feature does not prevent the correct identification of the strains, having only partial sequences renders the genotype T15 not completely defined and may furthermore affect its position in the Acanthamoeba molecular tree. Here, we complete this gap, by obtaining full-length 18S rDNA sequences from eight A. jacobsi strains, genotype T15. Morphologies and physiological features of isolated strains are reported. Molecular phylogeny based on full 18S rDNA confirms some previous suggestions for a genetic link between T15 and T13, T16, and T19, with T19 as sister-group to T15.

  17. Quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in minimally processed leafy vegetables using a combined method based on enrichment and 16S rRNA real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Aparecida de Oliveira, Maria; Abeid Ribeiro, Eliana Guimarães; Morato Bergamini, Alzira Maria; Pereira De Martinis, Elaine Cristina

    2010-02-01

    Modern lifestyle markedly changed eating habits worldwide, with an increasing demand for ready-to-eat foods, such as minimally processed fruits and leafy greens. Packaging and storage conditions of those products may favor the growth of psychrotrophic bacteria, including the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In this work, minimally processed leafy vegetables samples (n = 162) from retail market from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, were tested for the presence or absence of Listeria spp. by the immunoassay Listeria Rapid Test, Oxoid. Two L. monocytogenes positive and six artificially contaminated samples of minimally processed leafy vegetables were evaluated by the Most Probable Number (MPN) with detection by classical culture method and also culture method combined with real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) for 16S rRNA genes of L. monocytogenes. Positive MPN enrichment tubes were analyzed by RTi-PCR with primers specific for L. monocytogenes using the commercial preparation ABSOLUTE QPCR SYBR Green Mix (ABgene, UK). Real-time PCR assay presented good exclusivity and inclusivity results and no statistical significant difference was found in comparison with the conventional culture method (p < 0.05). Moreover, RTi-PCR was fast and easy to perform, with MPN results obtained in ca. 48 h for RTi-PCR in comparison to 7 days for conventional method.

  18. Sequencing for complete rDNA sequences (18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2, and 28S rDNA) of Demodex and phylogenetic analysis of Acari based on 18S and 28S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping; Hu, Li; Xu, Yang; Wang, Zheng-Hang; Liu, Wen-Yan

    2012-11-01

    Due to the difficulty of DNA extraction for Demodex, few studies dealt with the identification and the phyletic evolution of Demodex at molecular level. In this study, we amplified, sequenced, and analyzed a complete (Demodex folliculorum) and an almost complete (D12 missing) (Demodex brevis) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence and also analyzed the primary sequences of divergent domains in small-subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of 51 species and in large-subunit rRNA of 43 species from four superfamilies in Acari (Cheyletoidea, Tetranychoidea, Analgoidea, and Ixodoidea). The results revealed that 18S rDNA sequence was relatively conserved in rDNA-coding regions and was not evolving as rapidly as 28S rDNA sequence. The evolutionary rates of transcribed spacer regions were much higher than those of the coding regions. The maximum parsimony trees of 18S and 28S rDNA appeared to be almost identical, consistent with their morphological classification. Based on the fact that the resolution capability of sequence length and the divergence of the 13 segments (D1-D6, D7a, D7b, and D8-D12) of 28S rDNA were stronger than that of the nine variable regions (V1-V9) of 18S rDNA, we were able to identify Demodex (Cheyletoidea) by the indels occurring in D2, D6, and D8.

  19. A new layer of rRNA regulation by small interference RNAs and the nuclear RNAi pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xufei; Chen, Xiangyang; Wang, Yun; Feng, Xuezhu; Guang, Shouhong

    2017-06-22

    Ribosome biogenesis drives cell growth and proliferation, but mechanisms that modulate this process remain poorly understood. For a long time, small rRNA sequences have been widely treated as non-specific degradation products and neglected as garbage sequences. Recently, we identified a new class of antisense ribosomal siRNAs (risiRNAs) that downregulate pre-rRNA through the nuclear RNAi pathway in C. elegans. risiRNAs exhibit sequence characteristics similar to 22G RNA while complement to 18S and 26S rRNA. risiRNAs elicit the translocation of the nuclear Argonaute protein NRDE-3 from the cytoplasm to nucleus and nucleolus, in which the risiRNA/NRDE complex binds to pre-rRNA and silences rRNA expression. Interestingly, when C. elegans is exposed to environmental stimuli, such as cold shock and ultraviolet illumination, risiRNAs accumulate and further turn on the nuclear RNAi-mediated gene silencing pathway. risiRNA may act in a quality control mechanism of rRNA homeostasis. When the exoribonuclease SUSI-1(ceDis3L2) is mutated, risiRNAs are dramatically increased. In this Point of View article, we will summarize our understanding of the small antisense ribosomal siRNAs in a variety of organisms, especially C. elegans, and their possible roles in the quality control mechanism of rRNA homeostasis.

  20. Assessment of helminth biodiversity in wild rats using 18S rDNA based metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryusei; Hino, Akina; Tsai, Isheng J; Palomares-Rius, Juan Emilio; Yoshida, Ayako; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2014-01-01

    Parasite diversity has important implications in several research fields including ecology, evolutionary biology and epidemiology. Wide-ranging analysis has been restricted because of the difficult, highly specialised and time-consuming processes involved in parasite identification. In this study, we assessed parasite diversity in wild rats using 18S rDNA-based metagenomics. 18S rDNA PCR products were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencer and the analysis of the sequences using the QIIME software successfully classified them into several parasite groups. The comparison of the results with those obtained using standard methods including microscopic observation of helminth parasites in the rat intestines and PCR amplification/sequencing of 18S rDNA from isolated single worms suggests that this new technique is reliable and useful to investigate parasite diversity.

  1. Assessment of Helminth Biodiversity in Wild Rats Using 18S rDNA Based Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Isheng J.; Palomares-Rius, Juan Emilio; Yoshida, Ayako; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2014-01-01

    Parasite diversity has important implications in several research fields including ecology, evolutionary biology and epidemiology. Wide-ranging analysis has been restricted because of the difficult, highly specialised and time-consuming processes involved in parasite identification. In this study, we assessed parasite diversity in wild rats using 18S rDNA-based metagenomics. 18S rDNA PCR products were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencer and the analysis of the sequences using the QIIME software successfully classified them into several parasite groups. The comparison of the results with those obtained using standard methods including microscopic observation of helminth parasites in the rat intestines and PCR amplification/sequencing of 18S rDNA from isolated single worms suggests that this new technique is reliable and useful to investigate parasite diversity. PMID:25340824

  2. A Functional Interface at the rDNA Connects rRNA Synthesis, Pre-rRNA Processing and Nucleolar Surveillance in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Leporé, Nathalie; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.

    2011-01-01

    Ribogenesis is a multistep error-prone process that is actively monitored by quality control mechanisms. How ribosomal RNA synthesis, pre-rRNA processing and nucleolar surveillance are integrated is unclear. Nor is it understood how defective ribosomes are recognized. We report in budding yeast that, in vivo, the interaction between the transcription elongation factor Spt5 and Rpa190, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase (Pol) I, requires the Spt5 C-terminal region (CTR), a conserved and highly repetitive domain that is reminiscent of the RNA Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD). We show that this sequence is also required for the interaction between Spt5 and Nrd1, an RNA specific binding protein, and an exosome cofactor. Both the Spt4-Spt5, and the Nrd1-Nab3 complexes interact functionally with Rrp6, and colocalize at the rDNA. Mutations in the RNA binding domain of Nrd1, but not in its RNA Pol II CTD-interacting domain, and mutations in the RRM of Nab3 led to the accumulation of normal and aberrant polyadenylated pre-rRNAs. Altogether these results indicate that Nrd1-Nab3 contributes to recruiting the nucleolar surveillance to elongating polymerases to survey nascent rRNA transcripts. PMID:21949810

  3. Two F-18s in Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This 32 second video clip shows two F-18s in NASA's Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) program. The aircraft use smoke contrails to gather data on wingtip vortices. Flight research attempts to utilize the energy in the vortices for more efficient flight.

  4. Rate accelerations in nuclear 18S rDNA of mycoheterotrophic and parasitic angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Benny; Huysmans, Suzy; Smets, Erik; Merckx, Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Rate variation in genes from all three genomes has been observed frequently in plant lineages with a parasitic and mycoheterotrophic mode of life. While the loss of photosynthetic ability leads to a relaxation of evolutionary constraints in genes involved in the photosynthetic apparatus, it remains to be determined how prevalent increased substitution rates are in nuclear DNA of non-photosynthetic angiosperms. In this study we infer rates of molecular evolution of 18S rDNA of all parasitic and mycoheterotorphic plant families (except Lauraceae and Polygalaceae) using relative rate tests. In several holoparasitic and mycoheterotrophic plant lineages extremely high substitution rates are observed compared to other photosynthetic angiosperms. The position and frequency of these substitutions have been identified to understand the mutation dynamics of 18S rRNA in achlorophyllous plants. Despite the presence of significantly elevated substitution rates, very few mutations occur in major functional and structural regions of the small ribosomal molecule, providing evidence that the efficiency of the translational apparatus in non-photosynthetic plants has not been affected.

  5. Ptc6 is required for proper rapamycin-induced down-regulation of the genes coding for ribosomal and rRNA processing proteins in S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    González, Asier; Casado, Carlos; Ariño, Joaquín; Casamayor, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Ptc6 is one of the seven components (Ptc1-Ptc7) of the protein phosphatase 2C family in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to other type 2C phosphatases, the cellular role of this isoform is poorly understood. We present here a comprehensive characterization of this gene product. Cells lacking Ptc6 are sensitive to zinc ions, and somewhat tolerant to cell-wall damaging agents and to Li(+). Ptc6 mutants are sensitive to rapamycin, albeit to lesser extent than ptc1 cells. This phenotype is not rescued by overexpression of PTC1 and mutation of ptc6 does not reproduce the characteristic genetic interactions of the ptc1 mutation with components of the TOR pathway, thus suggesting different cellular roles for both isoforms. We show here that the rapamycin-sensitive phenotype of ptc6 cells is unrelated to the reported role of Pt6 in controlling pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. Lack of Ptc6 results in substantial attenuation of the transcriptional response to rapamycin, particularly in the subset of repressed genes encoding ribosomal proteins or involved in rRNA processing. In contrast, repressed genes involved in translation are Ptc6-independent. These effects cannot be attributed to the regulation of the Sch9 kinase, but they could involve modulation of the binding of the Ifh1 co-activator to specific gene promoters.

  6. Ptc6 Is Required for Proper Rapamycin-Induced Down-Regulation of the Genes Coding for Ribosomal and rRNA Processing Proteins in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    González, Asier; Casado, Carlos; Ariño, Joaquín; Casamayor, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Ptc6 is one of the seven components (Ptc1-Ptc7) of the protein phosphatase 2C family in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to other type 2C phosphatases, the cellular role of this isoform is poorly understood. We present here a comprehensive characterization of this gene product. Cells lacking Ptc6 are sensitive to zinc ions, and somewhat tolerant to cell-wall damaging agents and to Li+. Ptc6 mutants are sensitive to rapamycin, albeit to lesser extent than ptc1 cells. This phenotype is not rescued by overexpression of PTC1 and mutation of ptc6 does not reproduce the characteristic genetic interactions of the ptc1 mutation with components of the TOR pathway, thus suggesting different cellular roles for both isoforms. We show here that the rapamycin-sensitive phenotype of ptc6 cells is unrelated to the reported role of Pt6 in controlling pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. Lack of Ptc6 results in substantial attenuation of the transcriptional response to rapamycin, particularly in the subset of repressed genes encoding ribosomal proteins or involved in rRNA processing. In contrast, repressed genes involved in translation are Ptc6-independent. These effects cannot be attributed to the regulation of the Sch9 kinase, but they could involve modulation of the binding of the Ifh1 co-activator to specific gene promoters. PMID:23704987

  7. Fungal diversity in composting process of pig manure and mushroom cultural waste based on partial sequence of large subunit rRNA.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kye Man; Kwon, Eun Ju; Kim, Sung Kyum; Kambiranda, Devaiah M; Math, Reukaradhya K; Lee, Young Han; Kim, Jungho; Yun, Han Dae; Kim, Hoon

    2009-08-01

    Fungal diversity during composting was investigated by culture-independent rDNA sequence analysis. Composting was carried out with pig manure and mushroom cultural waste using a field-scale composter (Hazaka system), and samples were collected at various stages. Based on partial sequence analysis of large subunit (LSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and sequence identity values, a total of 12 different fungal species were found at six sampling sites; Geotrichum sp., Debaryomyces hansenii, Monographella nivalis, Acremonium strictum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Myriangium durosai, Pleurotus eryngii, Malassezia globosa, Malassezia restricta, Rhodotorula glutinis, and Fusarium sporotrichioides. Geotrichum sp. of the class Saccharomycetes was the most predominant fungal species throughout the composting process (185 out of a total of 236 identified clones, or 78.4%), followed by Acremonium strictum (7.6%), Monographella nivalis (5.1%), and Pleurotus eryngii (3.8%). The prevalence of Geotrichum sp. was the lowest (61.1%) at the beginning of composting, and then gradually increased to 92.5% after 10 days of composting.

  8. Relative expression of rRNA transcripts and 45S rDNA promoter methylation status are dysregulated in tumors in comparison with matched-normal tissues in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Gurbet; Sayar, Nilufer; Gozum, Gokcen; Bozkurt, Betul; Konu, Ozlen; Yulug, Isik G

    2015-06-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) expression, one of the most important factors regulating ribosome production, is primarily controlled by a CG-rich 45 S rDNA promoter. However, the DNA methylation state of the 45 S rDNA promoter, as well as its effect on rRNA gene expression in types of human cancers is controversial. In the present study we analyzed the methylation status of the rDNA promoter (-380 to +53 bp) as well as associated rRNA expression levels in breast cancer cell lines and breast tumor-normal tissue pairs. We found that the aforementioned regulatory region was extensively methylated (74-96%) in all cell lines and in 68% (13/19 tumor-normal pairs) of the tumors. Expression levels of rRNA transcripts 18 S, 28 S, 5.8 S and 45 S external transcribed spacer (45 S ETS) greatly varied in the breast cancer cell lines regardless of their methylation status. Analyses of rRNA transcript expression levels in the breast tumor and normal matched tissues showed no significant difference when normalized with TBP. On the other hand, using the geometric mean of the rRNA expression values (GM-rRNA) as reference enabled us to identify significant changes in the relative expression of rRNAs in the tissue samples. We propose GM-rRNA normalization as a novel strategy to analyze expression differences between rRNA transcripts. Accordingly, the 18S rRNA/GM-rRNA ratio was significantly higher whereas the 5.8S rRNA/GM-rRNA ratio was significantly lower in breast tumor samples than this ratio in the matched normal samples. Moreover, the 18S rRNA/GM-rRNA ratio was negatively correlated with the 45 S rDNA promoter methylation level in the normal breast tissue samples, yet not in the breast tumors. Significant correlations observed between the expression levels of rRNA transcripts in the normal samples were lost in the tumor samples. We showed that the expression of rRNA transcripts may not be based solely on promoter methylation. Carcinogenesis may cause dysregulation of the correlation

  9. Molecular characterization of gap region in 28S rRNA molecules in brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica and planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuhong; Xie, Hui; Sun, Yan; Song, Jing; Li, Zhi

    2012-04-01

    In most insects and some other protostomes, a small stretch of nucleotides can be removed from mature 28S rRNA molecules, which could create two 28S rRNA subunits (28Sα and 28Sβ). Thus, during electrophoresis, the rRNA profiles of these organisms may differ significantly from the standard benchmark since the two subunits co-migrate with the 18S rRNA. To understand the structure and mechanism of the atypical 28S rRNA molecule, partial fragments of 28Sα and 28Sβ in brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica and planarian Dugesia japonica were cloned using a modified technology based on terminal transferase. Alignment with the corresponding sequences of 28S rDNAs indicates that there are 41 nucleotides in A. parthenogenetica and 42 nucleotides in D. japonica absent from the mature rRNAs. The AU content of the gap sequences of D. japonica and A. parthenogenetica is high. Both the gaps may form stem-loop structure. In D. japonica a UAAU cleavage signal is identified in the loop, but it is absent in A. parthenogenetica. Thus, it is proposed that the gap processing of 28S rRNA was a late enzyme-dependent cleavage event in the rRNA maturational process based on the AU rich gap sequence and the formation of the stem-loop structure to expose the processing segment, while the deletion of the gap region would not affect the structure and function of the 28S rRNA molecule.

  10. SOT1, a pentatricopeptide repeat protein with a small MutS-related domain, is required for correct processing of plastid 23S-4.5S rRNA precursors in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjuan; Liu, Sheng; Ruwe, Hannes; Zhang, Delin; Melonek, Joanna; Zhu, Yajuan; Hu, Xupeng; Gusewski, Sandra; Yin, Ping; Small, Ian D; Howell, Katharine A; Huang, Jirong

    2016-03-01

    Ribosomal RNA processing is essential for plastid ribosome biogenesis, but is still poorly understood in higher plants. Here, we show that SUPPRESSOR OF THYLAKOID FORMATION1 (SOT1), a plastid-localized pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein with a small MutS-related domain, is required for maturation of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistron. Loss of SOT1 function leads to slower chloroplast development, suppression of leaf variegation, and abnormal 23S and 4.5S processing. Predictions based on the PPR motif sequences identified the 5' end of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistronic precursor as a putative SOT1 binding site. This was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and by loss of the abundant small RNA 'footprint' associated with this site in sot1 mutants. We found that more than half of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistrons in sot1 mutants contain eroded and/or unprocessed 5' and 3' ends, and that the endonucleolytic cleavage product normally released from the 5' end of the precursor is absent in a sot1 null mutant. We postulate that SOT1 binding protects the 5' extremity of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistron from exonucleolytic attack, and favours formation of the RNA structure that allows endonucleolytic processing of its 5' and 3' ends. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Ngl2p is a Ccr4p-like RNA nuclease essential for the final step in 3'-end processing of 5.8S rRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Faber, Alex W; Van Dijk, Marie; Raué, Hendrik A; Vos, Jan C

    2002-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains three nonessential genes (NGL1, NGL2, and NGL3) that encode proteins containing a domain with similarity to a Mg(2+)-dependent endonuclease motif present in the mRNA deadenylase Ccr4p. We have investigated a possible role of these proteins in rRNA processing, because for many of the pre-rRNA processing steps, the identity of the responsible nuclease remains elusive. Analysis of RNA isolated from cells in which the NGL2 gene has been inactivated (ngl2delta) demonstrates that correct 3'-end formation of 5.8S rRNA at site E is strictly dependent on Ngl2p. No role in pre-rRNA processing could be assigned to Ngl1p and Ngl3p. The 3'-extended 5.8S rRNA formed in the ngl2delta mutant is slightly shorter than the 6S precursor previously shown to accumulate upon combined deletion of the 3' --> 5' exonuclease-encoding REX1 and REX2 genes or upon depletion of the exosomal subunits Rrp40p or Rrp45p. Thus, our data add a further component to the set of nucleases required for correct 3'-end formation of yeast 5.8S rRNA.

  12. Cystoisospora spp. from dogs in China and phylogenetic analysis of its 18S and ITS1 gene.

    PubMed

    He, Pengfei; Li, Jianhua; Gong, Pengtao; Huang, Jingui; Zhang, Xichen

    2012-11-23

    Cystoisospora spp. oocysts isolated from dog feces in Changchun, China were morphologically similar to those of Cystoisospora ohioensis and Cystoisospora sp. 1-MM recently isolated from dogs in Japanese. Sequencing results of the 18S subunit RNA gene from isolates in the present study were compared to other Cystoisospora spp. and the results suggested that Cystoisospora spp. from dogs in Changchun was homologous to C. ohioensis and Cystoisospora sp. 1-MM. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA sequences showed that the Cystoisospora sp. ChangChun 1 and Cystoisospora sp. ChangChun 2 were nested in a clade with other Cystoisospora spp., including C. ohioensis, Cystoisospora belli, Cystoisospora suis, Isospora sp. Harbin/01/08 and C. orlovi,. Cystoisospora sp. ChangChun 2 was confirmed as C. ohioensis, and the other isolate was in a separate clade but the genetic relationship was relatively close to C. suis after analysis of the ITS-1gene.

  13. The nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene as a source of phylogenetic information in the genus Taenia.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongbin; Lou, Zhongzi; Li, Li; Ni, Xingwei; Guo, Aijiang; Li, Hongmin; Zheng, Yadong; Dyachenko, Viktor; Jia, Wanzhong

    2013-03-01

    Most species of the genus Taenia are of considerable medical and veterinary significance. In this study, complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from seven members of genus Taenia [Taenia multiceps, Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica, Taenia solium, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia hydatigena, and Taenia taeniaeformis] and a phylogeny inferred using these sequences. Most of the variable sites fall within the variable regions, V1-V5. We show that sequences from the nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene have considerable promise as sources of phylogenetic information within the genus Taenia. Furthermore, given that almost all the variable sites lie within defined variable portions of that gene, it will be appropriate and economical to sequence only those regions for additional species of Taenia.

  14. Parvulin (Par14), a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, is a novel rRNA processing factor that evolved in the metazoan lineage.

    PubMed

    Fujiyama-Nakamura, Sally; Yoshikawa, Harunori; Homma, Keiichi; Hayano, Toshiya; Tsujimura-Takahashi, Teruko; Izumikawa, Keiichi; Ishikawa, Hideaki; Miyazawa, Naoki; Yanagida, Mitsuaki; Miura, Yutaka; Shinkawa, Takashi; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Isobe, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2009-07-01

    Although parvulin (Par14/eukaryotic parvulin homolog), a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, is found associated with the preribosomal ribonucleoprotein (pre-rRNP) complexes, its roles in ribosome biogenesis remain undetermined. In this study, we describe a comprehensive proteomics analysis of the Par14-associated pre-rRNP complexes using LC-MS/MS and a knockdown analysis of Par14. Together with our previous results, we finally identified 115 protein components of the complexes, including 39 ribosomal proteins and 54 potential trans-acting factors whose yeast homologs are found in the pre-rRNP complexes formed at various stages of ribosome biogenesis. We give evidence that, although Par14 exists in both the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms in the cell, only the latter form is associated with the pre-40 S and pre-60 S ribosomal complexes. We also show that Par14 co-localizes with the nucleolar protein B23 during the interphase and in the spindle apparatus during mitosis and that actinomycin D treatment results in the exclusion of Par14 from the nucleolus. Finally we demonstrate that knockdown of Par14 mRNA decelerates the processing of pre-rRNA to 18 and 28 S rRNAs. We propose that Par14 is a component of the pre-rRNA complexes and functions as an rRNA processing factor in ribosome biogenesis. As the amino acid sequence of Par14 including that in the amino-terminal pre-rRNP binding region is conserved only in metazoan homologs, we suggest that its roles in ribosome biogenesis have evolved in the metazoan lineage.

  15. Detection and characterization of fungal infections of Ammophila arenaria (marram grass) roots by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of specifically amplified 18s rDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kowalchuk, G A; Gerards, S; Woldendorp, J W

    1997-01-01

    Marram grass (Ammophila arenaria L.), a sand-stabilizing plant species in coastal dune areas, is affected by a specific pathosystem thought to include both plant-pathogenic fungi and nematodes. To study the fungal component of this pathosystem, we developed a method for the cultivation-independent detection and characterization of fungi infecting plant roots based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of specifically amplified DNA fragments coding for 18S rRNA (rDNA). A nested PCR strategy was employed to amplify a 569-bp region of the 18S rRNA gene, with the addition of a 36-bp GC clamp, from fungal isolates, from roots of test plants infected in the laboratory, and from field samples of marram grass roots from both healthy and degenerating stands from coastal dunes in The Netherlands. PCR products from fungal isolates were subjected to DGGE to examine the variation seen both between different fungal taxa and within a single species. DGGE of the 18S rDNA fragments could resolve species differences from fungi used in this study yet was unable to discriminate between strains of a single species. The 18S rRNA genes from 20 isolates of fungal species previously recovered from A. arenaria roots were cloned and partially sequenced to aid in the interpretation of DGGE data. DGGE patterns recovered from laboratory plants showed that this technique could reliably identify known plant-infecting fungi. Amplification products from field A. arenaria roots also were analyzed by DGGE, and the major bands were excised, reamplified, sequenced, and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Some recovered 18S rDNA sequences allowed for phylogenetic placement to the genus level, whereas other sequences were not closely related to known fungal 18S rDNA sequences. The molecular data presented here reveal fungal diversity not detected in previous culture-based surveys. PMID:9327549

  16. Gateway role for rRNA precursors in ribosome assembly.

    PubMed

    Gutgsell, Nancy S; Jain, Chaitanya

    2012-12-01

    In Escherichia coli, rRNAs are initially transcribed with precursor sequences, which are subsequently removed through processing reactions. To investigate the role of precursor sequences, we analyzed ribosome assembly in strains containing mutations in the processing RNases. We observed that defects in 23S rRNA processing resulted in an accumulation of ribosomal subunits and caused a significant delay in ribosome assembly. These observations suggest that precursor residues in 23S rRNA control ribosome assembly and could be serving a regulatory role to couple ribosome assembly to rRNA processing. The possible mechanisms through which rRNA processing and ribosome assembly could be linked are discussed.

  17. Elucidating the role of H/ACA-like RNAs in trans-splicing and rRNA processing via RNA interference silencing of the Trypanosoma brucei CBF5 pseudouridine synthase.

    PubMed

    Barth, Sarit; Hury, Avraham; Liang, Xue-Hai; Michaeli, Shulamit

    2005-10-14

    Most pseudouridinylation in eukaryotic rRNA and small nuclear RNAs is guided by H/ACA small nucleolar RNAs. In this study, the Trypanosoma brucei pseudouridine synthase, Cbf5p, a snoRNP protein, was identified and silenced by RNAi. Depletion of this protein destabilized all small nucleolar RNAs of the H/ACA-like family. Following silencing, defects in rRNA processing, such as accumulation of precursors and inhibition of cleavages to generate the mature rRNA, were observed. snR30, an H/ACA RNA involved in rRNA maturation, was identified based on prototypical conserved domains characteristic of this RNA in other eukaryotes. The silencing of CBF5 also eliminated the spliced leader-associated (SLA1) RNA that directs pseudouridylation on the spliced leader RNA (SL RNA), which is the substrate for the trans-splicing reaction. Surprisingly, the depletion of Cbf5p not only eliminated the pseudouridine on the SL RNA but also abolished capping at the fourth cap-4 nucleotide. As a result of defects in the SL RNA and decreased modification on the U small nuclear RNA, trans-splicing was inhibited at the first step of the reaction, providing evidence for the essential role of H/ACA RNAs and the modifications they guide on trans-splicing.

  18. Mycobacterial RNA isolation optimized for non-coding RNA: high fidelity isolation of 5S rRNA from Mycobacterium bovis BCG reveals novel post-transcriptional processing and a complete spectrum of modified ribonucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Hia, Fabian; Chionh, Yok Hian; Pang, Yan Ling Joy; DeMott, Michael S.; McBee, Megan E.; Dedon, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in the study of mycobacterial RNA biology is the lack of a comprehensive RNA isolation method that overcomes the unusual cell wall to faithfully yield the full spectrum of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) species. Here, we describe a simple and robust procedure optimized for the isolation of total ncRNA, including 5S, 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and tRNA, from mycobacteria, using Mycobacterium bovis BCG to illustrate the method. Based on a combination of mechanical disruption and liquid and solid-phase technologies, the method produces all major species of ncRNA in high yield and with high integrity, enabling direct chemical and sequence analysis of the ncRNA species. The reproducibility of the method with BCG was evident in bioanalyzer electrophoretic analysis of isolated RNA, which revealed quantitatively significant differences in the ncRNA profiles of exponentially growing and non-replicating hypoxic bacilli. The method also overcame an historical inconsistency in 5S rRNA isolation, with direct sequencing revealing a novel post-transcriptional processing of 5S rRNA to its functional form and with chemical analysis revealing seven post-transcriptional ribonucleoside modifications in the 5S rRNA. This optimized RNA isolation procedure thus provides a means to more rigorously explore the biology of ncRNA species in mycobacteria. PMID:25539917

  19. Mycobacterial RNA isolation optimized for non-coding RNA: high fidelity isolation of 5S rRNA from Mycobacterium bovis BCG reveals novel post-transcriptional processing and a complete spectrum of modified ribonucleosides.

    PubMed

    Hia, Fabian; Chionh, Yok Hian; Pang, Yan Ling Joy; DeMott, Michael S; McBee, Megan E; Dedon, Peter C

    2015-03-11

    A major challenge in the study of mycobacterial RNA biology is the lack of a comprehensive RNA isolation method that overcomes the unusual cell wall to faithfully yield the full spectrum of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) species. Here, we describe a simple and robust procedure optimized for the isolation of total ncRNA, including 5S, 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and tRNA, from mycobacteria, using Mycobacterium bovis BCG to illustrate the method. Based on a combination of mechanical disruption and liquid and solid-phase technologies, the method produces all major species of ncRNA in high yield and with high integrity, enabling direct chemical and sequence analysis of the ncRNA species. The reproducibility of the method with BCG was evident in bioanalyzer electrophoretic analysis of isolated RNA, which revealed quantitatively significant differences in the ncRNA profiles of exponentially growing and non-replicating hypoxic bacilli. The method also overcame an historical inconsistency in 5S rRNA isolation, with direct sequencing revealing a novel post-transcriptional processing of 5S rRNA to its functional form and with chemical analysis revealing seven post-transcriptional ribonucleoside modifications in the 5S rRNA. This optimized RNA isolation procedure thus provides a means to more rigorously explore the biology of ncRNA species in mycobacteria. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Early diagnosis of Exophiala CAPD peritonitis by 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Chiu, Siu-kau; Leung, Kit-wah; Yung, Raymond W H; Yuen, Kwok-yung

    2003-06-01

    Phenotypic identification of fungi in clinical microbiology laboratories is often difficult and late, especially for slow growing and rarely encountered fungi. We describe the application of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing in the early diagnosis of a case of Exophiala peritonitis. A yeast-like fungus was isolated from the dialysate fluid of a 66-year-old man undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. It grew slowly after 12 days of incubation to yield mature cultures to permit recognition of microscopic features resembling those of Exophiala, a dematiacerous mold. 18S rRNA gene sequencing provided results 12 days earlier than phenotypic identification and revealed 15 base difference (0.9%) between the isolate and Exophiala sp. strain GHP 1205 (GenBank Accession no. AJ232954), indicating that the isolate most closely resembles a strain of Exophiala species. The patient responded to 4 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B therapy. Early identification of the fungus was important for the choice of anti-fungal regimen. As opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients are globally emerging problems, the development of molecular techniques for fungal identification is crucial for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  1. Succession of Microbial Communities during Hot Composting as Detected by PCR–Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism-Based Genetic Profiles of Small-Subunit rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Sabine; Koschinsky, Stefanie; Schwieger, Frank; Tebbe, Christoph C.

    2000-01-01

    A cultivation-independent technique for genetic profiling of PCR-amplified small-subunit rRNA genes (SSU rDNA) was chosen to characterize the diversity and succession of microbial communities during composting of an organic agricultural substrate. PCR amplifications were performed with DNA directly extracted from compost samples and with primers targeting either (i) the V4–V5 region of eubacterial 16S rRNA genes, (ii) the V3 region in the 16S rRNA genes of actinomycetes, or (iii) the V8–V9 region of fungal 18S rRNA genes. Homologous PCR products were converted to single-stranded DNA molecules by exonuclease digestion and were subsequently electrophoretically separated by their single-strand-conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Genetic profiles obtained by this technique showed a succession and increasing diversity of microbial populations with all primers. A total of 19 single products were isolated from the profiles by PCR reamplification and cloning. DNA sequencing of these molecular isolates showed similarities in the range of 92.3 to 100% to known gram-positive bacteria with a low or high G+C DNA content and to the SSU rDNA of γ-Proteobacteria. The amplified 18S rRNA gene sequences were related to the respective gene regions of Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis. Specific molecular isolates could be attributed to different composting stages. The diversity of cultivated bacteria isolated from samples taken at the end of the composting process was low. A total of 290 isolates were related to only 6 different species. Two or three of these species were also detectable in the SSCP community profiles. Our study indicates that community SSCP profiles can be highly useful for the monitoring of bacterial diversity and community successions in a biotechnologically relevant process. PMID:10698754

  2. 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Cochliopodium (Himatismenida) and the phylogeny of Amoebozoa.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander; Bernhard, Detlef; Schlegel, Martin; Chao, Ema E Y; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    Cochliopodium is a very distinctive genus of discoid amoebae covered by a dorsal tectum of carbohydrate microscales. Its phylogenetic position is unclear, since although sharing many features with naked "gymnamoebae", the tectum sets it apart. We sequenced 18S ribosomal RNA genes from three Cochliopodium species (minus, spiniferum and Cochliopodium sp., a new species resembling C. minutum). Phylogenetic analysis shows Cochliopodium as robustly holophyletic and within Amoebozoa, in full accord with morphological data. Cochliopodium is always one of the basal branches within Amoebozoa but its precise position is unstable. In Bayesian analysis it is sister to holophyletic Glycostylida, but distance trees mostly place it between Dermamoeba and a possibly artifactual long-branch cluster including Thecamoeba. These positions are poorly supported and basal amoebozoan branching ill-resolved, making it unclear whether Discosea (Glycostylida, Himatismenida, Dermamoebida) is holophyletic; however, Thecamoeba seems not specifically related to Dermamoeba. We also sequenced the small-subunit rRNA gene of Vannella persistens, which constantly grouped with other Vannella species, and two Hartmannella strains. Our trees suggest that Vexilliferidae, Variosea and Hartmannella are polyphyletic, confirming the existence of two very distinct Hartmannella clades: that comprising H. cantabrigiensis and another divergent species is sister to Glaeseria, whilst Hartmannella vermiformis branches more deeply.

  3. 18S ribosomal DNA-based PCR for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Mayta, H; Gilman, R H; Calderon, M M; Gottlieb, A; Soto, G; Tuero, I; Sanchez, S; Vivar, A

    2000-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis remains the most common sexually transmitted parasite in the world and is considered a major risk factor in the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. A PCR technique using primers targeting a specific region of the 18S rRNA gene of T. vaginalis was developed. The PCR test was standardized using 15 reference strains, giving a single product of 312 bp in all strains. No amplification was observed when DNA from related organisms or human DNA was used as a target. The test was evaluated on 372 vaginal swab specimens and 361 urine samples from women attending infertility and obstetric clinics at two separate hospitals in Lima, Peru. Compared to T. vaginalis culture, the overall sensitivity and specificity of PCR of vaginal swab samples was 100% and 98%, respectively. The PCR of urine samples was 100% sensitive and 99.7% specific compared to culture of vaginal swab, but the sensitivity drops to 83.3% when compared to PCR of vaginal swabs. All culture-positive samples were found to be positive by PCR in either urine or vaginal secretion. None of the PCR-negative samples were positive by culture. The origin of the amplification was confirmed by digestion of PCR products with HaeIII. This PCR assay, which is easy to perform and has a high sensitivity and specificity, should be useful for routine diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection.

  4. Phylogenetic study of Class Armophorea (Alveolata, Ciliophora) based on 18S-rDNA data.

    PubMed

    da Silva Paiva, Thiago; do Nascimento Borges, Bárbara; da Silva-Neto, Inácio Domingos

    2013-12-01

    The 18S rDNA phylogeny of Class Armophorea, a group of anaerobic ciliates, is proposed based on an analysis of 44 sequences (out of 195) retrieved from the NCBI/GenBank database. Emphasis was placed on the use of two nucleotide alignment criteria that involved variation in the gap-opening and gap-extension parameters and the use of rRNA secondary structure to orientate multiple-alignment. A sensitivity analysis of 76 data sets was run to assess the effect of variations in indel parameters on tree topologies. Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony phylogenetic analyses were used to explore how different analytic frameworks influenced the resulting hypotheses. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the relationships among higher taxa of the Intramacronucleata were dependent upon how indels were determined during multiple-alignment of nucleotides. The phylogenetic analyses rejected the monophyly of the Armophorea most of the time and consistently indicated that the Metopidae and Nyctotheridae were related to the Litostomatea. There was no consensus on the placement of the Caenomorphidae, which could be a sister group of the Metopidae + Nyctorheridae, or could have diverged at the base of the Spirotrichea branch or the Intramacronucleata tree.

  5. Phylogenetic study of Class Armophorea (Alveolata, Ciliophora) based on 18S-rDNA data

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Paiva, Thiago; do Nascimento Borges, Bárbara; da Silva-Neto, Inácio Domingos

    2013-01-01

    The 18S rDNA phylogeny of Class Armophorea, a group of anaerobic ciliates, is proposed based on an analysis of 44 sequences (out of 195) retrieved from the NCBI/GenBank database. Emphasis was placed on the use of two nucleotide alignment criteria that involved variation in the gap-opening and gap-extension parameters and the use of rRNA secondary structure to orientate multiple-alignment. A sensitivity analysis of 76 data sets was run to assess the effect of variations in indel parameters on tree topologies. Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony phylogenetic analyses were used to explore how different analytic frameworks influenced the resulting hypotheses. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the relationships among higher taxa of the Intramacronucleata were dependent upon how indels were determined during multiple-alignment of nucleotides. The phylogenetic analyses rejected the monophyly of the Armophorea most of the time and consistently indicated that the Metopidae and Nyctotheridae were related to the Litostomatea. There was no consensus on the placement of the Caenomorphidae, which could be a sister group of the Metopidae + Nyctorheridae, or could have diverged at the base of the Spirotrichea branch or the Intramacronucleata tree. PMID:24385862

  6. Authentication of Curcuma species (Zingiberaceae) based on nuclear 18S rDNA and plastid trnK sequences.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Sasaki, Yohei; Fushimi, Hirotoshi; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2010-07-01

    Curcuma drugs have been used discriminatingly for invigorating blood circulation, promoting digestion, and as a cholagogic in China. However, there is confusion about the drug's botanical origins and clinical uses because of morphological similarity of Curcuma plants and drugs. Comparative sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene in nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and trnK gene in chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) was carried out in order to examine interspecies phylogeny and to identify ultimately Curcuma species. A total of a hundred of accessions of eighteen species were analyzed. This resulted in an aligned matrix of 1810 bp for 18S rDNA and 2 800 bp for trnK. 18S rDNA sequence divergence within the ingroup ranged from 0-0.05%, trnK ranged from 0-0.19%. One base transversion-substituted site (from cytosine to thymine) was observed from the upstream of 18S rDNA at nucleotide position 234 in C. kwangsiensis and Japanese population of C. zedoaria which have separated genetic distance to other Curcuma taxa. Two noncoding regions embedded in trnK intron showed higher variability, including nucleotide substitutions, repeat insertion and deletions. Based on consensus of relationship, eighteen major lineages within Curcuma are recognized at the species level. The results suggest that Curcuma is monophyletic with 100% bootstrap support and sister to the genera Hedychium and Zingiber. The trnK sequences showed considerable variations between Curcuma species and thus were revealed as a promising candidate for barcoding of Curcuma species, which provide valuable characters for inferring relationship within species but are insufficient to resolve relationships among closely related taxa.

  7. Secondary structure prediction for complete rDNA sequences (18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA) of Demodex folliculorum, and comparison of divergent domains structures across Acari.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya-E; Wang, Zheng-Hang; Xu, Yang; Wu, Li-Ping; Hu, Li

    2013-10-01

    According to base pairing, the rRNA folds into corresponding secondary structures, which contain additional phylogenetic information. On the basis of sequencing for complete rDNA sequences (18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 and 28S rDNA) of Demodex, we predicted the secondary structure of the complete rDNA sequence (18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA) of Demodex folliculorum, which was in concordance with that of the main arthropod lineages in past studies. And together with the sequence data from GenBank, we also predicted the secondary structures of divergent domains in SSU rRNA of 51 species and in LSU rRNA of 43 species from four superfamilies in Acari (Cheyletoidea, Tetranychoidea, Analgoidea and Ixodoidea). The multiple alignment among the four superfamilies in Acari showed that, insertions from Tetranychoidea SSU rRNA formed two newly proposed helixes, and helix c3-2b of LSU rRNA was absent in Demodex (Cheyletoidea) taxa. Generally speaking, LSU rRNA presented more remarkable differences than SSU rRNA did, mainly in D2, D3, D5, D7a, D7b, D8 and D10. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Towards an 18S phylogeny of hexapods: accounting for group-specific character covariance in optimized mixed nucleotide/doublet models.

    PubMed

    Misof, Bernhard; Niehuis, Oliver; Bischoff, Inge; Rickert, Andreas; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Staniczek, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversification of Hexapoda is still not fully understood. Morphological and molecular analyses have resulted in partly contradicting hypotheses. In molecular analyses, 18S sequences are the most frequently employed, but it appears that 18S sequences do not contain enough phylogenetic signals to resolve basal relationships of hexapod lineages. Until recently, character interdependence in these data has never been treated seriously, though possibly accounting for the occurrence of biased results. However, software packages are readily available which can incorporate information on character interdependence within a Bayesian approach. Accounting for character covariation derived from a hexapod consensus secondary structure model and applying mixed DNA/RNA substitution models, our Bayesian analysis of 321 hexapod sequences yielded a partly robust tree that depicts many hexapod relationships congruent with morphological considerations. It appears that the application of mixed DNA/RNA models removes many of the anomalies seen in previous studies. We focus on basal hexapod relationships for which unambiguous results are missing. In particular, the strong support for a "Chiastomyaria" clade (Ephemeroptera+Neoptera) obtained in Kjer's [2004. Aligned 18S and insect phylogeny. Syst. Biol. 53, 1-9] study of 18S sequences could not be confirmed by our analysis. The hexapod tree can be rooted with monophyletic Entognatha but not with a clade Ellipura (Collembola+Protura). Compared to previously published contributions, accounting for character interdependence in analyses of rRNA data presents an improvement of phylogenetic resolution. We suggest that an integration of explicit clade-specific rRNA structural refinements is not only possible but an important step in the optimization of substitution models dealing with rRNA data.

  9. Nuclear ribosome biogenesis mediated by the DIM1A rRNA dimethylase is required for organized root growth and epidermal patterning in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wieckowski, Yana; Schiefelbein, John

    2012-07-01

    Position-dependent patterning of hair and non-hair cells in the Arabidopsis thaliana root epidermis is a powerful system to study the molecular basis of cell fate specification. Here, we report an epidermal patterning mutant affecting the ADENOSINE DIMETHYL TRANSFERASE 1A (DIM1A) rRNA dimethylase gene, predicted to participate in rRNA posttranscriptional processing and base modification. Consistent with a role in ribosome biogenesis, DIM1A is preferentially expressed in regions of rapid growth, and its product is nuclear localized with nucleolus enrichment. Furthermore, DIM1A preferentially accumulates in the developing hair cells, and the dim1A point mutant alters the cell-specific expression of the transcriptional regulators GLABRA2, CAPRICE, and WEREWOLF. Together, these findings suggest that establishment of cell-specific gene expression during root epidermis development is dependent upon proper ribosome biogenesis, possibly due to the sensitivity of the cell fate decision to relatively small differences in gene regulatory activities. Consistent with its effect on the predicted S-adenosyl-l-Met binding site, dim1A plants lack the two 18S rRNA base modifications but exhibit normal pre-rRNA processing. In addition to root epidermal defects, the dim1A mutant exhibits abnormal root meristem division, leaf development, and trichome branching. Together, these findings provide new insights into the importance of rRNA base modifications and translation regulation for plant growth and development.

  10. Nuclear Ribosome Biogenesis Mediated by the DIM1A rRNA Dimethylase Is Required for Organized Root Growth and Epidermal Patterning in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Wieckowski, Yana; Schiefelbein, John

    2012-01-01

    Position-dependent patterning of hair and non-hair cells in the Arabidopsis thaliana root epidermis is a powerful system to study the molecular basis of cell fate specification. Here, we report an epidermal patterning mutant affecting the ADENOSINE DIMETHYL TRANSFERASE 1A (DIM1A) rRNA dimethylase gene, predicted to participate in rRNA posttranscriptional processing and base modification. Consistent with a role in ribosome biogenesis, DIM1A is preferentially expressed in regions of rapid growth, and its product is nuclear localized with nucleolus enrichment. Furthermore, DIM1A preferentially accumulates in the developing hair cells, and the dim1A point mutant alters the cell-specific expression of the transcriptional regulators GLABRA2, CAPRICE, and WEREWOLF. Together, these findings suggest that establishment of cell-specific gene expression during root epidermis development is dependent upon proper ribosome biogenesis, possibly due to the sensitivity of the cell fate decision to relatively small differences in gene regulatory activities. Consistent with its effect on the predicted S-adenosyl-l-Met binding site, dim1A plants lack the two 18S rRNA base modifications but exhibit normal pre-rRNA processing. In addition to root epidermal defects, the dim1A mutant exhibits abnormal root meristem division, leaf development, and trichome branching. Together, these findings provide new insights into the importance of rRNA base modifications and translation regulation for plant growth and development. PMID:22829145

  11. Accurate processing of human pre-rRNA in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, G J; Maroney, P A; Branch, A; Benenfield, B J; Robertson, H D; Nilsen, T W

    1989-01-01

    We report here that the mature 5' terminus of human 18S rRNA is generated in vitro by a two-step processing reaction. In the first step, SP6 transcripts were specifically cleaved in HeLa cell nucleolar extract at three positions near the external transcribed spacer (ETS)-18S boundary. Of these cleavage sites, two were major and the other was minor. RNase T1 fingerprint and secondary nuclease analyses placed the two major cleavage sites 3 and 8 bases upstream from the mature 5' end of 18S rRNA and the minor cleavage site 1 base into the 18S sequence. All three cleavages yielded 5'-hydroxyl, 2'-3'-cyclic phosphate termini and were 5' of adenosine residues in the sequence UACCU, which was repeated three times near the ETS-18S boundary. In the second step, the initial cleavage product containing 3 bases of ETS was converted to an RNA with a 5' terminus identical to that of mature 18S RNA by an activity found in HeLa cell cytoplasmic extracts. Images PMID:2586517

  12. Three Group-I introns in 18S rDNA of Endosymbiotic Algae of Paramecium bursaria from Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshina, Ryo; Kamako, Shin-ichiro; Imamura, Nobutaka

    2004-08-01

    In the nuclear encoded small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) of symbiotic alga of Paramecium bursaria (F36 collected in Japan) possesses three intron-like insertions (Hoshina et al., unpubl. data, 2003). The present study confirmed these exact lengths and insertion sites by reverse transcription-PCR. Two of them were inserted at Escherichia coli 16S rRNA genic position 943 and 1512 that are frequent intron insertion positions, but another insertion position (nearly 1370) was the first finding. Their secondary structures suggested they belong to Group-I intron; one belongs to subgroup IE, others belong to subgroup IC1. Similarity search indicated these introns are ancestral ones.

  13. Isolation and cultivation of endosymbiotic algae from green hydra and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Kovacević, Goran; Franjević, Damjan; Jelencić, Biserka; Kalafatić, Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Symbiotic associations are of wide significance in evolution and biodiversity. The green hydra is a typical example of endosymbiosis. In its gastrodermal myoepithelial cells it harbors the individuals of a unicellular green algae. Endosymbiotic algae from green hydra have been successfully isolated and permanently maintained in a stable clean lab culture for the first time. We reconstructed the phylogeny of isolated endosymbiotic algae using the 18S rRNA gene to clarify its current status and to validate the traditional inclusion of these endosymbiotic algae within the Chlorella genus. Molecular analyses established that different genera and species of unicellular green algae could be present as symbionts in green hydra, depending on the natural habitat of a particular strain of green hydra.

  14. Molecular evolution of rDNA in early diverging Metazoa: First comparative analysis and phylogenetic application of complete SSU rRNA secondary structures in Porifera

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The cytoplasmic ribosomal small subunit (SSU, 18S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the most frequently-used gene for molecular phylogenetic studies. However, information regarding its secondary structure is neglected in most phylogenetic analyses. Incorporation of this information is essential in order to apply specific rRNA evolutionary models to overcome the problem of co-evolution of paired sites, which violates the basic assumption of the independent evolution of sites made by most phylogenetic methods. Information about secondary structure also supports the process of aligning rRNA sequences across taxa. Both aspects have been shown to increase the accuracy of phylogenetic reconstructions within various taxa. Here, we explore SSU rRNA secondary structures from the three extant classes of Phylum Porifera (Grant, 1836), a pivotal, but largely unresolved taxon of early branching Metazoa. This is the first phylogenetic study of poriferan SSU rRNA data to date that includes detailed comparative secondary structure information for all three sponge classes. Results We found base compositional and structural differences in SSU rRNA among Demospongiae, Hexactinellida (glass sponges) and Calcarea (calcareous sponges). We showed that analyses of primary rRNA sequences, including secondary structure-specific evolutionary models, in combination with reconstruction of the evolution of unusual structural features, reveal a substantial amount of additional information. Of special note was the finding that the gene tree topologies of marine haplosclerid demosponges, which are inconsistent with the current morphology-based classification, are supported by our reconstructed evolution of secondary structure features. Therefore, these features can provide alternative support for sequence-based topologies and give insights into the evolution of the molecule itself. To encourage and facilitate the application of rRNA models in phylogenetics of early metazoans, we present 52 SSU rRNA

  15. Molecular evolution of rDNA in early diverging Metazoa: first comparative analysis and phylogenetic application of complete SSU rRNA secondary structures in Porifera.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Oliver; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Wörheide, Gert

    2008-02-27

    The cytoplasmic ribosomal small subunit (SSU, 18S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the most frequently-used gene for molecular phylogenetic studies. However, information regarding its secondary structure is neglected in most phylogenetic analyses. Incorporation of this information is essential in order to apply specific rRNA evolutionary models to overcome the problem of co-evolution of paired sites, which violates the basic assumption of the independent evolution of sites made by most phylogenetic methods. Information about secondary structure also supports the process of aligning rRNA sequences across taxa. Both aspects have been shown to increase the accuracy of phylogenetic reconstructions within various taxa.Here, we explore SSU rRNA secondary structures from the three extant classes of Phylum Porifera (Grant, 1836), a pivotal, but largely unresolved taxon of early branching Metazoa. This is the first phylogenetic study of poriferan SSU rRNA data to date that includes detailed comparative secondary structure information for all three sponge classes. We found base compositional and structural differences in SSU rRNA among Demospongiae, Hexactinellida (glass sponges) and Calcarea (calcareous sponges). We showed that analyses of primary rRNA sequences, including secondary structure-specific evolutionary models, in combination with reconstruction of the evolution of unusual structural features, reveal a substantial amount of additional information. Of special note was the finding that the gene tree topologies of marine haplosclerid demosponges, which are inconsistent with the current morphology-based classification, are supported by our reconstructed evolution of secondary structure features. Therefore, these features can provide alternative support for sequence-based topologies and give insights into the evolution of the molecule itself. To encourage and facilitate the application of rRNA models in phylogenetics of early metazoans, we present 52 SSU rRNA secondary

  16. Probing the secondary structure of expansion segment ES6 in 18S ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Alkemar, Gunnar; Nygård, Odd

    2006-07-04

    Expansion segment ES6 in 18S ribosomal RNA is, unlike many other expansion segments, present in all eukaryotes. The available data suggest that ES6 is located on the surface of the small ribosomal subunit. Here we have analyzed the secondary structure of the complete ES6 sequence in intact ribosomes from three eukaryotes, wheat, yeast, and mouse, representing different eukaryotic kingdoms. The availability of the ES6 sequence for modification and cleavage by structure sensitive chemicals and enzymatic reagents was analyzed by primer extension and gel electrophoresis on an ABI 377 automated DNA sequencer. The experimental results were used to restrict the number of possible secondary structure models of ES6 generated by the folding software MFOLD. The modification data obtained from the three experimental organisms were very similar despite the sequence variation. Consequently, similar secondary structure models were obtained for the ES6 sequence in wheat, yeast, and mouse ribosomes. A comparison of sequence data from more than 6000 eukaryotes showed that similar structural elements could also be formed in other organisms. The comparative analysis also showed that the extent of compensatory base changes in the suggested helices was low. The in situ structure analysis was complemented by a secondary structure analysis of wheat ES6 transcribed and folded in vitro. The obtained modification data indicate that the secondary structure of the in vitro transcribed sequence differs from that observed in the intact ribosome. These results suggest that chaperones, ribosomal proteins, and/or tertiary rRNA interactions could be involved in the in vivo folding of ES6.

  17. 3-Nitropropionic acid modifies neurotrophin mRNA expression in the mouse striatum: 18S-rRNA is a reliable control gene for studies of the striatum.

    PubMed

    Espíndola, S; Vilches-Flores, A; Hernández-Echeagaray, E

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in the mRNA levels of neurotrophins and their receptors in the striatal tissue of mice treated with 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP). At 1 and 48 h after the last drug administration, the mRNA expression of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3 and neurotrophin-4/5 as well as their receptors p75, TrkA, TrkB and TrkC, was evaluated using semi-quantitative (semi-Q) and real-time RT-PCR. β-actin mRNA and ribosomal 18S (18S rRNA) were tested as internal controls. 3-NP treatment did not affect mRNA expression of all neurotrophins and their respective receptors equally. Also, differences in neurotrophin and receptor mRNA expression were observed between semi-Q and real-time RT-PCR. Real-time RT-PCR was more accurate in evaluating the mRNA expression of the neurotrophins than semi-Q, and 18S rRNA was more reliable than β-actin as an internal control. Neurotrophins and their receptors expression is differentially affected by neuronal damage produced by inhibition of mitochondrial respiration with 3-NP treatment in low, sub-chronic doses in vivo.

  18. Chromosomal localization of 5S and 18S-5.8S-25S ribosomal DNA sites in five Asian pines using fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z-L; Zhang, D; Hong, D-Y; Wang, X-R

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was employed on mitotic metaphase chromosome preparations of five Asian Pinus species: Pinus tabuliformis, Pinus yunnanensis, Pinus densata, Pinus massoniana and Pinus merkusii, using simultaneously DNA probes of the 18S rRNA gene and the 5S rRNA gene including the non-transcribed spacer sequences. The number and location of 18S rDNA sites varied markedly (5-10 pairs of strong signals) among the five pines. A maximum of 20 major 18S rDNA sites was observed in the diploid genome (2n = 24) of P. massoniana. The 5S rDNA FISH pattern was less variable, with one major site and one minor site commonly observed in each species. The differentiation of rDNA sites on chromosomes among the five pines correlates well with their phylogenic positions in Pinus as reconstructed from other molecular data. P. densata, a species of hybrid origin, resembles its parents ( P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis), including some components characteristic of each parent in its pattern. However, the species is unique, showing new features resulting possibly from recombination and genome reorganization.

  19. The phylogenetic position of Allocreadiidae (Trematoda: Digenea) from partial sequences of the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Anindo; Rosas Valdez, Rogelio; Johnson, Ryan C; Hoffmann, Brian; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2007-02-01

    Species of Allocreadiidae are an important component of the parasite fauna of freshwater vertebrates, particularly fishes, and yet their systematic relationships with other trematodes have not been clarified. Partial sequences of the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes from 3 representative species of Allocreadiidae, i.e., Crepidostomum cooperi, Bunodera mediovitellata, and Polylekithum ictaluri, and from 79 other taxa representing 78 families of trematodes obtained from GenBank, were used in a phylogenetic analysis to address the relationships of Allocreadiidae with other plagiorchiiforms/plagiorchiidans. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses of combined 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequence data place 2 of the allocreadiids, Crepidostomum cooperi and Bunodera mediovitellata, in a clade with species of Callodistomidae and Gorgoderidae, which, in turn is sister to a clade containing Polylekithum ictaluri and representatives of Encyclometridae, Dicrocoelidae, and Orchipedidae, a grouping supported by high bootstrap values. These results suggest that Polylekithum ictaluri is not an allocreadiid, a conclusion that is supported by reported differences between its cercaria and that of other allocreadiids. Although details of the life cycle of callodistomids, the sister taxon to Allocreadiidae, remain unknown, the relationship of Allocreadiidae and Gorgoderidae is consistent with their larval development in bivalve, rather than gastropod, molluscs, and with their host relationships (predominantly freshwater vertebrates). The results also indicate that, whereas Allocreadiidae is not a basal taxon, it is not included within the suborder Plagiorchiata. No support was found for a direct relationship between allocreadiids and opecoelids either.

  20. Evolutionary dynamics of rRNA gene clusters in cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Among multigene families, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes are the most frequently studied and have been explored as cytogenetic markers to study the evolutionary history of karyotypes among animals and plants. In this report, we applied cytogenetic and genomic methods to investigate the organization of rRNA genes among cichlid fishes. Cichlids are a group of fishes that are of increasing scientific interest due to their rapid and convergent adaptive radiation, which has led to extensive ecological diversity. Results The present paper reports the cytogenetic mapping of the 5S rRNA genes from 18 South American, 22 African and one Asian species and the 18S rRNA genes from 3 African species. The data obtained were comparatively analyzed with previously published information related to the mapping of rRNA genes in cichlids. The number of 5S rRNA clusters per diploid genome ranged from 2 to 15, with the most common pattern being the presence of 2 chromosomes bearing a 5S rDNA cluster. Regarding 18S rDNA mapping, the number of sites ranged from 2 to 6, with the most common pattern being the presence of 2 sites per diploid genome. Furthermore, searching the Oreochromis niloticus genome database led to the identification of a total of 59 copies of 5S rRNA and 38 copies of 18S rRNA genes that were distributed in several genomic scaffolds. The rRNA genes were frequently flanked by transposable elements (TEs) and spread throughout the genome, complementing the FISH analysis that detect only clustered copies of rRNA genes. Conclusions The organization of rRNA gene clusters seems to reflect their intense and particular evolutionary pathway and not the evolutionary history of the associated taxa. The possible role of TEs as one source of rRNA gene movement, that could generates the spreading of ribosomal clusters/copies, is discussed. The present paper reinforces the notion that the integration of cytogenetic data and genomic analysis provides a more complete picture for

  1. Degradation of a polyadenylated rRNA maturation by-product involves one of the three RRP6-like proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lange, Heike; Holec, Sarah; Cognat, Valérie; Pieuchot, Laurent; Le Ret, Monique; Canaday, Jean; Gagliardi, Dominique

    2008-05-01

    Yeast Rrp6p and its human counterpart, PM/Scl100, are exosome-associated proteins involved in the degradation of aberrant transcripts and processing of precursors to stable RNAs, such as the 5.8S rRNA, snRNAs, and snoRNAs. The activity of yeast Rrp6p is stimulated by the polyadenylation of its RNA substrates. We identified three RRP6-like proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana: AtRRP6L3 is restricted to the cytoplasm, whereas AtRRP6L1 and -2 have different intranuclear localizations. Both nuclear RRP6L proteins are functional, since AtRRP6L1 complements the temperature-sensitive phenotype of a yeast rrp6Delta strain and mutation of AtRRP6L2 leads to accumulation of an rRNA maturation by-product. This by-product corresponds to the excised 5' part of the 18S-5.8S-25S rRNA precursor and accumulates as a polyadenylated transcript, suggesting that RRP6L2 is involved in poly(A)-mediated RNA degradation in plant nuclei. Interestingly, the rRNA maturation by-product is a substrate of AtRRP6L2 but not of AtRRP6L1. This result and the distinctive subcellular distribution of AtRRP6L1 to -3 indicate a specialization of RRP6-like proteins in Arabidopsis.

  2. Genotypic heterogeneity based on 18S-rRNA gene sequences among Acanthamoeba isolates from clinical samples in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cave, David; D' Alfonso, Rossella; Dussey Comlavi, Kodjo A; D' Orazi, Carlo; Monno, Rosa; Berrilli, Federica

    2014-11-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is an ocular disease caused by members of a genus of free-living amoebae and it is associated predominantly with contact lens (CL) use. This study reports 55 cases of AK diagnosed in Italy. Genotype identification was carried out by PCR assay followed by sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene using the genus specific primers JDP1 and JDP2. Genotype assignment was based on phenetic analysis of the ASA.S1 subset of the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences. The material has been collected at the Polyclinic Tor Vergata of Rome for a total of 19 isolates and at the Polyclinic Hospital of Bari (36 isolates). Thirty-three out of the 55 genetically characterized isolates were assigned to the genotype T4. Ten isolates were identified as belonging to the genotype T15 thus confirming the first association between the genotype T15 and human amoebic keratitis previously described from the same area. We underline the occurrence of the genotype T3 and T11 identified for the first time in the country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytogenetic mapping of 5S and 18S rRNAs and H3 histone genes in 4 ancient Proscopiidae grasshopper species: contribution to understanding the evolutionary dynamics of multigene families.

    PubMed

    Cabral-de-Mello, D C; Martins, C; Souza, M J; Moura, R C

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the chromosomal location of 18S rRNA, 5S rRNA and H3 histone multigene families in 4 species of a relatively ancient and diversified group of grasshoppers belonging to the family Proscopiidae. The 5S rRNA and H3 histone genes were highly conserved in the number of sites and chromosomal position in the 4th chromosome pair in all species analyzed, whereas the 18S rRNA genes showed slightly more variation because they were present on one or 2 chromosome pairs, depending on the species. The 5S and 18S rRNA gene families occurred in different chromosomes; in contrast, H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes co-localized in the same chromosomal position, with an apparently interspersed organization. Considering that the Proscopiidae family is a relatively ancient group compared with the Acrididae family, the association of the H3 histone and 5S rRNA multigene families can represent a basal condition for grasshoppers, although more research is needed on other representatives of this insect group to confirm this statement. The presence of such an association of 5S rDNA and H3 histone in mussels and arthropods (beetles, grasshoppers and crustaceans) suggests that this linked configuration could represent an ancestral pattern for invertebrates. These results provide new insights into the understanding of the genome organization and the evolution of multigene families in grasshoppers and in insects as a whole. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Downregulation of rRNA transcription triggers cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuki; Kuroda, Takao; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Wang, Changshan; Iwama, Atsushi; Kimura, Keiji

    2014-01-01

    Responding to various stimuli is indispensable for the maintenance of homeostasis. The downregulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription is one of the mechanisms involved in the response to stimuli by various cellular processes, such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Cell differentiation is caused by intra- and extracellular stimuli and is associated with the downregulation of rRNA transcription as well as reduced cell growth. The downregulation of rRNA transcription during differentiation is considered to contribute to reduced cell growth. However, the downregulation of rRNA transcription can induce various cellular processes; therefore, it may positively regulate cell differentiation. To test this possibility, we specifically downregulated rRNA transcription using actinomycin D or a siRNA for Pol I-specific transcription factor IA (TIF-IA) in HL-60 and THP-1 cells, both of which have differentiation potential. The inhibition of rRNA transcription induced cell differentiation in both cell lines, which was demonstrated by the expression of the common differentiation marker CD11b. Furthermore, TIF-IA knockdown in an ex vivo culture of mouse hematopoietic stem cells increased the percentage of myeloid cells and reduced the percentage of immature cells. We also evaluated whether differentiation was induced via the inhibition of cell cycle progression because rRNA transcription is tightly coupled to cell growth. We found that cell cycle arrest without affecting rRNA transcription did not induce differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, our results demonstrate the first time that the downregulation of rRNA levels could be a trigger for the induction of differentiation in mammalian cells. Furthermore, this phenomenon was not simply a reflection of cell cycle arrest. Our results provide a novel insight into the relationship between rRNA transcription and cell differentiation.

  5. Secondary structure models of 18S and 28S rRNAs of the true bugs based on complete rDNA sequences of Eurydema maracandica Oshanin, 1871 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shasha; Wang, Yanhui; Rédei, Dávid; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The sequences of 18S and 28S rDNAs have been used as molecular markers to resolve phylogenetic relationships of Heteroptera for two decades. The complete sequences of 18S rDNAs have been used in many studies, while in most studies only partial sequences of 28S rDNAs have been used due to technical difficulties of amplifying the complete lengths. In this study, we amplified the complete 18S and 28S rDNA sequences of Eurydema maracandica Oshanin, 1871, and reconstructed the secondary structure models of the corresponding rRNAs. In addition, and more importantly, all of the length variable regions of 18S rRNA were compared among 37 families of Heteroptera based on 140 sequences, and the D3 region of 28S rRNA was compared among 51 families based on 84 sequences. It was found that 8 length variable regions could potentially serve as molecular synapomorphies for some monophyletic groups. Therefore discoveries of more molecular synapomorphies for specific clades can be anticipated from amplification of complete 18S and 28S rDNAs of more representatives of Heteroptera. PMID:24039531

  6. Chemical footprinting reveals conformational changes of 18S and 28S rRNAs at different steps of translation termination on the human ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Bulygin, Konstantin N.; Bartuli, Yulia S.; Malygin, Alexey A.; Graifer, Dmitri M.; Frolova, Ludmila Yu.; Karpova, Galina G.

    2016-01-01

    Translation termination in eukaryotes is mediated by release factors: eRF1, which is responsible for stop codon recognition and peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis, and GTPase eRF3, which stimulates peptide release. Here, we have utilized ribose-specific probes to investigate accessibility of rRNA backbone in complexes formed by association of mRNA- and tRNA-bound human ribosomes with eRF1•eRF3•GMPPNP, eRF1•eRF3•GTP, or eRF1 alone as compared with complexes where the A site is vacant or occupied by tRNA. Our data show which rRNA ribose moieties are protected from attack by the probes in the complexes with release factors and reveal the rRNA regions increasing their accessibility to the probes after the factors bind. These regions in 28S rRNA are helices 43 and 44 in the GTPase associated center, the apical loop of helix 71, and helices 89, 92, and 94 as well as 18S rRNA helices 18 and 34. Additionally, the obtained data suggest that eRF3 neither interacts with the rRNA ribose-phosphate backbone nor dissociates from the complex after GTP hydrolysis. Taken together, our findings provide new information on architecture of the eRF1 binding site on mammalian ribosome at various translation termination steps and on conformational rearrangements induced by binding of the release factors. PMID:26655225

  7. Chemical footprinting reveals conformational changes of 18S and 28S rRNAs at different steps of translation termination on the human ribosome.

    PubMed

    Bulygin, Konstantin N; Bartuli, Yulia S; Malygin, Alexey A; Graifer, Dmitri M; Frolova, Ludmila Yu; Karpova, Galina G

    2016-02-01

    Translation termination in eukaryotes is mediated by release factors: eRF1, which is responsible for stop codon recognition and peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis, and GTPase eRF3, which stimulates peptide release. Here, we have utilized ribose-specific probes to investigate accessibility of rRNA backbone in complexes formed by association of mRNA- and tRNA-bound human ribosomes with eRF1•eRF3•GMPPNP, eRF1•eRF3•GTP, or eRF1 alone as compared with complexes where the A site is vacant or occupied by tRNA. Our data show which rRNA ribose moieties are protected from attack by the probes in the complexes with release factors and reveal the rRNA regions increasing their accessibility to the probes after the factors bind. These regions in 28S rRNA are helices 43 and 44 in the GTPase associated center, the apical loop of helix 71, and helices 89, 92, and 94 as well as 18S rRNA helices 18 and 34. Additionally, the obtained data suggest that eRF3 neither interacts with the rRNA ribose-phosphate backbone nor dissociates from the complex after GTP hydrolysis. Taken together, our findings provide new information on architecture of the eRF1 binding site on mammalian ribosome at various translation termination steps and on conformational rearrangements induced by binding of the release factors. © 2016 Bulygin et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  8. Gene arrangement and sequence of the 5S rRNA in Filobasidiella neoformans (Cryptococcus neoformans) as a phylogenetic indicator.

    PubMed

    Kwon-Chung, K J; Chang, Y C

    1994-04-01

    We cloned the 5S rRNA gene and determined its organization in the four genes encoding rRNAs in a ribosomal DNA repeat unit of Filobasidiella neoformans, the teleomorph of Cryptococcus neoformans. The 5S rRNA gene contained 118 nucleotides and was located 1 kb upstream from the 18S rRNA gene within the 8.6-kb fragment of the ribosomal DNA repeat unit. The sequence of the 5S rRNA gene from F. neoformans was more similar to the sequence of the 5S rRNA gene from Tremella mesenterica than to the sequences of the 5S rRNA genes from Filobasidium species. The arrangement of the rRNA genes in F. neoformans closely resembles the arrangement of the rRNA genes in mushrooms such as Schizophyllum commune, Agaricus bisporus, and Coprinus cinereus in that the 5S rRNA-coding region not only is located within the repeat unit that encodes the other rRNAs but also is transcribed in the same direction as the other rRNA genes. This is the first description of the arrangement of rRNA genes in a species belonging to the Heterobasidiomycetes.

  9. Dual function of C/D box small nucleolar RNAs in rRNA modification and alternative pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Falaleeva, Marina; Pages, Amadis; Matuszek, Zaneta; Hidmi, Sana; Agranat-Tamir, Lily; Korotkov, Konstantin; Nevo, Yuval; Eyras, Eduardo; Sperling, Ruth; Stamm, Stefan

    2016-03-22

    C/D box small nucleolar RNAs (SNORDs) are small noncoding RNAs, and their best-understood function is to target the methyltransferase fibrillarin to rRNA (for example, SNORD27 performs 2'-O-methylation of A27 in 18S rRNA). Unexpectedly, we found a subset of SNORDs, including SNORD27, in soluble nuclear extract made under native conditions, where fibrillarin was not detected, indicating that a fraction of the SNORD27 RNA likely forms a protein complex different from canonical snoRNAs found in the insoluble nuclear fraction. As part of this previously unidentified complex,SNORD27 regulates the alternative splicing of the transcription factor E2F7p re-mRNA through direct RNA-RNA interaction without methylating the RNA, likely by competing with U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP). Furthermore, knockdown of SNORD27 activates previously "silent" exons in several other genes through base complementarity across the entire SNORD27 sequence, not just the antisense boxes. Thus, some SNORDs likely function in both rRNA and pre-mRNA processing, which increases the repertoire of splicing regulators and links both processes.

  10. The rRNA methyltransferase Bud23 shows functional interaction with components of the SSU processome and RNase MRP

    PubMed Central

    Sardana, Richa; White, Joshua P.; Johnson, Arlen W.

    2013-01-01

    Bud23 is responsible for the conserved methylation of G1575 of 18S rRNA, in the P-site of the small subunit of the ribosome. bud23Δ mutants have severely reduced small subunit levels and show a general failure in cleavage at site A2 during rRNA processing. Site A2 is the primary cleavage site for separating the precursors of 18S and 25S rRNAs. Here, we have taken a genetic approach to identify the functional environment of BUD23. We found mutations in UTP2 and UTP14, encoding components of the SSU processome, as spontaneous suppressors of a bud23Δ mutant. The suppressors improved growth and subunit balance and restored cleavage at site A2. In a directed screen of 50 ribosomal trans-acting factors, we identified strong positive and negative genetic interactions with components of the SSU processome and strong negative interactions with components of RNase MRP. RNase MRP is responsible for cleavage at site A3 in pre-rRNA, an alternative cleavage site for separating the precursor rRNAs. The strong negative genetic interaction between RNase MRP mutants and bud23Δ is likely due to the combined defects in cleavage at A2 and A3. Our results suggest that Bud23 plays a role at the time of A2 cleavage, earlier than previously thought. The genetic interaction with the SSU processome suggests that Bud23 could be involved in triggering disassembly of the SSU processome, or of particular subcomplexes of the processome. PMID:23604635

  11. The rRNA methyltransferase Bud23 shows functional interaction with components of the SSU processome and RNase MRP.

    PubMed

    Sardana, Richa; White, Joshua P; Johnson, Arlen W

    2013-06-01

    Bud23 is responsible for the conserved methylation of G1575 of 18S rRNA, in the P-site of the small subunit of the ribosome. bud23Δ mutants have severely reduced small subunit levels and show a general failure in cleavage at site A2 during rRNA processing. Site A2 is the primary cleavage site for separating the precursors of 18S and 25S rRNAs. Here, we have taken a genetic approach to identify the functional environment of BUD23. We found mutations in UTP2 and UTP14, encoding components of the SSU processome, as spontaneous suppressors of a bud23Δ mutant. The suppressors improved growth and subunit balance and restored cleavage at site A2. In a directed screen of 50 ribosomal trans-acting factors, we identified strong positive and negative genetic interactions with components of the SSU processome and strong negative interactions with components of RNase MRP. RNase MRP is responsible for cleavage at site A3 in pre-rRNA, an alternative cleavage site for separating the precursor rRNAs. The strong negative genetic interaction between RNase MRP mutants and bud23Δ is likely due to the combined defects in cleavage at A2 and A3. Our results suggest that Bud23 plays a role at the time of A2 cleavage, earlier than previously thought. The genetic interaction with the SSU processome suggests that Bud23 could be involved in triggering disassembly of the SSU processome, or of particular subcomplexes of the processome.

  12. Bacterial community structure in simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and organic matter removal process treating saline mustard tuber wastewater as revealed by 16S rRNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiale; Gong, Benzhou; Huang, Wei; Wang, Yingmu; Zhou, Jian

    2017-03-01

    A simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and organic matter removal (SNDOR) process in sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) was established to treat saline mustard tuber wastewater (MTWW) in this study. An average COD removal efficiency of 86.48% and total nitrogen removal efficiency of 86.48% were achieved at 30gNaClL(-1) during 100days' operation. The underlying mechanisms were investigated by PacBio SMRT DNA sequencing (V1-V9) to analyze the microbial community structures and its variation from low salinity at 10gNaClL(-1) to high salinity at 30gNaClL(-1). Results showed elevated salinity did not affect biological performance but reduced microbial diversity in SBBR, and halophilic bacteria gradually predominated by succession. Despite of high C/N, autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) Nitrosomonas and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) Candidatus Nitrososphaera both contributed to ammonium oxidation. As salinity increasing, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were significantly inhibited, partial nitrification and denitrification (PND) process gradually contributed to nitrogen removal.

  13. The Absence of the Transcription Factor Yrr1p, Identified from Comparative Genome Profiling, Increased Vanillin Tolerance Due to Enhancements of ABC Transporters Expressing, rRNA Processing and Ribosome Biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinning; Liang, Zhenzhen; Hou, Jin; Shen, Yu; Bao, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing the tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inhibitors derived from lignocellulose is conducive to producing biofuel and chemicals using abundant lignocellulosic materials. Vanillin is a major type of phenolic inhibitor in lignocellulose hydrolysates for S. cerevisiae. In the present work, the factors beneficial to vanillin resistance in yeast were identified from the vanillin-resistant strain EMV-8, which was derived from strain NAN-27 by adaptive evolution. We found 450 SNPs and 44 genes with InDels in the vanillin-tolerant strain EMV-8 by comparing the genome sequences of EMV-8 and NAN-27. To investigate the effects of InDels, InDels were deleted in BY4741, respectively. We demonstrated that the deletion of YRR1 improved vanillin tolerance of strain. In the presence of 6 mM vanillin, deleting YRR1 increase the maximum specific growth rate and the vanillin consumption rate by 142 and 51%, respectively. The subsequent transcriptome analysis revealed that deleting YRR1 resulted in changed expression of over 200 genes in the presence of 5 mM vanillin. The most marked changes were the significant up-regulation of the dehydrogenase ADH7, several ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, and dozens of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and rRNA processing. Coincidently, the crude enzyme solution of BY4741(yrr1Δ) exhibited higher NADPH-dependent vanillin reduction activity than control. In addition, overexpressing the ABC transporter genes PDR5, YOR1, and SNQ2, as well as the RNA helicase gene DBP2, increased the vanillin tolerance of strain. Interestingly, unlike the marked changes we mentioned above, under vanillin-free conditions, there are only limited transcriptional differences between wildtype and yrr1Δ. This indicated that vanillin might act as an effector in Yrr1p-related regulatory processes. The new findings of the relationship between YRR1 and vanillin tolerance, as well as the contribution of rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis to

  14. RNase L-Independent Specific 28S rRNA Cleavage in Murine Coronavirus-Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sangeeta; An, Sungwhan; Zhou, Aimin; Silverman, Robert H.; Makino, Shinji

    2000-01-01

    We characterized a novel 28S rRNA cleavage in cells infected with the murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). The 28S rRNA cleavage occurred as early as 4 h postinfection (p.i.) in MHV-infected DBT cells, with the appearance of subsequent cleavage products and a decrease in the amount of intact 28S rRNA with increasing times of infection; almost all of the intact 28S rRNA disappeared by 24 h p.i. In contrast, no specific 18S rRNA cleavage was detected in infected cells. MHV-induced 28S rRNA cleavage was detected in all MHV-susceptible cell lines and all MHV strains tested. MHV replication was required for the 28S rRNA cleavage, and mature cytoplasmic 28S rRNA underwent cleavage. In certain combination of cells and viruses, pretreatment of virus-infected cells with interferon activates a cellular endoribonuclease, RNase L, that causes rRNA degradation. No interferon was detected in the inoculum used for MHV infection. Addition of anti-interferon antibody to MHV-infected cells did not inhibit 28S rRNA cleavage. Furthermore, 28S rRNA cleavage occurred in an MHV-infected mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line derived from RNase L knockout mice. Thus, MHV-induced 28S rRNA cleavage was independent of the activation of RNase L. MHV-induced 28S rRNA cleavage was also different from apoptosis-related rRNA degradation, which usually occurs concomitantly with DNA fragmentation. In MHV-infected 17Cl-1 cells, 28S rRNA cleavage preceded DNA fragmentation by at least 18 h. Blockage of apoptosis in MHV-infected 17Cl-1 cells by treatment with a caspase inhibitor did not block 28S rRNA cleavage. Furthermore, MHV-induced 28S rRNA cleavage occurred in MHV-infected DBT cells that do not show apoptotic signs, including activation of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation. Thus, MHV-induced 28S rRNA cleavage appeared to differ from any rRNA degradation mechanism described previously. PMID:10982321

  15. Testing three pipelines for 18S rDNA-based metabarcoding of soil faunal diversity.

    PubMed

    Yang, ChenXue; Ji, YingQiu; Wang, XiaoYang; Yang, ChunYang; Yu, Douglas W

    2013-01-01

    A number of basic and applied questions in ecology and environmental management require the characterization of soil and leaf litter faunal diversity. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of barcode-gene amplicons ('metabarcoding') have made it possible to survey biodiversity in a robust and efficient way. However, one obstacle to the widespread adoption of this technique is the need to choose amongst many candidates for bioinformatic processing of the raw sequencing data. We compare three candidate pipelines for the processing of 18S small subunit rDNA metabarcode data from solid substrates: (i) USEARCH/CROP, (ii) Denoiser/UCLUST, and (iii) OCTUPUS. The three pipelines produced reassuringly similar and highly correlated assessments of community composition that are dominated by taxa known to characterize the sampled environments. However, OCTUPUS appears to inflate phylogenetic diversity, because of higher sequence noise. We therefore recommend either the USEARCH/CROP or Denoiser/UCLUST pipelines, both of which can be run within the QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology) environment.

  16. Eukaryotic diversity in premise drinking water using 18S rDNA sequencing: implications for health risks.

    PubMed

    Buse, Helen Y; Lu, Jingrang; Struewing, Ian T; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2013-09-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize microbial eukaryotes over a 12-month period to provide insight into the occurrence of potential bacterial predators and hosts in premise plumbing. Nearly 6,300 partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from 24 hot (36.9-39.0 °C) and cold (6.8-29.1 °C) drinking water samples were analyzed and classified into major eukaryotic groups. Each major group, consisting of free-living amoebae (FLA)/protozoa, algae, copepods, dinoflagellates, fungi, nematodes, and unique uncultured eukaryotic sequences, showed limited diversity dominated by a few distinct populations, which may be characteristic of oligotrophic environments. Changes in the relative abundance of predators such as nematodes, copepods, and FLA appear to be related to temperature and seasonal changes in water quality. Sequences nearly identical to FLA such as Hartmannella vermiformis, Echinamoeba thermarmum, Pseudoparamoeba pagei, Protacanthamoeba bohemica, Platyamoeba sp., and Vannella sp. were obtained. In addition to FLA, various copepods, rotifers, and nematodes have been reported to internalize viral and bacterial pathogens within drinking water systems thus potentially serving as transport hosts; implications of which are discussed further. Increasing the knowledge of eukaryotic occurrence and their relationship with potential pathogens should aid in assessing microbial risk associated with various eukaryotic organisms in drinking water.

  17. rRNA Pseudogenes in Filamentous Ascomycetes as Revealed by Genome Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Yang, Rui-Heng; Jiang, Lan; Hu, Xiao-Di; Wu, Zu-Jian; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is considered as a paradigm of concerted evolution. Components of the rDNA tandem repeats (45S) are widely used in phylogenetic studies of different organisms and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was recently selected as a fungal DNA bar code. However, rRNA pseudogenes, as one kind of escape from concerted evolution, were reported in a wide range of organisms, especially in plants and animals. Moreover, large numbers of 5S rRNA pseudogenes were identified in several filamentous ascomycetes. To study whether rDNA evolves in a strict concerted manner and test whether rRNA pseudogenes exist in more species of ascomycetes, intragenomic rDNA polymorphisms were analyzed using whole genome sequences. Divergent rDNA paralogs were found to coexist within a single genome in seven filamentous ascomycetes examined. A great number of paralogs were identified as pseudogenes according to the mutation and secondary structure analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of the three rRNA coding regions of the 45S rDNA repeats, i.e., 18S, 5.8S, and 28S, revealed an interspecies clustering pattern of those different rDNA paralogs. The identified rRNA pseudogenic sequences were validated using specific primers designed. Mutation analyses revealed that the repeat-induced point (RIP) mutation was probably responsible for the formation of those rRNA pseudogenes. PMID:28637809

  18. rRNA Pseudogenes in Filamentous Ascomycetes as Revealed by Genome Data.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Yang, Rui-Heng; Jiang, Lan; Hu, Xiao-Di; Wu, Zu-Jian; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2017-08-07

    The nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is considered as a paradigm of concerted evolution. Components of the rDNA tandem repeats (45S) are widely used in phylogenetic studies of different organisms and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was recently selected as a fungal DNA bar code. However, rRNA pseudogenes, as one kind of escape from concerted evolution, were reported in a wide range of organisms, especially in plants and animals. Moreover, large numbers of 5S rRNA pseudogenes were identified in several filamentous ascomycetes. To study whether rDNA evolves in a strict concerted manner and test whether rRNA pseudogenes exist in more species of ascomycetes, intragenomic rDNA polymorphisms were analyzed using whole genome sequences. Divergent rDNA paralogs were found to coexist within a single genome in seven filamentous ascomycetes examined. A great number of paralogs were identified as pseudogenes according to the mutation and secondary structure analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of the three rRNA coding regions of the 45S rDNA repeats, i.e., 18S, 5.8S, and 28S, revealed an interspecies clustering pattern of those different rDNA paralogs. The identified rRNA pseudogenic sequences were validated using specific primers designed. Mutation analyses revealed that the repeat-induced point (RIP) mutation was probably responsible for the formation of those rRNA pseudogenes. Copyright © 2017 Li et al.

  19. Karyotypes, male meiosis and comparative FISH mapping of 18S ribosomal DNA and telomeric (TTAGG) n repeat in eight species of true bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Grozeva, S.; Kuznetsova, V.G.; Anokhin, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Eight species belonging to five true bug families were analyzed using DAPI/CMA3-staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomeric (TTAGG)n and 18S rDNA probes. Standard chromosomal complements are reported for the first time for Deraeocoris rutilus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838) (2n=30+2m+XY) and Deraeocoris ruber(Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=30+2m+XY) from the family Miridae. Using FISH, the location of a 18S rDNA cluster was detected in these species and in five more species: Megaloceroea recticornis (Geoffroy, 1785) (2n=30+XY) from the Miridae; Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787) (2n=14+2m+XY) from the Lygaeidae s.l.; Pyrrhocoris apterus (Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=22+X) from the Pyrrhocoridae; Eurydema oleracea (Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=12+XY) and Graphosoma lineatum (Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=12+XY) from the Pentatomidae. The species were found to differ with respect to location of a 18S rRNA gene cluster which resides on autosomes in Oxycarenus lavaterae and Pyrrhocoris apterus, whereas it locates on sex chromosomes in other five species. The 18S rDNA location provides the first physical landmark of the genomes of the species studied. The insect consensus telomeric pentanucleotide (TTAGG)n was demonstrated to be absent in all the species studied in this respect, Deraeocoris rutilus, Megaloceroea recticornis, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Cimicidae), Eurydema oleracea, and Graphosoma lineatum, supporting the hypothesis that this motif was lost in early evolution of the Heteroptera and secondarily replaced with another motif (yet unknown) or the alternative telomerase-independent mechanisms of telomere maintenance. Dot-blot hybridization analysis of the genomic DNA from Cimex lectularius, Nabis sp. and Oxycarenus lavaterae with (TTAGG)n and six other telomeric probes likewise provided a negative result. PMID:24260641

  20. DNA authentication of Plantago Herb based on nucleotide sequences of 18S-28S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Fatma Pinar; Yamashita, Hiromi; Guo, Yahong; Terasaka, Kazuyoshi; Kondo, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Shimada, Hiroshi; Fujita, Masao; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Sakai, Eiji; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Goda, Yukihiro; Mizukami, Hajime

    2007-07-01

    Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene were amplified from 23 plant- and herbarium specimens belonging to eight Plantago species (P. asiatica, P. depressa, P. major, P. erosa, P. hostifolia, P. camtschatica, P. virginica and P. lanceolata). Sequence comparison indicated that these Plantago species could be identified based on the sequence type of the ITS locus. Sequence analysis of the ITS regions amplified from the crude drug Plantago Herb obtained in the markets indicated that all the drugs from Japan were derived from P. asiatica whereas the samples obtained in China were originated from various Plantago species including P. asiatica, P. depressa, P. major and P. erosa.

  1. Nucleolus-like bodies of fully-grown mouse oocytes contain key nucleolar proteins but are impoverished for rRNA.

    PubMed

    Shishova, Kseniya V; Lavrentyeva, Elena A; Dobrucki, Jurek W; Zatsepina, Olga V

    2015-01-15

    It is well known that fully-grown mammalian oocytes, rather than typical nucleoli, contain prominent but structurally homogenous bodies called "nucleolus-like bodies" (NLBs). NLBs accumulate a vast amount of material, but their biochemical composition and functions remain uncertain. To clarify the composition of the NLB material in mouse GV oocytes, we devised an assay to detect internal oocyte proteins with fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) and applied the fluorescent RNA-binding dye acridine orange to examine whether NLBs contain RNA. Our results unequivocally show that, similarly to typical nucleoli, proteins and RNA are major constituents of transcriptionally active (or non-surrounded) NLBs as well as of transcriptionally silent (or surrounded) NLBs. We also show, by exposing fixed oocytes to a mild proteinase K treatment, that the NLB mass in oocytes of both types contains nucleolar proteins that are involved in all major steps of ribosome biogenesis, including rDNA transcription (UBF), early rRNA processing (fibrillarin), and late rRNA processing (NPM1/nucleophosmin/B23, nucleolin/C23), but none of the nuclear proteins tested, including SC35, NOBOX, topoisomerase II beta, HP1α, and H3. The ribosomal RPL26 protein was detected within the NLBs of NSN-type oocytes but is virtually absent from NLBs of SN-type oocytes. Taking into account that the major class of nucleolar RNA is ribosomal RNA (rRNA), we applied fluorescence in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes targeting 18S and 28S rRNAs. The results show that, in contrast to active nucleoli, NLBs of fully-grown oocytes are impoverished for the rRNAs, which is consistent with the absence of transcribed ribosomal genes in the NLB mass. Overall, the results of this study suggest that NLBs of fully-grown mammalian oocytes serve for storing major nucleolar proteins but not rRNA.

  2. A molecular phylogenetic study of the Palmae (Arecaceae) based on atpB, rbcL, and 18S nrDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Hahn, William J

    2002-02-01

    Notoriously slow rates of molecular evolution and convergent evolution among some morphological characters have limited phylogenetic resolution for the palm family (Arecaceae). This study adds nuclear DNA (18S SSU rRNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA; atpB and rbcL) sequence data for 65 genera of palms and characterizes molecular variation for each molecule. Phylogenetic relationships were estimated with maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony techniques for the new data and for previously published molecular data for 45 palm genera. Maximum parsimony analysis was also used to compare molecular and morphological data for 33 palm genera. Incongruence among datasets was detected between cpDNA and 18S data and between molecular and morphological data. Most conflict between nuclear and cpDNA data was associated with the genus Nypa. Several taxa showed relatively long branches with 18S data, but phylogenetic resolution of these taxa was essentially the same for 18S and cpDNA data. Base composition bias for 18S that contributed to erroneous phylogenetic resolution in other taxa did not seem to be present in Palmae. Morphological data were incongruent with all molecular data due to apparent morphological homoplasy for Caryoteae, Ceroxyloideae, Iriarteae, and Thrinacinae. Both cpDNA and nuclear 18S data firmly resolved Caryoteae with Borasseae of Coryphoideae, suggesting that at least some morphological characters used to place Caryoteae in Arecoideae are homoplastic. In this study, increased character sampling seems to be more important than increased taxon sampling; a comparison of the full (65-taxon) and reduced (45- and 33-taxon) datasets suggests little difference in core topology but considerably more nodal support with the increased character sample sizes. These results indicate a general trend toward a stable estimate of phylogenetic relationships for the Palmae. Although the 33-taxon topologies are even better resolved, they lack several critical taxa and are

  3. Characterising the Canine Oral Microbiome by Direct Sequencing of Reverse-Transcribed rRNA Molecules.

    PubMed

    McDonald, James E; Larsen, Niels; Pennington, Andrea; Connolly, John; Wallis, Corrin; Rooks, David J; Hall, Neil; McCarthy, Alan J; Allison, Heather E

    2016-01-01

    PCR amplification and sequencing of phylogenetic markers, primarily Small Sub-Unit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes, has been the paradigm for defining the taxonomic composition of microbiomes. However, 'universal' SSU rRNA gene PCR primer sets are likely to miss much of the diversity therein. We sequenced a library comprising purified and reverse-transcribed SSU rRNA (RT-SSU rRNA) molecules from the canine oral microbiome and compared it to a general bacterial 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicon library generated from the same biological sample. In addition, we have developed BIONmeta, a novel, open-source, computer package for the processing and taxonomic classification of the randomly fragmented RT-SSU rRNA reads produced. Direct RT-SSU rRNA sequencing revealed that 16S rRNA molecules belonging to the bacterial phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes, were most abundant in the canine oral microbiome (92.5% of total bacterial SSU rRNA). The direct rRNA sequencing approach detected greater taxonomic diversity (1 additional phylum, 2 classes, 1 order, 10 families and 61 genera) when compared with general bacterial 16S rRNA amplicons from the same sample, simultaneously provided SSU rRNA gene inventories of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, and detected significant numbers of sequences not recognised by 'universal' primer sets. Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes were found to be under-represented by PCR-based analysis of the microbiome, and this was due to primer mismatches and taxon-specific variations in amplification efficiency, validated by qPCR analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons from a mock community. This demonstrated the veracity of direct RT-SSU rRNA sequencing for molecular microbial ecology.

  4. Characterising the Canine Oral Microbiome by Direct Sequencing of Reverse-Transcribed rRNA Molecules

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, James E.; Larsen, Niels; Pennington, Andrea; Connolly, John; Wallis, Corrin; Rooks, David J.; Hall, Neil; McCarthy, Alan J.; Allison, Heather E.

    2016-01-01

    PCR amplification and sequencing of phylogenetic markers, primarily Small Sub-Unit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes, has been the paradigm for defining the taxonomic composition of microbiomes. However, ‘universal’ SSU rRNA gene PCR primer sets are likely to miss much of the diversity therein. We sequenced a library comprising purified and reverse-transcribed SSU rRNA (RT-SSU rRNA) molecules from the canine oral microbiome and compared it to a general bacterial 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicon library generated from the same biological sample. In addition, we have developed BIONmeta, a novel, open-source, computer package for the processing and taxonomic classification of the randomly fragmented RT-SSU rRNA reads produced. Direct RT-SSU rRNA sequencing revealed that 16S rRNA molecules belonging to the bacterial phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes, were most abundant in the canine oral microbiome (92.5% of total bacterial SSU rRNA). The direct rRNA sequencing approach detected greater taxonomic diversity (1 additional phylum, 2 classes, 1 order, 10 families and 61 genera) when compared with general bacterial 16S rRNA amplicons from the same sample, simultaneously provided SSU rRNA gene inventories of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, and detected significant numbers of sequences not recognised by ‘universal’ primer sets. Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes were found to be under-represented by PCR-based analysis of the microbiome, and this was due to primer mismatches and taxon-specific variations in amplification efficiency, validated by qPCR analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons from a mock community. This demonstrated the veracity of direct RT-SSU rRNA sequencing for molecular microbial ecology. PMID:27276347

  5. Deep Sequencing of Subseafloor Eukaryotic rRNA Reveals Active Fungi across Marine Subsurface Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Orsi, William; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Edgcomb, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The deep marine subsurface is a vast habitat for microbial life where cells may live on geologic timescales. Because DNA in sediments may be preserved on long timescales, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is suggested to be a proxy for the active fraction of a microbial community in the subsurface. During an investigation of eukaryotic 18S rRNA by amplicon pyrosequencing, unique profiles of Fungi were found across a range of marine subsurface provinces including ridge flanks, continental margins, and abyssal plains. Subseafloor fungal populations exhibit statistically significant correlations with total organic carbon (TOC), nitrate, sulfide, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). These correlations are supported by terminal restriction length polymorphism (TRFLP) analyses of fungal rRNA. Geochemical correlations with fungal pyrosequencing and TRFLP data from this geographically broad sample set suggests environmental selection of active Fungi in the marine subsurface. Within the same dataset, ancient rRNA signatures were recovered from plants and diatoms in marine sediments ranging from 0.03 to 2.7 million years old, suggesting that rRNA from some eukaryotic taxa may be much more stable than previously considered in the marine subsurface. PMID:23418556

  6. Deep sequencing of subseafloor eukaryotic rRNA reveals active Fungi across marine subsurface provinces.

    PubMed

    Orsi, William; Biddle, Jennifer F; Edgcomb, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The deep marine subsurface is a vast habitat for microbial life where cells may live on geologic timescales. Because DNA in sediments may be preserved on long timescales, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is suggested to be a proxy for the active fraction of a microbial community in the subsurface. During an investigation of eukaryotic 18S rRNA by amplicon pyrosequencing, unique profiles of Fungi were found across a range of marine subsurface provinces including ridge flanks, continental margins, and abyssal plains. Subseafloor fungal populations exhibit statistically significant correlations with total organic carbon (TOC), nitrate, sulfide, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). These correlations are supported by terminal restriction length polymorphism (TRFLP) analyses of fungal rRNA. Geochemical correlations with fungal pyrosequencing and TRFLP data from this geographically broad sample set suggests environmental selection of active Fungi in the marine subsurface. Within the same dataset, ancient rRNA signatures were recovered from plants and diatoms in marine sediments ranging from 0.03 to 2.7 million years old, suggesting that rRNA from some eukaryotic taxa may be much more stable than previously considered in the marine subsurface.

  7. 5S rRNA gene arrangements in protists: a case of nonadaptive evolution.

    PubMed

    Drouin, Guy; Tsang, Corey

    2012-06-01

    Given their high copy number and high level of expression, one might expect that both the sequence and organization of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA genes would be conserved during evolution. Although the organization of 18S, 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes is indeed relatively well conserved, that of 5S rRNA genes is much more variable. Here, we review the different types of 5S rRNA gene arrangements which have been observed in protists. This includes linkages to the other ribosomal RNA genes as well as linkages to ubiquitin, splice-leader, snRNA and tRNA genes. Mapping these linkages to independently derived phylogenies shows that these diverse linkages have repeatedly been gained and lost during evolution. This argues against such linkages being the primitive condition not only in protists but also in other eukaryote species. Because the only characteristic the diverse genes with which 5S rRNA genes are found linked with is that they are tandemly repeated, these arrangements are unlikely to provide any selective advantage. Rather, the observed high variability in 5S rRNA genes arrangements is likely the result of the fact that 5S rRNA genes contain internal promoters, that these genes are often transposed by diverse recombination mechanisms and that these new gene arrangements are rapidly homogenized by unequal crossingovers and/or by gene conversions events in species with short generation times and frequent founder events.

  8. A phylogenetic framework for root lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus (Nematoda): Evidence from 18S and D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S ribosomal RNA genes and morphological characters.

    PubMed

    Subbotin, Sergei A; Ragsdale, Erik J; Mullens, Teresa; Roberts, Philip A; Mundo-Ocampo, Manuel; Baldwin, James G

    2008-08-01

    The root lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 are migratory endoparasites of plant roots, considered among the most widespread and important nematode parasites in a variety of crops. We obtained gene sequences from the D2 and D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA partial and 18S rRNA from 31 populations belonging to 11 valid and two unidentified species of root lesion nematodes and five outgroup taxa. These datasets were analyzed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. The alignments were generated using the secondary structure models for these molecules and analyzed with Bayesian inference under the standard models and the complex model, considering helices under the doublet model and loops and bulges under the general time reversible model. The phylogenetic informativeness of morphological characters is tested by reconstruction of their histories on rRNA based trees using parallel parsimony and Bayesian approaches. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of the 28S D2-D3 dataset with 145 accessions for 28 species and 18S dataset with 68 accessions for 15 species confirmed among large numbers of geographical diverse isolates that most classical morphospecies are monophyletic. Phylogenetic analyses revealed at least six distinct major clades of examined Pratylenchus species and these clades are generally congruent with those defined by characters derived from lip patterns, numbers of lip annules, and spermatheca shape. Morphological results suggest the need for sophisticated character discovery and analysis for morphology based phylogenetics in nematodes.

  9. Histone methyltransferases regulating rRNA gene dose and dosage control in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Pontvianne, Frédéric; Blevins, Todd; Chandrasekhara, Chinmayi; Feng, Wei; Stroud, Hume; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Michaels, Scott D.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotes have hundreds of nearly identical 45S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, each encoding the 18S, 5.8S, and 25S catalytic rRNAs. Because cellular demands for ribosomes and protein synthesis vary during development, the number of active rRNA genes is subject to dosage control. In genetic hybrids, one manifestation of dosage control is nucleolar dominance, an epigenetic phenomenon in which the rRNA genes of one progenitor are repressed. For instance, in Arabidopsis suecica, the allotetraploid hybrid of Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis arenosa, the A. thaliana-derived rRNA genes are selectively silenced. An analogous phenomenon occurs in nonhybrid A. thaliana, in which specific classes of rRNA gene variants are inactivated. An RNA-mediated knockdown screen identified SUVR4 {SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION 3-9 [SU(VAR)3-9]-RELATED 4} as a histone H3 Lys 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase required for nucleolar dominance in A. suecica. H3K9 methyltransferases are also required for variant-specific silencing in A. thaliana, but SUVH5 [SU(VAR)3-9 HOMOLOG 5] and SUVH6, rather than SUVR4, are the key activities in this genomic context. Mutations disrupting the H3K27 methyltransferases ATXR5 or ATXR6 affect which rRNA gene variants are expressed or silenced, and in atxr5 atxr6 double mutants, dominance relationships among variants are reversed relative to wild type. Interestingly, these changes in gene expression are accompanied by changes in the relative abundance of the rRNA gene variants at the DNA level, including overreplication of the normally silenced class and decreased abundance of the normally dominant class. Collectively, our results indicate that histone methylation can affect both the doses of different variants and their differential silencing through the choice mechanisms that achieve dosage control. PMID:22549957

  10. 5S rRNA and ribosome.

    PubMed

    Gongadze, G M

    2011-12-01

    5S rRNA is an integral component of the ribosome of all living organisms. It is known that the ribosome without 5S rRNA is functionally inactive. However, the question about the specific role of this RNA in functioning of the translation apparatus is still open. This review presents a brief history of the discovery of 5S rRNA and studies of its origin and localization in the ribosome. The previously expressed hypotheses about the role of this RNA in the functioning of the ribosome are discussed considering the unique location of 5S rRNA in the ribosome and its intermolecular contacts. Based on analysis of the current data on ribosome structure and its functional complexes, the role of 5S rRNA as an intermediary between ribosome functional domains is discussed.

  11. Molecular organization of the 25S-18S rDNA IGS of Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Vera; Rocheta, Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units, repeated in tandem at one or more chromosomal loci, are separated by an intergenic spacer (IGS) containing functional elements involved in the regulation of transcription of downstream rRNA genes. In the present work, we have compared the IGS molecular organizations in two divergent species of Fagaceae, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber, aiming to comprehend the evolution of the IGS sequences within the family. Self- and cross-hybridization FISH was done on representative species of the Fagaceae. The IGS length variability and the methylation level of 18 and 25S rRNA genes were assessed in representatives of three genera of this family: Fagus, Quercus and Castanea. The intergenic spacers in Beech and Cork Oak showed similar overall organizations comprising putative functional elements needed for rRNA gene activity and containing a non-transcribed spacer (NTS), a promoter region, and a 5'-external transcribed spacer. In the NTS: the sub-repeats structure in Beech is more organized than in Cork Oak, sharing some short motifs which results in the lowest sequence similarity of the entire IGS; the AT-rich region differed in both spacers by a GC-rich block inserted in Cork Oak. The 5'-ETS is the region with the higher similarity, having nonetheless different lengths. FISH with the NTS-5'-ETS revealed fainter signals in cross-hybridization in agreement with the divergence between genera. The diversity of IGS lengths revealed variants from ∼ 2 kb in Fagus, and Quercus up to 5.3 kb in Castanea, and a lack of correlation between the number of variants and the number of rDNA loci in several species. Methylation of 25S Bam HI site was confirmed in all species and detected for the first time in the 18S of Q. suber and Q. faginea. These results provide important clues for the evolutionary trends of the rDNA 25S-18S IGS in the Fagaceae family.

  12. PCR Primers for Metazoan Nuclear 18S and 28S Ribosomal DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Machida, Ryuji J.; Knowlton, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background Metagenetic analyses, which amplify and sequence target marker DNA regions from environmental samples, are increasingly employed to assess the biodiversity of communities of small organisms. Using this approach, our understanding of microbial diversity has expanded greatly. In contrast, only a few studies using this approach to characterize metazoan diversity have been reported, despite the fact that many metazoan species are small and difficult to identify or are undescribed. One of the reasons for this discrepancy is the availability of universal primers for the target taxa. In microbial studies, analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA is standard. In contrast, the best gene for metazoan metagenetics is less clear. In the present study, we have designed primers that amplify the nuclear 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences of most metazoan species with the goal of providing effective approaches for metagenetic analyses of metazoan diversity in environmental samples, with a particular emphasis on marine biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Conserved regions suitable for designing PCR primers were identified using 14,503 and 1,072 metazoan sequences of the nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA regions, respectively. The sequence similarity of both these newly designed and the previously reported primers to the target regions of these primers were compared for each phylum to determine the expected amplification efficacy. The nucleotide diversity of the flanking regions of the primers was also estimated for genera or higher taxonomic groups of 11 phyla to determine the variable regions within the genes. Conclusions/Significance The identified nuclear ribosomal DNA primers (five primer pairs for 18S and eleven for 28S) and the results of the nucleotide diversity analyses provide options for primer combinations for metazoan metagenetic analyses. Additionally, advantages and disadvantages of not only the 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA, but also other marker regions as targets

  13. Taenia spp.: 18S rDNA microsatellites for molecular systematic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Foronda, P; Casanova, J C; Martinez, E; Valladares, B; Feliu, C

    2005-06-01

    The 18S rDNA gene of adult worms of Taenia parva found in Genetta genetta in the Iberian Peninsula and larval stages of T. pisiformis from the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Tenerife (Canary Islands) were amplified and sequenced. The sequences of the 18S rDNA gene of T. parva (1768 bp) and T. pisiformis (1760 bp) are reported for the first time (GenBank accession nos. AJ555167-AJ555168 and AJ555169-AJ555170, respectively). In 168 alignment positions microsatellites in the 18S rDNA of both taxa were detected for the first time (TGC in T. parva and TGCT in T. pisiformis) and differences in their sequences with different repetition numbers were observed. The use of nucleotide sequences of this gene in the resolution of systematic problems in cestodes is discussed with reference to the systematic status of Taenia spp. and mainly in human taeniids such as T. solium, T. saginata, and Asian human isolates of Taenia.

  14. Development of a dual-internal-reference technique to improve accuracy when determining bacterial 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio with application to Escherichia coli liquid and aerosol samples.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Huajun; Krumins, Valdis; Fennell, Donna E; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2015-10-01

    Accurate enumeration of rRNA content in microbial cells, e.g. by using the 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio, is critical to properly understand its relationship to microbial activities. However, few studies have considered possible methodological artifacts that may contribute to the variability of rRNA analysis results. In this study, a technique utilizing genomic DNA and 16S rRNA from an exogenous species (Pseudomonas fluorescens) as dual internal references was developed to improve accuracy when determining the 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of a target organism, Escherichia coli. This technique was able to adequately control the variability in sample processing and analysis procedures due to nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) losses, inefficient reverse transcription of RNA, and inefficient PCR amplification. The measured 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli increased by 2-3 fold when E. coli 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA quantities were normalized to the sample-specific fractional recoveries of reference (P. fluorescens) 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA, respectively. In addition, the intra-sample variation of this ratio, represented by coefficients of variation from replicate samples, decreased significantly after normalization. This technique was applied to investigate the temporal variation of 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli during its non-steady-state growth in a complex liquid medium, and to E. coli aerosols when exposed to particle-free air after their collection on a filter. The 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli increased significantly during its early exponential phase of growth; when E. coli aerosols were exposed to extended filtration stress after sample collection, the ratio also increased. In contrast, no significant temporal trend in E. coli 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio was observed when the determined ratios were not normalized based on the recoveries of dual references. The developed technique could be widely applied in studies of relationship between

  15. Phylogenetic relationships among higher Nemertean (Nemertea) Taxa inferred from 18S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, P; Turbeville, J M; Lindh, S

    2001-09-01

    We estimated the phylogenetic relationships of 15 nemertean (phylum Nemertea) species from the four subclasses Hoplo-, Hetero-, Palaeo-, and Bdellonemertea with 18S rDNA sequence data. Three outgroup taxa were used for rooting: Annelida, Platyhelminthes, and Mollusca. Parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses supported the monophyletic status of the Heteronemertea and a taxon consisting of hoplonemerteans and Bdellonemertea, while indicating that Palaeonemertea is paraphyletic. The monophyletic status of the two nemertean classes Anopla and Enopla is not supported by the data. The unambiguous clades are well supported, as assessed by a randomization test (bootstrapping) and branch support values. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  16. Hepatic rRNA transcription regulates high-fat-diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Oie, Shohei; Matsuzaki, Kazuya; Yokoyama, Wataru; Tokunaga, Shinji; Waku, Tsuyoshi; Han, Song-Iee; Iwasaki, Naoya; Mikogai, Aya; Yasuzawa-Tanaka, Kayoko; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Hiyoshi, Hiromi; Nakajima, Yuka; Araki, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Keiji; Yanagisawa, Junn; Murayama, Akiko

    2014-05-08

    Ribosome biosynthesis is a major intracellular energy-consuming process. We previously identified a nucleolar factor, nucleomethylin (NML), which regulates intracellular energy consumption by limiting rRNA transcription. Here, we show that, in livers of obese mice, the recruitment of NML to rRNA gene loci is increased to repress rRNA transcription. To clarify the relationship between obesity and rRNA transcription, we generated NML-null (NML-KO) mice. NML-KO mice show elevated rRNA level, reduced ATP concentration, and reduced lipid accumulation in the liver. Furthermore, in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed NML-KO mice, hepatic rRNA levels are not decreased. Both weight gain and fat accumulation in HFD-fed NML-KO mice are significantly lower than those in HFD-fed wild-type mice. These findings indicate that rRNA transcriptional activation promotes hepatic energy consumption, which alters hepatic lipid metabolism. Namely, hepatic rRNA transcriptional repression by HFD feeding is essential for energy storage. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional separation of pre-rRNA processing steps revealed by truncation of the U3 small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein component, Mpp10

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sarah J.; Baserga, Susan J.

    1997-01-01

    The U3 small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP) is required for three cleavage events that generate the mature 18S rRNA from the pre-rRNA. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, depletion of Mpp10, a U3 snoRNP-specific protein, halts 18S rRNA production and impairs cleavage at the three U3 snoRNP-dependent sites: A0, A1, and A2. We have identified truncation mutations of Mpp10 that affect 18S rRNA synthesis and confer cold-sensitivity and slow growth. However, distinct from yeast cells depleted of Mpp10, the mutants carrying these truncated Mpp10 proteins accumulate a novel precursor, resulting from cleavage at only A0. The Mpp10 truncations do not alter association of Mpp10 with the U3 snoRNA, nor do they affect snoRNA or protein stability. Thus, the role in processing of the U3 snoRNP can be separated into cleavage at the A0 site, which occurs in the presence of truncated Mpp10, and cleavage at the A1/A2 sites, which occurs only with intact Mpp10. These results strongly argue for a role for Mpp10 in processing at the A1/A2 sites. PMID:9391061

  18. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Targeting 18S Ribosomal DNA for Rapid Detection of Acanthamoeba

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hye-Won; Lee, Yu-Ran; Inoue, Noboru; Jha, Bijay Kumar; Danne, Dinzouna-Boutamba Sylvatrie; Kim, Hong-Kyun; Lee, Junhun; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Chung, Dong-Il

    2013-01-01

    Amoebic keratitis (AK) caused by Acanthamoeba is one of the most serious corneal infections. AK is frequently misdiagnosed initially as viral, bacterial, or fungal keratitis, thus ensuring treatment delays. Accordingly, the early detection of Acanthamoeba would contribute significantly to disease management and selection of an appropriate anti-amoebic therapy. Recently, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method has been applied to the clinical diagnosis of a range of infectious diseases. Here, we describe a rapid and efficient LAMP-based method targeting Acanthamoeba 18S rDNA gene for the detection of Acanthamoeba using clinical ocular specimens in the diagnosis of AK. Acanthamoeba LAMP assays detected 11 different strains including all AK-associated species. The copy number detection limit for a positive signal was 10 DNA copies of 18S rDNA per reaction. No cross-reactivity with the DNA of fungi or other protozoa was observed. The sensitivity of LAMP assay was higher than those of Nelson primer PCR and JDP primer PCR. In the present study, LAMP assay based on directly heat-treated samples was found to be as efficient at detecting Acanthamoeba as DNA extracted using a commercial kit, whereas PCR was only effective when commercial kit-extracted DNA was used. This study showed that the devised Acanthamoeba LAMP assay could be used to diagnose AK in a simple, sensitive, and specific manner. PMID:23864737

  19. Optical and electrical stability of viral-templated copper sulfide (Cu1.8S) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahriar Zaman, Mohammed; Bernard Grajeda, Gabriel; Haberer, Elaine D.

    2014-04-01

    The optical and electrical stabilities of viral-templated non-stoichiometric copper sulfide, digenite (Cu1.8S) films were investigated. The films were composed of large agglomerates of randomly aligned Cu1.8S-coated M13 filamentous phage. Free carrier optical absorption associated with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) was observed in the near infrared spectral region, and the films were electrically active, displaying a linear current-voltage relationship. Under ambient conditions, the magnitude of the LSPR absorption increased, following a power law relationship with time, and the electrical resistance of viral-templated films decreased significantly. In contrast, the resistance of films stored under low oxygen, low humidity conditions experienced a smaller reduction in electrical resistance. Changes in optical and electrical film properties under ambient conditions were associated with an increase in free carrier concentration within the copper chalcogenide material due to oxygen exposure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to relate this increase in free carrier concentration to compositional changes on the viral-templated material surface.

  20. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification targeting 18S ribosomal DNA for rapid detection of Acanthamoeba.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye-Won; Lee, Yu-Ran; Inoue, Noboru; Jha, Bijay Kumar; Danne, Dinzouna-Boutamba Sylvatrie; Kim, Hong-Kyun; Lee, Junhun; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2013-06-01

    Amoebic keratitis (AK) caused by Acanthamoeba is one of the most serious corneal infections. AK is frequently misdiagnosed initially as viral, bacterial, or fungal keratitis, thus ensuring treatment delays. Accordingly, the early detection of Acanthamoeba would contribute significantly to disease management and selection of an appropriate anti-amoebic therapy. Recently, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method has been applied to the clinical diagnosis of a range of infectious diseases. Here, we describe a rapid and efficient LAMP-based method targeting Acanthamoeba 18S rDNA gene for the detection of Acanthamoeba using clinical ocular specimens in the diagnosis of AK. Acanthamoeba LAMP assays detected 11 different strains including all AK-associated species. The copy number detection limit for a positive signal was 10 DNA copies of 18S rDNA per reaction. No cross-reactivity with the DNA of fungi or other protozoa was observed. The sensitivity of LAMP assay was higher than those of Nelson primer PCR and JDP primer PCR. In the present study, LAMP assay based on directly heat-treated samples was found to be as efficient at detecting Acanthamoeba as DNA extracted using a commercial kit, whereas PCR was only effective when commercial kit-extracted DNA was used. This study showed that the devised Acanthamoeba LAMP assay could be used to diagnose AK in a simple, sensitive, and specific manner.

  1. Karyotypes, heterochromatin, and physical mapping of 18S-26S rDNA in Cactaceae.

    PubMed

    Las Peñas, M L; Urdampilleta, J D; Bernardello, G; Forni-Martins, E R

    2009-01-01

    Karyotype analyses in members of the four Cactaceae subfamilies were performed. Numbers and karyotype formula obtained were: Pereskioideae = Pereskiaaculeata(2n = 22; 10 m + 1 sm), Maihuenioideae = Maihuenia patagonica (2n = 22, 9 m + 2 sm; 2n = 44, 18 m + 4 sm), Opuntioideae = Cumulopuntia recurvata(2n = 44; 20 m + 2 sm), Cactoideae = Acanthocalycium spiniflorum (2n = 22; 10 m + 1 sm),Echinopsis tubiflora (2n = 22; 10 m + 1 sm), Trichocereus candicans (2n = 22, 22 m). Chromosomes were small, the average chromosome length was 2.3 mum. Diploid species and the tetraploid C. recurvata had one terminal satellite, whereas the remaining tetraploid species showed four satellited chromosomes. Karyotypes were symmetrical. No CMA(-)/DAPI(+) bands were detected, but CMA(+)/DAPI(-) bands associated with NOR were always found. Pericentromeric heterochromatin was found in C. recurvata, A. spiniflorum, and the tetraploid cytotype of M. patagonica. The locations of the 18S-26S rDNA sites in all species coincided with CMA(+)/DAPI(-) bands; the same occurred with the sizes and numbers of signals for each species. This technique was applied for the first time in metaphase chromosomes in cacti. NOR-bearing pair no.1 may be homeologous in all species examined. In Cactaceae, the 18S-26S loci seem to be highly conserved.

  2. Structure and organization of rRNA operons in the region of the replication origin of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, N; Moriya, S; Yoshikawa, H

    1983-01-01

    Structure and organization of two complete ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sets, rrnO and rrnA, were determined for the first time in Bacillus subtilis. They are located at the region of the replication origin of the chromosome. Each set constitutes a single operon of: two tandem promoters - leader sequence - 16S rRNA gene - Ile-tRNA gene - Ala-tRNA gene - 23S rRNA gene - 5S rRNA gene - termination signal. The first promoter (P1) of rrnO differs from that of rrnA in sequence and function. P1 of rrnO was used very little for transcription either in vivo or in vitro while P1 was predominantly used in rrnA. A putative transcript of the entire operon was determined and constructed into a secondary structure. Analysis of in vivo transcripts by S1 mapping revealed primary processing sites at the loop and stem structure of 16S rRNA in rrnO and rrnA. A unique sequence in the leader region of rrnO can be formed into a highly complexed secondary structure and affects processing of mature 16S rRNA. The sequences of the two spacer tRNA genes are highly conserved between B. subtilis and Escherichia coli. Images PMID:6312418

  3. Transcription and processing of ribosomal RNAs from maize mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, A.P.

    1986-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the expression of genes in higher plant mitochondria, the transcription of the three ribosomal-RNA genes of the maize mitochondria was investigated. The 5' and 3' ends of the 5S and 18S rRNAs, whose genes are 113 bp apart on the mitochondrial DNA, were defined using S/sub 1/ analysis. S/sub 1/ analysis and extensive hybridizational experiments demonstrated that the 18S and 5 S share several large transcripts. Nearly all of these rare cotranscripts include flanking sequence from both ends of the 18S + 5S complex. A model is proposed for the processing of the large transcripts into the mature rRNAs. Transcription of 26S rRNA was shown to occur from the strand opposite the transcribed strand of the 18S and 5S genes. Northern and S/sub 1/ nuclease analysis demonstrated the existence of 2 precursors of 26S rRNA. All the mature and precursor RNAs identified by S/sub 1/ analysis begin primarily with A residues, and exhibit 5' terminal heterogeneity of several nucleotides; all but one possess the sequence AAUC in their first few 5' nucleotides. Mitochondrial RNA, treated either with (alpha-/sup 32/P)GTP and guanylyl transferase to construct a radioactive methylated-GTP cap at the 5' ends of unprocessed RNAs, or with polynucleotide kinase and (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP to label the 5' ends of processed RNAs, was hybridized to different fragments of mitochondrial genes. These experiments showed that the mature and precursor rRNAs detected in S/sub 1/ analysis are processed, not primary transcripts, suggesting that the 5' end similarity of all these RNAs is functionally significant in recognition of processing sites in vivo.

  4. Plastid 16S rRNA gene diversity among eukaryotic picophytoplankton sorted by flow cytometry from the South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao Li; Lepère, Cécile; Scanlan, David J; Vaulot, Daniel

    2011-04-28

    The genetic diversity of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes was investigated in the South East Pacific Ocean. Genetic libraries of the plastid 16S rRNA gene were constructed on picoeukaryote populations sorted by flow cytometry, using two different primer sets, OXY107F/OXY1313R commonly used to amplify oxygenic organisms, and PLA491F/OXY1313R, biased towards plastids of marine algae. Surprisingly, the two sets revealed quite different photosynthetic picoeukaryote diversity patterns, which were moreover different from what we previously reported using the 18S rRNA nuclear gene as a marker. The first 16S primer set revealed many sequences related to Pelagophyceae and Dictyochophyceae, the second 16S primer set was heavily biased toward Prymnesiophyceae, while 18S sequences were dominated by Prasinophyceae, Chrysophyceae and Haptophyta. Primer mismatches with major algal lineages is probably one reason behind this discrepancy. However, other reasons, such as DNA accessibility or gene copy numbers, may be also critical. Based on plastid 16S rRNA gene sequences, the structure of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes varied along the BIOSOPE transect vertically and horizontally. In oligotrophic regions, Pelagophyceae, Chrysophyceae, and Prymnesiophyceae dominated. Pelagophyceae were prevalent at the DCM depth and Chrysophyceae at the surface. In mesotrophic regions Pelagophyceae were still important but Chlorophyta contribution increased. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new clade of Prasinophyceae (clade 16S-IX), which seems to be restricted to hyper-oligotrophic stations. Our data suggest that a single gene marker, even as widely used as 18S rRNA, provides a biased view of eukaryotic communities and that the use of several markers is necessary to obtain a complete image.

  5. Spectral sensitivity of p-Cu{sub 1.8}S/n{sup -}-ZnS/n-(II-VI) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Komaschenko, V. N. Kolezhuk, K. V.; Yaroshenko, N. V.; Sheremetova, G. I.; Bobrenko, Yu. N.

    2006-03-15

    Photosensitivity of multilayered p-Cu{sub 1.8}S/n{sup -}-(II-VI)/n-(II-VI) heterostructures beyond the fundamental-absorption edge of the wide-gap component is studied experimentally, and a simple model is suggested as an explanation of this photosensitivity. It is established that an effective method for reducing the photosensitivity of the structures beyond the ultraviolet spectral region consists in decreasing the probability of dominant tunneling processes, by increasing the thickness of the wide-gap layer, giving rise to a blocking barrier for photogenerated minority charge carriers. It is shown that the p-Cu{sub 1.8}S/n{sup -}-ZnS/n-CdSe heterostructures are promising for the development of efficient 'solar-blind' detectors of ultraviolet radiation.

  6. 18S ribosomal DNA genotypes of Acanthamoeba species isolated from contact lens cases in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Windell L; Adao, Davin Edric V

    2009-10-01

    This study was carried out to document the genotypes of Acanthamoeba present in contact lens cases from 50 randomly selected contact lens wearers living in Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines. Acanthamoeba species were isolated from eight (16%) in 50 contact lens cases examined. We analyzed partial 18S ribosomal DNA (Rns) sequences of the eight isolates and found that the sequence differences were sufficient to distinguish the genotypes. After the isolates were genotyped, using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool program, their phylogenetic positions relative to known Acanthamoeba isolates were determined. The model-based (GTR+Gamma+Iota) neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses, as well as the non-model-based maximum parsimony analysis were used. Results showed that of the eight isolates, six were Rns genotype T5 while two were Rns genotype T4. This present study indicates that genotype T5 is also a common contaminant in contact lens storage cases.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of Spiruromorpha from birds of prey based on 18S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Honisch, M; Krone, O

    2008-06-01

    A total of 153 free-ranging birds from Germany belonging to 15 species were examined for nematodes in their digestive and respiratory tracts. In 51.7% of the birds 14 different nematode species were found: the intestinal ascarids Porrocaecum depressum and P. angusticolle, the strongylid Hovorkonema variegatum, which inhabits the trachea and bronchi, the hairworms Eucoleus dispar and Capillaria tenuissima isolated from the digestive system, the spirurid nematodes Cyrnea leptoptera, C. mansioni, C. seurati, Microtetrameres cloacitectus, Physaloptera alata, P. apivori, Synhimantus hamatus and S. laticeps, which inhabit the proventriculus and gizzard of the raptors, and the spirurid nematode Serratospiculum tendo, which lives in the air sacs. To revise their systematic positions the ribosomal 18S gene regions of the nematode species were analysed and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. The molecular data confirmed the morphological systematics, except the spirurid family Physalopteridae, which grouped together with the Acuariidae.

  8. 28S and 18S rDNA sequences support the monophyly of lampreys and hagfishes.

    PubMed

    Mallatt, J; Sullivan, J

    1998-12-01

    Resolving the interrelationships of three major extant lineages of vertebrates (hagfishes, lampreys, and gnathostomes) is a particularly important issue in evolution, because the basal resolution critically influences our understanding of primitive vertebrate characters. A consensus has emerged over the last 20 years that lampreys are the sister group to the gnathostomes and the hagfishes represent an ancient, basal lineage. This hypothesis has essentially displaced the classical hypothesis of monophyly of the cyclostomes (lampreys plus hagfishes). To test these hypotheses, we compared nearly complete ribosomal DNA sequences from each of these major lineages, as well as those from a cephalochordate and a urochordate, which represent a paraphyletic outgroup for assessing the basal vertebrate relationships. For this comparison, 92%-99% complete 28S rDNA sequences were obtained from the lancelet Branchiostoma floridae, the hagfish Eptatretus stouti, the lamprey Petromyzon marinus, and cartilaginous fishes Hydrolagus colliei and Squalus acanthias and were then analyzed with previously reported 28S and 18S rDNA sequences from other chordates. We conducted conventional (nonparametric) bootstrap analyses, under maximum-likelihood, parsimony, and minimum-evolution (using LogDet distances) criteria, of both 28S and 18S rDNA sequences considered separately and combined. All these analyses provide moderate to very strong support for the monophyly of the cyclostomes. Furthermore, the currently accepted hypothesis of a lamprey-gnathostome clade is moderately rejected by the Kishino-Hasegawa test (P = 0.099) and resoundingly rejected by parametric bootstrap tests (P < 0.01) in favor of monophyly of living cyclostomes. Another significant finding is that the hagfish E. stouti has the longest 28S rDNA gene known in any organism (> 5,200 nt).

  9. SIRT7-dependent deacetylation of the U3-55k protein controls pre-rRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sifan; Blank, Maximilian Felix; Iyer, Aishwarya; Huang, Bingding; Wang, Lin; Grummt, Ingrid; Voit, Renate

    2016-02-12

    SIRT7 is an NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase with important roles in ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation. Previous studies have established that SIRT7 is associated with RNA polymerase I, interacts with pre-ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and promotes rRNA synthesis. Here we show that SIRT7 is also associated with small nucleolar RNP (snoRNPs) that are involved in pre-rRNA processing and rRNA maturation. Knockdown of SIRT7 impairs U3 snoRNA dependent early cleavage steps that are necessary for generation of 18S rRNA. Mechanistically, SIRT7 deacetylates U3-55k, a core component of the U3 snoRNP complex, and reversible acetylation of U3-55k modulates the association of U3-55k with U3 snoRNA. Deacetylation by SIRT7 enhances U3-55k binding to U3 snoRNA, which is a prerequisite for pre-rRNA processing. Under stress conditions, SIRT7 is released from nucleoli, leading to hyperacetylation of U3-55k and attenuation of pre-rRNA processing. The results reveal a multifaceted role of SIRT7 in ribosome biogenesis, regulating both transcription and processing of rRNA.

  10. METAXA2: improved identification and taxonomic classification of small and large subunit rRNA in metagenomic data.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Hartmann, Martin; Eriksson, Karl Martin; Pal, Chandan; Thorell, Kaisa; Larsson, Dan Göran Joakim; Nilsson, Rolf Henrik

    2015-11-01

    The ribosomal rRNA genes are widely used as genetic markers for taxonomic identification of microbes. Particularly the small subunit (SSU; 16S/18S) rRNA gene is frequently used for species- or genus-level identification, but also the large subunit (LSU; 23S/28S) rRNA gene is employed in taxonomic assignment. The METAXA software tool is a popular utility for extracting partial rRNA sequences from large sequencing data sets and assigning them to an archaeal, bacterial, nuclear eukaryote, mitochondrial or chloroplast origin. This study describes a comprehensive update to METAXA - METAXA2 - that extends the capabilities of the tool, introducing support for the LSU rRNA gene, a greatly improved classifier allowing classification down to genus or species level, as well as enhanced support for short-read (100 bp) and paired-end sequences, among other changes. The performance of METAXA2 was compared to other commonly used taxonomic classifiers, showing that METAXA2 often outperforms previous methods in terms of making correct predictions while maintaining a low misclassification rate. METAXA2 is freely available from http://microbiology.se/software/metaxa2/.

  11. Trans-splicing and RNA editing of LSU rRNA in Diplonema mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Valach, Matus; Moreira, Sandrine; Kiethega, Georgette N.; Burger, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) often display reduced size and deviant secondary structure, and sometimes are fragmented, as are their corresponding genes. Here we report a mitochondrial large subunit rRNA (mt-LSU rRNA) with unprecedented features. In the protist Diplonema, the rnl gene is split into two pieces (modules 1 and 2, 534- and 352-nt long) that are encoded by distinct mitochondrial chromosomes, yet the rRNA is continuous. To reconstruct the post-transcriptional maturation pathway of this rRNA, we have catalogued transcript intermediates by deep RNA sequencing and RT-PCR. Gene modules are transcribed separately. Subsequently, transcripts are end-processed, the module-1 transcript is polyuridylated and the module-2 transcript is polyadenylated. The two modules are joined via trans-splicing that retains at the junction ∼26 uridines, resulting in an extent of insertion RNA editing not observed before in any system. The A-tail of trans-spliced molecules is shorter than that of mono-module 2, and completely absent from mitoribosome-associated mt-LSU rRNA. We also characterize putative antisense transcripts. Antisense-mono-modules corroborate bi-directional transcription of chromosomes. Antisense-mt-LSU rRNA, if functional, has the potential of guiding concomitantly trans-splicing and editing of this rRNA. Together, these findings open a window on the investigation of complex regulatory networks that orchestrate multiple and biochemically diverse post-transcriptional events. PMID:24259427

  12. Chromosome Mapping of 18S Ribosomal RNA Genes in Eleven Hypostomus Species (Siluriformes, Loricariidae): Diversity Analysis of the Sites.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Marceléia; da Rosa, Renata; Zawadzki, Claudio H; Mariotto, Sandra; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the chromosomal distribution of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in different populations of 11 species of Hypostomus collected in important Brazilian basins, namely South Atlantic, Upper Paraná, and Paraguay applying the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Hypostomus cochliodon, Hypostomus commersoni, Hypostomus hermanni, Hypostomus regani, Hypostomus albopunctatus, Hypostomus paulinus, Hypostomus aff. paulinus, Hypostomus iheringii, and Hypostomus mutucae presented multiple 18S rDNA sites while Hypostomus strigaticeps and Hypostomus nigromaculatus exhibited a single pair of chromosomes with 18S rDNA sites. The studied species presented variations in the number and position of these sites. The results accomplished were similar to those obtained by the analysis of AgNORs, revealing the same interspecific variability. Each species exhibited distinctive patterns of AgNOR and 18S rDNA distribution, which can be considered cytogenetic markers in each species of the genus and help improve the discussions on the phylogeny of the group.

  13. Divergent nuclear 18S rDNA paralogs in a turkey coccidium, Eimeria meleagrimitis, complicate molecular systematics and identification.

    PubMed

    El-Sherry, Shiem; Ogedengbe, Mosun E; Hafeez, Mian A; Barta, John R

    2013-07-01

    Multiple 18S rDNA sequences were obtained from two single-oocyst-derived lines of each of Eimeria meleagrimitis and Eimeria adenoeides. After analysing the 15 new 18S rDNA sequences from two lines of E. meleagrimitis and 17 new sequences from two lines of E. adenoeides, there were clear indications that divergent, paralogous 18S rDNA copies existed within the nuclear genome of E. meleagrimitis. In contrast, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) partial sequences from all lines of a particular Eimeria sp. were identical and, in phylogenetic analyses, COI sequences clustered unambiguously in monophyletic and highly-supported clades specific to individual Eimeria sp. Phylogenetic analysis of the new 18S rDNA sequences from E. meleagrimitis showed that they formed two distinct clades: Type A with four new sequences; and Type B with nine new sequences; both Types A and B sequences were obtained from each of the single-oocyst-derived lines of E. meleagrimitis. Together these rDNA types formed a well-supported E. meleagrimitis clade. Types A and B 18S rDNA sequences from E. meleagrimitis had a mean sequence identity of only 97.4% whereas mean sequence identity within types was 99.1-99.3%. The observed intraspecific sequence divergence among E. meleagrimitis 18S rDNA sequence types was even higher (approximately 2.6%) than the interspecific sequence divergence present between some well-recognized species such as Eimeria tenella and Eimeria necatrix (1.1%). Our observations suggest that, unlike COI sequences, 18S rDNA sequences are not reliable molecular markers to be used alone for species identification with coccidia, although 18S rDNA sequences have clear utility for phylogenetic reconstruction of apicomplexan parasites at the genus and higher taxonomic ranks.

  14. Co-located 18S/5S rDNA arrays: an ancient and unusual chromosomal trait in Julidini species (Labridae, Perciformes)

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Karlla Danielle Jorge; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Soares, Rodrigo Xavier; de Souza, Allyson Santos; da Costa, Gideão Wagner Werneck Felix; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Wrasses (Labridae) are extremely diversified marine fishes, whose species exhibit complex interactions with the reef environment. They are widely distributed in the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Their species have displayed a number of karyotypic divergent processes, including chromosomal regions with complex structural organization. Current cytogenetic information for this family is phylogenetically and geographically limited and mainly based on conventional cytogenetic techniques. Here, the distribution patterns of heterochromatin, GC-specific chromosome regions and Ag-NORs, and the organization of 18S and 5S rDNA sites of the Atlantic species Thalassoma noronhanum (Boulenger, 1890), Halichoeres poeyi (Steindachner, 1867), Halichoeres radiatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Halichoeres brasiliensis (Bloch, 1791) and Halichoeres penrosei Starks, 1913, belonging to the tribe Julidini were analyzed. All the species exhibited 2n=48 chromosomes with variation in the number of chromosome arms among genera. Thalassoma noronhanum has 2m+46a, while species of the genus Halichoeres Rüppell, 1835 share karyotypes with 48 acrocentric chromosomes. The Halichoeres species exhibit differences in the heterochromatin distribution patterns and in the number and distribution of 18S and 5S rDNA sites. The occurrence of 18S/5S rDNA syntenic arrangements in all the species indicates a functionally stable and adaptive genomic organization. The phylogenetic sharing of this rDNA organization highlights a marked and unusual chromosomal singularity inside the family Labridae. PMID:28123678

  15. 18S rDNA Phylogeny of Lamproderma and Allied Genera (Stemonitales, Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Kamono, Akiko; Meyer, Marianne; Schnittler, Martin; Fukui, Manabu; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of the slime-mould genus Lamproderma (Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa) challenges traditional taxonomy: although it displays the typical characters of the order Stemonitales, it appears to be sister to Physarales. This study provides a small subunit (18S or SSU) ribosomal RNA gene-based phylogeny of Lamproderma and its allies, with new sequences from 49 specimens in 12 genera. We found that the order Stemonitales and Lamproderma were both ancestral to Physarales and that Lamproderma constitutes several clades intermingled with species of Diacheopsis, Colloderma and Elaeomyxa. We suggest that these genera may have evolved from Lamproderma by multiple losses of fruiting body stalks and that many taxonomic revisions are needed. We found such high genetic diversity within three Lamproderma species that they probably consist of clusters of sibling species. We discuss the contrasts between genetic and morphological divergence and implications for the morphospecies concept, highlighting the phylogenetically most reliable morphological characters and pointing to others that have been overestimated. In addition, we showed that the first part (∼600 bases) of the SSU rDNA gene is a valuable tool for phylogeny in Myxomycetes, since it displayed sufficient variability to distinguish closely related taxa and never failed to cluster together specimens considered of the same species. PMID:22530009

  16. 18S rDNA phylogeny of lamproderma and allied genera (Stemonitales, Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa).

    PubMed

    Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Kamono, Akiko; Meyer, Marianne; Schnittler, Martin; Fukui, Manabu; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of the slime-mould genus Lamproderma (Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa) challenges traditional taxonomy: although it displays the typical characters of the order Stemonitales, it appears to be sister to Physarales. This study provides a small subunit (18S or SSU) ribosomal RNA gene-based phylogeny of Lamproderma and its allies, with new sequences from 49 specimens in 12 genera. We found that the order Stemonitales and Lamproderma were both ancestral to Physarales and that Lamproderma constitutes several clades intermingled with species of Diacheopsis, Colloderma and Elaeomyxa. We suggest that these genera may have evolved from Lamproderma by multiple losses of fruiting body stalks and that many taxonomic revisions are needed. We found such high genetic diversity within three Lamproderma species that they probably consist of clusters of sibling species. We discuss the contrasts between genetic and morphological divergence and implications for the morphospecies concept, highlighting the phylogenetically most reliable morphological characters and pointing to others that have been overestimated. In addition, we showed that the first part (~600 bases) of the SSU rDNA gene is a valuable tool for phylogeny in Myxomycetes, since it displayed sufficient variability to distinguish closely related taxa and never failed to cluster together specimens considered of the same species.

  17. Use of rRNA gene restriction patterns to evaluate lactic acid bacterium contamination of vacuum-packaged sliced cooked whole-meat product in a meat processing plant.

    PubMed Central

    Björkroth, K J; Korkeala, H J

    1997-01-01

    Molecular typing was applied to an in-plant lactic acid bacterium (LAB) contamination analysis of a vacuum-packaged sliced cooked whole-meat product. A total of 982 LAB isolates from the raw mass, product, and the environment at different production stages were screened by restriction endonuclease (EcoRI and HindIII) analysis. rRNA gene restriction patterns were further determined for different strains obtained from each source. These patterns were used for recognizing the spoilage-causing LAB strains from the product on the sell-by day and tracing the sources and sites of spoilage LAB contamination during the manufacture. LAB typing resulted in 71 different ribotypes, of which 27 were associated with contamination routes. Raw material was distinguished as the source of the major spoilage strains. Contamination of the product surfaces after cooking was shown to be airborne. The removal of the product from the cooking forms was localized as a major site of airborne LAB contamination. Food handlers and some surfaces in contact with the product during the manufacture were also contaminated with the spoilage strains. Some LAB strains were also able to resist cooking in the core of the product bar. These strains may have an effect on the product shelf life by contaminating the slicing machine. The air in the slicing department and adjacent cold room contained very few LAB. Surface-mediated contamination was detected during the slicing and packaging stages. Food handlers also carried strains later found in the packaged product. Molecular typing provided useful information revealing the LAB contamination sources and sites of this product. The production line will be reorganized in accordance with these results to reduce spoilage LAB contamination. PMID:9023922

  18. Use of rRNA gene restriction patterns to evaluate lactic acid bacterium contamination of vacuum-packaged sliced cooked whole-meat product in a meat processing plant.

    PubMed

    Björkroth, K J; Korkeala, H J

    1997-02-01

    Molecular typing was applied to an in-plant lactic acid bacterium (LAB) contamination analysis of a vacuum-packaged sliced cooked whole-meat product. A total of 982 LAB isolates from the raw mass, product, and the environment at different production stages were screened by restriction endonuclease (EcoRI and HindIII) analysis. rRNA gene restriction patterns were further determined for different strains obtained from each source. These patterns were used for recognizing the spoilage-causing LAB strains from the product on the sell-by day and tracing the sources and sites of spoilage LAB contamination during the manufacture. LAB typing resulted in 71 different ribotypes, of which 27 were associated with contamination routes. Raw material was distinguished as the source of the major spoilage strains. Contamination of the product surfaces after cooking was shown to be airborne. The removal of the product from the cooking forms was localized as a major site of airborne LAB contamination. Food handlers and some surfaces in contact with the product during the manufacture were also contaminated with the spoilage strains. Some LAB strains were also able to resist cooking in the core of the product bar. These strains may have an effect on the product shelf life by contaminating the slicing machine. The air in the slicing department and adjacent cold room contained very few LAB. Surface-mediated contamination was detected during the slicing and packaging stages. Food handlers also carried strains later found in the packaged product. Molecular typing provided useful information revealing the LAB contamination sources and sites of this product. The production line will be reorganized in accordance with these results to reduce spoilage LAB contamination.

  19. An Archaea 5S rRNA analog is stably expressed in Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Y.; Fox, G. E.

    1996-01-01

    Mini-genes for 5S-like rRNA were constructed. These genes had a sequence which largely resembles that of the naturally occurring 5S rRNA of a bacterium, Halococcus morrhuae, which phylogenetically belongs to the Archaea. Plasmids carrying the mini-genes were transformed into Escherichia coli (Ec). Ribosomal incorporation was not a prerequisite for stable accumulation of the RNA product. However, only those constructs with a well-base-paired helix I accumulated RNA product. This result strongly implies that this aspect of the structure is likely to be an important condition for stabilizing 5S rRNA-like products. The results are consistent with our current understanding of 5S rRNA processing in Ec. When used in conjunction with rRNA probe technology, the resulting chimeric RNA may be useful as a monitoring tool for genetically engineered microorganisms or naturally occurring organisms that are released into the environment.

  20. An Archaea 5S rRNA analog is stably expressed in Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Y.; Fox, G. E.

    1996-01-01

    Mini-genes for 5S-like rRNA were constructed. These genes had a sequence which largely resembles that of the naturally occurring 5S rRNA of a bacterium, Halococcus morrhuae, which phylogenetically belongs to the Archaea. Plasmids carrying the mini-genes were transformed into Escherichia coli (Ec). Ribosomal incorporation was not a prerequisite for stable accumulation of the RNA product. However, only those constructs with a well-base-paired helix I accumulated RNA product. This result strongly implies that this aspect of the structure is likely to be an important condition for stabilizing 5S rRNA-like products. The results are consistent with our current understanding of 5S rRNA processing in Ec. When used in conjunction with rRNA probe technology, the resulting chimeric RNA may be useful as a monitoring tool for genetically engineered microorganisms or naturally occurring organisms that are released into the environment.

  1. Low abundant spacer 5S rRNA transcripts are frequently polyadenylated in Nicotiana.

    PubMed

    Fulnecek, Jaroslav; Kovarik, Ales

    2007-11-01

    In plants, 5S rRNA genes (5S rDNA) encoding 120-nt structural RNA molecules of ribosomes are organized in tandem arrays comprising thousands of units. Failure to correctly terminate transcription would generate longer inaccurately processed transcripts interfering with ribosome biogenesis. Hence multiple termination signals occur immediately after the 5S rRNA coding sequence. To obtain information about the efficiency of termination of 5S rDNA transcription in plants we analyzed 5S rRNA pools in three Nicotiana species, N. sylvestris, N. tomentosiformis and N. tabacum. In addition to highly abundant 120-nt 5S rRNA transcripts, we also detected RNA species composed of a genic region and variable lengths of intergenic sequences. These genic-intergenic RNA molecules occur at a frequency severalfold lower than the mature 120-nt transcripts, and are posttranscriptionally modified by polyadenylation at their 3' end in contrast to 120-nt transcripts. An absence of 5S small RNAs (smRNA) argue against a dominant role for the smRNA biosynthesis pathway in the degradation of aberrant 5S rRNA in Nicotiana. This work is the first description of polyadenylated 5S rRNA species in higher eukaryotes originating from a read-through transcription into the intergenic spacer. We propose that polyadenylation may function in a "quality control" pathway ensuring that only correctly processed molecules enter the ribosome biogenesis.

  2. Eukaryotic 5S rRNA biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ciganda, Martin; Williams, Noreen

    2011-01-01

    The ribosome is a large complex containing both protein and RNA which must be assembled in a precise manner to allow proper functioning in the critical role of protein synthesis. 5S rRNA is the smallest of the RNA components of the ribosome, and although it has been studied for decades, we still do not have a clear understanding of its function within the complex ribosome machine. It is the only RNA species that binds ribosomal proteins prior to its assembly into the ribosome. Its transport into the nucleolus requires this interaction. Here we present an overview of some of the key findings concerning the structure and function of 5S rRNA and how its association with specific proteins impacts its localization and function. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Eukaryotic 5S rRNA biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ciganda, Martin; Williams, Noreen

    2012-01-01

    The ribosome is a large complex containing both protein and RNA which must be assembled in a precise manner to allow proper functioning in the critical role of protein synthesis. 5S rRNA is the smallest of the RNA components of the ribosome, and although it has been studied for decades, we still do not have a clear understanding of its function within the complex ribosome machine. It is the only RNA species that binds ribosomal proteins prior to its assembly into the ribosome. Its transport into the nucleolus requires this interaction. Here we present an overview of some of the key findings concerning the structure and function of 5S rRNA and how its association with specific proteins impacts its localization and function. PMID:21957041

  4. 18S rDNA Sequences from Microeukaryotes Reveal Oil Indicators in Mangrove Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Henrique F.; Cury, Juliano C.; Carmo, Flavia L.; Rosado, Alexandre S.; Peixoto, Raquel S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Microeukaryotes are an effective indicator of the presence of environmental contaminants. However, the characterisation of these organisms by conventional tools is often inefficient, and recent molecular studies have revealed a great diversity of microeukaryotes. The full extent of this diversity is unknown, and therefore, the distribution, ecological role and responses to anthropogenic effects of microeukaryotes are rather obscure. The majority of oil from oceanic oil spills (e.g., the May 2010 accident in the Gulf of Mexico) converges on coastal ecosystems such as mangroves, which are threatened with worldwide disappearance, highlighting the need for efficient tools to indicate the presence of oil in these environments. However, no studies have used molecular methods to assess the effects of oil contamination in mangrove sediment on microeukaryotes as a group. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the population dynamics and the prevailing 18S rDNA phylotypes of microeukaryotes in mangrove sediment microcosms with and without oil contamination, using PCR/DGGE and clone libraries. We found that microeukaryotes are useful for monitoring oil contamination in mangroves. Our clone library analysis revealed a decrease in both diversity and species richness after contamination. The phylogenetic group that showed the greatest sensitivity to oil was the Nematoda. After contamination, a large increase in the abundance of the groups Bacillariophyta (diatoms) and Biosoecida was detected. The oil-contaminated samples were almost entirely dominated by organisms related to Bacillariophyta sp. and Cafeteria minima, which indicates that these groups are possible targets for biomonitoring oil in mangroves. The DGGE fingerprints also indicated shifts in microeukaryote profiles; specific band sequencing indicated the appearance of Bacillariophyta sp. only in contaminated samples and Nematoda only in non-contaminated sediment. Conclusions/Significance We believe that

  5. 18S rDNA sequences from microeukaryotes reveal oil indicators in mangrove sediment.

    PubMed

    Santos, Henrique F; Cury, Juliano C; Carmo, Flavia L; Rosado, Alexandre S; Peixoto, Raquel S

    2010-08-26

    Microeukaryotes are an effective indicator of the presence of environmental contaminants. However, the characterisation of these organisms by conventional tools is often inefficient, and recent molecular studies have revealed a great diversity of microeukaryotes. The full extent of this diversity is unknown, and therefore, the distribution, ecological role and responses to anthropogenic effects of microeukaryotes are rather obscure. The majority of oil from oceanic oil spills (e.g., the May 2010 accident in the Gulf of Mexico) converges on coastal ecosystems such as mangroves, which are threatened with worldwide disappearance, highlighting the need for efficient tools to indicate the presence of oil in these environments. However, no studies have used molecular methods to assess the effects of oil contamination in mangrove sediment on microeukaryotes as a group. We evaluated the population dynamics and the prevailing 18S rDNA phylotypes of microeukaryotes in mangrove sediment microcosms with and without oil contamination, using PCR/DGGE and clone libraries. We found that microeukaryotes are useful for monitoring oil contamination in mangroves. Our clone library analysis revealed a decrease in both diversity and species richness after contamination. The phylogenetic group that showed the greatest sensitivity to oil was the Nematoda. After contamination, a large increase in the abundance of the groups Bacillariophyta (diatoms) and Biosoecida was detected. The oil-contaminated samples were almost entirely dominated by organisms related to Bacillariophyta sp. and Cafeteria minima, which indicates that these groups are possible targets for biomonitoring oil in mangroves. The DGGE fingerprints also indicated shifts in microeukaryote profiles; specific band sequencing indicated the appearance of Bacillariophyta sp. only in contaminated samples and Nematoda only in non-contaminated sediment. We believe that the microeukaryotic targets indicated by our work will be of great

  6. Radiolaria divided into Polycystina and Spasmaria in combined 18S and 28S rDNA phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Krabberød, Anders K; Bråte, Jon; Dolven, Jane K; Ose, Randi F; Klaveness, Dag; Kristensen, Tom; Bjørklund, Kjell R; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    Radiolarians are marine planktonic protists that belong to the eukaryote supergroup Rhizaria together with Foraminifera and Cercozoa. Radiolaria has traditionally been divided into four main groups based on morphological characters; i.e. Polycystina, Acantharia, Nassellaria and Phaeodaria. But recent 18S rDNA phylogenies have shown that Phaeodaria belongs within Cerocozoa, and that the previously heliozoan group Taxopodida should be included in Radiolaria. 18S rDNA phylogenies have not yet resolved the sister relationship between the main Radiolaria groups, but nevertheless suggests that Spumellaria, and thereby also Polycystina, are polyphyletic. Very few sequences other than 18S rDNA have so far been generated from radiolarian cells, mostly due to the fact that Radiolaria has been impossible to cultivate and single cell PCR has been hampered by low success rate. Here we have therefore investigated the mutual evolutionary relationship of the main radiolarian groups by using the novel approach of combining single cell whole genome amplification with targeted PCR amplification of the 18S and 28S rDNA genes. Combined 18S and 28S phylogeny of sequences obtained from single cells shows that Radiolaria is divided into two main lineages: Polycystina (Spumellaria+Nassellaria) and Spasmaria (Acantharia+Taxopodida). Further we show with high support that Foraminifera groups within Radiolaria supporting the Retaria hypothesis.

  7. Radiolaria Divided into Polycystina and Spasmaria in Combined 18S and 28S rDNA Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Dolven, Jane K.; Ose, Randi F.; Klaveness, Dag; Kristensen, Tom; Bjørklund, Kjell R.; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    Radiolarians are marine planktonic protists that belong to the eukaryote supergroup Rhizaria together with Foraminifera and Cercozoa. Radiolaria has traditionally been divided into four main groups based on morphological characters; i.e. Polycystina, Acantharia, Nassellaria and Phaeodaria. But recent 18S rDNA phylogenies have shown that Phaeodaria belongs within Cerocozoa, and that the previously heliozoan group Taxopodida should be included in Radiolaria. 18S rDNA phylogenies have not yet resolved the sister relationship between the main Radiolaria groups, but nevertheless suggests that Spumellaria, and thereby also Polycystina, are polyphyletic. Very few sequences other than 18S rDNA have so far been generated from radiolarian cells, mostly due to the fact that Radiolaria has been impossible to cultivate and single cell PCR has been hampered by low success rate. Here we have therefore investigated the mutual evolutionary relationship of the main radiolarian groups by using the novel approach of combining single cell whole genome amplification with targeted PCR amplification of the 18S and 28S rDNA genes. Combined 18S and 28S phylogeny of sequences obtained from single cells shows that Radiolaria is divided into two main lineages: Polycystina (Spumellaria+Nassellaria) and Spasmaria (Acantharia+Taxopodida). Further we show with high support that Foraminifera groups within Radiolaria supporting the Retaria hypothesis. PMID:21853146

  8. Variable rRNA gene copies in extreme halobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sanz, J.L.; Marin, I.; Ramirez, L.; Amils, R. ); Abad, J.P.; Smith, C.L. )

    1988-08-25

    Using PFG electrophoresis techniques, the authors have examined the organization of rRNA gene in halobacterium species. The results show that the organization of rRNA genes among closely related halobacteria is quite heterogeneous. This contrasts with the high degree of conservation of rRNA sequence. The possible mechanism of such rRNA gene amplification and its evolutionary implications are discussed.

  9. Dicistronic tRNA-5S rRNA genes in Yarrowia lipolytica: an alternative TFIIIA-independent way for expression of 5S rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Acker, Joël; Ozanne, Christophe; Kachouri-Lafond, Rym; Gaillardin, Claude; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Marck, Christian

    2008-10-01

    In eukaryotes, genes transcribed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III) carry their own internal promoters and as such, are transcribed as individual units. Indeed, a very few cases of dicistronic Pol III genes are yet known. In contrast to other hemiascomycetes, 5S rRNA genes of Yarrowia lipolytica are not embedded into the tandemly repeated rDNA units, but appear scattered throughout the genome. We report here an unprecedented genomic organization: 48 over the 108 copies of the 5S rRNA genes are located 3' of tRNA genes. We show that these peculiar tRNA-5S rRNA dicistronic genes are expressed in vitro and in vivo as Pol III transcriptional fusions without the need of the 5S rRNA gene-specific factor TFIIIA, the deletion of which displays a viable phenotype. We also report the existence of a novel putative non-coding Pol III RNA of unknown function about 70 nucleotide-long (RUF70), the 13 genes of which are devoid of internal Pol III promoters and located 3' of the 13 copies of the tDNA-Trp (CCA). All genes embedded in the various dicistronic genes, fused 5S rRNA genes, RUF70 genes and their leader tRNA genes appear to be efficiently transcribed and their products correctly processed in vivo.

  10. Dicistronic tRNA–5S rRNA genes in Yarrowia lipolytica: an alternative TFIIIA-independent way for expression of 5S rRNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Acker, Joël; Ozanne, Christophe; Kachouri-Lafond, Rym; Gaillardin, Claude; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Marck, Christian

    2008-01-01

    In eukaryotes, genes transcribed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III) carry their own internal promoters and as such, are transcribed as individual units. Indeed, a very few cases of dicistronic Pol III genes are yet known. In contrast to other hemiascomycetes, 5S rRNA genes of Yarrowia lipolytica are not embedded into the tandemly repeated rDNA units, but appear scattered throughout the genome. We report here an unprecedented genomic organization: 48 over the 108 copies of the 5S rRNA genes are located 3′ of tRNA genes. We show that these peculiar tRNA–5S rRNA dicistronic genes are expressed in vitro and in vivo as Pol III transcriptional fusions without the need of the 5S rRNA gene-specific factor TFIIIA, the deletion of which displays a viable phenotype. We also report the existence of a novel putative non-coding Pol III RNA of unknown function about 70 nucleotide-long (RUF70), the 13 genes of which are devoid of internal Pol III promoters and located 3′ of the 13 copies of the tDNA-Trp (CCA). All genes embedded in the various dicistronic genes, fused 5S rRNA genes, RUF70 genes and their leader tRNA genes appear to be efficiently transcribed and their products correctly processed in vivo. PMID:18790808

  11. Arabidopsis chloroplast mini-ribonuclease III participates in rRNA maturation and intron recycling.

    PubMed

    Hotto, Amber M; Castandet, Benoît; Gilet, Laetitia; Higdon, Andrea; Condon, Ciarán; Stern, David B

    2015-03-01

    RNase III proteins recognize double-stranded RNA structures and catalyze endoribonucleolytic cleavages that often regulate gene expression. Here, we characterize the functions of RNC3 and RNC4, two Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast Mini-RNase III-like enzymes sharing 75% amino acid sequence identity. Whereas rnc3 and rnc4 null mutants have no visible phenotype, rnc3/rnc4 (rnc3/4) double mutants are slightly smaller and chlorotic compared with the wild type. In Bacillus subtilis, the RNase Mini-III is integral to 23S rRNA maturation. In Arabidopsis, we observed imprecise maturation of 23S rRNA in the rnc3/4 double mutant, suggesting that exoribonucleases generated staggered ends in the absence of specific Mini-III-catalyzed cleavages. A similar phenotype was found at the 3' end of the 16S rRNA, and the primary 4.5S rRNA transcript contained 3' extensions, suggesting that Mini-III catalyzes several processing events of the polycistronic rRNA precursor. The rnc3/4 mutant showed overaccumulation of a noncoding RNA complementary to the 4.5S-5S rRNA intergenic region, and its presence correlated with that of the extended 4.5S rRNA precursor. Finally, we found rnc3/4-specific intron degradation intermediates that are probable substrates for Mini-III and show that B. subtilis Mini-III is also involved in intron regulation. Overall, this study extends our knowledge of the key role of Mini-III in intron and noncoding RNA regulation and provides important insight into plastid rRNA maturation.

  12. Arabidopsis Chloroplast Mini-Ribonuclease III Participates in rRNA Maturation and Intron Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Hotto, Amber M.; Castandet, Benoît; Gilet, Laetitia; Higdon, Andrea; Condon, Ciarán; Stern, David B.

    2015-01-01

    RNase III proteins recognize double-stranded RNA structures and catalyze endoribonucleolytic cleavages that often regulate gene expression. Here, we characterize the functions of RNC3 and RNC4, two Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast Mini-RNase III-like enzymes sharing 75% amino acid sequence identity. Whereas rnc3 and rnc4 null mutants have no visible phenotype, rnc3/rnc4 (rnc3/4) double mutants are slightly smaller and chlorotic compared with the wild type. In Bacillus subtilis, the RNase Mini-III is integral to 23S rRNA maturation. In Arabidopsis, we observed imprecise maturation of 23S rRNA in the rnc3/4 double mutant, suggesting that exoribonucleases generated staggered ends in the absence of specific Mini-III-catalyzed cleavages. A similar phenotype was found at the 3′ end of the 16S rRNA, and the primary 4.5S rRNA transcript contained 3′ extensions, suggesting that Mini-III catalyzes several processing events of the polycistronic rRNA precursor. The rnc3/4 mutant showed overaccumulation of a noncoding RNA complementary to the 4.5S-5S rRNA intergenic region, and its presence correlated with that of the extended 4.5S rRNA precursor. Finally, we found rnc3/4-specific intron degradation intermediates that are probable substrates for Mini-III and show that B. subtilis Mini-III is also involved in intron regulation. Overall, this study extends our knowledge of the key role of Mini-III in intron and noncoding RNA regulation and provides important insight into plastid rRNA maturation. PMID:25724636

  13. Dynamics and rRNA transcriptional activity of lactococci and lactobacilli during Cheddar cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Desfossés-Foucault, Émilie; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2013-08-16

    Cheddar cheese is a complex ecosystem where both the bacterial population and the cheese making process contribute to flavor and texture development. The aim of this study was to use molecular methods to evaluate the impact of milk heat treatment and ripening temperature on starter lactococci and non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) throughout ripening of Cheddar cheese. Eight Cheddar cheese batches were manufactured (four with thermized and four with pasteurized milk) and ripened at 4, 7 and 12°C to analyze the bacterial composition and rRNA transcriptional activity reflecting the ability of lactococci and lactobacilli to synthesize proteins. Abundance and rRNA transcription of lactococci and lactobacilli were quantified after DNA and RNA extraction by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) targeting the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Results showed that lactococci remained dominant throughout ripening, although 16S rRNA genome and cDNA copies/g of cheese decreased by four and two log copy numbers, respectively. Abundance and rRNA transcription of Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus buchneri/parabuchneri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus coryniformis as well as total lactobacilli were also estimated using specific 16S rRNA primers. L. paracasei and L. buchneri/parabuchneri concomitantly grew in cheese made from thermized milk at 7 and 12°C, although L. paracasei displayed the most rRNA transcription among Lactobacillus species. This work showed that rRNA transcriptional activity of lactococci decreased throughout ripening and supports the usefulness of RNA analysis to assess which bacterial species have the ability to synthesize proteins during ripening, and could thereby contribute to cheese quality. © 2013.

  14. Differential assembly of 16S rRNA domains during 30S subunit formation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhili; Culver, Gloria M

    2010-10-01

    Rapid and accurate assembly of the ribosomal subunits, which are responsible for protein synthesis, is required to sustain cell growth. Our best understanding of the interaction of 30S ribosomal subunit components (16S ribosomal RNA [rRNA] and 20 ribosomal proteins [r-proteins]) comes from in vitro work using Escherichia coli ribosomal components. However, detailed information regarding the essential elements involved in the assembly of 30S subunits still remains elusive. Here, we defined a set of rRNA nucleotides that are critical for the assembly of the small ribosomal subunit in E. coli. Using an RNA modification interference approach, we identified 54 nucleotides in 16S rRNA whose modification prevents the formation of a functional small ribosomal subunit. The majority of these nucleotides are located in the head and interdomain junction of the 30S subunit, suggesting that these regions are critical for small subunit assembly. In vivo analysis of specific identified sites, using engineered mutations in 16S rRNA, revealed defective protein synthesis capability, aberrant polysome profiles, and abnormal 16S rRNA processing, indicating the importance of these residues in vivo. These studies reveal that specific segments of 16S rRNA are more critical for small subunit assembly than others, and suggest a hierarchy of importance.

  15. Eukaryote-specific rRNA expansion segments function in ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Madhumitha; Woolford, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The secondary structure of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is largely conserved across all kingdoms of life. However, eukaryotes have evolved extra blocks of rRNA sequences, relative to those of prokaryotes, called expansion segments (ES). A thorough characterization of the potential roles of ES remains to be done, possibly because of limitations in the availability of robust systems to study rRNA mutants. We sought to systematically investigate the potential functions, if any, of the ES in 25S rRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by deletion mutagenesis. We deleted 14 of the 16 different eukaryote-specific ES in yeast 25S rRNA individually and assayed their phenotypes. Our results show that all but two of the ES tested are necessary for optimal growth and are required for production of 25S rRNA, suggesting that ES play roles in ribosome biogenesis. Further, we classified expansion segments into groups that participate in early nucleolar, middle, and late nucleoplasmic steps of ribosome biogenesis, by assaying their pre-rRNA processing phenotypes. This study is the first of its kind to systematically identify the functions of eukaryote-specific expansion segments by showing that they play roles in specific steps of ribosome biogenesis. The catalog of phenotypes we identified, combined with previous investigations of the roles ribosomal proteins in large subunit biogenesis, leads us to infer that assembling ribosomes are composed of distinct RNA and protein structural neighborhood clusters that participate in specific steps of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:27317789

  16. Accurate taxonomy assignments from 16S rRNA sequences produced by highly parallel pyrosequencers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zongzhi; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Andersen, Gary L.; Knight, Rob

    2008-01-01

    The recent introduction of massively parallel pyrosequencers allows rapid, inexpensive analysis of microbial community composition using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences. However, a major challenge is to design a workflow so that taxonomic information can be accurately and rapidly assigned to each read, so that the composition of each community can be linked back to likely ecological roles played by members of each species, genus, family or phylum. Here, we use three large 16S rRNA datasets to test whether taxonomic information based on the full-length sequences can be recaptured by short reads that simulate the pyrosequencer outputs. We find that different taxonomic assignment methods vary radically in their ability to recapture the taxonomic information in full-length 16S rRNA sequences: most methods are sensitive to the region of the 16S rRNA gene that is targeted for sequencing, but many combinations of methods and rRNA regions produce consistent and accurate results. To process large datasets of partial 16S rRNA sequences obtained from surveys of various microbial communities, including those from human body habitats, we recommend the use of Greengenes or RDP classifier with fragments of at least 250 bases, starting from one of the primers R357, R534, R798, F343 or F517. PMID:18723574

  17. Pharmacological inhibition of PAR2 with the pepducin P2pal-18S protects mice against acute experimental biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Michael, E S; Kuliopulos, A; Covic, L; Steer, M L; Perides, G

    2013-03-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells express proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) that is activated by trypsin-like serine proteases and has been shown to exert model-specific effects on the severity of experimental pancreatitis, i.e., PAR2(-/-) mice are protected from experimental acute biliary pancreatitis but develop more severe secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. P2pal-18S is a novel pepducin lipopeptide that targets and inhibits PAR2. In studies monitoring PAR2-stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) concentration changes, we show that P2pal-18S is a full PAR2 inhibitor in acinar cells. Our in vivo studies show that P2pal-18S significantly reduces the severity of experimental biliary pancreatitis induced by retrograde intraductal bile acid infusion, which mimics injury induced by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This reduction in pancreatitis severity is observed when the pepducin is given before or 2 h after bile acid infusion but not when it is given 5 h after bile acid infusion. Conversely, P2pal-18S increases the severity of secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. In vitro studies indicate that P2pal-18S protects acinar cells against bile acid-induced injury/death, but it does not alter bile acid-induced intracellular zymogen activation. These studies are the first to report the effects of an effective PAR2 pharmacological inhibitor on pancreatic acinar cells and on the severity of experimental pancreatitis. They raise the possibility that a pepducin such as P2pal-18S might prove useful in the clinical management of patients at risk for developing severe biliary pancreatitis such as occurs following ERCP.

  18. Pharmacological inhibition of PAR2 with the pepducin P2pal-18S protects mice against acute experimental biliary pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Michael, E. S.; Kuliopulos, A.; Covic, L.; Steer, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells express proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) that is activated by trypsin-like serine proteases and has been shown to exert model-specific effects on the severity of experimental pancreatitis, i.e., PAR2−/− mice are protected from experimental acute biliary pancreatitis but develop more severe secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. P2pal-18S is a novel pepducin lipopeptide that targets and inhibits PAR2. In studies monitoring PAR2-stimulated intracellular Ca2+ concentration changes, we show that P2pal-18S is a full PAR2 inhibitor in acinar cells. Our in vivo studies show that P2pal-18S significantly reduces the severity of experimental biliary pancreatitis induced by retrograde intraductal bile acid infusion, which mimics injury induced by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This reduction in pancreatitis severity is observed when the pepducin is given before or 2 h after bile acid infusion but not when it is given 5 h after bile acid infusion. Conversely, P2pal-18S increases the severity of secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. In vitro studies indicate that P2pal-18S protects acinar cells against bile acid-induced injury/death, but it does not alter bile acid-induced intracellular zymogen activation. These studies are the first to report the effects of an effective PAR2 pharmacological inhibitor on pancreatic acinar cells and on the severity of experimental pancreatitis. They raise the possibility that a pepducin such as P2pal-18S might prove useful in the clinical management of patients at risk for developing severe biliary pancreatitis such as occurs following ERCP. PMID:23275617

  19. Hypermethylation of 18S and 28S ribosomal DNAs predicts progression-free survival in patients with ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Chan, Michael W Y; Wei, Susan H; Wen, Ping; Wang, Zailong; Matei, Daniela E; Liu, Joseph C; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Brown, Robert; Nephew, Kenneth P; Yan, Pearlly S; Huang, Tim H-M

    2005-10-15

    Repetitive ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes are GC-rich clusters in the human genome. The aim of the study was to determine the methylation status of two rDNA subunits, the 18S and 28S genes, in ovarian tumors and to correlate methylation levels with clinicopathologic features in a cohort of ovarian cancer patients. 18S and 28S rDNA methylation was examined by quantitative methylation-specific PCR in 74 late-stage ovarian cancers, 9 histologically uninvolved, and 11 normal ovarian surface epithelial samples. In addition, methylation and gene expression levels of 18S and 28S rDNAs in two ovarian cancer cell lines were examined by reverse transcription-PCR before and after treatment with the demethylating drug 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. The methylation level (amount of methylated rDNA/beta-actin) of 18S and 28S rDNAs was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in tumors than in normal ovarian surface epithelial samples. Methylation of 18S and 28S rDNA was highly correlated (R2= 0.842). Multivariate analysis by Cox regression found that rDNA hypermethylation [hazard ratio (HR), 0.25; P < 0.01], but not age (HR, 1.29; P = 0.291) and stage (HR, 1.09; P = 0.709), was independently associated with longer progression-free survival. In ovarian cancer cell lines, methylation levels of rDNA correlated with gene down-regulation and 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment resulted in a moderate increase in 18S and 28S rDNA gene expressions. This is the first report of rDNA hypermethylation in ovarian tumors. Furthermore, rDNA methylation levels were higher in patients with long progression-free survival versus patients with short survival. Thus, rDNA methylation as a prognostic marker in ovarian cancer warrants further investigation.

  20. Development of a Single-Step Subtraction Method for Eukaryotic 18S and 28S Ribonucleic Acids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Article Development of a Single-Step SubtractionMethod for Eukaryotic 18S and 28S Ribonucleic Acids Marie J. Archer and Baochuan Lin Center for Bio...real-time RT-PCR revealed capture-efficiencies comparable with commercially available enrichment kits. The performance of the solid phase can be...Method For Eukaryotic 18S And 28S Ribonucleic Acids 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  1. Characterization of Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 10595 rRNA gene clusters and cloning of rrnA.

    PubMed Central

    La Farina, M; Stira, S; Mancuso, R; Grisanti, C

    1996-01-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 10595 harbors seven rRNA gene clusters which can be distinguished by BglII digestion. The three rRNA genes present in each set are closely linked with the general structure 16S-23S-5S. We cloned rrnA and sequenced the 16S-23S spacer region and the region downstream of the 5S rRNA gene. No tRNA gene was found in these regions. PMID:8631730

  2. Nucleolin Is Required for DNA Methylation State and the Expression of rRNA Gene Variants in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pontvianne, Frédéric; Abou-Ellail, Mohamed; Douet, Julien; Comella, Pascale; Matia, Isabel; Chandrasekhara, Chinmayi; DeBures, Anne; Blevins, Todd; Cooke, Richard; Medina, Francisco J.; Tourmente, Sylvette; Pikaard, Craig S.; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotes, 45S rRNA genes are arranged in tandem arrays in copy numbers ranging from several hundred to several thousand in plants. Although it is clear that not all copies are transcribed under normal growth conditions, the molecular basis controlling the expression of specific sets of rRNA genes remains unclear. Here, we report four major rRNA gene variants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Interestingly, while transcription of one of these rRNA variants is induced, the others are either repressed or remain unaltered in A. thaliana plants with a disrupted nucleolin-like protein gene (Atnuc-L1). Remarkably, the most highly represented rRNA gene variant, which is inactive in WT plants, is reactivated in Atnuc-L1 mutants. We show that accumulated pre–rRNAs originate from RNA Pol I transcription and are processed accurately. Moreover, we show that disruption of the AtNUC-L1 gene induces loss of symmetrical DNA methylation without affecting histone epigenetic marks at rRNA genes. Collectively, these data reveal a novel mechanism for rRNA gene transcriptional regulation in which the nucleolin protein plays a major role in controlling active and repressed rRNA gene variants in Arabidopsis. PMID:21124873

  3. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP OF ALEXANDRIUM MONILATUM (DINOPHYCEAE) TO OTHER ALEXANDRIUM SPECIES BASED ON 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA GENE SEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phylogenetic relationship of Alexandrium monilatum to other Alexandrium spp. was explored using 18S rDNA sequences. Maximum likelilhood phylogenetic analysis of the combined rDNA sequences established that A. monilatum paired with Alexandrium taylori and that the pair was the...

  4. Increased 5S rRNA oxidation in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qunxing; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhang, Bing; Soriano, Augusto; Burns, Roxanne; Markesbery, William R

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that oxidative stress is involved in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is one of the most abundant molecules in most cells and is affected by oxidative stress in the human brain. Previous data have indicated that total rRNA levels were decreased in the brains of subjects with AD and mild cognitive impairment concomitant with an increase in rRNA oxidation. In addition, level of 5S rRNA, one of the essential components of the ribosome complex, was significantly lower in the inferior parietal lobule (IP) brain area of subjects with AD compared with control subjects. To further evaluate the alteration of 5S rRNA in neurodegenerative human brains, multiple brain regions from both AD and age-matched control subjects were used in this study, including IP, superior and middle temporal gyro, temporal pole, and cerebellum. Different molecular pools including 5S rRNA integrated into ribosome complexes, free 5S rRNA, cytoplasmic 5S rRNA, and nuclear 5S rRNA were studied. Free 5S rRNA levels were significantly decreased in the temporal pole region of AD subjects and the oxidation of ribosome-integrated and free 5S rRNA was significantly increased in multiple brain regions in AD subjects compared with controls. Moreover, a greater amount of oxidized 5S rRNA was detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus of AD subjects compared with controls. These results suggest that the increased oxidation of 5S rRNA, especially the oxidation of free 5S rRNA, may be involved in the neurodegeneration observed in AD.

  5. The rRNA evolution and procaryotic phylogeny

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of ribosomal RNA primary structure allow reconstruction of phylogenetic trees for prokaryotic organisms. Such studies reveal major dichotomy among the bacteria that separates them into eubacteria and archaebacteria. Both groupings are further segmented into several major divisions. The results obtained from 5S rRNA sequences are essentially the same as those obtained with the 16S rRNA data. In the case of Gram negative bacteria the ribosomal RNA sequencing results can also be directly compared with hybridization studies and cytochrome c sequencing studies. There is again excellent agreement among the several methods. It seems likely then that the overall picture of microbial phylogeny that is emerging from the RNA sequence studies is a good approximation of the true history of these organisms. The RNA data allow examination of the evolutionary process in a semi-quantitative way. The secondary structures of these RNAs are largely established. As a result it is possible to recognize examples of local structural evolution. Evolutionary pathways accounting for these events can be proposed and their probability can be assessed.

  6. The rRNA evolution and procaryotic phylogeny

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of ribosomal RNA primary structure allow reconstruction of phylogenetic trees for prokaryotic organisms. Such studies reveal major dichotomy among the bacteria that separates them into eubacteria and archaebacteria. Both groupings are further segmented into several major divisions. The results obtained from 5S rRNA sequences are essentially the same as those obtained with the 16S rRNA data. In the case of Gram negative bacteria the ribosomal RNA sequencing results can also be directly compared with hybridization studies and cytochrome c sequencing studies. There is again excellent agreement among the several methods. It seems likely then that the overall picture of microbial phylogeny that is emerging from the RNA sequence studies is a good approximation of the true history of these organisms. The RNA data allow examination of the evolutionary process in a semi-quantitative way. The secondary structures of these RNAs are largely established. As a result it is possible to recognize examples of local structural evolution. Evolutionary pathways accounting for these events can be proposed and their probability can be assessed.

  7. Histones are required for transcription of yeast rRNA genes by RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Tongaonkar, Prasad; French, Sarah L; Oakes, Melanie L; Vu, Loan; Schneider, David A; Beyer, Ann L; Nomura, Masayasu

    2005-07-19

    Nucleosomes and their histone components have generally been recognized to act negatively on transcription. However, purified upstream activating factor (UAF), a transcription initiation factor required for RNA polymerase (Pol) I transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, contains histones H3 and H4 and four nonhistone protein subunits. Other studies have shown that histones H3 and H4 are associated with actively transcribed rRNA genes. To examine their functional role in Pol I transcription, we constructed yeast strains in which synthesis of H3 is achieved from the glucose-repressible GAL10 promoter. We found that partial depletion of H3 (approximately 50% depletion) resulted in a strong inhibition (>80%) of Pol I transcription. A combination of biochemical analysis and electron microscopic (EM) analysis of Miller chromatin spreads indicated that initiation and elongation steps and rRNA processing were compromised upon histone depletion. A clear decrease in relative amounts of UAF, presumably caused by reduced stability, was also observed under the conditions of H3 depletion. Therefore, the observed inhibition of initiation can be explained, in part, by the decrease in UAF concentration. In addition, the EM results suggested that the defects in rRNA transcript elongation and processing may be a result of loss of histones from rRNA genes rather than (or in addition to) an indirect consequence of effects of histone depletion on expression of other genes. Thus, these results show functional importance of histones associated with actively transcribed rRNA genes.

  8. Morphology, morphogenesis and small subunit rRNA gene sequence of a soil hypotrichous ciliate, Perisincirra paucicirrata (Ciliophora, Kahliellidae), from the shoreline of the Yellow River, North China.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengchao; Xing, Yi; Li, Jiamei; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; He, Songke; Shao, Chen

    2013-01-01

    The morphology, morphogenesis, and 18S rRNA gene sequence of a soil hypotrichous ciliate Perisincirra paucicirrata, isolated from north China, were investigated. Perisincirra paucicirrata differs from its congeners in: (1) having a body length to width ratio in vivo of 4:1, (2) its adoral zone occupying between 15% and 25% of the total body length, and (3) the presence of two parabuccal cirri, three left (with 10-16 cirri each) and two right marginal rows (with 14-24 cirri each), and three dorsal kineties. Our study offers a first attempt to begin to map the morphogenetic processes of the genus, which are mainly characterised by the following: the formation of four frontal ventral transverse anlagens for each daughter cell, with the proter's anlage I originating from the reorganised anterior part of the parental paroral; the paroral and endoral anlage developed from the reorganised old endoral and do not contribute the first frontal cirrus; the frontoventral transverse anlage I contributing the left frontal cirrus; anlage II generating the middle frontal and the buccal cirri; anlage III developing the right frontal cirrus and the anterior parabuccal cirrus; and anlage IV contributing the posterior parabuccal cirrus. As an additional contribution, we judge that the inner one or the two right rows of P. kahli and P. longicirrata are marginal rows. Phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rDNA sequences suggests that Perisincirra is related to sporadotrichids, but provides no credible evidence for its taxonomic position.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of conifers inferred from partial 28S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Stefanoviac, S; Jager, M; Deutsch, J; Broutin, J; Masselot, M

    1998-05-01

    The conifers, which traditionally comprise seven families, are the largest and most diverse group of living gymnosperms. Efforts to systematize this diversity without a cladistic phylogenetic framework have often resulted in the segregation of certain genera and/or families from the conifers. In order to understand better the relationships between the families, we performed cladistic analyses using a new data set obtained from 28S rRNA gene sequences. These analyses strongly support the monophyly of conifers including Taxaceae. Within the conifers, the Pinaceae are the first to diverge, being the sister group of the rest of conifers. A recently discovered Australian genus Wollemia is confirmed to be a natural member of the Araucariaceae. The Taxaceae are nested within the conifer clade, being the most closely related to the Cephalotaxaceae. The Taxodiaceae and Cupressaceae together form a monophyletic group. Sciadopitys should be considered as constituting a separate family. These relationships are consistent with previous cladistic analyses of morphological and molecular (18S rRNA, rbcL) data. Furthermore, the well-supported clade linking the Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae, which has not been previously reported, suggests that the common ancestor of these families, both having the greatest diversity in the Southern Hemisphere, inhabited Gondwanaland.

  10. A Mutation in the 16S rRNA Decoding Region Attenuates the Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinya; Matsumura, Kazunori; Iwai, Hiroki; Funatogawa, Keiji; Haishima, Yuji; Fukui, Chie; Okumura, Kayo; Kato-Miyazawa, Masako; Hashimoto, Masahito; Teramoto, Kanae; Kirikae, Fumiko; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Kirikae, Teruo

    2016-08-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains a single rRNA operon that encodes targets for antituberculosis agents, including kanamycin. To date, only four mutations in the kanamycin binding sites of 16S rRNA have been reported in kanamycin-resistant clinical isolates. We hypothesized that another mutation(s) in the region may dramatically decrease M. tuberculosis viability and virulence. Here, we describe an rRNA mutation, U1406A, which was generated in vitro and confers resistance to kanamycin while highly attenuating M. tuberculosis virulence. The mutant showed decreased expression of 20% (n = 361) of mycobacterial proteins, including central metabolic enzymes, mycolic acid biosynthesis enzymes, and virulence factors such as antigen 85 complexes and ESAT-6. The mutation also induced three proteins, including KsgA (Rv1010; 16S rRNA adenine dimethyltransferase), which closely bind to the U1406A mutation site on the ribosome; these proteins were associated with ribosome maturation and translation initiation processes. The mutant showed an increase in 17S rRNA (precursor 16S rRNA) and a decrease in the ratio of 30S subunits to the 70S ribosomes, suggesting that the U1406A mutation in 16S rRNA attenuated M. tuberculosis virulence by affecting these processes.

  11. A Mutation in the 16S rRNA Decoding Region Attenuates the Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shinya; Matsumura, Kazunori; Iwai, Hiroki; Funatogawa, Keiji; Haishima, Yuji; Fukui, Chie; Okumura, Kayo; Kato-Miyazawa, Masako; Hashimoto, Masahito; Teramoto, Kanae; Kirikae, Fumiko; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains a single rRNA operon that encodes targets for antituberculosis agents, including kanamycin. To date, only four mutations in the kanamycin binding sites of 16S rRNA have been reported in kanamycin-resistant clinical isolates. We hypothesized that another mutation(s) in the region may dramatically decrease M. tuberculosis viability and virulence. Here, we describe an rRNA mutation, U1406A, which was generated in vitro and confers resistance to kanamycin while highly attenuating M. tuberculosis virulence. The mutant showed decreased expression of 20% (n = 361) of mycobacterial proteins, including central metabolic enzymes, mycolic acid biosynthesis enzymes, and virulence factors such as antigen 85 complexes and ESAT-6. The mutation also induced three proteins, including KsgA (Rv1010; 16S rRNA adenine dimethyltransferase), which closely bind to the U1406A mutation site on the ribosome; these proteins were associated with ribosome maturation and translation initiation processes. The mutant showed an increase in 17S rRNA (precursor 16S rRNA) and a decrease in the ratio of 30S subunits to the 70S ribosomes, suggesting that the U1406A mutation in 16S rRNA attenuated M. tuberculosis virulence by affecting these processes. PMID:27245411

  12. Molecular Identification of Ptychodera flava (Hemichordata: Enteropneusta): Reconsideration in Light of Nucleotide Polymorphism in the 18S Ribosomal RNA Gene.

    PubMed

    Urata, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    Seven nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers were examined in 12 specimens of Ptychodera flava, a model acorn worm used in molecular biology, collected in Japan from three local populations with different modes of living. A comparison of intraspecific results did not show genetically isolated populations despite the species' enclave habitats and asexual reproduction. Moreover, both the nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene and mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences were identical to those from Moorea in French Polynesia, nearly 10,000 kilometers away from Japan. I also provide the first definitive information regarding polymorphisms in 18S ribosomal RNA gene, the external transcribed spacer (ETS), internal transcribed spacers (ITS), and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mtCO1) sequence in hemichordates using newly designed primer sets, and I show both high larval vagility and certain criteria for the molecular identification of this species.

  13. Decreases in average bacterial community rRNA operon copy number during succession

    PubMed Central

    Nemergut, Diana R; Knelman, Joseph E; Ferrenberg, Scott; Bilinski, Teresa; Melbourne, Brett; Jiang, Lin; Violle, Cyrille; Darcy, John L; Prest, Tiffany; Schmidt, Steven K; Townsend, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Trait-based studies can help clarify the mechanisms driving patterns of microbial community assembly and coexistence. Here, we use a trait-based approach to explore the importance of rRNA operon copy number in microbial succession, building on prior evidence that organisms with higher copy numbers respond more rapidly to nutrient inputs. We set flasks of heterotrophic media into the environment and examined bacterial community assembly at seven time points. Communities were arrayed along a geographic gradient to introduce stochasticity via dispersal processes and were analyzed using 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, and rRNA operon copy number was modeled using ancestral trait reconstruction. We found that taxonomic composition was similar between communities at the beginning of the experiment and then diverged through time; as well, phylogenetic clustering within communities decreased over time. The average rRNA operon copy number decreased over the experiment, and variance in rRNA operon copy number was lowest both early and late in succession. We then analyzed bacterial community data from other soil and sediment primary and secondary successional sequences from three markedly different ecosystem types. Our results demonstrate that decreases in average copy number are a consistent feature of communities across various drivers of ecological succession. Importantly, our work supports the scaling of the copy number trait over multiple levels of biological organization, ranging from cells to populations and communities, with implications for both microbial ecology and evolution. PMID:26565722

  14. The impact of transcriptional tuning on in vitro integrated rRNA transcription and ribosome construction

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Brian R.; Jewett, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro ribosome construction could enable studies of ribosome assembly and function, provide a route toward constructing minimal cells for synthetic biology, and permit the construction of ribosome variants with new functions. Toward these long-term goals, we recently reported on an integrated, one-pot ribosomal RNA synthesis (rRNA), ribosome assembly, and translation technology (termed iSAT) for the construction of Escherichia coli ribosomes in crude ribosome-free S150 extracts. Here, we aimed to improve the activity of iSAT through transcriptional tuning. Specifically, we increased transcriptional efficiency through 3′ modifications to the rRNA gene sequences, optimized plasmid and polymerase concentrations, and demonstrated the use of a T7-promoted rRNA operon for stoichiometrically balanced rRNA synthesis and native rRNA processing. Our modifications produced a 45-fold improvement in iSAT protein synthesis activity, enabling synthesis of 429 ± 15 nmol/l green fluorescent protein in 6 h batch reactions. Further, we show that the translational activity of ribosomes purified from iSAT reactions is about 20% the activity of native ribosomes purified directly from E. coli cells. Looking forward, we believe iSAT will enable unique studies to unravel the systems biology of ribosome biogenesis and open the way to new methods for making and studying ribosomal variants. PMID:24792158

  15. Decreases in average bacterial community rRNA operon copy number during succession.

    PubMed

    Nemergut, Diana R; Knelman, Joseph E; Ferrenberg, Scott; Bilinski, Teresa; Melbourne, Brett; Jiang, Lin; Violle, Cyrille; Darcy, John L; Prest, Tiffany; Schmidt, Steven K; Townsend, Alan R

    2016-05-01

    Trait-based studies can help clarify the mechanisms driving patterns of microbial community assembly and coexistence. Here, we use a trait-based approach to explore the importance of rRNA operon copy number in microbial succession, building on prior evidence that organisms with higher copy numbers respond more rapidly to nutrient inputs. We set flasks of heterotrophic media into the environment and examined bacterial community assembly at seven time points. Communities were arrayed along a geographic gradient to introduce stochasticity via dispersal processes and were analyzed using 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, and rRNA operon copy number was modeled using ancestral trait reconstruction. We found that taxonomic composition was similar between communities at the beginning of the experiment and then diverged through time; as well, phylogenetic clustering within communities decreased over time. The average rRNA operon copy number decreased over the experiment, and variance in rRNA operon copy number was lowest both early and late in succession. We then analyzed bacterial community data from other soil and sediment primary and secondary successional sequences from three markedly different ecosystem types. Our results demonstrate that decreases in average copy number are a consistent feature of communities across various drivers of ecological succession. Importantly, our work supports the scaling of the copy number trait over multiple levels of biological organization, ranging from cells to populations and communities, with implications for both microbial ecology and evolution.

  16. Depletion of ribosomal protein S19 causes a reduction of rRNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Juli, Giada; Gismondi, Angelo; Monteleone, Valentina; Caldarola, Sara; Iadevaia, Valentina; Aspesi, Anna; Dianzani, Irma; Proud, Christopher G.; Loreni, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis plays key roles in cell growth by providing increased capacity for protein synthesis. It requires coordinated production of ribosomal proteins (RP) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), including the processing of the latter. Here, we show that, the depletion of RPS19 causes a reduction of rRNA synthesis in cell lines of both erythroid and non-erythroid origin. A similar effect is observed upon depletion of RPS6 or RPL11. The deficiency of RPS19 does not alter the stability of rRNA, but instead leads to an inhibition of RNA Polymerase I (Pol I) activity. In fact, results of nuclear run-on assays and ChIP experiments show that association of Pol I with the rRNA gene is reduced in RPS19-depleted cells. The phosphorylation of three known regulators of Pol I, CDK2, AKT and AMPK, is altered during ribosomal stress and could be involved in the observed downregulation. Finally, RNA from patients with Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA), shows, on average, a lower level of 47S precursor. This indicates that inhibition of rRNA synthesis could be one of the molecular alterations at the basis of DBA. PMID:27734913

  17. Transcript-Based Cloning of RRP46, a Regulator of rRNA Processing and R Gene–Independent Cell Death in Barley–Powdery Mildew Interactions[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Liu; Moscou, Matthew J.; Meng, Yan; Xu, Weihui; Caldo, Rico A.; Shaver, Miranda; Nettleton, Dan; Wise, Roger P.

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a pivotal role in plant development and defense. To investigate the interaction between PCD and R gene–mediated defense, we used the 22K Barley1 GeneChip to compare and contrast time-course expression profiles of Blumeria graminis f. sp hordei (Bgh) challenged barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar C.I. 16151 (harboring the Mla6 powdery mildew resistance allele) and its fast neutron–derived Bgh-induced tip cell death1 mutant, bcd1. Mixed linear model analysis identified genes associated with the cell death phenotype as opposed to R gene–mediated resistance. One-hundred fifty genes were found at the threshold P value < 0.0001 and a false discovery rate <0.6%. Of these, 124 were constitutively overexpressed in the bcd1 mutant. Gene Ontology and rice (Oryza sativa) alignment-based annotation indicated that 68 of the 124 overexpressed genes encode ribosomal proteins. A deletion harboring six genes on chromosome 5H cosegregates with bcd1-specified cell death and is associated with misprocessing of rRNAs but segregates independent of R gene–mediated resistance. Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing of one of the six deleted genes, RRP46 (rRNA-processing protein 46), phenocopied bcd1-mediated tip cell death. These findings suggest that RRP46, a critical component of the exosome core, mediates RNA processing and degradation involved in cell death initiation as a result of attempted penetration by Bgh during the barley–powdery mildew interaction but is independent of gene-for-gene resistance. PMID:19861556

  18. Chromosomal location of 18S and 5S rDNA sites in Triportheus fish species (Characiformes, Characidae)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The location of 18S and 5S rDNA sites was determined in eight species and populations of the fish genus Triportheus by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The males and females of all species had 2n = 52 chromosomes and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. A single 18S rDNA site that was roughly equivalent to an Ag-NOR was detected on the short arms of a submetacentric pair in nearly all species, and up to two additional sites were also observed in some species. In addition, another 18S rDNA cluster was identified in a distal region on the long arms of the W chromosome; this finding corroborated previous evidence that this cluster would be a shared feature amongst Triportheus species. In T. angulatus, a heterozygotic paracentric inversion involving the short arms of one homolog of a metacentric pair was associated with NORs. The 5S rDNA sites were located on the short arms of a single submetacentric chromosomal pair, close to the centromeres, except in T. auritus, which had up to ten 5S rDNA sites. The 18S and 5S rDNA sites were co-localized and adjacent on the short arms of a chromosomal pair in two populations of T. nematurus. Although all Triportheus species have a similar karyotypic macrostructure, the results of this work show that in some species ribosomal genes may serve as species-specific markers when used in conjunction with other putatively synapomorphic features. PMID:21637644

  19. Complete sequence analysis of 18S rDNA based on genomic DNA extraction from individual Demodex mites (Acari: Demodicidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya-E; Xu, Ji-Ru; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-Ping; Wang, Zheng-Hang

    2012-05-01

    The study for the first time attempted to accomplish 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) complete sequence amplification and analysis for three Demodex species (Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis and Demodex canis) based on gDNA extraction from individual mites. The mites were treated by DNA Release Additive and Hot Start II DNA Polymerase so as to promote mite disruption and increase PCR specificity. Determination of D. folliculorum gDNA showed that the gDNA yield reached the highest at 1 mite, tending to descend with the increase of mite number. The individual mite gDNA was successfully used for 18S rDNA fragment (about 900 bp) amplification examination. The alignments of 18S rDNA complete sequences of individual mite samples and those of pooled mite samples ( ≥ 1000mites/sample) showed over 97% identities for each species, indicating that the gDNA extracted from a single individual mite was as satisfactory as that from pooled mites for PCR amplification. Further pairwise sequence analyses showed that average divergence, genetic distance, transition/transversion or phylogenetic tree could not effectively identify the three Demodex species, largely due to the differentiation in the D. canis isolates. It can be concluded that the individual Demodex mite gDNA can satisfy the molecular study of Demodex. 18S rDNA complete sequence is suitable for interfamily identification in Cheyletoidea, but whether it is suitable for intrafamily identification cannot be confirmed until the ascertainment of the types of Demodex mites parasitizing in dogs.

  20. Molecular hybridization of iodinated 4S, 5S, and 18S + 28S RNA to salamander chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    4S, 5S, AND 18S + 28S RNA from the newt Taricha granulosa granulosa were iodinated in vitro with carrier-free 125I and hybridized to the denatured chromosomes of Taricha granulosa and Batrachoseps weighti. Iodinated 18S + 28S RNA hybridizes to the telomeric region on the shorter arm of chromosome 2 and close to the centromere on the shorter arm of chromosome 9 from T. granulosa. On this same salamander the label produced by the 5S RNA is located close to or on the centromere of chromosome 7 and the iodinated 4S RNA labels the distal end of the longer arm of chromosome 5. On the chromosomes of B. wrighti, 18S + 28S RNA hybridizes close to the centromeric region on the longer arm of the largest chromosome. Two centromeric sites are hybridized by the iodinated 5S RNA. After hybridization with iodinated 4S RNA, label is found near the end of the shorter arm of chromosome 3. It is concluded that both ribosomal and transfer RNA genes are clustered in the genome of these two salamanders. PMID:944187

  1. Immunological inter-strain crossreactivity correlated to 18S rDNA sequence types in Acanthamoeba spp.

    PubMed

    Walochnik, J; Obwaller, A; Aspöck, H

    2001-02-01

    Various species of the genus Acanthamoeba have been described as potential pathogens; however, differentiation of acanthamoebae remains problematic. The genus has been divided into 12 18S rDNA sequence types, most keratitis causing strains exhibiting sequence type T4. We recently isolated a keratitis causing Acanthamoeba strain showing sequence type T6, but being morphologically identical to a T4 strain. The aim of our study was to find out, whether the 18S rDNA sequence based identification correlates to immunological differentiation. The protein and antigen profiles of the T6 isolate and three reference Acanthamoeba strains were investigated using two sera from Acanthamoeba keratitis patients and one serum from an asymptomatic individual. It was shown, that the T6 strain produces a distinctly different immunological pattern, while patterns within T4 were identical. Affinity purified antibodies were used to further explore immunological cross-reactivity between sequence types. Altogether, the results of our study support the Acanthamoeba 18S rDNA sequence type classification in the investigated strains.

  2. FISH mapping of the 5S and 18S-28S rDNA loci in different species of Glycine.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, P; Sapra, V T; Soliman, K M; Zipf, A

    2001-01-01

    Wild germplasms are often the only significant sources of useful traits for crops, such as soybean, that have limited genetic variability. Before these germplasms can be effectively manipulated they must be characterized at the cytological and molecular levels. Modern soybean probably arose through an ancient allotetraploid event and subsequent diploidization of the genome. However, wild Glycine species have not been intensively investigated for this ancient polyploidy. In this article we determined the number of both the 5S and 18S-28S rDNA sequences in various members of the genus Glycine using FISH. Our results distinctly establish the loss of a 5S rDNA locus from the "diploid" (2n = 40) species and the loss of two from the (2n = 80) polyploids of GLYCINE: A similar diploidization of the 18S-28S rDNA gene family has occurred in G. canescens, G. clandestina, G. soja, and G. max (L.) Merr. (2n = 40). Although of different genome types, G. tabacina and G. tomentella (2n = 80) both showed two major 18S-28S rDNA loci per haploid genome, in contrast to the four loci that would be expected in chromosomes that have undergone two doubling events in their evolutionary history. It is evident that the evolution of the subgenus Glycine is more complex than that represented in a simple diploid-doubled to tetraploid model.

  3. Chromosomal localization and partial sequencing of the 18S and 28S ribosomal genes from Bradysia hygida (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Gaspar, V P; Shimauti, E L T; Fernandez, M A

    2014-03-26

    In insects, ribosomal genes are usually detected in sex chromosomes, but have also or only been detected in autosomal chromosomes in some cases. Previous results from our research group indicated that in Bradysia hygida, nucleolus organizer regions were associated with heterochromatic regions of the autosomal C chromosome, using the silver impregnation technique. The present study confirmed this location of the ribosomal genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. This analysis also revealed the partial sequences of the 18S and 28S genes for this sciarid. The sequence alignment showed that the 18S gene has 98% identity to Corydalus armatus and 91% identity to Drosophila persimilis and Drosophila melanogaster. The partial sequence analysis of the 28S gene showed 95% identity with Bradysia amoena and 93% identity with Schwenckfeldina sp. These results confirmed the location of ribosomal genes of B. hygida in an autosomal chromosome, and the partial sequence analysis of the 18S and 28S genes demonstrated a high percentage of identity among several insect ribosomal genes.

  4. Changes in rRNA transcription influence proliferation and cell fate within a stem cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao; Shalaby, Nevine A; Buszczak, Michael

    2014-01-17

    Ribosome biogenesis drives cell growth and proliferation, but mechanisms that modulate this process within specific lineages remain poorly understood. Here, we identify a Drosophila RNA polymerase I (Pol I) regulatory complex composed of Under-developed (Udd), TAF1B, and a TAF1C-like factor. Disruption of udd or TAF1B results in reduced ovarian germline stem cell (GSC) proliferation. Female GSCs display high levels of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription, and Udd becomes enriched in GSCs relative to their differentiating daughters. Increasing Pol I transcription delays differentiation, whereas reducing rRNA production induces both morphological changes that accompany multicellular cyst formation and specific decreased expression of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway component Mad. These findings demonstrate that modulating rRNA synthesis fosters changes in the cell fate, growth, and proliferation of female Drosophila GSCs and their daughters.

  5. The identification of rRNA maturation sites in the microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi argues against the full excision of presumed ITS1 sequence.

    PubMed

    Peyretaillade, E; Peyret, P; Metenier, G; Vivares, C P; Prensier, G

    2001-01-01

    In Encephalitozoon cuniculi like in other microsporidia, the primary transcript for SSU and LSU rRNAs includes only one internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) which separates SSU rRNA from the 5.8S region associated with LSU rRNA. The extraction of total RNA from E. cuniculi-infected MRC5 cells using a hot phenol/chloroform procedure enabled us to perform primer extension and S1 nuclease protection experiments in the aim of identifying rRNA maturation sites. Our data support a simple processing (four cleavage sites) with elimination of only nine nucleotides between SSU and LSU rRNA regions. Most of the presumed ITS1 sequence characterized by strain-dependent polymorphism therefore remains linked to SSU rRNA 3' end. A new secondary structure for the sixth domain of E. cuniculi LSU rRNA is proposed following the identification of its 3' terminus.

  6. Overaccumulation of the chloroplast antisense RNA AS5 is correlated with decreased abundance of 5S rRNA in vivo and inefficient 5S rRNA maturation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sharwood, Robert E.; Hotto, Amber M.; Bollenbach, Thomas J.; Stern, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation in the chloroplast is exerted by nucleus-encoded ribonucleases and RNA-binding proteins. One of these ribonucleases is RNR1, a 3′-to-5′ exoribonuclease of the RNase II family. We have previously shown that Arabidopsis rnr1-null mutants exhibit specific abnormalities in the expression of the rRNA operon, including the accumulation of precursor 23S, 16S, and 4.5S species and a concomitant decrease in the mature species. 5S rRNA transcripts, however, accumulate to a very low level in both precursor and mature forms, suggesting that they are unstable in the rnr1 background. Here we demonstrate that rnr1 plants overaccumulate an antisense RNA, AS5, that is complementary to the 5S rRNA, its intergenic spacer, and the downstream trnR gene, which encodes tRNAArg, raising the possibility that AS5 destabilizes 5S rRNA or its precursor and/or blocks rRNA maturation. To investigate this, we used an in vitro system that supports 5S rRNA and trnR processing. We show that AS5 inhibits 5S rRNA maturation from a 5S-trnR precursor, and shorter versions of AS5 demonstrate that inhibition requires intergenic sequences. To test whether the sense and antisense RNAs form double-stranded regions in vitro, treatment with the single-strand-specific mung bean nuclease was used. These results suggest that 5S–AS5 duplexes interfere with a sense-strand secondary structure near the endonucleolytic cleavage site downstream from the 5S rRNA coding region. We hypothesize that these duplexes are degraded by a dsRNA-specific ribonuclease in vivo, contributing to the 5S rRNA deficiency observed in rnr1. PMID:21148395

  7. Overaccumulation of the chloroplast antisense RNA AS5 is correlated with decreased abundance of 5S rRNA in vivo and inefficient 5S rRNA maturation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sharwood, Robert E; Hotto, Amber M; Bollenbach, Thomas J; Stern, David B

    2011-02-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation in the chloroplast is exerted by nucleus-encoded ribonucleases and RNA-binding proteins. One of these ribonucleases is RNR1, a 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease of the RNase II family. We have previously shown that Arabidopsis rnr1-null mutants exhibit specific abnormalities in the expression of the rRNA operon, including the accumulation of precursor 23S, 16S, and 4.5S species and a concomitant decrease in the mature species. 5S rRNA transcripts, however, accumulate to a very low level in both precursor and mature forms, suggesting that they are unstable in the rnr1 background. Here we demonstrate that rnr1 plants overaccumulate an antisense RNA, AS5, that is complementary to the 5S rRNA, its intergenic spacer, and the downstream trnR gene, which encodes tRNA(Arg), raising the possibility that AS5 destabilizes 5S rRNA or its precursor and/or blocks rRNA maturation. To investigate this, we used an in vitro system that supports 5S rRNA and trnR processing. We show that AS5 inhibits 5S rRNA maturation from a 5S-trnR precursor, and shorter versions of AS5 demonstrate that inhibition requires intergenic sequences. To test whether the sense and antisense RNAs form double-stranded regions in vitro, treatment with the single-strand-specific mung bean nuclease was used. These results suggest that 5S-AS5 duplexes interfere with a sense-strand secondary structure near the endonucleolytic cleavage site downstream from the 5S rRNA coding region. We hypothesize that these duplexes are degraded by a dsRNA-specific ribonuclease in vivo, contributing to the 5S rRNA deficiency observed in rnr1.

  8. Selective expression of two types of 28S rRNA paralogous genes in the chaetognath Spadella cephaloptera.

    PubMed

    Barthélémy, R-M; Casanova, J-P; Grino, M; Faure, E

    2007-09-13

    Significant intra-individual variation in the sequences of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes is highly unusual in animal genomes; however, two classes of both 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequences have been detected in chaetognaths, a small phylum of marine invertebrates. One species, Spadella cephaloptera Busch, 1851, is well-suited to the methods of in situ analysis of gene expression, since it is totally transparent. To test our hypothesis of a possible functional division of the two classes of genes, we carried out in situ hybridization. Our results indicated that 28S class II genes are expressed intensively in the oocytes of chaetognaths. In contrast, hybridization using an heterologous probe of 28S class I genes revealed only a single and relatively weak signal in a distinct area of intestinal cells. Our results suggest that the S. cephaloptera genome contains at least three different types of rRNA 28S genes; however, those which are expressed during housekeeping conditions could not be detected in our experiments.

  9. Fragmentation of 23S rRNA in Strains of Proteus and Providencia Results from Intervening Sequences in the rrn (rRNA) Genes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Wayne L.; Pabbaraju, Kanti; Sanderson, Kenneth E.

    2000-01-01

    Intervening sequences (IVSs) were originally identified in the rrl genes for 23S rRNA (rrl genes, for large ribosomal subunit, part of rrn operon encoding rRNA) of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium LT2 and Arizonae. These sequences are transcribed but later removed during RNase III processing of the rRNA, resulting in fragmentation of the 23S species; IVSs are uncommon, but have been reported in at least 10 bacterial genera. Through PCR amplification of IVS-containing regions of the rrl genes we showed that most Proteus and Providencia strains contain IVSs similar to those of serovar Typhimurium in distribution and location in rrl genes. By extraction and Northern blotting of rRNA, we also found that these IVSs result in rRNA fragmentation. We report the first finding of two very different sizes of IVS (113 bp and 183 to 187 bp) in different rrl genes in the same strain, in helix 25 of Proteus and Providencia spp.; IVSs from helix 45 are 113 to 123 bp in size. Analysis of IVS sequence and postulated secondary structure reveals striking similarities of Proteus and Providencia IVSs to those of serovar Typhimurium, with the stems of the smaller IVSs from helix 25 being similar to those of Salmonella helix 25 IVSs and with both the stem and the central loop domain of helix 45 IVSs being similar. Thus, IVSs of related sequences are widely distributed throughout the Enterobacteriaceae, in Salmonella, Yersinia, Proteus, and Providencia spp., but we did not find them in Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, or Morganella spp.; the sporadic distribution of IVSs of related sequence indicates that lateral genetic transfer has occurred. PMID:10648538

  10. rRNA transcription rate in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Gotta, S L; Miller, O L; French, S L

    1991-01-01

    The rate of in vivo transcription elongation for Escherichia coli rRNA operons was determined by electron microscopy following addition of rifampin to log-phase cultures. Direct observation of RNA polymerase positions along rRNA operons 30, 40, and 70 s after inhibition of transcription initiation yielded a transcription elongation rate of 42 nucleotides per s. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1717439

  11. Eukaryote-specific rRNA expansion segments function in ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Madhumitha; Woolford, John L

    2016-08-01

    The secondary structure of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is largely conserved across all kingdoms of life. However, eukaryotes have evolved extra blocks of rRNA sequences, relative to those of prokaryotes, called expansion segments (ES). A thorough characterization of the potential roles of ES remains to be done, possibly because of limitations in the availability of robust systems to study rRNA mutants. We sought to systematically investigate the potential functions, if any, of the ES in 25S rRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by deletion mutagenesis. We deleted 14 of the 16 different eukaryote-specific ES in yeast 25S rRNA individually and assayed their phenotypes. Our results show that all but two of the ES tested are necessary for optimal growth and are required for production of 25S rRNA, suggesting that ES play roles in ribosome biogenesis. Further, we classified expansion segments into groups that participate in early nucleolar, middle, and late nucleoplasmic steps of ribosome biogenesis, by assaying their pre-rRNA processing phenotypes. This study is the first of its kind to systematically identify the functions of eukaryote-specific expansion segments by showing that they play roles in specific steps of ribosome biogenesis. The catalog of phenotypes we identified, combined with previous investigations of the roles ribosomal proteins in large subunit biogenesis, leads us to infer that assembling ribosomes are composed of distinct RNA and protein structural neighborhood clusters that participate in specific steps of ribosome biogenesis. © 2016 Ramesh and Woolford; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA