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Sample records for 18s small-subunit ribosomal

  1. Prevalence, Genetic Characterization, and 18S Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Diversity of Trypanosoma rangeli in Triatomine and Mammal Hosts in Endemic Areas for Chagas Disease in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Aguirre-Villacis, Fernanda; Pinto, C. Miguel; Vallejo, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Trypanosoma rangeli is a nonpathogenic parasite for humans; however, its medical importance relies in its similarity and overlapping distribution with Trypanosoma cruzi, causal agent of Chagas disease in the Americas. The genetic diversity of T. rangeli and its association with host species (triatomines and mammals) has been identified along Central and the South America; however, it has not included data of isolates from Ecuador. This study reports infection with T. rangeli in 18 genera of mammal hosts and five species of triatomines in three environments (domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic). Higher infection rates were found in the sylvatic environment, in close association with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The results of this study extend the range of hosts infected with this parasite and the geographic range of the T. rangeli genotype KP1(−)/lineage C in South America. It was not possible to detect variation on T. rangeli from the central coastal region and southern Ecuador with the analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, even though these areas are ecologically different and a phenotypic subdivision of R. ecuadoriensis has been found. R. ecuadoriensis is considered one of the most important vectors for Chagas disease transmission in Ecuador due to its wide distribution and adaptability to diverse environments. An extensive knowledge of the trypanosomes circulating in this species of triatomine, and associated mammal hosts, is important for delineating transmission dynamics and preventive measures in the endemic areas of Ecuador and Northern Peru. PMID:26645579

  2. Prevalence, Genetic Characterization, and 18S Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Diversity of Trypanosoma rangeli in Triatomine and Mammal Hosts in Endemic Areas for Chagas Disease in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Aguirre-Villacis, Fernanda; Pinto, C Miguel; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-12-01

    Trypanosoma rangeli is a nonpathogenic parasite for humans; however, its medical importance relies in its similarity and overlapping distribution with Trypanosoma cruzi, causal agent of Chagas disease in the Americas. The genetic diversity of T. rangeli and its association with host species (triatomines and mammals) has been identified along Central and the South America; however, it has not included data of isolates from Ecuador. This study reports infection with T. rangeli in 18 genera of mammal hosts and five species of triatomines in three environments (domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic). Higher infection rates were found in the sylvatic environment, in close association with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The results of this study extend the range of hosts infected with this parasite and the geographic range of the T. rangeli genotype KP1(-)/lineage C in South America. It was not possible to detect variation on T. rangeli from the central coastal region and southern Ecuador with the analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, even though these areas are ecologically different and a phenotypic subdivision of R. ecuadoriensis has been found. R. ecuadoriensis is considered one of the most important vectors for Chagas disease transmission in Ecuador due to its wide distribution and adaptability to diverse environments. An extensive knowledge of the trypanosomes circulating in this species of triatomine, and associated mammal hosts, is important for delineating transmission dynamics and preventive measures in the endemic areas of Ecuador and Northern Peru.

  3. Morphology and Small-Subunit Ribosomal DNA Sequence of Henneguya Adiposa (Myxosporea) From Ictalurus punctatus (Siluriformes)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The original description of Henneguya adiposa, a myxozoan parasitizing channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, is supplemented with new data on spore morphology, including photomicrographs and line drawings, as well as 18S small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence. Elongate, translucent, linear...

  4. Metaxa: a software tool for automated detection and discrimination among ribosomal small subunit (12S/16S/18S) sequences of archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts in metagenomes and environmental sequencing datasets.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Johan; Eriksson, K Martin; Hartmann, Martin; Wang, Zheng; Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Grelet, Gwen-Aëlle; Abarenkov, Kessy; Petri, Anna; Rosenblad, Magnus Alm; Nilsson, R Henrik

    2011-10-01

    The ribosomal small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene has emerged as an important genetic marker for taxonomic identification in environmental sequencing datasets. In addition to being present in the nucleus of eukaryotes and the core genome of prokaryotes, the gene is also found in the mitochondria of eukaryotes and in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic eukaryotes. These three sets of genes are conceptually paralogous and should in most situations not be aligned and analyzed jointly. To identify the origin of SSU sequences in complex sequence datasets has hitherto been a time-consuming and largely manual undertaking. However, the present study introduces Metaxa ( http://microbiology.se/software/metaxa/ ), an automated software tool to extract full-length and partial SSU sequences from larger sequence datasets and assign them to an archaeal, bacterial, nuclear eukaryote, mitochondrial, or chloroplast origin. Using data from reference databases and from full-length organelle and organism genomes, we show that Metaxa detects and scores SSU sequences for origin with very low proportions of false positives and negatives. We believe that this tool will be useful in microbial and evolutionary ecology as well as in metagenomics.

  5. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core

    PubMed Central

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S.; Okafor, C. Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O’Neill, Eric B.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-01-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2′OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit. PMID:26876483

  6. Megraft: A software package to graft ribosomal small subunit (16S/18S) fragments onto full-length sequences for accurate species richness and sequencing depth analysis in pyrosequencing-length metagenomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metagenomic libraries represent subsamples of the total DNA found at a study site and offer unprecedented opportunities to study ecological and functional aspects of microbial communities. To examine the depth of the sequencing effort, rarefaction analysis of the ribosomal small sub-unit (SSU/16S/18...

  7. Mitochondrial DNA Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and 18S Small-Subunit Ribosomal DNA PCR-RFLP Analyses of Acanthamoeba Isolated from Contact Lens Storage Cases of Residents in Southwestern Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hyun-Hee; Shin, Ji-Yeol; Yu, Hak-Sun; Kim, Jin; Hahn, Tae-Won; Hahn, Young-Ho; Chung, Dong-Il

    2002-01-01

    We applied ribosomal DNA PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) RFLP analyses to 43 Acanthamoeba environmental isolates (KA/LH1 to KA/LH43) from contact lens storage cases in southwestern Korea. These isolates were compared to American Type Culture Collection strains and clinical isolates (KA/E1 to KA/E12) from patients with keratitis. Seven riboprint patterns were seen. To identify the species of the isolates, a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the comparison of riboprint patterns with reference strains. Four types accounted for 39 of the isolates belonging to the A. castellanii complex. The most predominant (48.8%) type was A. castellanii KA/LH2 type, which had identical riboprint and mtDNA RFLP patterns to those of A. castellanii Castellani, KA/E3 and KA/E8. The riboprint and mtDNA RFLP patterns of the KA/LH7 (20.9%) type were identical to those of A. castellanii Ma, a corneal isolate from the United States. The riboprint and mtDNA RFLP patterns of the KA/LH1 (18.6%) type were the same as those of A. lugdunensis L3a, KA/E2, and KA/E12. The prevalent pattern for each type of Acanthamoeba in southwestern Korea was very different from that from southeastern Korea and Seoul, Korea. It is noteworthy that 38 (88.4%) out of 43 isolates from contact lens storage cases of the residents in southwestern Korea revealed mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns identical to those found for clinical isolates in our area. This indicates that most isolates from contact lens storage cases in the surveyed area are potential keratopathogens. More attention should be paid to the disinfection of contact lens storage cases to prevent possible amoebic keratitis. PMID:11923331

  8. Mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 18S small-subunit ribosomal DNA PCR-RFLP analyses of Acanthamoeba isolated from contact lens storage cases of residents in southwestern Korea.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hyun-Hee; Shin, Ji-Yeol; Yu, Hak-Sun; Kim, Jin; Hahn, Tae-Won; Hahn, Young-Ho; Chung, Dong-Il

    2002-04-01

    We applied ribosomal DNA PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) RFLP analyses to 43 Acanthamoeba environmental isolates (KA/LH1 to KA/LH43) from contact lens storage cases in southwestern Korea. These isolates were compared to American Type Culture Collection strains and clinical isolates (KA/E1 to KA/E12) from patients with keratitis. Seven riboprint patterns were seen. To identify the species of the isolates, a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the comparison of riboprint patterns with reference strains. Four types accounted for 39 of the isolates belonging to the A. castellanii complex. The most predominant (48.8%) type was A. castellanii KA/LH2 type, which had identical riboprint and mtDNA RFLP patterns to those of A. castellanii Castellani, KA/E3 and KA/E8. The riboprint and mtDNA RFLP patterns of the KA/LH7 (20.9%) type were identical to those of A. castellanii Ma, a corneal isolate from the United States. The riboprint and mtDNA RFLP patterns of the KA/LH1 (18.6%) type were the same as those of A. lugdunensis L3a, KA/E2, and KA/E12. The prevalent pattern for each type of Acanthamoeba in southwestern Korea was very different from that from southeastern Korea and Seoul, Korea. It is noteworthy that 38 (88.4%) out of 43 isolates from contact lens storage cases of the residents in southwestern Korea revealed mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns identical to those found for clinical isolates in our area. This indicates that most isolates from contact lens storage cases in the surveyed area are potential keratopathogens. More attention should be paid to the disinfection of contact lens storage cases to prevent possible amoebic keratitis.

  9. Identification of Egyptian Fasciola species by PCR and restriction endonucleases digestion of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed

    El-Gozamy, Bothina R; Shoukry, Nahla M

    2009-08-01

    Fascioliasis is one of the familiar zoonotic health problems of worldwide distribution including Egypt. In this study, a simple and rapid polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR/RFLPs) assay, using the common restriction endonucleases Aval, EcoRI, Eael, Sac11 and Avail was applied to differentiate between both Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica. The five restriction endonucleases were used to differentiate between the two species of Fasciola based on -1950 bp long sequence of the 18S nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Aval and EcoRI restriction endonucleases failed to differentiate between the two Fasciola species when each restriction enzyme gave the same restriction patterns in both of them. However, F. gigantica and F. hepatica were well-differentiated when their small subunit ribosomal DNA were digested with Eael and Sac 11 restriction endonucleases.

  10. Genetic characterization of clinical acanthamoeba isolates from Japan using nuclear and mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Moshiur; Yagita, Kenji; Kobayashi, Akira; Oikawa, Yosaburo; Hussein, Amjad I A; Matsumura, Takahiro; Tokoro, Masaharu

    2013-08-01

    Because of an increased number of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) along with associated disease burdens, medical professionals have become more aware of this pathogen in recent years. In this study, by analyzing both the nuclear 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) and mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene loci, 27 clinical Acanthamoeba strains that caused AK in Japan were classified into 3 genotypes, T3 (3 strains), T4 (23 strains), and T5 (one strain). Most haplotypes were identical to the reference haplotypes reported from all over the world, and thus no specificity of the haplotype distribution in Japan was found. The T4 sub-genotype analysis using the 16S rRNA gene locus also revealed a clear sub-conformation within the T4 cluster, and lead to the recognition of a new sub-genotype T4i, in addition to the previously reported sub-genotypes T4a-T4h. Furthermore, 9 out of 23 strains in the T4 genotype were identified to a specific haplotype (AF479533), which seems to be a causal haplotype of AK. While heterozygous nuclear haplotypes were observed from 2 strains, the mitochondrial haplotypes were homozygous as T4 genotype in the both strains, and suggested a possibility of nuclear hybridization (mating reproduction) between different strains in Acanthamoeba. The nuclear 18S rRNA gene and mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene loci of Acanthamoeba spp. possess different unique characteristics usable for the genotyping analyses, and those specific features could contribute to the establishment of molecular taxonomy for the species complex of Acanthamoeba.

  11. Group I introns in small subunit ribosomal DNA of several Phaeosphaeria species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a study of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene sequences in Phaeosphaeria species, group I introns were found in 9 of 10 P. avenaria f.sp. avenaria (Paa) isolates, 1 of 2 Phaeosphaeria sp. (P-rye) isolates from Polish rye (Sn48-1), 1 Phaeosphaeria sp. from dallis grass (P-dg) (S-93-48) an...

  12. Substitution rate calibration of small subunit ribosomal RNA identifies chlorarachniophyte endosymbionts as remnants of green algae.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Rensing, S A; Maier, U G; De Wachter, R

    1996-01-01

    Chlorarachniophytes are amoeboid algae with chlorophyll a and b containing plastids that are surrounded by four membranes instead of two as in plants and green algae. These extra membranes form important support for the hypothesis that chlorarachniophytes have acquired their plastids by the ingestion of another eukaryotic plastid-containing alga. Chlorarachniophytes also contain a small nucleus-like structure called the nucleomorph situated between the two inner and the two outer membranes surrounding the plastid. This nucleomorph is a remnant of the endosymbiont's nucleus and encodes, among other molecules, small subunit ribosomal RNA. Previous phylogenetic analyses on the basis of this molecule provided unexpected and contradictory evidence for the origin of the chlorarachniophyte endosymbiont. We developed a new method for measuring the substitution rates of the individual nucleotides of small subunit ribosomal RNA. From the resulting substitution rate distribution, we derived an equation that gives a more realistic relationship between sequence dissimilarity and evolutionary distance than equations previously available. Phylogenetic trees constructed on the basis of evolutionary distances computed by this new method clearly situate the chlorarachniophyte nucleomorphs among the green algae. Moreover, this relationship is confirmed by transversion analysis of the Chlorarachnion plastid small subunit ribosomal RNA. PMID:8755544

  13. Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal small subunit (MRPS) genes: A putative role in human disease.

    PubMed

    Gopisetty, Gopal; Thangarajan, Rajkumar

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondria are prominently understood as power houses producing ATP the primary energy currency of the cell. However, mitochondria are also known to play an important role in apoptosis and autophagy, and mitochondrial dysregulation can lead to pathological outcomes. Mitochondria are known to contain 1500 proteins of which only 13 are coded by mitochondrial DNA and the rest are coded by nuclear genes. Protein synthesis in mitochondria involves mitochondrial ribosomes which are 55-60S particles and are composed of small 28S and large 39S subunits. A feature of mammalian mitoribosome which differentiate it from bacterial ribosomes is the increased protein content. The human mitochondrial ribosomal protein (MRP) gene family comprises of 30 genes which code for mitochondrial ribosomal small subunit and 50 genes for the large subunit. The present review focuses on the mitochondrial ribosomal small subunit genes (MRPS), presents an overview of the literature and data gleaned from publicly available gene and protein expression databases. The survey revealed aberrations in MRPS gene expression patterns in varied human diseases indicating a putative role in their etiology.

  14. Molecular architecture of the 90S small subunit pre-ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Zhu, Xing; Qi, Jia; An, Weidong; Lan, Pengfei; Tan, Dan; Chen, Rongchang; Wang, Bing; Zheng, Sanduo; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Xining; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Ye, Keqiong

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic small ribosomal subunits are first assembled into 90S pre-ribosomes. The complete 90S is a gigantic complex with a molecular mass of approximately five megadaltons. Here, we report the nearly complete architecture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 90S determined from three cryo-electron microscopy single particle reconstructions at 4.5 to 8.7 angstrom resolution. The majority of the density maps were modeled and assigned to specific RNA and protein components. The nascent ribosome is assembled into isolated native-like substructures that are stabilized by abundant assembly factors. The 5' external transcribed spacer and U3 snoRNA nucleate a large subcomplex that scaffolds the nascent ribosome. U3 binds four sites of pre-rRNA, including a novel site on helix 27 but not the 3' side of the central pseudoknot, and crucially organizes the 90S structure. The 90S model provides significant insight into the principle of small subunit assembly and the function of assembly factors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22086.001 PMID:28244370

  15. An overview of the secondary structure of the V4 region of eukaryotic small-subunit ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Nickrent, D L; Sargent, M L

    1991-01-01

    The V4 region of the small subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA was examined in 72 different sequences representing a broad sample eukaryotic diversity. This domain is the most variable region of the 18S rRNA molecule and ranges in length from ca. 230 to over 500 bases. Based upon comparative analysis, secondary structural models were constructed for all sequences and the resulting generalized model shows that most organisms possess seven helices for this region. The protists and two insects show from one to as many as four helices in addition to the above seven. In this report, we summarize secondary structure information presented elsewhere for the V4 region, describe the general features for helical and apical regions, and identify signature sequences useful in helix identification. Our model generally agrees with other current concepts; however, we propose modifications or alternative structures for the start of the V4 region, the large protist inserts, and the sector that may possibly contain a pseudoknot. PMID:2014163

  16. Prevalent ciliate symbiosis on copepods: high genetic diversity and wide distribution detected using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiling; Liu, Sheng; Hu, Simin; Li, Tao; Huang, Yousong; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Toward understanding the genetic diversity and distribution of copepod-associated symbiotic ciliates and the evolutionary relationships with their hosts in the marine environment, we developed a small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA)-based molecular method and investigated the genetic diversity and genotype distribution of the symbiotic ciliates on copepods. Of the 10 copepod species representing six families collected from six locations of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, 9 were found to harbor ciliate symbionts. Phylogenetic analysis of the 391 ciliate 18S rDNA sequences obtained revealed seven groups (ribogroups), six (containing 99% of all the sequences) belonging to subclass Apostomatida, the other clustered with peritrich ciliate Vorticella gracilis. Among the Apostomatida groups, Group III were essentially identical to Vampyrophrya pelagica, and the other five groups represented the undocumented ciliates that were close to Vampyrophrya/Gymnodinioides/Hyalophysa. Group VI ciliates were found in all copepod species but one (Calanus sinicus), and were most abundant among all ciliate sequences obtained, indicating that they are the dominant symbiotic ciliates universally associated with copepods. In contrast, some ciliate sequences were found only in some of the copepods examined, suggesting the host selectivity and geographic differentiation of ciliates, which requires further verification by more extensive sampling. Our results reveal the wide occurrence and high genetic diversity of symbiotic ciliates on marine copepods and highlight the need to systematically investigate the host- and geography-based genetic differentiation and ecological roles of these ciliates globally.

  17. Prevalent Ciliate Symbiosis on Copepods: High Genetic Diversity and Wide Distribution Detected Using Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiling; Liu, Sheng; Hu, Simin; Li, Tao; Huang, Yousong; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Toward understanding the genetic diversity and distribution of copepod-associated symbiotic ciliates and the evolutionary relationships with their hosts in the marine environment, we developed a small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA)-based molecular method and investigated the genetic diversity and genotype distribution of the symbiotic ciliates on copepods. Of the 10 copepod species representing six families collected from six locations of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, 9 were found to harbor ciliate symbionts. Phylogenetic analysis of the 391 ciliate 18S rDNA sequences obtained revealed seven groups (ribogroups), six (containing 99% of all the sequences) belonging to subclass Apostomatida, the other clustered with peritrich ciliate Vorticella gracilis. Among the Apostomatida groups, Group III were essentially identical to Vampyrophrya pelagica, and the other five groups represented the undocumented ciliates that were close to Vampyrophrya/Gymnodinioides/Hyalophysa. Group VI ciliates were found in all copepod species but one (Calanus sinicus), and were most abundant among all ciliate sequences obtained, indicating that they are the dominant symbiotic ciliates universally associated with copepods. In contrast, some ciliate sequences were found only in some of the copepods examined, suggesting the host selectivity and geographic differentiation of ciliates, which requires further verification by more extensive sampling. Our results reveal the wide occurrence and high genetic diversity of symbiotic ciliates on marine copepods and highlight the need to systematically investigate the host- and geography-based genetic differentiation and ecological roles of these ciliates globally. PMID:23024768

  18. Recognition of chimeric small-subunit ribosomal DNAs composed of genes from uncultivated microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopczynski, E. D.; Bateson, M. M.; Ward, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    When PCR was used to recover small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes from a hot spring cyanobacterial mat community, chimeric SSU rRNA sequences which exhibited little or no secondary structural abnormality were recovered. They were revealed as chimeras of SSU rRNA genes of uncultivated species through separate phylogenetic analysis of short sequence domains.

  19. Molecular phylogeny of Stentor (Ciliophora: Heterotrichea) based on small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ying-Chun; Yu, Yu-He; Zhu, Fei-Yun; Feng, Wei-Song

    2007-01-01

    To determine the phylogenetic position of Stentor within the Class Heterotrichea, the complete small subunit rRNA genes of three Stentor species, namely Stentor polymorphus, Stentor coeruleus, and Stentor roeseli, were sequenced and used to construct phylogenetic trees using the maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and Bayesian analysis. With all phylogenetic methods, the genus Stentor was monophyletic, with S. roeseli branching basally.

  20. Late-assembly of human ribosomal protein S20 in the cytoplasm is essential for the functioning of the small subunit ribosome

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Lin-Ru; Chou, Chang-Wei; Wu, Jing-Ying; Kirby, Ralph; Lin, Alan

    2013-11-15

    Using immuno-fluorescent probing and Western blotting analysis, we reveal the exclusive cytoplasm nature of the small subunit ribosomal protein S20. To illustrate the importance of the cellular compartmentation of S20 to the function of small subunit 40S, we created a nuclear resident S20{sub NLS} mutant gene and examined polysome profile of cells that had been transfected with the S20{sub NLS} gene. As a result, we observed the formation of recombinant 40S carried S20{sub NLS} but this recombinant 40S was never found in the polysome, suggesting such a recombinant 40S was translation incompetent. Moreover, by the tactic of the energy depletion and restoration, we were able to restrain the nuclear-resided S20{sub NLS} in the cytoplasm. Yet, along a progressive energy restoration, we observed the presence of recombinant 40S subunits carrying the S20{sub NLS} in the polysome. This proves that S20 needs to be cytoplasmic in order to make a functional 40S subunit. Furthermore, it also implies that the assembly order of ribosomal protein in eukaryote is orderly regulated. - Highlights: • The step of S20 assembled on 40S is happened in the cytoplasm. • A small subunit assembled with a nuclear S20{sub NLS} is translational incompetence. • Using energy depletion and recovery to manipulate the cellular compartment of S20{sub NLS}. • Cytoplasm-retained S20{sub NLS} is crucial for creating a functional small subunit.

  1. The widely used small subunit 18S rDNA molecule greatly underestimates true diversity in biodiversity surveys of the meiofauna.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cuong Q; Leasi, Francesca; Obertegger, Ulrike; Kieneke, Alexander; Barraclough, Timothy G; Fontaneto, Diego

    2012-10-02

    Molecular tools have revolutionized the exploration of biodiversity, especially in organisms for which traditional taxonomy is difficult, such as for microscopic animals (meiofauna). Environmental (eDNA) metabarcode surveys of DNA extracted from sediment samples are increasingly popular for surveying biodiversity. Most eDNA surveys use the nuclear gene-encoding small-subunit rDNA gene (18S) as a marker; however, different markers and metrics used for delimiting species have not yet been evaluated against each other or against morphologically defined species (morphospecies). We assessed more than 12,000 meiofaunal sequences of 18S and of the main alternatively used marker [Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mtDNA] belonging to 55 datasets covering three taxonomic ranks. Our results show that 18S reduced diversity estimates by a factor of 0.4 relative to morphospecies, whereas COI increased diversity estimates by a factor of 7.6. Moreover, estimates of species richness using COI were robust among three of four commonly used delimitation metrics, whereas estimates using 18S varied widely with the different metrics. We show that meiofaunal diversity has been greatly underestimated by 18S eDNA surveys and that the use of COI provides a better estimate of diversity. The suitability of COI is supported by cross-mating experiments in the literature and evolutionary analyses of discreteness in patterns of genetic variation. Furthermore its splitting of morphospecies is expected from documented levels of cryptic taxa in exemplar meiofauna. We recommend against using 18S as a marker for biodiversity surveys and suggest that use of COI for eDNA surveys could provide more accurate estimates of species richness in the future.

  2. Small subunit ribosomal DNA suggests that the xenophyophorean Syringammina corbicula is a foraminiferan.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, Jan; Holzmann, Maria; Fahrni, Jose; Richardson, Susan L

    2003-01-01

    Xenophyophorea are giant deep-sea rhizopodial protists of enigmatic origins. Although species were described as Foraminifera or sponges in the early literature, the xenophyophoreans are currently classified either as a class of Rhizopoda or an independent phylum. To establish the phylogenetic position of Xenophyophorea, we analysed the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence of Syringammina corbicula Richardson, a newly described xenophyophorean species from the Cape Verde Plateau. The SSUrDNA analyses showed that S. corbicula is closely related to Rhizammina algaeformis, a tubular deep-sea foraminiferan. Both species branch within a group of monothalamous (single-chambered) Foraminifera, which include also such agglutinated genera as Toxisarcon, Rhabdammina, and Saccammina, and the organic-walled genera Gloiogullmia and Cylindrogullmia. Our results are congruent with observations of similar cytoplasmic organisation in Rhizammina and Syringammina. Thus, the Xenophyophorea appear to be a highly specialised group of deep-sea Foraminifera.

  3. Eukaryote-specific extensions in ribosomal proteins of the small subunit: Structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arnab; Komar, Anton A

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution structures of yeast ribosomes have improved our understanding of the architecture and organization of eukaryotic rRNA and proteins, as well as eukaryote-specific extensions present in some conserved ribosomal proteins. Despite this progress, assignment of specific functions to individual proteins and/or eukaryote-specific protein extensions remains challenging. It has been suggested that eukaryote-specific extensions of conserved proteins from the small ribosomal subunit may facilitate eukaryote-specific reactions in the initiation phase of protein synthesis. This review summarizes emerging data describing the structural and functional significance of eukaryote-specific extensions of conserved small ribosomal subunit proteins, particularly their possible roles in recruitment and spatial organization of eukaryote-specific initiation factors. PMID:26779416

  4. A preliminary phylogeny of the scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) based on nuclear small-subunit ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Cook, Lyn G; Gullan, Penny J; Trueman, Holly E

    2002-10-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) are a speciose and morphologically specialized group of plant-feeding bugs in which evolutionary relationships and thus higher classification are controversial. Sequences derived from nuclear small-subunit ribosomal DNA were used to generate a preliminary molecular phylogeny for the Coccoidea based on 39 species representing 14 putative families. Monophyly of the archaeococcoids (comprising Ortheziidae, Margarodidae sensu lato, and Phenacoleachia) was equivocal, whereas monophyly of the neococcoids was supported. Putoidae, represented by Puto yuccae, was found to be outside the remainder of the neococcoid clade. These data are consistent with a single origin (in the ancestor of the neococcoid clade) of a chromosome system involving paternal genome elimination in males. Pseudococcidae (mealybugs) appear to be sister to the rest of the neococcoids and there are indications that Coccidae (soft scales) and Kerriidae (lac scales) are sister taxa. The Eriococcidae (felt scales) was not recovered as a monophyletic group and the eriococcid genus Eriococcus sensu lato was polyphyletic.

  5. Molecular analysis of lungworms from European bison (Bison bonasus) on the basis of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU).

    PubMed

    Pyziel, Anna M

    2014-03-01

    Dictyocaulosis (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) is a widespread parasitosis of the European bison (Bison bonasus) inhabiting Bialowieza Primeval Forest. Bearing in mind the current coexistence of bison with wild cervids, and with domestic ruminants in the 19th and 20th century, the need arose for molecular identification of lungworm species. Molecular analysis was done on adult lungworms that were obtained from the respiratory track of four free-roaming bison euthanized as a part of the population health control program. As the result of the study four identical small subunit-ribosomal RNA gene sequences from the lungworms were obtained and deposited in GenBank as sequence, 1708 bp long (GenBank KC771250). Comparative analysis of the SSU rRNA sequences revealed the European bison to be a host for the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus.

  6. The phylogenetic position of eriophyoid mites (superfamily Eriophyoidea) in Acariformes inferred from the sequences of mitochondrial genomes and nuclear small subunit (18S) rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Dong, Yan; Deng, Wei; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Shao, Renfu

    2017-04-01

    Eriophyoid mites (superfamily Eriophyoidea) comprise >4400 species worldwide. Despite over a century of study, the phylogenetic position of these mites within Acariformes is still poorly resolved. Currently, Eriophyoidea is placed in the order Trombidiformes. We inferred the high-level phylogeny of Acari with the mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences of 110 species including four eriophyoid species, and the nuclear small subunit (18S) rRNA gene sequences of 226 species including 25 eriophyoid species. Maximum likelihood (ML), Bayesian inference (BI) and Maximum parsimony (MP) methods were used to analyze the sequence data. Divergence times were estimated for major lineages of Acari using Bayesian approaches. Our analyses consistently recovered the monophyly of Eriophyoidea but rejected the monophyly of Trombidiformes. The eriophyoid mites were grouped with the sarcoptiform mites, or were the sister group of sarcoptiform mites+non-eriophyoid trombidiform mites, depending on data partition strategies. Eriophyoid mites diverged from other mites in the Devonian (384Mya, 95% HPD, 352-410Mya). The origin of eriophyoid mites was dated to the Permian (262Mya, 95% HPD 230-307Mya), mostly prior to the radiation of gymnosperms (Triassic-Jurassic) and angiosperms (early Cretaceous). We propose that the placement of Eriophyoidea in the order Trombidiformes under the current classification system should be reviewed.

  7. 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Cochliopodium (Himatismenida) and the phylogeny of Amoebozoa.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander; Bernhard, Detlef; Schlegel, Martin; Chao, Ema E Y; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    Cochliopodium is a very distinctive genus of discoid amoebae covered by a dorsal tectum of carbohydrate microscales. Its phylogenetic position is unclear, since although sharing many features with naked "gymnamoebae", the tectum sets it apart. We sequenced 18S ribosomal RNA genes from three Cochliopodium species (minus, spiniferum and Cochliopodium sp., a new species resembling C. minutum). Phylogenetic analysis shows Cochliopodium as robustly holophyletic and within Amoebozoa, in full accord with morphological data. Cochliopodium is always one of the basal branches within Amoebozoa but its precise position is unstable. In Bayesian analysis it is sister to holophyletic Glycostylida, but distance trees mostly place it between Dermamoeba and a possibly artifactual long-branch cluster including Thecamoeba. These positions are poorly supported and basal amoebozoan branching ill-resolved, making it unclear whether Discosea (Glycostylida, Himatismenida, Dermamoebida) is holophyletic; however, Thecamoeba seems not specifically related to Dermamoeba. We also sequenced the small-subunit rRNA gene of Vannella persistens, which constantly grouped with other Vannella species, and two Hartmannella strains. Our trees suggest that Vexilliferidae, Variosea and Hartmannella are polyphyletic, confirming the existence of two very distinct Hartmannella clades: that comprising H. cantabrigiensis and another divergent species is sister to Glaeseria, whilst Hartmannella vermiformis branches more deeply.

  8. Combined large and small subunit ribosomal RNA phylogenies support a basal position of the acoelomorph flatworms.

    PubMed Central

    Telford, Maximilian J; Lockyer, Anne E; Cartwright-Finch, Chloë; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2003-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of the phylum Platyhelminthes has been re-evaluated in the past decade by analysis of diverse molecular datasets. The consensus is that the Rhabditophora + Catenulida, which includes most of the flatworm taxa, are not primitively simple basal bilaterians but are related to coelomate phyla such as molluscs. The status of two other groups of acoelomate worms, Acoela and Nemertodermatida, is less clear. Although many characteristics unite these two groups, initial molecular phylogenetic studies placed the Nemertodermatida within the Rhabditophora, but placed the Acoela at the base of the Bilateria, distant from other flatworms. This contradiction resulted in scepticism about the basal position of acoels and led to calls for further data. We have sequenced large subunit ribosomal RNA genes from 13 rhabditophorans + catenulids, three acoels and one nemertodermatid, tripling the available data. Our analyses strongly support a basal position of both acoels and nemertodermatids. Alternative hypotheses are significantly less well supported by the data. We conclude that the Nemertodermatida and Acoela are basal bilaterians and, owing to their unique body plan and embryogenesis, should be recognized as a separate phylum, the Acoelomorpha. PMID:12803898

  9. Phylogenetics of Bonamia parasites based on small subunit and internal transcribed spacer region ribosomal DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kristina M; Stokes, Nancy A; Webb, Stephen C; Hine, P Mike; Kroeck, Marina A; Moore, James D; Morley, Margaret S; Reece, Kimberly S; Burreson, Eugene M; Carnegie, Ryan B

    2014-07-24

    The genus Bonamia (Haplosporidia) includes economically significant oyster parasites. Described species were thought to have fairly circumscribed host and geographic ranges: B. ostreae infecting Ostrea edulis in Europe and North America, B. exitiosa infecting O. chilensis in New Zealand, and B. roughleyi infecting Saccostrea glomerata in Australia. The discovery of B. exitiosa-like parasites in new locations and the observation of a novel species, B. perspora, in non-commercial O. stentina altered this perception and prompted our wider evaluation of the global diversity of Bonamia parasites. Samples of 13 oyster species from 21 locations were screened for Bonamia spp. by PCR, and small subunit and internal transcribed spacer regions of Bonamia sp. ribosomal DNA were sequenced from PCR-positive individuals. Infections were confirmed histologically. Phylogenetic analyses using parsimony and Bayesian methods revealed one species, B. exitiosa, to be widely distributed, infecting 7 oyster species from Australia, New Zealand, Argentina, eastern and western USA, and Tunisia. More limited host and geographic distributions of B. ostreae and B. perspora were confirmed, but nothing genetically identifiable as B. roughleyi was found in Australia or elsewhere. Newly discovered diversity included a Bonamia sp. in Dendostrea sandvicensis from Hawaii, USA, that is basal to the other Bonamia species and a Bonamia sp. in O. edulis from Tomales Bay, California, USA, that is closely related to both B. exitiosa and the previously observed Bonamia sp. from O. chilensis in Chile.

  10. Secondary structure and molecular evolution of the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA in Agaricales (Euagarics clade, Homobasidiomycota).

    PubMed

    Barroso, Gérard; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Mouhamadou, Bello; Labarère, Jacques

    2003-10-01

    The complete sequences and secondary structures of the mitochondrial small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNAs of both mostly cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus (1930 nt) and Lentinula edodes (2164 nt) were achieved. These secondary structures and that of Schizophyllum commune (1872 nt) were compared to that previously established for Agrocybe aegerita. The four structures are near the model established for Archae, Bacteria, plastids, and mitochondria; particularly the helices 23 and 37, described as specific to bacteria, are present. Within the four Agaricales (Homobasidiomycota), the SSU-rRNA "core" is conserved in size (966 to 1009 nt) with the exception of an unusual extension of 40 nt in the H17 helix of S. commune. The four core sequences possess 76% of conserved positions and a cluster of C in their 3' end, which could constitute a signal involved in the RNA maturation process. Among the nine putative variable domains, three (V3, V5, V7) do not show significant length variations and possess similar percentages of conserved positions (69%) than the core. The other six variable domains show important length variations, due to independent large size inserted/deleted sequences, and higher rates of nucleotide substitutions than the core (only 31% of conserved positions between the four species). Interestingly, the inserted/deleted sequences are located in few preferential sites (hot spots for insertion/deletion) where they seem to arise or disappear haphazardly during evolution. These sites are located on the surface of the tertiary structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit, at the beginning of hairpin loops; the insertions lead to a lengthening of existing hairpins or to branching loops bearing up to five additional helices.

  11. A definition of the domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya in terms of small subunit ribosomal RNA characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, S.; Woese, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    The number of small subunit rRNA sequences is now great enough that the three domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya (Woese et al., 1990) can be reliably defined in terms of their sequence "signatures". Approximately 50 homologous positions (or nucleotide pairs) in the small subunit rRNA characterize and distinguish among the three. In addition, the three can be recognized by a variety of nonhomologous rRNA characters, either individual positions and/or higher-order structural features. The Crenarchaeota and the Euryarchaeota, the two archaeal kingdoms, can also be defined and distinguished by their characteristic compositions at approximately fifteen positions in the small subunit rRNA molecule.

  12. A definition of the domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya in terms of small subunit ribosomal RNA characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Winker, S.; Woese, C.R.

    1994-11-01

    The number of small subunit rRNA sequences is not great enough that the three domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya (Woese, et al., 1990) can be reliably defined in terms of their sequence ``signatures.`` Approximately 50 homologous positions (or nucleotide pairs) in the small subunit rRNA characterized and distinguish among the three. In addition, the three can be recognized by a variety of nonhomologous rRNA characters, either individual positions and/or higher-order structural features. The Crenarchaeota and the Euryarchaeota, the two archaeal kingdoms, can also be defined and distinguished by their characteristic composition at approximately fifteen positions in the small subunit rRNA molecule.

  13. Isolation and 18S ribosomal DNA gene sequences of Marteilioides chungmuensis (Paramyxea), an ovarian parasite of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Naoki; Oda, Tadashi; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2003-03-31

    To develop sensitive detection techniques with the aim of elucidating the life cycle of Marteilioides chungmuensis, an intracellular paramyxean infecting the ovary of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, we isolated the parasite at the sporont stage from infected oysters using a freeze-thaw procedure at -20 degrees C and differential centrifugations in discontinuous sucrose and Percoll gradients. DNA was extracted from the isolated sporonts, and a PCR amplicon of 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene DNA was partially sequenced. In situ hybridization using 3 parasite-specific probes designed from the obtained sequence successfully detected parasite cells in infected oysters, and confirmed that the sequenced DNA was derived from M. chungmuensis.

  14. Natural-abundance stable carbon isotopes of small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) from Guaymas Basin (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, B. J.; Mendlovitz, H.; Albert, D.; Teske, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    Small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) is a phylogenetically informative molecule found in all species. Because it is poorly preserved in most environments, it is a useful marker for active microbial populations. We are using the natural-abundance stable carbon isotopic composition of specific microbial groups to help identify the carbon substrates contributing to microbial biomass in a variety of marine environments. At Guaymas Basin, hydrothermal fluids interact with abundant sedimentary organic carbon to produce natural gas and petroleum. Where this reaches the sediment surface, it can support dense patches of seafloor life, including Beggiatoa mats. We report here on the stable carbon isotopic composition of SSU rRNA from a Beggiatoa mat transect, a cold background site, a warm site with high oil concentration, and a second Beggiatoa mat. The central part of the transect mat overlay the steepest temperature gradient, and was visually dominated by orange Beggiatoa. This was fringed by white Beggiatoa mat and bare, but still warm, sediment. Methane concentrations were saturating beneath the orange and white mats and at the oily site, lower beneath bare sediment, and below detection at the background site. Our initial hypotheses were that rRNA isotopic composition would be strongly influenced by methane supply, and that archaeal rRNA might be lighter than bacterial due to contributions from methanogens and anaerobic methane oxidizers. We used biotin-labeled oligonucleotides to capture Bacterial and Archaeal SSU rRNA for isotopic determination. Background-site rRNA was isotopically heaviest, and bacterial RNA from below 2 cm at the oily site was lightest, consistent with control by methane. Within the transect mat, however, the pattern was more complicated; at some sediment depths, rRNA from the mat periphery was isotopically lightest. Part of this may be due to the spatially and temporally variable paths followed by hydrothermal fluid, which can include horizontal

  15. Using the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal DNA to reveal the phylogenetic position of the plerocercoid larvae of Spirometra tapeworms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Duan, Jiang Yang; Wang, Zhong Quan; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Ruo Dan; Cui, Jing

    2017-04-01

    Although medically important, the systematics of Spirometra and the taxonomic position of S. erinaceieuropaei remain unclear. In this study, the 18S rDNA gene of S. erinaceieuropaei sparganum from naturally infected frogs caught in 14 geographical locations of China was sequenced. In addition, all available 18S sequences of the family Diphyllobothriidae in the Genbank database were included to reconstruct the phylogeny of diphyllobothriid tapeworms. The secondary structure model of the 18S rDNA was also predicated to further explore the sequence variation. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. The intraspecific divergences of 18S rDNA in Chinese sparganum isolates ranged from 0.0 to 0.4%. Regions of V2, V4 and V7 were the most variable regions in the secondary structure of 18S rDNA. With the exception of genera Duthiersia and Probothriocephalus, other genera (i.e., Adenocephalus, Diphyllobothrium, Diplogonoporus, Duthiersia, Schistocephalus and Spirometra) selected in the Diphyllobothriidae shared similar topologies of V2, V4 and V7 structures. The topology of generated phylogenetic trees revealed close relationships among Adenocephalus, Digramma, Diphyllobothrium, Diplogonoporus, Ligula, Sparganum and Spirometra. The exact phylogenetic position of Spirometra species should be further analyzed with more sampling and more useful molecular markers.

  16. Discrimination between Gyrodactylus salaris, G. derjavini and G. truttae (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) using restriction fragment length polymorphisms and an oligonucleotide probe within the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C O; McGillivray, D M; MacKenzie, K; Melvin, W T

    1995-07-01

    The small subunit ribosomal RNA (srRNA) gene was amplified from Gyrodactylus salaris using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloned, and the complete gene sequence of 1966 bp determined. The V4 region of the srRNA gene was identified and amplified from single specimens of G. salaris, G. derjavini and G. truttae. Comparison of the V4 sequences from these three species revealed sequence differences from which restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were predicted and an oligonucleotide probe (GsV4) specific to G. salaris designed. Digestion of the amplified V4 region of the srRNA gene with Hae III and either Alw I, BstY I, Dde I or Mbo I provided a means of discriminating between G. salaris, G. derjavini and G. truttae. The GsV4 probe was used to detect the srRNA gene from G. salaris in Southern and dot blots of the amplified V4 region.

  17. Cryptosporidium is more closely related to the gregarines than to coccidia as shown by phylogenetic analysis of apicomplexan parasites inferred using small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Carreno, R A; Martin, D S; Barta, J R

    1999-11-01

    The phylogenetic placement of gregarine parasites (Apicomplexa: Gregarinasina) within the Apicomplexa was derived by comparison of small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Gregarine sequences were obtained from Gregarina niphandrodes Clopton, Percival, and Janovy, 1991, and Monocystis agilis Stein, 1848 (Eugregarinorida Léger 1900), as well as from Ophriocystis elektroscirrha McLaughlin and Myers, 1970 (Neogregarinorida Grassé 1953). The sequences were aligned with several other gregarine and apicomplexan sequences from GenBank and the resulting data matrix analyzed by parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods. The gregarines form a monophyletic clade that is a sister group to Cryptosporidium spp. The gregarine/ Cryptosporidium clade is separate from the other major apicomplexan clade containing the coccidia, adeleids, piroplasms, and haemosporinids. The trees indicate that the genus Cryptosporidium has a closer phylogenetic affinity with the gregarines than with the coccidia. These results do not support the present classification of the Cryptosporidiidae in the suborder Eimerioirina Léger, 1911.

  18. The discovery of the two types of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene in Eimeria mitis contests the existence of E. mivati as an independent species.

    PubMed

    Vrba, Vladimir; Poplstein, Martin; Pakandl, Michal

    2011-12-29

    Although the validity of the coccidian species, Eimeria mivati, has been questioned by many researchers for a long time there has not been any molecular analysis that would help resolve this issue. Here we report on the discovery of the two types of small ribosomal subunit (18S) gene within the Eimeria mitis genome that correspond to the known 18S sequences of E. mitis and E. mivati, and this is in conflict with the existence of E. mivati as an independent species. We have carried out five single oocyst isolations to obtain five single-oocyst-derived strains of E. mitis and these were analyzed by the sequencing of 18S and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes. The two types of 18S gene were found to be present in each strain in roughly equal ratios. This indicates that if the strains carrying only one or the other 18S type exist, they will likely cross-breed and still represent a single species. However, the more probable explanation is that all strains of E. mitis contain two types of 18S gene and that the occasional detection of only one or the other type by sequencing might be caused by insufficient sampling. This is also the first report of the two types of 18S gene in Eimeria, which has already been described in some other apicomplexan species, most notably Plasmodium. We also found that these two types of ribosomal RNA differ significantly in their secondary structure. The biological significance of the two 18S gene variants in E. mitis is not known, however, we hypothesize that these variants might be used in different stages of the parasite's life-cycle as it is in other apicomplexan species investigated so far.

  19. Ribosomal 18S rRNA base pairs with mRNA during eukaryotic translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Franck; Ménétret, Jean-François; Simonetti, Angelita; Myasnikov, Alexander G.; Vicens, Quentin; Prongidi-Fix, Lydia; Natchiar, S. Kundhavai; Klaholz, Bruno P.; Eriani, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNAs often contain a Kozak sequence that helps tether the ribosome to the AUG start codon. The mRNA of histone H4 (h4) does not undergo classical ribosome scanning but has evolved a specific tethering mechanism. The cryo-EM structure of the rabbit ribosome complex with mouse h4 shows that the mRNA forms a folded, repressive structure at the mRNA entry site on the 40S subunit next to the tip of helix 16 of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Toe-printing and mutational assays reveal that an interaction exists between a purine-rich sequence in h4 mRNA and a complementary UUUC sequence of helix h16. Together the present data establish that the h4 mRNA harbours a sequence complementary to an 18S rRNA sequence which tethers the mRNA to the ribosome to promote proper start codon positioning, complementing the interactions of the 40S subunit with the Kozak sequence that flanks the AUG start codon. PMID:27554013

  20. 18S Ribosomal RNA Evaluation as Preanalytical Quality Control for Animal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Meli, Marina L.; Novacco, Marilisa; Borel, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene is present in all eukaryotic cells. In this study, we evaluated the use of this gene to verify the presence of PCR-amplifiable host (animal) DNA as an indicator of sufficient sample quality for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis. We compared (i) samples from various animal species, tissues, and sample types, including swabs; (ii) multiple DNA extraction methods; and (iii) both fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. Results showed that 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplification was possible from all tissue samples evaluated, including avian, reptile, and FFPE samples and most swab samples. A single swine rectal swab, which showed sufficient DNA quantity and the demonstrated lack of PCR inhibitors, nonetheless was negative by 18S qPCR. Such a sample specifically illustrates the improvement of determination of sample integrity afforded by inclusion of 18S rRNA gene qPCR analysis in addition to spectrophotometric analysis and the use of internal controls for PCR inhibition. Other possible applications for the described 18S rRNA qPCR are preselection of optimal tissue specimens for studies or preliminary screening of archived samples prior to acceptance for biobanking projects. PMID:27672657

  1. Structural and functional studies of Bud23-Trm112 reveal 18S rRNA N7-G1575 methylation occurs on late 40S precursor ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Létoquart, Juliette; Huvelle, Emmeline; Wacheul, Ludivine; Bourgeois, Gabrielle; Zorbas, Christiane; Graille, Marc; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Lafontaine, Denis L J

    2014-12-23

    The eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit carries only four ribosomal (r) RNA methylated bases, all close to important functional sites. N(7)-methylguanosine (m(7)G) introduced at position 1575 on 18S rRNA by Bud23-Trm112 is at a ridge forming a steric block between P- and E-site tRNAs. Here we report atomic resolution structures of Bud23-Trm112 in the apo and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-bound forms. Bud23 and Trm112 interact through formation of a β-zipper involving main-chain atoms, burying an important hydrophobic surface and stabilizing the complex. The structures revealed that the coactivator Trm112 undergoes an induced fit to accommodate its methyltransferase (MTase) partner. We report important structural similarity between the active sites of Bud23 and Coffea canephora xanthosine MTase, leading us to propose and validate experimentally a model for G1575 coordination. We identify Bud23 residues important for Bud23-Trm112 complex formation and recruitment to pre-ribosomes. We report that though Bud23-Trm112 binds precursor ribosomes at an early nucleolar stage, m(7)G methylation occurs at a late step of small subunit biogenesis, implying specifically delayed catalytic activation. Finally, we show that Bud23-Trm112 interacts directly with the box C/D snoRNA U3-associated DEAH RNA helicase Dhr1 supposedly involved in central pseudoknot formation; this suggests that Bud23-Trm112 might also contribute to controlling formation of this irreversible and dramatic structural reorganization essential to overall folding of small subunit rRNA. Our study contributes important new elements to our understanding of key molecular aspects of human ribosomopathy syndromes associated with WBSCR22 (human Bud23) malfunction.

  2. PCR Primers for Metazoan Nuclear 18S and 28S Ribosomal DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Machida, Ryuji J.; Knowlton, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background Metagenetic analyses, which amplify and sequence target marker DNA regions from environmental samples, are increasingly employed to assess the biodiversity of communities of small organisms. Using this approach, our understanding of microbial diversity has expanded greatly. In contrast, only a few studies using this approach to characterize metazoan diversity have been reported, despite the fact that many metazoan species are small and difficult to identify or are undescribed. One of the reasons for this discrepancy is the availability of universal primers for the target taxa. In microbial studies, analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA is standard. In contrast, the best gene for metazoan metagenetics is less clear. In the present study, we have designed primers that amplify the nuclear 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences of most metazoan species with the goal of providing effective approaches for metagenetic analyses of metazoan diversity in environmental samples, with a particular emphasis on marine biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Conserved regions suitable for designing PCR primers were identified using 14,503 and 1,072 metazoan sequences of the nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA regions, respectively. The sequence similarity of both these newly designed and the previously reported primers to the target regions of these primers were compared for each phylum to determine the expected amplification efficacy. The nucleotide diversity of the flanking regions of the primers was also estimated for genera or higher taxonomic groups of 11 phyla to determine the variable regions within the genes. Conclusions/Significance The identified nuclear ribosomal DNA primers (five primer pairs for 18S and eleven for 28S) and the results of the nucleotide diversity analyses provide options for primer combinations for metazoan metagenetic analyses. Additionally, advantages and disadvantages of not only the 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA, but also other marker regions as targets

  3. Phylogeny of chloromonas (chlorophyceae): A study of 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheim, M.A.; Buchheim, J.A.; Chapman, R.L.

    1997-04-01

    The unicellular, biflagellate genus Chloromonas differs from its ally, Chlamydomonas, primarily by the absence of pyrenoids in the vegetative stage of the former. As with most green flagellate genera, little is known about phylogenetic affinities within and among Chloromonas species. Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear-encoded small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences demonstrate that a sampling of five Chloromonas taxa, obtained from major culture collections, do not form a monophyletic group. However, only three of these isolates, Chloromonas clathrata, Chloromonas serbinowi, and Chloromonas rosae, are diagnosable morphologically as Chloromonas species by the absence of a pyrenoid in the vegetative stage. The three diagnosable Chloromonas taxa form an alliance with two pyrenoid-bearing chlamydomonads, Chlamydomonas augustae and Chlamydomonas macrostellata. With the exception of Chloromonas serbinowi, which represents the basal lineage within the clade, each of the diagnosable Chloromonas taxa and their pyrenoid-bearing Chlamydomonas allies were isolated originally from mountain soils, snow, or cold peat. These observations suggest that hibitat, independent of pyrenoid status, may be most closely linked to the natural history of this clade of chlamydomonad flagellates. 51 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Identification of the 18S-ribosomal-DNA genotypes of Acanthamoeba isolates from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Rivera, W L; Adao, D E V

    2008-12-01

    Cyst morphology has been commonly used to identify the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba to subgenus level. A more accurate and consistent method, based on the sequence analysis of the gene coding for the amoeba's small-subunit ribosomal RNA (Rns), has, however, been developed. There have been no attempts to identify the Acanthamoeba genotypes circulating in the Philippines. In this study, therefore, the ASA.S1 region of the Rns gene from 17 Acanthamoeba isolates, collected from soil, water and contact-lens storage cases in different regions of the Philippines, was sequenced. After the isolates were genotyped, using the BLAST program, their phylogenetic positions relative to known Acanthamoeba isolates were determined. For this, the model-based (GTR + Gamma) neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian-inference analyses and the non-model-based maximum-parsimony analysis were used. All but two of the isolates were identified as the T5 or T4 genotypes, which are probably common in soil, water and contact-lens cases across the Philippines. The only other genotypes identified were T15 (as a single isolate from a contact-lens case) and T3 (as a single soil isolate).

  5. Chemical probing of adenine residues within the secondary structure of rabbit /sup 18/S ribosomal RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Rairkar, A.; Rubino, H.M.; Lockard, R.E.

    1988-01-26

    The location of unpaired adenine residues within the secondary structure of rabbit /sup 18/S ribosomal RNA was determined by chemical probing. Naked /sup 18/S rRNA was first prepared by digestion of purified 40S subunits with matrix-bound proteinase K in sodium dodecyl sulfate, thereby omitting the use of nucleic acid denaturants. Adenines within naked /sup 18/S rRNA were chemically probed by using either diethyl pyrocarbonate or dimethyl sulfate, which specifically react with unpaired nucleotides. Adenine modification sites were identified by polyacrylamide sequencing gel electrophoresis either upon aniline-induced strand scission of /sup 32/P-end-labeled intact and fragmented rRNA or by primer extension using sequence-specific DNA oligomers with reverse transcriptase. The data indicate good agreement between the general pattern of adenine reactivity and the location of unpaired regions in /sup 18/S rRNA determined by comparative sequence analysis. The overall reactivity of adenine residues toward single-strand-specific chemical probes was, also, similar for both rabbit and Escherichia coli small rRNA. The number of strongly reactive adenines appearing within phylogenetically determined helical segments, however, was greater in rabbit /sup 18/S rRNA than for E. coli /sup 16/S rRNA. Some of these adenines were found clustered in specific helices. Such differences suggest a greater irregularity of many of the helical elements within mammalian /sup 18/S rRNA, as compared with prokaryotic /sup 16/S rRNA. These helical irregularities could be important for protein association and also may represent biologically relevant flexible regions of the molecule.

  6. Secondary structure of rabbit 18S ribosomal RNA determined from biochemical and phylogenetic data

    SciTech Connect

    Rairkar, A.; Rubino, H.; Lockard, R.E.

    1986-05-01

    To understand the functional role of 18S rRNA in the eukaryotic 40S subunit, its higher order structure must first be determined. Native deproteinized 18S rRNA was isolated from purified rabbit 40S subunits, fractionated on SDS-sucrose density gradients and concentrated using centricon-30 microconcentrators. The structure of native 18S rRNA was probed chemically with both diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) and dimethyl sulfate (DMS) which react with unpaired adenosine and guanosine residues, respectively. After /sup 32/P-end-labeling of intact and fragmented RNA, the modified nucleotides were identified by polyacrylamide sequencing gel electrophoresis upon aniline induced strand scission. On the basis of both the biochemical and phylogenetic data, a secondary structure model is proposed which includes the two major G + C rich insertion elements. A comparison of the structure data with previously published phylogenetic models suggests an instability of certain predicted helices. These unstable helices may normally be stabilized by ribosomal proteins and could represent the flexible elements involved in biologically significant conformational switches within 40S subunit.

  7. Using Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA to Follow Dark Incorporation of 14C-bicarbonate by Bacteria and Archaea in Sandy Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, B. J.; Musat, N.; Kuypers, M. M.

    2007-12-01

    Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and the genes encoding it have become the basis of modern microbial phylogeny, and of numerous methods for characterizing the composition of bacterial, archaeal, and even eukaryotic communities as they occur in nature. A limitation of this approach has been that phylogeny alone is not a reliable guide to physiology, particularly for groups with no close relatives in culture. We have been developing ways of using the SSU rRNA molecule itself to identify and (eventually) quantify the carbon sources incorporated by particular phylogenetic groups. This can be done by taking advantage of natural variations in carbon isotopic composition among growth substrates, or by following incorporation of 13C- or 14C-labeled compounds. 14C has the advantage that natural background levels are negligible. In the present study, our goal is to identify species responsible for non-photosynthetic CO2 incorporation in sandy sediments of the German Wadden Sea. Sediment cores collected from the Janssand sand flats were percolated with 14C-bicarbonate at in situ temperature for 36-38h in the dark, total RNA isolated, and domain-specific oligonucleotide probes used to capture bacterial and archaeal SSU rRNA. Total and/or captured RNA was separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and 14C detected by phosphor imager, autoradiography, or beta imager. Detection was fastest and most sensitive with the beta imager. Both Bacteria and Archaea had incorporated label, suggesting both groups may harbor non-photosynthetic autotrophs. The next step will be to use more specific capture probes. We are currently working to separate the captured domain-specific SSU rRNA on non-denaturing gels, with detection by the high-resolution mode of the beta imager, so that individual species incorporating label can be identified by RT-PCR and sequencing of labeled bands.

  8. 18S ribosomal DNA genotypes of Acanthamoeba species isolated from contact lens cases in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Windell L; Adao, Davin Edric V

    2009-10-01

    This study was carried out to document the genotypes of Acanthamoeba present in contact lens cases from 50 randomly selected contact lens wearers living in Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines. Acanthamoeba species were isolated from eight (16%) in 50 contact lens cases examined. We analyzed partial 18S ribosomal DNA (Rns) sequences of the eight isolates and found that the sequence differences were sufficient to distinguish the genotypes. After the isolates were genotyped, using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool program, their phylogenetic positions relative to known Acanthamoeba isolates were determined. The model-based (GTR+Gamma+Iota) neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses, as well as the non-model-based maximum parsimony analysis were used. Results showed that of the eight isolates, six were Rns genotype T5 while two were Rns genotype T4. This present study indicates that genotype T5 is also a common contaminant in contact lens storage cases.

  9. Ribosome biogenesis factor Tsr3 is the aminocarboxypropyl transferase responsible for 18S rRNA hypermodification in yeast and humans

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Britta; Wurm, Jan Philip; Sharma, Sunny; Immer, Carina; Pogoryelov, Denys; Kötter, Peter; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.; Wöhnert, Jens; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The chemically most complex modification in eukaryotic rRNA is the conserved hypermodified nucleotide N1-methyl-N3-aminocarboxypropyl-pseudouridine (m1acp3Ψ) located next to the P-site tRNA on the small subunit 18S rRNA. While S-adenosylmethionine was identified as the source of the aminocarboxypropyl (acp) group more than 40 years ago the enzyme catalyzing the acp transfer remained elusive. Here we identify the cytoplasmic ribosome biogenesis protein Tsr3 as the responsible enzyme in yeast and human cells. In functionally impaired Tsr3-mutants, a reduced level of acp modification directly correlates with increased 20S pre-rRNA accumulation. The crystal structure of archaeal Tsr3 homologs revealed the same fold as in SPOUT-class RNA-methyltransferases but a distinct SAM binding mode. This unique SAM binding mode explains why Tsr3 transfers the acp and not the methyl group of SAM to its substrate. Structurally, Tsr3 therefore represents a novel class of acp transferase enzymes. PMID:27084949

  10. Molecular Identification of Ptychodera flava (Hemichordata: Enteropneusta): Reconsideration in Light of Nucleotide Polymorphism in the 18S Ribosomal RNA Gene.

    PubMed

    Urata, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    Seven nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers were examined in 12 specimens of Ptychodera flava, a model acorn worm used in molecular biology, collected in Japan from three local populations with different modes of living. A comparison of intraspecific results did not show genetically isolated populations despite the species' enclave habitats and asexual reproduction. Moreover, both the nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene and mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences were identical to those from Moorea in French Polynesia, nearly 10,000 kilometers away from Japan. I also provide the first definitive information regarding polymorphisms in 18S ribosomal RNA gene, the external transcribed spacer (ETS), internal transcribed spacers (ITS), and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mtCO1) sequence in hemichordates using newly designed primer sets, and I show both high larval vagility and certain criteria for the molecular identification of this species.

  11. Chromosome Mapping of 18S Ribosomal RNA Genes in Eleven Hypostomus Species (Siluriformes, Loricariidae): Diversity Analysis of the Sites.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Marceléia; da Rosa, Renata; Zawadzki, Claudio H; Mariotto, Sandra; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the chromosomal distribution of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in different populations of 11 species of Hypostomus collected in important Brazilian basins, namely South Atlantic, Upper Paraná, and Paraguay applying the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Hypostomus cochliodon, Hypostomus commersoni, Hypostomus hermanni, Hypostomus regani, Hypostomus albopunctatus, Hypostomus paulinus, Hypostomus aff. paulinus, Hypostomus iheringii, and Hypostomus mutucae presented multiple 18S rDNA sites while Hypostomus strigaticeps and Hypostomus nigromaculatus exhibited a single pair of chromosomes with 18S rDNA sites. The studied species presented variations in the number and position of these sites. The results accomplished were similar to those obtained by the analysis of AgNORs, revealing the same interspecific variability. Each species exhibited distinctive patterns of AgNOR and 18S rDNA distribution, which can be considered cytogenetic markers in each species of the genus and help improve the discussions on the phylogeny of the group.

  12. A small subunit processome protein promotes cancer by altering translation.

    PubMed

    Yang, H W; Kim, T-M; Song, S S; Menon, L; Jiang, X; Huang, W; Black, P M; Park, P J; Carroll, R S; Johnson, M D

    2015-08-20

    Dysregulation of ribosome biogenesis or translation can promote cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. UTP18 is a component of the small subunit processome, a nucleolar multi-protein complex whose only known function is to cleave pre-ribosomal RNA to yield the 18S ribosomal RNA component of 40S ribosomal subunits. Here, we show that UTP18 also alters translation to promote stress resistance and growth, and that UTP18 is frequently gained and overexpressed in cancer. We observed that UTP18 localizes to the cytoplasm in a subset of cells, and that serum withdrawal increases cytoplasmic UTP18 localization. Cytoplasmic UTP18 associates with the translation complex and Hsp90 to upregulate the translation of IRES-containing transcripts such as HIF1a, Myc and VEGF, thereby inducing stress resistance. Hsp90 inhibition decreases cytoplasmic UTP18 and UTP18-induced increases in translation. Importantly, elevated UTP18 expression correlates with increased aggressiveness and decreased survival in numerous cancers. Enforced UTP18 overexpression promotes transformation and tumorigenesis, whereas UTP18 knockdown inhibits these processes. This stress adaptation mechanism is thus co-opted for growth by cancers, and its inhibition may represent a promising new therapeutic target.

  13. The nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene as a source of phylogenetic information in the genus Taenia.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongbin; Lou, Zhongzi; Li, Li; Ni, Xingwei; Guo, Aijiang; Li, Hongmin; Zheng, Yadong; Dyachenko, Viktor; Jia, Wanzhong

    2013-03-01

    Most species of the genus Taenia are of considerable medical and veterinary significance. In this study, complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from seven members of genus Taenia [Taenia multiceps, Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica, Taenia solium, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia hydatigena, and Taenia taeniaeformis] and a phylogeny inferred using these sequences. Most of the variable sites fall within the variable regions, V1-V5. We show that sequences from the nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene have considerable promise as sources of phylogenetic information within the genus Taenia. Furthermore, given that almost all the variable sites lie within defined variable portions of that gene, it will be appropriate and economical to sequence only those regions for additional species of Taenia.

  14. Heteroduplex mobility assay-guided sequence discovery: elucidation of the small subunit (18S) rDNA sequences of Pfiesteria piscicida and related dinoflagellates from complex algal culture and environmental sample DNA pools.

    PubMed

    Oldach, D W; Delwiche, C F; Jakobsen, K S; Tengs, T; Brown, E G; Kempton, J W; Schaefer, E F; Bowers, H A; Glasgow, H B; Burkholder, J M; Steidinger, K A; Rublee, P A

    2000-04-11

    The newly described heterotrophic estuarine dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida has been linked with fish kills in field and laboratory settings, and with a novel clinical syndrome of impaired cognition and memory disturbance among humans after presumptive toxin exposure. As a result, there is a pressing need to better characterize the organism and these associations. Advances in Pfiesteria research have been hampered, however, by the absence of genomic sequence data. We employed a sequencing strategy directed by heteroduplex mobility assay to detect Pfiesteria piscicida 18S rDNA "signature" sequences in complex pools of DNA and used those data as the basis for determination of the complete P. piscicida 18S rDNA sequence. Specific PCR assays for P. piscicida and other estuarine heterotrophic dinoflagellates were developed, permitting their detection in algal cultures and in estuarine water samples collected during fish kill and fish lesion events. These tools should enhance efforts to characterize these organisms and their ecological relationships. Heteroduplex mobility assay-directed sequence discovery is broadly applicable, and may be adapted for the detection of genomic sequence data of other novel or nonculturable organisms in complex assemblages.

  15. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification targeting 18S ribosomal DNA for rapid detection of Acanthamoeba.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye-Won; Lee, Yu-Ran; Inoue, Noboru; Jha, Bijay Kumar; Danne, Dinzouna-Boutamba Sylvatrie; Kim, Hong-Kyun; Lee, Junhun; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2013-06-01

    Amoebic keratitis (AK) caused by Acanthamoeba is one of the most serious corneal infections. AK is frequently misdiagnosed initially as viral, bacterial, or fungal keratitis, thus ensuring treatment delays. Accordingly, the early detection of Acanthamoeba would contribute significantly to disease management and selection of an appropriate anti-amoebic therapy. Recently, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method has been applied to the clinical diagnosis of a range of infectious diseases. Here, we describe a rapid and efficient LAMP-based method targeting Acanthamoeba 18S rDNA gene for the detection of Acanthamoeba using clinical ocular specimens in the diagnosis of AK. Acanthamoeba LAMP assays detected 11 different strains including all AK-associated species. The copy number detection limit for a positive signal was 10 DNA copies of 18S rDNA per reaction. No cross-reactivity with the DNA of fungi or other protozoa was observed. The sensitivity of LAMP assay was higher than those of Nelson primer PCR and JDP primer PCR. In the present study, LAMP assay based on directly heat-treated samples was found to be as efficient at detecting Acanthamoeba as DNA extracted using a commercial kit, whereas PCR was only effective when commercial kit-extracted DNA was used. This study showed that the devised Acanthamoeba LAMP assay could be used to diagnose AK in a simple, sensitive, and specific manner.

  16. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Targeting 18S Ribosomal DNA for Rapid Detection of Acanthamoeba

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hye-Won; Lee, Yu-Ran; Inoue, Noboru; Jha, Bijay Kumar; Danne, Dinzouna-Boutamba Sylvatrie; Kim, Hong-Kyun; Lee, Junhun; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Chung, Dong-Il

    2013-01-01

    Amoebic keratitis (AK) caused by Acanthamoeba is one of the most serious corneal infections. AK is frequently misdiagnosed initially as viral, bacterial, or fungal keratitis, thus ensuring treatment delays. Accordingly, the early detection of Acanthamoeba would contribute significantly to disease management and selection of an appropriate anti-amoebic therapy. Recently, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method has been applied to the clinical diagnosis of a range of infectious diseases. Here, we describe a rapid and efficient LAMP-based method targeting Acanthamoeba 18S rDNA gene for the detection of Acanthamoeba using clinical ocular specimens in the diagnosis of AK. Acanthamoeba LAMP assays detected 11 different strains including all AK-associated species. The copy number detection limit for a positive signal was 10 DNA copies of 18S rDNA per reaction. No cross-reactivity with the DNA of fungi or other protozoa was observed. The sensitivity of LAMP assay was higher than those of Nelson primer PCR and JDP primer PCR. In the present study, LAMP assay based on directly heat-treated samples was found to be as efficient at detecting Acanthamoeba as DNA extracted using a commercial kit, whereas PCR was only effective when commercial kit-extracted DNA was used. This study showed that the devised Acanthamoeba LAMP assay could be used to diagnose AK in a simple, sensitive, and specific manner. PMID:23864737

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of the Culicomorpha inferred from 18S and 5.8S ribosomal DNA sequences. (Diptera:Nematocera).

    PubMed

    Miller, B R; Crabtree, M B; Savage, H M

    1997-05-01

    We investigated the evolutionary origins of the mosquito family Culicidae by examination of 18S and 5.8S ribosomal gene sequence divergence. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that within the infraorder Culicomorpha, taxa in the families Corethrellidae, Chaoboridae and Culicidae formed a monophyletic group; there was support for a sister relationship between this lineage and a representative of the Chironomidae. A chaoborid midge was the closest relative of the mosquitoes. Taxa from four genera of mosquitoes formed a monophyletic group; lack of a spacer in the 5.8S gene was unique to members of the Culicidae. A member of the genus Anopheles formed the most basal lineage among the mosquitoes analysed. Phylogenetic relationships were unresolved for representatives in the families Dixidae, Simuliidae and Ceratopogonidae.

  18. Early diagnosis of Exophiala CAPD peritonitis by 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Chiu, Siu-kau; Leung, Kit-wah; Yung, Raymond W H; Yuen, Kwok-yung

    2003-06-01

    Phenotypic identification of fungi in clinical microbiology laboratories is often difficult and late, especially for slow growing and rarely encountered fungi. We describe the application of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing in the early diagnosis of a case of Exophiala peritonitis. A yeast-like fungus was isolated from the dialysate fluid of a 66-year-old man undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. It grew slowly after 12 days of incubation to yield mature cultures to permit recognition of microscopic features resembling those of Exophiala, a dematiacerous mold. 18S rRNA gene sequencing provided results 12 days earlier than phenotypic identification and revealed 15 base difference (0.9%) between the isolate and Exophiala sp. strain GHP 1205 (GenBank Accession no. AJ232954), indicating that the isolate most closely resembles a strain of Exophiala species. The patient responded to 4 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B therapy. Early identification of the fungus was important for the choice of anti-fungal regimen. As opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients are globally emerging problems, the development of molecular techniques for fungal identification is crucial for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  19. Physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA in three species of Agave (Asparagales, Asparagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Rodriguez, Victor Manuel; Rodriguez-Garay, Benjamin; Palomino, Guadalupe; Martínez, Javier; Barba-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Agave Linnaeus, 1753 is endemic of America and is considered one of the most important crops in Mexico due to its key role in the country’s economy. Cytogenetic analysis was carried out in Agave tequilana Weber, 1902 ‘Azul’, Agave cupreata Trelease et Berger, 1915 and Agave angustifolia Haworth, 1812. The analysis showed that in all species the diploid chromosome number was 2n = 60, with bimodal karyotypes composed of five pairs of large chromosomes and 25 pairs of small chromosomes. Furthermore, different karyotypical formulae as well as a secondary constriction in a large chromosome pair were found in all species. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). All species analyzed showed that 5S rDNA was located in both arms of a small chromosome pair, while 18S rDNA was associated with the secondary constriction of a large chromosome pair. Data of FISH analysis provides new information about the position and number of rDNA loci and helps for detection of hybrids in breeding programs as well as evolutionary studies. PMID:24260700

  20. Characterization of the Dominant and Rare Members of a Young Hawaiian Soil Bacterial Community with Small-Subunit Ribosomal DNA Amplified from DNA Fractionated on the Basis of Its Guanine and Cytosine Composition

    PubMed Central

    Nüsslein, Klaus; Tiedje, James M.

    1998-01-01

    The small-subunit ribosomal DNA (rDNA) diversity was found to be very high in a Hawaiian soil community that might be expected to have lower diversity than the communities in continental soils because the Hawaiian soil is geographically isolated and only 200 years old, is subjected to a constant climate, and harbors low plant diversity. Since an underlying community structure could not be revealed by analyzing the total eubacterial rDNA, we first fractionated the DNA on the basis of guanine-plus-cytosine (G+C) content by using bis-benzimidazole and equilibrium centrifugation and then analyzed the bacterial rDNA amplified from a fraction with a high biomass (63% G+C fraction) and a fraction with a low biomass (35% G+C fraction). The rDNA clone libraries were screened by amplified rDNA restriction analysis to determine phylotype distribution. The dominant biomass reflected by the 63% G+C fraction contained several dominant phylotypes, while the community members that were less successful (35% G+C fraction) did not show dominance but there was a very high diversity of phylotypes. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed taxa belonging to the groups expected for the G+C contents used. The dominant phylotypes in the 63% G+C fraction were members of the Pseudomonas, Rhizobium-Agrobacterium, and Rhodospirillum assemblages, while all of the clones sequenced from the 35% G+C fraction were affiliated with several Clostridium assemblages. The two-step rDNA analysis used here uncovered more diversity than can be detected by direct rDNA analysis of total community DNA. The G+C separation step is also a way to detect some of the less dominant organisms in a community. PMID:9546163

  1. Ribosomal RNA sequence suggest microsporidia are extremely ancient eukaryotes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vossbrinck, C. R.; Maddox, J. V.; Friedman, S.; Debrunner-Vossbrinck, B. A.; Woese, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    A comparative sequence analysis of the 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the microsporidium Vairimorpha necatrix is presented. The results show that this rRNA sequence is more unlike those of other eukaryotes than any known eukaryote rRNA sequence. It is concluded that the lineage leading to microsporidia branched very early from that leading to other eukaryotes.

  2. gar2 is a nucleolar protein from Schizosaccharomyces pombe required for 18S rRNA and 40S ribosomal subunit accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Gulli, M P; Girard, J P; Zabetakis, D; Lapeyre, B; Melese, T; Caizergues-Ferrer, M

    1995-01-01

    Several nucleolar proteins, such as nucleolin, NOP1/fibrillarin, SSB1, NSR1 and GAR1 share a common glycine and arginine rich structural motif called the GAR domain. To identify novel nucleolar proteins from fission yeast we screened Schizosaccharomyces pombe genomic DNA libraries with a probe encompassing the GAR structural motif. Here we report the identification and characterization of a S.pombe gene coding for a novel nucleolar protein, designated gar2. The structure of the fission yeast gar2 is reminiscent of that of nucleolin from vertebrates and NSR1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, like these proteins, gar2 has a nucleolar localisation. The disruption of the gar2+ gene affects normal cell growth, leads to an accumulation of 35S pre-rRNA and a decrease of mature 18S rRNA steady state levels. Moreover, ribosomal profiles of the mutant show an increase of free 60S ribosomal subunits and an absence of free 40S ribosomal subunits. gar2 is able to rescue a S.cerevisiae mutant lacking NSR1, thus establishing gar2 as a functional homolog of NSR1. We propose that gar2 helps the assembly of pre-ribosomal particles containing 18S rRNA. Images PMID:7596817

  3. Direct chemical probing of the conformation of the 3' functional domain of rabbit 18S rRNA in 40S subunits, 80S ribosomes and polyribosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Rubino, H.M.; Rairkar, A.; Lockard, R.E.

    1987-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the 3' minor domain of eukaryotic 18S rRNA, as in prokaryotes, is directly involved in protein biosynthesis. To determine regions of possible functional importance, they have probed the higher order structure of rabbit 18S rRNA in both 40S subunits and 80S ribosomes, as well as polyribosomes using the single-strand specific chemical probes dimethyl sulfate (DMS) and diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) which react with unpaired guanosine and adenosine residues, respectively. The modified 18S rRNA was isolated from these particles and the resultant modified nucleotides identified on polyacrylamide sequencing gels upon either aniline-induced strand scission of /sup 32/P-end-labeled intact rRNA or by DNA primer extension using sequence specific deoxyoligomers with reverse transcriptase. Their results indicate a decreased reactivity of residue C-1692 in rabbit 18S rRNA (corresponding to C-1400 E. coli) within the putative tRNA contact site in polyribosomes as compared with 40S subunits and 80S ribosomes. They have also determined varying reactivities of a number of other residues within specific regions of the 3' functional domain when 40S, 80S, and polyribosomes are compared, which may be important for both subunit association as well as mRNA binding.

  4. [Mg2+ ions affect the structure of the central domain of the 18S rRNA in the vicinity of the ribosomal protein S13 binding site].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A V; Malygin, A A; Karpova, G G

    2013-01-01

    It is known that Mg2+ ions at high concentrations stabilize the structure of the 16S rRNA in a conformation favorable for binding to the ribosomal proteins in the course of the eubacterial 30S ribosomal subunits assembly in vitro. Effect of Mg2+ on the formation of the 18S rRNA structure at the 40S subunit assembly remains poorly explored. In this paper, we show that the sequentional increase of the Mg2+ concentration from 0.5 mM to 20 mM leads to a significant decrease of the affinity of recombinant human ribosomal protein S13 (rpS13e) to a RNA transcript corresponding to the central domain fragment of the 18S rRNA (18SCD). The regions near the rpS13e binding site in 18SCD (including the nucleotides of helices H20 and H22), whose availabilities to hydroxyl radicals were dependent on the Mg2+ concentration, were determined. It was found that increase of the concentrations of Mg2+ results in the enhanced accessibilities of nucleotides G933-C937 and C1006-A1009 in helix H22 and reduces those of nucleotides A1023, A1024, and A1028-S1026 in the helix H20. Comparison of the results obtained with the crystallographic data on the structure of the central domain of 18S rRNA in the 40S ribosomal subunit led to conclusion that increase of Mg2+ concentrations results in the reorientation of helices H20 and H24 relatively helices H22 and H23 to form a structure, in which these helices are positioned the same way as in 40S subunits. Hence, saturation of the central domain of 18S rRNA with coordinated Mg2+ ions causes the same changes in its structure as rpS13e binding does, and leads to decreasing of this domain affinity to the protein.

  5. Molecular and phylogenetic characterizations of an Eimeria krijgsmanni Yakimoff & Gouseff, 1938 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) mouse intestinal protozoan parasite by partial 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Takeo, Toshinori; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Maeda, Hiroki; Kusakisako, Kodai; Matsui, Toshihiro; Mochizuki, Masami; Matsuo, Tomohide

    2014-08-01

    Previously, we characterized an undocumented strain of Eimeria krijgsmanni by morphological and biological features. Here, we present a detailed molecular phylogenetic analysis of this organism. Namely, 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences of E. krijgsmanni were analyzed to incorporate this species into a comprehensive Eimeria phylogeny. As a result, partial 18S rDNA sequence from E. krijgsmanni was successfully determined, and two different types, Type A and Type B, that differed by 1 base pair were identified. E. krijgsmanni was originally isolated from a single oocyst, and thus the result show that the two types might have allelic sequence heterogeneity in the 18S rDNA. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the two types of E. krijgsmanni 18S rDNA formed one of two clades among murine Eimeria spp.; these Eimeria clades reflected morphological similarity among the Eimeria spp. This is the third molecular phylogenetic characterization of a murine Eimeria spp. in addition to E. falciformis and E. papillata.

  6. Phylogeny of the sundews, Drosera (Droseraceae), based on chloroplast rbcL and nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA Sequences.

    PubMed

    Rivadavia, Fernando; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Kato, Masahiro; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2003-01-01

    The sundew genus Drosera consists of carnivorous plants with active flypaper traps and includes nearly 150 species distributed mainly in Australia, Africa, and South America, with some Northern Hemisphere species. In addition to confused intrageneric classification of Drosera, the intergeneric relationships among the Drosera and two other genera in the Droseraceae with snap traps, Dionaea and Aldrovanda, are problematic. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences of the chloroplast rbcL gene for 59 species of Drosera, covering all sections except one. These analyses revealed that five of 11 sections, including three monotypic sections, are polyphyletic. Combined rbcL and 18S rDNA sequence data were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among Drosera, Dionaea, and Aldrovanda. This analysis revealed that all Drosera species form a clade sister to a clade including Dionaea and Aldrovanda, suggesting that the snap traps of Aldrovanda and Dionaea are homologous despite their morphological differences. MacClade reconstructions indicated that multiple episodes of aneuploidy occurred in a clade that includes mainly Australian species, while the chromosome numbers in the other clades are not as variable. Drosera regia, which is native to South Africa, and most species native to Australia, were clustered basally, suggesting that Drosera originated in Africa or Australia. The rbcL tree indicates that Australian species expanded their distribution to South America and then to Africa. Expansion of distribution to the Northern Hemisphere from the Southern Hemispere occurred in a few different lineages.

  7. Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophora, Peritrichia) is a grade not a clade: redefinition of Vorticella and the families Vorticellidae and Astylozoidae using molecular characters derived from the gene coding for small subunit ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Clamp, John; Xu, Dapeng; Kusuoka, Yasushi; Miao, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic analyses of the peritrich genus Vorticella have suggested that it might be paraphyletic, with one Vorticella species - Vorticella microstoma grouping with the swimming peritrichs Astylozoon and Opisthonecta in a distant clade. These results were based on very limited taxon sampling and thus could not be accepted as conclusive evidence for revising the generic classification. We tested paraphyly of the genus Vorticella by making a new analysis with a broad range of samples from three continents that yielded 52 new sequences of the gene coding for small subunit rRNA. Our results, together with the available sequences in Genbank, form a comprehensive set of data for the genus Vorticella. Analyses of these data showed that Vorticella microstoma morphotypes, Astylozoon, and Opisthonecta form a well-supported, monophyletic clade, that is distinct from and basal to the family Vorticellidae containing other species of Vorticella. Paraphyly of the genus Vorticella and family Vorticellidae was strongly confirmed by these results. Furthermore, the two clades of Vorticella identified by the SSU rRNA gene are so genetically diverse whereas the genetic distances within the one containing Vorticella microstoma morphotypes, Astylozoon, and Opisthonecta were so slight, which marked it as a separate family that must be defined by molecular characters in the absence of unifying morphological and morphogenetic characters. An emended characterization and status of the genus Vorticella, the families Vorticellidae and Astylozoidae are presented and discussed.

  8. Use of Subgenic 18S Ribosomal DNA PCR and Sequencing for Genus and Genotype Identification of Acanthamoebae from Humans with Keratitis and from Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Jill M.; Booton, Gregory C.; Hay, John; Niszl, Ingrid A.; Seal, David V.; Markus, Miles B.; Fuerst, Paul A.; Byers, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    This study identified subgenic PCR amplimers from 18S rDNA that were (i) highly specific for the genus Acanthamoeba, (ii) obtainable from all known genotypes, and (iii) useful for identification of individual genotypes. A 423- to 551-bp Acanthamoeba-specific amplimer ASA.S1 obtained with primers JDP1 and JDP2 was the most reliable for purposes i and ii. A variable region within this amplimer also identified genotype clusters, but purpose iii was best achieved with sequencing of the genotype-specific amplimer GTSA.B1. Because this amplimer could be obtained from any eukaryote, axenic Acanthamoeba cultures were required for its study. GTSA.B1, produced with primers CRN5 and 1137, extended between reference bp 1 and 1475. Genotypic identification relied on three segments: bp 178 to 355, 705 to 926, and 1175 to 1379. ASA.S1 was obtained from single amoeba, from cultures of all known 18S rDNA genotypes, and from corneal scrapings of Scottish patients with suspected Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). The AK PCR findings were consistent with culture results for 11 of 15 culture-positive specimens and detected Acanthamoeba in one of nine culture-negative specimens. ASA.S1 sequences were examined for 6 of the 11 culture-positive isolates and were most closely associated with genotypic cluster T3-T4-T11. A similar distance analysis using GTSA.B1 sequences identified nine South African AK-associated isolates as genotype T4 and three isolates from sewage sludge as genotype T5. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of 18S ribosomal DNA PCR amplimers ASA.S1 and GTSA.B1 for Acanthamoeba-specific detection and reliable genotyping, respectively, and provide further evidence that T4 is the predominant genotype in AK. PMID:11326011

  9. Use of subgenic 18S ribosomal DNA PCR and sequencing for genus and genotype identification of acanthamoebae from humans with keratitis and from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, J M; Booton, G C; Hay, J; Niszl, I A; Seal, D V; Markus, M B; Fuerst, P A; Byers, T J

    2001-05-01

    This study identified subgenic PCR amplimers from 18S rDNA that were (i) highly specific for the genus Acanthamoeba, (ii) obtainable from all known genotypes, and (iii) useful for identification of individual genotypes. A 423- to 551-bp Acanthamoeba-specific amplimer ASA.S1 obtained with primers JDP1 and JDP2 was the most reliable for purposes i and ii. A variable region within this amplimer also identified genotype clusters, but purpose iii was best achieved with sequencing of the genotype-specific amplimer GTSA.B1. Because this amplimer could be obtained from any eukaryote, axenic Acanthamoeba cultures were required for its study. GTSA.B1, produced with primers CRN5 and 1137, extended between reference bp 1 and 1475. Genotypic identification relied on three segments: bp 178 to 355, 705 to 926, and 1175 to 1379. ASA.S1 was obtained from single amoeba, from cultures of all known 18S rDNA genotypes, and from corneal scrapings of Scottish patients with suspected Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). The AK PCR findings were consistent with culture results for 11 of 15 culture-positive specimens and detected Acanthamoeba in one of nine culture-negative specimens. ASA.S1 sequences were examined for 6 of the 11 culture-positive isolates and were most closely associated with genotypic cluster T3-T4-T11. A similar distance analysis using GTSA.B1 sequences identified nine South African AK-associated isolates as genotype T4 and three isolates from sewage sludge as genotype T5. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of 18S ribosomal DNA PCR amplimers ASA.S1 and GTSA.B1 for Acanthamoeba-specific detection and reliable genotyping, respectively, and provide further evidence that T4 is the predominant genotype in AK.

  10. Role of the Rubisco Small Subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Spreitzer, Robert Joseph

    2016-11-05

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of CO2 fixation in photosynthesis. However, it is a slow enzyme, and O2 competes with CO2 at the active site. Oxygenation initiates the photorespiratory pathway, which also results in the loss of CO2. If carboxylation could be increased or oxygenation decreased, an increase in net CO2 fixation would be realized. Because Rubisco provides the primary means by which carbon enters all life on earth, there is much interest in engineering Rubisco to increase the production of food and renewable energy. Rubisco is located in the chloroplasts of plants, and it is comprised of two subunits. Much is known about the chloroplast-gene-encoded large subunit (rbcL gene), which contains the active site, but much less is known about the role of the nuclear-gene-encoded small subunit in Rubisco function (rbcS gene). Both subunits are coded by multiple genes in plants, which makes genetic engineering difficult. In the eukaryotic, green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, it has been possible to eliminate all the Rubisco genes. These Rubisco-less mutants can be maintained by providing acetate as an alternative carbon source. In this project, focus has been placed on determining whether the small subunit might be a better genetic-engineering target for improving Rubisco. Analysis of a variable-loop structure (βA-βB loop) of the small subunit by genetic selection, directed mutagenesis, and construction of chimeras has shown that the small subunit can influence CO2/O2 specificity. X-ray crystal structures of engineered chimeric-loop enzymes have indicated that additional residues and regions of the small subunit may also contribute to Rubisco function. Structural dynamics of the small-subunit carboxyl terminus was also investigated. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the most-conserved small-subunit residues has identified a

  11. Detection of Kudoa septempunctata 18S ribosomal DNA in patient fecal samples from novel food-borne outbreaks caused by consumption of raw olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Harada, Tetsuya; Kawai, Takao; Jinnai, Michio; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kumeda, Yuko

    2012-09-01

    Kudoa septempunctata is a newly identified myxosporean parasite of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and a suspected causative agent of several food-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks in Japan. Here, we report the detection of K. septempunctata 18S ribosomal DNA in fecal samples of outbreak patients using an efficient method based on real-time PCR. We first performed a spiking experiment to assess whether our previously developed real-time PCR assay was applicable to detect K. septempunctata in feces. Simultaneously, we compared the relative extraction efficacy of K. septempunctata DNA using three commercial kits. Finally, our detection method was validated by testing 45 clinical samples obtained from 13 food-borne outbreaks associated with the consumption of raw flounder and 41 fecal samples from diarrhea patients epidemiologically unrelated to the ingestion of raw fish. We found that the FastDNA Spin Kit for Soil (MP Biomedicals) was the most efficient method for extracting K. septempunctata DNA from fecal samples. Using this kit, the detection limit of our real-time PCR assay was 1.6 × 10(1) spores per g of feces, and positive results were obtained for 21 fecal and 2 vomitus samples obtained from the food-borne outbreaks. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the detection of K. septempunctata DNA in patient fecal samples. We anticipate that our detection method will be useful for confirming food-borne diseases caused by K. septempunctata in laboratory investigations.

  12. Sequence alignment of 18S ribosomal RNA and the basal relationships of Adephagan beetles: evidence for monophyly of aquatic families and the placement of Trachypachidae.

    PubMed

    Shull, V L; Vogler, A P; Baker, M D; Maddison, D R; Hammond, P M

    2001-01-01

    Current hypotheses regarding family relationships in the suborder Adephaga (Coleoptera) are conflicting. Here we report full-length 18S ribosomal RNA sequences of 39 adephagans and 13 outgroup taxa. Data analysis focused on the impact of sequence alignment on tree topology, using two principally different approaches. Tree alignments, which seek to minimize indels and substitutions on the tree in a single step, as implemented in an approximate procedure by the computer program POY, were contrasted with a more traditional procedure based on alignments followed by phylogenetic inference based on parsimony, likelihood, and distance analyses. Despite substantial differences between the procedures, phylogenetic conclusions regarding basal relationships within Adephaga and relationships between the four suborders of Coleoptera were broadly similar. The analysis weakly supports monophyly of Adephaga, with Polyphaga usually as its sister, and the two small suborders Myxophaga and Archostemata basal to them. In some analyses, however, Polyphaga was reconstructed as having arisen from within Hydradephaga. Adephaga generally split into two monophyletic groups, corresponding to the terrestrial Geadephaga and the aquatic Hydradephaga, as initially proposed by Crowson in 1955, consistent with a single colonization of the aquatic environment by adephagan ancestors and contradicting the recent proposition of three independent invasions. A monophyletic Hydradephaga is consistently, though not strongly, supported under most analyses, and a parametric bootstrapping test significantly rejects an hypothesis of nonmonophyly. The enigmatic Trachypachidae, which exhibit many similarities to aquatic forms but whose species are entirely terrestrial, were usually recovered as a basal lineage within Geadephaga. Strong evidence opposes the view that terrestrial trachypachids are related to the dytiscoid water beetles.

  13. Characterization of three different clusters of 18S-26S ribosomal DNA genes in the sea urchin P. lividus: Genetic and epigenetic regulation synchronous to 5S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Bellavia, Daniele; Dimarco, Eufrosina; Caradonna, Fabio

    2016-04-15

    We previously reported the characterization 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clusters in the common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and demonstrated the presence of DNA methylation-dependent silencing of embryo specific 5S rDNA cluster in adult tissue. In this work, we show genetic and epigenetic characterization of 18S-26S rDNA clusters in this specie. The results indicate the presence of three different 18S-26S rDNA clusters with different Non-Transcribed Spacer (NTS) regions that have different chromosomal localizations. Moreover, we show that the two largest clusters are hyper-methylated in the promoter-containing NTS regions in adult tissues, as in the 5S rDNA. These findings demonstrate an analogous epigenetic regulation in small and large rDNA clusters and support the logical synchronism in building ribosomes. In fact, all the ribosomal RNA genes must be synchronously and equally transcribed to perform their unique final product.

  14. Rubisco small subunit gene family in cassava.

    PubMed

    Yeo, T W; Mak, Y M; Ho, K K

    1999-01-01

    Cassava leaves of two different cultivars, Brazil and Buloh, were used to isolate mRNA. The mRNA isolated was successfully used in the construction of cDNA libraries for each of the cultivars. The cDNA libraries were screened for members of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit gene family and positive clones were sequenced. A total of seven different SSU genes, of which five were from cultivar Brazil and two were from cultivar Buloh, were isolated. Comparison results show that even though all the sequences are highly similar, they can be classified into three subfamilies. Homology between members of the same subfamily is higher than homology between members from the same cultivar.

  15. Localization of 18S ribosomal genes in suckermouth armoured catfishes Loricariidae (Teleostei, Siluriformes) with discussion on the Ag-NOR evolution

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Anderson Luis; de Borba, Rafael Splendore; Pozzobon, Allan Pierre Bonetti; Oliveira, Claudio; Nirchio, Mauro; Granado, Angel; Foresti, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The family Loricariidae with about 690 species divided into six subfamilies, is one of the world’s largest fish families. Cytogenetic studies conducted in the family showed that among 90 species analyzed the diploid number ranges from 2n=38 in Ancistrus sp. to 2n=96 in Hemipsilichthys gobio Luetken, 1874. In the present study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was employed to determine the chromosomal localization of the 18S rDNA gene in four suckermouth armoured catfishes: Kronichthys lacerta (Nichols, 1919), Pareiorhaphis splendens (Bizerril, 1995), Liposarcus multiradiatus (Hancock, 1828) and Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758). All species analyzed showed one chromosome pair with 18S rDNA sequences, as observed in the previous Ag-NORs analyses. The presence of size and numerical polymorphism was observed and discussed, with proposing a hypothesis of the Ag-NOR evolution in Loricariidae. PMID:24260671

  16. Karyotypes, male meiosis and comparative FISH mapping of 18S ribosomal DNA and telomeric (TTAGG) n repeat in eight species of true bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Grozeva, S.; Kuznetsova, V.G.; Anokhin, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Eight species belonging to five true bug families were analyzed using DAPI/CMA3-staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomeric (TTAGG)n and 18S rDNA probes. Standard chromosomal complements are reported for the first time for Deraeocoris rutilus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838) (2n=30+2m+XY) and Deraeocoris ruber(Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=30+2m+XY) from the family Miridae. Using FISH, the location of a 18S rDNA cluster was detected in these species and in five more species: Megaloceroea recticornis (Geoffroy, 1785) (2n=30+XY) from the Miridae; Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787) (2n=14+2m+XY) from the Lygaeidae s.l.; Pyrrhocoris apterus (Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=22+X) from the Pyrrhocoridae; Eurydema oleracea (Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=12+XY) and Graphosoma lineatum (Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=12+XY) from the Pentatomidae. The species were found to differ with respect to location of a 18S rRNA gene cluster which resides on autosomes in Oxycarenus lavaterae and Pyrrhocoris apterus, whereas it locates on sex chromosomes in other five species. The 18S rDNA location provides the first physical landmark of the genomes of the species studied. The insect consensus telomeric pentanucleotide (TTAGG)n was demonstrated to be absent in all the species studied in this respect, Deraeocoris rutilus, Megaloceroea recticornis, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Cimicidae), Eurydema oleracea, and Graphosoma lineatum, supporting the hypothesis that this motif was lost in early evolution of the Heteroptera and secondarily replaced with another motif (yet unknown) or the alternative telomerase-independent mechanisms of telomere maintenance. Dot-blot hybridization analysis of the genomic DNA from Cimex lectularius, Nabis sp. and Oxycarenus lavaterae with (TTAGG)n and six other telomeric probes likewise provided a negative result. PMID:24260641

  17. Chromosomal localization of 5S and 18S-5.8S-25S ribosomal DNA sites in five Asian pines using fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z-L; Zhang, D; Hong, D-Y; Wang, X-R

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was employed on mitotic metaphase chromosome preparations of five Asian Pinus species: Pinus tabuliformis, Pinus yunnanensis, Pinus densata, Pinus massoniana and Pinus merkusii, using simultaneously DNA probes of the 18S rRNA gene and the 5S rRNA gene including the non-transcribed spacer sequences. The number and location of 18S rDNA sites varied markedly (5-10 pairs of strong signals) among the five pines. A maximum of 20 major 18S rDNA sites was observed in the diploid genome (2n = 24) of P. massoniana. The 5S rDNA FISH pattern was less variable, with one major site and one minor site commonly observed in each species. The differentiation of rDNA sites on chromosomes among the five pines correlates well with their phylogenic positions in Pinus as reconstructed from other molecular data. P. densata, a species of hybrid origin, resembles its parents ( P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis), including some components characteristic of each parent in its pattern. However, the species is unique, showing new features resulting possibly from recombination and genome reorganization.

  18. Fungal community analysis in the deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean assessed by comparison of ITS, 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Luo, Zhu-Hua; Guo, Shuangshuang; Pang, Ka-Lai

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the diversity of fungal communities in 6 different deep-sea sediment samples of the Pacific Ocean based on three different types of clone libraries, including internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 18S rDNA, and 28S rDNA regions. A total of 1978 clones were generated from 18 environmental clone libraries, resulting in 140 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 18 OTUs from ITS, 44 OTUs from 18S rDNA, and 78 OTUs from 28S rDNA gene primer sets. The majority of the recovered sequences belonged to diverse phylotypes of the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Additionally, our study revealed a total of 46 novel fungal phylotypes, which showed low similarities (<97%) with available fungal sequences in the GenBank, including a novel Zygomycete lineage, suggesting possible new fungal taxa occurring in the deep-sea sediments. The results suggested that 28S rDNA is an efficient target gene to describe fungal community in deep-sea environment.

  19. Phylogenetic Analyses of Meloidogyne Small Subunit rDNA

    PubMed Central

    De Ley, Irma Tandingan; De Ley, Paul; Vierstraete, Andy; Karssen, Gerrit; Moens, Maurice; Vanfleteren, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Phylogenies were inferred from nearly complete small subunit (SSU) 18S rDNA sequences of 12 species of Meloidogyne and 4 outgroup taxa (Globodera pallida, Nacobbus abberans, Subanguina radicicola, and Zygotylenchus guevarai). Alignments were generated manually from a secondary structure model, and computationally using ClustalX and Treealign. Trees were constructed using distance, parsimony, and likelihood algorithms in PAUP* 4.0b4a. Obtained tree topologies were stable across algorithms and alignments, supporting 3 clades: clade I = [M. incognita (M. javanica, M. arenaria)]; clade II = M. duytsi and M. maritima in an unresolved trichotomy with (M. hapla, M. microtyla); and clade III = (M. exigua (M. graminicola, M. chitwoodi)). Monophyly of [(clade I, clade II) clade III] was given maximal bootstrap support (mbs). M. artiellia was always a sister taxon to this joint clade, while M. ichinohei was consistently placed with mbs as a basal taxon within the genus. Affinities with the outgroup taxa remain unclear, although G. pallida and S. radicicola were never placed as closest relatives of Meloidogyne. Our results show that SSU sequence data are useful in addressing deeper phylogeny within Meloidogyne, and that both M. ichinohei and M. artiellia are credible outgroups for phylogenetic analysis of speciations among the major species. PMID:19265950

  20. Imp3p and Imp4p mediate formation of essential U3–precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) duplexes, possibly to recruit the small subunit processome to the pre-rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Gérczei, Tímea; Correll, Carl C.

    2004-01-01

    In eukaryotes, formation of short duplexes between the U3 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) and the precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) at multiple sites is a prerequisite for three endonucleolytic cleavages that initiate small subunit biogenesis by releasing the 18S rRNA precursor from the pre-rRNA. The most likely role of these RNA duplexes is to guide the U3 snoRNA and its associated proteins, designated the small subunit processome, to the target cleavage sites on the pre-rRNA. Studies by others in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified the proteins Mpp10p, Imp3p, and Imp4p as candidates to mediate U3–pre-rRNA interactions. We report here that Imp3p and Imp4p appear to stabilize an otherwise unstable duplex between the U3 snoRNA hinge region and complementary bases in the external transcribed spacer of the pre-rRNA. In addition, Imp4p, but not Imp3p, seems to rearrange the U3 box A stem structure to expose the site that base-pairs with the 5′ end of the 18S rRNA, thereby mediating duplex formation at a second site. By mediating formation of both essential U3–pre-rRNA duplexes, Imp3p and Imp4p may help the small subunit processome to dock onto the pre-rRNA, an event indispensable for ribosome biogenesis and hence for cell growth. PMID:15489263

  1. Conformation of yeast 18S rRNA. Direct chemical probing of the 5' domain in ribosomal subunits and in deproteinized RNA by reverse transcriptase mapping of dimethyl sulfate-accessible.

    PubMed Central

    Lempereur, L; Nicoloso, M; Riehl, N; Ehresmann, C; Ehresmann, B; Bachellerie, J P

    1985-01-01

    The structure of the 5' domain of yeast 18S rRNA has been probed by dimethyl sulfate (DMS), either in "native" deproteinized molecules or in the 40S ribosomal subunits. DMS-reacted RNA has been used as a template for reverse transcription and a large number of reactive sites, corresponding to all types of bases have been mapped by a primer extension procedure, taking advantage of blocks in cDNA elongation immediately upstream from bases methylated at atom positions involved in the base-pair recognition of the template. Since the same atom positions are protected from DMS in base-paired nucleotides, the secondary structure status of each nucleotide can be directly assessed in this procedure, thus allowing to evaluate the potential contribution of proteins in modulating subunit rRNA conformation. While the DMS probing of deproteinized rRNA confirms a number of helical stems predicted by phylogenetic comparisons, it is remarkable that a few additional base-pairings, while proven by the comparative analysis, appear to require the presence of the bound ribosomal subunit proteins to be stabilized. Images PMID:2417197

  2. Intragenomic sequence variation at the ITS1 - ITS2 region and at the 18S and 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA genes of the New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae: mollusca)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoy, Marshal S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis was conducted on two populations of the invasive non-native New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), one from a freshwater ecosystem in Devil's Lake (Oregon, USA) and the other from an ecosystem of higher salinity in the Columbia River estuary (Hammond Harbor, Oregon, USA). To elucidate potential genetic differences between the two populations, three segments of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the ITS1-ITS2 regions and the 18S and 28S rDNA genes were cloned and sequenced. Variant sequences within each individual were found in all three rDNA segments. Folding models were utilized for secondary structure analysis and results indicated that there were many sequences which contained structure-altering polymorphisms, which suggests they could be nonfunctional pseudogenes. In addition, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was used for hierarchical analysis of genetic variance to estimate variation within and among populations and within individuals. AMOVA revealed significant variation in the ITS region between the populations and among clones within individuals, while in the 5.8S rDNA significant variation was revealed among individuals within the two populations. High levels of intragenomic variation were found in the ITS regions, which are known to be highly variable in many organisms. More interestingly, intragenomic variation was also found in the 18S and 28S rDNA, which has rarely been observed in animals and is so far unreported in Mollusca. We postulate that in these P. antipodarum populations the effects of concerted evolution are diminished due to the fact that not all of the rDNA genes in their polyploid genome should be essential for sustaining cellular function. This could lead to a lessening of selection pressures, allowing mutations to accumulate in some copies, changing them into variant sequences.                   

  3. Sequencing for complete rDNA sequences (18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2, and 28S rDNA) of Demodex and phylogenetic analysis of Acari based on 18S and 28S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping; Hu, Li; Xu, Yang; Wang, Zheng-Hang; Liu, Wen-Yan

    2012-11-01

    Due to the difficulty of DNA extraction for Demodex, few studies dealt with the identification and the phyletic evolution of Demodex at molecular level. In this study, we amplified, sequenced, and analyzed a complete (Demodex folliculorum) and an almost complete (D12 missing) (Demodex brevis) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence and also analyzed the primary sequences of divergent domains in small-subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of 51 species and in large-subunit rRNA of 43 species from four superfamilies in Acari (Cheyletoidea, Tetranychoidea, Analgoidea, and Ixodoidea). The results revealed that 18S rDNA sequence was relatively conserved in rDNA-coding regions and was not evolving as rapidly as 28S rDNA sequence. The evolutionary rates of transcribed spacer regions were much higher than those of the coding regions. The maximum parsimony trees of 18S and 28S rDNA appeared to be almost identical, consistent with their morphological classification. Based on the fact that the resolution capability of sequence length and the divergence of the 13 segments (D1-D6, D7a, D7b, and D8-D12) of 28S rDNA were stronger than that of the nine variable regions (V1-V9) of 18S rDNA, we were able to identify Demodex (Cheyletoidea) by the indels occurring in D2, D6, and D8.

  4. Detection of Cryptosporidium species in feces or gastric contents from snakes and lizards as determined by polymerase chain reaction analysis and partial sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Richter, Barbara; Nedorost, Nora; Maderner, Anton; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2011-05-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a well-known gastrointestinal disease of snakes and lizards. In the current study, 672 samples (feces and/or gastric contents or regurgitated food items) of various snakes and lizards were examined for the presence of cryptosporidia by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting a part of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. A consecutive sequencing reaction was used to identify the cryptosporidian species present in PCR-positive samples. Cryptosporidium varanii (saurophilum) was detected in 17 out of 106 (16%) samples from corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) and in 32 out of 462 (7%) samples from leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). Cryptosporidium serpentis was found in 8 out of 462 (2%) leopard gecko samples, but in no other reptile. The Cryptosporidium sp. "lizard genotype" was present in 1 leopard gecko sample, and 1 sample from a corn snake showed a single nucleotide mismatch to this genotype. Pseudoparasitic cryptosporidian species were identified in 5 out of 174 (3%) ophidian samples, but not in lizards. Other sequences did not show complete similarity to previously published Cryptosporidium sequences. The results stress the importance for diagnostic methods to be specific for Cryptosporidium species especially in snakes and show a relatively high prevalence of C. varanii in leopard geckos and corn snakes.

  5. Highly conserved small subunit residues influence rubisco large subunit catalysis.

    PubMed

    Genkov, Todor; Spreitzer, Robert J

    2009-10-30

    The chloroplast enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of photosynthetic CO(2) fixation. With a deeper understanding of its structure-function relationships and competitive inhibition by O(2), it may be possible to engineer an increase in agricultural productivity and renewable energy. The chloroplast-encoded large subunits form the active site, but the nuclear-encoded small subunits can also influence catalytic efficiency and CO(2)/O(2) specificity. To further define the role of the small subunit in Rubisco function, the 10 most conserved residues in all small subunits were substituted with alanine by transformation of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant that lacks the small subunit gene family. All the mutant strains were able to grow photosynthetically, indicating that none of the residues is essential for function. Three of the substitutions have little or no effect (S16A, P19A, and E92A), one primarily affects holoenzyme stability (L18A), and the remainder affect catalysis with or without some level of associated structural instability (Y32A, E43A, W73A, L78A, P79A, and F81A). Y32A and E43A cause decreases in CO(2)/O(2) specificity. Based on the x-ray crystal structure of Chlamydomonas Rubisco, all but one (Glu-92) of the conserved residues are in contact with large subunits and cluster near the amino- or carboxyl-terminal ends of large subunit alpha-helix 8, which is a structural element of the alpha/beta-barrel active site. Small subunit residues Glu-43 and Trp-73 identify a possible structural connection between active site alpha-helix 8 and the highly variable small subunit loop between beta-strands A and B, which can also influence Rubisco CO(2)/O(2) specificity.

  6. Three Group-I introns in 18S rDNA of Endosymbiotic Algae of Paramecium bursaria from Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshina, Ryo; Kamako, Shin-ichiro; Imamura, Nobutaka

    2004-08-01

    In the nuclear encoded small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) of symbiotic alga of Paramecium bursaria (F36 collected in Japan) possesses three intron-like insertions (Hoshina et al., unpubl. data, 2003). The present study confirmed these exact lengths and insertion sites by reverse transcription-PCR. Two of them were inserted at Escherichia coli 16S rRNA genic position 943 and 1512 that are frequent intron insertion positions, but another insertion position (nearly 1370) was the first finding. Their secondary structures suggested they belong to Group-I intron; one belongs to subgroup IE, others belong to subgroup IC1. Similarity search indicated these introns are ancestral ones.

  7. 18S Ribosomal DNA Typing and Tracking of Acanthamoeba Species Isolates from Corneal Scrape Specimens, Contact Lenses, Lens Cases, and Home Water Supplies of Acanthamoeba Keratitis Patients in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Booton, G. C.; Kelly, D. J.; Chu, Y.-W.; Seal, D. V.; Houang, E.; Lam, D. S. C.; Byers, T. J.; Fuerst, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    We examined partial 18S ribosomal DNA (Rns) sequences of Acanthamoeba isolates cultured in a study of microbial keratitis in Hong Kong. Sequence differences were sufficient to distinguish closely related strains and were used to examine links between strains obtained from corneal scrape specimens, contact lenses, lens cases, lens case solutions, and home water-supply faucets of patients with Acanthamoeba. We also looked for evidence of mixed infections. Identification of Acanthamoeba Rns genotypes was based on sequences of ∼113 bp within the genus-specific amplicon ASA.S1. This permitted genotype identification by using nonaxenic cultures. Of 13 specimens obtained from corneal scrapes, contact lenses, lens cases, or lens case solutions, 12 were Rns genotype T4 and the remaining one was Rns genotype T3. The sequences of corneal scrape specimens of two patients also were the same as those obtained from their contact lenses or lens case specimens. A possible triple-strain infection was indicated by three different T4 sequences in cultures from one patient's lenses. Although faucet water used by patients to clean their lenses is a possible source of infections, specimens isolated from the faucets at two Acanthamoeba keratitis patients' homes differed from their corneal scrape or lens specimens. The overall results demonstrate the potential of this Rns region for tracking Acanthamoeba keratitis strains in infections and for distinguishing single-strain and closely related multiple-strain infections even when other microorganisms might be present with the cultured specimens. They also confirm the predominance of Rns genotype T4 strains in Acanthamoeba keratitis infections. PMID:11980931

  8. 18S ribosomal DNA typing and tracking of Acanthamoeba species isolates from corneal scrape specimens, contact lenses, lens cases, and home water supplies of Acanthamoeba keratitis patients in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Booton, G C; Kelly, D J; Chu, Y-W; Seal, D V; Houang, E; Lam, D S C; Byers, T J; Fuerst, P A

    2002-05-01

    We examined partial 18S ribosomal DNA (Rns) sequences of Acanthamoeba isolates cultured in a study of microbial keratitis in Hong Kong. Sequence differences were sufficient to distinguish closely related strains and were used to examine links between strains obtained from corneal scrape specimens, contact lenses, lens cases, lens case solutions, and home water-supply faucets of patients with Acanthamoeba. We also looked for evidence of mixed infections. Identification of Acanthamoeba Rns genotypes was based on sequences of approximately 113 bp within the genus-specific amplicon ASA.S1. This permitted genotype identification by using nonaxenic cultures. Of 13 specimens obtained from corneal scrapes, contact lenses, lens cases, or lens case solutions, 12 were Rns genotype T4 and the remaining one was Rns genotype T3. The sequences of corneal scrape specimens of two patients also were the same as those obtained from their contact lenses or lens case specimens. A possible triple-strain infection was indicated by three different T4 sequences in cultures from one patient's lenses. Although faucet water used by patients to clean their lenses is a possible source of infections, specimens isolated from the faucets at two Acanthamoeba keratitis patients' homes differed from their corneal scrape or lens specimens. The overall results demonstrate the potential of this Rns region for tracking Acanthamoeba keratitis strains in infections and for distinguishing single-strain and closely related multiple-strain infections even when other microorganisms might be present with the cultured specimens. They also confirm the predominance of Rns genotype T4 strains in Acanthamoeba keratitis infections.

  9. Revised small subunit rRNA analysis provides further evidence that Foraminifera are related to Cercozoa.

    PubMed

    Berney, Cédric; Pawlowski, Jan

    2003-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the general shape of the ribosomal DNA-based phylogeny of Eukaryotes is strongly biased by the long-branch attraction phenomenon, leading to an artifactual basal clustering of groups that are probably highly derived. Among these groups, Foraminifera are of particular interest, because their deep phylogenetic position in ribosomal trees contrasts with their Cambrian appearance in the fossil record. A recent actin-based phylogeny of Eukaryotes has proposed that Foraminifera might be closely related to Cercozoa and, thus, branch among the so-called crown of Eukaryotes. Here, we reanalyze the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) phylogeny by removing all long-branching lineages that could artifactually attract foraminiferan sequences to the base of the tree. Our analyses reveal that Foraminifera branch together with the marine testate filosean Gromia oviformis as a sister group to Cercozoa, in agreement with actin phylogeny. Our study confirms the utility of SSU rDNA as a phylogenetic marker of megaevolutionary history, provided that the artifacts due to the heterogeneity of substitution rates in ribosomal genes are circumvented.

  10. Paradigms of ribosome synthesis: Lessons learned from ribosomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gamalinda, Michael; Woolford, John L

    2015-01-01

    The proteome in all cells is manufactured via the intricate process of translation by multimolecular factories called ribosomes. Nevertheless, these ribonucleoprotein particles, the largest of their kind, also have an elaborate assembly line of their own. Groundbreaking discoveries that bacterial ribosomal subunits can be self-assembled in vitro jumpstarted studies on how ribosomes are constructed. Until recently, ribosome assembly has been investigated almost entirely in vitro with bacterial small subunits under equilibrium conditions. In light of high-resolution ribosome structures and a more sophisticated toolkit, the past decade has been defined by a burst of kinetic studies in vitro and, importantly, also a shift to examining ribosome maturation in living cells, especially in eukaryotes. In this review, we summarize the principles governing ribosome assembly that emerged from studies focusing on ribosomal proteins and their interactions with rRNA. Understanding these paradigms has taken center stage, given the linkage between anomalous ribosome biogenesis and proliferative disorders. PMID:26779413

  11. A tRNA methyltransferase paralog is important for ribosome stability and cell division in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Ian M. C.; Paris, Zdeněk; Gaston, Kirk W.; Balakrishnan, R.; Fredrick, Kurt; Rubio, Mary Anne T.; Alfonzo, Juan D.

    2016-01-01

    Most eukaryotic ribosomes contain 26/28S, 5S, and 5.8S large subunit ribosomal RNAs (LSU rRNAs) in addition to the 18S rRNA of the small subunit (SSU rRNA). However, in kinetoplastids, a group of organisms that include medically important members of the genus Trypanosoma and Leishmania, the 26/28S large subunit ribosomal RNA is uniquely composed of 6 rRNA fragments. In addition, recent studies have shown the presence of expansion segments in the large ribosomal subunit (60S) of Trypanosoma brucei. Given these differences in structure, processing and assembly, T. brucei ribosomes may require biogenesis factors not found in other organisms. Here, we show that one of two putative 3-methylcytidine methyltransferases, TbMTase37 (a homolog of human methyltransferase-like 6, METTL6), is important for ribosome stability in T. brucei. TbMTase37 localizes to the nucleolus and depletion of the protein results in accumulation of ribosomal particles lacking srRNA 4 and reduced levels of polysome associated ribosomes. We also find that TbMTase37 plays a role in cytokinesis, as loss of the protein leads to multi-flagellated and multi-nucleated cells. PMID:26888608

  12. UtpA and UtpB chaperone nascent pre-ribosomal RNA and U3 snoRNA to initiate eukaryotic ribosome assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunziker, Mirjam; Barandun, Jonas; Petfalski, Elisabeth; Tan, Dongyan; Delan-Forino, Clémentine; Molloy, Kelly R.; Kim, Kelly H.; Dunn-Davies, Hywel; Shi, Yi; Chaker-Margot, Malik; Chait, Brian T.; Walz, Thomas; Tollervey, David; Klinge, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    Early eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis involves large multi-protein complexes, which co-transcriptionally associate with pre-ribosomal RNA to form the small subunit processome. The precise mechanisms by which two of the largest multi-protein complexes--UtpA and UtpB--interact with nascent pre-ribosomal RNA are poorly understood. Here, we combined biochemical and structural biology approaches with ensembles of RNA-protein cross-linking data to elucidate the essential functions of both complexes. We show that UtpA contains a large composite RNA-binding site and captures the 5' end of pre-ribosomal RNA. UtpB forms an extended structure that binds early pre-ribosomal intermediates in close proximity to architectural sites such as an RNA duplex formed by the 5' ETS and U3 snoRNA as well as the 3' boundary of the 18S rRNA. Both complexes therefore act as vital RNA chaperones to initiate eukaryotic ribosome assembly.

  13. 18S rDNA phylogeny of lamproderma and allied genera (Stemonitales, Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa).

    PubMed

    Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Kamono, Akiko; Meyer, Marianne; Schnittler, Martin; Fukui, Manabu; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of the slime-mould genus Lamproderma (Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa) challenges traditional taxonomy: although it displays the typical characters of the order Stemonitales, it appears to be sister to Physarales. This study provides a small subunit (18S or SSU) ribosomal RNA gene-based phylogeny of Lamproderma and its allies, with new sequences from 49 specimens in 12 genera. We found that the order Stemonitales and Lamproderma were both ancestral to Physarales and that Lamproderma constitutes several clades intermingled with species of Diacheopsis, Colloderma and Elaeomyxa. We suggest that these genera may have evolved from Lamproderma by multiple losses of fruiting body stalks and that many taxonomic revisions are needed. We found such high genetic diversity within three Lamproderma species that they probably consist of clusters of sibling species. We discuss the contrasts between genetic and morphological divergence and implications for the morphospecies concept, highlighting the phylogenetically most reliable morphological characters and pointing to others that have been overestimated. In addition, we showed that the first part (~600 bases) of the SSU rDNA gene is a valuable tool for phylogeny in Myxomycetes, since it displayed sufficient variability to distinguish closely related taxa and never failed to cluster together specimens considered of the same species.

  14. 18S rDNA Phylogeny of Lamproderma and Allied Genera (Stemonitales, Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Kamono, Akiko; Meyer, Marianne; Schnittler, Martin; Fukui, Manabu; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of the slime-mould genus Lamproderma (Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa) challenges traditional taxonomy: although it displays the typical characters of the order Stemonitales, it appears to be sister to Physarales. This study provides a small subunit (18S or SSU) ribosomal RNA gene-based phylogeny of Lamproderma and its allies, with new sequences from 49 specimens in 12 genera. We found that the order Stemonitales and Lamproderma were both ancestral to Physarales and that Lamproderma constitutes several clades intermingled with species of Diacheopsis, Colloderma and Elaeomyxa. We suggest that these genera may have evolved from Lamproderma by multiple losses of fruiting body stalks and that many taxonomic revisions are needed. We found such high genetic diversity within three Lamproderma species that they probably consist of clusters of sibling species. We discuss the contrasts between genetic and morphological divergence and implications for the morphospecies concept, highlighting the phylogenetically most reliable morphological characters and pointing to others that have been overestimated. In addition, we showed that the first part (∼600 bases) of the SSU rDNA gene is a valuable tool for phylogeny in Myxomycetes, since it displayed sufficient variability to distinguish closely related taxa and never failed to cluster together specimens considered of the same species. PMID:22530009

  15. Nematode 18S rRNA gene is a reliable tool for environmental biosafety assessment of transgenic banana in confined field trials.

    PubMed

    Nakacwa, R; Kiggundu, A; Talwana, H; Namaganda, J; Lilley, C; Tushemereirwe, W; Atkinson, H

    2013-10-01

    Information on relatedness in nematodes is commonly obtained by DNA sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. However, the level of diversity at this locus is often insufficient for reliable species differentiation. Recent findings suggest that the sequences of a fragment of the small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (18S rRNA or SSU), identify genera of soil nematodes and can also distinguish between species in some cases. A database of soil nematode genera in a Ugandan soil was developed using 18S rRNA sequences of individual nematodes from a GM banana confined field trial site at the National Agricultural Research Laboratories, Kawanda in Uganda. The trial was planted to evaluate transgenic bananas for resistance to black Sigatoka disease. Search for relatedness of the sequences gained with entries in a public genomic database identified a range of 20 different genera and sometimes distinguished species. Molecular markers were designed from the sequence information to underpin nematode faunal analysis. This approach provides bio-indicators for disturbance of the soil environment and the condition of the soil food web. It is being developed to support environmental biosafety analysis by detecting any perturbance by transgenic banana or other GM crops on the soil environment.

  16. Basic cytogenetics and physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal genes in Hoplias malabaricus (Osteichthyes, Characiformes, Erythrinidae) from isolated natural lagoons: a conserved karyomorph along the Iguaçu river basin

    PubMed Central

    Gemi, Gisele; Lui, Roberto Laridondo; Treco, Fernando Rodrigo; Paiz, Leonardo Marcel; Moresco, Rafaela Maria; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Erythrinidae include Neotropical teleost fish that are widely distributed in South America. Hoplias Gill, 1903 include two large groups: H. malabaricus Bloch, 1794 and H. lacerdae Miranda Ribeiro, 1908. Hoplias malabaricus is characterized by remarkable karyotype diversity, with some karyomorphs widely distributed geographically while others are more restricted to certain river basins. Cytogenetic analyzes were performed in a population of Hoplias malabaricus from the Wildlife Refuge of Campos de Palmas, the Iguaçu River basin. The specimens showed diploid number of 42 chromosomes (24m+18sm) without differentiated sex chromosomes system. The impregnation by silver nitrate showed multiple AgNORs. Seven pairs (4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 20 and 21) carrying 18S rDNA were detected by FISH. Heterochromatin was verified in the centromeric and pericentromeric region of most chromosomes and the terminal region of some pairs. FISH with 5S rDNA probes showed two chromosome pairs carrying these sites in the interstitial region (8 and 14). The data obtained in this study are similar to those found for two other populations of H. malabaricus already studied in the basin of the Iguaçu River, confirming the hypothesis that this species is natural, not having been introduced, as well as having an intrinsic characteristic, such as the largest number of sites of 18S rDNA. PMID:25349672

  17. Collection of small subunit (16S- and 16S-like) ribosomal RNA structures: 1994.

    PubMed Central

    Gutell, R R

    1994-01-01

    A collection of diverse 16S and 16S-like rRNA secondary structure diagrams are available. This set of rRNAs contains representative structures from all of the major phylogenetic groupings--Archaea, (eu)Bacteria, and the nucleus, mitochondrion, and chloroplast of Eucarya. Within this broad phylogenetic sampling are examples of the major forms of structural diversity currently known for this class of rRNAs. These structure diagrams are available online through our computer-network WWW server and anonymous ftp, as well as from the author in hardcopy format. PMID:7524024

  18. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARASITES BASED ON THE SMALL SUBUNIT RIBOSOMAL RNA GENE LOCUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Biologic data support the presence of multiple species in the genus Cryptosporidium, but
    a recent analysis of the available genetic data has suggested that there is insufficient evidence for species differentiation. In order to resolve the controversy in the taxono...

  19. Plasmids containing small subunit ribosomal RNA gene fragments from Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BEI Resources was developed by NIAID as a centralized biological resource center for research reagents to the scientific community (http://www.beiresources.org/). They have a considerable amount of reagents and isolates for parasitologists working with Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia, Toxoplasma, and...

  20. The utility of diversity profiling using Illumina 18S rRNA gene amplicon deep sequencing to detect and discriminate Toxoplasma gondii among the cyst-forming coccidia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Madalyn K; Phalen, David N; Donahoe, Shannon L; Rose, Karrie; Šlapeta, Jan

    2016-01-30

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the capacity to screen a single DNA sample and detect pathogen DNA from thousands of host DNA sequence reads, making it a versatile and informative tool for investigation of pathogens in diseased animals. The technique is effective and labor saving in the initial identification of pathogens, and will complement conventional diagnostic tests to associate the candidate pathogen with a disease process. In this report, we investigated the utility of the diversity profiling NGS approach using Illumina small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene amplicon deep sequencing to detect Toxoplasma gondii in previously confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis. We then tested the diagnostic approach with species-specific PCR genotyping, histopathology and immunohistochemistry of toxoplasmosis in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) to systematically characterise the disease and associate causality. We show that the Euk7A/Euk570R primer set targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene can be used as a species-specific assay for cyst-forming coccidia and discriminate T. gondii. Overall, the approach is cost-effective and improves diagnostic decision support by narrowing the differential diagnosis list with more certainty than was previously possible. Furthermore, it supplements the limitations of cryptic protozoan morphology and surpasses the need for species-specific PCR primer combinations.

  1. Autophagy Induction Is a Tor- and Tp53-Independent Cell Survival Response in a Zebrafish Model of Disrupted Ribosome Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Boglev, Yeliz; Badrock, Andrew P.; Trotter, Andrew J.; Du, Qian; Richardson, Elsbeth J.; Parslow, Adam C.; Markmiller, Sebastian J.; Hall, Nathan E.; de Jong-Curtain, Tanya A.; Ng, Annie Y.; Verkade, Heather; Ober, Elke A.; Field, Holly A.; Shin, Donghun; Shin, Chong H.; Hannan, Katherine M.; Hannan, Ross D.; Pearson, Richard B.; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Ess, Kevin C.; Lieschke, Graham J.; Stainier, Didier Y. R.; Heath, Joan K.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis underpins cell growth and division. Disruptions in ribosome biogenesis and translation initiation are deleterious to development and underlie a spectrum of diseases known collectively as ribosomopathies. Here, we describe a novel zebrafish mutant, titania (ttis450), which harbours a recessive lethal mutation in pwp2h, a gene encoding a protein component of the small subunit processome. The biochemical impacts of this lesion are decreased production of mature 18S rRNA molecules, activation of Tp53, and impaired ribosome biogenesis. In ttis450, the growth of the endodermal organs, eyes, brain, and craniofacial structures is severely arrested and autophagy is up-regulated, allowing intestinal epithelial cells to evade cell death. Inhibiting autophagy in ttis450 larvae markedly reduces their lifespan. Somewhat surprisingly, autophagy induction in ttis450 larvae is independent of the state of the Tor pathway and proceeds unabated in Tp53-mutant larvae. These data demonstrate that autophagy is a survival mechanism invoked in response to ribosomal stress. This response may be of relevance to therapeutic strategies aimed at killing cancer cells by targeting ribosome biogenesis. In certain contexts, these treatments may promote autophagy and contribute to cancer cells evading cell death. PMID:23408911

  2. Evaluation of nearest-neighbor methods for detection of chimeric small-subunit rRNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Robison-Cox, J F; Bateson, M M; Ward, D M

    1995-01-01

    Detection of chimeric artifacts formed when PCR is used to retrieve naturally occurring small-subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences may rely on demonstrating that different sequence domains have different phylogenetic affiliations. We evaluated the CHECK_CHIMERA method of the Ribosomal Database Project and another method which we developed, both based on determining nearest neighbors of different sequence domains, for their ability to discern artificially generated SSU rRNA chimeras from authentic Ribosomal Database Project sequences. The reliability of both methods decreases when the parental sequences which contribute to chimera formation are more than 82 to 84% similar. Detection is also complicated by the occurrence of authentic SSU rRNA sequences that behave like chimeras. We developed a naive statistical test based on CHECK_CHIMERA output and used it to evaluate previously reported SSU rRNA chimeras. Application of this test also suggests that chimeras might be formed by retrieving SSU rRNAs as cDNA. The amount of uncertainty associated with nearest-neighbor analyses indicates that such tests alone are insufficient and that better methods are needed. PMID:7538272

  3. Evaluation of nearest-neighbor methods for detection of chimeric small-subunit rRNA sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robison-Cox, J. F.; Bateson, M. M.; Ward, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    Detection of chimeric artifacts formed when PCR is used to retrieve naturally occurring small-subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences may rely on demonstrating that different sequence domains have different phylogenetic affiliations. We evaluated the CHECK_CHIMERA method of the Ribosomal Database Project and another method which we developed, both based on determining nearest neighbors of different sequence domains, for their ability to discern artificially generated SSU rRNA chimeras from authentic Ribosomal Database Project sequences. The reliability of both methods decreases when the parental sequences which contribute to chimera formation are more than 82 to 84% similar. Detection is also complicated by the occurrence of authentic SSU rRNA sequences that behave like chimeras. We developed a naive statistical test based on CHECK_CHIMERA output and used it to evaluate previously reported SSU rRNA chimeras. Application of this test also suggests that chimeras might be formed by retrieving SSU rRNAs as cDNA. The amount of uncertainty associated with nearest-neighbor analyses indicates that such tests alone are insufficient and that better methods are needed.

  4. Ribosomal Database Project II

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp

  5. Expression of a foreign Rubisco small subunit in tobacco with reduced levels of the native protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cDNA, ArRbcS3, for the small subunit of Rubisco from Amaranthus retroflexus (pigweed) was expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) under the control of a strong leaf-specific Lhcb promoter. The coding region of the ArRbcS3 was fused to the plastid targeting sequence of the native tobacco rbcS to...

  6. Inheritance behavior of information coding for small subunit polypeptides of fraction 1 protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, K; Wildman, S G

    1980-12-01

    In various genera of plants, the small subunit of fraction 1 protein is often composed of more than one kind of polypeptide; these differ in isoelectric points and amino acid composition. Previous analysis of numerous individual progeny of Nicotiana tabacum (two kinds of polypeptides), N. glauca + N. langsdorffii parasexual hybrids (three kinds) and other examples showed no change in F-1 protein composition as a consequence of alternation of generations. Experiments reported here show that absence of one number of each of the 24 different pairs of chromosomes in an N. tabacum monosomic series and also absence of the "S" pair in a nullisome did not affect F-1 protein composition. Absence of the "E" pair caused reduction in the amount of the least acidic of the two kinds of N. tabacum small subunit polypeptides. The question of how many individual progeny of self-fertile hybrids would have to be analyzed to detect segregation of genes coding for F-1 protein small subunit polypeptides, if segregation occurs, was answered by analysis of F1 hybrids between N. otophora and N. tomentosiformis, and two subspecies of N. suaveolens, together with their F2 progeny. In both cases, analysis of 16 progeny was sufficient to demonstrate a segregation pattern of two F1 hybrid type to one each of the two parental types. Therefore, in the absence of segregation, it is likely that coding information for different kinds of F-1 protein small subunit polypeptides is sequestered on heterologous chromosomes, as postulated in previous reports.

  7. Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Mónica; Collins, Allen G.; Silberman, Jeffrey D.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the evolutionary relationships among basal metazoan lineages by using complete large subunit (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA sequences for 23 taxa. After identifying competing hypotheses, we performed maximum likelihood searches for trees conforming to each hypothesis. Kishino–Hasegawa tests were used to determine whether the data (LSU, SSU, and combined) reject any of the competing hypotheses. We also conducted unconstrained tree searches, compared the resulting topologies, and calculated bootstrap indices. Shimodaira–Hasegawa tests were applied to determine whether the data reject any of the topologies resulting from the constrained and unconstrained tree searches. LSU, SSU, and the combined data strongly contradict two assertions pertaining to sponge phylogeny. Hexactinellid sponges are not likely to be the basal lineage of a monophyletic Porifera or the sister group to all other animals. Instead, Hexactinellida and Demospongia form a well-supported clade of siliceous sponges, Silicea. It remains unclear, on the basis of these data alone, whether the calcarean sponges are more closely related to Silicea or to nonsponge animals. The SSU and combined data reject the hypothesis that Bilateria is more closely related to Ctenophora than it is to Cnidaria, whereas LSU data alone do not refute either hypothesis. LSU and SSU data agree in supporting the monophyly of Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Metazoa. LSU sequence data reveal phylogenetic structure in a data set with limited taxon sampling. Continued accumulation of LSU sequences should increase our understanding of animal phylogeny. PMID:11504944

  8. Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Allen G.; Silberman, Jeffrey; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2001-06-21

    We studied the evolutionary relationships among basal metazoan lineages by using complete large subunit (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA sequences for 23 taxa. After identifying competing hypotheses, we performed maximum likelihood searches for trees conforming to each hypothesis. Kishino-Hasegawa tests were used to determine whether the data (LSU, SSU, and combined) reject any of the competing hypotheses. We also conducted unconstrained tree searches, compared the resulting topologies, and calculated bootstrap indices. Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests were applied to determine whether the data reject any of the topologies resulting from the constrained and unconstrained tree searches. LSU, SSU, and the combined data strongly contradict two assertions pertaining to sponge phylogeny. Hexactinellid sponges are not likely to be the basal lineage of amonophyletic Porifera or the sister group to all other animals. Instead, Hexactinellida and Demospongia form a well-supported clade of siliceous sponges, Silicea. It remains unclear, on the basis of these data alone, whether the calcarean sponges are more closely related to Silicea or to nonsponge animals. The SSU and combined data reject the hypothesis that Bilateria is more closely related to Ctenophora than it is to Cnidaria, whereas LSU data alone do not refute either hypothesis. LSU and SSU data agree in supporting the monophyly of Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Metazoa. LSU sequence data reveal phylogenetic structure in a data set with limited taxon sampling. Continued accumulation of LSU sequences should increase our understanding of animal phylogeny.

  9. DEAD-box RNA helicase Dbp4 is required for small-subunit processome formation and function.

    PubMed

    Soltanieh, Sahar; Osheim, Yvonne N; Spasov, Krasimir; Trahan, Christian; Beyer, Ann L; Dragon, François

    2015-03-01

    DEAD-box RNA helicase Dbp4 is required for 18S rRNA synthesis: cellular depletion of Dbp4 impairs the early cleavage reactions of the pre-rRNA and causes U14 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) to remain associated with pre-rRNA. Immunoprecipitation experiments (IPs) carried out with whole-cell extracts (WCEs) revealed that hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged Dbp4 is associated with U3 snoRNA but not with U14 snoRNA. IPs with WCEs also showed association with the U3-specific protein Mpp10, which suggests that Dbp4 interacts with the functionally active U3 RNP; this particle, called the small-subunit (SSU) processome, can be observed at the 5' end of nascent pre-rRNA. Electron microscopy analyses indicated that depletion of Dbp4 compromised SSU processome formation and cotranscriptional cleavage of the pre-rRNA. Sucrose density gradient analyses revealed that depletion of U3 snoRNA or the Mpp10 protein inhibited the release of U14 snoRNA from pre-rRNA, just as was seen with Dbp4-depleted cells, indicating that alteration of SSU processome components has significant consequences for U14 snoRNA dynamics. We also found that the C-terminal extension flanking the catalytic core of Dbp4 plays an important role in the release of U14 snoRNA from pre-rRNA.

  10. DEAD-Box RNA Helicase Dbp4 Is Required for Small-Subunit Processome Formation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Soltanieh, Sahar; Osheim, Yvonne N.; Spasov, Krasimir; Trahan, Christian; Beyer, Ann L.

    2014-01-01

    DEAD-box RNA helicase Dbp4 is required for 18S rRNA synthesis: cellular depletion of Dbp4 impairs the early cleavage reactions of the pre-rRNA and causes U14 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) to remain associated with pre-rRNA. Immunoprecipitation experiments (IPs) carried out with whole-cell extracts (WCEs) revealed that hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged Dbp4 is associated with U3 snoRNA but not with U14 snoRNA. IPs with WCEs also showed association with the U3-specific protein Mpp10, which suggests that Dbp4 interacts with the functionally active U3 RNP; this particle, called the small-subunit (SSU) processome, can be observed at the 5′ end of nascent pre-rRNA. Electron microscopy analyses indicated that depletion of Dbp4 compromised SSU processome formation and cotranscriptional cleavage of the pre-rRNA. Sucrose density gradient analyses revealed that depletion of U3 snoRNA or the Mpp10 protein inhibited the release of U14 snoRNA from pre-rRNA, just as was seen with Dbp4-depleted cells, indicating that alteration of SSU processome components has significant consequences for U14 snoRNA dynamics. We also found that the C-terminal extension flanking the catalytic core of Dbp4 plays an important role in the release of U14 snoRNA from pre-rRNA. PMID:25535329

  11. 18S rRNA gene sequencing identifies a novel species of Henneguya parasitizing the gills of the channel catfish (Ictaluridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern United States, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus is a host to at least eight different species of myxozoan parasites belonging to the genus Henneguya, four of which have been characterized molecularly using sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA). Howe...

  12. The gene for the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) small subunit relocated to the plastid genome of tobacco directs the synthesis of small subunits that assemble into Rubisco.

    PubMed

    Whitney, S M; Andrews, T J

    2001-01-01

    To assess the extent to which a nuclear gene for a chloroplast protein retained the ability to be expressed in its presumed preendosymbiotic location, we relocated the RbcS gene for the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) to the tobacco plastid genome. Plastid RbcS transgenes, both with and without the transit presequence, were equipped with 3' hepta-histidine-encoding sequences and psbA promoter and terminator elements. Both transgenes were transcribed abundantly, and their products were translated into small subunit polypeptides that folded correctly and assembled into the Rubisco hexadecamer. When present, either the transit presequence was not translated or the transit peptide was cleaved completely. After assembly into Rubisco, transplastomic small subunits were relatively stable. The hepta-histidine sequence fused to the C terminus of a single small subunit was sufficient for isolation of the whole Rubisco hexadecamer by Ni(2)+ chelation. Small subunits produced by the plastid transgenes were not abundant, never exceeding approximately 1% of the total small subunits, and they differed from cytoplasmically synthesized small subunits in their N-terminal modifications. The scarcity of transplastomic small subunits might be caused by inefficient translation or assembly.

  13. Morphology and 18S rDNA of Henneguya gurlei (Myxosporea) from Ameiurus nebulosus (Siluriformes) in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Iwanowicz, D.D.; Pote, L.M.; Blazer, V.S.; Schill, W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Henneguya gurlei was isolated from Ameiurus nebulosus captured in North Carolina and redescribed using critical morphological features and 18S small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) gene sequence. Plasmodia are white, spherical, or subspherical, occur in clusters, measure up to 1.8 mm in length, and are located on the dorsal, pectoral, and anal fins. Histologically, plasmodia are located in the dermis and subdermally, and the larger cysts disrupt the melanocyte pigment layer. The spore body is lanceolate, 18.2 ?? 0.3 ??m (range 15.7-20.3) in length, and 5.4 ?? 0.1 ??m (range 3.8-6.1) in width in valvular view. The caudal appendages are 41.1 ?? 1.1 ??m (range 34.0-49.7) in length. Polar capsules are pyriform and of unequal size. The longer polar capsule measures 6.2 ?? 0.1 ??m (range 5.48-7.06), while the shorter is 5.7 ?? 0.1 ??m (range 4.8-6.4) in length. Polar capsule width is 1.2 ?? 0.03 ??m (range 1.0-1.54). The total length of the spore is 60.9 ?? 1.2 ??m (range 48.7-68.5). Morphologically, this species is similar to other species of Henneguya that are known to infect ictalurids. Based on SSU rDNA sequences, this species is most closely related to H. exilis and H. ictaluri, which infect Ictalurus punctatus. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2008.

  14. RNA chaperones stimulate formation and yield of the U3 snoRNA-pre-rRNA duplexes needed for eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gérczei, Tímea; Shah, Binal N.; Manzo, Anthony J.; Walter, Nils G.; Correll, Carl C.

    2010-01-01

    To satisfy the high demand for ribosome synthesis in rapidly growing eukaryotic cells, short duplexes between the U3 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) and the precursor ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) must form quickly and with high yield. These interactions, designated the U3-ETS and U3-18S duplexes, are essential to initiate the processing of small subunit rRNA. Previously, we showed in vitro that duplexes corresponding to those in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are only observed after addition of one of two proteins: Imp3p or Imp4p. Here, we used fluorescence-based and other in vitro assays to determine whether these proteins possess RNA chaperone activities and to assess whether these activities are sufficient to satisfy the duplex yield and rate requirements expected in vivo. Assembly of both proteins with the U3 snoRNA into a chaperone complex destabilizes a U3-stem structure, apparently to expose its 18S base-pairing site. As a result, the chaperone complex accelerates formation of the U3-18S duplex from an undetectable rate to one comparable to the intrinsic rate observed for hybridizing short duplexes. The chaperone complex also stabilizes the U3-ETS duplex by 2.7 kcal/mol. These chaperone activities provide high U3-ETS duplex yield and rapid U3-18S duplex formation over a broad concentration range to help ensure that the U3-pre-rRNA interactions limit neither ribosome biogenesis nor rapid cell growth. The thermodynamic and kinetic framework used is general and thus suitable to investigate the mechanism of action of other RNA chaperones. PMID:19482034

  15. Ribosomal History Reveals Origins of Modern Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Harish, Ajith; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the ribosome is central to our understanding of the cellular world. Most hypotheses posit that the ribosome originated in the peptidyl transferase center of the large ribosomal subunit. However, these proposals do not link protein synthesis to RNA recognition and do not use a phylogenetic comparative framework to study ribosomal evolution. Here we infer evolution of the structural components of the ribosome. Phylogenetic methods widely used in morphometrics are applied directly to RNA structures of thousands of molecules and to a census of protein structures in hundreds of genomes. We find that components of the small subunit involved in ribosomal processivity evolved earlier than the catalytic peptidyl transferase center responsible for protein synthesis. Remarkably, subunit RNA and proteins coevolved, starting with interactions between the oldest proteins (S12 and S17) and the oldest substructure (the ribosomal ratchet) in the small subunit and ending with the rise of a modern multi-subunit ribosome. Ancestral ribonucleoprotein components show similarities to in vitro evolved RNA replicase ribozymes and protein structures in extant replication machinery. Our study therefore provides important clues about the chicken-or-egg dilemma associated with the central dogma of molecular biology by showing that ribosomal history is driven by the gradual structural accretion of protein and RNA structures. Most importantly, results suggest that functionally important and conserved regions of the ribosome were recruited and could be relics of an ancient ribonucleoprotein world. PMID:22427882

  16. Genetic diversity among Babesia rossi detected in naturally infected dogs in Abeokuta, Nigeria, based on 18S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Takeet, Michael I; Oyewusi, Adeoye J; Abakpa, Simon A V; Daramola, Olukayode O; Peters, Sunday O

    2017-03-01

    Adequate knowledge of the genetic diversity among Babesia species infecting dogs is necessary for a better understanding of the epidemiology and control of canine babesiosis. Hence, this study determined the genetic diversity among the Babesia rossi detected in dogs presented for routine examination in Veterinary Hospitals in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Blood were randomly collected from 209 dogs. Field-stained thin smears were made and DNA extracted from the blood. Partial region of the 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was amplified, sequenced and analysed. Babesia species was detected in 16 (7.7%) of the dogs by microscopy. Electrophoresed PCR products from 39 (18.66%) dogs revealed band size of 450 bp and 2 (0.95%) dogs had band size of 430 bp. The sequences obtained from 450 bp amplicon displayed homology of 99.74% (387/388) with partial sequences of 18S rRNA gene of Babesia rossi in the GeneBank. Of the two sequences that had 430 bp amplicon, one was identified as T. annulata and second as T. ovis. A significantly (p<0.05) higher prevalence of B. rossi was detected by PCR compared to microscopy. The mean PCV of Babesia infected dogs was significantly (p<0.05) lower than non-infected dogs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed minimal diversity among B. rossi with the exception of one sequence that was greatly divergent from the others. This study suggests that more than one genotype of B. rossi may be in circulation among the dog population in the study area and this may have potential implication on clinical outcome of canine babesiosis.

  17. Role of the Rubisco small subunit. Final report for period May 1, 1997--April 30,2000

    SciTech Connect

    Spreitzer, Robert J.

    2000-10-04

    CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} are mutually competitive at the active site of ribulose-1,5-biphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Rubisco contains two subunits, each present in eight copies. The 15-kD small subunit is coded by a family of nuclear RbcS genes. Until now, the role of the small subunit in Rubisco structure or catalytic efficiency is not known. Because of other work in eliminating the two RbcS genes in the green algo Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, it is now possible to address questions about the structure-function relationships of the eukaryotic small subunit. There are three specific aims in this project: (1) Alanine scanning mutagenesis is being used to dissect the importance of the {beta}A/{beta}B loop, a feature unique to the eukaryotic small subunit. (2) Random mutagenesis is being used to identify additional residues or regions of the small subunit that are important for holoenzyme assembly and function. (3) Attempts are being made to express foreign small subunits in Chlamydomonas to examine the contribution of small subunits to holoenzyme assembly, catalytic efficiency, and CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} specificity.

  18. Ribosome engineering to promote new crystal forms

    SciTech Connect

    Selmer, Maria; Gao, Yong-Gui; Weixlbaumer, Albert; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2012-05-01

    Truncation of ribosomal protein L9 in T. thermophilus allows the generation of new crystal forms and the crystallization of ribosome–GTPase complexes. Crystallographic studies of the ribosome have provided molecular details of protein synthesis. However, the crystallization of functional complexes of ribosomes with GTPase translation factors proved to be elusive for a decade after the first ribosome structures were determined. Analysis of the packing in different 70S ribosome crystal forms revealed that regardless of the species or space group, a contact between ribosomal protein L9 from the large subunit and 16S rRNA in the shoulder of a neighbouring small subunit in the crystal lattice competes with the binding of GTPase elongation factors to this region of 16S rRNA. To prevent the formation of this preferred crystal contact, a mutant strain of Thermus thermophilus, HB8-MRCMSAW1, in which the ribosomal protein L9 gene has been truncated was constructed by homologous recombination. Mutant 70S ribosomes were used to crystallize and solve the structure of the ribosome with EF-G, GDP and fusidic acid in a previously unobserved crystal form. Subsequent work has shown the usefulness of this strain for crystallization of the ribosome with other GTPase factors.

  19. Multiple Group I Introns in the Small-Subunit rDNA of Botryosphaeria dothidea: Implication for Intraspecific Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chao; Wang, Chunsheng; Sun, Xinyao; Zhang, Rong; Gleason, Mark L.; Eiji, Tanaka; Sun, Guangyu

    2013-01-01

    Botryosphaeria dothidea is a widespread and economically important pathogen on various fruit trees, and it often causes die-back and canker on limbs and fruit rot. In characterizing intraspecies genetic variation within this fungus, group I introns, rich in rDNA of fungi, may provide a productive region for exploration. In this research, we analysed complete small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences of 37 B. dothidea strains, and found four insertions, designated Bdo.S943, Bdo.S1199-A, Bdo.S1199-B and Bdo.S1506, at three positions. Sequence analysis and structure prediction revealed that both Bdo.S943 and Bdo.S1506 belonged to subgroup IC1 of group I introns, whereas Bdo.S1199-A and Bdo.S1199-B corresponded to group IE introns. Moreover, Bdo.S1199-A was found to host an open reading frame (ORF) for encoding the homing endonuclease (HE), whereas Bdo.S1199-B, an evolutionary descendant of Bdo.S1199-A, included a degenerate HE. The above four introns were novel, and were the first group I introns observed and characterized in this species. Differential distribution of these introns revealed that all strains could be separated into four genotypes. Genotype III (no intron) and genotype IV (Bdo.S1199-B) were each found in only one strain, whereas genotype I (Bdo.S1199-A) and genotype II (Bdo.S943 and Bdo.S1506) occurred in 95% of the strains. There is a correlation between B. dothidea genotypes and hosts or geographic locations. Thus, these newly discovered group I introns can help to advance understanding of genetic differentiation within B. dothidea. PMID:23844098

  20. Multiple group I introns in the small-subunit rDNA of Botryosphaeria dothidea: implication for intraspecific genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Wang, Chunsheng; Sun, Xinyao; Zhang, Rong; Gleason, Mark L; Eiji, Tanaka; Sun, Guangyu

    2013-01-01

    Botryosphaeria dothidea is a widespread and economically important pathogen on various fruit trees, and it often causes die-back and canker on limbs and fruit rot. In characterizing intraspecies genetic variation within this fungus, group I introns, rich in rDNA of fungi, may provide a productive region for exploration. In this research, we analysed complete small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences of 37 B. dothidea strains, and found four insertions, designated Bdo.S943, Bdo.S1199-A, Bdo.S1199-B and Bdo.S1506, at three positions. Sequence analysis and structure prediction revealed that both Bdo.S943 and Bdo.S1506 belonged to subgroup IC1 of group I introns, whereas Bdo.S1199-A and Bdo.S1199-B corresponded to group IE introns. Moreover, Bdo.S1199-A was found to host an open reading frame (ORF) for encoding the homing endonuclease (HE), whereas Bdo.S1199-B, an evolutionary descendant of Bdo.S1199-A, included a degenerate HE. The above four introns were novel, and were the first group I introns observed and characterized in this species. Differential distribution of these introns revealed that all strains could be separated into four genotypes. Genotype III (no intron) and genotype IV (Bdo.S1199-B) were each found in only one strain, whereas genotype I (Bdo.S1199-A) and genotype II (Bdo.S943 and Bdo.S1506) occurred in 95% of the strains. There is a correlation between B. dothidea genotypes and hosts or geographic locations. Thus, these newly discovered group I introns can help to advance understanding of genetic differentiation within B. dothidea.

  1. Structure of the archaeal Cascade subunit Csa5: relating the small subunits of CRISPR effector complexes.

    PubMed

    Reeks, Judith; Graham, Shirley; Anderson, Linzi; Liu, Huanting; White, Malcolm F; Naismith, James H

    2013-05-01

    The Cascade complex for CRISPR-mediated antiviral immunity uses CRISPR RNA (crRNA) to target invading DNA species from mobile elements such as viruses, leading to their destruction. The core of the Cascade effector complex consists of the Cas5 and Cas7 subunits, which are widely conserved in prokaryotes. Cas7 binds crRNA and forms the helical backbone of Cascade. Many archaea encode a version of the Cascade complex (denoted Type I-A) that includes a Csa5 (or small) subunit, which interacts weakly with the core proteins. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Csa5 protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Csa5 comprises a conserved α-helical domain with a small insertion consisting of a weakly conserved β-strand domain. In the crystal, the Csa5 monomers have multimerized into infinite helical threads. At each interface is a strictly conserved intersubunit salt bridge, deletion of which disrupts multimerization. Structural analysis indicates a shared evolutionary history among the small subunits of the CRISPR effector complexes. The same α-helical domain is found in the C-terminal domain of Cse2 (from Type I-E Cascade), while the N-terminal domain of Cse2 is found in Cmr5 of the CMR (Type III-B) effector complex. As Cmr5 shares no match with Csa5, two possibilities present themselves: selective domain loss from an ancestral Cse2 to create two new subfamilies or domain fusion of two separate families to create a new Cse2 family. A definitive answer awaits structural studies of further small subunits from other CRISPR effector complexes.

  2. Amino-terminal truncations of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit influence catalysis and subunit interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, K; Morell, M K; Andrews, T J

    1993-01-01

    The first 20 residues at the amino terminus of the small subunit of spinach ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase form an irregular arm that makes extensive contacts with the large subunit and also with another small subunit (S. Knight, I. Andersson, and C.-I. Brändén [1990] J Mol Biol 215: 113-160). The influence of these contacts on subunit binding and, indirectly, on catalysis was investigated by constructing truncations from the amino terminus of the small subunit of the highly homologous enzyme from Synechococcus PCC 6301 expressed in Escherichia coli. Removal of the first six residues (and thus the region of contact with a neighboring small subunit) affected neither the affinity with which the small subunits bound to the large subunits nor the catalytic properties of the assembled holoenzyme. Extending the truncation to include the first 12 residues (which encroaches into a highly conserved region that interacts with the large subunit) also did not weaken intersubunit binding appreciably, but it reduced the catalytic activity of the holoenzyme nearly 5-fold. Removal of an additional single residue (i.e. removal of a total of 13 residues) weakened intersubunit binding approximately 80-fold. Paradoxically, this partially restored catalytic activity to approximately 40% of that of the wild-type holoenzyme. None of these truncations materially affected the Km values for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate or CO2. Removal of all 20 residues of the irregular arm (thereby deleting the conserved region of contact with large subunits) totally abolished the small subunit's ability to bind to large subunits to form a stable holoenzyme. However, this truncated small subunit was still synthesized by the E. coli cells. These data are interpreted in terms of the role of the amino-terminal arm of the small subunit in maintaining the structure of the holoenzyme. PMID:8278544

  3. Identification of Theileria parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) 18S rRNA gene sequence variants in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Chaisi, Mamohale E; Sibeko, Kgomotso P; Collins, Nicola E; Potgieter, Fred T; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2011-12-15

    Theileria parva is the causative agent of Corridor disease in cattle in South Africa. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the reservoir host, and, as these animals are important for eco-tourism in South Africa, it is compulsory to test and certify them disease free prior to translocation. A T. parva-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene is one of the tests used for the diagnosis of the parasite in buffalo and cattle in South Africa. However, because of the high similarity between the 18S rRNA gene sequences of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), the latter is also amplified by the real-time PCR primers, although it is not detected by the T. parva-specific hybridization probes. Preliminary sequencing studies have revealed a small number of sequence differences within the 18S rRNA gene in both species but the extent of this sequence variation is unknown. The aim of the current study was to sequence the 18S rRNA genes of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), and to determine whether all identified genotypes can be correctly detected by the real-time PCR assay. The reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was used to identify T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) positive samples from buffalo blood samples originating from the Kruger National Park, Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park, and a private game ranch in the Hoedspruit area. T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) were identified in 42% and 28%, respectively, of 252 samples, mainly as mixed infections. The full-length 18S rRNA gene of selected samples was amplified, cloned and sequenced. From a total of 20 sequences obtained, 10 grouped with previously published T. parva sequences from GenBank while 10 sequences grouped with a previously published Theileria sp. (buffalo) sequence. All these formed a monophyletic group with known pathogenic Theileria species. Our phylogenetic analyses confirm the

  4. Ribosome dynamics and the evolutionary history of ribosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, George E.; Paci, Maxim; Tran, Quyen; Petrov, Anton S.; Williams, Loren D.

    2015-09-01

    The ribosome is a dynamic nanomachine responsible for coded protein synthesis. Its major subsystems were essentially in place at the time of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). Ribosome evolutionary history thus potentially provides a window into the pre- LUCA world. This history begins with the origins of the peptidyl transferase center where the actual peptide is synthesized and then continues over an extended timeframe as additional functional centers including the GTPase center are added. The large ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) have grown over time by an accretion process and a model exists that proposes a relative age of each accreted element. We have compared atomic resolution ribosome structures before and after EF-G bound GTP hydrolysis and thereby identified the location of 23 pivot points in the large rRNAs that facilitate ribosome dynamics. Pivots in small subunit helices h28 and h44 appear to be especially central to the process and according to the accretion model significantly older than the other helices containing pivots. Overall, the results suggest that ribosomal dynamics occurred in two phases. In the first phase, an inherently mobile h28/h44 combination provided the flexibility needed to create a dynamic ribosome that was essentially a Brownian machine. This addition likely made coded peptide synthesis possible by facilitating movement of a primitive mRNA. During the second phase, addition of pivoting elements and the creation of a factor binding site allowed the regulation of the inherent motion created by h28/h44. All of these events likely occurred before LUCA.

  5. Isolation and characterization of rubisco small subunit gene promoter from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Shalini; Stasolla, Claudio; Brûlé-Babel, Anita; Ayele, Belay T

    2015-01-01

    Choice of an appropriate promoter is critical to express target genes in intended tissues and developmental stages. However, promoters capable of directing gene expression in specific tissues and stages are not well characterized in monocot species. To identify such a promoter in wheat, this study isolated a partial sequence of the wheat small subunit of RuBisCO (TarbcS) promoter. In silico analysis revealed the presence of elements that are characteristic to rbcS promoters of other, mainly dicot, species. Transient expression of the TarbcS:GUS in immature wheat embryos and tobacco leaves but not in the wheat roots indicate the functionality of the TarbcS promoter fragment in directing the expression of target genes in green plant tissues.

  6. AtPAP2 modulates the import of the small subunit of Rubisco into chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Renshan; Guan, Xiaoqian; Law, Yee-Song; Sun, Feng; Chen, Shuai; Wong, Kam Bo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arabidopsis thaliana purple acid phosphatase 2 (AtPAP2) is the only phosphatase that is dual-targeted to both chloroplasts and mitochondria. Like Toc33/34 of the TOC and Tom 20 of the TOM, AtPAP2 is anchored to the outer membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria via a hydrophobic C-terminal motif. AtPAP2 on the mitochondria was previously shown to recognize the presequences of several nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins and modulate the import of pMORF3 into the mitochondria. Here we show that AtPAP2 binds to the small subunit of Rubisco (pSSU) and that chloroplast import experiments demonstrated that pSSU was imported less efficiently into pap2 chloroplasts than into wild-type chloroplasts. We propose that AtPAP2 is an outer membrane-bound phosphatase receptor that facilitates the import of selected proteins into chloroplasts. PMID:27700374

  7. Postimport methylation of the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Grimm, R; Grimm, M; Eckerskorn, C; Pohlmeyer, K; Röhl, T; Soll, J

    1997-05-26

    Electron impact mass spectronomy analysis of the amino-terminal amino acid of the small subunit (SSU) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) showed that the amino-terminal methionine residue is post-translationally modified to N-methyl-methionine. Modification of the amino-terminal methionine residue was found in mature SSU proteins from the dicotyledonous plants pea and spinach as well as the monocotyledonous plants barley and corn. SSU methyltransferase is a soluble protein in the chloroplast stroma and accepts heterologously expressed non-methylated SSU as a substrate using S-adenosylmethionine as methyl-group donor. We show that this modification occurs after post-translational uptake of the precursor form of SSU into chloroplasts and processing to its mature size. This reaction represents a new step in the import and assembly pathway of Rubisco holoenzyme.

  8. Substrate specificity determinants of the methanogen homoaconitase enzyme: structure and function of the small subunit.

    PubMed

    Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman; Drevland, Randy M; Gayathri, Dasara Raju; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Shinkai, Akeo; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Graham, David E

    2010-03-30

    The aconitase family of hydro-lyase enzymes includes three classes of proteins that catalyze the isomerization of alpha-hydroxy acids to beta-hydroxy acids. Besides aconitase, isopropylmalate isomerase (IPMI) proteins specifically catalyze the isomerization of alpha,beta-dicarboxylates with hydrophobic gamma-chain groups, and homoaconitase (HACN) proteins catalyze the isomerization of tricarboxylates with variable chain length gamma-carboxylate groups. These enzymes' stereospecific hydro-lyase activities make them attractive catalysts to produce diastereomers from unsaturated precursors. However, sequence similarity and convergent evolution among these proteins lead to widespread misannotation and uncertainty about gene function. To find the substrate specificity determinants of homologous IPMI and HACN proteins from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, the small-subunit HACN protein (MJ1271) was crystallized for X-ray diffraction. The structural model showed characteristic residues in a flexible loop region between alpha2 and alpha3 that distinguish HACN from IPMI and aconitase proteins. Site-directed mutagenesis of MJ1271 produced loop-region variant proteins that were reconstituted with wild-type MJ1003 large-subunit protein. The heteromers formed promiscuous hydro-lyases with reduced activity but broader substrate specificity. Both R26K and R26V variants formed relatively efficient IPMI enzymes, while the T27A variant had uniformly lower specificity constants for both IPMI and HACN substrates. The R26V T27Y variant resembles the MJ1277 IPMI small subunit in its flexible loop sequence but demonstrated the broad substrate specificity of the R26V variant. These mutations may reverse the evolution of HACN activity from an ancestral IPMI gene, demonstrating the evolutionary potential for promiscuity in hydro-lyase enzymes. Understanding these specificity determinants enables the functional reannotation of paralogous HACN and IPMI genes in numerous genome sequences. These

  9. Structural insights on the small subunit of DNA topoisomerase I from the unicellular parasite Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Díaz González, Rosario; Pérez Pertejo, Yolanda; Redondo, Carmen M; Pommier, Yves; Balaña-Fouce, Rafael; Reguera, Rosa M

    2007-12-01

    Leishmania donovani, the causative organism of visceral leishmaniasis, contains a unique heterodimeric DNA topoisomerase IB (LdTop1). The catalytically active enzyme consists of a large subunit (LdTop1L), which contains the non-conserved N-terminal end and a phylogenetically conserved core domain, and of a small subunit (LdTop1S) which harbours the C-terminal region with a characteristic tyrosine residue in the active site. Heterologous co-expression of LdTop1L and LdTop1S in a topoisomerase I deficient yeast strain, reconstitutes a fully functional enzyme which can be used for structural studies. The role played by the non-conserved N-terminal extension of LdTop1S in both relaxation activity and CPT sensitivity of LdTop1 has been examined co-expressing the full-length LdTop1L with several deletions of LdTop1S lacking growing sequences of the N-terminal end. The sequential deletion study shows that the first 174 amino acids of LdTop1S are dispensable in terms of relaxation activity and DNA cleavage. It is also described that the trapping of the covalent complex between LdTop1 and DNA by CPT requires a pentapeptide between amino acid residues 175 and 179 of LdTop1S. Our results suggest the crucial role played by the N-terminal extension of the small subunit of DNA topoisomerase I.

  10. Compositional properties and thermal adaptation of 18S rRNA in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Varriale, Annalisa; Torelli, Giuseppe; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of temperature on the GC level of the paired sequences of ribosomal 18S RNAs in vertebrates, we have studied their base composition in cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates using a stem-by-stem comparison. We observed that a number of stems of 18S ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are variable among species and that the majority of such stems are GC richer in warm-blooded than in cold-blooded vertebrates. We also constructed the secondary structures of the 18S rRNAs of a polar fish, a marsupial, and a monotreme to compare them with those of temperate/tropical fishes and of eutherians, respectively. In these cases, differences similar to those already mentioned were found. We conclude that there is a correlation between stem stability and body temperature even within the relatively limited temperature range of vertebrates. PMID:18567811

  11. Structure of Ribosomal Silencing Factor Bound to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojun; Sun, Qingan; Jiang, Cai; Yang, Kailu; Hung, Li-Wei; Zhang, Junjie; Sacchettini, James C

    2015-10-06

    The ribosomal silencing factor RsfS slows cell growth by inhibiting protein synthesis during periods of diminished nutrient availability. The crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) RsfS, together with the cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structure of the large subunit 50S of Mtb ribosome, reveals how inhibition of protein synthesis by RsfS occurs. RsfS binds to the 50S at L14, which, when occupied, blocks the association of the small subunit 30S. Although Mtb RsfS is a dimer in solution, only a single subunit binds to 50S. The overlap between the dimer interface and the L14 binding interface confirms that the RsfS dimer must first dissociate to a monomer in order to bind to L14. RsfS interacts primarily through electrostatic and hydrogen bonding to L14. The EM structure shows extended rRNA density that it is not found in the Escherichia coli ribosome, the most striking of these being the extended RNA helix of H54a.

  12. Development and Application of Small-Subunit rRNA Probes for Assessment of Selected Thiobacillus Species and Members of the Genus Acidiphilium

    PubMed Central

    Peccia, Jordan; Marchand, Eric A.; Silverstein, Joann; Hernandez, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Culture-dependent studies have implicated sulfur-oxidizing bacteria as the causative agents of acid mine drainage and concrete corrosion in sewers. Thiobacillus species are considered the major representatives of the acid-producing bacteria in these environments. Small-subunit rRNA genes from all of the Thiobacillus and Acidiphilium species catalogued by the Ribosomal Database Project were identified and used to design oligonucleotide DNA probes. Two oligonucleotide probes were synthesized to complement variable regions of 16S rRNA in the following acidophilic bacteria: Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and T. thiooxidans (probe Thio820) and members of the genus Acidiphilium (probe Acdp821). Using 32P radiolabels, probe specificity was characterized by hybridization dissociation temperature (Td) with membrane-immobilized RNA extracted from a suite of 21 strains representing three groups of bacteria. Fluorochrome-conjugated probes were evaluated for use with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) at the experimentally determined Tds. FISH was used to identify and enumerate bacteria in laboratory reactors and environmental samples. Probing of laboratory reactors inoculated with a mixed culture of acidophilic bacteria validated the ability of the oligonucleotide probes to track specific cell numbers with time. Additionally, probing of sediments from an active acid mine drainage site in Colorado demonstrated the ability to identify numbers of active bacteria in natural environments that contain high concentrations of metals, associated precipitates, and other mineral debris. PMID:10877807

  13. Development and application of small-subunit rRNA probes for assessment of selected Thiobacillus species and members of the genus Acidiphilium.

    PubMed

    Peccia, J; Marchand, E A; Silverstein, J; Hernandez, M

    2000-07-01

    Culture-dependent studies have implicated sulfur-oxidizing bacteria as the causative agents of acid mine drainage and concrete corrosion in sewers. Thiobacillus species are considered the major representatives of the acid-producing bacteria in these environments. Small-subunit rRNA genes from all of the Thiobacillus and Acidiphilium species catalogued by the Ribosomal Database Project were identified and used to design oligonucleotide DNA probes. Two oligonucleotide probes were synthesized to complement variable regions of 16S rRNA in the following acidophilic bacteria: Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and T. thiooxidans (probe Thio820) and members of the genus Acidiphilium (probe Acdp821). Using (32)P radiolabels, probe specificity was characterized by hybridization dissociation temperature (T(d)) with membrane-immobilized RNA extracted from a suite of 21 strains representing three groups of bacteria. Fluorochrome-conjugated probes were evaluated for use with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) at the experimentally determined T(d)s. FISH was used to identify and enumerate bacteria in laboratory reactors and environmental samples. Probing of laboratory reactors inoculated with a mixed culture of acidophilic bacteria validated the ability of the oligonucleotide probes to track specific cell numbers with time. Additionally, probing of sediments from an active acid mine drainage site in Colorado demonstrated the ability to identify numbers of active bacteria in natural environments that contain high concentrations of metals, associated precipitates, and other mineral debris.

  14. A genetic link between epigenetic repressor AS1-AS2 and a putative small subunit processome in leaf polarity establishment of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Yoko; Ohbayashi, Iwai; Takahashi, Hiro; Kojima, Shoko; Ishibashi, Nanako; Keta, Sumie; Nakagawa, Ayami; Hayashi, Rika; Saéz-Vásquez, Julio; Echeverria, Manuel; Sugiyama, Munetaka; Nakamura, Kenzo; Machida, Chiyoko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although the DEAD-box RNA helicase family is ubiquitous in eukaryotes, its developmental role remains unelucidated. Here, we report that cooperative action between the Arabidopsis nucleolar protein RH10, an ortholog of human DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX47, and the epigenetic repressor complex of ASYMMETRIC-LEAVES1 (AS1) and AS2 (AS1-AS2) is critical to repress abaxial (ventral) genes ETT/ARF3 and ARF4, which leads to adaxial (dorsal) development in leaf primordia at shoot apices. Double mutations of rh10-1 and as2 (or as1) synergistically up-regulated the abaxial genes, which generated abaxialized filamentous leaves with loss of the adaxial domain. DDX47 is part of the small subunit processome (SSUP) that mediates rRNA biogenesis. In rh10-1 we found various defects in SSUP-related events, such as: accumulation of 35S/33S rRNA precursors; reduction in the 18S/25S ratio; and nucleolar hypertrophy. Double mutants of as2 with mutations of genes that encode other candidate SSUP-related components such as nucleolin and putative rRNA methyltransferase exhibited similar synergistic defects caused by up-regulation of ETT/ARF3 and ARF4. These results suggest a tight link between putative SSUP and AS1-AS2 in repression of the abaxial-determining genes for cell fate decisions for adaxial development. PMID:27334696

  15. Soybean ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit: Mechanisms and determinants of RNA turnover. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, R.B.

    1993-12-31

    An in vitro degradation system has been developed from petunia and soybean polysomes in order to investigate the mechanisms and determinants controlling RNA turnover in higher plants. This system faithfully degrades soybean ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (rbcS) mRNA into the same products observed in total RNA preparations. In previous years it was shown that the most stable products represent a nested constellation of fragments, which are shortened from their 3{prime} ends, and have intact 5{prime} ends. Exogenous rbcS RNA tagged with novel 5{prime} sequence 15 or 56 bp long were synthesized in vitro as Sp6 and T7 runoff transcripts, respectively. When added to the system they were degraded faithfully into constellation of products which were 15 or 56 bp longer than the endogenous products, respectively. Detailed kinetics on the appearance of these exogenous products confirmed degradation proceeds in an overall 3{prime} to 5{prime} direction but suggested that there are multiple pathways through which the RNA may be degraded. To further demonstrate a precursor product relationships, in vitro synthesized transcripts truncated at their 3{prime} ends were shown to degrade into the expected smaller fragments previously mapped in the 5{prime} portion of the rbcS RNA.

  16. Phylogenetic Analysis of Cryptosporidium Parasites Based on the Small-Subunit rRNA Gene Locus

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lihua; Escalante, Lillian; Yang, Chunfu; Sulaiman, Irshad; Escalante, Anannias A.; Montali, Richard J.; Fayer, Ronald; Lal, Altaf A.

    1999-01-01

    Biological data support the hypothesis that there are multiple species in the genus Cryptosporidium, but a recent analysis of the available genetic data suggested that there is insufficient evidence for species differentiation. In order to resolve the controversy in the taxonomy of this parasite genus, we characterized the small-subunit rRNA genes of Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium muris, and Cryptosporidium serpentis and performed a phylogenetic analysis of the genus Cryptosporidium. Our study revealed that the genus Cryptosporidium contains the phylogenetically distinct species C. parvum, C. muris, C. baileyi, and C. serpentis, which is consistent with the biological characteristics and host specificity data. The Cryptosporidium species formed two clades, with C. parvum and C. baileyi belonging to one clade and C. muris and C. serpentis belonging to the other clade. Within C. parvum, human genotype isolates and guinea pig isolates (known as Cryptosporidium wrairi) each differed from bovine genotype isolates by the nucleotide sequence in four regions. A C. muris isolate from cattle was also different from parasites isolated from a rock hyrax and a Bactrian camel. Minor differences were also detected between C. serpentis isolates from snakes and lizards. Based on the genetic information, a species- and strain-specific PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism diagnostic tool was developed. PMID:10103253

  17. The bacteriophage T4 gene for the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase contains an intron.

    PubMed Central

    Sjöberg, B M; Hahne, S; Mathews, C Z; Mathews, C K; Rand, K N; Gait, M J

    1986-01-01

    The bacteriophage T4 gene nrdB codes for the small subunit of the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase. The T4 nrdB gene was localized between 136.1 kb and 137.8 kb in the T4 genetic map according to the deduced structural homology of the protein to the amino acid sequence of its bacterial counterpart, the B2 subunit of Escherichia coli. This positions the C-terminal end of the T4 nrdB gene approximately 2 kb closer to the T4 gene 63 than earlier anticipated from genetic recombinational analyses. The most surprising feature of the T4 nrdB gene is the presence of an approximately 625 bp intron which divides the structural gene into two parts. This is the second example of a prokaryotic structural gene with an intron. The first prokaryotic intron was reported in the nearby td gene, coding for the bacteriophage T4-specific thymidylate synthase enzyme. The nucleotide sequence at the exon-intron junctions of the T4 nrdB gene is similar to that of the junctions of the T4 td gene: the anticipated exon-intron boundary at the donor site ends with a TAA stop codon and there is an ATG start codon at the putative downstream intron-exon boundary of the acceptor site. In the course of this work the denA gene of T4 (endonuclease II) was also located. PMID:3530746

  18. Rubisco small subunits from the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas complement Rubisco-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Nicky; Leitão, Nuno; Orr, Douglas J; Meyer, Moritz T; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Griffiths, Howard; Smith, Alison M; McCormick, Alistair J

    2017-04-01

    Introducing components of algal carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) into higher plant chloroplasts could increase photosynthetic productivity. A key component is the Rubisco-containing pyrenoid that is needed to minimise CO2 retro-diffusion for CCM operating efficiency. Rubisco in Arabidopsis was re-engineered to incorporate sequence elements that are thought to be essential for recruitment of Rubisco to the pyrenoid, namely the algal Rubisco small subunit (SSU, encoded by rbcS) or only the surface-exposed algal SSU α-helices. Leaves of Arabidopsis rbcs mutants expressing 'pyrenoid-competent' chimeric Arabidopsis SSUs containing the SSU α-helices from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii can form hybrid Rubisco complexes with catalytic properties similar to those of native Rubisco, suggesting that the α-helices are catalytically neutral. The growth and photosynthetic performance of complemented Arabidopsis rbcs mutants producing near wild-type levels of the hybrid Rubisco were similar to those of wild-type controls. Arabidopsis rbcs mutants expressing a Chlamydomonas SSU differed from wild-type plants with respect to Rubisco catalysis, photosynthesis and growth. This confirms a role for the SSU in influencing Rubisco catalytic properties.

  19. Succession of Microbial Communities during Hot Composting as Detected by PCR–Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism-Based Genetic Profiles of Small-Subunit rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Sabine; Koschinsky, Stefanie; Schwieger, Frank; Tebbe, Christoph C.

    2000-01-01

    A cultivation-independent technique for genetic profiling of PCR-amplified small-subunit rRNA genes (SSU rDNA) was chosen to characterize the diversity and succession of microbial communities during composting of an organic agricultural substrate. PCR amplifications were performed with DNA directly extracted from compost samples and with primers targeting either (i) the V4–V5 region of eubacterial 16S rRNA genes, (ii) the V3 region in the 16S rRNA genes of actinomycetes, or (iii) the V8–V9 region of fungal 18S rRNA genes. Homologous PCR products were converted to single-stranded DNA molecules by exonuclease digestion and were subsequently electrophoretically separated by their single-strand-conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Genetic profiles obtained by this technique showed a succession and increasing diversity of microbial populations with all primers. A total of 19 single products were isolated from the profiles by PCR reamplification and cloning. DNA sequencing of these molecular isolates showed similarities in the range of 92.3 to 100% to known gram-positive bacteria with a low or high G+C DNA content and to the SSU rDNA of γ-Proteobacteria. The amplified 18S rRNA gene sequences were related to the respective gene regions of Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis. Specific molecular isolates could be attributed to different composting stages. The diversity of cultivated bacteria isolated from samples taken at the end of the composting process was low. A total of 290 isolates were related to only 6 different species. Two or three of these species were also detectable in the SSCP community profiles. Our study indicates that community SSCP profiles can be highly useful for the monitoring of bacterial diversity and community successions in a biotechnologically relevant process. PMID:10698754

  20. Role of Small Subunit in Mediating Assembly of Red-type Form I Rubisco

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Jidnyasa; Mueller-Cajar, Oliver; Tsai, Yi-Chin C.; Hartl, F. Ulrich; Hayer-Hartl, Manajit

    2015-01-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is the key enzyme involved in photosynthetic carbon fixation, converting atmospheric CO2 to organic compounds. Form I Rubisco is a cylindrical complex composed of eight large (RbcL) subunits that are capped by four small subunits (RbcS) at the top and four at the bottom. Form I Rubiscos are phylogenetically divided into green- and red-type. Some red-type enzymes have catalytically superior properties. Thus, understanding their folding and assembly is of considerable biotechnological interest. Folding of the green-type RbcL subunits in cyanobacteria is mediated by the GroEL/ES chaperonin system, and assembly to holoenzyme requires specialized chaperones such as RbcX and RAF1. Here, we show that the red-type RbcL subunits in the proteobacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides also fold with GroEL/ES. However, assembly proceeds in a chaperone-independent manner. We find that the C-terminal β-hairpin extension of red-type RbcS, which is absent in green-type RbcS, is critical for efficient assembly. The β-hairpins of four RbcS subunits form an eight-stranded β-barrel that protrudes into the central solvent channel of the RbcL core complex. The two β-barrels stabilize the complex through multiple interactions with the RbcL subunits. A chimeric green-type RbcS carrying the C-terminal β-hairpin renders the assembly of a cyanobacterial Rubisco independent of RbcX. Our results may facilitate the engineering of crop plants with improved growth properties expressing red-type Rubisco. PMID:25371207

  1. Hybrid Rubisco of tomato large subunits and tobacco small subunits is functional in tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing-Hai; Webb, James; Huang, Yi-Hong; Lin, Li; Tang, Ri-Sheng; Liu, Aimin

    2011-03-01

    Biogenesis of functional ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) in plants requires specific assembly in the chloroplast of the imported, cytosol-synthesized small subunits (SS) with the chloroplast-made large subunits (LS). Accumulating evidence indicates that chloroplasts (plastids) generally have a low tolerance for assembling foreign or modified Rubisco. To explore Rubisco engineering, we created two lines of transplastomic tobacco plants whose rbcL gene was replaced by tomato-derived rbcL: plant LLS2 with Rubisco composed of tobacco SS and Q437R LS and plant LLS4 with a hybrid Rubisco of tobacco SS and tomato LS (representing four substitutions of Y226F, A230T, S279T and Q437R from tobacco LS). Plant LLS2 exhibited similar phenotypes as the wild type. Plant LLS4 showed lower chlorophyll and Rubisco levels particularly in young emerging leaves, lower photosynthesis rates and biomass during early stages of development, but was able to reach reproductive maturity and somewhat wild type-like phenotype under ambient CO₂ condition. In vitro assays detected similar carboxylase activity and RuBP affinity in LLS2 and LLS4 plants as in wild type. Our studies demonstrated that tomato LS was sufficiently assembled with tobacco SS into functional Rubisco. The hybrid Rubisco of tomato LS and tobacco SS can drive photosynthesis that supports photoautotrophic growth and reproduction of tobacco plants under ambient CO₂ and light conditions. We discuss the effect of these residue substitutions on Rubisco activity and the possible attribution of chlorophyll deficiency to the in planta photosynthesis performance in the hybrid Rubisco plants.

  2. Molecular Evolution of the Small Subunit of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase: Nucleotide Substitution and Gene Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, R. B.; Berry-Lowe, S.; Rice, K.

    1989-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences encoding the mature portion of 31 ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (SSU) genes from 17 genera of plants, green algae and cyanobacteria were examined. Among the 465 pairwise sequence comparisons, SSU multigene family members within the same species were more similar to each other in nonsynonymous or replacement nucleotide substitutions (RNS) than they were to SSU sequences in any other organism. The concerted evolution of independent SSU gene lineages within closely related plant species suggests that homogenization of RNS positions has occurred at least once in the life of each genus. The rate of expected RNS among mature SSU sequences was calculated to be 1.25 X 10(-9)/site/yr for the first 70 million years (MY) of divergence with a significant slowing to 0.13 X 10(-9)/site/yr for the next 1,400 MY. The data suggest that mature SSU sequences do not accumulate more than 20% differences in the RNS positions without compensatory changes in other components of this enzyme system. During the first 70 MY of divergence between species, the rate of expected synonymous or silent nucleotide substitutions (SNS) is ~6.6 X 10(-9)/site/yr. This is five times the RNS rate and is similar to the silent rate observed in animals. In striking contrast, SNS and RNS do not show this correlation among SSU gene family members within a species. A mechanism involving gene conversion within the exons followed by selection for biased gene conversion products with conservation of RNS positions and divergence of SNS positions is discussed. A SSU gene tree based on corrected RNS for 31 SSU sequences is presented and agrees well with a species tree based on morphological and cytogenetic traits for the 17 genera examined. SSU gene comparisons may be useful in predicting phylogenetic relationships and in some cases divergence times of various plant, algal and cyanobacterial species. PMID:2515110

  3. Structures of the Ribosome in Intermediate States of Ratcheting

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wen; Dunkle, Jack A.; Cate, Jamie H.D.

    2009-10-21

    Protein biosynthesis on the ribosome requires repeated cycles of ratcheting, which couples rotation of the two ribosomal subunits with respect to each other, and swiveling of the head domain of the small subunit. However, the molecular basis for how the two ribosomal subunits rearrange contacts with each other during ratcheting while remaining stably associated is not known. Here, we describe x-ray crystal structures of the intact Escherichia coli ribosome, either in the apo-form (3.5 angstrom resolution) or with one (4.0 angstrom resolution) or two (4.0 angstrom resolution) anticodon stem-loop tRNA mimics bound, that reveal intermediate states of intersubunit rotation. In the structures, the interface between the small and large ribosomal subunits rearranges in discrete steps along the ratcheting pathway. Positioning of the head domain of the small subunit is controlled by interactions with the large subunit and with the tRNA bound in the peptidyl-tRNA site. The intermediates observed here provide insight into how tRNAs move into the hybrid state of binding that precedes the final steps of mRNA and tRNA translocation.

  4. Functional determinants in transit sequences: import and partial maturation by vascular plant chloroplasts of the ribulose-1,5- bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit of Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The precursor of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit and other proteins from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are efficiently transported into chloroplasts isolated from spinach and pea. Thus, similar determinants specify precursor-chloroplast interactions in the alga and vascular plants. Removal of all or part of its transit sequence was found to block import of the algal small subunit into isolated chloroplasts. Comparison of available sequences revealed a nine amino acid segment conserved in the transit sequences of all small subunit precursors. A protease in the vascular plant chloroplasts recognized this region in the Chlamydomonas precursor and produced an intermediate form of the small subunit. We propose that processing of the small subunit precursor involves at least two proteolytic events; only one of these has been evolutionarily conserved. PMID:3965471

  5. Metabolism of 18S rRNA in rat liver cells in different functional states of protein-synthesizing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Chirkov, G.P.; Druzhinina, M.K.; Todorov, I.N.

    1986-04-10

    The ratio of the absolute radioactivities of 28S and 18S RNAs in the fractions of membrane-bound and free polysomes and the fraction of free rat liver ribosomes was studied under conditions of inhibition of translation by cycloheximide, insulin, and cAMP. It was found that insulin and cAMP, in contrast to cycloheximide, do not induce selective degradation of 18S rRNA. The results are discussed from the standpoint of the possible role of the phosphorylation of protein S6 in the degradation of the 40S ribosomal subunit.

  6. The SSU Processome in Ribosome Biogenesis – Progress and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Kathleen R.; Charette, J. Michael; Baserga, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    The small subunit (SSU) processome is a 2.2 MDa ribonucleoprotein complex involved in the processing, assembly and maturation of the SSU of eukaryotic ribosomes. The identities of many of the factors involved in SSU biogenesis have been elucidated over the past 40 years. However, as our understanding increases, so do the number of questions about the nature of this complicated process. Cataloguing the components is the first step towards understanding the molecular workings of a system. This review will focus on how identifying components of ribosome biogenesis has led to the knowledge of how these factors, protein and RNA alike, associate with one another into sub-complexes, with a concentration on the small ribosomal subunit. We will also explore how this knowledge of sub-complex assembly has informed our understanding of the workings of the ribosome synthesis system as a whole. PMID:21318072

  7. Functional characterization of sequence motifs in the transit peptide of Arabidopsis small subunit of rubisco.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Wook; Lee, Sookjin; Lee, Gil-Je; Lee, Kwang Hee; Kim, Sanguk; Cheong, Gang-Won; Hwang, Inhwan

    2006-02-01

    The transit peptides of nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins are necessary and sufficient for targeting and import of proteins into chloroplasts. However, the sequence information encoded by transit peptides is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated sequence motifs in the transit peptide of the small subunit of the Rubisco complex by examining the ability of various mutant transit peptides to target green fluorescent protein reporter proteins to chloroplasts in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf protoplasts. We divided the transit peptide into eight blocks (T1 through T8), each consisting of eight or 10 amino acids, and generated mutants that had alanine (Ala) substitutions or deletions, of one or two T blocks in the transit peptide. In addition, we generated mutants that had the original sequence partially restored in single- or double-T-block Ala (A) substitution mutants. Analysis of chloroplast import of these mutants revealed several interesting observations. Single-T-block mutations did not noticeably affect targeting efficiency, except in T1 and T4 mutations. However, double-T mutants, T2A/T4A, T3A/T6A, T3A/T7A, T4A/T6A, and T4A/T7A, caused a 50% to 100% loss in targeting ability. T3A/T6A and T4A/T6A mutants produced only precursor proteins, whereas T2A/T4A and T4A/T7A mutants produced only a 37-kD protein. Detailed analyses revealed that sequence motifs ML in T1, LKSSA in T3, FP and RK in T4, CMQVW in T6, and KKFET in T7 play important roles in chloroplast targeting. In T1, the hydrophobicity of ML is important for targeting. LKSSA in T3 is functionally equivalent to CMQVW in T6 and KKFET in T7. Furthermore, subcellular fractionation revealed that Ala substitution in T1, T3, and T6 produced soluble precursors, whereas Ala substitution in T4 and T7 produced intermediates that were tightly associated with membranes. These results demonstrate that the transit peptide contains multiple motifs and that some of them act in concert or

  8. A mechanism for intergenomic integration: abundance of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small-subunit protein influences the translation of the large-subunit mRNA.

    PubMed

    Rodermel, S; Haley, J; Jiang, C Z; Tsai, C H; Bogorad, L

    1996-04-30

    Multimeric protein complexes in chloroplasts and mitochondria are generally composed of products of both nuclear and organelle genes of the cell. A central problem of eukaryotic cell biology is to identify and understand the molecular mechanisms for integrating the production and accumulation of the products of the two separate genomes. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) is localized in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic eukaryotic cells and is composed of small subunits (SS) and large subunits (LS) coded for by nuclear rbcS and chloroplast rbcL genes, respectively. Transgenic tobacco plants containing antisense rbcS DNA have reduced levels of rbcS mRNA, normal levels of rbcL mRNA, and coordinately reduced LS and SS proteins. Our previous experiments indicated that the rate of translation of rbcL mRNA might be reduced in some antisense plants; direct evidence is presented here. After a short-term pulse there is less labeled LS protein in the transgenic plants than in wild-type plants, indicating that LS accumulation is controlled in the mutants at the translational and/or posttranslational levels. Consistent with a primary restriction at translation, fewer rbcL mRNAs are associated with polysomes of normal size and more are free or are associated with only a few ribosomes in the antisense plants. Effects of the rbcS antisense mutation on mRNA and protein accumulation, as well as on the distribution of mRNAs on polysomes, appear to be minimal for other chloroplast and nuclear photosynthetic genes. Our results suggest that SS protein abundance specifically contributes to the regulation of LS protein accumulation at the level of rbcL translation initiation.

  9. Cloning and sequencing of the genes encoding the large and small subunits of the periplasmic (NiFeSe) hydrogenase of Desulfovibrio baculatus

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, N.K.; Peck, H.D. Jr.; Le Gall, J.; Przybyla, A.E.

    1987-12-01

    The genes coding for the large and small subunits of the periplasmic hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio baculatus have been cloned and sequenced. The genes are arranged in an operon with the small subunit gene preceding the large subunit gene. The small subunit gene codes for a 32 amino acid leader sequence supporting the periplasmic localization of the protein, however no ferredoxin-like or other characteristic iron-sulfur coordination sites were observed. The periplasmic hydrogenases from D. baculatus (an NiFeSe protein) and D. vulgaris (an Fe protein) exhibit no homology suggesting that they are structurally different, unrelated entities.

  10. Identical ribosomal DNA sequence data from Pfiesteria piscicida (Dinophyceae) isolates with different toxicity phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Tengs, Torstein; Bowers, Holly A; Glasgow, Howard B; Burkholder, JoAnn M; Oldach, David W

    2003-09-01

    Complete small subunit ribosomal RNA, internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2, 5.8S, and partial large subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences were generated from multiple isolates of Pfiesteria piscicida. Sequences were derived from isolates that have been shown to be ichthyotoxic as well as isolates that have no history of toxic behavior. All of the sequences generated were identical for the different cultures, and we therefore conclude that differences in toxicity seen between isolates of P. piscicida are linked to factors other than genetic strain variation detectable by ribosomal gene sequence analyses.

  11. Cryo-EM structure of the large subunit of the spinach chloroplast ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tofayel; Yin, Zhan; Bhushan, Shashi

    2016-01-01

    Protein synthesis in the chloroplast is mediated by the chloroplast ribosome (chloro-ribosome). Overall architecture of the chloro-ribosome is considerably similar to the Escherichia coli (E. coli) ribosome but certain differences are evident. The chloro-ribosome proteins are generally larger because of the presence of chloroplast-specific extensions in their N- and C-termini. The chloro-ribosome harbours six plastid-specific ribosomal proteins (PSRPs); four in the small subunit and two in the large subunit. Deletions and insertions occur throughout the rRNA sequence of the chloro-ribosome (except for the conserved peptidyl transferase center region) but the overall length of the rRNAs do not change significantly, compared to the E. coli. Although, recent advancements in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) have provided detailed high-resolution structures of ribosomes from many different sources, a high-resolution structure of the chloro-ribosome is still lacking. Here, we present a cryo-EM structure of the large subunit of the chloro-ribosome from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) at an average resolution of 3.5 Å. High-resolution map enabled us to localize and model chloro-ribosome proteins, chloroplast-specific protein extensions, two PSRPs (PSRP5 and 6) and three rRNA molecules present in the chloro-ribosome. Although comparable to E. coli, the polypeptide tunnel and the tunnel exit site show chloroplast-specific features. PMID:27762343

  12. Characterisation of Lymnaea cubensis, L. viatrix and L. neotropica n. sp., the main vectors of Fasciola hepatica in Latin America, by analysis of their ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Bargues, M D; Artigas, P; Mera Y Sierra, R L; Pointier, J P; Mas-Coma, S

    2007-10-01

    Although, in the endemic areas throughout the world, human fascioliasis presents varying patterns in its epidemiology, the species of lymnaeid snail that act as intermediate hosts and vectors are always crucial in the transmission of the causative parasites. Species in the Galba/Fossaria group of snails, such as Lymnaea cubensis, L. viatrix var. A ventricosa, L. viatrix var. B elongata and Galba truncatula, appear to be frequently involved in the transmission of Fasciola hepatica in Central and South America, although specific classification within this morphologically and anatomically confusing group is often very difficult. To explore the potential use of molecular analyses in the identification of vector snails, regions of the ribosomal DNA - the small subunit (18S) gene and internal transcribed spacers (ITS-2 and ITS-1) - and of the mitochondrial DNA - the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) - of wild-caught lymnaeid snails of L. cubensis, L. viatrix var. A ventricosa, L. viatrix var. B elongata and G. truncatula have been sequenced. The samples of the Latin American species included specimens from the respective type localities. The genetic distances observed and the results of phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that two different species exist within L. viatrix. Lymnaea neotropica n. sp. (=L. viatrix var. B elongata) is here proposed for specimens from Lima, Peru, and is differentiated from L. viatrix (=L. viatrix var. A ventricosa), L. cubensis and G. truncatula. The data collected on the 18S ribosomal-RNA gene indicate that the snails investigated may cover more than one supraspecific taxon. The ITS-2, ITS-1 and COI nucleotide sequences are clearly useful markers for the differentiation of these morpho-anatomically similar lymnaeid species. The numerous microsatellite repeats found within ITS-2 are potential tools for differentiation at population level.

  13. Structural and functional analyses of a yeast mitochondrial ribosomal protein homologous to ribosomal protein S15 of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Dang, H; Ellis, S R

    1990-01-01

    We have purified a small subunit mitochondrial ribosomal protein, MRPS28p, from the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sequence from the amino terminus of MRPS28p was used to design a degenerate oligonucleotide that was complementary to the MRPS28 gene. The MRPS28 gene was isolated and its sequence determined. The MRPS28 sequence encodes a 28 kDa protein that has a region of homology with ribosomal protein S15 of E. coli. This region spans the entire length of the E. coli protein, but as MRPS28p is larger, includes only the portion of the MRPS28p sequence from amino acids 150 to 238. Based on this homology, we predict that MRPS28p, like E. coli S15, interacts directly with small subunit rRNA and functions as an early protein in ribosome assembly. Cells carrying a disrupted chromosomal copy of MRPS28 are unable to respire and spontaneously lose portions of their mitochondrial genomes at a high frequency. These phenotypes are consistent with an essential role for MRPS28p in the assembly and/or function of the mitochondrial ribosome. Images PMID:2263452

  14. A single gene encodes two different transcripts for the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small subunit from barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed Central

    Thorbjørnsen, T; Villand, P; Kleczkowski, L A; Olsen, O A

    1996-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), a heterotetrameric enzyme composed of two small and two large subunits, catalyses the first committed step of starch synthesis in plant tissues. In an attempt to learn more about the organization and expression of the small-subunit gene of AGPase, we have studied the small-subunit transcripts as well as the structure of the gene encoding these transcripts in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bomi). Two different transcripts (bepsF1 and blps14) were identified: bepF1 was abundantly expressed in the starchy endosperm but not in leaves, whereas blps14 was isolated from leaves but was also found to be present at a moderate level in the starchy endosperm. The sequences for the two transcripts are identical over approx. 90% of the length, with differences being confined solely to their 5' ends. In blps14, the unique 5' end is 259 nt long and encodes a putative plastid transit peptide sequence. For the 178-nt 5' end of bepsF1, on the other hand, no transit peptide sequence could be recognized. A lambda clone that hybridized to the AGPase transcripts was isolated from a barley genomic library and characterized. The restriction map has suggested a complex organization of the gene, with alternative exons encoding the different 5' ends of the two transcripts followed by nine exons coding for the common part of the transcripts. The sequence of a portion of the genomic clone, covering the alternative 5'-end exons as well as upstream regions, has verified that both transcripts are encoded by the gene. The results suggest that the small-subunit gene of barley AGPase transcribes two different mRNAs by a mechanism classified as alternative splicing. PMID:8546676

  15. Structural Comparison, Substrate Specificity, and Inhibitor Binding of AGPase Small Subunit from Monocot and Dicot: Present Insight and Future Potential

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Manabendra D.; Modi, Mahendra K.

    2014-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is the first rate limiting enzyme of starch biosynthesis pathway and has been exploited as the target for greater starch yield in several plants. The structure-function analysis and substrate binding specificity of AGPase have provided enormous potential for understanding the role of specific amino acid or motifs responsible for allosteric regulation and catalytic mechanisms, which facilitate the engineering of AGPases. We report the three-dimensional structure, substrate, and inhibitor binding specificity of AGPase small subunit from different monocot and dicot crop plants. Both monocot and dicot subunits were found to exploit similar interactions with the substrate and inhibitor molecule as in the case of their closest homologue potato tuber AGPase small subunit. Comparative sequence and structural analysis followed by molecular docking and electrostatic surface potential analysis reveal that rearrangements of secondary structure elements, substrate, and inhibitor binding residues are strongly conserved and follow common folding pattern and orientation within monocot and dicot displaying a similar mode of allosteric regulation and catalytic mechanism. The results from this study along with site-directed mutagenesis complemented by molecular dynamics simulation will shed more light on increasing the starch content of crop plants to ensure the food security worldwide. PMID:25276800

  16. Structural comparison, substrate specificity, and inhibitor binding of AGPase small subunit from monocot and dicot: present insight and future potential.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Kishore; Sen, Priyabrata; Barooah, Madhumita; Choudhury, Manabendra D; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Modi, Mahendra K

    2014-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is the first rate limiting enzyme of starch biosynthesis pathway and has been exploited as the target for greater starch yield in several plants. The structure-function analysis and substrate binding specificity of AGPase have provided enormous potential for understanding the role of specific amino acid or motifs responsible for allosteric regulation and catalytic mechanisms, which facilitate the engineering of AGPases. We report the three-dimensional structure, substrate, and inhibitor binding specificity of AGPase small subunit from different monocot and dicot crop plants. Both monocot and dicot subunits were found to exploit similar interactions with the substrate and inhibitor molecule as in the case of their closest homologue potato tuber AGPase small subunit. Comparative sequence and structural analysis followed by molecular docking and electrostatic surface potential analysis reveal that rearrangements of secondary structure elements, substrate, and inhibitor binding residues are strongly conserved and follow common folding pattern and orientation within monocot and dicot displaying a similar mode of allosteric regulation and catalytic mechanism. The results from this study along with site-directed mutagenesis complemented by molecular dynamics simulation will shed more light on increasing the starch content of crop plants to ensure the food security worldwide.

  17. Detecting morphological convergence in true fungi, using 18S rRNA gene sequence data.

    PubMed

    Berbee, M L; Taylor, J W

    1992-01-01

    For the true fungi, phylogenetic relationships inferred from 18S ribosomal DNA sequence data agree with morphology when (1) the fungi exhibit diagnostic morphological characters, (2) the sequence-based phylogenetic groups are statistically supported, and (3) the ribosomal DNA evolves at roughly the same rate in the lineages being compared. 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence data and biochemical data provide a congruent definition of true fungi. Sequence data support the traditional fungal subdivisions Ascomycotina and Basidiomycotina. In conflict with morphology, some zygomycetes group with chytrid water molds rather than with other terrestrial fungi, possibly owing to unequal rates of nucleotide substitutions among zygomycete lineages. Within the ascomycetes, the taxonomic consequence of simple or reduced morphology has been a proliferation of mutually incongruent classification systems. Sequence data provide plausible resolution of relationships for some cases where reduced morphology has created confusion. For example, phylogenetic trees from rDNA indicate that those morphologically simple ascomycetes classified as yeasts are polyphyletic and that forcible spore discharge was lost convergently from three lineages of ascomycetes producing flask-like fruiting bodies.

  18. MPV17L2 is required for ribosome assembly in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Dalla Rosa, Ilaria; Durigon, Romina; Pearce, Sarah F.; Rorbach, Joanna; Hirst, Elizabeth M.A.; Vidoni, Sara; Reyes, Aurelio; Brea-Calvo, Gloria; Minczuk, Michal; Woellhaf, Michael W.; Herrmann, Johannes M.; Huynen, Martijn A.; Holt, Ian J.; Spinazzola, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    MPV17 is a mitochondrial protein of unknown function, and mutations in MPV17 are associated with mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) maintenance disorders. Here we investigated its most similar relative, MPV17L2, which is also annotated as a mitochondrial protein. Mitochondrial fractionation analyses demonstrate MPV17L2 is an integral inner membrane protein, like MPV17. However, unlike MPV17, MPV17L2 is dependent on mitochondrial DNA, as it is absent from ρ0 cells, and co-sediments on sucrose gradients with the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome and the monosome. Gene silencing of MPV17L2 results in marked decreases in the monosome and both subunits of the mitochondrial ribosome, leading to impaired protein synthesis in the mitochondria. Depletion of MPV17L2 also induces mitochondrial DNA aggregation. The DNA and ribosome phenotypes are linked, as in the absence of MPV17L2 proteins of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome are trapped in the enlarged nucleoids, in contrast to a component of the large subunit. These findings suggest MPV17L2 contributes to the biogenesis of the mitochondrial ribosome, uniting the two subunits to create the translationally competent monosome, and provide evidence that assembly of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome occurs at the nucleoid. PMID:24948607

  19. Expanding the Entamoeba Universe: New Hosts Yield Novel Ribosomal Lineages.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Alison S; Busby, Eloise J; Levy, Abigail D; Komm, Natasha; Clark, C Graham

    2016-01-01

    Removing the requirement for cell culture has led to a substantial increase in the number of lineages of Entamoeba recognized as distinct. Surveying the range of potential host species for this parasite genus has barely been started and it is clear that additional sampling of the same host in different locations often identifies additional diversity. In this study, using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, we identify four new lineages of Entamoeba, including the first report of Entamoeba from an elephant, and extend the host range of some previously described lineages. In addition, examination of microbiome data from a number of host animals suggests that substantial Entamoeba diversity remains to be uncovered.

  20. PCR-based diversity estimates of artificial and environmental 18S rRNA gene libraries.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Marianne; Lovejoy, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Environmental clone libraries constructed using small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) or other gene-specific primers have become the standard molecular approach for identifying microorganisms directly from their environment. This technique includes an initial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification step of a phylogenetically useful marker gene using universal primers. Although it is acknowledged that such primers introduce biases, there have been few studies if any to date systematically examining such bias in eukaryotic microbes. We investigated some implications of such bias by constructing clone libraries using several universal primer pairs targeting rRNA genes. Firstly, we constructed artificial libraries using a known mix of small cultured pelagic arctic algae with representatives from five major lineages and secondly we investigated environmental samples using several primer pairs. No primer pair retrieved all of the original algae in the artificial clone libraries and all showed a favorable bias toward the dinoflagellate Polarella glacialis and a bias against the prasinophyte Micromonas and a pennate diatom. Several other species were retrieved by only one primer pair tested. Despite this, sequences from nine environmental libraries were diverse and contained representatives from all major eukaryotic clades expected in marine samples. Further, libraries from the same sample grouped together using Bray-Curtis clustering, irrespective of primer pairs. We conclude that environmental PCR-based techniques are sufficient to compare samples, but the total diversity will probably always be underestimated and relative abundance estimates should be treated with caution.

  1. Testing three pipelines for 18S rDNA-based metabarcoding of soil faunal diversity.

    PubMed

    Yang, ChenXue; Ji, YingQiu; Wang, XiaoYang; Yang, ChunYang; Yu, Douglas W

    2013-01-01

    A number of basic and applied questions in ecology and environmental management require the characterization of soil and leaf litter faunal diversity. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of barcode-gene amplicons ('metabarcoding') have made it possible to survey biodiversity in a robust and efficient way. However, one obstacle to the widespread adoption of this technique is the need to choose amongst many candidates for bioinformatic processing of the raw sequencing data. We compare three candidate pipelines for the processing of 18S small subunit rDNA metabarcode data from solid substrates: (i) USEARCH/CROP, (ii) Denoiser/UCLUST, and (iii) OCTUPUS. The three pipelines produced reassuringly similar and highly correlated assessments of community composition that are dominated by taxa known to characterize the sampled environments. However, OCTUPUS appears to inflate phylogenetic diversity, because of higher sequence noise. We therefore recommend either the USEARCH/CROP or Denoiser/UCLUST pipelines, both of which can be run within the QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology) environment.

  2. The small subunit 1 of the Arabidopsis isopropylmalate isomerase is required for normal growth and development and the early stages of glucosinolate formation.

    PubMed

    Imhof, Janet; Huber, Florian; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Wiegreffe, Christoph; Lächler, Kurt; Binder, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana the evolutionary and functional relationship between Leu biosynthesis and the Met chain elongation pathway, the first part of glucosinolate formation, is well documented. Nevertheless the exact functions of some pathway components are still unclear. Isopropylmalate isomerase (IPMI), an enzyme usually involved in Leu biosynthesis, is a heterodimer consisting of a large and a small subunit. While the large protein is encoded by a single gene (isopropylmalate isomerase large subunit1), three genes encode small subunits (isopropylmalate isomerase small subunit1 to 3). We have now analyzed small subunit 1 (isopropylmalate isomerase small subunit1) employing artificial microRNA for a targeted knockdown of the encoding gene. Strong reduction of corresponding mRNA levels to less than 5% of wild-type levels resulted in a severe phenotype with stunted growth, narrow pale leaf blades with green vasculature and abnormal adaxial-abaxial patterning as well as anomalous flower morphology. Supplementation of the knockdown plants with leucine could only partially compensate for the morphological and developmental abnormalities. Detailed metabolite profiling of the knockdown plants revealed changes in the steady state levels of isopropylmalate and glucosinolates as well as their intermediates demonstrating a function of IPMI SSU1 in both leucine biosynthesis and the first cycle of Met chain elongation. Surprisingly the levels of free leucine slightly increased suggesting an imbalanced distribution of leucine within cells and/or within plant tissues.

  3. Cloning of the cDNAs for the small subunits of bovine and human DNA polymerase {delta} and chromosomal location of the human gene (POLD2)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Tan, Cheng-Keat; Downey, K.M.

    1995-09-01

    cDNAs encoding the small subunit of bovine and human DNA polymerase {delta} have been cloned and sequenced. The predicted polypeptides, 50,885 and 51,289 Daltons, respectively, are 94% identical, similar to the catalytic subunits. The high degree of conservation of the polypeptides suggests an essential function for the small subunit in the heterodimeric core enzyme. Although the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase 5 shares significant homology with those of the herpes virus family of DNA polymerases, the small subunit of mammalian DNA polymerase 6 is not homologous to the small subunit of either herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA polymerase (UL42 protein) or the Epstein-Barr virus DNA polymerase (BMRF1 protein). Searches of the protein databases failed to detect significant homology with any protein sequenced thus far. PCR analysis of DNA from a panel of human-hamster hybrid cell lines localized the gene (POLD2) for the small subunit of DNA polymerase 5 to human chromosome 7. 45 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Isolation of the catalytically competent small subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from spinach under an extremely alkaline condition.

    PubMed

    Incharoensakdi, A; Takabe, T; Takabe, T; Akazawa, T

    1986-07-16

    A method for isolating the small subunit (B) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) from spinach leaf using an alkaline buffer (pH 11.2) in combination with sucrose gradient centrifugation is described. Although the yield of isolated subunit B (ca. 20%) was comparable to that previously described (ca. 25%) using the acid precipitation method [Andrews, T.J. and Lorimer, G.H. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260: 4632-4636], the isolated subunit B in this report suffered less denaturation (ca. 30%) as estimated from kinetic analysis of its reassembly with large subunit (A) derived from Aphanothece halophytica. Studies on the kinetic properties of the reassembled enzyme molecules suggested that spinach subunit B does not influence the affinity of the enzyme for substrate CO2. The catalytic core (A8) of spinach RuBisCO could not be isolated in the native form.

  5. Phosphorylation of chloroplast ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit by an envelope-bound protein kinase in situ.

    PubMed

    Soll, J; Buchanan, B B

    1983-06-10

    A new protein kinase of the cAMP independent type was found to be bound to the outer envelope membrane of spinach chloroplasts. While stimulated by Mg2+ and inhibited by ADP, the enzyme showed no response to conventional protein substrates and was essentially independent of pH in the physiological (pH 7 to 8) range. The new protein kinase phosphorylated the mature form of the small subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and, to a lesser extent, an unidentified 24-kDa polypeptide, both of which were bound to the outer envelope membrane. The results suggest that phosphorylation of cytoplasmically synthesized protein constituents of chloroplasts is involved in their transport through the chloroplast envelope membrane barrier.

  6. Purification and characterization of large and small subunits of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase expressed separately in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Smrcka, A V; Ramage, R T; Bohnert, H J; Jensen, R G

    1991-04-01

    Procedures were developed for 95 and 80% purification to homogeneity of the large subunit (L) and small subunit (S) of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (L8S8) from Synechococcus PCC 6301, each expressed separately in Escherichia coli. Purified L had a low specific activity in the absence of S (0.075 mumol CO2 fixed/mg holoenzyme/min). Following elution on a Pharmacia Superose 6 or 12 gel filtration column, 50% of the purified L appeared as the octamer, L8. The rest was in equilibrium with lower polymeric species and/or was retained on the column. Large and small subunits assembled rapidly into the L8S8 holoenzyme that had high specific activities, 6.2 and 3.1 mumol CO2 fixed/mg holoenzyme/min for the homologous Synechococcus L8S8 and the hybrid Synechococcus L-pea S L8S8, respectively. The CO2 dependence for carbamylation of L8 was compared to that of L8S8 as a function of pH and CO2 concentration. The pH dependence indicated an apparent pKa for L8 of 8.28 and for L8S8 of 8.15, suggesting that S may influence the pKa of the lysine involved in carbamylation. The Kact for CO2 at pH 8.4 were similar for L8 (13.5 microM) and L8S8 (15.5 microM). L8 bound 2-[14C]carboxy-D-arabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate (CABP) tightly so that most of the bound [14C]CABP survived gel filtration. A major amount of the L8-[14C]CABP complex appeared as larger polymeric aggregates when eluted in the presence of E. coli protein.

  7. Group-specific small-subunit rRNA hybridization probes to characterize filamentous foaming in activated sludge systems.

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes, F L; Ritter, W; Raskin, L

    1997-01-01

    Foaming in activated sludge systems is characterized by the formation of a thick, chocolate brown-colored scum that floats on the surface of aeration basins and secondary clarifiers. These viscous foams have been associated with the presence of filamentous mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes. To aid in evaluating the microbial representation in foam, we developed and characterized group-, genus-, and species-specific oligonucleotide probes targeting the small subunit rRNA of the Mycobacterium complex, Gordona spp., and Gordona (Nocardia) amarae, respectively. The use of a universal base analog, 5-nitroindole, in oligonucleotide probe design was evaluated by comparing the characteristics of two different versions of the Mycobacterium complex probe. The temperature of dissociation of each probe was determined. Probe specificity studies with a diverse collection of 67 target and nontarget rRNAs demonstrated the specificity of the probes to the target groups. Whole-cell hybridizations with fluorescein- and rhodamine-labeled probes were performed with pure cultures of various members of the Mycobacterium complex as well as with environmental samples from a full-scale activated sludge plant which experienced foaming. Quantitative membrane hybridizations with activated sludge and anaerobic digester foam showed that 15.0 to 18.3% of the total small-subunit rRNAs could be attributed to members of the Mycobacterium complex, of which a vast majority consisted of Gordona rRNA. Several G. amarae strains made up only a very small percentage of the Gordona strains present. We demonstrated that group-specific rRNA probes are useful tools for the in situ monitoring and identification of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge systems. PMID:9055425

  8. Comprehensive Analysis of Phosphorylated Proteins of E. coli Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Soung, George Y.; Miller, Jennifer L.; Koc, Hasan; Koc, Emine C.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorylation of bacterial ribosomal proteins has been known for decades; however, there is still very limited information available on specific locations of the phosphorylation sites in ribosomal proteins and the role they might play in protein synthesis. In this study, we have mapped the specific phosphorylation sites in twenty-four E. coli ribosomal proteins by tandem mass spectrometry. Specific detection of phosphorylation was achieved by either phosphorylation specific visualization techniques, ProQ staining and antibodies for phospho-Ser, Thr, and Tyr, or by mass spectrometry equipped with a capability to detect addition and the loss of the phosphate moiety. Enrichment by immobilized metal affinity and/or strong cation exchange chromatography was used to improve the success of detection of the low abundance phosphopeptides. We found the small subunit (30S) proteins S3, S4, S5, S7, S11, S12, S13, S18, and S21 and the large subunit (50S) proteins L1, L2, L3, L5, L6, L7/L12, L13, L14, L16, L18, L19, L21, L22, L28, L31 to be phosphorylated at one or more residues. Potential roles for each specific site in ribosome function were deduced through careful evaluation of the given site of the phosphorylation in 3D-crystal structure models of ribosomes and the previous mutational studies of E. coli ribosomal proteins. PMID:19469554

  9. Reduced ribosomes of the apicoplast and mitochondrion of Plasmodium spp. and predicted interactions with antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankit; Shah, Priyanka; Haider, Afreen; Gupta, Kirti; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Ralph, Stuart A; Habib, Saman

    2014-05-01

    Apicomplexan protists such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma contain a mitochondrion and a relic plastid (apicoplast) that are sites of protein translation. Although there is emerging interest in the partitioning and function of translation factors that participate in apicoplast and mitochondrial peptide synthesis, the composition of organellar ribosomes remains to be elucidated. We carried out an analysis of the complement of core ribosomal protein subunits that are encoded by either the parasite organellar or nuclear genomes, accompanied by a survey of ribosome assembly factors for the apicoplast and mitochondrion. A cross-species comparison with other apicomplexan, algal and diatom species revealed compositional differences in apicomplexan organelle ribosomes and identified considerable reduction and divergence with ribosomes of bacteria or characterized organelle ribosomes from other organisms. We assembled structural models of sections of Plasmodium falciparum organellar ribosomes and predicted interactions with translation inhibitory antibiotics. Differences in predicted drug-ribosome interactions with some of the modelled structures suggested specificity of inhibition between the apicoplast and mitochondrion. Our results indicate that Plasmodium and Toxoplasma organellar ribosomes have a unique composition, resulting from the loss of several large and small subunit proteins accompanied by significant sequence and size divergences in parasite orthologues of ribosomal proteins.

  10. Reduced ribosomes of the apicoplast and mitochondrion of Plasmodium spp. and predicted interactions with antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ankit; Shah, Priyanka; Haider, Afreen; Gupta, Kirti; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Ralph, Stuart A.; Habib, Saman

    2014-01-01

    Apicomplexan protists such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma contain a mitochondrion and a relic plastid (apicoplast) that are sites of protein translation. Although there is emerging interest in the partitioning and function of translation factors that participate in apicoplast and mitochondrial peptide synthesis, the composition of organellar ribosomes remains to be elucidated. We carried out an analysis of the complement of core ribosomal protein subunits that are encoded by either the parasite organellar or nuclear genomes, accompanied by a survey of ribosome assembly factors for the apicoplast and mitochondrion. A cross-species comparison with other apicomplexan, algal and diatom species revealed compositional differences in apicomplexan organelle ribosomes and identified considerable reduction and divergence with ribosomes of bacteria or characterized organelle ribosomes from other organisms. We assembled structural models of sections of Plasmodium falciparum organellar ribosomes and predicted interactions with translation inhibitory antibiotics. Differences in predicted drug–ribosome interactions with some of the modelled structures suggested specificity of inhibition between the apicoplast and mitochondrion. Our results indicate that Plasmodium and Toxoplasma organellar ribosomes have a unique composition, resulting from the loss of several large and small subunit proteins accompanied by significant sequence and size divergences in parasite orthologues of ribosomal proteins. PMID:24850912

  11. Gene cloning of the 18S rRNA of an ancient viable moss from the permafrost of northeastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsic, Damien; Hoover, Richard B.; Gilichinsky, David A.; Ng, Joseph D.

    1999-12-01

    A moss plant dating as much as 40,000 years old was collected from the permafrost of the Kolyma Lowlands of Northeastern Siberia. The plant tissue was revived and cultured for the extraction of its genomic DNA. Using the polymerase chain reaction technique, the 18S ribosomal RNA gene was cloned and its sequence studied. Comparative sequence analysis of the cloned ribosomal DNA to other known 18S RNA showed very high sequence identity and was revealed to be closest to the moss specie, Aulacomnium turgidum. The results of this study also show the ability of biological organisms to rest dormant in deep frozen environments where they can be revived and cultured under favorable conditions. This is significant in the notion that celestial icy bodies can be media to preserve biological function and genetic material during long term storage or transport.

  12. E2F1 promote the aggressiveness of human colorectal cancer by activating the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zejun; Gong, Chaoju; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Xiaomin; Mei, Lingming; Song, Mintao; Qiu, Lanlan; Luo, Shuchai; Zhu, Zhihua; Zhang, Ronghui; Gu, Hongqian; Chen, Xiang

    2015-08-21

    As the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit, the high expression of ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2 (RRM2) induces cancer and contributes to tumor growth and invasion. In several colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, we found that the expression levels of RRM2 were closely related to the transcription factor E2F1. Mechanistic studies were conducted to determine the molecular basis. Ectopic overexpression of E2F1 promoted RRM2 transactivation while knockdown of E2F1 reduced the levels of RRM2 mRNA and protein. To further investigate the roles of RRM2 which was activated by E2F1 in CRC, CCK-8 assay and EdU incorporation assay were performed. Overexpression of E2F1 promoted cell proliferation in CRC cells, which was blocked by RRM2 knockdown attenuation. In the migration and invasion tests, overexpression of E2F1 enhanced the migration and invasion of CRC cells which was abrogated by silencing RRM2. Besides, overexpression of RRM2 reversed the effects of E2F1 knockdown partially in CRC cells. Examination of clinical CRC specimens demonstrated that both RRM2 and E2F1 were elevated in most cancer tissues compared to the paired normal tissues. Further analysis showed that the protein expression levels of E2F1 and RRM2 were parallel with each other and positively correlated with lymph node metastasis (LNM), TNM stage and distant metastasis. Consistently, the patients with low E2F1 and RRM2 levels have a better prognosis than those with high levels. Therefore, we suggest that E2F1 can promote CRC proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis by regulating RRM2 transactivation. Understanding the role of E2F1 in activating RRM2 transcription will help to explain the relationship between E2F1 and RRM2 in CRC and provide a novel predictive marker for diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. - Highlights: • E2F1 promotes RRM2 transactivation in CRC cells. • E2F1 promotes the proliferation of CRC cells by activating RRM2. • E2F1 promotes the migration and

  13. Differential accumulation of ribonucleotide reductase subunits in clam oocytes: the large subunit is stored as a polypeptide, the small subunit as untranslated mRNA

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Within minutes of fertilization of clam oocytes, translation of a set of maternal mRNAs is activated. One of the most abundant of these stored mRNAs encodes the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (Standart, N. M., S. J. Bray, E. L. George, T. Hunt, and J. V. Ruderman, 1985, J. Cell Biol., 100:1968-1976). Unfertilized oocytes do not contain any ribonucleotide reductase activity; such activity begins to appear shortly after fertilization. In virtually all organisms, this enzyme is composed of two dissimilar subunits with molecular masses of approximately 44 and 88 kD, both of which are required for activity. This paper reports the identification of the large subunit of clam ribonucleotide reductase isolated by dATP-Sepharose chromatography as a relatively abundant 86-kD polypeptide which is already present in oocytes, and whose level remains constant during early development. The enzyme activity of this large subunit was established in reconstitution assays using the small subunit isolated from embryos by virtue of its binding to the anti-tubulin antibody YL 1/2. Thus the two components of clam ribonucleotide reductase are differentially stored in the oocyte: the small subunit in the form of untranslated mRNA and the large subunit as protein. When fertilization triggers the activation of translation of the maternal mRNA, the newly synthesized small subunit combines with the preformed large subunit to generate active ribonucleotide reductase. PMID:3536960

  14. Choreography of molecular movements during ribosome progression along mRNA.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, Riccardo; Sharma, Heena; Caliskan, Neva; Cunha, Carlos E; Peske, Frank; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V

    2016-04-01

    During translation elongation, ribosome translocation along an mRNA entails rotations of the ribosomal subunits, swiveling motions of the small subunit (SSU) head and stepwise movements of the tRNAs together with the mRNA. Here, we reconstructed the choreography of the collective motions of the Escherichia coli ribosome during translocation promoted by elongation factor EF-G, by recording the fluorescence signatures of nine different reporters placed on both ribosomal subunits, tRNA and mRNA. We captured an early forward swiveling of the SSU head taking place while the SSU body rotates in the opposite, clockwise direction. Backward swiveling of the SSU head starts upon tRNA translocation and continues until the post-translocation state is reached. This work places structures of translocation intermediates along a time axis and unravels principles of the motions of macromolecular machines.

  15. The rubisco small subunit is involved in tobamovirus movement and Tm-2²-mediated extreme resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinping; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Haili; Jia, Qi; Hong, Yiguo; Liu, Yule

    2013-01-01

    The multifunctional movement protein (MP) of Tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV) is involved in viral cell-to-cell movement, symptom development, and resistance gene recognition. However, it remains to be elucidated how ToMV MP plays such diverse roles in plants. Here, we show that ToMV MP interacts with the Rubisco small subunit (RbCS) of Nicotiana benthamiana in vitro and in vivo. In susceptible N. benthamiana plants, silencing of NbRbCS enabled ToMV to induce necrosis in inoculated leaves, thus enhancing virus local infectivity. However, the development of systemic viral symptoms was delayed. In transgenic N. benthamiana plants harboring Tobacco mosaic virus resistance-2² (Tm-2²), which mediates extreme resistance to ToMV, silencing of NbRbCS compromised Tm-2²-dependent resistance. ToMV was able to establish efficient local infection but was not able to move systemically. These findings suggest that NbRbCS plays a vital role in tobamovirus movement and plant antiviral defenses.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships between Vorticella convallaria and other species inferred from small subunit rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Itabashi, Takeshi; Mikami, Kazuyuki; Fang, Jie; Asai, Hiroshi

    2002-08-01

    Vorticellid ciliates generally dwell in freshwater. In nature, the species have up until now been identified by comparison with previous descriptions. It is difficult to identify between species of the genus Vorticella, because the morphological markers of vorticellid ciliates described in reports are limited and variable. Unfortunately, culturing them has only succeeded with certain species such as Vorticella convallaria, but many others have been impossible to culture. To find out whether the sequence of a small subunit rRNA gene was an appropriate marker to identify vorticellid ciliates, the gene was aligned and compared. Finding a new convenient method will contribute to research on vorticellid ciliates. In strains of V. convallaria, classified morphologically, some varieties of the SSrRNA gene sequences were recognized, but there were large variations within the same species. According to the phylogenetic tree, these strains are closely related. However, the difference was not as big as between Vorticella and Carchesium. In addition, Carchesium constructed a distinct clade from the genus Vorticella and Epistylis. These results show the possibility that the SSrRNA gene is one of the important markers to identify species of Vorticella. This study is first to approach and clarify the complicated taxa in the genus Vorticella.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Small-Subunit rRNA Genes in Mixed Microbial Populations via 5′-Nuclease Assays

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Marcelino T.; Taylor, Lance T.; DeLong, Edward F.

    2000-01-01

    Few techniques are currently available for quantifying specific prokaryotic taxa in environmental samples. Quantification of specific genotypes has relied mainly on oligonucleotide hybridization to extracted rRNA or intact rRNA in whole cells. However, low abundance and cellular rRNA content limit the application of these techniques in aquatic environments. In this study, we applied a newly developed quantitative PCR assay (5′-nuclease assay, also known as TaqMan) to quantify specific small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes (rDNAs) from uncultivated planktonic prokaryotes in Monterey Bay. Primer and probe combinations for quantification of SSU rDNAs at the domain and group levels were developed and tested for specificity and quantitative reliability. We examined the spatial and temporal variations of SSU rDNAs from Synechococcus plus Prochlorococcus and marine Archaea and compared the results of the quantitative PCR assays to those obtained by alternative methods. The 5′-nuclease assays reliably quantified rDNAs over at least 4 orders of magnitude and accurately measured the proportions of genes in artificial mixtures. The spatial and temporal distributions of planktonic microbial groups measured by the 5′-nuclease assays were similar to the distributions estimated by quantitative oligonucleotide probe hybridization, whole-cell hybridization assays, and flow cytometry. PMID:11055900

  18. Rfc5, a small subunit of replication factor C complex, couples DNA replication and mitosis in budding yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, K; Shimomura, T; Hashimoto, K; Araki, H; Sugino, A; Matsumoto, K

    1996-01-01

    The inhibition of DNA synthesis prevents mitotic entry through the action of the S phase checkpoint. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an essential protein kinase, Spk1/Mec2/Rad53/Sad1, controls the coupling of S phase to mitosis. In an attempt to identify genes that genetically interact with Spk1, we have isolated a temperature-sensitive mutation, rfc5-1, that can be suppressed by overexpression of SPK1. The RFC5 gene encodes a small subunit of replication factor C complex. At the restrictive temperature, rfc5-1 mutant cells entered mitosis with unevenly separated or fragmented chromosomes, resulting in loss of viability. Thus, the rfc5 mutation defective for DNA replication is also impaired in the S phase checkpoint. Overexpression of POL30, which encodes the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, suppressed the replication defect of the rfc5 mutant but not its checkpoint defect. Taken together, these results suggested that replication factor C has a direct role in sensing the state of DNA replication and transmitting the signal to the checkpoint machinery. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8692942

  19. A molecular phylogeny of the marine red algae (Rhodophyta) based on the nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Ragan, M A; Bird, C J; Rice, E L; Gutell, R R; Murphy, C A; Singh, R K

    1994-01-01

    A phylogeny of marine Rhodophyta has been inferred by a number of methods from nucleotide sequences of nuclear genes encoding small subunit rRNA from 39 species in 15 orders. Sequence divergences are relatively large, especially among bangiophytes and even among congeners in this group. Subclass Bangiophycidae appears polyphyletic, encompassing at least three lineages, with Porphyridiales distributed between two of these. Subclass Florideophycidae is monophyletic, with Hildenbrandiales, Corallinales, Ahnfeltiales, and a close association of Nemaliales, Acrochaetiales, and Palmariales forming the four deepest branches. Cermiales may represent a convergence of vegetative and reproductive morphologies, as family Ceramiaceae is at best weakly related to the rest of the order, and one of its members appears to be allied to Gelidiales. Except for Gigartinales, for which more data are required, the other florideophyte orders appear distinct and taxonomically justified. A good correlation was observed with taxonomy based on pit-plug ultrastructure. Tests under maximum-likelihood and parsimony of alternative phylogenies based on structure and chemistry refuted suggestions that Acrochaetiales is the most primitive florideophyte order and that Gelidiales and Hildenbrandiales are sister groups. PMID:8041780

  20. Histone deacetylase 6 associates with ribosomes and regulates de novo protein translation during arsenite stress.

    PubMed

    Kappeler, Kyle V; Zhang, Jack; Dinh, Thai Nho; Strom, Joshua G; Chen, Qin M

    2012-05-01

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is known as a cytoplasmic enzyme that regulates cell migration, cell adhesion, and degradation of misfolded proteins by deacetylating substrates such as α-tubulin and Hsp90. When HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to 1-200μM sodium arsenite, we observed perinuclear localization of HDAC6 within 30 min. Although the overall level of HDAC6 protein did not change, sodium arsenite caused an increase of HDAC6 in ribosomal fractions. Separation of ribosomal subunits versus intact ribosomes or polysomes indicated that HDAC6 was mainly detected in 40/43S fractions containing the small ribosomal subunit in untreated cells but was associated with 40/43S and 60/80S ribosomal fractions in arsenite-treated cells. Immunocytochemistry studies revealed that arsenite caused colocalization of HDAC6 with the ribosomal large and small subunit protein L36a and S6. Both L36a and S6 were detected in the immunocomplex of HDAC6 isolated from arsenite-treated cells. The observed physical interaction of HDAC6 with ribosomes pointed to a role of HDAC6 in stress-induced protein translation. Among arsenite stress-induced proteins, de novo Nrf2 protein translation was inhibited by Tubastatin A. These data demonstrate that HDAC6 was recruited to ribosomes, physically interacted with ribosomal proteins, and regulated de novo protein translation in keratinocytes responding to arsenite stress.

  1. The ATPase hCINAP regulates 18S rRNA processing and is essential for embryogenesis and tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Dongmei; Zhang, Jinfang; Li, Tingting; Hang, Runlai; Liu, Yong; Tian, Yonglu; Huang, Dadu; Qu, Linglong; Cao, Xiaofeng; Ji, Jiafu; Zheng, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunctions in ribosome biogenesis cause developmental defects and increased cancer susceptibility; however, the connection between ribosome assembly and tumorigenesis remains unestablished. Here we show that hCINAP (also named AK6) is required for human 18S rRNA processing and 40S subunit assembly. Homozygous CINAP−/− mice show embryonic lethality. The heterozygotes are viable and show defects in 18S rRNA processing, whereas no delayed cell growth is observed. However, during rapid growth, CINAP haploinsufficiency impairs protein synthesis. Consistently, hCINAP depletion in fast-growing cancer cells inhibits ribosome assembly and abolishes tumorigenesis. These data demonstrate that hCINAP reduction is a specific rate-limiting controller during rapid growth. Notably, hCINAP is highly expressed in cancers and correlated with a worse prognosis. Genome-wide polysome profiling shows that hCINAP selectively modulates cancer-associated translatome to promote malignancy. Our results connect the role of hCINAP in ribosome assembly with tumorigenesis. Modulation of hCINAP expression may be a promising target for cancer therapy. PMID:27477389

  2. Functional hybrid rubisco enzymes with plant small subunits and algal large subunits: engineered rbcS cDNA for expression in chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Genkov, Todor; Meyer, Moritz; Griffiths, Howard; Spreitzer, Robert J

    2010-06-25

    There has been much interest in the chloroplast-encoded large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) as a target for engineering an increase in net CO(2) fixation in photosynthesis. Improvements in the enzyme would lead to an increase in the production of food, fiber, and renewable energy. Although the large subunit contains the active site, a family of rbcS nuclear genes encodes the Rubisco small subunits, which can also influence the carboxylation catalytic efficiency and CO(2)/O(2) specificity of the enzyme. To further define the role of the small subunit in Rubisco function, small subunits from spinach, Arabidopsis, and sunflower were assembled with algal large subunits by transformation of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant that lacks the rbcS gene family. Foreign rbcS cDNAs were successfully expressed in Chlamydomonas by fusing them to a Chlamydomonas rbcS transit peptide sequence engineered to contain rbcS introns. Although plant Rubisco generally has greater CO(2)/O(2) specificity but a lower carboxylation V(max) than Chlamydomonas Rubisco, the hybrid enzymes have 3-11% increases in CO(2)/O(2) specificity and retain near normal V(max) values. Thus, small subunits may make a significant contribution to the overall catalytic performance of Rubisco. Despite having normal amounts of catalytically proficient Rubisco, the hybrid mutant strains display reduced levels of photosynthetic growth and lack chloroplast pyrenoids. It appears that small subunits contain the structural elements responsible for targeting Rubisco to the algal pyrenoid, which is the site where CO(2) is concentrated for optimal photosynthesis.

  3. Structure of a human pre-40S particle points to a role for RACK1 in the final steps of 18S rRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Larburu, Natacha; Montellese, Christian; O'Donohue, Marie-Françoise; Kutay, Ulrike; Gleizes, Pierre-Emmanuel; Plisson-Chastang, Célia

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes is a complex and tightly regulated process that has been mostly characterized in yeast. The discovery of a growing number of diseases linked to defects in ribosome biogenesis calls for a deeper understanding of these mechanisms and of the specificities of human ribosome maturation. We present the 19 Å resolution cryo-EM reconstruction of a cytoplasmic precursor to the human small ribosomal subunit, purified by using the tagged ribosome biogenesis factor LTV1 as bait. Compared to yeast pre-40S particles, this first three-dimensional structure of a human 40S subunit precursor shows noticeable differences with respect to the position of ribosome biogenesis factors and uncovers the early deposition of the ribosomal protein RACK1 during subunit maturation. Consistently, RACK1 is required for efficient processing of the 18S rRNA 3′-end, which might be related to its role in translation initiation. This first structural analysis of a human pre-ribosomal particle sets the grounds for high-resolution studies of conformational transitions accompanying ribosomal subunit maturation. PMID:27530427

  4. Gradual processing of the ITS1 from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm during synthesis of the human 18S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Preti, Milena; O'Donohue, Marie-Françoise; Montel-Lehry, Nathalie; Bortolin-Cavaillé, Marie-Line; Choesmel, Valérie; Gleizes, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2013-04-01

    Defects in ribosome biogenesis trigger stress response pathways, which perturb cell proliferation and differentiation in several genetic diseases. In Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a congenital erythroblastopenia, mutations in ribosomal protein genes often interfere with the processing of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), the mechanism of which remains elusive in human cells. Using loss-of-function experiments and extensive RNA analysis, we have defined the precise position of the endonucleolytic cleavage E in the ITS1, which generates the 18S-E intermediate, the last precursor to the 18S rRNA. Unexpectedly, this cleavage is followed by 3'-5' exonucleolytic trimming of the 18S-E precursor during nuclear export of the pre-40S particle, which sets a new mechanism for 18S rRNA formation clearly different from that established in yeast. In addition, cleavage at site E is also followed by 5'-3' exonucleolytic trimming of the ITS1 by exonuclease XRN2. Perturbation of this step on knockdown of the large subunit ribosomal protein RPL26, which was recently associated to DBA, reveals the putative role of a highly conserved cis-acting sequence in ITS1 processing. These data cast new light on the original mechanism of ITS1 elimination in human cells and provide a mechanistic framework to further study the interplay of DBA-linked ribosomal proteins in this process.

  5. Molecular microbial diversity of an anaerobic digestor as determined by small-subunit rDNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Godon, J J; Zumstein, E; Dabert, P; Habouzit, F; Moletta, R

    1997-07-01

    The bacterial community structure of a fluidized-bed reactor fed by vinasses (wine distillation waste) was analyzed. After PCR amplification, four small-subunit (SSU) rDNA clone libraries of Bacteria, Archaea, Procarya, and Eucarya populations were established. The community structure was determined by operational taxonomic unit (OTU) phylogenetic analyses of 579 partial rDNA sequences (about 500 bp long). A total of 146 OTUs were found, comprising 133, 6, and 7 from the Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya domains, respectively. A total of 117 bacterial OTU were affiliated with major phyla: low-G+C gram-positive bacteria, Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides, Proteobacteria, high-G+C gram-positive bacteria, and Spirochaetes, where the clone distribution was 34, 26, 17, 6, and 4%, respectively. The other 16 bacterial OTUs represent 13% of the clones. They were either affiliated with narrow phyla such as Planctomyces-Chlamydia, green nonsulfur bacteria, or Synergistes, or deeply branched on the phylogenetic tree. A large number of bacterial OTUs are not closely related to any other hitherto determined sequences. The most frequent bacterial OTUs represents less than 5% of the total bacterial SSU rDNA sequences. However, the 20 more frequent bacterial OTUs describe at least 50% of these sequences. Three of the six Archaea OTUs correspond to 95% of the Archaea population and are very similar to already known methanogenic species: Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanosarcina frisius, and Methanobacterium formicicum. In contrast, the three other Archaea OTUs are unusual and are related to thermophilic microorganisms such as Crenarchaea or Thermoplasma spp. Five percent of the sequences analyzed were chimeras and were removed from the analysis.

  6. Phylogeny of gregarines (Apicomplexa) as inferred from small-subunit rDNA and beta-tubulin.

    PubMed

    Leander, Brian S; Clopton, Richard E; Keeling, Patrick J

    2003-01-01

    Gregarines are thought to be deep-branching apicomplexans. Accordingly, a robust inference of gregarine phylogeny is crucial to any interpretation of apicomplexan evolution, but molecular sequences from gregarines are restricted to a small number of small-subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences from derived taxa. This work examines the usefulness of SSU rDNA and beta-tubulin sequences for inferring gregarine phylogeny. SSU rRNA genes from Lecudina (Mingazzini) sp., Monocystis agilis Stein, Leidyana migrator Clopton and Gregarina polymorpha Dufour, as well as the beta-tubulin gene from Leidyana migrator, were sequenced. The results of phylogenetic analyses of alveolate taxa using both genes were consistent with an early origin of gregarines and the putative 'sister' relationship between gregarines and Cryptosporidium, but neither phylogeny was strongly supported. In addition, two SSU rDNA sequences from unidentified marine eukaryotes were found to branch among the gregarines: one was a sequence derived from the haemolymph parasite of the giant clam, Tridacna crocea, and the other was a sequence misattributed to the foraminiferan Ammonium beccarii. In all of our analyses, the SSU rDNA sequence from Colpodella sp. clustered weakly with the apicomplexans, which is consistent with ultrastructural data. Altogether, the exact position of gregarines with respect to Cryptosporidium and other apicomplexans remains to be confirmed, but the congruence of SSU rDNA and beta-tubulin trees with one another and with morphological data does suggest that further sampling of molecular data will eventually put gregarine diversity into a phylogenetic context.

  7. Molecular microbial diversity of an anaerobic digestor as determined by small-subunit rDNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Godon, J J; Zumstein, E; Dabert, P; Habouzit, F; Moletta, R

    1997-01-01

    The bacterial community structure of a fluidized-bed reactor fed by vinasses (wine distillation waste) was analyzed. After PCR amplification, four small-subunit (SSU) rDNA clone libraries of Bacteria, Archaea, Procarya, and Eucarya populations were established. The community structure was determined by operational taxonomic unit (OTU) phylogenetic analyses of 579 partial rDNA sequences (about 500 bp long). A total of 146 OTUs were found, comprising 133, 6, and 7 from the Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya domains, respectively. A total of 117 bacterial OTU were affiliated with major phyla: low-G+C gram-positive bacteria, Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides, Proteobacteria, high-G+C gram-positive bacteria, and Spirochaetes, where the clone distribution was 34, 26, 17, 6, and 4%, respectively. The other 16 bacterial OTUs represent 13% of the clones. They were either affiliated with narrow phyla such as Planctomyces-Chlamydia, green nonsulfur bacteria, or Synergistes, or deeply branched on the phylogenetic tree. A large number of bacterial OTUs are not closely related to any other hitherto determined sequences. The most frequent bacterial OTUs represents less than 5% of the total bacterial SSU rDNA sequences. However, the 20 more frequent bacterial OTUs describe at least 50% of these sequences. Three of the six Archaea OTUs correspond to 95% of the Archaea population and are very similar to already known methanogenic species: Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanosarcina frisius, and Methanobacterium formicicum. In contrast, the three other Archaea OTUs are unusual and are related to thermophilic microorganisms such as Crenarchaea or Thermoplasma spp. Five percent of the sequences analyzed were chimeras and were removed from the analysis. PMID:9212428

  8. [Study of the surface of Escherichia coli ribosomes and ribosomal particles by the tritium bombardment method].

    PubMed

    Iusupov, M M; Spirin, A S

    1986-11-01

    A new technique of atomic tritium bombardment has been used to study the surface topography of Escherichia coli ribosomes and ribosomal subunits. The technique provides for the labeling of proteins exposed on the surface of ribosomal particles, the extent of protein labeling being proportional to the degree of exposure. The following proteins were considerably tritiated in the 70S ribosomes: S1, S4, S7, S9 and/or S11, S12 and/or L20, S13, S18, S20, S21, L1, L5, L6, L7/L12, L10, L11, L16, L17, L24, L26 and L27. A conclusion is drawn that these proteins are exposed on the ribosome surface to an essentially greater extent than the others. Dissociation of 70S ribosomes into the ribosomal subunits by decreasing Mg2+ concentration does not lead to the exposure of additional ribosomal proteins. This implies that there are no proteins on the contacting surfaces of the subunits. However, if a mixture of subunits has been subjected to centrifugation in a low Mg2+ concentration at high concentrations of a monovalent cation, proteins S3, S5, S7, S14, S18 and L16 are more exposed on the surface of the isolated 30S and 50S subunits than in the subunit mixture or in the 70S ribosomes. The exposure of additional proteins is explained by distortion of the native quaternary structure of ribosomal subunits as a result of the separation procedure. Reassociation of isolated subunits at high Mg2+ concentration results in shielding of proteins S3, S5, S7 and S18 and can be explained by reconstitution of the intact 30S subunit structure.

  9. RIBOSOME-MEMBRANE INTERACTION

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, M. R.; Sabatini, David D.; Blobel, Günter

    1973-01-01

    In a medium of high ionic strength, rat liver rough microsomes can be nondestructively disassembled into ribosomes and stripped membranes if nascent polypeptides are discharged from the bound ribosomes by reaction with puromycin. At 750 mM KCl, 5 mM MgCl2, 50 mM Tris·HCl, pH 7 5, up to 85% of all bound ribosomes are released from the membranes after incubation at room temperature with 1 mM puromycin. The ribosomes are released as subunits which are active in peptide synthesis if programmed with polyuridylic acid. The ribosome-denuded, or stripped, rough microsomes (RM) can be recovered as intact, essentially unaltered membranous vesicles Judging from the incorporation of [3H]puromycin into hot acid-insoluble material and from the release of [3H]leucine-labeled nascent polypeptide chains from bound ribosomes, puromycin coupling occurs almost as well at low (25–100 mM) as at high (500–1000 mM) KCl concentrations. Since puromycin-dependent ribosome release only occurs at high ionic strength, it appears that ribosomes are bound to membranes via two types of interactions: a direct one between the membrane and the large ribosomal subunit (labile at high KCl concentration) and an indirect one in which the nascent chain anchors the ribosome to the membrane (puromycin labile). The nascent chains of ribosomes specifically released by puromycin remain tightly associated with the stripped membranes. Some membrane-bound ribosomes (up to 40%) can be nondestructively released in high ionic strength media without puromycin; these appear to consist of a mixture of inactive ribosomes and ribosomes containing relatively short nascent chains. A fraction (∼15%) of the bound ribosomes can only be released from membranes by exposure of RM to ionic conditions which cause extensive unfolding of ribosomal subunits, the nature and significance of these ribosomes is not clear. PMID:4682341

  10. Ribosomal protein uS19 mutants reveal its role in coordinating ribosome structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Alicia M; Musalgaonkar, Sharmishtha; Moomau, Christine A; Gulay, Suna P; Mirvis, Mary; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies identified allosteric information pathways connecting functional centers in the large ribosomal subunit to the decoding center in the small subunit through the B1a and B1b/c intersubunit bridges in yeast. In prokaryotes a single SSU protein, uS13, partners with H38 (the A-site finger) and uL5 to form the B1a and B1b/c bridges respectively. In eukaryotes, the SSU component was split into 2 separate proteins during the course of evolution. One, also known as uS13, participates in B1b/c bridge with uL5 in eukaryotes. The other, called uS19 is the SSU partner in the B1a bridge with H38. Here, polyalanine mutants of uS19 involved in the uS19/uS13 and the uS19/H38 interfaces were used to elucidate the important amino acid residues involved in these intersubunit communication pathways. Two key clusters of amino acids were identified: one located at the junction between uS19 and uS13, and a second that appears to interact with the distal tip of H38. Biochemical analyses reveal that these mutations shift the ribosomal rotational equilibrium toward the unrotated state, increasing ribosomal affinity for tRNAs in the P-site and for ternary complex in the A-site, and inhibit binding of the translocase, eEF2. These defects in turn affect specific aspects of translational fidelity. These findings suggest that uS19 plays a critical role as a conduit of information exchange between the large and small ribosomal subunits directly through the B1a, and indirectly through the B1b/c bridges. PMID:26824029

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of Spiruromorpha from birds of prey based on 18S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Honisch, M; Krone, O

    2008-06-01

    A total of 153 free-ranging birds from Germany belonging to 15 species were examined for nematodes in their digestive and respiratory tracts. In 51.7% of the birds 14 different nematode species were found: the intestinal ascarids Porrocaecum depressum and P. angusticolle, the strongylid Hovorkonema variegatum, which inhabits the trachea and bronchi, the hairworms Eucoleus dispar and Capillaria tenuissima isolated from the digestive system, the spirurid nematodes Cyrnea leptoptera, C. mansioni, C. seurati, Microtetrameres cloacitectus, Physaloptera alata, P. apivori, Synhimantus hamatus and S. laticeps, which inhabit the proventriculus and gizzard of the raptors, and the spirurid nematode Serratospiculum tendo, which lives in the air sacs. To revise their systematic positions the ribosomal 18S gene regions of the nematode species were analysed and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. The molecular data confirmed the morphological systematics, except the spirurid family Physalopteridae, which grouped together with the Acuariidae.

  12. Isolation of Mitochondrial Ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Adam J

    2017-01-01

    Translation of mitochondrial encoded mRNAs by mitochondrial ribosomes is thought to play a major role in regulating the expression of mitochondrial proteins. However, the structure and function of plant mitochondrial ribosomes remains poorly understood. To study mitochondrial ribosomes, it is necessary to separate them from plastidic and cytosolic ribosomes that are generally present at much higher concentrations. Here, a straight forward protocol for the preparation of fractions highly enriched in mitochondrial ribosomes from plant cells is described. The method begins with purification of mitochondria followed by mitochondrial lysis and ultracentrifugation of released ribosomes through sucrose cushions and gradients. Dark-grown Arabidopsis cells were used in this example because of the ease with which good yields of pure mitochondria can be obtained from them. However, the steps for isolation of ribosomes from mitochondria could be applied to mitochondria obtained from other sources. Proteomic analyses of resulting fractions have confirmed strong enrichment of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins.

  13. Conservation of the primary structure at the 3' end of 18S rRNA from eucaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Hagenbüchle, O; Santer, M; Steitz, J A; Mans, R J

    1978-03-01

    DNA sequencing methods have been used to determine a sequence of about 20 nucleotides at the 3' termini of various 18S (small ribosomal subunit) RNA molecules. Polyadenylated rRNA was first synthesized using the enzyme ATP:polynucleotidyl transferase from mainze. Then in the presence of an oligonucleotide primer uniquely complementary to the end of each adenylated rRNA, a cDNA copy was produced using AMV reverse transcriptase. In every case, the cDNA transcript was of finite size, which we ascribe to the appearance of an oligonucleotide containing m62A near the 3' end of the 18S rRNAs. Sequences at the 3' termini of 18S rRNA molecules from the four eucaryotic species examined here (mouse, silk worm, wheat embryo and slime mold) are highly conserved. They also exhibit strong homology to the 3' end of E. coli 16S rRNA. Two important differences, however, are apparent. First, the 16S sequence CCUCC, implicated in mRNA binding by E. coli ribosomes, is absent from each eucaryotic rRNA sequence. Second, a purine-rich region which exhibits extensive complementarity to the 5' noncoding regions of many eucaryotic mRNAs appears consistently.

  14. The Ribosome Filter Redux

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Vincent P.; Edelman, Gerald M.

    2010-01-01

    The ribosome filter hypothesis postulates that ribosomes are not simply translation machines but also function as regulatory elements that differentially affect or filter the translation of particular mRNAs. On the basis of new information, we take the opportunity here to review the ribosome filter hypothesis, suggest specific mechanisms of action, and discuss recent examples from the literature that support it. PMID:17890902

  15. Rate accelerations in nuclear 18S rDNA of mycoheterotrophic and parasitic angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Benny; Huysmans, Suzy; Smets, Erik; Merckx, Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Rate variation in genes from all three genomes has been observed frequently in plant lineages with a parasitic and mycoheterotrophic mode of life. While the loss of photosynthetic ability leads to a relaxation of evolutionary constraints in genes involved in the photosynthetic apparatus, it remains to be determined how prevalent increased substitution rates are in nuclear DNA of non-photosynthetic angiosperms. In this study we infer rates of molecular evolution of 18S rDNA of all parasitic and mycoheterotorphic plant families (except Lauraceae and Polygalaceae) using relative rate tests. In several holoparasitic and mycoheterotrophic plant lineages extremely high substitution rates are observed compared to other photosynthetic angiosperms. The position and frequency of these substitutions have been identified to understand the mutation dynamics of 18S rRNA in achlorophyllous plants. Despite the presence of significantly elevated substitution rates, very few mutations occur in major functional and structural regions of the small ribosomal molecule, providing evidence that the efficiency of the translational apparatus in non-photosynthetic plants has not been affected.

  16. Evaluation of PCR amplification bias by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of small-subunit rRNA and mcrA genes by using defined template mixtures of methanogenic pure cultures and soil DNA extracts.

    PubMed

    Lueders, Tillmann; Friedrich, Michael W

    2003-01-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis is a widely used method for profiling microbial community structure in different habitats by targeting small-subunit (SSU) rRNA and also functional marker genes. It is not known, however, whether relative gene frequencies of individual community members are adequately represented in post-PCR amplicon frequencies as shown by T-RFLP. In this study, precisely defined artificial template mixtures containing genomic DNA of four different methanogens in various ratios were prepared for subsequent T-RFLP analysis. PCR amplicons were generated from defined mixtures targeting not only the SSU rRNA but also the methyl-coenzyme M reductase (mcrA/mrtA) genes of methanogens. Relative amplicon frequencies of microorganisms were quantified by comparing fluorescence intensities of characteristic terminal restriction fragments. SSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA) template ratios in defined template mixtures of the four-membered community were recovered absolutely by PCR-T-RFLP analysis, which demonstrates that the T-RFLP analysis evaluated can give a quantitative view of the template pool. SSU rDNA-targeted T-RFLP analysis of a natural community was found to be highly reproducible, independent of PCR annealing temperature, and unaffected by increasing PCR cycle numbers. Ratios of mcrA-targeted T-RFLP analysis were biased, most likely by PCR selection due to the degeneracy of the primers used. Consequently, for microbial community analyses, each primer system used should be evaluated carefully for possible PCR bias. In fact, such bias can be detected by using T-RFLP analysis as a tool for the precise quantification of the PCR product pool.

  17. Inferring the Ancient History of the Translation Machinery and Genetic Code via Recapitulation of Ribosomal Subunit Assembly Orders

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Gregory P.; Neumann, Justin E.; Gogarten, J. Peter

    2010-01-01

    Universally conserved positions in ribosomal proteins have significant biases in amino acid usage, likely indicating the expansion of the genetic code at the time leading up to the most recent common ancestor(s) (MRCA). Here, we apply this principle to the evolutionary history of the ribosome before the MRCA. It has been proposed that the experimentally determined order of assembly for ribosomal subunits recapitulates their evolutionary chronology. Given this model, we produce a probabilistic evolutionary ordering of the universally conserved small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) ribosomal proteins. Optimizing the relative ordering of SSU and LSU evolutionary chronologies with respect to minimizing differences in amino acid usage bias, we find strong compositional evidence for a more ancient origin for early LSU proteins. Furthermore, we find that this ordering produces several trends in specific amino acid usages compatible with models of genetic code evolution. PMID:20208990

  18. Inferring the ancient history of the translation machinery and genetic code via recapitulation of ribosomal subunit assembly orders.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Gregory P; Neumann, Justin E; Gogarten, J Peter

    2010-03-01

    Universally conserved positions in ribosomal proteins have significant biases in amino acid usage, likely indicating the expansion of the genetic code at the time leading up to the most recent common ancestor(s) (MRCA). Here, we apply this principle to the evolutionary history of the ribosome before the MRCA. It has been proposed that the experimentally determined order of assembly for ribosomal subunits recapitulates their evolutionary chronology. Given this model, we produce a probabilistic evolutionary ordering of the universally conserved small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) ribosomal proteins. Optimizing the relative ordering of SSU and LSU evolutionary chronologies with respect to minimizing differences in amino acid usage bias, we find strong compositional evidence for a more ancient origin for early LSU proteins. Furthermore, we find that this ordering produces several trends in specific amino acid usages compatible with models of genetic code evolution.

  19. E. coli metabolic protein aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase-E binds to the ribosome: a unique moonlighting action revealed

    PubMed Central

    Shasmal, Manidip; Dey, Sandip; Shaikh, Tanvir R.; Bhakta, Sayan; Sengupta, Jayati

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that a high degree of regulation is involved in the protein synthesis machinery entailing more interacting regulatory factors. A multitude of proteins have been identified recently which show regulatory function upon binding to the ribosome. Here, we identify tight association of a metabolic protein aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) with the E. coli 70S ribosome isolated from cell extract under low salt wash conditions. Cryo-EM reconstruction of the ribosome sample allows us to localize its position on the head of the small subunit, near the mRNA entrance. Our study demonstrates substantial RNA unwinding activity of AdhE which can account for the ability of ribosome to translate through downstream of at least certain mRNA helices. Thus far, in E. coli, no ribosome-associated factor has been identified that shows downstream mRNA helicase activity. Additionally, the cryo-EM map reveals interaction of another extracellular protein, outer membrane protein C (OmpC), with the ribosome at the peripheral solvent side of the 50S subunit. Our result also provides important insight into plausible functional role of OmpC upon ribosome binding. Visualization of the ribosome purified directly from the cell lysate unveils for the first time interactions of additional regulatory proteins with the ribosome. PMID:26822933

  20. Phylogenetic analysis and the evolution of the 18S rRNA gene typing system of Acanthamoeba.

    PubMed

    Fuerst, Paul A; Booton, Gregory C; Crary, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Species of Acanthamoeba were first described using morphological characters including cyst structure and cytology of nuclear division. More than 20 nominal species were proposed using these methods. Morphology, especially cyst shape and size, has proven to be plastic and dependent upon culture conditions. The DNA sequence of the nuclear small-subunit (18S) rRNA, the Rns gene, has become the most widely accepted method for rapid diagnosis and classification of Acanthamoeba. The Byers-Fuerst lab first proposed an Rns typing system in 1996. Subsequent refinements, with an increasing DNA database and analysis of diagnostic fragments within the gene, have become widely accepted by the Acanthamoeba research community. The development of the typing system, including its current state of implementation is illustrated by three cases: (i) the division between sequence types T13 and T16; (ii) the diversity within sequence supertype T2/T6, and (iii) verification of a new sequence type, designated T20. Molecular studies make clear the disconnection between phylogenetic relatedness and species names, as applied for the genus Acanthamoeba. Future reconciliation of genetic types with species names must become a priority, but the possible shortcomings of the use of a single gene when reconstructing the evolutionary history of the acanthamoebidae must also be resolved.

  1. Two F-18s in Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This 32 second video clip shows two F-18s in NASA's Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) program. The aircraft use smoke contrails to gather data on wingtip vortices. Flight research attempts to utilize the energy in the vortices for more efficient flight.

  2. The Modular Adaptive Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Anupama; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Panda, Anshuman; Singh, Amartya; Sinha, Himanshu; Bhanot, Gyan

    2016-01-01

    The ribosome is an ancient machine, performing the same function across organisms. Although functionally unitary, recent experiments suggest specialized roles for some ribosomal proteins. Our central thesis is that ribosomal proteins function in a modular fashion to decode genetic information in a context dependent manner. We show through large data analyses that although many ribosomal proteins are essential with consistent effect on growth in different conditions in yeast and similar expression across cell and tissue types in mice and humans, some ribosomal proteins are used in an environment specific manner. The latter set of variable ribosomal proteins further function in a coordinated manner forming modules, which are adapted to different environmental cues in different organisms. We show that these environment specific modules of ribosomal proteins in yeast have differential genetic interactions with other pathways and their 5’UTRs show differential signatures of selection in yeast strains, presumably to facilitate adaptation. Similarly, we show that in higher metazoans such as mice and humans, different modules of ribosomal proteins are expressed in different cell types and tissues. A clear example is nervous tissue that uses a ribosomal protein module distinct from the rest of the tissues in both mice and humans. Our results suggest a novel stratification of ribosomal proteins that could have played a role in adaptation, presumably to optimize translation for adaptation to diverse ecological niches and tissue microenvironments. PMID:27812193

  3. The Modular Adaptive Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anupama; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Panda, Anshuman; Singh, Amartya; Sinha, Himanshu; Bhanot, Gyan

    2016-01-01

    The ribosome is an ancient machine, performing the same function across organisms. Although functionally unitary, recent experiments suggest specialized roles for some ribosomal proteins. Our central thesis is that ribosomal proteins function in a modular fashion to decode genetic information in a context dependent manner. We show through large data analyses that although many ribosomal proteins are essential with consistent effect on growth in different conditions in yeast and similar expression across cell and tissue types in mice and humans, some ribosomal proteins are used in an environment specific manner. The latter set of variable ribosomal proteins further function in a coordinated manner forming modules, which are adapted to different environmental cues in different organisms. We show that these environment specific modules of ribosomal proteins in yeast have differential genetic interactions with other pathways and their 5'UTRs show differential signatures of selection in yeast strains, presumably to facilitate adaptation. Similarly, we show that in higher metazoans such as mice and humans, different modules of ribosomal proteins are expressed in different cell types and tissues. A clear example is nervous tissue that uses a ribosomal protein module distinct from the rest of the tissues in both mice and humans. Our results suggest a novel stratification of ribosomal proteins that could have played a role in adaptation, presumably to optimize translation for adaptation to diverse ecological niches and tissue microenvironments.

  4. Physical mapping of 18S-25S rDNA and 5S rDNA in Lupinus via fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Naganowska, Barbara; Zielińska, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Double-target fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to determine the genomic distribution of ribosomal RNA genes in five Lupinus species: L. cosentinii (2n=32), L. pilosus (2n=42), L. angustifolius (2n=40), L. luteus (2n=52) and L. mutabilis (2n=48). 18S-25S rDNA and 5S rDNA were used as probes. Some interspecific variation was observed in the number and size of the 18S-25S rDNA loci. All the studied species had one chromosome pair carrying 5S rDNA.

  5. A new version of the RDP (Ribosomal Database Project)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maidak, B. L.; Cole, J. R.; Parker, C. T. Jr; Garrity, G. M.; Larsen, N.; Li, B.; Lilburn, T. G.; McCaughey, M. J.; Olsen, G. J.; Overbeek, R.; Pramanik, S.; Schmidt, T. M.; Tiedje, J. M.; Woese, C. R.

    1999-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP-II), previously described by Maidak et al. [ Nucleic Acids Res. (1997), 25, 109-111], is now hosted by the Center for Microbial Ecology at Michigan State University. RDP-II is a curated database that offers ribosomal RNA (rRNA) nucleotide sequence data in aligned and unaligned forms, analysis services, and associated computer programs. During the past two years, data alignments have been updated and now include >9700 small subunit rRNA sequences. The recent development of an ObjectStore database will provide more rapid updating of data, better data accuracy and increased user access. RDP-II includes phylogenetically ordered alignments of rRNA sequences, derived phylogenetic trees, rRNA secondary structure diagrams, and various software programs for handling, analyzing and displaying alignments and trees. The data are available via anonymous ftp (ftp.cme.msu. edu) and WWW (http://www.cme.msu.edu/RDP). The WWW server provides ribosomal probe checking, approximate phylogenetic placement of user-submitted sequences, screening for possible chimeric rRNA sequences, automated alignment, and a suggested placement of an unknown sequence on an existing phylogenetic tree. Additional utilities also exist at RDP-II, including distance matrix, T-RFLP, and a Java-based viewer of the phylogenetic trees that can be used to create subtrees.

  6. Organization of proteins in mammalian mitochondrial ribosomes: accessibility to lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination

    SciTech Connect

    Denslow, N.D.; O'Brien, T.W.

    1984-08-10

    To assess the relative exposure of individual ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) in the large and small subunits of the bovine mitochondrial ribosome, double label iodination technique was used. Regions of r-proteins exposed in purified ribosomal subunits were labeled with /sup 131/I using the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination system, and additional reactive groups available upon denaturing the r-proteins in urea were labeled with /sup 125/I using the chloramine-T mediated reaction. The ratio of /sup 131/I to /sup 125/I incorporated into individual proteins under these conditions is representative of the degree of exposure for each of the proteins in the subunits. In this manner, the r-proteins have been grouped into 3 classes depending on their degree of exposure: high exposure, intermediate exposure, and essentially buried. While both subunits have a few proteins in the highly exposed group, and a large number of proteins in the intermediate exposure group, only the large ribosomal subunit has an appreciable number of proteins which appear essentially buried. The more buried proteins may serve mainly structural roles, perhaps acting as assembly proteins, since many from this group bind to ribosomal RNA. The more superficially disposed proteins may comprise binding sites for macromolecules that interact with ribosomes during protein synthesis, as well as stabilizing the association of the large and small subribosomal particles.

  7. Mapping of a conformational epitope on the cashew allergen Ana o 2: a discontinuous large subunit epitope dependent upon homologous or heterologous small subunit association.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lixin; Willison, LeAnna N; Porter, Lauren; Robotham, Jason M; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2010-05-01

    The 11S globulins are members of the cupin protein superfamily and represent an important class of tree nut allergens for which a number of linear epitopes have been mapped. However, specific conformational epitopes for these allergens have yet to be described. We have recently reported a cashew Ana o 2 conformational epitope defined by murine mAb 2B5 and competitively inhibited by a subset of patient IgE antibodies. The 2B5 epitope appears to reside on the large (acidic) subunit, is dependent upon small (basic) subunit association for expression, and is highly susceptible to denaturation. Here we fine map the epitope using a combination of recombinant chimeric cashew Ana o 2-soybean Gly m 6 chimeras, deletion and point mutations, molecular modeling, and electron microscopy of 2B5-Ana o 2 immune complexes. Key residues appear confined to a 24 amino acid segment near the N-terminus of the large subunit peptide, a portion of which makes direct contact with the small subunit. These data provide an explanation for both the small subunit dependence and the structurally labile nature of the epitope.

  8. The fission yeast Cdc1 protein, a homologue of the small subunit of DNA polymerase delta, binds to Pol3 and Cdc27.

    PubMed Central

    MacNeill, S A; Moreno, S; Reynolds, N; Nurse, P; Fantes, P A

    1996-01-01

    cdc1+ is required for cell cycle progression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Cells carrying temperature-sensitive cdc1 mutants undergo cell cycle arrest when shifted to the restrictive temperature, becoming highly elongated. Here we describe the cloning and sequencing of cdc1+, which is shown to encode a 462 residue protein that displays significant sequence similarity to the small subunit of mammalian DNA polymerase delta. cdc1+ interacts genetically with pol3+, which encodes the large subunit of DNA polymerase delta in fission yeast, and the Cdc1 protein binds to Pol3 in vitro, strongly suggesting that Cdc1 is likely to be the small subunit of Pol delta. In addition, we show that cdc1+ overexpression is sufficient to rescue cells carrying temperature-sensitive cdc27 alleles and that the Cdc1 and Cdc27 proteins interact in vivo and in vitro. Deletion of either cdc1+ or cdc27+ results in cell cycle arrest with the arrested cells having a single nucleus with 2C DNA content. No evidence was obtained for a cut phenotype, indicating that neither cdc1+ nor cdc27+ is required for checkpoint function. cdc1 mutant cells are supersensitive to the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea and to the DNA damaging agent MMS, display increased frequency of mini-chromosome loss and have an extended S phase. Images PMID:8887553

  9. Cloning of a yeast gene coding for the glutamate synthase small subunit (GUS2) by complementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli glutamate auxotrophs.

    PubMed

    González, A; Membrillo-Hernández, J; Olivera, H; Aranda, C; Macino, G; Ballario, P

    1992-02-01

    A Saccharomyces cerevisiae glutamate auxotroph, lacking NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities, was complemented with a yeast genomic library. Clones were obtained which still lacked NADP-GDH but showed GOGAT activity. Northern analysis revealed that the DNA fragment present in the complementing plasmids coded for a 1.5kb mRNA. Since the only GOGAT enzyme so far purified from S. cerevisiae is made up of a small and a large subunit, the size of the mRNA suggested that the cloned DNA fragment could code for the GOGAT small subunit. Plasmids were purified and used to transform Escherichia coli glutamate auxotrophs. Transformants were only recovered when the recipient strain was an E. coli GDH-less mutant lacking the small GOGAT subunit. These data show that we have cloned the structural gene coding for the yeast small subunit (GUS2). Evidence is also presented indicating that the GOGAT enzyme which is synthesized in the E. coli transformants is a hybrid comprising the large E. coli subunit and the small S. cerevisiae subunit.

  10. Phytoplankton distribution patterns in the northwestern Sargasso Sea revealed by small subunit rRNA genes from plastids

    PubMed Central

    Treusch, Alexander H; Demir-Hilton, Elif; Vergin, Kevin L; Worden, Alexandra Z; Carlson, Craig A; Donatz, Michael G; Burton, Robert M; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton species vary in their physiological properties, and are expected to respond differently to seasonal changes in water column conditions. To assess these varying distribution patterns, we used 412 samples collected monthly over 12 years (1991–2004) at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study site, located in the northwestern Sargasso Sea. We measured plastid 16S ribosomal RNA gene abundances with a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism approach and identified distribution patterns for members of the Prymnesiophyceae, Pelagophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Prasinophyceae. The analysis revealed dynamic bloom patterns by these phytoplankton taxa that begin early in the year, when the mixed layer is deep. Previously, unreported open-ocean prasinophyte blooms dominated the plastid gene signal during convective mixing events. Quantitative PCR confirmed the blooms and transitions of Bathycoccus, Micromonas and Ostreococcus populations. In contrast, taxa belonging to the pelagophytes and chrysophytes, as well as cryptophytes, reached annual peaks during mixed layer shoaling, while Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) were observed only episodically in the 12-year record. Prymnesiophytes dominated the integrated plastid gene signal. They were abundant throughout the water column before mixing events, but persisted in the deep chlorophyll maximum during stratified conditions. Various models have been used to describe mechanisms that drive vernal phytoplankton blooms in temperate seas. The range of taxon-specific bloom patterns observed here indicates that different ‘spring bloom' models can aptly describe the behavior of different phytoplankton taxa at a single geographical location. These findings provide insight into the subdivision of niche space by phytoplankton and may lead to improved predictions of phytoplankton responses to changes in ocean conditions. PMID:21955994

  11. Phytoplankton distribution patterns in the northwestern Sargasso Sea revealed by small subunit rRNA genes from plastids.

    PubMed

    Treusch, Alexander H; Demir-Hilton, Elif; Vergin, Kevin L; Worden, Alexandra Z; Carlson, Craig A; Donatz, Michael G; Burton, Robert M; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2012-03-01

    Phytoplankton species vary in their physiological properties, and are expected to respond differently to seasonal changes in water column conditions. To assess these varying distribution patterns, we used 412 samples collected monthly over 12 years (1991-2004) at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study site, located in the northwestern Sargasso Sea. We measured plastid 16S ribosomal RNA gene abundances with a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism approach and identified distribution patterns for members of the Prymnesiophyceae, Pelagophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Prasinophyceae. The analysis revealed dynamic bloom patterns by these phytoplankton taxa that begin early in the year, when the mixed layer is deep. Previously, unreported open-ocean prasinophyte blooms dominated the plastid gene signal during convective mixing events. Quantitative PCR confirmed the blooms and transitions of Bathycoccus, Micromonas and Ostreococcus populations. In contrast, taxa belonging to the pelagophytes and chrysophytes, as well as cryptophytes, reached annual peaks during mixed layer shoaling, while Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) were observed only episodically in the 12-year record. Prymnesiophytes dominated the integrated plastid gene signal. They were abundant throughout the water column before mixing events, but persisted in the deep chlorophyll maximum during stratified conditions. Various models have been used to describe mechanisms that drive vernal phytoplankton blooms in temperate seas. The range of taxon-specific bloom patterns observed here indicates that different 'spring bloom' models can aptly describe the behavior of different phytoplankton taxa at a single geographical location. These findings provide insight into the subdivision of niche space by phytoplankton and may lead to improved predictions of phytoplankton responses to changes in ocean conditions.

  12. Analysis of U3 snoRNA and small subunit processome components in the parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ankita; Ahamad, Jamaluddin; Ray, Ashwini Kumar; Kaur, Devinder; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

    2014-02-01

    In the early branching parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica, pre-rRNA synthesis continues when cells are subjected to growth stress, but processing slows down and unprocessed pre-rRNA accumulates. To gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms leading to accumulation, it is necessary to define the pre-rRNA processing machinery in E. histolytica. We searched the E. histolytica genome sequence for homologs of the SSU processome, which contains the U3snoRNA, and 72 proteins in yeast. We could identify 57 of the proteins with high confidence. Of the rest, 6 were absent in human, and 4 were non-essential in yeast. The remaining 5 were absent in other parasite genomes as well. Analysis of U3snoRNA showed that the E. histolytica U3snoRNA adopted the same conserved secondary structure as seen in yeast and human. The predicted structure was verified by chemical modification followed by primer extension (SHAPE). Further we showed that the predicted interactions of Eh_U3snoRNA boxes A and A' with pre-18S rRNA were highly conserved both in position and sequence. The predicted interactions of 5'-hinge and 3'-hinge sequences of Eh_U3 snoRNA with the 5'-ETS sequences were conserved in position but not in sequence. Transcription of selected genes of SSU processome was tested by northern analysis, and transcripts of predicted sizes were obtained. During serum starvation, when unprocessed pre-RNA accumulated, the transcript levels of some of these genes declined. This is the first report on pre-rRNA processing machinery in E. histolytica, and shows that the components are well conserved with respect to yeast and human.

  13. Physical mapping of 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S RNA gene families in polyploid series of Cenchrus ciliaris Linnaeus, 1771 (Poaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kharrat-Souissi, Amina; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Pustahija, Fatima; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., Poaceae) is one of the most important pasturage grasses due to its high productivity and good forage qualities. This species possess a high adaptability to bioclimatic constraints of arid zones and may be used for the restoration of degraded arid ecosystems. Tunisian populations present three ploidy levels (4x, 5x and 6x) with a basic chromosome number x=9. This study reported for the first time the distribution of the ribosomal genes (rRNA) for pentaploid and hexaploid cytotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris. Molecular cytogenetic study using double fluorescence in situ hybridization has shown that the two rDNA families, 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S (18S), displayed intraspecific variation in number of loci among different ploidy levels. Each ploidy level was characterized by specific number of both 5S and 18S rDNA loci (two loci in tetraploid, five in pentaploid and six in hexaploid level). For three studied cytotypes (4x, 5x and 6x) all 5S rDNA loci were localized on the subcentromeric region of chromosomes, while 18S loci were situated on the telomeric region of short chromosome arms. Data of the FISH experiments show proportional increase of ribosomal loci number during polyploidization processes. PMID:24260668

  14. An updated 18S rRNA phylogeny of tunicates based on mixture and secondary structure models

    PubMed Central

    Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Turon, Xavier; Hopcroft, Russell R; Tilak, Marie-Ka; Feldstein, Tamar; Shenkar, Noa; Loya, Yossi; Huchon, Dorothée; Douzery, Emmanuel JP; Delsuc, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Background Tunicates have been recently revealed to be the closest living relatives of vertebrates. Yet, with more than 2500 described species, details of their evolutionary history are still obscure. From a molecular point of view, tunicate phylogenetic relationships have been mostly studied based on analyses of 18S rRNA sequences, which indicate several major clades at odds with the traditional class-level arrangements. Nonetheless, substantial uncertainty remains about the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic status of key groups such as the Aplousobranchia, Appendicularia, and Thaliacea. Results Thirty new complete 18S rRNA sequences were acquired from previously unsampled tunicate species, with special focus on groups presenting high evolutionary rate. The updated 18S rRNA dataset has been aligned with respect to the constraint on homology imposed by the rRNA secondary structure. A probabilistic framework of phylogenetic reconstruction was adopted to accommodate the particular evolutionary dynamics of this ribosomal marker. Detailed Bayesian analyses were conducted under the non-parametric CAT mixture model accounting for site-specific heterogeneity of the evolutionary process, and under RNA-specific doublet models accommodating the occurrence of compensatory substitutions in stem regions. Our results support the division of tunicates into three major clades: 1) Phlebobranchia + Thaliacea + Aplousobranchia, 2) Appendicularia, and 3) Stolidobranchia, but the position of Appendicularia could not be firmly resolved. Our study additionally reveals that most Aplousobranchia evolve at extremely high rates involving changes in secondary structure of their 18S rRNA, with the exception of the family Clavelinidae, which appears to be slowly evolving. This extreme rate heterogeneity precluded resolving with certainty the exact phylogenetic placement of Aplousobranchia. Finally, the best fitting secondary-structure and CAT-mixture models suggest a sister

  15. Molecular hybridization of iodinated 4S, 5S, and 18S + 28S RNA to salamander chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    4S, 5S, AND 18S + 28S RNA from the newt Taricha granulosa granulosa were iodinated in vitro with carrier-free 125I and hybridized to the denatured chromosomes of Taricha granulosa and Batrachoseps weighti. Iodinated 18S + 28S RNA hybridizes to the telomeric region on the shorter arm of chromosome 2 and close to the centromere on the shorter arm of chromosome 9 from T. granulosa. On this same salamander the label produced by the 5S RNA is located close to or on the centromere of chromosome 7 and the iodinated 4S RNA labels the distal end of the longer arm of chromosome 5. On the chromosomes of B. wrighti, 18S + 28S RNA hybridizes close to the centromeric region on the longer arm of the largest chromosome. Two centromeric sites are hybridized by the iodinated 5S RNA. After hybridization with iodinated 4S RNA, label is found near the end of the shorter arm of chromosome 3. It is concluded that both ribosomal and transfer RNA genes are clustered in the genome of these two salamanders. PMID:944187

  16. Cloning and characterization of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RbcS) cDNA from green microalga Ankistrodesmus convolutus.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Tran; Chi, Vu Thi Quynh; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Omar, Hishamuddin; Noroozi, Mostafa; Napis, Suhaimi

    2011-11-01

    An initial study on gene cloning and characterization of unicellular green microalga Ankistrodesmus convolutus was carried out to isolate and characterize the full-length cDNA of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RbcS) as a first step towards elucidating the structure of A. convolutus RbcS gene. The full-length of A. convolutus RbcS cDNA (AcRbcS) contained 28 bp of 5' untranslated region (UTR), 225 bp of 3' non-coding region, and an open reading frame of 165 amino acids consisting of a chloroplast transit peptide with 24 amino acids and a mature protein of 141 amino acids. The amino acid sequence has high identity to those of other green algae RbcS genes. The AcRbcS contained a few conserved domains including protein kinase C phosphorylation site, tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site and N-myristoylation sites. The AcRbcS was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and a ~21 kDa of anticipated protein band was observed on SDS-PAGE. From the phylogenetic analysis of RbcS protein sequences, it was found that the RbcS of A. convolutus has closer genetic relationship with green microalgae species compared to those of green seaweed and green macroalgae species. Southern hybridization analysis revealed that the AcRbcS is a member of a small multigene family comprising of two to six members in A. convolutus genome. Under different illumination conditions, RT-PCR analysis showed that AcRbcS transcription was reduced in the dark, and drastically recovered in the light condition. Results presented in this paper established a good foundation for further study on the photosynthetic process of A. convolutus and other green algae species where little information is known on Rubisco small subunit.

  17. The ribosomal subunit assembly line

    PubMed Central

    Dlakić, Mensur

    2005-01-01

    Recent proteomic studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified nearly 200 proteins, other than the structural ribosomal proteins, that participate in the assembly of ribosomal subunits and their transport from the nucleus. In a separate line of research, proteomic studies of mature plant ribosomes have revealed considerable variability in the protein composition of individual ribosomes. PMID:16207363

  18. Identification of 18S ribosomal DNA genotype of Acanthamoeba from hot spring recreation areas in the central range, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu; Ma, Po-Hua; Liou, Tai-Sheng; Chen, Jung-Sheng; Shih, Feng-Cheng

    2009-04-01

    SummaryAcanthamoeba is a free-living amoebae ubiquitous to aquatic environments. Within the genus a few species are recognized as opportunistic potential human pathogens, which cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and keratitis. Infections of keratitis are frequently reported through wearing lens while swimming in the non-disinfected aquatic environment. Contaminations in hot tubs, spas and public baths are also possible. As a result, in this study, we identified Acanthamoeba based on the PCR amplification with a genus-specific primer pair and investigated the distribution of Acanthamoeba at five hot spring recreation areas in central range, Taiwan. We gathered data on factors potentially associated with the pathogen's distribution, including various sampling sites, aquatic environment, physical and microbiological water quality parameters. Spring water was collected from 55 sites and Acanthamoeba was detected in 9 (16.4%). The most frequently detected was Acanthamoeba griffini, followed by Acanthamoeba jacobsi. Legionella were detected in 18 (32.7%) of the sites sampled in this study. The species of Legionella identified included Legionella pneumophila serotype 6, serotype 1, and Legionella erythra. Overall, 9.1% of the samples contained both Acanthamoeba and Legionella. The prevalence of Acanthamoeba was contrary to the levels of microbiological indicators recommended by Taiwan CDC, and no significant differences (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05) were observed between the presence/absence of Acanthamoeba and water quality parameters. Results of this survey confirm the existence of Acanthamoeba in Taiwan spring recreation areas. Acanthamoeba, the organism responsible for the majority of Acanthamoeba keratitis and can serve as vehicles for facultative pathogens, should be considered a potential threat for health associated with human activities in spring recreation areas of Taiwan.

  19. Complete sequence analysis of 18S rDNA based on genomic DNA extraction from individual Demodex mites (Acari: Demodicidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya-E; Xu, Ji-Ru; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-Ping; Wang, Zheng-Hang

    2012-05-01

    The study for the first time attempted to accomplish 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) complete sequence amplification and analysis for three Demodex species (Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis and Demodex canis) based on gDNA extraction from individual mites. The mites were treated by DNA Release Additive and Hot Start II DNA Polymerase so as to promote mite disruption and increase PCR specificity. Determination of D. folliculorum gDNA showed that the gDNA yield reached the highest at 1 mite, tending to descend with the increase of mite number. The individual mite gDNA was successfully used for 18S rDNA fragment (about 900 bp) amplification examination. The alignments of 18S rDNA complete sequences of individual mite samples and those of pooled mite samples ( ≥ 1000mites/sample) showed over 97% identities for each species, indicating that the gDNA extracted from a single individual mite was as satisfactory as that from pooled mites for PCR amplification. Further pairwise sequence analyses showed that average divergence, genetic distance, transition/transversion or phylogenetic tree could not effectively identify the three Demodex species, largely due to the differentiation in the D. canis isolates. It can be concluded that the individual Demodex mite gDNA can satisfy the molecular study of Demodex. 18S rDNA complete sequence is suitable for interfamily identification in Cheyletoidea, but whether it is suitable for intrafamily identification cannot be confirmed until the ascertainment of the types of Demodex mites parasitizing in dogs.

  20. Nop9 is a PUF-like protein that prevents premature cleavage to correctly process pre-18S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; McCann, Kathleen L.; Qiu, Chen; Gonzalez, Lauren E.; Baserga, Susan J.; Hall, Traci M. Tanaka

    2016-01-01

    Numerous factors direct eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis, and defects in a single ribosome assembly factor may be lethal or produce tissue-specific human ribosomopathies. Pre-ribosomal RNAs (pre-rRNAs) must be processed stepwise and at the correct subcellular locations to produce the mature rRNAs. Nop9 is a conserved small ribosomal subunit biogenesis factor, essential in yeast. Here we report a 2.1-Å crystal structure of Nop9 and a small-angle X-ray-scattering model of a Nop9:RNA complex that reveals a ‘C'-shaped fold formed from 11 Pumilio repeats. We show that Nop9 recognizes sequence and structural features of the 20S pre-rRNA near the cleavage site of the nuclease, Nob1. We further demonstrate that Nop9 inhibits Nob1 cleavage, the final processing step to produce mature small ribosomal subunit 18S rRNA. Together, our results suggest that Nop9 is critical for timely cleavage of the 20S pre-rRNA. Moreover, the Nop9 structure exemplifies a new class of Pumilio repeat proteins. PMID:27725644

  1. Nop9 is a PUF-like protein that prevents premature cleavage to correctly process pre-18S rRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; McCann, Kathleen L.; Qiu, Chen; Gonzalez, Lauren E.; Baserga, Susan J.; Hall, Traci M. Tanaka

    2016-10-11

    Numerous factors direct eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis, and defects in a single ribosome assembly factor may be lethal or produce tissue-specific human ribosomopathies. Pre-ribosomal RNAs (pre-rRNAs) must be processed stepwise and at the correct subcellular locations to produce the mature rRNAs. Nop9 is a conserved small ribosomal subunit biogenesis factor, essential in yeast. Here we report a 2.1-Å crystal structure of Nop9 and a small-angle X-ray-scattering model of a Nop9:RNA complex that reveals a ‘C’-shaped fold formed from 11 Pumilio repeats. We show that Nop9 recognizes sequence and structural features of the 20S pre-rRNA near the cleavage site of the nuclease, Nob1. We further demonstrate that Nop9 inhibits Nob1 cleavage, the final processing step to produce mature small ribosomal subunit 18S rRNA. Together, our results suggest that Nop9 is critical for timely cleavage of the 20S pre-rRNA. Moreover, the Nop9 structure exemplifies a new class of Pumilio repeat proteins.

  2. Clinostomum complanatum and Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819) (Digenea: Clinostomidae) are separate species based on differences in ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Dzikowski, R; Levy, M G; Poore, M F; Flowers, J R; Paperna, I

    2004-04-01

    Infections by metacercariae of Clinostomum (Leidy, 1856) species adversely affect aquacultured fish and are potentially transmissible to humans. Molecular methodologies are efficient tools, which enable diagnosis of all life-history stages of trematodes in their diverse hosts. The small subunit of ribosomal DNA genes of adults of the Old World Clinostomum complanatum (Rudolphi, 1819) and the New World Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), obtained from a little egret Egretta garzetta (Linnaeus, 1766) and the great blue heron Ardea herodias (Linnaeus, 1758), respectively, were amplified, sequenced, and aligned. The resulting alignment was used to develop a genetic assay to differentiate between these species.

  3. Ribosome dynamics during decoding.

    PubMed

    Rodnina, Marina V; Fischer, Niels; Maracci, Cristina; Stark, Holger

    2017-03-19

    Elongation factors Tu (EF-Tu) and SelB are translational GTPases that deliver aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) to the ribosome. In each canonical round of translation elongation, aa-tRNAs, assisted by EF-Tu, decode mRNA codons and insert the respective amino acid into the growing peptide chain. Stop codons usually lead to translation termination; however, in special cases UGA codons are recoded to selenocysteine (Sec) with the help of SelB. Recruitment of EF-Tu and SelB together with their respective aa-tRNAs to the ribosome is a multistep process. In this review, we summarize recent progress in understanding the role of ribosome dynamics in aa-tRNA selection. We describe the path to correct codon recognition by canonical elongator aa-tRNA and Sec-tRNA(Sec) and discuss the local and global rearrangements of the ribosome in response to correct and incorrect aa-tRNAs. We present the mechanisms of GTPase activation and GTP hydrolysis of EF-Tu and SelB and summarize what is known about the accommodation of aa-tRNA on the ribosome after its release from the elongation factor. We show how ribosome dynamics ensures high selectivity for the cognate aa-tRNA and suggest that conformational fluctuations, induced fit and kinetic discrimination play major roles in maintaining the speed and fidelity of translation.This article is part of the themed issue 'Perspectives on the ribosome'.

  4. A comparison of the yeast and rabbit 80 S ribosome reveals the topology of the nascent chain exit tunnel, inter-subunit bridges and mammalian rRNA expansion segments.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D G; Ménétret, J F; Radermacher, M; Neuhof, A; Akey, I V; Rapoport, T A; Akey, C W

    2000-08-11

    Protein synthesis in eukaryotes is mediated by both cytoplasmic and membrane-bound ribosomes. During the co-translational translocation of secretory and membrane proteins, eukaryotic ribosomes dock with the protein conducting channel of the endoplasmic reticulum. An understanding of these processes will require the detailed structure of a eukaryotic ribosome. To this end, we have compared the three-dimensional structures of yeast and rabbit ribosomes at 24 A resolution. In general, we find that the active sites for protein synthesis and translocation have been highly conserved. It is interesting that a channel was visualized in the neck of the small subunit whose entrance is formed by a deep groove. By analogy with the prokaryotic small subunit, this channel may provide a conserved portal through which mRNA is threaded into the decoding center. In addition, both the small and large subunits are built around a dense tubular network. Our analysis further suggests that the nascent chain exit tunnel and the docking surface for the endoplasmic reticulum channel are formed by this network. We surmise that many of these features correspond to rRNA, based on biochemical and structural data. Ribosomal function is critically dependent on the specific association of small and large subunits. Our analysis of eukaryotic ribosomes reveals four conserved inter-subunit bridges with a geometry similar to that found in prokaryotes. In particular, a double-bridge connects the small subunit platform with the interface canyon on the large subunit. Moreover, a novel bridge is formed between the platform and the base of the L1 domain. Finally, size differences between mammalian and yeast large subunit rRNAs have been correlated with five expansion segments that form two large spines and three extended fingers. Overall, we find that expansion segments within the large subunit rRNA have been incorporated at positions distinct from the active sites for protein synthesis and translocation.

  5. Ribosome maturation in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Silengo, L; Altruda, F; Dotto, G P; Lacquaniti, F; Perlo, C; Turco, E; Mangiarotti, G

    1977-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro experiments have shown that processing of ribosomal RNA is a late event in ribosome biogenesis. The precursor form of RNA is probably necessary to speed up the assembly of ribomal proteins. Newly formed ribosomal particles which have already entered polyribosomes differ from mature ribosomes not only in their RNA content but also in their susceptibility to unfolding in low Mg concentration and to RNase attack. Final maturation of new ribosomes is probably dependent on their functioning in protein synthesis. Thus only those ribosomes which have proven to be functional may be converted into stable cellular structures.

  6. Purification of 70S ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Maria C; Maguire, Bruce; Lake, James A

    2015-03-02

    Here we describe the further purification of prokaryotic ribosomal particles obtained after the centrifugation of a crude cell lysate through a sucrose cushion. In this final purification step, a fraction containing ribosomes, ribosomal subunits, and polysomes is centrifuged through a 7%-30% (w/w) linear sucrose gradient to isolate tight couple 70S ribosomes, as well as dissociated 30S and 50S subunits. The tight couples fraction, or translationally active ribosome fraction, is composed of intact vacant ribosomes that can be used in cell-free translation systems.

  7. Ribosome dynamics during decoding

    PubMed Central

    Maracci, Cristina; Stark, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Elongation factors Tu (EF-Tu) and SelB are translational GTPases that deliver aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) to the ribosome. In each canonical round of translation elongation, aa-tRNAs, assisted by EF-Tu, decode mRNA codons and insert the respective amino acid into the growing peptide chain. Stop codons usually lead to translation termination; however, in special cases UGA codons are recoded to selenocysteine (Sec) with the help of SelB. Recruitment of EF-Tu and SelB together with their respective aa-tRNAs to the ribosome is a multistep process. In this review, we summarize recent progress in understanding the role of ribosome dynamics in aa-tRNA selection. We describe the path to correct codon recognition by canonical elongator aa-tRNA and Sec-tRNASec and discuss the local and global rearrangements of the ribosome in response to correct and incorrect aa-tRNAs. We present the mechanisms of GTPase activation and GTP hydrolysis of EF-Tu and SelB and summarize what is known about the accommodation of aa-tRNA on the ribosome after its release from the elongation factor. We show how ribosome dynamics ensures high selectivity for the cognate aa-tRNA and suggest that conformational fluctuations, induced fit and kinetic discrimination play major roles in maintaining the speed and fidelity of translation. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Perspectives on the ribosome’. PMID:28138068

  8. Centers of motion associated with EF-Tu binding to the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Paci, Maxim; Fox, George E

    2016-05-03

    Structural centers of motion (pivot points) in the ribosome have recently been identified by measurement of conformational changes in rRNA resulting from EF-G GTP hydrolysis. This series of measurements is extended here to the ribosome's interactions with the cofactor EF-Tu. Four recent EF-Tu bound ribosome structures were compared to unbound structures. A total of 16 pivots were identified, of which 4 are unique to the EF-Tu interaction. Pivots in the GTPase associated center and the sarcin-ricin loop omitted previously, are found to be mobile in response to both EF-Tu and EF-G binding. Pivots in the intersubunit bridge rRNAs are found to be cofactor specific. Head swiveling motions in the small subunit are observed in the EF-Tu bound structures that were trapped post GTP hydrolysis. As in the case of pivots associated with EF-G, the additional pivots described here are associated with weak points in the rRNA structures such as non-canonical pairs and bulge loops. The combined set of pivots should be regarded as a minimal set. Only several states available to the ribosome have been presented in this work. Future, precise crystal structures in conjunction with experimental data will likely show additional functional pivoting elements in the rRNA.

  9. The linkage between ribosomal crystallography, metal ions, heteropolytungstates and functional flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashan, Anat; Yonath, Ada

    2008-11-01

    Crystallography of ribosomes, the universal cell nucleoprotein assemblies facilitating the translation of the genetic-code into proteins, met with severe problems owing to the large size, complex structure, inherent flexibility and high conformational variability of the ribosome. For the case of the small ribosomal subunit, which caused extreme difficulties, post-crystallization treatment by minute amounts of a heteropolytungstate cluster allowed structure determination at atomic resolution. This cluster played a dual role: providing anomalous phasing power and dramatically increased the resolution, by stabilization of a selected functional conformation. Thus, four out of the fourteen clusters that bind to each of the crystallized small subunits are attached to a specific ribosomal protein in a fashion that may control a significant component of the subunit internal flexibility, by "gluing" symmetrical related subunits. Here, we highlight basic issues in the relationship between metal ions and macromolecules and present common traits controlling in the interactions between polymetalates and various macromolecules, which may be extended towards the exploitation of polymetalates for therapeutical treatment.

  10. Determination of the relative expression levels of rubisco small subunit genes in Arabidopsis by rapid amplification of cDNA ends.

    PubMed

    Yoon, M; Putterill, J J; Ross, G S; Laing, W A

    2001-04-15

    Multigene families are common in higher organisms. However, due to the close similarities between members, it is often difficult to assess the individual contribution of each gene to the overall expression of the family. In Arabidopsis thaliana, there are four genes encoding the small subunits (SSU) of ribulose-1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (rubisco) whose nucleotide sequences are up to 98.4% identical. In order to overcome the technical limitations associated with gene-specific probes (or primers) commonly used in existing methods, we developed a new gene expression assay based on the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) technique with a single pair of primers. With this RACE gene expression assay, we were able to determine the relative transcript levels between four Arabidopsis SSU genes. We found that the relative SSU gene expression differed significantly between plants grown at different temperatures. Our observation raises the possibility that an adaptation of rubisco to the environment may be achieved through the specific synthesis of the SSU proteins, which is determined by the relative expression levels between the SSU genes.

  11. Molecular evolution inferred from small subunit rRNA sequences: what does it tell us about phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy of the parabasalids?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viscogliosi, E.; Edgcomb, V. P.; Gerbod, D.; Noel, C.; Delgado-Viscogliosi, P.; Sogin, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The Parabasala are a primitive group of protists divided into two classes: the trichomonads and the hypermastigids. Until recently, phylogeny and taxonomy of parabasalids were mainly based on the comparative analysis of morphological characters primarily linked to the development of their cytoskeleton. Recent use of molecular markers, such as small subunit (SSU) rRNA has led to now insights into the systematics of the Parabasala and other groups of prolists. An updated phylogeny based on SSU rRNA is provided and compared to that inferred from ultrastructural data. The SSU rRNA phylogeny contradicts the dogma equating simple characters with pumitive characters. Hypermastigids, possessing a hyperdeveloped cytoskeleton, exhibit the most basal emergence in the parabasalid lineage. Other observations emerge from the SSU rRNA analysis, such as the secondary loss of some cytoskeleton structures in all representatives of the Monocercomonadidae, the existence of secondarily free living taxa (reversibility of parasitism) and the evidence against the co-evolution of the endobiotic parabasalids and their animal hosts. According to phylogenies based on SSU rRNA, all the trichomonad families are not monophyletic groups, putting into question the validity of current taxonomic assignments. The precise branching order of some taxa remains unclear, but this issue can possibly be addressed by the molecular analysis of additional parabasalids. The goal of such additional analyses would be to propose, in a near future, a revision of the taxonomy of this group of protists that takes into account both molecular and morphological data.

  12. Reconsideration of the phylogenetic positions of five peritrich genera, Vorticella, Pseudovorticella, Zoothamnopsis, Zoothamnium, and Epicarchesium (Ciliophora, Peritrichia, Sessilida), based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, Lifang; Song, Weibo; Warren, Alan; Shin, Mann Kyoon; Chen, Zigui; Ji, Daode; Sun, Ping

    2008-01-01

    In order to re-evaluate the systematics of sessilid peritrich ciliates, small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences were determined for 12 species belonging to five genera: Vorticella, Pseudovorticella, Epicarchesium, Zoothamnium, and Zoothamnopsis. Phylogenetic trees were deduced using Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods. The phylogenetic analyses suggest that (1) sessilids which have stalks with continuous myonemes that contract in a zig-zag fashion form a separate clade from those which have stalks that contract independently and in a spiral fashion, supporting the separation of the family Zoothamniidae from the family Vorticellidae and (2) Epicarchesium and Pseudovorticella, both of which have reticulate silverline systems, are more closely related to each other than to other vorticellids, suggesting that differences in the silverline system (i.e. transverse vs. reticulate) may be the result of genuine evolutionary divergence among sessilid peritrichs. However, the newly sequenced Zoothamnopsis sinica, which has a reticulate silverline pattern, nests within the unresolved Zoothamnium species that have transverse silverline patterns. Thus, there were at least two evolutions of the reticulate silverline pattern character state from a plesiomorphic transverse state in the peritrichid ciliates. The molecular work demonstrates the genus Zoothamnium to be paraphyletic in relation to morphological studies, and suggests that Astylozoon, Opisthonecta, and Vorticella microstoma possibly share a SSU rRNA secondary structure in the helix E10-1 region.

  13. CREB1 directly activates the transcription of ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2 and promotes the aggressiveness of human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zejun; Lin, Aifen; Chen, Jiaoe; Zhang, Xiaomin; Liu, Hong; Li, Hongzhang; Hu, Yanyan; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Jiangang; Qiu, Lanlan; Mei, Lingming; Shao, Jimin; Chen, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    As the small subunit of Ribonucleotide reductase (RR), RRM2 displays a very important role in various critical cellular processes such as cell proliferation, DNA repair, and senescence, etc. Importantly, RRM2 functions like a tumor driver in most types of cancer but little is known about the regulatory mechanism of RRM2 in cancer development. In this study, we found that the cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) acted as a transcription factor of RRM2 gene in human colorectal cancer (CRC). CREB1 directly bound to the promoter of RRM2 gene and induced its transcriptional activation. Knockdown of CREB1 decreased the expression of RRM2 at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, knockdown of RRM2 attenuated CREB1-induced aggressive phenotypes of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of the data from TCGA database and clinical CRC specimens with immunohistochemical staining also demonstrated a strong correlation between the co-expression of CREB1 and RRM2. Decreased disease survivals were observed in CRC patients with high expression levels of CREB1 or RRM2. Our results indicate CREB1 as a critical transcription factor of RRM2 which promotes tumor aggressiveness, and imply a significant correlation between CREB1 and RRM2 in CRC specimens. These may provide the possibility that CREB1 and RRM2 could be used as biomarkers or targets for CRC diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27801665

  14. A potential role for RNA turnover in the light regulation of plant gene expression: ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit in soybean.

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, B W; Meagher, R B

    1990-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding the small subunit (rbcS) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase was examined in soybean seedlings. Substantial discrepancies were detected between relative in vitro transcription rates and steady-state RNA levels in light- and dark-grown seedling leaves, indicating that rbcS RNA may be degraded more rapidly in light than in darkness. Additional data imply that the turnover mechanism is rapidly induced by light, maintained for some time in darkness, and that it may be negatively controlled by far-red light. The proposed RNA turnover system does not affect all RNAs equally since a soybean actin gene showed equivalent in vitro transcription rates and RNA levels in light and darkness. Soybean rbcS genes may be subject to a novel mode of control in which light-induced expression is accompanied by an increased rate of RNA degradation. Models for the specific regulation of rbcS RNA stability in response to light are presented. Images PMID:2356127

  15. Genetic diversity of microbial eukaryotes in anoxic sediment around fumaroles on a submarine caldera floor based on the small-subunit rDNA phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Takishita, Kiyotaka; Miyake, Hiroshi; Kawato, Masaru; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2005-06-01

    Recent culture-independent molecular analyses have shown the diversity and ecological importance of microbial eukaryotes (protists) in various marine environments. In the present study we directly extracted DNA from anoxic sediment near active fumaroles on a submarine caldera floor at a depth of 200 m and constructed genetic libraries of PCR-amplified eukaryotic small-subunit (SSU) rDNA. By sequencing cloned SSU rDNA of the libraries and their phylogenetic analyses, it was shown that most sequences have affiliations with known major lineages of eukaryotes (Cercozoa, Alveolata, stramenopiles and Opisthokonta). In particular, some sequences were closely related to those of representatives of eukaryotic parasites, such as Phagomyxa and Cryothecomonas of Cercozoa, Pirsonia of stramenopiles and Ichthyosporea of Opisthokonta, although it is not clear whether the organisms occur in free-living or parasitic forms. In addition, other sequences did not seem to be related to any described eukaryotic lineages suggesting the existence of novel eukaryotes at a high-taxonomic level in the sediment. The community composition of microbial eukaryotes in the sediment we surveyed was different overall from those of other anoxic marine environments previously investigated.

  16. Orosomucoid Proteins Interact with the Small Subunit of Serine Palmitoyltransferase and Contribute to Sphingolipid Homeostasis and Stress Responses in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Yin, Jian; Rong, Chan; Li, Kai-En; Wu, Jian-Xin; Huang, Li-Qun; Zeng, Hong-Yun; Sahu, Sunil Kumar; Yao, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), a pyridoxyl-5′-phosphate-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. In humans and yeast, orosomucoid proteins (ORMs) negatively regulate SPT and thus play an important role in maintaining sphingolipid levels. Despite the importance of sphingoid intermediates as bioactive molecules, the regulation of sphingolipid biosynthesis through SPT is not well understood in plants. Here, we identified and characterized the Arabidopsis thaliana ORMs, ORM1 and ORM2. Loss of function of both ORM1 and ORM2 (orm1 amiR-ORM2) stimulated de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis, leading to strong sphingolipid accumulation, especially of long-chain bases and ceramides. Yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays confirmed that ORM1 and ORM2 physically interact with the small subunit of SPT (ssSPT), indicating that ORMs inhibit ssSPT function. We found that orm1 amiR-ORM2 plants exhibited an early-senescence phenotype accompanied by H2O2 production at the cell wall and in mitochondria, active vesicular trafficking, and formation of cell wall appositions. Strikingly, the orm1 amiR-ORM2 plants showed increased expression of genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress and defenses and also had enhanced resistance to oxidative stress and pathogen infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that ORMs interact with SPT to regulate sphingolipid homeostasis and play a pivotal role in environmental stress tolerance in plants. PMID:27923879

  17. Kinetic analysis of pre-ribosome structure in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Swiatkowska, Agata; Wlotzka, Wiebke; Tuck, Alex; Barrass, J. David; Beggs, Jean D.; Tollervey, David

    2012-01-01

    Pre-ribosomal particles undergo numerous structural changes during maturation, but their high complexity and short lifetimes make these changes very difficult to follow in vivo. In consequence, pre-ribosome structure and composition have largely been inferred from purified particles and analyzed in vitro. Here we describe techniques for kinetic analyses of the changes in pre-ribosome structure in living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To allow this, in vivo structure probing by DMS modification was combined with affinity purification of newly synthesized 20S pre-rRNA over a time course of metabolic labeling with 4-thiouracil. To demonstrate that this approach is generally applicable, we initially analyzed the accessibility of the region surrounding cleavage site D site at the 3′ end of the mature 18S rRNA region of the pre-rRNA. This revealed a remarkably flexible structure throughout 40S subunit biogenesis, with little stable RNA–protein interaction apparent. Analysis of folding in the region of the 18S central pseudoknot was consistent with previous data showing U3 snoRNA–18S rRNA interactions. Dynamic changes in the structure of the hinge between helix 28 (H28) and H44 of pre-18S rRNA were consistent with recently reported interactions with the 3′ guide region of U3 snoRNA. Finally, analysis of the H18 region indicates that the RNA structure matures early, but additional protection appears subsequently, presumably reflecting protein binding. The structural analyses described here were performed on total, affinity-purified, newly synthesized RNA, so many classes of RNA and RNA–protein complex are potentially amenable to this approach. PMID:23093724

  18. Are there proteins between the ribosomal subunits? Hot tritium bombardment experiments.

    PubMed

    Yusupov, M M; Spirin, A S

    1986-03-03

    The hot tritium bombardment technique [(1976) Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 228, 1237-1238] was used for studying the surface localization of ribosomal proteins on Escherichia coli ribosomes. The degree of tritium labeling of proteins was considered as a measure of their exposure (surface localization). Proteins S1, S4, S7, S9 and/or S11, S12 and/or L20, S13, S18, S20, S21, L5, L6, L7/L12, L10, L11, L16, L17, L24, L26 and L27 were shown to be the most exposed on the ribosome surface. The sets of exposed ribosomal proteins on the surface of 70 S ribosomes, on the one hand, and the surfaces of 50 S and 30 S ribosomal subunits in the dissociated state, on the other, were compared. It was found that the dissociation of ribosomes into subunits did not result in exposure of additional ribosomal proteins. The conclusion was drawn that proteins are absent from the contacting surfaces of the ribosomal subunits.

  19. Expanding the ribosomal universe.

    PubMed

    Dinman, Jonathan D; Kinzy, Terri Goss

    2009-12-09

    In this issue of Structure, Taylor et al. (2009) present the most complete model of an eukaryotic ribosome to date. This achievement represents a critical milestone along the path to structurally defining the unique aspects of the eukaryotic protein synthetic machinery.

  20. Polymorphisms in the 18S rDNA gene of Cystoisospora belli and clinical features of cystoisosporosis in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Resende, Deisy V; Pedrosa, André L; Correia, Dalmo; Cabrine-Santos, Marlene; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Meira, Wendell S F; Oliveira-Silva, Márcia B

    2011-03-01

    Intraspecific variability among Cystoisospora belli isolates and its clinical implications in human cystoisosporosis have not been established. In this study, the restriction fragment length polymorphisms in a 1.8-kb amplicon of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) of the parasite was investigated in 20 C. belli-positive stool samples obtained from 15 HIV-infected patients. Diarrheic syndrome was observed in all patients with cystoisosporosis and the number of diarrheic episodes per patient during hospitalization ranged from 1 to 26 (mean of 9.64 ± 9.30), with a mean duration of 2 to 12 days (mean of 5.90 ± 3 days). Three restriction profiles (RF) were generated with MboII digestion, which were named RFI, RFII, and RFIII. Two isolates obtained from a patient with extraintestinal cystoisosporosis showed distinct restriction profiles with MboII. This study demonstrates that patients can be infected with different C. belli genotypes, and this information may be useful for identifying new C. belli genotypes infecting humans.

  1. Distribution of Mosquitoes in the South East of Argentina and First Report on the Analysis Based on 18S rDNA and COI Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Nieto, Leonardo M.; Maciá, Arnaldo; Parisi, Gustavo; Farina, Juan L.; Vidal-Domínguez, María E.; Perotti, M. Alejandra; Berón, Corina M.

    2013-01-01

    Although Mar del Plata is the most important city on the Atlantic coast of Argentina, mosquitoes inhabiting such area are almost uncharacterized. To increase our knowledge in their distribution, we sampled specimens of natural populations. After the morphological identification based on taxonomic keys, sequences of DNA from small ribosomal subunit (18S rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) genes were obtained from native species and the phylogenetic analysis of these sequences were done. Fourteen species from the genera Uranotaenia, Culex, Ochlerotatus and Psorophora were found and identified. Our 18S rDNA and COI-based analysis indicates the relationships among groups at the supra-species level in concordance with mosquito taxonomy. The introduction and spread of vectors and diseases carried by them are not known in Mar del Plata, but some of the species found in this study were reported as pathogen vectors. PMID:24098700

  2. The eukaryote-specific N-terminal extension of ribosomal protein S31 contributes to the assembly and function of 40S ribosomal subunits

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Martín-Villanueva, Sara; Murat, Guillaume; Lacombe, Thierry; Kressler, Dieter; de la Cruz, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The archaea-/eukaryote-specific 40S-ribosomal-subunit protein S31 is expressed as an ubiquitin fusion protein in eukaryotes and consists of a conserved body and a eukaryote-specific N-terminal extension. In yeast, S31 is a practically essential protein, which is required for cytoplasmic 20S pre-rRNA maturation. Here, we have studied the role of the N-terminal extension of the yeast S31 protein. We show that deletion of this extension partially impairs cell growth and 40S subunit biogenesis and confers hypersensitivity to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Moreover, the extension harbours a nuclear localization signal that promotes active nuclear import of S31, which associates with pre-ribosomal particles in the nucleus. In the absence of the extension, truncated S31 inefficiently assembles into pre-40S particles and two subpopulations of mature small subunits, one lacking and another one containing truncated S31, can be identified. Plasmid-driven overexpression of truncated S31 partially suppresses the growth and ribosome biogenesis defects but, conversely, slightly enhances the hypersensitivity to aminoglycosides. Altogether, these results indicate that the N-terminal extension facilitates the assembly of S31 into pre-40S particles and contributes to the optimal translational activity of mature 40S subunits but has only a minor role in cytoplasmic cleavage of 20S pre-rRNA at site D. PMID:27422873

  3. 13-Deoxytedanolide, a marine sponge-derived antitumor macrolide, binds to the 60S large ribosomal subunit.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Shinichi; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Yoshida, Minoru; Hirota, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2005-01-17

    13-Deoxytedanolide is a potent antitumor macrolide isolated from the marine sponge Mycale adhaerens. In spite of its remarkable activity, the mode of action of 13-deoxytedanolide has not been elucidated. [11-3H]-(11S)-13-Deoxydihydrotedanolide derived from the macrolide was used for identifying the target molecule from the yeast cell lysate. Fractionation of the binding protein revealed that the labeled 13-deoxytedanolide derivative strongly bound to the 80S ribosome as well as to the 60S large subunit, but not to the 40S small subunit. In agreement with this observation, 13-deoxytedanolide efficiently inhibited the polypeptide elongation. Interestingly, competition studies demonstrated that 13-deoxytedanolide shared the binding site on the 60S large subunit with pederin and its marine-derived analogues. These results indicate that 13-deoxytedanolide is a potent protein synthesis inhibitor and is the first macrolide to inhibit the eukaryotic ribosome.

  4. The ribosome structure controls and directs mRNA entry, translocation and exit dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kurkcuoglu, Ozge; Doruker, Pemra; Sen, Taner Z.; Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Jernigan, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    The protein-synthesizing ribosome undergoes large motions to effect the translocation of tRNAs and mRNA; here the domain motions of this system are explored with a coarse-grained elastic network model using normal mode analysis. Crystal structures are used to construct various model systems of the 70S complex with/without tRNA, elongation factor Tu and the ribosomal proteins. Computed motions reveal the well-known ratchet-like rotational motion of the large subunits, as well as the head rotation of the small subunit and the high flexibility of the L1 and L7/L12 stalks, even in the absence of ribosomal proteins. This result indicates that these experimentally observed motions during translocation are inherently controlled by the ribosomal shape and only partially dependent upon GTP hydrolysis. Normal mode analysis further reveals the mobility of A- and P-tRNAs to increase in the absence of the E-tRNA. In addition, the dynamics of the E-tRNA is affected by the absence of the ribosomal protein L1. The mRNA in the entrance tunnel interacts directly with helicase proteins S3 and S4, which constrain the mRNA in a clamp-like fashion, as well as with protein S5, which likely orients the mRNA to ensure correct translation. The ribosomal proteins S7, S11 and S18 may also be involved in assuring translation fidelity by constraining the mRNA at the exit site of the channel. The mRNA also interacts with the 16S 3’ end forming the Shine-Dalgarno complex at the initiation step; the 3’ end may act as a ‘hook’ to reel in the mRNA to facilitate its exit. PACS: 87.10.Pq; 87.15.bk; 87.15.kj; 87.16.dj; 87.16.dr PMID:19029596

  5. Isolation of ribosomes and polysomes.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Maria C; Maguire, Bruce; Lake, James A

    2015-03-02

    Here we describe a preparative differential centrifugation protocol for the isolation of ribosomes from a crude cell homogenate. The subcellular fraction obtained is enriched in ribosome monomers and polysomes. The protocol has been optimized for the homogenization and collection of the ribosomal fraction from prokaryotic cells, mammalian and plant tissues, reticulocytes, and chloroplasts. The quality of the ribosomal preparation is enhanced by the removal of the remaining cellular components and adsorbed proteins by pelleting through a sucrose cushion with a high concentration of monovalent salts, NH4Cl or KCl. The different components of the ribosomal fraction isolated using this protocol can be further purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation.

  6. The Small Subunit of Snapdragon Geranyl Diphosphate Synthase Modifies the Chain Length Specificity of Tobacco Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase in Planta[W

    PubMed Central

    Orlova, Irina; Nagegowda, Dinesh A.; Kish, Christine M.; Gutensohn, Michael; Maeda, Hiroshi; Varbanova, Marina; Fridman, Eyal; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Hanada, Atsushi; Kamiya, Yuji; Krichevsky, Alexander; Citovsky, Vitaly; Pichersky, Eran; Dudareva, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Geranyl diphosphate (GPP), the precursor of many monoterpene end products, is synthesized in plastids by a condensation of dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) in a reaction catalyzed by homodimeric or heterodimeric GPP synthase (GPPS). In the heterodimeric enzymes, a noncatalytic small subunit (GPPS.SSU) determines the product specificity of the catalytic large subunit, which may be either an active geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) or an inactive GGPPS-like protein. Here, we show that expression of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) GPPS.SSU in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants increased the total GPPS activity and monoterpene emission from leaves and flowers, indicating that the introduced catalytically inactive GPPS.SSU found endogenous large subunit partner(s) and formed an active snapdragon/tobacco GPPS in planta. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and in vitro enzyme analysis of individual and hybrid proteins revealed that two of four GGPPS-like candidates from tobacco EST databases encode bona fide GGPPS that can interact with snapdragon GPPS.SSU and form a functional GPPS enzyme in plastids. The formation of chimeric GPPS in transgenic plants also resulted in leaf chlorosis, increased light sensitivity, and dwarfism due to decreased levels of chlorophylls, carotenoids, and gibberellins. In addition, these transgenic plants had reduced levels of sesquiterpene emission, suggesting that the export of isoprenoid intermediates from the plastids into the cytosol was decreased. These results provide genetic evidence that GPPS.SSU modifies the chain length specificity of phylogenetically distant GGPPS and can modulate IPP flux distribution between GPP and GGPP synthesis in planta. PMID:20028839

  7. Targeted Disruption of the Gene Encoding the Murine Small Subunit of Carboxypeptidase N (CPN1) Causes Susceptibility to C5a Anaphylatoxin-Mediated Shock1

    PubMed Central

    Mueller-Ortiz, Stacey L.; Wang, Dachun; Morales, John E.; Li, Li; Chang, Jui-Yoa; Wetsel, Rick A.

    2015-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase N (CPN) is a plasma zinc metalloprotease, which consists of two enzymatically active small subunits (CPN1) and two large subunits (CPN2) that protect the protein from degradation. Historically, CPN has been implicated as a major regulator of inflammation by its enzymatic cleavage of functionally important arginine and lysine amino acids from potent phlogistic molecules, such as the complement anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Because of no known complete CPN deficiencies, the biological impact of CPN in vivo has been difficult to evaluate. Here, we report the generation of a mouse with complete CPN deficiency by targeted disruption of the CPN1 gene. CPN1−/− mice were hypersensitive to lethal anaphylactic shock due to acute complement activation by cobra venom factor. This hypersensitivity was completely resolved in CPN1−/−/C5aR−/− but not in CPN1−/−/C3aR−/− mice. Moreover, CPN1−/− mice given C5a i.v., but not C3a, experienced 100% mortality. This C5a-induced mortality was reduced to 20% when CPN1−/− mice were treated with an antihistamine before C5a challenge. These studies describe for the first time a complete deficiency of CPN and demonstrate 1) that CPN plays a requisite role in regulating the lethal effects of anaphylatoxin-mediated shock, 2) that these lethal effects are mediated predominantly by C5a-induced histamine release, and 3) that C3a does not contribute significantly to shock following acute complement activation. PMID:19414808

  8. Soybean ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit; mechanisms and determinants of RNA turnover: Annual progress report for the period June 1, 1987 through May 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, R.

    1988-01-01

    SRS1 and SRS4 are two closely related soybean ribulose -1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (SSU) genes. The promoters from both SRS1 and SRS4 can be fused to a neomycin phosphotransferase gene and these fusions produce similar levels of kanamycin resistance in transgenic petunia plants. The expression of SRS1 and SRS4 has been shown to be controlled at the level of transcription, and this transcriptional control is phytochrome mediated. Together these genes account for 2-3% of the total transcription in light-grown soybean seedlings or expanding soybean leaves. Recent experiments analyzing transcription rates of SRS1 and SRS4, steady state levels of their total and poly A+ RNA and frequency of their cDNAs in a soybean RNA library have led us to hypothesize that the expression of these two genes may also be controlled at the level of RNA turnover. Despite the 30-50 fold difference in transcription of these genes in seedlings grown in light, the steady state levels of RNA are only 4-8 fold higher in the light. When plants are shifted from darkness to light, accumulation of RNA lags far behind the striking transcriptional induction. In plants shifted from light to darkness, SRS1 transcription takes 24 hours to drop to dark-grown levels, and the steady state RNA levels take 72 hours to decay to dark-grown levels. On the other hand light-grown plants treated with far-red light shut down SRS1 transcription immediately, and the steady state levels of SSU RNA also drop rapidly. We have evidence suggesting striking differential turnover of the RNA products of SRS1 and SRS4, the SRS1 RNA being perhaps 5-10 times more stable than the SRS4 RNA.

  9. Large scale explorative oligonucleotide probe selection for thousands of genetic groups on a computing grid: application to phylogenetic probe design using a curated small subunit ribosomal RNA gene database.

    PubMed

    Jaziri, Faouzi; Peyretaillade, Eric; Missaoui, Mohieddine; Parisot, Nicolas; Cipière, Sébastien; Denonfoux, Jérémie; Mahul, Antoine; Peyret, Pierre; Hill, David R C

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic Oligonucleotide Arrays (POAs) were recently adapted for studying the huge microbial communities in a flexible and easy-to-use way. POA coupled with the use of explorative probes to detect the unknown part is now one of the most powerful approaches for a better understanding of microbial community functioning. However, the selection of probes remains a very difficult task. The rapid growth of environmental databases has led to an exponential increase of data to be managed for an efficient design. Consequently, the use of high performance computing facilities is mandatory. In this paper, we present an efficient parallelization method to select known and explorative oligonucleotide probes at large scale using computing grids. We implemented a software that generates and monitors thousands of jobs over the European Computing Grid Infrastructure (EGI). We also developed a new algorithm for the construction of a high-quality curated phylogenetic database to avoid erroneous design due to bad sequence affiliation. We present here the performance and statistics of our method on real biological datasets based on a phylogenetic prokaryotic database at the genus level and a complete design of about 20,000 probes for 2,069 genera of prokaryotes.

  10. Small subunit ribosomal RNA sequence links the myxospore stage of Henneguya mississippiensis n. sp. from channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus to an actinospore released by the benthic oligochaete Dero digitata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are more than 200 species of Henneguya described from fish. Of these, only three life cycles have been determined, identifying the actinospore and myxospore stages from their respective hosts. Two of these life cycles involve the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the freshwater oligo...

  11. Structural insights into ribosome translocation

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Clarence

    2016-01-01

    During protein synthesis, tRNA and mRNA are translocated from the A to P to E sites of the ribosome thus enabling the ribosome to translate one codon of mRNA after the other. Ribosome translocation along mRNA is induced by the universally conserved ribosome GTPase, elongation factor G (EF‐G) in bacteria and elongation factor 2 (EF‐2) in eukaryotes. Recent structural and single‐molecule studies revealed that tRNA and mRNA translocation within the ribosome is accompanied by cyclic forward and reverse rotations between the large and small ribosomal subunits parallel to the plane of the intersubunit interface. In addition, during ribosome translocation, the ‘head’ domain of small ribosomal subunit undergoes forward‐ and back‐swiveling motions relative to the rest of the small ribosomal subunit around the axis that is orthogonal to the axis of intersubunit rotation. tRNA/mRNA translocation is also coupled to the docking of domain IV of EF‐G into the A site of the small ribosomal subunit that converts the thermally driven motions of the ribosome and tRNA into the forward translocation of tRNA/mRNA inside the ribosome. Despite recent and enormous progress made in the understanding of the molecular mechanism of ribosome translocation, the sequence of structural rearrangements of the ribosome, EF‐G and tRNA during translocation is still not fully established and awaits further investigation. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:620–636. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1354 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27117863

  12. Ribosome recycling induces optimal translation rate at low ribosomal availability.

    PubMed

    Marshall, E; Stansfield, I; Romano, M C

    2014-09-06

    During eukaryotic cellular protein synthesis, ribosomal translation is made more efficient through interaction between the two ends of the messenger RNA (mRNA). Ribosomes reaching the 3' end of the mRNA can thus recycle and begin translation again on the same mRNA, the so-called 'closed-loop' model. Using a driven diffusion lattice model of translation, we study the effects of ribosome recycling on the dynamics of ribosome flow and density on the mRNA. We show that ribosome recycling induces a substantial increase in ribosome current. Furthermore, for sufficiently large values of the recycling rate, the lattice does not transition directly from low to high ribosome density, as seen in lattice models without recycling. Instead, a maximal current phase becomes accessible for much lower values of the initiation rate, and multiple phase transitions occur over a wide region of the phase plane. Crucially, we show that in the presence of ribosome recycling, mRNAs can exhibit a peak in protein production at low values of the initiation rate, beyond which translation rate decreases. This has important implications for translation of certain mRNAs, suggesting that there is an optimal concentration of ribosomes at which protein synthesis is maximal, and beyond which translational efficiency is impaired.

  13. The SILVA ribosomal RNA gene database project: improved data processing and web-based tools.

    PubMed

    Quast, Christian; Pruesse, Elmar; Yilmaz, Pelin; Gerken, Jan; Schweer, Timmy; Yarza, Pablo; Peplies, Jörg; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2013-01-01

    SILVA (from Latin silva, forest, http://www.arb-silva.de) is a comprehensive web resource for up to date, quality-controlled databases of aligned ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences from the Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota domains and supplementary online services. The referred database release 111 (July 2012) contains 3 194 778 small subunit and 288 717 large subunit rRNA gene sequences. Since the initial description of the project, substantial new features have been introduced, including advanced quality control procedures, an improved rRNA gene aligner, online tools for probe and primer evaluation and optimized browsing, searching and downloading on the website. Furthermore, the extensively curated SILVA taxonomy and the new non-redundant SILVA datasets provide an ideal reference for high-throughput classification of data from next-generation sequencing approaches.

  14. The SILVA ribosomal RNA gene database project: improved data processing and web-based tools

    PubMed Central

    Quast, Christian; Pruesse, Elmar; Yilmaz, Pelin; Gerken, Jan; Schweer, Timmy; Yarza, Pablo; Peplies, Jörg; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2013-01-01

    SILVA (from Latin silva, forest, http://www.arb-silva.de) is a comprehensive web resource for up to date, quality-controlled databases of aligned ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences from the Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota domains and supplementary online services. The referred database release 111 (July 2012) contains 3 194 778 small subunit and 288 717 large subunit rRNA gene sequences. Since the initial description of the project, substantial new features have been introduced, including advanced quality control procedures, an improved rRNA gene aligner, online tools for probe and primer evaluation and optimized browsing, searching and downloading on the website. Furthermore, the extensively curated SILVA taxonomy and the new non-redundant SILVA datasets provide an ideal reference for high-throughput classification of data from next-generation sequencing approaches. PMID:23193283

  15. Complete nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence amplification and molecular analyses of Bangia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiajie; Jiang, Bo; Chai, Sanming; He, Yuan; Zhu, Jianyi; Shen, Zonggen; Shen, Songdong

    2016-09-01

    Filamentous Bangia, which are distributed extensively throughout the world, have simple and similar morphological characteristics. Scientists can classify these organisms using molecular markers in combination with morphology. We successfully sequenced the complete nuclear ribosomal DNA, approximately 13 kb in length, from a marine Bangia population. We further analyzed the small subunit ribosomal DNA gene (nrSSU) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence regions along with nine other marine, and two freshwater Bangia samples from China. Pairwise distances of the nrSSU and 5.8S ribosomal DNA gene sequences show the marine samples grouping together with low divergences (00.003; 0-0.006, respectively) from each other, but high divergences (0.123-0.126; 0.198, respectively) from freshwater samples. An exception is the marine sample collected from Weihai, which shows high divergence from both other marine samples (0.063-0.065; 0.129, respectively) and the freshwater samples (0.097; 0.120, respectively). A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree based on a combined SSU-ITS dataset with maximum likelihood method shows the samples divided into three clades, with the two marine sample clades containing Bangia spp. from North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia; and one freshwater clade, containing Bangia atropurpurea from North America and China.

  16. The Fragmented Mitochondrial Ribosomal RNAs of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Feagin, Jean E.; Harrell, Maria Isabel; Lee, Jung C.; Coe, Kevin J.; Sands, Bryan H.; Cannone, Jamie J.; Tami, Germaine; Schnare, Murray N.; Gutell, Robin R.

    2012-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial genome in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is most unusual. Over half the genome is composed of the genes for three classic mitochondrial proteins: cytochrome oxidase subunits I and III and apocytochrome b. The remainder encodes numerous small RNAs, ranging in size from 23 to 190 nt. Previous analysis revealed that some of these transcripts have significant sequence identity with highly conserved regions of large and small subunit rRNAs, and can form the expected secondary structures. However, these rRNA fragments are not encoded in linear order; instead, they are intermixed with one another and the protein coding genes, and are coded on both strands of the genome. This unorthodox arrangement hindered the identification of transcripts corresponding to other regions of rRNA that are highly conserved and/or are known to participate directly in protein synthesis. Principal Findings The identification of 14 additional small mitochondrial transcripts from P. falcipaurm and the assignment of 27 small RNAs (12 SSU RNAs totaling 804 nt, 15 LSU RNAs totaling 1233 nt) to specific regions of rRNA are supported by multiple lines of evidence. The regions now represented are highly similar to those of the small but contiguous mitochondrial rRNAs of Caenorhabditis elegans. The P. falciparum rRNA fragments cluster on the interfaces of the two ribosomal subunits in the three-dimensional structure of the ribosome. Significance All of the rRNA fragments are now presumed to have been identified with experimental methods, and nearly all of these have been mapped onto the SSU and LSU rRNAs. Conversely, all regions of the rRNAs that are known to be directly associated with protein synthesis have been identified in the P. falciparum mitochondrial genome and RNA transcripts. The fragmentation of the rRNA in the P. falciparum mitochondrion is the most extreme example of any rRNA fragmentation discovered. PMID:22761677

  17. BALANCED PRODUCTION OF RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Robert P.

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic ribosomes contain one molecule each of 79 different proteins. The genes encoding these proteins are usually at widely scattered loci and have distinctive promoters with certain common features. This minireview discusses the means by which cells manage to balance the production of ribosomal proteins so as to end up with equimolar quantities in the ribosome. Regulation at all levels of gene expression, from transcription to protein turnover, is considered. PMID:17689889

  18. Isolation of ribosomes by chromatography.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Bruce A

    2015-04-01

    Mixed-mode chromatography on cysteine-SulfoLink resin efficiently separates ribosomes from cell lysates and is particularly effective at rapidly removing endogenous proteases and nucleases, resulting in ribosomes of improved purity, integrity, and activity. Binding occurs partly by anion exchange of the RNA of the ribosomes, so that cells must be lysed in a buffer of moderate ionic strength (conductivity no more than 20 mS for chromatography of bacterial ribosomes) without any highly charged additives (e.g., heparin, which is used to inhibit RNases in yeast). A robust protocol for Escherichia coli is given here as an example.

  19. Ribonuclease selection for ribosome profiling

    PubMed Central

    Gerashchenko, Maxim V.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2017-01-01

    Ribosome profiling has emerged as a powerful method to assess global gene translation, but methodological and analytical challenges often lead to inconsistencies across labs and model organisms. A critical issue in ribosome profiling is nuclease treatment of ribosome–mRNA complexes, as it is important to ensure both stability of ribosomal particles and complete conversion of polysomes to monosomes. We performed comparative ribosome profiling in yeast and mice with various ribonucleases including I, A, S7 and T1, characterized their cutting preferences, trinucleotide periodicity patterns and coverage similarities across coding sequences, and showed that they yield comparable estimations of gene expression when ribosome integrity is not compromised. However, ribosome coverage patterns of individual transcripts had little in common between the ribonucleases. We further examined their potency at converting polysomes to monosomes across other commonly used model organisms, including bacteria, nematodes and fruit flies. In some cases, ribonuclease treatment completely degraded ribosome populations. Ribonuclease T1 was the only enzyme that preserved ribosomal integrity while thoroughly converting polysomes to monosomes in all examined species. This study provides a guide for ribonuclease selection in ribosome profiling experiments across most common model systems. PMID:27638886

  20. Ribosomal DNA evolution and phylogeny in Aloe (Asphodelaceae).

    PubMed

    Adams, S P; Leitch, I J; Bennett, M D; Chase, M W; Leitch, A R

    2000-11-01

    All Aloe taxa (∼400 species) share a conserved bimodal karyotype with a basic genome of four large and three small submetacentric/acrocentric chromosomes. We investigated the physical organization of 18S-5.8S-26S and 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to 13 Aloe species. The organization was compared with a phylogenetic tree of 28 species (including the 13 used for FISH) constructed by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA. The phylogeny showed little divergence within Aloe, although distinct, well-supported clades were found. FISH analysis of 5S rDNA distribution showed a similar interstitial location on a large chromosome in all species examined. In contrast, the distribution of 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA was variable, with differences in number, location, and size of loci found between species. Nevertheless, within well-supported clades, all species had the same organizational patterns. Thus, despite the striking stability of karyotype structure and location of 5S rDNA, the distribution of 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA is not so constrained and has clearly changed during Aloe speciation.

  1. Dynamics of ribosome scanning and recycling revealed by translation complex profiling.

    PubMed

    Archer, Stuart K; Shirokikh, Nikolay E; Beilharz, Traude H; Preiss, Thomas

    2016-07-28

    Regulation of messenger RNA translation is central to eukaryotic gene expression control. Regulatory inputs are specified by them RNA untranslated regions (UTRs) and often target translation initiation. Initiation involves binding of the 40S ribosomal small subunit (SSU) and associated eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs)near the mRNA 5′ cap; the SSU then scans in the 3′ direction until it detects the start codon and is joined by the 60S ribosomal large subunit (LSU) to form the 80S ribosome. Scanning and other dynamic aspects of the initiation model have remained as conjectures because methods to trap early intermediates were lacking. Here we uncover the dynamics of the complete translation cycle in live yeast cells using translation complex profile sequencing (TCP-seq), a method developed from the ribosome profiling approach. We document scanning by observing SSU footprints along 5′ UTRs. Scanning SSU have 5′-extended footprints (up to~75 nucleotides), indicative of additional interactions with mRNA emerging from the exit channel, promoting forward movement. We visualized changes in initiation complex conformation as SSU footprints coalesced into three major sizes at start codons (19, 29 and 37 nucleotides). These share the same 5′ start site but differ at the 3′ end, reflecting successive changes at the entry channel from an open to a closed state following start codon recognition. We also observe SSU 'lingering' at stop codons after LSU departure. Our results underpin mechanistic models of translation initiation and termination, built on decades of biochemical and structural investigation, with direct genome-wide in vivo evidence. Our approach captures ribosomal complexes at all phases of translation and will aid in studying translation dynamics in diverse cellular contexts. Dysregulation of translation is common in disease and, for example, SSU scanning is a target of anti-cancer drug development. TCP-seq will prove useful in discerning differences

  2. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Schoch, Conrad L.; Seifert, Keith A.; Huhndorf, Sabine; Robert, Vincent; Spouge, John L.; Levesque, C. André; Chen, Wen; Bolchacova, Elena; Voigt, Kerstin; Crous, Pedro W.; Miller, Andrew N.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Aime, M. Catherine; An, Kwang-Deuk; Bai, Feng-Yan; Barreto, Robert W.; Begerow, Dominik; Bergeron, Marie-Josée; Blackwell, Meredith; Boekhout, Teun; Bogale, Mesfin; Boonyuen, Nattawut; Burgaz, Ana R.; Buyck, Bart; Cai, Lei; Cai, Qing; Cardinali, G.; Chaverri, Priscila; Coppins, Brian J.; Crespo, Ana; Cubas, Paloma; Cummings, Craig; Damm, Ulrike; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Del-Prado, Ruth; Dentinger, Bryn; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Douglas, Brian; Dueñas, Margarita; Duong, Tuan A.; Eberhardt, Ursula; Edwards, Joan E.; Elshahed, Mostafa S.; Fliegerova, Katerina; Furtado, Manohar; García, Miguel A.; Ge, Zai-Wei; Griffith, Gareth W.; Griffiths, K.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Groenewald, Marizeth; Grube, Martin; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Guo, Liang-Dong; Hagen, Ferry; Hambleton, Sarah; Hamelin, Richard C.; Hansen, Karen; Harrold, Paul; Heller, Gregory; Herrera, Cesar; Hirayama, Kazuyuki; Hirooka, Yuuri; Ho, Hsiao-Man; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Hofstetter, Valérie; Högnabba, Filip; Hollingsworth, Peter M.; Hong, Seung-Beom; Hosaka, Kentaro; Houbraken, Jos; Hughes, Karen; Huhtinen, Seppo; Hyde, Kevin D.; James, Timothy; Johnson, Eric M.; Johnson, Joan E.; Johnston, Peter R.; Jones, E.B. Gareth; Kelly, Laura J.; Kirk, Paul M.; Knapp, Dániel G.; Kõljalg, Urmas; Kovács, Gábor M.; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Landvik, Sara; Leavitt, Steven D.; Liggenstoffer, Audra S.; Liimatainen, Kare; Lombard, Lorenzo; Luangsa-ard, J. Jennifer; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Maganti, Harinad; Maharachchikumbura, Sajeewa S. N.; Martin, María P.; May, Tom W.; McTaggart, Alistair R.; Methven, Andrew S.; Meyer, Wieland; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; Mongkolsamrit, Suchada; Nagy, László G.; Nilsson, R. Henrik; Niskanen, Tuula; Nyilasi, Ildikó; Okada, Gen; Okane, Izumi; Olariaga, Ibai; Otte, Jürgen; Papp, Tamás; Park, Duckchul; Petkovits, Tamás; Pino-Bodas, Raquel; Quaedvlieg, William; Raja, Huzefa A.; Redecker, Dirk; Rintoul, Tara L.; Ruibal, Constantino; Sarmiento-Ramírez, Jullie M.; Schmitt, Imke; Schüßler, Arthur; Shearer, Carol; Sotome, Kozue; Stefani, Franck O.P.; Stenroos, Soili; Stielow, Benjamin; Stockinger, Herbert; Suetrong, Satinee; Suh, Sung-Oui; Sung, Gi-Ho; Suzuki, Motofumi; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Tedersoo, Leho; Telleria, M. Teresa; Tretter, Eric; Untereiner, Wendy A.; Urbina, Hector; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Vialle, Agathe; Vu, Thuy Duong; Walther, Grit; Wang, Qi-Ming; Wang, Yan; Weir, Bevan S.; Weiß, Michael; White, Merlin M.; Xu, Jianping; Yahr, Rebecca; Yang, Zhu L.; Yurkov, Andrey; Zamora, Juan-Carlos; Zhang, Ning; Zhuang, Wen-Ying; Schindel, David

    2012-01-01

    Six DNA regions were evaluated as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life, by a multinational, multilaboratory consortium. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it is difficult to amplify in fungi, often includes large introns, and can be insufficiently variable. Three subunits from the nuclear ribosomal RNA cistron were compared together with regions of three representative protein-coding genes (largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and minichromosome maintenance protein). Although the protein-coding gene regions often had a higher percent of correct identification compared with ribosomal markers, low PCR amplification and sequencing success eliminated them as candidates for a universal fungal barcode. Among the regions of the ribosomal cistron, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has the highest probability of successful identification for the broadest range of fungi, with the most clearly defined barcode gap between inter- and intraspecific variation. The nuclear ribosomal large subunit, a popular phylogenetic marker in certain groups, had superior species resolution in some taxonomic groups, such as the early diverging lineages and the ascomycete yeasts, but was otherwise slightly inferior to the ITS. The nuclear ribosomal small subunit has poor species-level resolution in fungi. ITS will be formally proposed for adoption as the primary fungal barcode marker to the Consortium for the Barcode of Life, with the possibility that supplementary barcodes may be developed for particular narrowly circumscribed taxonomic groups. PMID:22454494

  3. Mechanistic insight into the ribosome biogenesis functions of the ancient protein KsgA

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Keith; Rife, Jason P.; Culver, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Summary While the general blueprint of ribosome biogenesis is evolutionarily conserved, most details have diverged considerably. A striking exception to this divergence is the universally conserved KsgA/Dim1p enzyme family, which modifies two adjacent adenosines in the terminal helix of small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA). While localization of KsgA on 30S subunits (SSUs) and genetic interaction data have suggested that KsgA acts as a ribosome biogenesis factor, mechanistic details and a rationale for its extreme conservation are still lacking. To begin to address these questions we have characterized the function of E. coli KsgA in vivo using both a ksgA deletion strain and a methyltransferase deficient form of this protein. Our data reveals cold sensitivity and altered ribosomal profiles are associated with a ΔksgA genotype in E. coli. Our work also indicates that loss of KsgA alters 16S rRNA processing. These findings allow KsgAs role in SSU biogenesis to be integrated into the network of other identified factors. Moreover, a methyltransferase-inactive form of KsgA, which we show to be deleterious to cell growth, profoundly impairs ribosome biogenesis prompting discussion of KsgA as a possible anti-microbial drug target. These unexpected data suggest that methylation is a second layer of function for KsgA and that its critical role is as a supervisor of biogenesis of SSUs in vivo. These new findings and this proposed regulatory role offer a mechanistic explanation for the extreme conservation of the KsgA/Dim1p enzyme family. PMID:18990185

  4. Cryo-EM structure of the tetracycline resistance protein TetM in complex with a translating ribosome at 3.9-Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Arenz, Stefan; Nguyen, Fabian; Beckmann, Roland; Wilson, Daniel N.

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome protection proteins (RPPs) confer resistance to tetracycline by binding to the ribosome and chasing the drug from its binding site. Current models for RPP action are derived from 7.2- to 16-Å resolution structures of RPPs bound to vacant or nontranslating ribosomes. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the RPP TetM in complex with a translating ribosome at 3.9-Å resolution. The structure reveals the contacts of TetM with the ribosome, including interaction between the conserved and functionally critical C-terminal extension of TetM with a unique splayed conformation of nucleotides A1492 and A1493 at the decoding center of the small subunit. The resolution enables us to unambiguously model the side chains of the amino acid residues comprising loop III in domain IV of TetM, revealing that the tyrosine residues Y506 and Y507 are not responsible for drug-release as suggested previously but rather for intrafactor contacts that appear to stabilize the conformation of loop III. Instead, Pro509 at the tip of loop III is located directly within the tetracycline binding site where it interacts with nucleotide C1054 of the 16S rRNA, such that RPP action uses Pro509, rather than Y506/Y507, to directly dislodge and release tetracycline from the ribosome. PMID:25870267

  5. Ribosomal vaccines. I. Immunogenicity of ribosomal fractions isolated from Salmonella typhimurium and Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W

    1972-06-01

    The immunogenicity of ribosomes and ribosomal subfractions isolated from Yersina pestis and Salmonella typhimurium has been studied. Ribosomes and ribosomal protein isolated from S. typhimurium protected mice against lethal challenge. Ribosomal ribonucleic acid isolated by phenol extraction failed to induce any significant level of protection in mice. None of the ribosomes or ribosomal subfractions isolated from Y. pestis were effective in inducing immunity to lethal challenge. These results suggest that the immunogen of the ribosomal vaccine is protein.

  6. Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Wheat Rhizosphere by Sequencing of Cloned PCR-Amplified Genes Encoding 18S rRNA and Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Eric; Leeflang, Paula; Glandorf, Boet; Dirk van Elsas, Jan; Wernars, Karel

    1999-01-01

    Like bacteria, fungi play an important role in the soil ecosystem. As only a small fraction of the fungi present in soil can be cultured, conventional microbiological techniques yield only limited information on the composition and dynamics of fungal communities in soil. DNA-based methods do not depend on the culturability of microorganisms, and therefore they offer an attractive alternative for the study of complex fungal community structures. For this purpose, we designed various PCR primers that allow the specific amplification of fungal 18S-ribosomal-DNA (rDNA) sequences, even in the presence of nonfungal 18S rDNA. DNA was extracted from the wheat rhizosphere, and 18S rDNA gene banks were constructed in Escherichia coli by cloning PCR products generated with primer pairs EF4-EF3 (1.4 kb) and EF4-fung5 (0.5 kb). Fragments of 0.5 kb from the cloned inserts were sequenced and compared to known rDNA sequences. Sequences from all major fungal taxa were amplified by using both primer pairs. As predicted by computer analysis, primer pair EF4-EF3 appeared slightly biased to amplify Basidiomycota and Zygomycota, whereas EF4-fung5 amplified mainly Ascomycota. The 61 clones that were sequenced matched the sequences of 24 different species in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) database. Similarity values ranged from 0.676 to 1. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) analysis of the fungal community in the wheat rhizosphere of a microcosm experiment was carried out after amplification of total DNA with both primer pairs. This resulted in reproducible, distinctive fingerprints, confirming the difference in amplification specificity. Clear banding patterns were obtained with soil and rhizosphere samples by using both primer sets in combination. By comparing the electrophoretic mobility of community fingerprint bands to that of the bands obtained with separate clones, some could be tentatively identified. While 18S-rDNA sequences do not always provide the taxonomic

  7. Ribosomal DNA sequence of Nucleospora salmonis Hedrick, Groff and Baxa, 1991 (Microsporea:Enterocytozoonidae): implications for phylogeny and nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Docker, M F; Kent, M L; Hervio, D M; Khattra, J S; Weiss, L M; Cali, A; Devlin, R H

    1997-01-01

    Rules of zoological nomenclature, morphological data, and ribosomal DNA sequence data support the validity of the genus Nucleospora, and its placement in the family Enterocytozoonidae. Although Nucleospora exhibits most of the distinguishing morphological characteristics of the family Enterocytozoonidae Cali and Owen, 1990, the distinctively different hosts (fish and humans, respectively) and sites of development (the nuclei of immature blood cells and the cytoplasm of enterocytes) support the placement of Nucleospora and Enterocytozoon into separate genera. Ribosomal DNA sequence comparisons between Nucleospora salmonis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi showed 19.8% genetic divergence in the large and small subunit regions. Although more inter- and intrageneric comparisons are needed before percent homology of ribosomal DNA can be used as a criterion for the separation of genera, the genetic divergence between the two species is sufficiently large to deter suppression of the genus Nucleospora as a junior synonym of Enterocytozoon. A polymerase chain reaction test for the detection of N. salmonis in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), based on N. salmonis-specific ribosomal DNA sequence, is described.

  8. A Ribosomal Protein AgRPS3aE from Halophilic Aspergillus glaucus Confers Salt Tolerance in Heterologous Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xilong; Liu, Yiling; Xie, Lixia; Liu, Xiaodan; Wei, Yi; Zhou, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Shihong

    2015-01-01

    High salt in soils is one of the abiotic stresses that significantly reduces crop yield, although saline lands are considered potential resources arable for agriculture. Currently, genetic engineering for enhancing salt tolerance is being tested as an efficient and viable strategy for crop improvement. We previously characterized a large subunit of the ribosomal protein RPL44, which is involved in osmotic stress in the extremely halophilic fungus Aspergillus glaucus. Here, we screened another ribosomal protein (AgRPS3aE) that also produced high-salt tolerance in yeast. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that AgRPS3aE encodes a 29.2 kDa small subunit of a ribosomal protein belonging to the RPS3Ae family in eukaryotes. To further confirm its protective function against salinity, we expressed AgRPS3aE in three heterologous systems, the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and two model plants Arabidopsis and tobacco. Overexpression of AgRPS3aE in all tested transformants significantly alleviated stress symptoms compared with controls, suggesting that AgRPS3aE functions not only in fungi but also in plants. Considering that ribosomal proteins are housekeeping components in organisms from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, we propose that AgRPS3aE is one of the optimal genes for improving high-salt tolerance in crops. PMID:25642759

  9. Phylogenetic classification of the frog pathogen Amphibiothecum (Dermosporidium) penneri based on small ribosomal subunit sequencing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feldman, S.H.; Wimsatt, J.H.; Green, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    We determined 1,600 base pairs of DNA sequence in the 18S small ribosomal subunit from two geographically distinct isolates of Dermosporidium penneri. Maximum likelihood and parsimony analysis of these sequences place D. penneri in the order Dermocystida of the class Mesomycetozoea. The 18S rRNA sequences from these two isolates only differ within a single region of 16 contiguous nucleotides. Based on the distant phylogenetic relationship of these organisms to Amphibiocystidium ranae and similarity to Sphaerothecum destruens we propose the organism be renamed Amphibiothecum penneri.

  10. Ribosomal Peptide Natural Products: Bridging the Ribosomal and Nonribosomal Worlds

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, John A.; Donia, Mohamed S.; Schmidt, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    Ribosomally synthesized bacterial natural products rival the nonribosomal peptides in their structural and functional diversity. The last decade has seen substantial progress in the identification and characterization of biosynthetic pathways leading to ribosomal peptide natural products with new and unusual structural motifs. In some of these cases, the motifs are similar to those found in nonribosomal peptides, and many are constructed by convergent or even paralogous enzymes. Here, we summarize the major structural and biosynthetic categories of ribosomally synthesized bacterial natural products and, where applicable, compare them to their homologs from nonribosomal biosynthesis. PMID:19642421

  11. Comparison of potential diatom 'barcode' genes (the 18S rRNA gene and ITS, COI, rbcL) and their effectiveness in discriminating and determining species taxonomy in the Bacillariophyta.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liliang; Sui, Zhenghong; Zhang, Shu; Ren, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Diatoms form an enormous group of photoautotrophic micro-eukaryotes and play a crucial role in marine ecology. In this study, we evaluated typical genes to determine whether they were effective at different levels of diatom clustering analysis to assess the potential of these regions for barcoding taxa. Our test genes included nuclear rRNA genes (the nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene and the 5.8S rRNA gene+ITS-2), a mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c-oxidase subunit 1, COI), a chloroplast gene [ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL)] and the universal plastid amplicon (UPA). Calculated genetic divergence was highest for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS; 5.8S+ITS-2) (p-distance of 1.569, 85.84% parsimony-informative sites) and COI (6.084, 82.14%), followed by the 18S rRNA gene (0.139, 57.69%), rbcL (0.120, 42.01%) and UPA (0.050, 14.97%), which indicated that ITS and COI were highly divergent compared with the other tested genes, and that their nucleotide compositions were variable within the whole group of diatoms. Bayesian inference (BI) analysis showed that the phylogenetic trees generated from each gene clustered diatoms at different phylogenetic levels. The 18S rRNA gene was better than the other genes in clustering higher diatom taxa, and both the 18S rRNA gene and rbcL performed well in clustering some lower taxa. The COI region was able to barcode species of some genera within the Bacillariophyceae. ITS was a potential marker for DNA based-taxonomy and DNA barcoding of Thalassiosirales, while species of Cyclotella, Skeletonema and Stephanodiscus gathered in separate clades, and were paraphyletic with those of Thalassiosira. Finally, UPA was too conserved to serve as a diatom barcode.

  12. Reduced Dosage of Genes Encoding Ribosomal Protein S18 Suppresses a Mitochondrial Initiation Codon Mutation in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Folley, L. S.; Fox, T. D.

    1994-01-01

    A yeast mitochondrial translation initiation codon mutation affecting the gene for cytochrome oxidase subunit III (COX3) was partially suppressed by a spontaneous nuclear mutation. The suppressor mutation also caused cold-sensitive fermentative growth on glucose medium. Suppression and cold sensitivity resulted from inactivation of the gene product of RPS18A, one of two unlinked genes that code the essential cytoplasmic small subunit ribosomal protein termed S18 in yeast. The two S18 genes differ only by 21 silent substitutions in their exons; both are interrupted by a single intron after the 15th codon. Yeast S18 is homologous to the human S11 (70% identical) and the Escherichia coli S17 (35% identical) ribosomal proteins. This highly conserved family of ribosomal proteins has been implicated in maintenance of translational accuracy and is essential for assembly of the small ribosomal subunit. Characterization of the original rps18a-1 missense mutant and rps18aΔ and rps18bΔ null mutants revealed that levels of suppression, cold sensitivity and paromomycin sensitivity all varied directly with a limitation of small ribosomal subunits. The rps18a-1 mutant was most affected, followed by rps18aΔ then rps18bΔ. Mitochondrial mutations that decreased COX3 expression without altering the initiation codon were not suppressed. This allele specificity implicates mitochondrial translation in the mechanism of suppression. We could not detect an epitope-tagged variant of S18 in mitochondria. Thus, it appears that suppression of the mitochondrial translation initiation defect is caused indirectly by reduced levels of cytoplasmic small ribosomal subunits, leading to changes in either cytoplasmic translational accuracy or the relative levels of cytoplasmic translation products. PMID:8070651

  13. Ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA analysis of Trichuridae nematodes of carnivores and small mammals.

    PubMed

    Guardone, Lisa; Deplazes, Peter; Macchioni, Fabio; Magi, Marta; Mathis, Alexander

    2013-10-18

    Several species of Trichuridae nematodes can infect dogs, cats and wild mammals. The diagnosis of these infections relies on the microscopic identification of eggs which are characterized by a similar "lemon" shape and polar plugs in all Trichuridae. Thus, morphological diagnosis to species level is challenging. The use of biomolecular diagnostic methods is desirable but very little genetic data are known from Trichuridae of carnivores and small mammals. The aim of this work was to genetically characterize several species of Trichuridae that can affect dogs, cats and wild mammals, as a basis to develop molecular diagnostic tests. Specimens (adult worms or eggs) of Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila), Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi), Pearsonema plica (syn. Capillaria plica), Aonchotheca putorii (syn. Capillaria putorii), Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica), Calodium splenaecum (syn. Capillaria splenaeca) and Trichuris vulpis were obtained from carcasses of red foxes, feces of dogs, the liver of a vole and from the spleen of Crocidura sp. Parts of the small subunit rRNA (18S rRNA) gene and of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox 1 mtDNA) gene were amplified from the above mentioned nematodes, yielding the first 18S rRNA gene sequences of all the capillariid nematodes and the first cox 1 mtDNA sequences of E. boehmi, P. plica, C. hepaticum, A. putorii and T. vulpis. The 18S rRNA gene is highly conserved among the different species and not suitable as a target for specific diagnostic oligonucleotides. However, these sequences contribute to a better understanding of the complex taxonomic relations among Trichuridae. Indeed, a dendrogram based on the 18S rRNA gene locus supports the latest taxonomic revision. Interspecies divergence was much higher at the cox 1 mtDNA gene locus, rendering it suitable for DNA barcoding and particularly valuable in resolving closely related species. Furthermore, the mitochondrial genetic

  14. Identification of Novel RNA-Protein Contact in Complex of Ribosomal Protein S7 and 3'-Terminal Fragment of 16S rRNA in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Golovin, A V; Khayrullina, G A; Kraal, B; Kopylov, Capital A Cyrillic М

    2012-10-01

    For prokaryotes in vitro, 16S rRNA and 20 ribosomal proteins are capable of hierarchical self- assembly yielding a 30S ribosomal subunit. The self-assembly is initiated by interactions between 16S rRNA and three key ribosomal proteins: S4, S8, and S7. These proteins also have a regulatory function in the translation of their polycistronic operons recognizing a specific region of mRNA. Therefore, studying the RNA-protein interactions within binary complexes is obligatory for understanding ribosome biogenesis. The non-conventional RNA-protein contact within the binary complex of recombinant ribosomal protein S7 and its 16S rRNA binding site (236 nucleotides) was identified. UV-induced RNA-protein cross-links revealed that S7 cross-links to nucleotide U1321 of 16S rRNA. The careful consideration of the published RNA- protein cross-links for protein S7 within the 30S subunit and their correlation with the X-ray data for the 30S subunit have been performed. The RNA - protein cross-link within the binary complex identified in this study is not the same as the previously found cross-links for a subunit both in a solution, and in acrystal. The structure of the binary RNA-protein complex formed at the initial steps of self-assembly of the small subunit appears to be rearranged during the formation of the final structure of the subunit.

  15. Morphology, morphogenesis and small subunit rRNA gene sequence of a soil hypotrichous ciliate, Perisincirra paucicirrata (Ciliophora, Kahliellidae), from the shoreline of the Yellow River, North China.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengchao; Xing, Yi; Li, Jiamei; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; He, Songke; Shao, Chen

    2013-01-01

    The morphology, morphogenesis, and 18S rRNA gene sequence of a soil hypotrichous ciliate Perisincirra paucicirrata, isolated from north China, were investigated. Perisincirra paucicirrata differs from its congeners in: (1) having a body length to width ratio in vivo of 4:1, (2) its adoral zone occupying between 15% and 25% of the total body length, and (3) the presence of two parabuccal cirri, three left (with 10-16 cirri each) and two right marginal rows (with 14-24 cirri each), and three dorsal kineties. Our study offers a first attempt to begin to map the morphogenetic processes of the genus, which are mainly characterised by the following: the formation of four frontal ventral transverse anlagens for each daughter cell, with the proter's anlage I originating from the reorganised anterior part of the parental paroral; the paroral and endoral anlage developed from the reorganised old endoral and do not contribute the first frontal cirrus; the frontoventral transverse anlage I contributing the left frontal cirrus; anlage II generating the middle frontal and the buccal cirri; anlage III developing the right frontal cirrus and the anterior parabuccal cirrus; and anlage IV contributing the posterior parabuccal cirrus. As an additional contribution, we judge that the inner one or the two right rows of P. kahli and P. longicirrata are marginal rows. Phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rDNA sequences suggests that Perisincirra is related to sporadotrichids, but provides no credible evidence for its taxonomic position.

  16. Investigation of molluscan phylogeny on the basis of 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Winnepenninckx, B; Backeljau, T; De Wachter, R

    1996-12-01

    The 18S rRNA sequences of 12 molluscs, representing the extant classes Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Polyplacophora, Scaphopoda, and Caudofoveata, were determined and compared with selected known 18S rRNA sequences of Metazoa, including other Mollusca. These data do not provide support for a close relationship between Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria) and Mollusca, but rather suggest that the latter group belongs to a clade of eutrochozoan coelomates. The 18S rRNA data fail to recover molluscan, bivalve, or gastropod monophyly. However, the branching pattern of the eutrochozoan phyla and classes is unstable, probably due to the explosive Cambrian radiation during which these groups arose. Similarly, the 18S rRNA data do not provide a reliable signal for the molluscan interclass relationships. Nevertheless, we obtained strong preliminary support for phylogenetic inferences at more restricted taxonomic levels, such as the monophyly of Polyplacophora, Caenogastropoda, Euthyneura, Heterodonta, and Arcoida.

  17. Detection of Babesia microti parasites by highly sensitive 18S rRNA reverse transcription PCR.

    PubMed

    Hanron, Amelia E; Billman, Zachary P; Seilie, Annette M; Chang, Ming; Murphy, Sean C

    2017-03-01

    Babesia are increasingly appreciated as a cause of transfusion-transmitted infection. Sensitive methods are needed to screen blood products. We report herein that B. microti 18S rRNA is over 1,000-fold more abundant than its coding genes, making reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) much more sensitive than PCR. Babesia 18S rRNA may be useful for screening the blood supply.

  18. Targeting ricin to the ribosome.

    PubMed

    May, Kerrie L; Yan, Qing; Tumer, Nilgun E

    2013-07-01

    The plant toxin ricin is highly toxic for mammalian cells and is of concern for bioterrorism. Ricin belongs to a family of functionally related toxins, collectively referred to as ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs), which disable ribosomes and halt protein synthesis. Currently there are no specific antidotes against ricin or related RIPs. The catalytic subunit of ricin is an N-glycosidase that depurinates a universally conserved adenine residue within the sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of the 28S rRNA. This depurination activity inhibits translation and its biochemistry has been intensively studied. Yet, recent developments paint a more complex picture of toxicity, with ribosomal proteins and cellular signaling pathways contributing to the potency of ricin. In particular, several studies have now established the importance of the ribosomal stalk structure in facilitating the depurination activity and ribosome specificity of ricin and other RIPs. This review highlights recent developments defining toxin-ribosome interactions and examines the significance of these interactions for toxicity and therapeutic intervention.

  19. IRESPred: Web Server for Prediction of Cellular and Viral Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES)

    PubMed Central

    Kolekar, Pandurang; Pataskar, Abhijeet; Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila; Pal, Jayanta; Kulkarni, Abhijeet

    2016-01-01

    Cellular mRNAs are predominantly translated in a cap-dependent manner. However, some viral and a subset of cellular mRNAs initiate their translation in a cap-independent manner. This requires presence of a structured RNA element, known as, Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) in their 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs). Experimental demonstration of IRES in UTR remains a challenging task. Computational prediction of IRES merely based on sequence and structure conservation is also difficult, particularly for cellular IRES. A web server, IRESPred is developed for prediction of both viral and cellular IRES using Support Vector Machine (SVM). The predictive model was built using 35 features that are based on sequence and structural properties of UTRs and the probabilities of interactions between UTR and small subunit ribosomal proteins (SSRPs). The model was found to have 75.51% accuracy, 75.75% sensitivity, 75.25% specificity, 75.75% precision and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.51 in blind testing. IRESPred was found to perform better than the only available viral IRES prediction server, VIPS. The IRESPred server is freely available at http://bioinfo.net.in/IRESPred/. PMID:27264539

  20. IRESPred: Web Server for Prediction of Cellular and Viral Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES).

    PubMed

    Kolekar, Pandurang; Pataskar, Abhijeet; Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila; Pal, Jayanta; Kulkarni, Abhijeet

    2016-06-06

    Cellular mRNAs are predominantly translated in a cap-dependent manner. However, some viral and a subset of cellular mRNAs initiate their translation in a cap-independent manner. This requires presence of a structured RNA element, known as, Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) in their 5' untranslated regions (UTRs). Experimental demonstration of IRES in UTR remains a challenging task. Computational prediction of IRES merely based on sequence and structure conservation is also difficult, particularly for cellular IRES. A web server, IRESPred is developed for prediction of both viral and cellular IRES using Support Vector Machine (SVM). The predictive model was built using 35 features that are based on sequence and structural properties of UTRs and the probabilities of interactions between UTR and small subunit ribosomal proteins (SSRPs). The model was found to have 75.51% accuracy, 75.75% sensitivity, 75.25% specificity, 75.75% precision and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.51 in blind testing. IRESPred was found to perform better than the only available viral IRES prediction server, VIPS. The IRESPred server is freely available at http://bioinfo.net.in/IRESPred/.

  1. Phylogeny of freshwater parasitic copepods in the Ergasilidae (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida) based on 18S and 28S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Song, Y; Wang, G T; Yao, W J; Gao, Q; Nie, P

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among the Ergasilidae genera are poorly understood. In this study, 14 species from four genera in the Ergasilidae including Sinergasilus, Ergasilus, Pseudergasilus, and Paraergasilus were collected in China, and their phylogenetic relationships were examined using neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods based on partial sequences of 18S and 28S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid, respectively. All the analyses suggest that the Sinergasilus and Paraergasilus are both monophyletic, but the Ergasilus is polyphyletic rather than monophyletic. Considering the relationships among the four genera, the phylogenetic analyses and subsequent hypothesis tests all suggest that Pseudergasilus clustered with some Ergasilus species may have a closer relationship with Sinergasilus rather than with Paraergasilus. It is proposed that the Sinergasilus and the Pseudergasilus species might have evolved from Ergasilus species.

  2. Nuclear export of the small ribosomal subunit requires the Ran–GTPase cycle and certain nucleoporins

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Terence I.; Silver, Pamela A.

    1999-01-01

    After their assembly in the nucleolus, ribosomal subunits are exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. After export, the 20S rRNA in the small ribosomal subunit is cleaved to yield 18S rRNA and the small 5′ ITS1 fragment. The 5′ ITS1 RNA is normally degraded by the cytoplasmic Xrn1 exonuclease, but in strains lacking XRN1, the 5′ ITS1 fragment accumulates in the cytoplasm. Using the cytoplasmic localization of the 5′ ITS1 fragment as an indicator for the export of the small ribosomal subunit, we have identified genes that are required for ribosome export. Ribosome export is dependent on the Ran–GTPase as mutations in Ran or its regulators caused 5′ ITS1 to accumulate in the nucleoplasm. Mutations in the genes encoding the nucleoporin Nup82 and in the NES exporter Xpo1/Crm1 also caused the nucleoplasmic accumulation of 5′ ITS1. Mutants in a subset of nucleoporins and in the nuclear transport factors Srp1, Kap95, Pse1, Cse1, and Mtr10 accumulate the 5′ ITS1 in the nucleolus and affect ribosome assembly. In contrast, we did not detect nuclear accumulation of 5′ ITS1 in 28 yeast strains that have mutations in other genes affecting nuclear trafficking. PMID:10465789

  3. [Ribosomal RNA Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    It is generally believed that an RNA World existed at an early stage in the history of life. During this early period, RNA molecules are seen to be potentially involved in both catalysis and the storage of genetic information. Translation presents several interrelated themes of inquiry for exobiology. First, it is essential, for understanding the very origin of life, how peptides and eventually proteins might have come to be made on the early Earth in a template directed manner. Second, it is necessary to understand how a machinery of similar complexity to that found in the ribosomes of modern organisms came to exist by the time of the last common ancestor (as detected by 16S rRNA sequence studies). Third, the ribosomal RNAs themselves likely had a very early origin and studies of their history may be very informative about the nature of the RNA World. Moreover, studies of these RNAs will contribute to a better understanding of the potential roles of RNA in early evolution.During the past year we have ave conducted a comparative study of four completely sequenced bacterial genoames. We have focused initially on conservation of gene order. The second component of the project continues to build on the model system for studying the validity of variant 5S rRNA sequences in the vicinity of the modern Vibrio proteolyticus 5S rRNA that we established earlier. This system has made it possible to conduct a detailed and extensive analysis of a local portion of the sequence space. These core methods have been used to construct numerous mutants during the last several years. Although it has been a secondary focus, this work has continued over the last year such that we now have in excess of 125 V. proteolyticus derived constructs which have been made and characterized. We have also continued high resolution NMR work on RNA oligomers originally initiated by G. Kenneth Smith who was funded by a NASA Graduate Student Researcher's Fellowship Award until May of 1996. Mr. Smith

  4. Rmt1 catalyzes zinc-finger independent arginine methylation of the small ribosomal protein Rps2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, Rebecca S.; Webb, Kristofor J.; Clarke, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Rps2/rpS2 is a well conserved protein of the eukaryotic ribosomal small subunit. Rps2 has previously been shown to contain asymmetric dimethylarginine residues, the addition of which is catalyzed by zinc-finger-containing arginine methyltransferase 3 (Rmt3) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) in mammalian cells. Here we demonstrate that despite the lack of a zinc-finger-containing homolog of Rmt3/PRMT3 in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rps2 is partially modified to generate asymmetric dimethylarginine and monomethylarginine residues. We find that this modification of Rps2 is dependent upon the major arginine methyltransferase 1 (Rmt1) in S. cerevisiae. These results are suggestive of a role for Rmt1 in modifying the function of Rps2 in a manner distinct from that occurring in S. pombe and mammalian cells. PMID:20035717

  5. Rmt1 catalyzes zinc-finger independent arginine methylation of ribosomal protein Rps2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Lipson, Rebecca S.; Webb, Kristofor J.; Clarke, Steven G.

    2010-01-22

    Rps2/rpS2 is a well conserved protein of the eukaryotic ribosomal small subunit. Rps2 has previously been shown to contain asymmetric dimethylarginine residues, the addition of which is catalyzed by zinc-finger-containing arginine methyltransferase 3 (Rmt3) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) in mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate that despite the lack of a zinc-finger-containing homolog of Rmt3/PRMT3 in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rps2 is partially modified to generate asymmetric dimethylarginine and monomethylarginine residues. We find that this modification of Rps2 is dependent upon the major arginine methyltransferase 1 (Rmt1) in S. cerevisiae. These results are suggestive of a role for Rmt1 in modifying the function of Rps2 in a manner distinct from that occurring in S. pombe and mammalian cells.

  6. Neuron-Like Networks Between Ribosomal Proteins Within the Ribosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirot, Olivier; Timsit, Youri

    2016-05-01

    From brain to the World Wide Web, information-processing networks share common scale invariant properties. Here, we reveal the existence of neural-like networks at a molecular scale within the ribosome. We show that with their extensions, ribosomal proteins form complex assortative interaction networks through which they communicate through tiny interfaces. The analysis of the crystal structures of 50S eubacterial particles reveals that most of these interfaces involve key phylogenetically conserved residues. The systematic observation of interactions between basic and aromatic amino acids at the interfaces and along the extension provides new structural insights that may contribute to decipher the molecular mechanisms of signal transmission within or between the ribosomal proteins. Similar to neurons interacting through “molecular synapses”, ribosomal proteins form a network that suggest an analogy with a simple molecular brain in which the “sensory-proteins” innervate the functional ribosomal sites, while the “inter-proteins” interconnect them into circuits suitable to process the information flow that circulates during protein synthesis. It is likely that these circuits have evolved to coordinate both the complex macromolecular motions and the binding of the multiple factors during translation. This opens new perspectives on nanoscale information transfer and processing.

  7. Transfection of mouse ribosomal DNA into rat cells: faithful transcription and processing.

    PubMed Central

    Vance, V B; Thompson, E A; Bowman, L H

    1985-01-01

    Truncated mouse ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes were stably incorporated into rat HTC-5 cells by DNA-mediated cell transfection techniques. The mouse rDNA genes were accurately transcribed in these rat cells indicating that there is no absolute species specificity of rDNA transcription between mouse and rat. No more than 170 nucleotides of the 5' nontranscribed spacer was required for the accurate initiation of mouse rDNA transcription in rat cells. Further, the mouse transcripts were accurately cleaved at the 5' end of the 18S rRNA sequence, even though these transcripts contained neither the 3' end of mouse 18S rRNA nor any other downstream mouse sequences. Thus, cleavage at the 5' end of 18S rRNA is not dependent on long range interactions involving these downstream sequences. Images PMID:2997749

  8. Detection of Ribosomal DNA Sequence Polymorphisms in the Protist Plasmodiophora brassicae for the Identification of Geographical Isolates.

    PubMed

    Laila, Rawnak; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Choi, Gyung Ja; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2017-01-04

    Clubroot is a soil-borne disease caused by the protist Plasmodiophora brassicae (P. brassicae). It is one of the most economically important diseases of Brassica rapa and other cruciferous crops as it can cause remarkable yield reductions. Understanding P. brassicae genetics, and developing efficient molecular markers, is essential for effective detection of harmful races of this pathogen. Samples from 11 Korean field populations of P. brassicae (geographic isolates), collected from nine different locations in South Korea, were used in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from the clubroot-infected samples to sequence the ribosomal DNA. Primers and probes for P. brassicae were designed using a ribosomal DNA gene sequence from a Japanese strain available in GenBank (accession number AB526843; isolate NGY). The nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence of P. brassicae, comprising 6932 base pairs (bp), was cloned and sequenced and found to include the small subunits (SSUs) and a large subunit (LSU), internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), and a 5.8s. Sequence variation was observed in both the SSU and LSU. Four markers showed useful differences in high-resolution melting analysis to identify nucleotide polymorphisms including single- nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), oligonucleotide polymorphisms, and insertions/deletions (InDels). A combination of three markers was able to distinguish the geographical isolates into two groups.

  9. Detection of Ribosomal DNA Sequence Polymorphisms in the Protist Plasmodiophora brassicae for the Identification of Geographical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Laila, Rawnak; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Choi, Gyung Ja; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2017-01-01

    Clubroot is a soil-borne disease caused by the protist Plasmodiophora brassicae (P. brassicae). It is one of the most economically important diseases of Brassica rapa and other cruciferous crops as it can cause remarkable yield reductions. Understanding P. brassicae genetics, and developing efficient molecular markers, is essential for effective detection of harmful races of this pathogen. Samples from 11 Korean field populations of P. brassicae (geographic isolates), collected from nine different locations in South Korea, were used in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from the clubroot-infected samples to sequence the ribosomal DNA. Primers and probes for P. brassicae were designed using a ribosomal DNA gene sequence from a Japanese strain available in GenBank (accession number AB526843; isolate NGY). The nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence of P. brassicae, comprising 6932 base pairs (bp), was cloned and sequenced and found to include the small subunits (SSUs) and a large subunit (LSU), internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), and a 5.8s. Sequence variation was observed in both the SSU and LSU. Four markers showed useful differences in high-resolution melting analysis to identify nucleotide polymorphisms including single- nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), oligonucleotide polymorphisms, and insertions/deletions (InDels). A combination of three markers was able to distinguish the geographical isolates into two groups. PMID:28054984

  10. Preparation and proteomic analysis of chloroplast ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    Proteomics of chloroplast ribosomes in spinach and Chlamydomonas revealed unique protein composition and structures of plastid ribosomes. These studies have suggested the presence of some ribosomal proteins unique to plastid ribosomes which may be involved in plastid-unique translation regulation. Considering the strong background of genetic analysis and molecular biology in Arabidopsis, the in-depth proteomic characterization of Arabidopsis plastid ribosomes would facilitate further understanding of plastid translation in higher plants. Here, I describe simple and rapid methods for the preparation of plastid ribosomes from Chlamydomonas and Arabidopsis using sucrose gradients. I also describe purity criteria and methods for yield estimation of the purified plastid ribosomes and subunits, methods for the preparation of plastid ribosomal proteins, as well as the identification of some Arabidopsis plastid ribosomal proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

  11. Chloroplast ribosomes and protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, E H; Boynton, J E; Gillham, N W

    1994-01-01

    Consistent with their postulated origin from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, chloroplasts of plants and algae have ribosomes whose component RNAs and proteins are strikingly similar to those of eubacteria. Comparison of the secondary structures of 16S rRNAs of chloroplasts and bacteria has been particularly useful in identifying highly conserved regions likely to have essential functions. Comparative analysis of ribosomal protein sequences may likewise prove valuable in determining their roles in protein synthesis. This review is concerned primarily with the RNAs and proteins that constitute the chloroplast ribosome, the genes that encode these components, and their expression. It begins with an overview of chloroplast genome structure in land plants and algae and then presents a brief comparison of chloroplast and prokaryotic protein-synthesizing systems and a more detailed analysis of chloroplast rRNAs and ribosomal proteins. A description of the synthesis and assembly of chloroplast ribosomes follows. The review concludes with discussion of whether chloroplast protein synthesis is essential for cell survival. PMID:7854253

  12. Taxonomic resolutions based on 18S rRNA genes: a case study of subclass copepoda.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu; Xiong, Jie; Yu, Yuhe

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity studies are commonly conducted using 18S rRNA genes. In this study, we compared the inter-species divergence of variable regions (V1-9) within the copepod 18S rRNA gene, and tested their taxonomic resolutions at different taxonomic levels. Our results indicate that the 18S rRNA gene is a good molecular marker for the study of copepod biodiversity, and our conclusions are as follows: 1) 18S rRNA genes are highly conserved intra-species (intra-species similarities are close to 100%); and could aid in species-level analyses, but with some limitations; 2) nearly-whole-length sequences and some partial regions (around V2, V4, and V9) of the 18S rRNA gene can be used to discriminate between samples at both the family and order levels (with a success rate of about 80%); 3) compared with other regions, V9 has a higher resolution at the genus level (with an identification success rate of about 80%); and 4) V7 is most divergent in length, and would be a good candidate marker for the phylogenetic study of Acartia species. This study also evaluated the correlation between similarity thresholds and the accuracy of using nuclear 18S rRNA genes for the classification of organisms in the subclass Copepoda. We suggest that sample identification accuracy should be considered when a molecular sequence divergence threshold is used for taxonomic identification, and that the lowest similarity threshold should be determined based on a pre-designated level of acceptable accuracy.

  13. Challenges in describing ribosome dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Kien; Whitford, Paul Charles

    2017-04-01

    For decades, protein folding and functional dynamics have been described in terms of diffusive motion across an underlying energy landscape. With continued advances in structural biology and high-performance computing, the field is positioned to extend these approaches to large biomolecular assemblies. Through the application of energy landscape techniques to the ribosome, one may work towards establishing a comprehensive description of the dynamics, which will bridge theoretical concepts and experimental observations. In this perspective, we discuss a few of the challenges that will need to be addressed as we extend the application of landscape principles to the ribosome.

  14. Free-Energy Landscape of Reverse tRNA Translocation through the Ribosome Analyzed by Electron Microscopy Density Maps and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Hisashi; Matsumoto, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of reverse tRNA translocation in the ribosome, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the ribosome-tRNAs-mRNA-EFG complex were performed. The complex at the post-translocational state was directed towards the translocational and pre-translocational states by fitting the complex into cryo-EM density maps. Between a series of the fitting simulations, umbrella sampling simulations were performed to obtain the free-energy landscape. Multistep structural changes, such as a ratchet-like motion and rotation of the head of the small subunit were observed. The free-energy landscape showed that there were two main free-energy barriers: one between the post-translocational and intermediate states, and the other between the pre-translocational and intermediate states. The former corresponded to a clockwise rotation, which was coupled to the movement of P-tRNA over the P/E-gate made of G1338, A1339 and A790 in the small subunit. The latter corresponded to an anticlockwise rotation of the head, which was coupled to the location of the two tRNAs in the hybrid state. This indicates that the coupled motion of the head rotation and tRNA translocation plays an important role in opening and closing of the P/E-gate during the ratchet-like movement in the ribosome. Conformational change of EF-G was interpreted to be the result of the combination of the external motion by L12 around an axis passing near the sarcin-ricin loop, and internal hinge-bending motion. These motions contributed to the movement of domain IV of EF-G to maintain its interaction with A/P-tRNA. PMID:24999999

  15. Karyotype, chromosomal characteristics of multiple rDNA clusters and intragenomic variability of ribosomal ITS2 in Caryophyllaeides fennica (Cestoda).

    PubMed

    Orosová, Martina; Ivica, Králová-Hromadová; Eva, Bazsalovicsová; Marta, Spakulová

    2010-09-01

    Karyotype and chromosomal characteristics, i.e. number and location of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clusters, and sequence variation of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) were studied in a monozoic (unsegmented) tapeworm, Caryophyllaeides fennica (Caryophyllidea), using conventional and Ag-staining, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA probe, and PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of the complete ribosomal ITS2 spacer. The karyotype of this species was composed of ten pairs of metacentric (m) chromosomes (2n=20). All chromosomes except the pair No. 2 displayed DAPI-positive heterochromatin in centromeric regions. In addition, two distinct interstitial DAPI-positive bands were identified on chromosome pair No. 7. FISH with 18S rDNA probe revealed four clusters of major ribosomal genes situated in the pericentromeric region of the short arms in two pairs of metacentric chromosomes Nos. 8 and 9. Hybridization signals were stronger in the pair No. 8, indicating a higher amount of rDNA repeats at this nucleolar organizer region (NOR). Analysis of 15 ITS2 rDNA sequences (five recombinant clones from each of three individuals) showed 13 structurally different ribotypes, distinguished by 26 nucleotide substitutions and variable numbers and combinations of short repetitive motifs that allowed sorting the sequences into four ITS2 variants. These results contribute to recently published evidence for the intraindividual ribosomal ITS sequence variability in basal tapeworms with multiple rDNA loci and imply that both phenomena may be mutually linked.

  16. Chromatographic purification of highly active yeast ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Meskauskas, Arturas; Leshin, Jonathan A; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2011-10-24

    Eukaryotic ribosomes are much more labile as compared to their eubacterial and archael counterparts, thus posing a significant challenge to researchers. Particularly troublesome is the fact that lysis of cells releases a large number of proteases and nucleases which can degrade ribosomes. Thus, it is important to separate ribosomes from these enzymes as quickly as possible. Unfortunately, conventional differential ultracentrifugation methods leaves ribosomes exposed to these enzymes for unacceptably long periods of time, impacting their structural integrity and functionality. To address this problem, we utilize a chromatographic method using a cysteine charged Sulfolink resin. This simple and rapid application significantly reduces co-purifying proteolytic and nucleolytic activities, producing high yields of intact, highly biochemically active yeast ribosomes. We suggest that this method should also be applicable to mammalian ribosomes. The simplicity of the method, and the enhanced purity and activity of chromatographically purified ribosome represents a significant technical advancement for the study of eukaryotic ribosomes.

  17. AMPLIFICATION OF RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter offers an overview of the use of ribosomal RNA sequences. A history of the technology traces the evolution of techniques to measure bacterial phylogenetic relationships and recent advances in obtaining rRNA sequence information. The manual also describes procedu...

  18. All Ribosomes Are Created Equal. Really?

    PubMed

    Preiss, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Ribosomes are generally thought of as molecular machines with a constitutive rather than regulatory role during protein synthesis. A study by Slavov et al.[1] now shows that ribosomes of distinct composition and functionality exist within eukaryotic cells, giving credence to the concept of 'specialized' ribosomes.

  19. Reconstitution of functional eukaryotic ribosomes from Dictyostelium discoideum ribosomal proteins and RNA.

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, G; Chiaberge, S

    1997-08-08

    40 and 60 S ribosomal subunits have been reconstituted in vitro from purified ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins of Dictyostelium discoideum. The functionality of the reconstituted ribosomes was demonstrated in in vitro mRNA-directed protein synthesis. The reassembly proceeded well with immature precursors of ribosomal RNA but poorly if at all with mature cytoplasmic RNA species. Reassembly also required a preparation of small nuclear RNA(s), acting as morphopoietic factor(s).

  20. GTPases involved in bacterial ribosome maturation.

    PubMed

    Goto, Simon; Muto, Akira; Himeno, Hyouta

    2013-05-01

    The ribosome is an RNA- and protein-based macromolecule having multiple functional domains to facilitate protein synthesis, and it is synthesized through multiple steps including transcription, stepwise cleavages of the primary transcript, modifications of ribosomal proteins and RNAs and assemblies of ribosomal proteins with rRNAs. This process requires dozens of trans-acting factors including GTP- and ATP-binding proteins to overcome several energy-consuming steps. Despite accumulation of genetic, biochemical and structural data, the entire process of bacterial ribosome synthesis remains elusive. Here, we review GTPases involved in bacterial ribosome maturation.

  1. A quantitative SMRT cell sequencing method for ribosomal amplicons.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bethan M; Kustka, Adam B

    2017-04-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies continue to provide unprecedented opportunities to characterize microbial communities. For example, the Pacific Biosciences Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) platform has emerged as a unique approach harnessing DNA polymerase activity to sequence template molecules, enabling long reads at low costs. With the aim to simultaneously classify and enumerate in situ microbial populations, we developed a quantitative SMRT (qSMRT) approach that involves the addition of exogenous standards to quantify ribosomal amplicons derived from environmental samples. The V7-9 regions of 18S SSU rDNA were targeted and quantified from protistan community samples collected in the Ross Sea during the Austral summer of 2011. We used three standards of different length and optimized conditions to obtain accurate quantitative retrieval across the range of expected amplicon sizes, a necessary criterion for analyzing taxonomically diverse 18S rDNA molecules from natural environments. The ability to concurrently identify and quantify microorganisms in their natural environment makes qSMRT a powerful, rapid and cost-effective approach for defining ecosystem diversity and function.

  2. Characterization of hibernating ribosomes in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Krokowski, Dawid; Gaccioli, Francesca; Majumder, Mithu; Mullins, Michael R; Yuan, Celvie L; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Merrick, William C; Komar, Anton A; Taylor, Derek; Hatzoglou, Maria

    2011-08-15

    Protein synthesis across kingdoms involves the assembly of 70S (prokaryotes) or 80S (eukaryotes) ribosomes on the mRNAs to be translated. 70S ribosomes are protected from degradation in bacteria during stationary growth or stress conditions by forming dimers that migrate in polysome profiles as 100S complexes. Formation of ribosome dimers in Escherichia coli is mediated by proteins, namely the ribosome modulation factor (RMF), which is induced in the stationary phase of cell growth. It is reported here a similar ribosomal complex of 110S in eukaryotic cells, which forms during nutrient starvation. The dynamic nature of the 110S ribosomal complex (mammalian equivalent of the bacterial 100S) was supported by the rapid conversion into polysomes upon nutrient-refeeding via a mechanism sensitive to inhibitors of translation initiation. Several experiments were used to show that the 110S complex is a dimer of nontranslating ribosomes. Cryo-electron microscopy visualization of the 110S complex revealed that two 80S ribosomes are connected by a flexible, albeit localized, interaction. We conclude that, similarly to bacteria, rat cells contain stress-induced ribosomal dimers. The identification of ribosomal dimers in rat cells will bring new insights in our thinking of the ribosome structure and its function during the cellular response to stress conditions.

  3. Ribosomal targets for antibiotic drug discovery

    DOEpatents

    Blanchard, Scott C.; Feldman, Michael Brian; Wang, Leyi; Doudna Cate, James H.; Pulk, Arto; Altman, Roger B.; Wasserman, Michael R

    2016-09-13

    The present invention relates to methods to identify molecules that binds in the neomycin binding pocket of a bacterial ribosome using structures of an intact bacterial ribosome that reveal how the ribosome binds tRNA in two functionally distinct states, determined by x-ray crystallography. One state positions tRNA in the peptidyl-tRNA binding site. The second, a fully rotated state, is stabilized by ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and binds tRNA in a highly bent conformation in a hybrid peptidyl/exit (P/E) site. Additionally, the invention relates to various assays, including single-molecule assay for ribosome recycling, and methods to identify compounds that interfere with ribosomal function by detecting newly identified intermediate FRET states using known and novel FRET pairs on the ribosome. The invention also provides vectors and compositions with an N-terminally tagged S13 protein.

  4. Eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis at a glance.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Emma; Ferreira-Cerca, Sébastien; Hurt, Ed

    2013-11-01

    Ribosomes play a pivotal role in the molecular life of every cell. Moreover, synthesis of ribosomes is one of the most energetically demanding of all cellular processes. In eukaryotic cells, ribosome biogenesis requires the coordinated activity of all three RNA polymerases and the orchestrated work of many (>200) transiently associated ribosome assembly factors. The biogenesis of ribosomes is a tightly regulated activity and it is inextricably linked to other fundamental cellular processes, including growth and cell division. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that defects in ribosome biogenesis are associated with several hereditary diseases. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we summarise the current knowledge on eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis, with an emphasis on the yeast model system.

  5. Taenia spp.: 18S rDNA microsatellites for molecular systematic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Foronda, P; Casanova, J C; Martinez, E; Valladares, B; Feliu, C

    2005-06-01

    The 18S rDNA gene of adult worms of Taenia parva found in Genetta genetta in the Iberian Peninsula and larval stages of T. pisiformis from the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Tenerife (Canary Islands) were amplified and sequenced. The sequences of the 18S rDNA gene of T. parva (1768 bp) and T. pisiformis (1760 bp) are reported for the first time (GenBank accession nos. AJ555167-AJ555168 and AJ555169-AJ555170, respectively). In 168 alignment positions microsatellites in the 18S rDNA of both taxa were detected for the first time (TGC in T. parva and TGCT in T. pisiformis) and differences in their sequences with different repetition numbers were observed. The use of nucleotide sequences of this gene in the resolution of systematic problems in cestodes is discussed with reference to the systematic status of Taenia spp. and mainly in human taeniids such as T. solium, T. saginata, and Asian human isolates of Taenia.

  6. Molecular systematics of Volvocales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) based on exhaustive 18S rRNA phylogenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Takashi; Misawa, Kazuharu; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2008-07-01

    The taxonomy of Volvocales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) was traditionally based solely on morphological characteristics. However, because recent molecular phylogeny largely contradicts the traditional subordinal and familial classifications, no classification system has yet been established that describes the subdivision of Volvocales in a manner consistent with the phylogenetic relationships. Towards development of a natural classification system at and above the generic level, identification and sorting of hundreds of sequences based on subjective phylogenetic definitions is a significant step. We constructed an 18S rRNA gene phylogeny based on 449 volvocalean sequences collected using exhaustive BLAST searches of the GenBank database. Many chimeric sequences, which can cause fallacious phylogenetic trees, were detected and excluded during data collection. The results revealed 21 strongly supported primary clades within phylogenetically redefined Volvocales. Phylogenetic classification following PhyloCode was proposed based on the presented 18S rRNA gene phylogeny along with the results of previous combined 18S and 26S rRNA and chloroplast multigene analyses.

  7. Interrelationships between yeast ribosomal protein assembly events and transient ribosome biogenesis factors interactions in early pre-ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Jakob, Steffen; Ohmayer, Uli; Neueder, Andreas; Hierlmeier, Thomas; Perez-Fernandez, Jorge; Hochmuth, Eduard; Deutzmann, Rainer; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Tschochner, Herbert; Milkereit, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Early steps of eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis require a large set of ribosome biogenesis factors which transiently interact with nascent rRNA precursors (pre-rRNA). Most likely, concomitant with that initial contacts between ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) and ribosome precursors (pre-ribosomes) are established which are converted into robust interactions between pre-rRNA and r-proteins during the course of ribosome maturation. Here we analysed the interrelationship between r-protein assembly events and the transient interactions of ribosome biogenesis factors with early pre-ribosomal intermediates termed 90S pre-ribosomes or small ribosomal subunit (SSU) processome in yeast cells. We observed that components of the SSU processome UTP-A and UTP-B sub-modules were recruited to early pre-ribosomes independently of all tested r-proteins. On the other hand, groups of SSU processome components were identified whose association with early pre-ribosomes was affected by specific r-protein assembly events in the head-platform interface of the SSU. One of these components, Noc4p, appeared to be itself required for robust incorporation of r-proteins into the SSU head domain. Altogether, the data reveal an emerging network of specific interrelationships between local r-protein assembly events and the functional interactions of SSU processome components with early pre-ribosomes. They point towards some of these components being transient primary pre-rRNA in vivo binders and towards a role for others in coordinating the assembly of major SSU domains.

  8. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology.

    PubMed

    Giribet, G; Distel, D L; Polz, M; Sterrer, W; Wheeler, W C

    2000-09-01

    Triploblastic relationships were examined in the light of molecular and morphological evidence. Representatives for all triploblastic "phyla" (except Loricifera) were represented by both sources of phylogenetic data. The 18S ribosomal (rDNA) sequence data for 145 terminal taxa and 276 morphological characters coded for 36 supraspecific taxa were combined in a total evidence regime to determine the most consistent picture of triploblastic relationships for these data. Only triploblastic taxa are used to avoid rooting with distant outgroups, which seems to happen because of the extreme distance that separates diploblastic from triploblastic taxa according to the 18S rDNA data. Multiple phylogenetic analyses performed with variable analysis parameters yield largely inconsistent results for certain groups such as Chaetognatha, Acoela, and Nemertodermatida. A normalized incongruence length metric is used to assay the relative merit of the multiple analyses. The combined analysis having the least character incongruence yields the following scheme of relationships of four main clades: (1) Deuterostomia [((Echinodermata + Enteropneusta) (Cephalochordata (Urochordata + Vertebrata)))]; (2) Ecdysozoa [(((Priapulida + Kinorhyncha) (Nematoda + Nematomorpha)) ((Onychophora + Tardigrada) Arthropoda))]; (3) Trochozoa [((Phoronida + Brachiopoda) (Entoprocta (Nemertea (Sipuncula (Mollusca (Pogonophora (Echiura + Annelida)))))))]; and (4) Platyzoa [((Gnathostomulida (Cycliophora + Syndermata)) (Gastrotricha + Plathelminthes))]. Chaetognatha, Nemertodermatida, and Bryozoa cannot be assigned to any one of these four groups. For the first time, a data analysis recognizes a clade of acoelomates, the Platyzoa (sensu Cavalier-Smith, Biol. Rev. 73:203-266, 1998). Other relationships that corroborate some morphological analyses are the existence of a clade that groups Gnathostomulida + Syndermata (= Gnathifera), which is expanded to include the enigmatic phylum Cycliophora, as sister group

  9. New Data on Henneguya Pellis (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), A Parasite of Blue Catfish Ictalurus furcatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The original description of Henneguya pellis, a myxozoan parasitizing blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus, is supplemented with new data on histopathology, spore morphology, and 18S small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence. Plasmodia presented as both internal and external, raised, cyst-like le...

  10. New Data on Henneguya pellis (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), A Parasite of Blue Catfish Ictalurus furcatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The original description of Henneguya pellis, a myxozoan parasitizing blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus, is supplemented with new data on histopathology, spore morphology, and 18S small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence. Plasmodia presented as both internal and external, raised, cyst-like le...

  11. Synthesis of ribosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, J R

    1989-01-01

    The assembly of a eucaryotic ribosome requires the synthesis of four ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules and more than 75 ribosomal proteins. It utilizes all three RNA polymerases; it requires the cooperation of the nucleus and the cytoplasm, the processing of RNA, and the specific interaction of RNA and protein molecules. It is carried out efficiently and is exquisitely sensitive to the needs of the cell. Our current understanding of this process in the genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed. The ribosomal RNA genes are arranged in a tandem array of 100 to 200 copies. This tandem array has led to unique ways of carrying out a number of functions. Replication is asymmetric and does not initiate from every autonomously replicating sequence. Recombination is suppressed. Transcription of the major ribosomal RNA appears to involve coupling between adjacent transcription units, which are separated by the 5S RNA transcription unit. Genes for many ribosomal proteins have been cloned and sequenced. Few are linked; most are duplicated; most have an intron. There is extensive homology between yeast ribosomal proteins and those of other species. Most, but not all, of the ribosomal protein genes have one or two sites that are essential for their transcription and that bind a common transcription factor. This factor binds also to many other places in the genome, including the telomeres. There is coordinated transcription of the ribosomal protein genes under a variety of conditions. However, the cell seems to possess no mechanism for regulating the transcription of individual ribosomal protein genes in response either to a deficiency or an excess of a particular ribosomal protein. A deficiency causes slow growth. Any excess ribosomal protein is degraded very rapidly, with a half-life of 1 to 5 min. Unlike most types of cells, yeast cells appear not to regulate the translation of ribosomal proteins. However, in the case of ribosomal protein L32

  12. Combined heat shock protein 90 and ribosomal RNA sequence phylogeny supports multiple replacements of dinoflagellate plastids.

    PubMed

    Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Minge, Marianne A; Cavalier-Smith, Tom; Nedreklepp, Joachim M; Klaveness, Dag; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2006-01-01

    Dinoflagellates harbour diverse plastids obtained from several algal groups, including haptophytes, diatoms, cryptophytes, and prasinophytes. Their major plastid type with the accessory pigment peridinin is found in the vast majority of photosynthetic species. Some species of dinoflagellates have other aberrantly pigmented plastids. We sequenced the nuclear small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of the "green" dinoflagellate Gymnodinium chlorophorum and show that it is sister to Lepidodinium viride, indicating that their common ancestor obtained the prasinophyte (or other green alga) plastid in one event. As the placement of dinoflagellate species that acquired green algal or haptophyte plastids is unclear from small and large subunit (LSU) rRNA trees, we tested the usefulness of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 gene for dinoflagellate phylogeny by sequencing it from four species with aberrant plastids (G. chlorophorum, Karlodinium micrum, Karenia brevis, and Karenia mikimotoi) plus Alexandrium tamarense, and constructing phylogenetic trees for Hsp90 and rRNAs, separately and together. Analyses of the Hsp90 and concatenated data suggest an ancestral origin of the peridinin-containing plastid, and two independent replacements of the peridinin plastid soon after the early radiation of the dinoflagellates. Thus, the Hsp90 gene seems to be a promising phylogenetic marker for dinoflagellate phylogeny.

  13. Evolution of nuclear ribosomal RNAs in kinetoplastid protozoa: perspectives on the age and origins of parasitism.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, A P; Nelson, K; Beverley, S M

    1993-01-01

    Molecular evolutionary relationships within the protozoan order Kinetoplastida were deduced from comparisons of the nuclear small and large subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. These studies show that relationships among the trypanosomatid protozoans differ from those previously proposed from studies of organismal characteristics or mitochondrial rRNAs. The genera Leishmania, Endotrypanum, Leptomonas, and Crithidia form a closely related group, which shows progressively more distant relationships to Phytomonas and Blastocrithidia, Trypanosoma cruzi, and lastly Trypanosoma brucei. The rooting of the trypanosomatid tree was accomplished by using Bodo caudatus (family Bodonidae) as an outgroup, a status confirmed by molecular comparisons with other eukaryotes. The nuclear rRNA tree agrees well with data obtained from comparisons of other nuclear genes. Differences with the proposed mitochondrial rRNA tree probably reflect the lack of a suitable outgroup for this tree, as the topologies are otherwise similar. Small subunit rRNA divergences within the trypanosomatids are large, approaching those among plants and animals, which underscores the evolutionary antiquity of the group. Analysis of the distribution of different parasitic life-styles of these species in conjunction with a probable timing of evolutionary divergences suggests that vertebrate parasitism arose multiple times in the trypanosomatids. PMID:8265597

  14. Comparison of ribosomal DNA length and restriction site polymorphisms in Gremmeniella and Ascocalyx isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, L; Hamelin, R C; Ouellette, G B

    1994-01-01

    The small subunit (SSU) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA genes from 27 specimens of the fungal genera Gremmeniella and Ascocalyx were amplified by PCR. Length polymorphisms were observed in the SSU and allowed the differentiation of four groups among the isolates tested: (i) Ascocalyx abietis; (ii) Gremmeniella isolates from Picea spp.; (iii) Gremmeniella isolates from Abies balsamea; and (iv) Gremmeniella isolates from Abies sacchalinensis, Larix spp., and Pinus spp. The amplified ITS was the same length for all Gremmeniella specimens and was 60 bp longer in A. abietis. Phylogenetic analysis of length polymorphisms and of 24 restriction sites in the SSU and ITS showed that Gremmeniella isolates were more related to each other than to the Ascocalyx isolate. Furthermore, seven groups were evident within the genus Gremmeniella. Our results confirm that Gremmeniella and Ascocalyx should be kept as different taxa and suggest that the taxonomy of the former could be revised to consider isolates from Abies balsamea and from Picea spp. to be two different varieties while incorporating Gremmeniella laricina into G. abietina, as a new variety. Images PMID:7912501

  15. Analysis of the interaction between bovine mitochondrial 28 S ribosomal subunits and mRNA.

    PubMed

    Farwell, M A; Schirawski, J; Hager, P W; Spremulli, L L

    1996-11-11

    The small subunit of the bovine mitochondrial ribosome forms a tight complex with mRNAs. This [28 S:mRNA] complex forms as readily on circular mRNAs as on linear mRNAs indicating that a free 5' end on the mRNA is not required for the interaction observed. The effects of monovalent cations on the equilibrium association constant and on the forward and reverse rate constants governing this interaction have been determined. Monovalent cations have a strong effect on the forward rate constant. Increasing the KCl concentration from 1 mM to 100 mM reduces kon by nearly 100-fold. Monovalent cations have only a small effect on the reverse rate constant, koff'. Analysis of these data indicates that the rate laws governing the formation and dissociation of the [28 S:mRNA] complex cannot be deduced from the chemical equation. This observation suggests that there are "hidden intermediates' in the formation and dissociation of this complex. The implications of these observations are discussed in terms of a model for the interaction between the mitochondrial 28 S subunit and mRNAs.

  16. Prevalence of microsporidiosis due to Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon (Septata) intestinalis among patients with AIDS-related diarrhea: determination by polymerase chain reaction to the microsporidian small-subunit rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Coyle, C M; Wittner, M; Kotler, D P; Noyer, C; Orenstein, J M; Tanowitz, H B; Weiss, L M

    1996-11-01

    Microsporidia are emerging as opportunistic pathogens in patients with AIDS. Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon (Septata) intestinalis have been implicated in enteric infections in AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea, a wasting syndrome, and malabsorption. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and primers that amplify the conserved regions of the small-subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene of E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis in tissue specimens from HIV-infected patients with and without diarrhea to examine the association between microsporidia and diarrhea in patients with AIDS. Tissue specimens were obtained from 68 patients with AIDS and diarrhea (mean CD4 lymphocyte count, 21/mm3) and 43 AIDS patients without diarrhea (mean CD4 lymphocyte count, 60/mm3). By means of PCR with use of the SSU-rRNA primers specific for E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis, we found that 44% of patients with diarrhea were infected with microsporidia, whereas only 2.3% of the patients without diarrhea were infected with microsporidia (P < .001). There was a clear association between the presence of microsporidia and diarrhea. In addition, the SSU-rRNA primers proved to be sensitive and specific when used in this clinical setting.

  17. Changes in Growth CO2 Result in Rapid Adjustments of Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase Small Subunit Gene Expression in Expanding and Mature Leaves of Rice1

    PubMed Central

    Gesch, Russ W.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Vu, Joseph C.V.; Hartwell Allen, L.; Bowes, George

    1998-01-01

    The accumulation of soluble carbohydrates resulting from growth under elevated CO2 may potentially signal the repression of gene activity for the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcS). To test this hypothesis we grew rice (Oryza sativa L.) under ambient (350 μL L−1) and high (700 μL L−1) CO2 in outdoor, sunlit, environment-controlled chambers and performed a cross-switching of growth CO2 concentration at the late-vegetative phase. Within 24 h, plants switched to high CO2 showed a 15% and 23% decrease in rbcS mRNA, whereas plants switched to ambient CO2 increased 27% and 11% in expanding and mature leaves, respectively. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase total activity and protein content 8 d after the switch increased up to 27% and 20%, respectively, in plants switched to ambient CO2, but changed very little in plants switched to high CO2. Plants maintained at high CO2 showed greater carbohydrate pool sizes and lower rbcS transcript levels than plants kept at ambient CO2. However, after switching growth CO2 concentration, there was not a simple correlation between carbohydrate and rbcS transcript levels. We conclude that although carbohydrates may be important in the regulation of rbcS expression, changes in total pool size alone could not predict the rapid changes in expression that we observed. PMID:9765537

  18. Morphology and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence of the new brackish water ciliate Neobakuella flava n. g., n. sp. (Ciliophora, Spirotricha, Bakuellidae) and SSU rRNA gene sequences of six additional hypotrichs from Korea.

    PubMed

    Li, Liqiong; Khan, Sadia Nawroz; Ji, Daode; Shin, Mann Kyoon; Berger, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    The morphology and the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence of the hypotrich Neobakuella flava n. g., n. sp. from the estuary of the Taehwagang River (Ulsan, South Korea) were investigated. The three frontal cirri, the composition of the midventral complex of cirral pairs and rows, and the simple dorsal kinety pattern of three bipolar kineties assign it to the urostyloid taxon Bakuellidae. The increased number of buccal and parabuccal cirri, the presence of transverse cirri, and more than one left marginal row, as well as the lack of caudal cirri separate Neobakuella n. g. from the other bakuellids. Neobakuella flava n. sp. has many 0.3 μm sized green and/or yellow usually dark-green cortical granules and some sparsely distributed, 2 × 1 μm sized grass green with yellowish shimmer granules. The gene sequence data indicate a close relationship with Diaxonella and a distinct separation from the bakuellid Metaurostylopsis and parabirojimid Parabirojimia. The SSU rRNA gene sequences of four further urostyloids (i.e. Diaxonella pseudorubra, Anteholosticha monilata, Metaurostylopsis struederkypkeae, Pseudourostyla cristata) and two stylonychines (i.e. Sterkiella cavicola, Sterkiella histriomuscorum) from Korea were analyzed. Anteholosticha monilata, type of the genus, is clearly separated from the Holosticha clade, supporting the morphological separation from Holosticha. Sterkiella cavicola, type of Sterkiella, clusters within the stylonychines and is obviously closely related with S. histriomuscorum.

  19. The Ribosome Modulates Nascent Protein Folding

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Christian M.; Goldman, Daniel H.; Chodera, John D.; Tinoco, Ignacio; Bustamante, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are synthesized by the ribosome and generally must fold to become functionally active. Although it is commonly assumed that the ribosome affects the folding process, this idea has been extremely difficult to demonstrate. We have developed an experimental system to investigate the folding of single ribosome-bound stalled nascent polypeptides with optical tweezers. In T4 lysozyme, synthesized in a reconstituted in vitro translation system, the ribosome slows the formation of stable tertiary interactions and the attainment of the native state relative to the free protein. Incomplete T4 lysozyme polypeptides misfold and aggregate when free in solution, but they remain folding-competent near the ribosomal surface. Altogether, our results suggest that the ribosome not only decodes the genetic information and synthesizes polypeptides, but also promotes efficient de novo attainment of the native state. PMID:22194581

  20. A gripping tale of ribosomal frameshifting: extragenic suppressors of frameshift mutations spotlight P-site realignment.

    PubMed

    Atkins, John F; Björk, Glenn R

    2009-03-01

    Mutants of translation components which compensate for both -1 and +1 frameshift mutations showed the first evidence for framing malleability. Those compensatory mutants isolated in bacteria and yeast with altered tRNA or protein factors are reviewed here and are considered to primarily cause altered P-site realignment and not altered translocation. Though the first sequenced tRNA mutant which suppressed a +1 frameshift mutation had an extra base in its anticodon loop and led to a textbook "yardstick" model in which the number of anticodon bases determines codon size, this model has long been discounted, although not by all. Accordingly, the reviewed data suggest that reading frame maintenance and translocation are two distinct features of the ribosome. None of the -1 tRNA suppressors have anticodon loops with fewer than the standard seven nucleotides. Many of the tRNA mutants potentially affect tRNA bending and/or stability and can be used for functional assays, and one has the conserved C74 of the 3' CCA substituted. The effect of tRNA modification deficiencies on framing has been particularly informative. The properties of some mutants suggest the use of alternative tRNA anticodon loop stack conformations by individual tRNAs in one translation cycle. The mutant proteins range from defective release factors with delayed decoding of A-site stop codons facilitating P-site frameshifting to altered EF-Tu/EF1alpha to mutant ribosomal large- and small-subunit proteins L9 and S9. Their study is revealing how mRNA slippage is restrained except where it is programmed to occur and be utilized.

  1. Ribosome-associated protein quality control

    PubMed Central

    Brandman, Onn; Hegde, Ramanujan S

    2016-01-01

    Protein synthesis by the ribosome can fail for numerous reasons including faulty mRNA, insufficient availability of charged tRNAs and genetic errors. All organisms have evolved mechanisms to recognize stalled ribosomes and initiate pathways for recycling, quality control and stress signaling. Here we review the discovery and molecular dissection of the eukaryotic ribosome-associated quality-control pathway for degradation of nascent polypeptides arising from interrupted translation. PMID:26733220

  2. Ribosome Biogenesis in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Woolford, John L.; Baserga, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomes are highly conserved ribonucleoprotein nanomachines that translate information in the genome to create the proteome in all cells. In yeast these complex particles contain four RNAs (>5400 nucleotides) and 79 different proteins. During the past 25 years, studies in yeast have led the way to understanding how these molecules are assembled into ribosomes in vivo. Assembly begins with transcription of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus, where the RNA then undergoes complex pathways of folding, coupled with nucleotide modification, removal of spacer sequences, and binding to ribosomal proteins. More than 200 assembly factors and 76 small nucleolar RNAs transiently associate with assembling ribosomes, to enable their accurate and efficient construction. Following export of preribosomes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, they undergo final stages of maturation before entering the pool of functioning ribosomes. Elaborate mechanisms exist to monitor the formation of correct structural and functional neighborhoods within ribosomes and to destroy preribosomes that fail to assemble properly. Studies of yeast ribosome biogenesis provide useful models for ribosomopathies, diseases in humans that result from failure to properly assemble ribosomes. PMID:24190922

  3. Structural insights into ribosomal rescue by Dom34 and Hbs1 at near-atomic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Hilal, Tarek; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Loerke, Justus; Bürger, Jörg; Mielke, Thorsten; Spahn, Christian M.T.

    2016-01-01

    The surveillance of mRNA translation is imperative for homeostasis. Monitoring the integrity of the message is essential, as the translation of aberrant mRNAs leads to stalling of the translational machinery. During ribosomal rescue, arrested ribosomes are specifically recognized by the conserved eukaryotic proteins Dom34 and Hbs1, to initiate their recycling. Here we solve the structure of Dom34 and Hbs1 bound to a yeast ribosome programmed with a nonstop mRNA at 3.3 Å resolution using cryo-electron microscopy. The structure shows that Domain N of Dom34 is inserted into the upstream mRNA-binding groove via direct stacking interactions with conserved nucleotides of 18S rRNA. It senses the absence of mRNA at the A-site and part of the mRNA entry channel by direct competition. Thus, our analysis establishes the structural foundation for the recognition of aberrantly stalled 80S ribosomes by the Dom34·Hbs1·GTP complex during Dom34-mediated mRNA surveillance pathways. PMID:27995908

  4. Ribosomal Protein Methyltransferases in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Roles in Ribosome Biogenesis and Translation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hadid, Qais; White, Jonelle; Clarke, Steven

    2016-01-01

    A significant percentage of the methyltransferasome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes is devoted to methylation of the translational machinery. Methylation of the RNA components of the translational machinery has been studied extensively and is important for structure stability, ribosome biogenesis, and translational fidelity. However, the functional effects of ribosomal protein methylation by their cognate methyltransferases are still largely unknown. Previous work has shown that the ribosomal protein Rpl3 methyltransferase, histidine protein methyltransferase 1 (Hpm1), is important for ribosome biogenesis and translation elongation fidelity. In this study, yeast strains deficient in each of the ten ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae were examined for potential defects in ribosome biogenesis and translation. Like Hpm1-deficient cells, loss of four of the nine other ribosomal protein methyltransferases resulted in defects in ribosomal subunit synthesis. All of the mutant strains exhibited resistance to the ribosome inhibitors anisomycin and/or cycloheximide in plate assays, but not in liquid culture. Translational fidelity assays measuring stop codon readthrough, amino acid misincorporation, and programmed −1 ribosomal frameshifting, revealed that eight of the ten enzymes are important for translation elongation fidelity and the remaining two are necessary for translation termination efficiency. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae play important roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation. PMID:26801560

  5. Insights into the Mechanism of Ribosomal Incorporation of Mammalian L13a Protein during Ribosome Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Priyanka; Basu, Abhijit; Biswas, Aditi; Poddar, Darshana; Andrews, Joel; Barik, Sailen; Komar, Anton A.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to prokaryotes, the precise mechanism of incorporation of ribosomal proteins into ribosomes in eukaryotes is not well understood. For the majority of eukaryotic ribosomal proteins, residues critical for rRNA binding, a key step in the hierarchical assembly of ribosomes, have not been well defined. In this study, we used the mammalian ribosomal protein L13a as a model to investigate the mechanism(s) underlying eukaryotic ribosomal protein incorporation into ribosomes. This work identified the arginine residue at position 68 of L13a as being essential for L13a binding to rRNA and incorporation into ribosomes. We also demonstrated that incorporation of L13a takes place during maturation of the 90S preribosome in the nucleolus, but that translocation of L13a into the nucleolus is not sufficient for its incorporation into ribosomes. Incorporation of L13a into the 90S preribosome was required for rRNA methylation within the 90S complex. However, mutations abolishing ribosomal incorporation of L13a did not affect its ability to be phosphorylated or its extraribosomal function in GAIT element-mediated translational silencing. These results provide new insights into the mechanism of ribosomal incorporation of L13a and will be useful in guiding future studies aimed at fully deciphering mammalian ribosome biogenesis. PMID:23689135

  6. Ribosomal protein methyltransferases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadid, Qais; White, Jonelle; Clarke, Steven

    2016-02-12

    A significant percentage of the methyltransferasome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes is devoted to methylation of the translational machinery. Methylation of the RNA components of the translational machinery has been studied extensively and is important for structure stability, ribosome biogenesis, and translational fidelity. However, the functional effects of ribosomal protein methylation by their cognate methyltransferases are still largely unknown. Previous work has shown that the ribosomal protein Rpl3 methyltransferase, histidine protein methyltransferase 1 (Hpm1), is important for ribosome biogenesis and translation elongation fidelity. In this study, yeast strains deficient in each of the ten ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae were examined for potential defects in ribosome biogenesis and translation. Like Hpm1-deficient cells, loss of four of the nine other ribosomal protein methyltransferases resulted in defects in ribosomal subunit synthesis. All of the mutant strains exhibited resistance to the ribosome inhibitors anisomycin and/or cycloheximide in plate assays, but not in liquid culture. Translational fidelity assays measuring stop codon readthrough, amino acid misincorporation, and programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting, revealed that eight of the ten enzymes are important for translation elongation fidelity and the remaining two are necessary for translation termination efficiency. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae play important roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation.

  7. Karyotypes, heterochromatin, and physical mapping of 18S-26S rDNA in Cactaceae.

    PubMed

    Las Peñas, M L; Urdampilleta, J D; Bernardello, G; Forni-Martins, E R

    2009-01-01

    Karyotype analyses in members of the four Cactaceae subfamilies were performed. Numbers and karyotype formula obtained were: Pereskioideae = Pereskiaaculeata(2n = 22; 10 m + 1 sm), Maihuenioideae = Maihuenia patagonica (2n = 22, 9 m + 2 sm; 2n = 44, 18 m + 4 sm), Opuntioideae = Cumulopuntia recurvata(2n = 44; 20 m + 2 sm), Cactoideae = Acanthocalycium spiniflorum (2n = 22; 10 m + 1 sm),Echinopsis tubiflora (2n = 22; 10 m + 1 sm), Trichocereus candicans (2n = 22, 22 m). Chromosomes were small, the average chromosome length was 2.3 mum. Diploid species and the tetraploid C. recurvata had one terminal satellite, whereas the remaining tetraploid species showed four satellited chromosomes. Karyotypes were symmetrical. No CMA(-)/DAPI(+) bands were detected, but CMA(+)/DAPI(-) bands associated with NOR were always found. Pericentromeric heterochromatin was found in C. recurvata, A. spiniflorum, and the tetraploid cytotype of M. patagonica. The locations of the 18S-26S rDNA sites in all species coincided with CMA(+)/DAPI(-) bands; the same occurred with the sizes and numbers of signals for each species. This technique was applied for the first time in metaphase chromosomes in cacti. NOR-bearing pair no.1 may be homeologous in all species examined. In Cactaceae, the 18S-26S loci seem to be highly conserved.

  8. Optical and electrical stability of viral-templated copper sulfide (Cu1.8S) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahriar Zaman, Mohammed; Bernard Grajeda, Gabriel; Haberer, Elaine D.

    2014-04-01

    The optical and electrical stabilities of viral-templated non-stoichiometric copper sulfide, digenite (Cu1.8S) films were investigated. The films were composed of large agglomerates of randomly aligned Cu1.8S-coated M13 filamentous phage. Free carrier optical absorption associated with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) was observed in the near infrared spectral region, and the films were electrically active, displaying a linear current-voltage relationship. Under ambient conditions, the magnitude of the LSPR absorption increased, following a power law relationship with time, and the electrical resistance of viral-templated films decreased significantly. In contrast, the resistance of films stored under low oxygen, low humidity conditions experienced a smaller reduction in electrical resistance. Changes in optical and electrical film properties under ambient conditions were associated with an increase in free carrier concentration within the copper chalcogenide material due to oxygen exposure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to relate this increase in free carrier concentration to compositional changes on the viral-templated material surface.

  9. Gregarine site-heterogeneous 18S rDNA trees, revision of gregarine higher classification, and the evolutionary diversification of Sporozoa.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Gregarine 18S ribosomal DNA trees are hard to resolve because they exhibit the most disparate rates of rDNA evolution of any eukaryote group. As site-heterogeneous tree-reconstruction algorithms can give more accurate trees, especially for technically unusually challenging groups, I present the first site-heterogeneous rDNA trees for 122 gregarines and an extensive set of 452 appropriate outgroups. While some features remain poorly resolved, these trees fit morphological diversity better than most previous, evolutionarily less realistic, maximum likelihood trees. Gregarines are probably polyphyletic, with some 'eugregarines' and all 'neogregarines' (both abandoned as taxa) being more closely related to Cryptosporidium and Rhytidocystidae than to archigregarines. I establish a new subclass Orthogregarinia (new orders Vermigregarida, Arthrogregarida) for gregarines most closely related to Cryptosporidium and group Orthogregarinia, Cryptosporidiidae, and Rhytidocystidae as revised class Gregarinomorphea. Archigregarines are excluded from Gregarinomorphea and grouped with new orders Velocida (Urosporoidea superfam. n. and Veloxidium) and Stenophorida as a new sporozoan class Paragregarea. Platyproteum and Filipodium never group with Orthogregarinia or Paragregarea and are sufficiently different morphologically to merit a new order Squirmida. I revise gregarine higher-level classification generally in the light of site-heterogeneous-model trees, discuss their evolution, and also sporozoan cell structure and life-history evolution, correcting widespread misinterpretations.

  10. The other lives of ribosomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that ribosomal proteins are the constituents of an organelle that is present in every cell, they show a surprising level of regulation, and several of them have also been shown to have other extra-ribosomal functions, such in replication, transcription, splicing or even ageing. This review provides a comprehensive summary of these important aspects. PMID:20650820

  11. Complementary roles of initiation factor 1 and ribosome recycling factor in 70S ribosome splitting

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Michael Y; Antoun, Ayman; Lovmar, Martin; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that ribosomes containing a messenger RNA (mRNA) with a strong Shine–Dalgarno sequence are rapidly split into subunits by initiation factors 1 (IF1) and 3 (IF3), but slowly split by ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and elongation factor G (EF-G). Post-termination-like (PTL) ribosomes containing mRNA and a P-site-bound deacylated transfer RNA (tRNA) are split very rapidly by RRF and EF-G, but extremely slowly by IF1 and IF3. Vacant ribosomes are split by RRF/EF-G much more slowly than PTL ribosomes and by IF1/IF3 much more slowly than mRNA-containing ribosomes. These observations reveal complementary splitting of different ribosomal complexes by IF1/IF3 and RRF/EF-G, and suggest the existence of two major pathways for ribosome splitting into subunits in the living cell. We show that the identity of the deacylated tRNA in the PTL ribosome strongly affects the rate by which it is split by RRF/EF-G and that IF3 is involved in the mechanism of ribosome splitting by IF1/IF3 but not by RRF/EF-G. With support from our experimental data, we discuss the principally different mechanisms of ribosome splitting by IF1/IF3 and by RRF/EF-G. PMID:18497739

  12. Import of ribosomal proteins into yeast mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Woellhaf, Michael W; Hansen, Katja G; Garth, Christoph; Herrmann, Johannes M

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomes of baker's yeast contain at least 78 protein subunits. All but one of these proteins are nuclear-encoded, synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes, and imported into the matrix for biogenesis. The import of matrix proteins typically relies on N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequences that form positively charged amphipathic helices. Interestingly, the N-terminal regions of many ribosomal proteins do not closely match the characteristics of matrix targeting sequences, suggesting that the import processes of these proteins might deviate to some extent from the general import route. So far, the biogenesis of only two ribosomal proteins, Mrpl32 and Mrp10, was studied experimentally and indeed showed surprising differences to the import of other preproteins. In this review article we summarize the current knowledge on the transport of proteins into the mitochondrial matrix, and thereby specifically focus on proteins of the mitochondrial ribosome.

  13. Differential Stoichiometry among Core Ribosomal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Slavov, Nikolai; Semrau, Stefan; Airoldi, Edoardo; Budnik, Bogdan; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Summary Understanding the regulation and structure of ribosomes is essential to understanding protein synthesis and its dysregulation in disease. While ribosomes are believed to have a fixed stoichiometry among their core ribosomal proteins (RPs), some experiments suggest a more variable composition. Testing such variability requires direct and precise quantification of RPs. We used mass spectrometry to directly quantify RPs across monosomes and polysomes of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) and budding yeast. Our data show that the stoichiometry among core RPs in wild-type yeast cells and ESC depends both on the growth conditions and on the number of ribosomes bound per mRNA. Furthermore, we find that the fitness of cells with a deleted RP-gene is inversely proportional to the enrichment of the corresponding RP in polysomes. Together, our findings support the existence of ribosomes with distinct protein composition and physiological function. PMID:26565899

  14. Interaction of Chloramphenicol Tripeptide Analogs with Ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Tereshchenkov, A G; Shishkina, A V; Tashlitsky, V N; Korshunova, G A; Bogdanov, A A; Sumbatyan, N V

    2016-04-01

    Chloramphenicol amine peptide derivatives containing tripeptide fragments of regulatory "stop peptides" - MRL, IRA, IWP - were synthesized. The ability of the compounds to form ribosomal complexes was studied by displacement of the fluorescent erythromycin analog from its complex with E. coli ribosomes. It was found that peptide chloramphenicol analogs are able to bind to bacterial ribosomes. The dissociation constants were 4.3-10 µM, which is 100-fold lower than the corresponding values for chloramphenicol amine-ribosome complex. Interaction of the chloramphenicol peptide analogs with ribosomes was simulated by molecular docking, and the most probable contacts of "stop peptide" motifs with the elements of nascent peptide exit tunnel were identified.

  15. 18S rRNA suggests that Entoprocta are protostomes, unrelated to Ectoprocta.

    PubMed

    Mackey, L Y; Winnepenninckx, B; De Wachter, R; Backeljau, T; Emschermann, P; Garey, J R

    1996-05-01

    The Ento- and Ectoprocta are sometimes placed together in the Bryozoa, which have variously been regarded as proto- or deuterostomes. However, Entoprocta have also been allied to the pseudocoelomates, while Ectoprocta are often united with the Brachiopoda and Phoronida in the (super)phylum Lophophorata. Hence, the phylogenetic relationships of these taxa are still much debated. We determined complete 18S rRNA sequences of two entoprocts, an ectoproct, an inarticulate brachiopod, a phoronid, two annelids, and a platyhelminth. Phylogenetic analyses of these data show that (1) entoprocts and lophophorates have spiralian, protostomous affinities, (2) Ento- and Ectoprocta are not sister taxa, (3) phoronids and brachiopods form a monophyletic clade, and (4) neither Ectoprocta or Annelida appear to be monophyletic. Both deuterostomous and pseudocoelomate features may have arisen at least two times in evolutionary history. These results advocate a Spiralia-Radialia-based classification rather than one based on the Protostomia-Deuterostomia concept.

  16. Novelty in phylogeny of gastrotricha: evidence from 18S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Wirz, A; Pucciarelli, S; Miceli, C; Tongiorgi, P; Balsamo, M

    1999-11-01

    Gastrotricha form a phylum which is crucial for defining the origin of pseudocoelomates, in that they share a number of characters with Rotifera and Nematoda but also with acoelomates, and even the evolutionary relationships within the phylum are anything but defined. For this reason the first extensive molecular data on Gastrotricha from the 18S rRNA sequences of both orders have been obtained and analyzed. Sequence analyses show that the phylum Gastrotricha is strictly monophyletic along an evolutionary line quite distinct from that of both Rotifera and Nematoda. A new view of the evolutionary history of the phylum Gastrotricha is put forward, in which Chaetonotida, and not Macrodasyida, are the most primitive forms of the group, contrary to the commonly held view. A polyphyletic origin of aschelminthes is supported, and the misleading term pseudocoelomates should be discarded.

  17. The phylogenetic status of arthropods, as inferred from 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Turbeville, J M; Pfeifer, D M; Field, K G; Raff, R A

    1991-09-01

    Partial 18S rRNA sequences of five chelicerate arthropods plus a crustacean, myriapod, insect, chordate, echinoderm, annelid, and platyhelminth were compared. The sequence data were used to infer phylogeny by using a maximum-parsimony method, an evolutionary-distance method, and the evolutionary-parsimony method. The phylogenetic inferences generated by maximum-parsimony and distance methods support both monophyly of the Arthropoda and monophyly of the Chelicerata within the Arthropoda. These results are congruent with phylogenies based on rigorous cladistic analyses of morphological characters. Results support the inclusion of the Arthropoda within a spiralian or protostome coelomate clade that is the sister group of a deuterostome clade, refuting the hypothesis that the arthropods represent the "primitive" sister group of a protostome coelomate clade. Bootstrap analyses and consideration of all trees within 1% of the length of the most parsimonious tree suggest that relationships between the nonchelicerate arthropods and relationships within the chelicerate clade cannot be reliably inferred with the partial 18S rRNA sequence data. With the evolutionary-parsimony method, support for monophyly of the Arthropoda is found in the majority of the combinations analyzed if the coelomates are used as "outgroups." Monophyly of the Chelicerata is supported in most combinations assessed. Our analyses also indicate that the evolutionary-parsimony method, like distance and parsimony, may be biased by taxa with long branches. We suggest that a previous study's inference of the Arthropoda as paraphyletic may be the result of (a) having two few arthropod taxa available for analysis and (b) including long-branched taxa.

  18. Protein synthesis by ribosomes with tethered subunits.

    PubMed

    Orelle, Cédric; Carlson, Erik D; Szal, Teresa; Florin, Tanja; Jewett, Michael C; Mankin, Alexander S

    2015-08-06

    The ribosome is a ribonucleoprotein machine responsible for protein synthesis. In all kingdoms of life it is composed of two subunits, each built on its own ribosomal RNA (rRNA) scaffold. The independent but coordinated functions of the subunits, including their ability to associate at initiation, rotate during elongation, and dissociate after protein release, are an established model of protein synthesis. Furthermore, the bipartite nature of the ribosome is presumed to be essential for biogenesis, since dedicated assembly factors keep immature ribosomal subunits apart and prevent them from translation initiation. Free exchange of the subunits limits the development of specialized orthogonal genetic systems that could be evolved for novel functions without interfering with native translation. Here we show that ribosomes with tethered and thus inseparable subunits (termed Ribo-T) are capable of successfully carrying out protein synthesis. By engineering a hybrid rRNA composed of both small and large subunit rRNA sequences, we produced a functional ribosome in which the subunits are covalently linked into a single entity by short RNA linkers. Notably, Ribo-T was not only functional in vitro, but was also able to support the growth of Escherichia coli cells even in the absence of wild-type ribosomes. We used Ribo-T to create the first fully orthogonal ribosome-messenger RNA system, and demonstrate its evolvability by selecting otherwise dominantly lethal rRNA mutations in the peptidyl transferase centre that facilitate the translation of a problematic protein sequence. Ribo-T can be used for exploring poorly understood functions of the ribosome, enabling orthogonal genetic systems, and engineering ribosomes with new functions.

  19. Mechanisms for ribotoxin-induced ribosomal RNA cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Pestka, James J.

    2012-11-15

    The Type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a ribotoxic mycotoxin known to contaminate cereal-based foods, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage in the macrophage via p38-directed activation of caspases. Here we employed the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage model to test the hypothesis that this rRNA cleavage pathway is similarly induced by other ribotoxins. Capillary electrophoresis confirmed that the antibiotic anisomycin (≥ 25 ng/ml), the macrocylic trichothecene satratoxin G (SG) (≥ 10 ng/ml) and ribosome-inactivating protein ricin (≥ 300 ng/ml) induced 18s and 28s rRNA fragmentation patterns identical to that observed for DON. Also, as found for DON, inhibition of p38, double-stranded RNA-activated kinase (PKR) and hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck) suppressed MAPK anisomycin-induced rRNA cleavage, while, in contrast, their inhibition did not affect SG- and ricin-induced rRNA fragmentation. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-μ and pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK suppressed rRNA cleavage induced by anisomycin, SG and ricin, indicating that these ribotoxins shared with DON a conserved downstream pathway. Activation of caspases 8, 9 and 3 concurrently with apoptosis further suggested that rRNA cleavage occurred in parallel with both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of programmed cell death. When specific inhibitors of cathepsins L and B (lysosomal cysteine cathepsins active at cytosolic neutral pH) were tested, only the former impaired anisomycin-, SG-, ricin- and DON-induced rRNA cleavage. Taken together, the data suggest that (1) all four ribotoxins induced p53-dependent rRNA cleavage via activation of cathepsin L and caspase 3, and (2) activation of p53 by DON and anisomycin involved p38 whereas SG and ricin activated p53 by an alternative mechanism. Highlights: ► Deoxynivalenol (DON) anisomycin, satratoxin G (SG) and ricin are ribotoxins. ► Ribotoxins induce 18s and 28s rRNA cleavage in the RAW 264.7 macrophage model. ► Ribotoxins induce rRNA cleavage via

  20. Ribosomal DNA polymorphisms in the yeast Geotrichum candidum.

    PubMed

    Alper, Iraz; Frenette, Michel; Labrie, Steve

    2011-12-01

    The dimorphic yeast Geotrichum candidum (teleomorph: Galactomyces candidus) is commonly used to inoculate washed-rind and bloomy-rind cheeses. However, little is known about the phylogenetic lineage of this microorganism. We have sequenced the complete 18S, 5.8S, 26S ribosomal RNA genes and their internal transcribed spacers (ITS1) and ITS2 regions (5126 nucleotides) from 18 G. candidum strains from various environmental niches, with a focus on dairy strains. Multiple sequence alignments revealed the presence of 60 polymorphic sites, which is generally unusual for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) within a given species because of the concerted evolution mechanism. This mechanism drives genetic homogenization to prevent the divergent evolution of rDNA copies within individuals. While the polymorphisms observed were mainly substitutions, one insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphism was detected in ITS1. No polymorphic sites were detected downstream from this indel site, that is, in 5.8S and ITS2. More surprisingly, many sequence electrophoregrams generated during the sequencing of the rDNA had dual peaks, suggesting that many individuals exhibited intragenomic rDNA variability. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions of four strains were cloned. The sequence analysis of 68 clones revealed 32 different ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 variants within these four strains. Depending on the strain, from four to twelve variants were detected, indicating that multiple rDNA copies were present in the genomes of these G. candidum strains. These results contribute to the debate concerning the use of the ITS region for barcoding fungi and suggest that community profiling techniques based on rDNA should be used with caution.

  1. Molecular approach to the phylogenetics of sea spiders (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) using partial sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Arango, Claudia P

    2003-09-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among major evolutionary lineages of the sea spiders (subphylum Pycnogonida) were investigated using partial sequences of nuclear DNA, 18S, and 28S ribosomal genes. Topological differences were obtained with separate analyses of 18S and 28S, and estimates of phylogeny were found to be significantly different between a combined molecular data set (18S and 28S) and a subset of a morphological data matrix analyzed elsewhere. Colossendeidae played a major role in the conflicts; it was closely related to Callipallenidae or Nymphonidae with 18S or 28S, respectively, but related to Ammotheidae according to morphological characters. Austrodecidae was defined as a basal taxon for Pycnogonida by these molecular data. The 18S sequences were surprisingly conserved among pycnogonid taxa, suggesting either an unusual case of slow evolution of the gene, or an unexpected recent divergence of pycnogonid lineages. Notwithstanding difficulties such as non-optimal taxon sampling, this is the first attempt to reconstruct the pycnogonid phylogeny based on DNA. Continued studies of sequences and other characters should increase the reliability of the analyses and our understanding of the phylogenetics of sea spiders.

  2. Divergent nuclear 18S rDNA paralogs in a turkey coccidium, Eimeria meleagrimitis, complicate molecular systematics and identification.

    PubMed

    El-Sherry, Shiem; Ogedengbe, Mosun E; Hafeez, Mian A; Barta, John R

    2013-07-01

    Multiple 18S rDNA sequences were obtained from two single-oocyst-derived lines of each of Eimeria meleagrimitis and Eimeria adenoeides. After analysing the 15 new 18S rDNA sequences from two lines of E. meleagrimitis and 17 new sequences from two lines of E. adenoeides, there were clear indications that divergent, paralogous 18S rDNA copies existed within the nuclear genome of E. meleagrimitis. In contrast, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) partial sequences from all lines of a particular Eimeria sp. were identical and, in phylogenetic analyses, COI sequences clustered unambiguously in monophyletic and highly-supported clades specific to individual Eimeria sp. Phylogenetic analysis of the new 18S rDNA sequences from E. meleagrimitis showed that they formed two distinct clades: Type A with four new sequences; and Type B with nine new sequences; both Types A and B sequences were obtained from each of the single-oocyst-derived lines of E. meleagrimitis. Together these rDNA types formed a well-supported E. meleagrimitis clade. Types A and B 18S rDNA sequences from E. meleagrimitis had a mean sequence identity of only 97.4% whereas mean sequence identity within types was 99.1-99.3%. The observed intraspecific sequence divergence among E. meleagrimitis 18S rDNA sequence types was even higher (approximately 2.6%) than the interspecific sequence divergence present between some well-recognized species such as Eimeria tenella and Eimeria necatrix (1.1%). Our observations suggest that, unlike COI sequences, 18S rDNA sequences are not reliable molecular markers to be used alone for species identification with coccidia, although 18S rDNA sequences have clear utility for phylogenetic reconstruction of apicomplexan parasites at the genus and higher taxonomic ranks.

  3. Quantitative determination of ribosome nascent chain stability

    PubMed Central

    Samelson, Avi J.; Jensen, Madeleine K.; Soto, Randy A.; Cate, Jamie H. D.; Marqusee, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate protein folding is essential for proper cellular and organismal function. In the cell, protein folding is carefully regulated; changes in folding homeostasis (proteostasis) can disrupt many cellular processes and have been implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases and other pathologies. For many proteins, the initial folding process begins during translation while the protein is still tethered to the ribosome; however, most biophysical studies of a protein’s energy landscape are carried out in isolation under idealized, dilute conditions and may not accurately report on the energy landscape in vivo. Thus, the energy landscape of ribosome nascent chains and the effect of the tethered ribosome on nascent chain folding remain unclear. Here we have developed a general assay for quantitatively measuring the folding stability of ribosome nascent chains, and find that the ribosome exerts a destabilizing effect on the polypeptide chain. This destabilization decreases as a function of the distance away from the peptidyl transferase center. Thus, the ribosome may add an additional layer of robustness to the protein-folding process by avoiding the formation of stable partially folded states before the protein has completely emerged from the ribosome. PMID:27821780

  4. A new system for naming ribosomal proteins.

    PubMed

    Ban, Nenad; Beckmann, Roland; Cate, Jamie H D; Dinman, Jonathan D; Dragon, François; Ellis, Steven R; Lafontaine, Denis L J; Lindahl, Lasse; Liljas, Anders; Lipton, Jeffrey M; McAlear, Michael A; Moore, Peter B; Noller, Harry F; Ortega, Joaquin; Panse, Vikram Govind; Ramakrishnan, V; Spahn, Christian M T; Steitz, Thomas A; Tchorzewski, Marek; Tollervey, David; Warren, Alan J; Williamson, James R; Wilson, Daniel; Yonath, Ada; Yusupov, Marat

    2014-02-01

    A system for naming ribosomal proteins is described that the authors intend to use in the future. They urge others to adopt it. The objective is to eliminate the confusion caused by the assignment of identical names to ribosomal proteins from different species that are unrelated in structure and function. In the system proposed here, homologous ribosomal proteins are assigned the same name, regardless of species. It is designed so that new names are similar enough to old names to be easily recognized, but are written in a format that unambiguously identifies them as 'new system' names.

  5. Substitution of Azotobacter vinelandii hydrogenase small-subunit cysteines by serines can create insensitivity to inhibition by O2 and preferentially damages H2 oxidation over H2 evolution.

    PubMed Central

    McTavish, H; Sayavedra-Soto, L A; Arp, D J

    1995-01-01

    Mutants in which conserved cysteines 294, 297 or 64 and 65 of the Azotobacter vinelandii hydrogenase small subunit were replaced by serines were studied. Cysteines 294 and 297 are homologous to cysteines 246 and 249 of the Desulfovibrio gigas hydrogenase, and these cysteines are ligands to the [3Fe-4S] clusters (A. Volbeda, M.-H. Charon, C. Piras, E. C. Hatchikian, M. Frey, and J. C. Fontecilla-Camps, Nature (London) 373:580-587, 1995). Cysteine 65 is homologous to cysteine 20 of the D. gigas hydrogenase, and this cysteine is a ligand to the proximal [4Fe-4S] cluster. All three mutants retained some hydrogenase activity. All three mutants studied had H2 oxidation-to-H2 evolution activity ratios with whole cells of approximately 1.5, compared with 46 for the wild type. The changes preferentially deplete H2 oxidation activity, while having less effect on evolution. The K64,65C-->S hydrogenase was partially purified and had a specific activity for the evolution reaction that was 22% that of the wild type, while the oxidation-specific activity was 2% that of the wild type. Because cysteine 65 provides a ligand to the proximal [4Fe-4S] cluster, this cluster can be altered without entirely eliminating enzyme activity. Likewise, the detection of H2 evolution and H2 oxidation activities with whole cells and membranes of the K294C-->S and K297C-->S mutants indicates that the [3Fe-4S] cluster can also be altered or possibly eliminated without entirely eliminating enzyme activity. Membranes with K294C-->S or K297C-->S hydrogenase were uninhibited by O2 in H2 oxidation and uninhibited by H2 in H2 evolution. Wild-type membranes and membranes with K64,65C-->S hydrogenase were both sensitive to these inhibitors. These data indicate that the [3Fe-4S] cluster controls the reversible inhibition of hydrogenase activity by O2 or H2. PMID:7608067

  6. Hold on to your friends: Dedicated chaperones of ribosomal proteins: Dedicated chaperones mediate the safe transfer of ribosomal proteins to their site of pre-ribosome incorporation.

    PubMed

    Pillet, Benjamin; Mitterer, Valentin; Kressler, Dieter; Pertschy, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic ribosomes are assembled from their components, the ribosomal RNAs and ribosomal proteins, in a tremendously complex, multi-step process, which primarily takes place in the nuclear compartment. Therefore, most ribosomal proteins have to travel from the cytoplasm to their incorporation site on pre-ribosomes within the nucleus. However, due to their particular characteristics, such as a highly basic amino acid composition and the presence of unstructured extensions, ribosomal proteins are especially prone to aggregation and degradation in their unassembled state, hence specific mechanisms must operate to ensure their safe delivery. Recent studies have uncovered a group of proteins, termed dedicated chaperones, specialized in accompanying and guarding individual ribosomal proteins. In this essay, we review how these dedicated chaperones utilize different folds to interact with their ribosomal protein clients and how they ensure their soluble expression and interconnect their intracellular transport with their efficient assembly into pre-ribosomes.

  7. Crude Extracts, Flavokawain B and Alpinetin Compounds from the Rhizome of Alpinia mutica Induce Cell Death via UCK2 Enzyme Inhibition and in Turn Reduce 18S rRNA Biosynthesis in HT-29 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Rasedee; Kassim, Nur Kartinee Bt; Rosli, Rozita; Yeap, Swee Keong; Waziri, Peter; Etti, Imaobong Christopher; Bello, Muhammad Bashir

    2017-01-01

    Uridine-cytidine kinase 2 is an enzyme that is overexpressed in abnormal cell growth and its implication is considered a hallmark of cancer. Due to the selective expression of UCK2 in cancer cells, a selective inhibition of this key enzyme necessitates the discovery of its potential inhibitors for cancer chemotherapy. The present study was carried out to demonstrate the potentials of natural phytochemicals from the rhizome of Alpinia mutica to inhibit UCK2 useful for colorectal cancer. Here, we employed the used of in vitro to investigate the effectiveness of natural UCK2 inhibitors to cause HT-29 cell death. Extracts, flavokawain B, and alpinetin compound from the rhizome of Alpinia mutica was used in the study. The study demonstrated that the expression of UCK2 mRNA were substantially reduced in treated HT-29 cells. In addition, downregulation in expression of 18S ribosomal RNA was also observed in all treated HT-29 cells. This was confirmed by fluorescence imaging to measure the level of expression of 18S ribosomal RNA in live cell images. The study suggests the possibility of MDM2 protein was downregulated and its suppression subsequently activates the expression of p53 during inhibition of UCK2 enzyme. The expression of p53 is directly linked to a blockage of cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase and upregulates Bax, cytochrome c, and caspase 3 while Bcl2 was deregulated. In this respect, apoptosis induction and DNA fragmentation were observed in treated HT-29 cells. Initial results from in vitro studies have shown the ability of the bioactive compounds of flavokawain B and alpinetin to target UCK2 enzyme specifically, inducing cell cycle arrest and subsequently leading to cancer cell death, possibly through interfering the MDM2-p53 signalling pathway. These phenomena have proven that the bioactive compounds could be useful for future therapeutic use in colon cancer. PMID:28103302

  8. Crude Extracts, Flavokawain B and Alpinetin Compounds from the Rhizome of Alpinia mutica Induce Cell Death via UCK2 Enzyme Inhibition and in Turn Reduce 18S rRNA Biosynthesis in HT-29 Cells.

    PubMed

    Malami, Ibrahim; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Abdullah, Rasedee; Kassim, Nur Kartinee Bt; Rosli, Rozita; Yeap, Swee Keong; Waziri, Peter; Etti, Imaobong Christopher; Bello, Muhammad Bashir

    2017-01-01

    Uridine-cytidine kinase 2 is an enzyme that is overexpressed in abnormal cell growth and its implication is considered a hallmark of cancer. Due to the selective expression of UCK2 in cancer cells, a selective inhibition of this key enzyme necessitates the discovery of its potential inhibitors for cancer chemotherapy. The present study was carried out to demonstrate the potentials of natural phytochemicals from the rhizome of Alpinia mutica to inhibit UCK2 useful for colorectal cancer. Here, we employed the used of in vitro to investigate the effectiveness of natural UCK2 inhibitors to cause HT-29 cell death. Extracts, flavokawain B, and alpinetin compound from the rhizome of Alpinia mutica was used in the study. The study demonstrated that the expression of UCK2 mRNA were substantially reduced in treated HT-29 cells. In addition, downregulation in expression of 18S ribosomal RNA was also observed in all treated HT-29 cells. This was confirmed by fluorescence imaging to measure the level of expression of 18S ribosomal RNA in live cell images. The study suggests the possibility of MDM2 protein was downregulated and its suppression subsequently activates the expression of p53 during inhibition of UCK2 enzyme. The expression of p53 is directly linked to a blockage of cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase and upregulates Bax, cytochrome c, and caspase 3 while Bcl2 was deregulated. In this respect, apoptosis induction and DNA fragmentation were observed in treated HT-29 cells. Initial results from in vitro studies have shown the ability of the bioactive compounds of flavokawain B and alpinetin to target UCK2 enzyme specifically, inducing cell cycle arrest and subsequently leading to cancer cell death, possibly through interfering the MDM2-p53 signalling pathway. These phenomena have proven that the bioactive compounds could be useful for future therapeutic use in colon cancer.

  9. Molecular organization of the 25S-18S rDNA IGS of Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Vera; Rocheta, Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units, repeated in tandem at one or more chromosomal loci, are separated by an intergenic spacer (IGS) containing functional elements involved in the regulation of transcription of downstream rRNA genes. In the present work, we have compared the IGS molecular organizations in two divergent species of Fagaceae, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber, aiming to comprehend the evolution of the IGS sequences within the family. Self- and cross-hybridization FISH was done on representative species of the Fagaceae. The IGS length variability and the methylation level of 18 and 25S rRNA genes were assessed in representatives of three genera of this family: Fagus, Quercus and Castanea. The intergenic spacers in Beech and Cork Oak showed similar overall organizations comprising putative functional elements needed for rRNA gene activity and containing a non-transcribed spacer (NTS), a promoter region, and a 5'-external transcribed spacer. In the NTS: the sub-repeats structure in Beech is more organized than in Cork Oak, sharing some short motifs which results in the lowest sequence similarity of the entire IGS; the AT-rich region differed in both spacers by a GC-rich block inserted in Cork Oak. The 5'-ETS is the region with the higher similarity, having nonetheless different lengths. FISH with the NTS-5'-ETS revealed fainter signals in cross-hybridization in agreement with the divergence between genera. The diversity of IGS lengths revealed variants from ∼ 2 kb in Fagus, and Quercus up to 5.3 kb in Castanea, and a lack of correlation between the number of variants and the number of rDNA loci in several species. Methylation of 25S Bam HI site was confirmed in all species and detected for the first time in the 18S of Q. suber and Q. faginea. These results provide important clues for the evolutionary trends of the rDNA 25S-18S IGS in the Fagaceae family.

  10. Regulation of ribosomal protein synthesis in an Escherichia coli mutant missing ribosomal protein L1.

    PubMed Central

    Jinks-Robertson, S; Nomura, M

    1981-01-01

    In an Escherichia coli B strain missing ribosomal protein L1, the synthesis rate of L11 is 50% greater than that of other ribosomal proteins. This finding is in agreement with the previous conclusion that L1 regulates synthesis of itself and L11 and indicates that this regulation is important for maintaining the balanced synthesis of ribosomal proteins under physiological conditions. PMID:7009590

  11. Eukaryotic Ribosome Assembly and Nuclear Export.

    PubMed

    Nerurkar, Purnima; Altvater, Martin; Gerhardy, Stefan; Schütz, Sabina; Fischer, Ute; Weirich, Christine; Panse, Vikram Govind

    2015-01-01

    Accurate translation of the genetic code into functional polypeptides is key to cellular growth and proliferation. This essential process is carried out by the ribosome, a ribonucleoprotein complex of remarkable size and intricacy. Although the structure of the mature ribosome has provided insight into the mechanism of translation, our knowledge regarding the assembly, quality control, and intracellular targeting of this molecular machine is still emerging. Assembly of the eukaryotic ribosome begins in the nucleolus and requires more than 350 conserved assembly factors, which transiently associate with the preribosome at specific maturation stages. After accomplishing their tasks, early-acting assembly factors are released, preparing preribosomes for nuclear export. Export competent preribosomal subunits are transported through nuclear pore complexes into the cytoplasm, where they undergo final maturation steps, which are closely connected to quality control, before engaging in translation. In this chapter, we focus on the final events that commit correctly assembled ribosomal subunits for translation.

  12. Quantitative studies of ribosome conformational dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Christopher S; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2007-05-01

    The ribosome is a dynamic machine that undergoes many conformational rearrangements during the initiation of protein synthesis. Significant differences exist between the process of protein synthesis initiation in eubacteria and eukaryotes. In particular, the initiation of eukaryotic protein synthesis requires roughly an order of magnitude more initiation factors to promote efficient mRNA recruitment and ribosomal recognition of the start codon than are needed for eubacterial initiation. The mechanisms by which these initiation factors promote ribosome conformational changes during stages of initiation have been studied using cross-linking, footprinting, site-directed probing, cryo-electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, fluorescence spectroscopy and single-molecule techniques. Here, we review how the results of these different approaches have begun to converge to yield a detailed molecular understanding of the dynamic motions that the eukaryotic ribosome cycles through during the initiation of protein synthesis.

  13. Ribosome Inactivating Proteins from Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Shang, Chenjing; Rougé, Pierre; Van Damme, Els J M

    2016-08-22

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are widespread among higher plants of different taxonomic orders. In this study, we report on the RIP sequences found in the genome/transcriptome of several important Rosaceae species, including many economically important edible fruits such as apple, pear, peach, apricot, and strawberry. All RIP domains from Rosaceae share high sequence similarity with conserved residues in the catalytic site and the carbohydrate binding sites. The genomes of Malus domestica and Pyrus communis contain both type 1 and type 2 RIP sequences, whereas for Prunus mume, Prunus persica, Pyrus bretschneideri, and Pyrus communis a complex set of type 1 RIP sequences was retrieved. Heterologous expression and purification of the type 1 as well as the type 2 RIP from apple allowed to characterize the biological activity of the proteins. Both RIPs from Malus domestica can inhibit protein synthesis. Furthermore, molecular modelling suggests that RIPs from Rosaceae possess three-dimensional structures that are highly similar to the model proteins and can bind to RIP substrates. Screening of the recombinant type 2 RIP from apple on a glycan array revealed that this type 2 RIP interacts with terminal sialic acid residues. Our data suggest that the RIPs from Rosaceae are biologically active proteins.

  14. Potential extra-ribosomal functions of ribosomal proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yi-Fei; Xiong, Juan; Wang, Rong; Jia, Zhengping

    2015-08-01

    Ribosomal proteins (RPs), are essential components of the ribosomes, the molecular machines that turn mRNA blueprints into proteins, as they serve to stabilize the structure of the rRNA, thus improving protein biosynthesis. In addition, growing evidence suggests that RPs can function in other cellular roles. In the present review, we summarize several potential extra-ribosomal functions of RPs in ribosomal biogenesis, transcription activity, translation process, DNA repair, replicative life span, adhesive growth, and morphological transformation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the future in-depth studies are needed to identify these novel secondary functions of RPs in S. cerevisiae.

  15. Highly divergent 18S rRNA gene paralogs in a Cryptosporidium genotype from eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus)1

    PubMed Central

    Stenger, Brianna L.S.; Clark, Mark E.; Kváč, Martin; Khan, Eakalak; Giddings, Catherine W.; Dyer, Neil W.; Schultz, Jessie L.; McEvoy, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an apicomplexan parasite that causes the disease cryptosporidiosis in humans, livestock, and other vertebrates. Much of the knowledge on Cryptosporidium diversity is derived from 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) phylogenies. Eukaryote genomes generally have multiple 18S rDNA copies that evolve in concert, which is necessary for the accurate inference of phylogenetic relationships. However, 18S rDNA copies in some genomes evolve by a birth-and-death process that can result in sequence divergence among copies. Most notably, divergent 18S rDNA paralogs in the apicomplexan Plasmodium share only 89–95% sequence similarity, encode structurally distinct rRNA molecules, and are expressed at different life cycle stages. In the present study, Cryptosporidium 18S rDNA was amplified from 28/72 (38.9%) eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus). Phylogenetic analyses showed the co-occurrence of two 18S rDNA types, Type A and Type B, in 26 chipmunks, and Type B clustered with a sequence previously identified as Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II. Types A and B had a sister group relationship but shared less than 93% sequence similarity. In contrast, actin and heat shock protein 70 gene sequences were homogeneous in samples with both Types A and B present. It was therefore concluded that Types A and B are divergent 18S rDNA paralogs in Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II. Substitution patterns in Types A and B were consistent with functionally constrained evolution; however, Type B evolved more rapidly than Type A and had a higher G+C content (46.3% versus 41.0%). Oocysts of Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II measured 4.17 μm (3.73–5.04 μm) × 3.94 μm (3.50–4.98 μm) with a length-to-width ratio of 1.06 ± 0.06 μm, and infection occurred naturally in the jejunum, cecum, and colon of eastern chipmunks. The findings of this study have implications for the use of 18S rDNA sequences to infer phylogenetic relationships. PMID:25772204

  16. Chromosome mapping of ribosomal genes and histone H4 in the genus Radacridium (Romaleidae)

    PubMed Central

    Anjos, Allison; Loreto, Vilma; de Souza, Maria José

    2013-01-01

    In this study, two species of Romaleidae grasshoppers, Radacridium mariajoseae and R.nordestinum, were analyzed after CMA3/DA/DAPI sequential staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine the location of the 18S and 5S rDNA and histone H4 genes. Both species presented karyotypes composed of 2n = 23, X0 with exclusively acrocentric chromosomes. CMA3+ blocks were detected after CMA3/DA/DAPI staining in only one medium size autosome bivalent and in the X chromosome in R. mariajoseae. On the other hand, all chromosomes, except the L1 bivalent, of R. nordestinum presented CMA3+ blocks. FISH analysis showed that the 18S genes are restricted to the X chromosome in R. mariajoseae, whereas these genes were located in the L2, S9 and S10 autosomes in R. nordestinum. In R. mariajoseae, the 5S rDNA sites were localized in the in L1 and L2 bivalents and in the X chromosome. In R. nordestinum, the 5S genes were located in the L2, L3, M4 and M5 pairs. In both species the histone H4 genes were present in a medium size bivalent. Together, these data evidence a great variability of chromosome markers and show that the 18S and 5S ribosomal genes are dispersed in the Radacridium genome without a significant correlation. PMID:24130439

  17. Radiolaria Divided into Polycystina and Spasmaria in Combined 18S and 28S rDNA Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Dolven, Jane K.; Ose, Randi F.; Klaveness, Dag; Kristensen, Tom; Bjørklund, Kjell R.; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    Radiolarians are marine planktonic protists that belong to the eukaryote supergroup Rhizaria together with Foraminifera and Cercozoa. Radiolaria has traditionally been divided into four main groups based on morphological characters; i.e. Polycystina, Acantharia, Nassellaria and Phaeodaria. But recent 18S rDNA phylogenies have shown that Phaeodaria belongs within Cerocozoa, and that the previously heliozoan group Taxopodida should be included in Radiolaria. 18S rDNA phylogenies have not yet resolved the sister relationship between the main Radiolaria groups, but nevertheless suggests that Spumellaria, and thereby also Polycystina, are polyphyletic. Very few sequences other than 18S rDNA have so far been generated from radiolarian cells, mostly due to the fact that Radiolaria has been impossible to cultivate and single cell PCR has been hampered by low success rate. Here we have therefore investigated the mutual evolutionary relationship of the main radiolarian groups by using the novel approach of combining single cell whole genome amplification with targeted PCR amplification of the 18S and 28S rDNA genes. Combined 18S and 28S phylogeny of sequences obtained from single cells shows that Radiolaria is divided into two main lineages: Polycystina (Spumellaria+Nassellaria) and Spasmaria (Acantharia+Taxopodida). Further we show with high support that Foraminifera groups within Radiolaria supporting the Retaria hypothesis. PMID:21853146

  18. ITS1 sequence variabilities correlate with 18S rDNA sequence types in the genus Acanthamoeba (Protozoa: Amoebozoa).

    PubMed

    Köhsler, Martina; Leitner, Brigitte; Blaschitz, Marion; Michel, Rolf; Aspöck, Horst; Walochnik, Julia

    2006-01-01

    The subgenus classification of the ubiquitously spread and potentially pathogenic acanthamoebae still poses a great challenge. Fifteen 18S rDNA sequence types (T1-T15) have been established, but the vast majority of isolates fall into sequence type T4, and so far, there is no means to reliably differentiate within T4. In this study, the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1), a more variable region than the 18S rRNA gene, was sequenced, and the sequences of 15 different Acanthamoeba isolates were compared to reveal if ITS1 sequence variability correlates with 18S rDNA sequence typing and if the ITS1 sequencing allows a differentiation within T4. It was shown that the variability in ITS1 is tenfold higher than in the 18S rDNA, and that ITS1 clusters correlate with the 18S rDNA clusters and thus corroborate the Acanthamoeba sequence type system. Moreover, high sequence dissimilarities and distinctive microsatellite patterns could enable a more detailed differentiation within T4.

  19. Ribonuclease Sensitivity of Escherichia coli Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Santer, Melvin; Smith, Josephine R.

    1966-01-01

    Santer, Melvin (Haverford College, Haverford, Pa.), and Josephine R. Smith. Ribonuclease sensitivity of Escherichia coli ribosomes. J. Bacteriol. 92:1099–1110. 1966.—The ribonucleic acid (RNA) contained in 70S ribosomes and in 50S and 30S subunits was hydrolyzed by pancreatic ribonuclease. A 7% amount of the RNA was removed from the 70S particle; at 10−4m magnesium concentration, a maximum of 24 and 30% of the RNA in the 50S and the 30S fractions, respectively, was removed by ribonuclease. At the two lower magnesium ion concentrations, 50S ribosomes did not lose any protein, whereas 30S ribosomes lost protein as a result of ribonuclease treatment. A number of proteins were removed from the 30S particles by ribonuclease, and these proteins were antigenically related to proteins present in 50S ribosomes. The differential effect of ribonuclease on 50S and 30S ribosomes suggested that they have structural dissimilarities. Images PMID:5332866

  20. Atomic mutagenesis at the ribosomal decoding site.

    PubMed

    Schrode, Pius; Huter, Paul; Clementi, Nina; Erlacher, Matthias

    2017-01-02

    Ribosomal decoding is an essential process in every living cell. During protein synthesis the 30S ribosomal subunit needs to accomplish binding and accurate decoding of mRNAs. From mutational studies and high-resolution crystal structures nucleotides G530, A1492 and A1493 of the 16S rRNA came into focus as important elements for the decoding process. Recent crystallographic data challenged the so far accepted model for the decoding mechanism. To biochemically investigate decoding in greater detail we applied an in vitro reconstitution approach to modulate single chemical groups at A1492 and A1493. The modified ribosomes were subsequently tested for their ability to efficiently decode the mRNA. Unexpectedly, the ribosome was rather tolerant toward modifications of single groups either at the base or at the sugar moiety in terms of translation activity. Concerning translation fidelity, the elimination of single chemical groups involved in a hydrogen bonding network between the tRNA, mRNA and rRNA did not change the accuracy of the ribosome. These results indicate that the contribution of those chemical groups and the formed hydrogen bonds are not crucial for ribosomal decoding.

  1. Atomic mutagenesis at the ribosomal decoding site

    PubMed Central

    Schrode, Pius; Huter, Paul; Clementi, Nina; Erlacher, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ribosomal decoding is an essential process in every living cell. During protein synthesis the 30S ribosomal subunit needs to accomplish binding and accurate decoding of mRNAs. From mutational studies and high-resolution crystal structures nucleotides G530, A1492 and A1493 of the 16S rRNA came into focus as important elements for the decoding process. Recent crystallographic data challenged the so far accepted model for the decoding mechanism. To biochemically investigate decoding in greater detail we applied an in vitro reconstitution approach to modulate single chemical groups at A1492 and A1493. The modified ribosomes were subsequently tested for their ability to efficiently decode the mRNA. Unexpectedly, the ribosome was rather tolerant toward modifications of single groups either at the base or at the sugar moiety in terms of translation activity. Concerning translation fidelity, the elimination of single chemical groups involved in a hydrogen bonding network between the tRNA, mRNA and rRNA did not change the accuracy of the ribosome. These results indicate that the contribution of those chemical groups and the formed hydrogen bonds are not crucial for ribosomal decoding. PMID:27841727

  2. A recent intermezzo at the Ribosome Club.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Michael Y; Liljas, Anders; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2017-03-19

    Two sets of ribosome structures have recently led to two different interpretations of what limits the accuracy of codon translation by transfer RNAs. In this review, inspired by this intermezzo at the Ribosome Club, we briefly discuss accuracy amplification by energy driven proofreading and its implementation in genetic code translation. We further discuss general ways by which the monitoring bases of 16S rRNA may enhance the ultimate accuracy (d-values) and how the codon translation accuracy is reduced by the actions of Mg(2+) ions and the presence of error inducing aminoglycoside antibiotics. We demonstrate that complete freezing-in of cognate-like tautomeric states of ribosome-bound nucleotide bases in transfer RNA or messenger RNA is not compatible with recent experiments on initial codon selection by transfer RNA in ternary complex with elongation factor Tu and GTP. From these considerations, we suggest that the sets of 30S subunit structures from the Ramakrishnan group and 70S structures from the Yusupov/Yusupova group may, after all, reflect two sides of the same coin and how the structurally based intermezzo at the Ribosome Club may be resolved simply by taking the dynamic aspects of ribosome function into account.This article is part of the themed issue 'Perspectives on the ribosome'.

  3. Identification of Habitat-Specific Biomes of Aquatic Fungal Communities Using a Comprehensive Nearly Full-Length 18S rRNA Dataset Enriched with Contextual Data.

    PubMed

    Panzer, Katrin; Yilmaz, Pelin; Weiß, Michael; Reich, Lothar; Richter, Michael; Wiese, Jutta; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Labes, Antje; Imhoff, Johannes F; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Reich, Marlis

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diversity surveys have demonstrated that aquatic fungi are highly diverse, and that they play fundamental ecological roles in aquatic systems. Unfortunately, comparative studies of aquatic fungal communities are few and far between, due to the scarcity of adequate datasets. We combined all publicly available fungal 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences with new sequence data from a marine fungi culture collection. We further enriched this dataset by adding validated contextual data. Specifically, we included data on the habitat type of the samples assigning fungal taxa to ten different habitat categories. This dataset has been created with the intention to serve as a valuable reference dataset for aquatic fungi including a phylogenetic reference tree. The combined data enabled us to infer fungal community patterns in aquatic systems. Pairwise habitat comparisons showed significant phylogenetic differences, indicating that habitat strongly affects fungal community structure. Fungal taxonomic composition differed considerably even on phylum and class level. Freshwater fungal assemblage was most different from all other habitat types and was dominated by basal fungal lineages. For most communities, phylogenetic signals indicated clustering of sequences suggesting that environmental factors were the main drivers of fungal community structure, rather than species competition. Thus, the diversification process of aquatic fungi must be highly clade specific in some cases.The combined data enabled us to infer fungal community patterns in aquatic systems. Pairwise habitat comparisons showed significant phylogenetic differences, indicating that habitat strongly affects fungal community structure. Fungal taxonomic composition differed considerably even on phylum and class level. Freshwater fungal assemblage was most different from all other habitat types and was dominated by basal fungal lineages. For most communities, phylogenetic signals indicated clustering of

  4. Identification of Habitat-Specific Biomes of Aquatic Fungal Communities Using a Comprehensive Nearly Full-Length 18S rRNA Dataset Enriched with Contextual Data

    PubMed Central

    Panzer, Katrin; Yilmaz, Pelin; Weiß, Michael; Reich, Lothar; Richter, Michael; Wiese, Jutta; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Labes, Antje; Imhoff, Johannes F.; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Reich, Marlis

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diversity surveys have demonstrated that aquatic fungi are highly diverse, and that they play fundamental ecological roles in aquatic systems. Unfortunately, comparative studies of aquatic fungal communities are few and far between, due to the scarcity of adequate datasets. We combined all publicly available fungal 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences with new sequence data from a marine fungi culture collection. We further enriched this dataset by adding validated contextual data. Specifically, we included data on the habitat type of the samples assigning fungal taxa to ten different habitat categories. This dataset has been created with the intention to serve as a valuable reference dataset for aquatic fungi including a phylogenetic reference tree. The combined data enabled us to infer fungal community patterns in aquatic systems. Pairwise habitat comparisons showed significant phylogenetic differences, indicating that habitat strongly affects fungal community structure. Fungal taxonomic composition differed considerably even on phylum and class level. Freshwater fungal assemblage was most different from all other habitat types and was dominated by basal fungal lineages. For most communities, phylogenetic signals indicated clustering of sequences suggesting that environmental factors were the main drivers of fungal community structure, rather than species competition. Thus, the diversification process of aquatic fungi must be highly clade specific in some cases.The combined data enabled us to infer fungal community patterns in aquatic systems. Pairwise habitat comparisons showed significant phylogenetic differences, indicating that habitat strongly affects fungal community structure. Fungal taxonomic composition differed considerably even on phylum and class level. Freshwater fungal assemblage was most different from all other habitat types and was dominated by basal fungal lineages. For most communities, phylogenetic signals indicated clustering of

  5. Mapping the interaction of SmpB with ribosomes by footprinting of ribosomal RNA

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Natalia; Pavlov, Michael Y.; Bouakaz, Elli; Ehrenberg, Måns; Schiavone, Lovisa Holmberg

    2005-01-01

    In trans-translation transfer messenger RNA (tmRNA) and small protein B (SmpB) rescue ribosomes stalled on truncated or in other ways problematic mRNAs. SmpB promotes the binding of tmRNA to the ribosome but there is uncertainty about the number of participating SmpB molecules as well as their ribosomal location. Here, the interaction of SmpB with ribosomal subunits and ribosomes was studied by isolation of SmpB containing complexes followed by chemical modification of ribosomal RNA with dimethyl sulfate, kethoxal and hydroxyl radicals. The results show that SmpB binds 30S and 50S subunits with 1:1 molar ratios and the 70S ribosome with 2:1 molar ratio. SmpB-footprints are similar on subunits and the ribosome. In the 30S subunit, SmpB footprints nucleotides that are in the vicinity of the P-site facing the E-site, and in the 50S subunit SmpB footprints nucleotides that are located below the L7/L12 stalk in the 3D structure of the ribosome. Based on these results, we suggest a mechanism where two molecules of SmpB interact with tmRNA and the ribosome during trans-translation. The first SmpB molecule binds near the factor-binding site on the 50S subunit helping tmRNA accommodation on the ribosome, whereas the second SmpB molecule may functionally substitute for a missing anticodon stem–loop in tmRNA during later steps of trans-translation. PMID:15972795

  6. Pharmacological inhibition of PAR2 with the pepducin P2pal-18S protects mice against acute experimental biliary pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Michael, E. S.; Kuliopulos, A.; Covic, L.; Steer, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells express proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) that is activated by trypsin-like serine proteases and has been shown to exert model-specific effects on the severity of experimental pancreatitis, i.e., PAR2−/− mice are protected from experimental acute biliary pancreatitis but develop more severe secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. P2pal-18S is a novel pepducin lipopeptide that targets and inhibits PAR2. In studies monitoring PAR2-stimulated intracellular Ca2+ concentration changes, we show that P2pal-18S is a full PAR2 inhibitor in acinar cells. Our in vivo studies show that P2pal-18S significantly reduces the severity of experimental biliary pancreatitis induced by retrograde intraductal bile acid infusion, which mimics injury induced by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This reduction in pancreatitis severity is observed when the pepducin is given before or 2 h after bile acid infusion but not when it is given 5 h after bile acid infusion. Conversely, P2pal-18S increases the severity of secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. In vitro studies indicate that P2pal-18S protects acinar cells against bile acid-induced injury/death, but it does not alter bile acid-induced intracellular zymogen activation. These studies are the first to report the effects of an effective PAR2 pharmacological inhibitor on pancreatic acinar cells and on the severity of experimental pancreatitis. They raise the possibility that a pepducin such as P2pal-18S might prove useful in the clinical management of patients at risk for developing severe biliary pancreatitis such as occurs following ERCP. PMID:23275617

  7. Pharmacological inhibition of PAR2 with the pepducin P2pal-18S protects mice against acute experimental biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Michael, E S; Kuliopulos, A; Covic, L; Steer, M L; Perides, G

    2013-03-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells express proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) that is activated by trypsin-like serine proteases and has been shown to exert model-specific effects on the severity of experimental pancreatitis, i.e., PAR2(-/-) mice are protected from experimental acute biliary pancreatitis but develop more severe secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. P2pal-18S is a novel pepducin lipopeptide that targets and inhibits PAR2. In studies monitoring PAR2-stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) concentration changes, we show that P2pal-18S is a full PAR2 inhibitor in acinar cells. Our in vivo studies show that P2pal-18S significantly reduces the severity of experimental biliary pancreatitis induced by retrograde intraductal bile acid infusion, which mimics injury induced by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This reduction in pancreatitis severity is observed when the pepducin is given before or 2 h after bile acid infusion but not when it is given 5 h after bile acid infusion. Conversely, P2pal-18S increases the severity of secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. In vitro studies indicate that P2pal-18S protects acinar cells against bile acid-induced injury/death, but it does not alter bile acid-induced intracellular zymogen activation. These studies are the first to report the effects of an effective PAR2 pharmacological inhibitor on pancreatic acinar cells and on the severity of experimental pancreatitis. They raise the possibility that a pepducin such as P2pal-18S might prove useful in the clinical management of patients at risk for developing severe biliary pancreatitis such as occurs following ERCP.

  8. Characterization of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes in gadiformes: sequence variations, secondary structural features, and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Bakke, Ingrid; Johansen, Steinar

    2002-10-01

    Secondary structure features of mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs (mt-rRNAs) of bony fishes were investigated by a DNA sequence alignment approach. The small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) mt-rRNA genes were found to contain several additional variable regions compared to their mammalian counterparts. Fish mt-LSU rRNA genes were found to be longer than the mammalians due to increased length of some of the variable regions. The 5' and 3' ends of Atlantic cod mt-rRNAs were precisely mapped. The 3' ends of mt-SSU rRNAs were found to be homogenous and mono-adenylated, whereas that of the mt-LSU rRNAs were heterogenous and oligo-adenylated. The 5' ends of mt-SSU rRNAs appeared to be heterogenous, corresponding to the presumed first and second positions of the gene. Sequences of the central domain and the D-domain of the mt-SSU and mt-LSU rRNA genes, respectively, were determined and characterized for 11 gadiform species (representing the families Gadidae, Lotidae, Ranicipitidae, Merlucciidae, Phycidae, and Macrouridae) and one Lophiidae species. Detailed secondary structure models of the RNA regions are presented for the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Roundnose grenadier (Coryphaeonides rupestris). Saturation plots revealed that DNA nucleotide positions corresponding to unpaired RNA regions become saturated with transitions at sequence divergence levels about 0.15. Phylogenetic analyses revealed some aspects of gadiform relationships. Gadidae was identified as the most derived of the gadiform families. Lotidae was found to be the family closest related to Gadidae, and Ranicipitidae was also recognized as a derived gadiform taxon.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of Central European wolf spiders (Araneae: lycosidae) inferred from 12S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Zehethofer, K; Sturmbauer, C

    1998-12-01

    We have analyzed a sequence dataset of a portion of mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene of the ribosomal small subunit for 27 species of the family Lycosidae (wolf spiders) from Central Europe, belonging to six genera (Alopecosa, Arctosa, Pardosa, Pirata, Trochosa, and Xerolycosa) and four subfamilies (Evippinae, Lycosinae, Pardosinae and Venoniinae). Phylogenetic analyses were performed in two steps and corroborate the monophyly of all the genera analyzed with strong bootstrap support. In the first step focusing on the most ancestral splits the genus Pirata consistently emerged as the most ancestral branch, followed by the two genera Arctosa and Xerolycosa, with conflicting branching order, however. The second step of analysis placed Xerolycosa more ancestral than Arctosa. Arctosa appeared as sister group to the genera Alopecosa, Trochosa, and Pardosa. The palearctic genus Xerolycosa was not yet included in previous studies derived from morphological characters, but its placement based on mtDNA sequences is in good agreement to that according to current diagnostic morphological features. Further, the single representative of the genus Arctosa examined in our study was placed at a more ancestral position than in a previous investigation based on phenotypic characters. The superimposition of the currently used diagnostic phenotypic characters on the DNA-based phylogeny shows that both character sets are widely congruent; only 3 out of 16 phenotypic characters were resolved as homoplasious, suggesting their parallel evolution and/or reversal. Among the three different styles of predation found in the Lycosids, tube builders appear to be the most ancestral from which burrow dwellers descended and from which two groups of vagrant hunters evolved in parallel.

  10. Distribution of dwell times of a ribosome: effects of infidelity, kinetic proofreading and ribosome crowding.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajeet K; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2011-04-01

    Ribosome is a molecular machine that polymerizes a protein where the sequence of the amino acid residues, the monomers of the protein, is dictated by the sequence of codons (triplets of nucleotides) on a messenger RNA (mRNA) that serves as the template. The ribosome is a molecular motor that utilizes the template mRNA strand also as the track. Thus, in each step the ribosome moves forward by one codon and, simultaneously, elongates the protein by one amino acid. We present a theoretical model that captures most of the main steps in the mechanochemical cycle of a ribosome. The stochastic movement of the ribosome consists of an alternating sequence of pause and translocation; the sum of the durations of a pause and the following translocation is the time of dwell of the ribosome at the corresponding codon. We derive the analytical expression for the distribution of the dwell times of a ribosome in our model. Wherever experimental data are available, our theoretical predictions are consistent with those results. We suggest appropriate experiments to test the new predictions of our model, particularly the effects of the quality control mechanism of the ribosome and that of their crowding on the mRNA track.

  11. The structure of ribosome-lankacidin complex reveals ribosomal sites for synergistic antibiotics

    SciTech Connect

    Auerbach, Tamar; Mermershtain, Inbal; Davidovich, Chen; Bashan, Anat; Belousoff, Matthew; Wekselman, Itai; Zimmerman, Ella; Xiong, Liqun; Klepacki, Dorota; Arakawa, Kenji; Kinashi, Haruyasu; Mankin, Alexander S.; Yonath, Ada

    2010-04-26

    Crystallographic analysis revealed that the 17-member polyketide antibiotic lankacidin produced by Streptomyces rochei binds at the peptidyl transferase center of the eubacterial large ribosomal subunit. Biochemical and functional studies verified this finding and showed interference with peptide bond formation. Chemical probing indicated that the macrolide lankamycin, a second antibiotic produced by the same species, binds at a neighboring site, at the ribosome exit tunnel. These two antibiotics can bind to the ribosome simultaneously and display synergy in inhibiting bacterial growth. The binding site of lankacidin and lankamycin partially overlap with the binding site of another pair of synergistic antibiotics, the streptogramins. Thus, at least two pairs of structurally dissimilar compounds have been selected in the course of evolution to act synergistically by targeting neighboring sites in the ribosome. These results underscore the importance of the corresponding ribosomal sites for development of clinically relevant synergistic antibiotics and demonstrate the utility of structural analysis for providing new directions for drug discovery.

  12. HflX is a ribosome-splitting factor rescuing stalled ribosomes under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanqing; Mandava, Chandra Sekhar; Cao, Wei; Li, Xiaojing; Zhang, Dejiu; Li, Ningning; Zhang, Yixiao; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Qin, Yan; Mi, Kaixia; Lei, Jianlin; Sanyal, Suparna; Gao, Ning

    2015-11-01

    Adverse cellular conditions often lead to nonproductive translational stalling and arrest of ribosomes on mRNAs. Here, we used fast kinetics and cryo-EM to characterize Escherichia coli HflX, a GTPase with unknown function. Our data reveal that HflX is a heat shock-induced ribosome-splitting factor capable of dissociating vacant as well as mRNA-associated ribosomes with deacylated tRNA in the peptidyl site. Structural data demonstrate that the N-terminal effector domain of HflX binds to the peptidyl transferase center in a strikingly similar manner as that of the class I release factors and induces dramatic conformational changes in central intersubunit bridges, thus promoting subunit dissociation. Accordingly, loss of HflX results in an increase in stalled ribosomes upon heat shock. These results suggest a primary role of HflX in rescuing translationally arrested ribosomes under stress conditions.

  13. High-resolution structure of the Escherichia coli ribosome

    DOE PAGES

    Noeske, Jonas; Wasserman, Michael R.; Terry, Daniel S.; ...

    2015-03-16

    Protein synthesis by the ribosome is highly dependent on the ionic conditions in the cellular environment, but the roles of ribosome solvation remain poorly understood. Moreover, the function of modifications to ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins are unclear. Here we present the structure of the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome to 2.4 Å resolution. The structure reveals details of the ribosomal subunit interface that are conserved in all domains of life, and suggest how solvation contributes to ribosome integrity and function. The structure also suggests how the conformation of ribosomal protein uS12 likely impacts its contribution to messenger RNA decoding. Inmore » conclusion, this structure helps to explain the phylogenetic conservation of key elements of the ribosome, including posttranscriptional and posttranslational modifications and should serve as a basis for future antibiotic development.« less

  14. Cryo-EM structure of Hepatitis C virus IRES bound to the human ribosome at 3.9-Å resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quade, Nick; Boehringer, Daniel; Leibundgut, Marc; van den Heuvel, Joop; Ban, Nenad

    2015-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a widespread human pathogen, is dependent on a highly structured 5'-untranslated region of its mRNA, referred to as internal ribosome entry site (IRES), for the translation of all of its proteins. The HCV IRES initiates translation by directly binding to the small ribosomal subunit (40S), circumventing the need for many eukaryotic translation initiation factors required for mRNA scanning. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of the human 40S ribosomal subunit in complex with the HCV IRES at 3.9 Å resolution, determined by focused refinement of an 80S ribosome-HCV IRES complex. The structure reveals the molecular details of the interactions between the IRES and the 40S, showing that expansion segment 7 (ES7) of the 18S rRNA acts as a central anchor point for the HCV IRES. The structural data rationalizes previous biochemical and genetic evidence regarding the initiation mechanism of the HCV and other related IRESs.

  15. Identification of Novel RNA-Protein Contact in Complex of Ribosomal Protein S7 and 3’-Terminal Fragment of 16S rRNA in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Golovin, A.V.; Khayrullina, G.A.; Kraal, B.; Kopylov, А.М.

    2012-01-01

    For prokaryotes in vitro, 16S rRNA and 20 ribosomal proteins are capable of hierarchical self- assembly yielding a 30S ribosomal subunit. The self-assembly is initiated by interactions between 16S rRNA and three key ribosomal proteins: S4, S8, and S7. These proteins also have a regulatory function in the translation of their polycistronic operons recognizing a specific region of mRNA. Therefore, studying the RNA–protein interactions within binary complexes is obligatory for understanding ribosome biogenesis. The non-conventional RNA–protein contact within the binary complex of recombinant ribosomal protein S7 and its 16S rRNA binding site (236 nucleotides) was identified. UV–induced RNA–protein cross-links revealed that S7 cross-links to nucleotide U1321 of 16S rRNA. The careful consideration of the published RNA– protein cross-links for protein S7 within the 30S subunit and their correlation with the X-ray data for the 30S subunit have been performed. The RNA – protein cross–link within the binary complex identified in this study is not the same as the previously found cross-links for a subunit both in a solution, and in acrystal. The structure of the binary RNA–protein complex formed at the initial steps of self-assembly of the small subunit appears to be rearranged during the formation of the final structure of the subunit. PMID:23346381

  16. Mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs) of yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Graack, H R; Wittmann-Liebold, B

    1998-01-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs) are the counterparts in that organelle of the cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins in the host. Although the MRPs fulfil similar functions in protein biosynthesis, they are distinct in number, features and primary structures from the latter. Most progress in the eludication of the properties of individual MRPs, and in the characterization of the corresponding genes, has been made in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). To date, 50 different MRPs have been determined, although biochemical data and mutational analysis propose a total number which is substantially higher. Surprisingly, only a minority of the MRPs that have been characterized show significant sequence similarities to known ribosomal proteins from other sources, thus limiting the deduction of their functions by simple comparison of amino acid sequences. Further, individual MRPs have been characterized functionally by mutational studies, and the regulation of expression of MRP genes has been described. The interaction of the mitochondrial ribosomes with transcription factors specific for individual mitochondrial mRNAs, and the communication between mitochondria and the nucleus for the co-ordinated expression of ribosomal constituents, are other aspects of current MRP research. Although the mitochondrial translational system is still far from being described completely, the yeast MRP system serves as a model for other organisms, including that of humans. PMID:9445368

  17. A recent intermezzo at the Ribosome Club

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Michael Y.; Liljas, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Two sets of ribosome structures have recently led to two different interpretations of what limits the accuracy of codon translation by transfer RNAs. In this review, inspired by this intermezzo at the Ribosome Club, we briefly discuss accuracy amplification by energy driven proofreading and its implementation in genetic code translation. We further discuss general ways by which the monitoring bases of 16S rRNA may enhance the ultimate accuracy (d-values) and how the codon translation accuracy is reduced by the actions of Mg2+ ions and the presence of error inducing aminoglycoside antibiotics. We demonstrate that complete freezing-in of cognate-like tautomeric states of ribosome-bound nucleotide bases in transfer RNA or messenger RNA is not compatible with recent experiments on initial codon selection by transfer RNA in ternary complex with elongation factor Tu and GTP. From these considerations, we suggest that the sets of 30S subunit structures from the Ramakrishnan group and 70S structures from the Yusupov/Yusupova group may, after all, reflect two sides of the same coin and how the structurally based intermezzo at the Ribosome Club may be resolved simply by taking the dynamic aspects of ribosome function into account. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Perspectives on the ribosome’. PMID:28138071

  18. Functional Importance of Mobile Ribosomal Proteins.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kai-Chun; Wen, Jin-Der; Yang, Lee-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Although the dynamic motions and peptidyl transferase activity seem to be embedded in the rRNAs, the ribosome contains more than 50 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins), whose functions remain largely elusive. Also, the precise forms of some of these r-proteins, as being part of the ribosome, are not structurally solved due to their high flexibility, which hinders the efforts in their functional elucidation. Owing to recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy, single-molecule techniques, and theoretical modeling, much has been learned about the dynamics of these r-proteins. Surprisingly, allosteric regulations have been found in between spatially separated components as distant as those in the opposite sides of the ribosome. Here, we focus on the functional roles and intricate regulations of the mobile L1 and L12 stalks and L9 and S1 proteins. Conformational flexibility also enables versatile functions for r-proteins beyond translation. The arrangement of r-proteins may be under evolutionary pressure that fine-tunes mass distributions for optimal structural dynamics and catalytic activity of the ribosome.

  19. Sequencing and characterization of full-length sequence of 18S rRNA gene from the reniform nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 18S rRNA gene is fundamental to cellular and organismal protein synthesis and because of its stable persistence through generations it is also used in phylogenetic analysis among taxa. Variation within this gene is rare but it has been observed in few metazoan species. For the first time, we h...

  20. Eukaryotic diversity in premise drinking water using 18S rDNA sequencing: implications for health risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to characterize microbial eukaryotes over a 12 month period, so as to provide insight into the occurrence of potentially important predators and bacterial hosts in hot and cold premise plumbing. Nearly 6,300 partial (600 bp) 18S rRNA gene sequences from...

  1. Linker 2 of the eukaryotic pre-ribosomal processing factor Mrd1p is an essential interdomain functionally coupled to upstream RNA Binding Domain 2 (RBD2).

    PubMed

    Lackmann, Fredrik; Belikov, Sergey; Wieslander, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Ribosome synthesis is an essential process in all cells. In Sacharomyces cerevisiae, the precursor rRNA, 35S pre-rRNA, is folded and assembled into a 90S pre-ribosomal complex. The 40S ribosomal subunit is processed from the pre-ribosomal complex. This requires concerted action of small nucleolar RNAs, such as U3 snoRNA, and a large number of trans-acting factors. Mrd1p, one of the essential small ribosomal subunit synthesis factors is required for cleavage of the 35S pre-rRNA to generate 18S rRNA of the small ribosomal subunit. Mrd1p is evolutionary conserved in all eukaryotes and in yeast it contains five RNA Binding Domains (RBDs) separated by linker regions. One of these linkers, Linker 2 between RBD2 and RBD3, is conserved in length, predicted to be structured and contains conserved clusters of amino acid residues. In this report, we have analysed Linker 2 mutations and demonstrate that it is essential for Mrd1p function during pre-ribosomal processing. Extensive changes of amino acid residues as well as specific changes of conserved clusters of amino acid residues were found to be incompatible with synthesis of pre-40S ribosomes and cell growth. In addition, gross changes in primary sequence of Linker 2 resulted in Mrd1p instability, leading to degradation of the N-terminal part of the protein. Our data indicates that Linker 2 is functionally coupled to RBD2 and argues for that these domains constitute a functional module in Mrd1p. We conclude that Linker 2 has an essential role for Mrd1p beyond just providing a defined length between RBD2 and RBD3.

  2. One core, two shells: bacterial and eukaryotic ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, Sergey; Ben-Shem, Adam; Garreau de Loubresse, Nicolas; Jenner, Lasse; Yusupova, Gulnara; Yusupov, Marat

    2012-06-05

    Ribosomes are universally conserved enzymes that carry out protein biosynthesis. Bacterial and eukaryotic ribosomes, which share an evolutionarily conserved core, are thought to have evolved from a common ancestor by addition of proteins and RNA that bestow different functionalities to ribosomes from different domains of life. Recently, structures of the eukaryotic ribosome, determined by X-ray crystallography, have allowed us to compare these structures to previously determined structures of bacterial ribosomes. Here we describe selected bacteria- or eukaryote-specific structural features of the ribosome and discuss the functional implications of some of them.

  3. Genome Mining for Ribosomally Synthesized Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez, Juan E.; van der Donk, Wilfred

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the number of known peptide natural products that are synthesized via the ribosomal pathway has rapidly grown. Taking advantage of sequence homology among genes encoding precursor peptides or biosynthetic proteins, in silico mining of genomes combined with molecular biology approaches has guided the discovery of a large number of new ribosomal natural products, including lantipeptides, cyanobactins, linear thiazole/oxazole-containing peptides, microviridins, lasso peptides, amatoxins, cyclotides, and conopeptides. In this review, we describe the strategies used for the identification of these ribosomally-synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) and the structures of newly identified compounds. The increasing number of chemical entities and their remarkable structural and functional diversity may lead to novel pharmaceutical applications. PMID:21095156

  4. Structural snapshots of actively translating human ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Elmar; Loerke, Justus; Budkevich, Tatyana V; Yamamoto, Kaori; Schmidt, Andrea; Penczek, Pawel A; Vos, Matthijn R; Bürger, Jörg; Mielke, Thorsten; Scheerer, Patrick; Spahn, Christian M T

    2015-05-07

    Macromolecular machines, such as the ribosome, undergo large-scale conformational changes during their functional cycles. Although their mode of action is often compared to that of mechanical machines, a crucial difference is that, at the molecular dimension, thermodynamic effects dominate functional cycles, with proteins fluctuating stochastically between functional states defined by energetic minima on an energy landscape. Here, we have used cryo-electron microscopy to image ex-vivo-derived human polysomes as a source of actively translating ribosomes. Multiparticle refinement and 3D variability analysis allowed us to visualize a variety of native translation intermediates. Significantly populated states include not only elongation cycle intermediates in pre- and post-translocational states, but also eEF1A-containing decoding and termination/recycling complexes. Focusing on the post-translocational state, we extended this assessment to the single-residue level, uncovering striking details of ribosome-ligand interactions and identifying both static and functionally important dynamic elements.

  5. Ribosome-dependent activation of stringent control

    PubMed Central

    Gordiyenko, Yuliya; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2016-01-01

    In order to survive, bacteria continually sense, and respond to, environmental fluctuations. Stringent control represents a key bacterial stress response to nutrient starvation1,2 that leads to a rapid and comprehensive reprogramming of metabolic and transcriptional patterns3. In general, transcription of genes for growth and proliferation are down-regulated, while those important for survival and virulence are favored4. Amino acid starvation is sensed by depletion of the aminoacyl-tRNA pools5, which results in accumulation of ribosomes stalled with non-aminoacylated (uncharged) tRNA in the ribosomal A-site6,7. RelA is recruited to stalled ribosomes, and activated to synthesize a hyperphosphorylated guanosine analog, (p)ppGpp8, which acts as a pleiotropic second messenger. However, structural information for how RelA recognizes stalled ribosomes and discriminates against aminoacylated tRNAs is missing. Here, we present the electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of RelA bound to the bacterial ribosome stalled with uncharged tRNA. The structure reveals that RelA utilizes a distinct binding site compared to the translational factors, with a multi-domain architecture that wraps around a highly distorted A-site tRNA. The TGS domain of RelA binds the CCA tail to orient the free 3’ hydroxyl group of the terminal adenosine towards a β-strand, such that an aminoacylated tRNA at this position would be sterically precluded. The structure supports a model where association of RelA with the ribosome suppresses auto-inhibition to activate synthesis of (p)ppGpp and initiate the stringent response. Since stringent control is responsible for the survival of pathogenic bacteria under stress conditions, and contributes to chronic infections and antibiotic tolerance, RelA represents a good target for the development of novel antibacterial therapeutics. PMID:27279228

  6. Sequestration of Ribosome during Protein Aggregate Formation: Contribution of ribosomal RNA

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Bani K.; Mondal, Surojit; Banerjee, Senjuti; Ghosh, Amar Nath; Barat, Chandana

    2017-01-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms underlying protein aggregation and cytotoxicity of the protein aggregates is crucial in the prevention of several diseases in humans. Ribosome, the cellular protein synthesis machine is capable of acting as a protein folding modulator. The peptidyltransferase center residing in the domain V of large ribosomal subunit 23S rRNA is the centre for the protein folding ability of the ribosome and is also the cellular target of several antiprion compounds. Our in vitro studies unexpectedly reveal that the partial unfolding or aggregation of lysozyme under reducing conditions in presence of the ribosome can induce aggregation of ribosomal components. Electrostatic interactions complemented by specific rRNA-protein interaction drive the ribosome-protein aggregation process. Under similar conditions the rRNA, especially the large subunit rRNA and in vitro transcribed RNA corresponding to domain V of 23S rRNA (bDV RNA) stimulates lysozyme aggregation leading to RNA-protein aggregate formation. Protein aggregation during the refolding of non-disulfide containing protein BCAII at high concentrations also induces ribosome aggregation. BCAII aggregation was also stimulated in presence of the large subunit rRNA. Our observations imply that the specific sequestration of the translation machine by aggregating proteins might contribute to their cytotoxicity. PMID:28169307

  7. Functions of Ribosomal Proteins in Assembly of Eukaryotic Ribosomes In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The proteome of cells is synthesized by ribosomes, complex ribonucleoproteins that in eukaryotes contain 79–80 proteins and four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) more than 5,400 nucleotides long. How these molecules assemble together and how their assembly is regulated in concert with the growth and proliferation of cells remain important unanswered questions. Here, we review recently emerging principles to understand how eukaryotic ribosomal proteins drive ribosome assembly in vivo. Most ribosomal proteins assemble with rRNA cotranscriptionally; their association with nascent particles is strengthened as assembly proceeds. Each subunit is assembled hierarchically by sequential stabilization of their subdomains. The active sites of both subunits are constructed last, perhaps to prevent premature engagement of immature ribosomes with active subunits. Late-assembly intermediates undergo quality-control checks for proper function. Mutations in ribosomal proteins that affect mostly late steps lead to ribosomopathies, diseases that include a spectrum of cell type–specific disorders that often transition from hypoproliferative to hyperproliferative growth. PMID:25706898

  8. Functions of ribosomal proteins in assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes in vivo.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Jesús; Karbstein, Katrin; Woolford, John L

    2015-01-01

    The proteome of cells is synthesized by ribosomes, complex ribonucleoproteins that in eukaryotes contain 79-80 proteins and four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) more than 5,400 nucleotides long. How these molecules assemble together and how their assembly is regulated in concert with the growth and proliferation of cells remain important unanswered questions. Here, we review recently emerging principles to understand how eukaryotic ribosomal proteins drive ribosome assembly in vivo. Most ribosomal proteins assemble with rRNA cotranscriptionally; their association with nascent particles is strengthened as assembly proceeds. Each subunit is assembled hierarchically by sequential stabilization of their subdomains. The active sites of both subunits are constructed last, perhaps to prevent premature engagement of immature ribosomes with active subunits. Late-assembly intermediates undergo quality-control checks for proper function. Mutations in ribosomal proteins that affect mostly late steps lead to ribosomopathies, diseases that include a spectrum of cell type-specific disorders that often transition from hypoproliferative to hyperproliferative growth.

  9. Proteomic characterization of archaeal ribosomes reveals the presence of novel archaeal-specific ribosomal proteins.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Viter; Fröhlich, Thomas; Armache, Jean-Paul; Sohmen, Daniel; Dönhöfer, Alexandra; Mikolajka, Aleksandra; Berninghausen, Otto; Thomm, Michael; Beckmann, Roland; Arnold, Georg J; Wilson, Daniel N

    2011-02-04

    Protein synthesis occurs in macromolecular particles called ribosomes. All ribosomes are composed of RNA and proteins. While the protein composition of bacterial and eukaryotic ribosomes has been well-characterized, a systematic analysis of archaeal ribosomes has been lacking. Here we report the first comprehensive two-dimensional PAGE and mass spectrometry analysis of archaeal ribosomes isolated from the thermophilic Pyrobaculum aerophilum and the thermoacidophilic Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Crenarchaeota. Our analysis identified all 66 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) of the P. aerophilum small and large subunits, as well as all but two (62 of 64; 97%) r-proteins of the S. acidocaldarius small and large subunits that are predicted genomically. Some r-proteins were identified with one or two lysine methylations and N-terminal acetylations. In addition, we identify three hypothetical proteins that appear to be bona fide r-proteins of the S. acidocaldarius large subunit. Dissociation of r-proteins from the S. acidocaldarius large subunit indicates that the novel r-proteins establish tighter interactions with the large subunit than some integral r-proteins. Furthermore, cryo electron microscopy reconstructions of the S. acidocaldarius and P. aerophilum 50S subunits allow for a tentative localization of the binding site of the novel r-proteins. This study illustrates not only the potential diversity of the archaeal ribosomes but also the necessity to experimentally analyze the archaeal ribosomes to ascertain their protein composition. The discovery of novel archaeal r-proteins and factors may be the first step to understanding how archaeal ribosomes cope with extreme environmental conditions.

  10. Studies on structural stability of thermophilic Sulfolobus acidocaldarius ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Yangala, Kalavathi; Suryanarayana, Tangirala

    2007-02-01

    Structural stability of thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius ribosomes, with respect their susceptibility to pancreatic RNase A and stability to temperature (deltaTm), on treatment with various stabilizing (polyamines) and destabilizing (sulfhydryl and intercalating) agents were studied and compared with mesophilic E. coli ribosomes, to understand the structural differences between thermophilic and mesophilic ribosomes. Thermophilic archaeal ribosomes and their subunits were 10-times less susceptible to pancreatic RNase A, compared to mesophilic ribosomes, showing the presence of strong and compact structural organization in them. Thermophilic ribosomes treated with destabilizing agents, such as sulfhydryl reagents [5,5'-Dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid), N-ethylmaleimide and p-hydroxymercurybenzoate) and intercalating agents (ethidium bromide, EtBr) showed higher stability to RNase A, compared to similarly treated mesophilic ribosomes, indicating the unavailability of thiol-reactive groups and the presence of strong solvent inaccessible inner core. Higher stability of thermophilic ribosomes compared to mesophilic ribosomes to unfolding agents like urea further supported the presence of strong inner core particle. Thermophilic ribosomes treated with intercalating agents, such as EtBr were less susceptible to RNase A, though they bound to more reagent, showing the rigidity or resilience of their macromolecular structure to alterations caused by destabilizing agents. Overall, these results indicated that factors such as presence of strong solvent inaccessible inner core and rigidity of ribosome macromolecular structure contributed stability of thermophilic ribosomes to RNase A and other destabilizing agents, when compared to mesophilic ribosomes.

  11. Convergent evolution led ribosome inactivating proteins to interact with ribosomal stalk.

    PubMed

    Lapadula, Walter J; Sanchez-Puerta, M Virginia; Ayub, Maximiliano Juri

    2012-03-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) inhibit protein synthesis by depurinating an adenine on the sarcin-ricin loop (SRL) of the large subunit ribosomal RNA. Several RIPs interact with the C-terminal end of ribosomal stalk P proteins, and this interaction is required for their full activity. In contrast, the activity of Pokeweed Antiviral Protein is not affected by blocking this stalk component. Here, we provide evidence from phylogenetic analyses and sequence alignments suggesting that the interaction with the C-terminal end of P proteins evolved independently in different RIPs by convergent evolution.

  12. Dom34 rescues ribosomes in 3' untranslated regions.

    PubMed

    Guydosh, Nicholas R; Green, Rachel

    2014-02-27

    Ribosomes that stall before completing peptide synthesis must be recycled and returned to the cytoplasmic pool. The protein Dom34 and cofactors Hbs1 and Rli1 can dissociate stalled ribosomes in vitro, but the identity of targets in the cell is unknown. Here, we extend ribosome profiling methodology to reveal a high-resolution molecular characterization of Dom34 function in vivo. Dom34 removes stalled ribosomes from truncated mRNAs, but, in contrast, does not generally dissociate ribosomes on coding sequences known to trigger stalling, such as polyproline. We also show that Dom34 targets arrested ribosomes near the ends of 3' UTRs. These ribosomes appear to gain access to the 3' UTR via a mechanism that does not require decoding of the mRNA. These results suggest that ribosomes frequently enter downstream noncoding regions and that Dom34 carries out the important task of rescuing them.

  13. Peptide Bond Formation Mechanism Catalyzed by Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Świderek, Katarzyna; Marti, Sergio; Tuñón, Iñaki; Moliner, Vicent; Bertran, Juan

    2015-09-23

    In this paper we present a study of the peptide bond formation reaction catalyzed by ribosome. Different mechanistic proposals have been explored by means of Free Energy Perturbation methods within hybrid QM/MM potentials, where the chemical system has been described by the M06-2X functional and the environment by means of the AMBER force field. According to our results, the most favorable mechanism in the ribosome would proceed through an eight-membered ring transition state, involving a proton shuttle mechanism through the hydroxyl group of the sugar and a water molecule. This transition state is similar to that described for the reaction in solution (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 8708-8719), but the reaction mechanisms are noticeably different. Our simulations reproduce the experimentally determined catalytic effect of ribosome that can be explained by the different behavior of the two environments. While the solvent reorganizes during the chemical process involving an entropic penalty, the ribosome is preorganized in the formation of the Michaelis complex and does not suffer important changes along the reaction, dampening the charge redistribution of the chemical system.

  14. Diamond-Blackfan anemia, ribosome and erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, L. Da; Moniz, H.; Simansour, M.; Tchernia, G.; Mohandas, N.; Leblanc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (5 to 7 cases/million live births) characterized by an are generative, usually macrocytic anemia with an absence or less than 5% of erythroid precursors (erythroblastopenia) in an otherwise normal bone marrow. The platelet and the white cell counts are usually normal but neutropenia, thrombopenia or thrombocytosis have been noted at diagnosis. In 40 to 50% of DBA patients, congenital abnormalities mostly in the cephalic area and in thumbs and upper limbs have been described. Recent analysis did show a phenotype/genotype correlation. Congenital erythroblastopenia of DBA is the first human disease identified to result from defects in ribosomal biogenesis. The first ribosomal gene involved in DBA, ribosomal protein (RP) gene S19 (RPS19 gene), was identified in 1999. Subsequently, mutations in 12 other RP genes out of a total of 78 RP genes have been identified in DBA. All RP gene mutations described to date are heterozygous and dominant inheritance has been documented in 40 to 45% of affected individuals. As RP mutations are yet to be identified in approximately 50% of DBA cases, it is likely that other yet to be identified genes involved in ribosomal biogenesis or other pathways may be responsible for DBA phenotype. PMID:20655265

  15. Peptide Bond Formation Mechanism Catalyzed by Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Świderek, Katarzyna; Marti, Sergio; Tuñón, Iñaki; Moliner, Vicent; Bertran, Juan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of the peptide bond formation reaction catalyzed by ribosome. Different mechanistic proposals have been explored by means of Free Energy Perturbation methods within hybrid QM/MM potentials, where the chemical system has been described by the M06-2X functional and the environment by means of the AMBER force field. According to our results, the most favourable mechanism in the ribosome would proceed through an eight-membered ring transition state, involving a proton shuttle mechanism through the hydroxyl group of the sugar and a water molecule. This transition state is similar to that described for the reaction in solution (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 8708–8719) but the reaction mechanisms are noticeable different. Our simulations reproduce the experimentally determined catalytic effect of ribosome that can be explained by the different behaviour of the two environments. While the solvent reorganizes during the chemical process involving an entropic penalty, the ribosome is preorganized in the formation of the Michaelis complex and does not suffer important changes along the reaction, dampening the charge redistribution of the chemical system. PMID:26325003

  16. Intraspecific Variation in Ribosomal DNA in Populations of the Potato Cyst Nematode Globodera pallida

    PubMed Central

    Blok, V. C.; Malloch, G.; Harrower, B.; Phillips, M. S.; Vrain, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    The relationships among a number of populations of Globodera pallida from Britian, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, and South America were examined using PCR amplification of the ribosomal cistron between the 18S and 28S genes that include the two intergenic spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S gene. Amplifications produced a similar-sized product of 1150 bp from all populations. Digestion of the amplified fragment with a number of restriction enzymes showed differences among the populations. The restriction enzyme RsaI distinguished the most populations. The RFLP patterns revealed by this enzyme were complex and could have arisen from heterogeneity between individuals within populations and from differences between the repeats of an individual. Sequence analysis from six of the populations, together with RFLP analysis of PCR products, shows that there is intraspecific variation in the rDNA of G. pallida. PMID:19274220

  17. Ribosomal DNA haplotype distribution of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Kyushu and Okinawa islands, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nose, Mine; Miyahara, Fumihiko; Ohira, Mineko; Matsunaga, Koji; Tobase, Masashi; Koyama, Takao; Yoshimoto, Kikuo

    2009-01-01

    Ribosomal DNA region sequences (partial 18S, 28S and complete ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) of the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) were obtained from DNA extracted directly from wood pieces collected from wilted pine trees throughout the Kyushu and Okinawa islands, Japan. Either a 2569bp or 2573bp sequence was obtained from 88 of 143 samples. Together with the 45 rDNA sequences of pinewood nematode isolates previously reported, there were eight single nucleotide polymorphisms and two indels of two bases. Based on these mutations, nine haplotypes were estimated. The haplotype frequencies differed among regions in Kyushu island (northwest, northeast and center, southeast, and southwest), and the distribution was consistent with the invasion and spreading routes of the pinewood nematode previously estimated from past records of pine wilt and wood importation. There was no significant difference in haplotype frequencies among the collection sites on Okinawa island. PMID:22736814

  18. Extensive ribosomal DNA genic variation in the columnar cactus Lophocereus.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, S; Nason, J D; Bhattacharya, D

    2001-08-01

    Sequence analysis of the hypervariable internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is commonly used to gain insights into plant and animal population structure and phylogeny. We characterized ITS1, ITS2, and the 5.8S coding region of 18 senita (Lophocereus) individuals from 12 different populations in Baja as well as from closely related cactus species. Analyses of multiple clones demonstrated extensive paralogy in the senita rDNA gene family. We identified at least two putatively non-recombining rDNA operons in senita as well as multiple paralogous sequences within each operon. Usage of PCR, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, Southern blot, primary sequence analyses of the 18S rDNA gene, and secondary structure analyses of the 5.8S rRNA showed that one of the operons encodes rDNA pseudogenes in a low copy-number (Truncated), whereas the second operon encodes an expressed rRNA (Functional). Surprisingly, we found extensive paralogy not only in the ITS regions but also in the 5.8S coding regions in senita both within and between operons. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the second rDNA operon originated prior to the divergence of Lophocereus. A significant (p < 0.05) divergence-rate acceleration was found in the Lophocereus 5.8S rDNA coding region in the Functional operon in comparison to Pereskiopsis porteri (Cactaceae) and Portulaca molokiniensis (Portulacaceae) with Silene dioica and Spinacia oleracea as the outgroups.

  19. Cystoisospora spp. from dogs in China and phylogenetic analysis of its 18S and ITS1 gene.

    PubMed

    He, Pengfei; Li, Jianhua; Gong, Pengtao; Huang, Jingui; Zhang, Xichen

    2012-11-23

    Cystoisospora spp. oocysts isolated from dog feces in Changchun, China were morphologically similar to those of Cystoisospora ohioensis and Cystoisospora sp. 1-MM recently isolated from dogs in Japanese. Sequencing results of the 18S subunit RNA gene from isolates in the present study were compared to other Cystoisospora spp. and the results suggested that Cystoisospora spp. from dogs in Changchun was homologous to C. ohioensis and Cystoisospora sp. 1-MM. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA sequences showed that the Cystoisospora sp. ChangChun 1 and Cystoisospora sp. ChangChun 2 were nested in a clade with other Cystoisospora spp., including C. ohioensis, Cystoisospora belli, Cystoisospora suis, Isospora sp. Harbin/01/08 and C. orlovi,. Cystoisospora sp. ChangChun 2 was confirmed as C. ohioensis, and the other isolate was in a separate clade but the genetic relationship was relatively close to C. suis after analysis of the ITS-1gene.

  20. Initiation factor eIF2γ promotes eIF2-GTP-Met-tRNAi(Met) ternary complex binding to the 40S ribosome.

    PubMed

    Shin, Byung-Sik; Kim, Joo-Ran; Walker, Sarah E; Dong, Jinsheng; Lorsch, Jon R; Dever, Thomas E

    2011-10-16

    In contrast to prokaryotic elongation factor EF-Tu, which delivers aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosomal A-site, eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 binds methionyl initiator transfer RNA (Met-tRNA(i)(Met)) to the P-site of the 40S ribosomal subunit. The results of directed hydroxyl radical probing experiments to map binding of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF2 on the ribosome and on Met-tRNA(i)(Met) revealed that eIF2γ primarily contacts the acceptor stem of Met-tRNA(i)(Met) and identified a key binding interface between domain III of eIF2γ and 18S rRNA helix h44 on the 40S subunit. Whereas the analogous domain III of EF-Tu contacts the T stem of tRNAs, biochemical analyses demonstrated that eIF2γ domain III is important for ribosome, not Met-tRNA(i)(Met). Thus, despite their structural similarity, eIF2 and EF-Tu bind tRNAs in substantially different manners, and we propose that the tRNA-binding domain III of EF-Tu has acquired a new ribosome-binding function in eIF2γ.

  1. Typification of virulent and low virulence Babesia bigemina clones by 18S rRNA and rap-1c.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C; Baravalle, M E; Valentini, B; Mangold, A; Torioni de Echaide, S; Ruybal, P; Farber, M; Echaide, I

    2014-06-01

    The population structure of original Babesia bigemina isolates and reference strains with a defined phenotypic profile was assessed using 18S rRNA and rap-1c genes. Two reference strains, BbiS2P-c (virulent) and BbiS1A-c (low virulence), were biologically cloned in vitro. The virulence profile of the strains and clones was assessed in vivo. One fully virulent and one low-virulence clone were mixed in identical proportions to evaluate their growth efficiency in vitro. Each clone was differentiated by two microsatellites and the gene gp45. The 18S rRNA and rap-1c genes sequences from B. bigemina biological clones and their parental strains, multiplied exclusively in vivo or in vitro, were compared with strain JG-29. The virulence of clones derived from the BbiS2P-c strain was variable. Virulent clone Bbi9P1 grew more efficiently in vitro than did the low-virulence clone Bbi2A1. The haplotypes generated by the nucleotide polymorphism, localized in the V4 region of the 18S rRNA, allowed the identification of three genotypes. The rap-1c haplotypes allowed defining four genotypes. Parental and original strains were defined by multiple haplotypes identified in both genes. The rap-1c gene, analyzed by high-resolution melting (HRM), allowed discrimination between two genotypes according to their phenotype, and both were different from JG-29. B. bigemina biological clones made it possible to define the population structure of isolates and strains. The polymorphic regions of the 18S rRNA and rap-1c genes allowed the identification of different subpopulations within original B. bigemina isolates by the definition of several haplotypes and the differentiation of fully virulent from low virulence clones.

  2. Crystal structure of eukaryotic ribosome and its complexes with inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yusupova, Gulnara; Yusupov, Marat

    2017-03-19

    A high-resolution structure of the eukaryotic ribosome has been determined and has led to increased interest in studying protein biosynthesis and regulation of biosynthesis in cells. The functional complexes of the ribosome crystals obtained from bacteria and yeast have permitted researchers to identify the precise residue positions in different states of ribosome function. This knowledge, together with electron microscopy studies, enhances our understanding of how basic ribosome processes, including mRNA decoding, peptide bond formation, mRNA, and tRNA translocation and cotranslational transport of the nascent peptide, are regulated. In this review, we discuss the crystal structure of the entire 80S ribosome from yeast, which reveals its eukaryotic-specific features, and application of X-ray crystallography of the 80S ribosome for investigation of the binding mode for distinct compounds known to inhibit or modulate the protein-translation function of the ribosome. We also refer to a challenging aspect of the structural study of ribosomes, from higher eukaryotes, where the structures of major distinctive features of higher eukaryote ribosome-the high-eukaryote-specific long ribosomal RNA segments (about 1MDa)-remain unresolved. Presently, the structures of the major part of these high-eukaryotic expansion ribosomal RNA segments still remain unresolved.This article is part of the themed issue 'Perspectives on the ribosome'.

  3. Immunological inter-strain crossreactivity correlated to 18S rDNA sequence types in Acanthamoeba spp.

    PubMed

    Walochnik, J; Obwaller, A; Aspöck, H

    2001-02-01

    Various species of the genus Acanthamoeba have been described as potential pathogens; however, differentiation of acanthamoebae remains problematic. The genus has been divided into 12 18S rDNA sequence types, most keratitis causing strains exhibiting sequence type T4. We recently isolated a keratitis causing Acanthamoeba strain showing sequence type T6, but being morphologically identical to a T4 strain. The aim of our study was to find out, whether the 18S rDNA sequence based identification correlates to immunological differentiation. The protein and antigen profiles of the T6 isolate and three reference Acanthamoeba strains were investigated using two sera from Acanthamoeba keratitis patients and one serum from an asymptomatic individual. It was shown, that the T6 strain produces a distinctly different immunological pattern, while patterns within T4 were identical. Affinity purified antibodies were used to further explore immunological cross-reactivity between sequence types. Altogether, the results of our study support the Acanthamoeba 18S rDNA sequence type classification in the investigated strains.

  4. An RNA trapping mechanism in Alphavirus mRNA promotes ribosome stalling and translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Toribio, René; Díaz-López, Irene; Boskovic, Jasminka; Ventoso, Iván

    2016-01-01

    During translation initiation, eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) delivers the Met-tRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit to locate the initiation codon (AUGi) of mRNA during the scanning process. Stress-induced eIF2 phosphorylation leads to a general blockade of translation initiation and represents a key antiviral pathway in mammals. However, some viral mRNAs can initiate translation in the presence of phosphorylated eIF2 via stable RNA stem-loop structures (DLP; Downstream LooP) located in their coding sequence (CDS), which promote 43S preinitiation complex stalling on the initiation codon. We show here that during the scanning process, DLPs of Alphavirus mRNA become trapped in ES6S region (680–914 nt) of 18S rRNA that are projected from the solvent side of 40S subunit. This trapping can lock the progress of the 40S subunit on the mRNA in a way that places the upstream initiator AUGi on the P site of 40S subunit, obviating the participation of eIF2. Notably, the DLP structure is released from 18S rRNA upon 60S ribosomal subunit joining, suggesting conformational changes in ES6Ss during the initiation process. These novel findings illustrate how viral mRNA is threaded into the 40S subunit during the scanning process, exploiting the topology of the 40S subunit solvent side to enhance its translation in vertebrate hosts. PMID:26984530

  5. A RanGTP-independent mechanism allows ribosomal protein nuclear import for ribosome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Sabina; Fischer, Ute; Altvater, Martin; Nerurkar, Purnima; Peña, Cohue; Gerber, Michaela; Chang, Yiming; Caesar, Stefanie; Schubert, Olga T; Schlenstedt, Gabriel; Panse, Vikram G

    2014-01-01

    Within a single generation time a growing yeast cell imports ∼14 million ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) into the nucleus for ribosome production. After import, it is unclear how these intrinsically unstable and aggregation-prone proteins are targeted to the ribosome assembly site in the nucleolus. Here, we report the discovery of a conserved nuclear carrier Tsr2 that coordinates transfer of the r-protein eS26 to the earliest assembling pre-ribosome, the 90S. In vitro studies revealed that Tsr2 efficiently dissociates importin:eS26 complexes via an atypical RanGTP-independent mechanism that terminates the import process. Subsequently, Tsr2 binds the released eS26, shields it from proteolysis, and ensures its safe delivery to the 90S pre-ribosome. We anticipate similar carriers—termed here escortins—to securely connect the nuclear import machinery with pathways that deposit r-proteins onto developing pre-ribosomal particles. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03473.001 PMID:25144938

  6. Ribosomal Protein S14 Unties the MDM2-p53 Loop Upon Ribosomal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiang; Hao, Qian; Liao, Jun-ming; Zhang, Qi; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The MDM2-p53 feedback loop is crucially important for restricting p53 level and activity during normal cell growth and proliferation, and is thus subjected to dynamic regulation in order for cells to activate p53 upon various stress signals. Several ribosomal proteins, such as RPL11, RPL5, RPL23, RPL26, or RPS7, have been shown to play a role in regulation of this feedback loop in response to ribosomal stress. Here, we identify another ribosomal protein S14, which is highly associated with 5q-syndrome, as a novel activator of p53 by inhibiting MDM2 activity. We found that RPS14, but not RPS19, binds to the central acidic domain of MDM2, like RPL5 and RPL23, and inhibits its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity toward p53. This RPS14-MDM2 binding was induced upon ribosomal stress caused by actinomycin D or mycophenolic acid. Overexpression of RPS14, but not RPS19, elevated p53 level and activity, leading to G1 or G2 arrest. Conversely, knockdown of RPS14 alleviated p53 induction by these two reagents. Interestingly, knockdown of either RPS14 or RPS19 caused a ribosomal stress that led to p53 activation, which was impaired by further knocking down the level of RPL11 or RPL5. Together, our results demonstrate that RPS14 and RPS19 play distinct roles in regulating the MDM2-p53 feedback loop in response to ribosomal stress. PMID:22391559

  7. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Spider Mite Sub-Family Tetranychinae (Acari: Tetranychidae) Based on the Mitochondrial COI Gene and the 18S and the 5′ End of the 28S rRNA Genes Indicates That Several Genera Are Polyphyletic

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Tomoko; Morishita, Maiko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Gotoh, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    The spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae includes many agricultural pests. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of mitochondrial DNA have been used for species identification and phylogenetic reconstruction within the sub-family Tetranychinae, although they have not always been successful. The 18S and 28S rRNA genes should be more suitable for resolving higher levels of phylogeny, such as tribes or genera of Tetranychinae because these genes evolve more slowly and are made up of conserved regions and divergent domains. Therefore, we used both the 18S (1,825–1,901 bp) and 28S (the 5′ end of 646–743 bp) rRNA genes to infer phylogenetic relationships within the sub-family Tetranychinae with a focus on the tribe Tetranychini. Then, we compared the phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes with that of the mitochondrial COI gene (618 bp). As observed in previous studies, our phylogeny based on the COI gene was not resolved because of the low bootstrap values for most nodes of the tree. On the other hand, our phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes revealed several well-supported clades within the sub-family Tetranychinae. The 18S and 28S phylogenetic trees suggest that the tribes Bryobiini, Petrobiini and Eurytetranychini are monophyletic and that the tribe Tetranychini is polyphyletic. At the genus level, six genera for which more than two species were sampled appear to be monophyletic, while four genera (Oligonychus, Tetranychus, Schizotetranychus and Eotetranychus) appear to be polyphyletic. The topology presented here does not fully agree with the current morphology-based taxonomy, so that the diagnostic morphological characters of Tetranychinae need to be reconsidered. PMID:25289639

  8. Time-series of water column alkenones and 18S rRNA confirm that Uk'37 is a viable SST proxy in Narragansett Bay, RI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salacup, J.; Theroux, S.; Herbert, T.; Prell, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    Alkenones, produced in the sunlit mixed layer by specific Haptophyte algae, are a well-established and widely-applied proxy for sea surface temperature (SST) in the world's open-oceans. However, the proxy's utility in estuarine environments remains largely untested. A reliable SST proxy is needed to identify the estuary's sensitivity and response to past and present global change because SST can exert strong control on stratification and circulation patterns, and thus oxygenation and ecosystem health, in these shallow basins. Knowing the estuaries response should help local managers and policy-makers plan mitigation and adaptation strategies. Additionally, the rapid deposition of both marine and terrestrial organic and inorganic material in estuarine systems makes them potential archives of high-resolution paleo-environmental information. A previous investigation of estuarine alkenones suggested that the Uk'37 proxy may be sensitive to the composition of the alkenone-producing Haptophyte population, which may be affected by local nutrient and fresh water fluxes. In particular, low-salinity coastal Haptophytes such as Isochrysis galbana may have a different relationship to SST than higher-salinity open-ocean Haptophytes and their presence may complicate interpretations of the Uk'37 proxy in estuaries. To better understand how the alkenone-based Uk'37 SST proxy is produced in estuarine systems, we present a two-year time-series (monthly-to-thrice-weekly resolution) of alkenone concentrations in particulate organic matter from Narragansett Bay. Alkenone concentrations are coupled with 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) measurements to identify the alkenone-producing population. Highest concentrations of alkenones are detected at different times in the upper and lower Bay such that the highest alkenone concentrations occur in the winter-spring (upper Bay) and summer/fall (lower Bay). This result is consistent with the established seasonal blooms and seasonal changes in nutrient

  9. Ribosomal DNA clusters and telomeric (TTAGG)n repeats in blue butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) with low and high chromosome numbers

    PubMed Central

    Vershinina, Alisa O.; Anokhin, Boris A.; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ribosomal DNA clusters and telomeric repeats are important parts of eukaryotic genome. However, little is known about their organization and localization in karyotypes of organisms with holocentric chromosomes. Here we present first cytogenetic study of these molecular structures in seven blue butterflies of the genus Polyommatus Latreille, 1804 with low and high chromosome numbers (from n=10 to n=ca.108) using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and (TTAGG)n telomeric probes. FISH with the 18S rDNA probe showed the presence of two different variants of the location of major rDNA clusters in Polyommatus species: with one or two rDNA-carrying chromosomes in haploid karyotype. We discuss evolutionary trends and possible mechanisms of changes in the number of ribosomal clusters. We also demonstrate that Polyommatus species have the classical insect (TTAGG)n telomere organization. This chromosome end protection mechanism probably originated de novo in small chromosomes that evolved via fragmentations. PMID:26140159

  10. Lophotrochozoa internal phylogeny: new insights from an up-to-date analysis of nuclear ribosomal genes

    PubMed Central

    Paps, Jordi; Baguñà, Jaume; Riutort, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Resolving the relationships among animal phyla is a key biological problem that remains to be solved. Morphology is unable to determine the relationships among most phyla and although molecular data have unveiled a new evolutionary scenario, they have their own limitations. Nuclear ribosomal genes (18S and 28S rDNA) have been used effectively for many years. However, they are considered of limited use for resolving deep divergences such as the origin of the bilaterians, due to certain drawbacks such as the long-branch attraction (LBA) problem. Here, we attempt to overcome these pitfalls by combining several methods suggested in previous studies and routinely used in contemporary standard phylogenetic analyses but that have not yet been applied to any bilaterian phylogeny based on these genes. The methods used include maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, the application of models with rate heterogeneity across sites, wide taxon sampling and compartmentalized analyses for each problematic clade. The results obtained show that the combination of the above-mentioned methodologies minimizes the LBA effect, and a new Lophotrochozoa phylogeny emerges. Also, the Acoela and Nemertodermatida are confirmed with maximum support as the first branching bilaterians. Ribosomal RNA genes are thus a reliable source for the study of deep divergences in the metazoan tree, provided that the data are treated carefully. PMID:19129141

  11. S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins: evolutionary history and Gly132 polymorphism in colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Ali, Raja Hashim; Kashuba, Vladimir; Klein, George; Kashuba, Elena

    2016-08-23

    S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPS18, S18) consists of three members, S18-1 to -3. Earlier, we found that overexpression of S18-2 protein resulted in immortalization and eventual transformation of primary rat fibroblasts. The S18-1 and -3 have not exhibited such abilities. To understand the differences in protein properties, the evolutionary history of S18 family was analyzed. The S18-3, followed by S18-1 and S18-2 emerged as a result of ancient gene duplication in the root of eukaryotic species tree, followed by two metazoan-specific gene duplications. However, the most conserved metazoan S18 homolog is the S18-1; it shares the most sequence similarity with S18 proteins of bacteria and of other eukaryotic clades. Evolutionarily conserved residues of S18 proteins were analyzed in various cancers. S18-2 is mutated at a higher rate, compared with S18-1 and -3 proteins. Moreover, the evolutionarily conserved residue, Gly132 of S18-2, shows genetic polymorphism in colon adenocarcinomas that was confirmed by direct DNA sequencing.Concluding, S18 family represents the yet unexplored important mitochondrial ribosomal proteins.

  12. S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins: evolutionary history and Gly132 polymorphism in colon carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Ali, Raja Hashim; Kashuba, Vladimir; Klein, George; Kashuba, Elena

    2016-01-01

    S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPS18, S18) consists of three members, S18-1 to −3. Earlier, we found that overexpression of S18-2 protein resulted in immortalization and eventual transformation of primary rat fibroblasts. The S18-1 and −3 have not exhibited such abilities. To understand the differences in protein properties, the evolutionary history of S18 family was analyzed. The S18-3, followed by S18-1 and S18-2 emerged as a result of ancient gene duplication in the root of eukaryotic species tree, followed by two metazoan-specific gene duplications. However, the most conserved metazoan S18 homolog is the S18-1; it shares the most sequence similarity with S18 proteins of bacteria and of other eukaryotic clades. Evolutionarily conserved residues of S18 proteins were analyzed in various cancers. S18-2 is mutated at a higher rate, compared with S18-1 and −3 proteins. Moreover, the evolutionarily conserved residue, Gly132 of S18-2, shows genetic polymorphism in colon adenocarcinomas that was confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. Concluding, S18 family represents the yet unexplored important mitochondrial ribosomal proteins. PMID:27489352

  13. Characterization of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acarina: Dermanissydae) by sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions.

    PubMed

    Potenza, L; Cafiero, M A; Camarda, A; La Salandra, G; Cucchiarini, L; Dachà, M

    2009-10-01

    In the present work mites previously identified as Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer (Acari, Mesostigmata) using morphological keys were investigated by molecular tools. The complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), 5.8S ribosomal DNA, and ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA from mites were amplified and sequenced to examine the level of sequence variations and to explore the feasibility of using this region in the identification of this mite. Conserved primers located at the 3'end of 18S and at the 5'start of 28S rRNA genes were used first, and amplified fragments were sequenced. Sequence analyses showed no variation in 5.8S and ITS2 region while slight intraspecific variations involving substitutions as well as deletions concentrated in the ITS1 region. Based on the sequence analyses a nested PCR of the ITS2 region followed by RFLP analyses has been set up in the attempt to provide a rapid molecular diagnostic tool of D. gallinae.

  14. Phylogenetic Information Content of Copepoda Ribosomal DNA Repeat Units: ITS1 and ITS2 Impact

    PubMed Central

    Zagoskin, Maxim V.; Lazareva, Valentina I.; Grishanin, Andrey K.; Mukha, Dmitry V.

    2014-01-01

    The utility of various regions of the ribosomal repeat unit for phylogenetic analysis was examined in 16 species representing four families, nine genera, and two orders of the subclass Copepoda (Crustacea). Fragments approximately 2000 bp in length containing the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) 18S and 28S gene fragments, the 5.8S gene, and the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2) were amplified and analyzed. The DAMBE (Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution) software was used to analyze the saturation of nucleotide substitutions; this test revealed the suitability of both the 28S gene fragment and the ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions for the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. Distance (minimum evolution) and probabilistic (maximum likelihood, Bayesian) analyses of the data revealed that the 28S rDNA and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions are informative markers for inferring phylogenetic relationships among families of copepods and within the Cyclopidae family and associated genera. Split-graph analysis of concatenated ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions of cyclopoid copepods suggested that the Mesocyclops, Thermocyclops, and Macrocyclops genera share complex evolutionary relationships. This study revealed that the ITS1 and ITS2 regions potentially represent different phylogenetic signals. PMID:25215300

  15. Phylogenetic information content of Copepoda ribosomal DNA repeat units: ITS1 and ITS2 impact.

    PubMed

    Zagoskin, Maxim V; Lazareva, Valentina I; Grishanin, Andrey K; Mukha, Dmitry V

    2014-01-01

    The utility of various regions of the ribosomal repeat unit for phylogenetic analysis was examined in 16 species representing four families, nine genera, and two orders of the subclass Copepoda (Crustacea). Fragments approximately 2000 bp in length containing the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) 18S and 28S gene fragments, the 5.8S gene, and the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2) were amplified and analyzed. The DAMBE (Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution) software was used to analyze the saturation of nucleotide substitutions; this test revealed the suitability of both the 28S gene fragment and the ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions for the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. Distance (minimum evolution) and probabilistic (maximum likelihood, Bayesian) analyses of the data revealed that the 28S rDNA and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions are informative markers for inferring phylogenetic relationships among families of copepods and within the Cyclopidae family and associated genera. Split-graph analysis of concatenated ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions of cyclopoid copepods suggested that the Mesocyclops, Thermocyclops, and Macrocyclops genera share complex evolutionary relationships. This study revealed that the ITS1 and ITS2 regions potentially represent different phylogenetic signals.

  16. Identification and characterization of a Dictyostelium discoideum ribosomal protein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Szymkowski, D E; Deering, R A

    1990-01-01

    We have identified a developmentally repressed large-subunit ribosomal protein gene of Dictyostelium discoideum based on sequence similarity to other ribosomal proteins. Protein rpl7 is homologous to large subunit ribosomal proteins from the rat and possibly to Mycoplasma capricolum and Escherichia coli, but is not similar to three sequenced ribosomal proteins in Dictyostelium. The rpl7 gene is present at one copy per genome, as are six other cloned Dictyostelium ribosomal proteins. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms exist for ribosomal protein genes rpl7, rp1024, and rp110 in strain HU182; most Dictyostelium ribosomal protein genes examined are linked no closer than 30-100 kb to each other in the genome. Dictyostelium ribosomal proteins are known to be developmentally regulated, and levels of rpl7 transcript gradually decrease during the 24-hour development cycle. This drop correlates with that of rp1024, indicating these and other ribosomal protein genes may be coordinately regulated. To determine the cellular location of the protein, we raised antibodies to an rpl7-derived branched synthetic peptide. These antibodies cross-reacted with one protein of the expected size in a ribosomal protein fraction of Dictyostelium, indicating that the product of gene rpl7 is localized in the ribosome. Images PMID:1975664

  17. Tertiary interactions within the ribosomal exit tunnel.

    PubMed

    Kosolapov, Andrey; Deutsch, Carol

    2009-04-01

    Although tertiary folding of whole protein domains is prohibited by the cramped dimensions of the ribosomal tunnel, dynamic tertiary interactions may permit folding of small elementary units within the tunnel. To probe this possibility, we used a beta-hairpin and an alpha-helical hairpin from the cytosolic N terminus of a voltage-gated potassium channel and determined a probability of folding for each at defined locations inside and outside the tunnel. Minimalist tertiary structures can form near the exit port of the tunnel, a region that provides an entropic window for initial exploration of local peptide conformations. Tertiary subdomains of the nascent peptide fold sequentially, but not independently, during translation. These studies offer an approach for diagnosing the molecular basis for folding defects that lead to protein malfunction and provide insight into the role of the ribosome during early potassium channel biogenesis.

  18. Cryo-EM structure of the spinach chloroplast ribosome reveals the location of plastid-specific ribosomal proteins and extensions.

    PubMed

    Graf, Michael; Arenz, Stefan; Huter, Paul; Dönhöfer, Alexandra; Nováček, Jiří; Wilson, Daniel N

    2016-12-15

    Ribosomes are the protein synthesizing machines of the cell. Recent advances in cryo-EM have led to the determination of structures from a variety of species, including bacterial 70S and eukaryotic 80S ribosomes as well as mitoribosomes from eukaryotic mitochondria, however, to date high resolution structures of plastid 70S ribosomes have been lacking. Here we present a cryo-EM structure of the spinach chloroplast 70S ribosome, with an average resolution of 5.4 Å for the small 30S subunit and 3.6 Å for the large 50S ribosomal subunit. The structure reveals the location of the plastid-specific ribosomal proteins (RPs) PSRP1, PSRP4, PSRP5 and PSRP6 as well as the numerous plastid-specific extensions of the RPs. We discover many features by which the plastid-specific extensions stabilize the ribosome via establishing additional interactions with surrounding ribosomal RNA and RPs. Moreover, we identify a large conglomerate of plastid-specific protein mass adjacent to the tunnel exit site that could facilitate interaction of the chloroplast ribosome with the thylakoid membrane and the protein-targeting machinery. Comparing the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome with that of the spinach chloroplast ribosome provides detailed insight into the co-evolution of RP and rRNA.

  19. Disassembly of yeast 80S ribosomes into subunits is a concerted action of ribosome-assisted folding of denatured protein.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Biprashekhar; Bhakta, Sayan; Sengupta, Jayati

    2016-01-22

    It has been shown by several groups that ribosome can assist folding of denatured protein in vitro and the process is conserved across the species. Domain V of large ribosomal rRNA which occupies the intersubunit side of the large subunit was identified as the key player responsible for chaperoning the folding process. Thus, it is conceivable that denatured protein needs to access the intersubunit space of the ribosome in order to get folded. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism of release of the protein from the eukaryotic ribosome following reactivation. We have observed significant splitting of yeast 80S ribosome when incubated with the denatured BCAII protein. Energy-free disassembly mechanism functions in low Mg(+2) ion concentration for prokaryotic ribosomes. Eukaryotic ribosomes do not show significant splitting even at low Mg(+2) ion concentration. In this respect, denatured protein-induced disassembly of eukaryotic ribosome without the involvement of any external energy source is intriguing. For prokaryotic ribosomes, it was reported that the denatured protein induces ribosome splitting into subunits in order to access domain V-rRNA. In contrast, our results suggest an alternative mechanism for eukaryotic ribosomal rRNA-mediated protein folding and subsequent separation of the subunits by which release of the activated-protein occurs.

  20. Applied genomics: data mining reveals species-specific malaria diagnostic targets more sensitive than 18S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Demas, Allison; Oberstaller, Jenna; DeBarry, Jeremy; Lucchi, Naomi W; Srinivasamoorthy, Ganesh; Sumari, Deborah; Kabanywanyi, Abdunoor M; Villegas, Leopoldo; Escalante, Ananias A; Kachur, S Patrick; Barnwell, John W; Peterson, David S; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Kissinger, Jessica C

    2011-07-01

    Accurate and rapid diagnosis of malaria infections is crucial for implementing species-appropriate treatment and saving lives. Molecular diagnostic tools are the most accurate and sensitive method of detecting Plasmodium, differentiating between Plasmodium species, and detecting subclinical infections. Despite available whole-genome sequence data for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, the majority of PCR-based methods still rely on the 18S rRNA gene targets. Historically, this gene has served as the best target for diagnostic assays. However, it is limited in its ability to detect mixed infections in multiplex assay platforms without the use of nested PCR. New diagnostic targets are needed. Ideal targets will be species specific, highly sensitive, and amenable to both single-step and multiplex PCRs. We have mined the genomes of P. falciparum and P. vivax to identify species-specific, repetitive sequences that serve as new PCR targets for the detection of malaria. We show that these targets (Pvr47 and Pfr364) exist in 14 to 41 copies and are more sensitive than 18S rRNA when utilized in a single-step PCR. Parasites are routinely detected at levels of 1 to 10 parasites/μl. The reaction can be multiplexed to detect both species in a single reaction. We have examined 7 P. falciparum strains and 91 P. falciparum clinical isolates from Tanzania and 10 P. vivax strains and 96 P. vivax clinical isolates from Venezuela, and we have verified a sensitivity and specificity of ∼100% for both targets compared with a nested 18S rRNA approach. We show that bioinformatics approaches can be successfully applied to identify novel diagnostic targets and improve molecular methods for pathogen detection. These novel targets provide a powerful alternative molecular diagnostic method for the detection of P. falciparum and P. vivax in conventional or multiplex PCR platforms.

  1. The ribosome challenge to the RNA world.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Jessica C; Hud, Nicholas V; Williams, Loren Dean

    2015-04-01

    An RNA World that predated the modern world of polypeptide and polynucleotide is one of the most widely accepted models in origin of life research. In this model, the translation system shepherded the RNA World into the extant biology of DNA, RNA, and protein. Here, we examine the RNA World Hypothesis in the context of increasingly detailed information available about the origins, evolution, functions, and mechanisms of the translation system. We conclude that the translation system presents critical challenges to RNA World Hypotheses. Firstly, a timeline of the RNA World is problematic when the ribosome is incorporated. The mechanism of peptidyl transfer of the ribosome appears distinct from evolved enzymes, signaling origins in a chemical rather than biological milieu. Secondly, we have no evidence that the basic biochemical toolset of life is subject to substantive change by Darwinian evolution, as required for the transition from the RNA world to extant biology. Thirdly, we do not see specific evidence for biological takeover of ribozyme function by protein enzymes. Finally, we can find no basis for preservation of the ribosome as ribozyme or the universality of translation, if it were the case that other information transducing ribozymes, such as ribozyme polymerases, were replaced by protein analogs and erased from the phylogenetic record. We suggest that an updated model of the RNA World should address the current state of knowledge of the translation system.

  2. Quantitative profiling of initiating ribosomes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiangwei; Wan, Ji; Liu, Botao; Ma, Ming; Shen, Ben; Qian, Shu-Bing

    2015-02-01

    Cells have evolved exquisite mechanisms to fine-tune the rate of protein synthesis in response to stress. Systemic mapping of start-codon positions and precise measurement of the corresponding initiation rate would transform our understanding of translational control. Here we present quantitative translation initiation sequencing (QTI-seq), with which the initiating ribosomes can be profiled in real time at single-nucleotide resolution. Resultant initiation maps not only delineated variations of start-codon selection but also highlighted a dynamic range of initiation rates in response to nutrient starvation. The integrated data set provided unique insights into principles of alternative translation and mechanisms controlling different aspects of translation initiation. With RiboTag mice, QTI-seq permitted tissue-specific profiling of initiating ribosomes in vivo. Liver cell-specific ribosome profiling uncovered a robust translational reprogramming of the proteasome system in fasted mice. Our findings illuminated the prevalence and dynamic nature of translational regulation pivotal to physiological adaptation in vivo.

  3. Prefabrication of a ribosomal protein subcomplex essential for eukaryotic ribosome formation

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Cohue; Schütz, Sabina; Fischer, Ute; Chang, Yiming; Panse, Vikram G

    2016-01-01

    Spatial clustering of ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) through tertiary interactions is a striking structural feature of the eukaryotic ribosome. However, the functional importance of these intricate inter-connections, and how they are established is currently unclear. Here, we reveal that a conserved ATPase, Fap7, organizes interactions between neighboring r-proteins uS11 and eS26 prior to their delivery to the earliest ribosome precursor, the 90S. In vitro, uS11 only when bound to Fap7 becomes competent to recruit eS26 through tertiary contacts found between these r-proteins on the mature ribosome. Subsequently, Fap7 ATPase activity unloads the uS11:eS26 subcomplex onto its rRNA binding site, and therefore ensures stoichiometric integration of these r-proteins into the 90S. Fap7-depletion in vivo renders uS11 susceptible to proteolysis, and precludes eS26 incorporation into the 90S. Thus, prefabrication of a native-like r-protein subcomplex drives efficient and accurate construction of the eukaryotic ribosome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21755.001 PMID:27929371

  4. Molecular phylogenetics of subclass Peritrichia (Ciliophora: Oligohymenophorea) based on expanded analyses of 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Utz, Laura R P; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among peritrich ciliates remain unclear in spite of recent progress. To expand the analyses performed in previous studies, and to statistically test hypotheses of monophyly, we analyzed a broad sample of 18s rRNA sequences (including 15 peritrich genera), applying a conservative alignment strategy and several phylogenetic approaches. The main results are that: (i) the monophyly of Peritrichia cannot be rejected; (ii) the two main clades of Sessilida do not correspond to formally recognized taxa; (iii) the monophyly of genera Vorticella and Epistylis is significantly rejected; and (iv) morphological structures commonly used in peritrich taxonomy may be evolutionarily labile.

  5. Cryo-EM structure of Hepatitis C virus IRES bound to the human ribosome at 3.9-Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Quade, Nick; Boehringer, Daniel; Leibundgut, Marc; van den Heuvel, Joop; Ban, Nenad

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a widespread human pathogen, is dependent on a highly structured 5′-untranslated region of its mRNA, referred to as internal ribosome entry site (IRES), for the translation of all of its proteins. The HCV IRES initiates translation by directly binding to the small ribosomal subunit (40S), circumventing the need for many eukaryotic translation initiation factors required for mRNA scanning. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of the human 40S ribosomal subunit in complex with the HCV IRES at 3.9 Å resolution, determined by focused refinement of an 80S ribosome–HCV IRES complex. The structure reveals the molecular details of the interactions between the IRES and the 40S, showing that expansion segment 7 (ES7) of the 18S rRNA acts as a central anchor point for the HCV IRES. The structural data rationalizes previous biochemical and genetic evidence regarding the initiation mechanism of the HCV and other related IRESs. PMID:26155016

  6. The PIN domain endonuclease Utp24 cleaves pre-ribosomal RNA at two coupled sites in yeast and humans

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Graeme R.; Weichmann, Franziska; Colvin, David; Sloan, Katherine E.; Kudla, Grzegorz; Tollervey, David; Watkins, Nicholas J.; Schneider, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    During ribosomal RNA (rRNA) maturation, cleavages at defined sites separate the mature rRNAs from spacer regions, but the identities of several enzymes required for 18S rRNA release remain unknown. PilT N-terminus (PIN) domain proteins are frequently endonucleases and the PIN domain protein Utp24 is essential for early cleavages at three pre-rRNA sites in yeast (A0, A1 and A2) and humans (A0, 1 and 2a). In yeast, A1 is cleaved prior to A2 and both cleavages require base-pairing by the U3 snoRNA to the central pseudoknot elements of the 18S rRNA. We found that yeast Utp24 UV-crosslinked in vivo to U3 and the pseudoknot, placing Utp24 close to cleavage at site A1. Yeast and human Utp24 proteins exhibited in vitro endonuclease activity on an RNA substrate containing yeast site A2. Moreover, an intact PIN domain in human UTP24 was required for accurate cleavages at sites 1 and 2a in vivo, whereas mutation of another potential site 2a endonuclease, RCL1, did not affect 18S production. We propose that Utp24 cleaves sites A1/1 and A2/2a in yeast and human cells. PMID:27034467

  7. Primers to block the amplification of symbiotic apostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene in a PCR-based copepod diet study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Guangxing

    2014-05-01

    Pelagic copepods play an important role in the marine food web. However, a full understanding of the ecological status of this zooplankton group depends on the careful study of their natural diets. In previous PCR-based copepod diet studies, we found many apostome ciliates that live symbiotically under the exoskeleton of the copepods, and their sequences were often over-represented in the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) libraries. As a first step to address this issue, we designed three apostome ciliate 18S rDNA blocking primers, and tested their blocking efficiency against apostome ciliate 18s rDNA under various PCR conditions. Using a semi-quantitative PCR method, we optimized the conditions to efficiently amplify the 18S rDNA of the prey while simultaneously excluding the symbiotic apostome ciliates. This technique will facilitate PCR-based diet studies of copepods and other zooplankton in their natural environments.

  8. Polar bears, antibiotics, and the evolving ribosome (Nobel Lecture).

    PubMed

    Yonath, Ada

    2010-06-14

    High-resolution structures of ribosomes, the cellular machines that translate the genetic code into proteins, revealed the decoding mechanism, detected the mRNA path, identified the sites of the tRNA molecules in the ribosome, elucidated the position and the nature of the nascent proteins exit tunnel, illuminated the interactions of the ribosome with non-ribosomal factors, such as the initiation, release and recycling factors, and provided valuable information on ribosomal antibiotics, their binding sites, modes of action, principles of selectivity and the mechanisms leading to their resistance. Notably, these structures proved that the ribosome is a ribozyme whose active site, namely where the peptide bonds are being formed, is situated within a universal symmetrical region that is embedded in the otherwise asymmetric ribosome structure. As this symmetrical region is highly conserved and provides the machinery required for peptide bond formation and for ribosome polymerase activity, it may be the remnant of the proto-ribosome, a dimeric prebiotic machine that formed peptide bonds and non-coded polypeptide chains. Structures of complexes of ribosomes with antibiotics targeting them revealed the principles allowing for their clinical use, identified resistance mechanisms and showed the structural bases for discriminating pathogenic bacteria from hosts, hence providing valuable structural information for antibiotics improvement and for the design of novel compounds that can serve as antibiotics.

  9. Toxocara canis and Toxocara vitulorum: molecular characterization, discrimination, and phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial (ATP synthase subunit 6 and 12S) and nuclear ribosomal (ITS-2 and 28S) genes.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Yatawara, Lalani; Rajapakse, R P V J; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2009-06-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara vitulorum are two important parasites of dogs and buffaloes with public health concern. The objectives of the present study are to identify molecular markers to discriminate these closely related parasites and to determine their phylogenetic position and genetic diversity within the genus Toxocara. Thus, two mitochondrial genes (complete ATPase 6 and partial small subunit ribosomal RNA (12S rDNA)), two nuclear ribosomal genes (second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-2)), and part of the large subunit 28S region were analyzed. Nucleotide sequence (597 bp) and predicted amino acid sequences of the complete ATPase 6 gene (199 amino acids) of both species (T. canis and T. vitulorum) are similar in size with the Toxocara cati and Toxocara malaysiensis. There was 88% nucleotide similarity between T. canis and T. vitulorum and many transversions present in the 12S gene. Analyses of the ITS-2 and 28S regions revealed that the 28S region was more conserved (95% nucleotide similarity between T. canis and T. vitulorum) than the ITS-2 region (85%). This study has provided useful molecular markers for the molecular epidemiological investigation of Toxocara species. Further, phylogenetic analyses of the ITS-2 and 28S genes have indicated that the members of the genus Toxocara form a distinct group with reference to their definitive hosts.

  10. Identification of cephalopod species from the North and Baltic Seas using morphology, COI and 18S rDNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Katharina; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    We morphologically analyzed 79 cephalopod specimens from the North and Baltic Seas belonging to 13 separate species. Another 29 specimens showed morphological features of either Alloteuthis mediaor Alloteuthis subulata or were found to be in between. Reliable identification features to distinguish between A. media and A. subulata are currently not available. The analysis of the DNA barcoding region of the COI gene revealed intraspecific distances (uncorrected p) ranging from 0 to 2.13 % (average 0.1 %) and interspecific distances between 3.31 and 22 % (average 15.52 %). All species formed monophyletic clusters in a neighbor-joining analysis and were supported by bootstrap values of ≥99 %. All COI haplotypes belonging to the 29 Alloteuthis specimens were grouped in one cluster. Neither COI nor 18S rDNA sequences helped to distinguish between the different Alloteuthis morphotypes. For species identification purposes, we recommend the use of COI, as it showed higher bootstrap support of species clusters and less amplification and sequencing failure compared to 18S. Our data strongly support the assumption that the genus Alloteuthis is only represented by a single species, at least in the North Sea. It remained unclear whether this species is A. subulata or A. media. All COI sequences including important metadata were uploaded to the Barcode of Life Data Systems and can be used as reference library for the molecular identification of more than 50 % of the cephalopod fauna known from the North and Baltic Seas.

  11. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Xiphinema and Xiphidorus Nematode Species from Brazil Inferred from 18S rDNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Claudio M. G.; Hübschen, Judith; Brown, Derek J. F.; Ferraz, Luiz C. C. B.; Wright, Frank; Neilson, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Maximum likelihood trees produced from 18S rDNA sequences separated 14 Xiphinema and five Xiphidorus nematode species from Brazil into distinct groups that concurred with their current morphological taxonomic status. Species belonging to the X. americanum group (X. brevicolle, X. diffusum, X. oxycaudatum, and X. peruvianum) formed a single group that was clearly separated from the other Xiphinema species. As with previous taxonomic studies that noted only minor morphological differences between putative X. americanum group species, separation of these species based upon 18S rDNA sequences was inconclusive. Thus it is probable that instead of comprising distinct species, the X. americanum group may in fact represent numerous morphotypes with large inter- and intra- population morphological variability that may be environmentally driven. Within the cluster representing non X. americanum group species, there was little statistical support to clearly separate species. However, three subgroups, comprising (i) the X. setariae/vulgare complex, (ii) X. ifacolum and X. paritaliae, and (iii) X. brasiliense and X. ensiculiferum were well resolved. PMID:19262801

  12. Optical and electrical stability of viral-templated copper sulfide (Cu{sub 1.8}S) films

    SciTech Connect

    Shahriar Zaman, Mohammed; Bernard Grajeda, Gabriel; Haberer, Elaine D.

    2014-04-14

    The optical and electrical stabilities of viral-templated non-stoichiometric copper sulfide, digenite (Cu{sub 1.8}S) films were investigated. The films were composed of large agglomerates of randomly aligned Cu{sub 1.8}S-coated M13 filamentous phage. Free carrier optical absorption associated with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) was observed in the near infrared spectral region, and the films were electrically active, displaying a linear current-voltage relationship. Under ambient conditions, the magnitude of the LSPR absorption increased, following a power law relationship with time, and the electrical resistance of viral-templated films decreased significantly. In contrast, the resistance of films stored under low oxygen, low humidity conditions experienced a smaller reduction in electrical resistance. Changes in optical and electrical film properties under ambient conditions were associated with an increase in free carrier concentration within the copper chalcogenide material due to oxygen exposure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to relate this increase in free carrier concentration to compositional changes on the viral-templated material surface.

  13. Distribution of 18S rDNA sites and absence of the canonical TTAGG insect telomeric repeat in parasitoid Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Gokhman, Vladimir E; Anokhin, Boris A; Kuznetsova, Valentina G

    2014-08-01

    Karyotypes of six species belonging to three main clades of parasitoid Hymenoptera, the superfamilies Ichneumonoidea (Ichneumonidae: Ichneumon amphibolus), Cynipoidea (Cynipidae: Diplolepis rosae) and Chalcidoidea (Eurytomidae: Eurytoma robusta, Eu. serratulae and Eu. compressa, and Torymidae: Torymus bedeguaris) were studied using FISH with 18S rDNA and telomeric (TTAGG)n probes. Haploid karyotypes of D. rosae, Eu. robusta and Eu. serratulae carried the only 18S rDNA hybridization signal, whereas those of I. amphibolus and Eu. compressa carried three and two rDNA clusters respectively. In addition, three rDNA sites were visualized in the aneuploid female of T. bedeguaris. The number of rDNA clusters in parasitoid Hymenoptera generally correlates to the chromosome number. Apart from the overwhelming majority of the studied species of aculeate Hymenoptera, no hybridization signals were obtained from FISH with the telomeric (TTAGG)n probe in the examined parasitoid species. These data suggest absence of the canonical (TTAGG)n insect telomeric motif in the Ichneumonoidea, Cynipoidea and Chalcidoidea, and perhaps in parasitoid Hymenoptera in general.

  14. Genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium in fish at the 18S and actin loci and high levels of mixed infections.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Palermo, Cindy; Chen, Linda; Edwards, Amanda; Paparini, Andrea; Tong, Kaising; Gibson-Kueh, Susan; Lymbery, Alan; Ryan, Una

    2015-12-15

    Cryptosporidium is an enteric parasite that infects humans and a wide range of animals. Relatively little is known about the epidemiology and taxonomy of Cryptosporidium in fish. In the present study, a total of 775 fish, belonging to 46 species and comprising ornamental fish, marine fish and freshwater fish were screened for the prevalence of Cryptosporidium by PCR. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium in fish was 5.3% (41/775), with prevalences ranging from 1.5 to 100% within individual host species. Phylogenetic analysis of these Cryptosporidium isolates as well as 14 isolates from previous studies indicated extensive genetic diversity as well as evidence for mixed infections. At the 18S locus the following species were identified; Cryptosporidium molnari-like genotype (n=14), Cryptosporidium huwi (n=8), piscine genotype 2 (n=4), piscine genotype 3-like (n=1), piscine genotype 4 (n=2), piscine genotype 5 (n=13), piscine genotype 5-like (n=1) and five novel genotypes (n=5). At the actin locus, species identification agreed with the 18S locus for only 52.3% of isolates sequenced, indicating high levels of mixed infections. Future studies will need to employ both morphological characterization and deep sequencing amplicon-based technologies to better understand the epidemiological and phylogenetic relationships of piscine-derived Cryptosporidium species and genotypes, particularly when mixed infections are detected.

  15. Morphological and molecular characterization of Ceratomyxa gurnardi sp. n. (Myxozoa: Ceratomyxidae) infecting the gallbladder of the grey gurnard Eutrigla gurnardus (L.) (Scorpaeniformes, Triglidae).

    PubMed

    Sobecka, Ewa; Szostakowska, Beata; Ziętara, Marek S; Więcaszek, Beata

    2013-02-01

    The myxosporean specimens were noted in grey gurnard Eutrigla gurnardus (L.) from the area near the Shetland Islands. The structure and dimensions of its vegetative stage differ from earlier descriptions. A sequence of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene obtained during the current study differs from other Ceratomyxa spp. available in GenBank. A phylogenetic position of parasite based on the 18S rDNA fragment was estimated. The proposed name for this myxosporean is Ceratomyxa gurnardi sp. n.

  16. The Ribosomal Protein Rpl22 Controls Ribosome Composition by Directly Repressing Expression of Its Own Paralog, Rpl22l1

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Monique N.; Schreiber, Katherine H.; Zhang, Yong; Duc, Anne-Cécile E.; Rao, Shuyun; Hale, J. Scott; Academia, Emmeline C.; Shah, Shreya R.; Morton, John F.; Holstein, Carly A.; Martin, Dan B.; Kaeberlein, Matt; Ladiges, Warren C.; Fink, Pamela J.; MacKay, Vivian L.; Wiest, David L.; Kennedy, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    Most yeast ribosomal protein genes are duplicated and their characterization has led to hypotheses regarding the existence of specialized ribosomes with different subunit composition or specifically-tailored functions. In yeast, ribosomal protein genes are generally duplicated and evidence has emerged that paralogs might have specific roles. Unlike yeast, most mammalian ribosomal proteins are thought to be encoded by a single gene copy, raising the possibility that heterogenous populations of ribosomes are unique to yeast. Here, we examine the roles of the mammalian Rpl22, finding that Rpl22−/− mice have only subtle phenotypes with no significant translation defects. We find that in the Rpl22−/− mouse there is a compensatory increase in Rpl22-like1 (Rpl22l1) expression and incorporation into ribosomes. Consistent with the hypothesis that either ribosomal protein can support translation, knockdown of Rpl22l1 impairs growth of cells lacking Rpl22. Mechanistically, Rpl22 regulates Rpl22l1 directly by binding to an internal hairpin structure and repressing its expression. We propose that ribosome specificity may exist in mammals, providing evidence that one ribosomal protein can influence composition of the ribosome by regulating its own paralog. PMID:23990801

  17. Composition of the summer photosynthetic pico and nanoplankton communities in the Beaufort Sea assessed by T-RFLP and sequences of the 18S rRNA gene from flow cytometry sorted samples

    PubMed Central

    Balzano, Sergio; Marie, Dominique; Gourvil, Priscillia; Vaulot, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The composition of photosynthetic pico and nanoeukaryotes was investigated in the North East Pacific and the Arctic Ocean with special emphasis on the Beaufort Sea during the MALINA cruise in summer 2009. Photosynthetic populations were sorted using flow cytometry based on their size and pigment fluorescence. Diversity of the sorted photosynthetic eukaryotes was determined using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and cloning/sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. Picoplankton was dominated by Mamiellophyceae, a class of small green algae previously included in the prasinophytes: in the North East Pacific, the contribution of an Arctic Micromonas ecotype increased steadily northward becoming the only taxon occurring at most stations throughout the Beaufort Sea. In contrast, nanoplankton was more diverse: North Pacific stations were dominated by Pseudo-nitzschia sp. whereas those in the Beaufort Sea were dominated by two distinct Chaetoceros species as well as by Chrysophyceae, Pelagophyceae and Chrysochromulina spp.. This study confirms the importance of Arctic Micromonas within picoplankton throughout the Beaufort Sea and demonstrates that the photosynthetic picoeukaryote community in the Arctic is much less diverse than at lower latitudes. Moreover, in contrast to what occurs in warmer waters, most of the key pico- and nanoplankton species found in the Beaufort Sea could be successfully established in culture. PMID:22278671

  18. Phylogeny of organisms investigated by the base-pair changes in the stem regions of small and large ribosomal subunit RNAs.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, J; Terai, G; Nakano, T

    1999-02-01

    In order to obtain the evolutionary distance data that are as purely additive as possible, we have developed a novel method for evaluating the evolutionary distances from the base-pair changes in stem regions of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). The application of this method to small-subunit (SSU) and large-subunit (LSU) rRNAs provides the distance data, with which both the unweighted pair group method of analysis and the neighbor-joining method give almost the same tree topology of most organisms except for some Protoctista, thermophilic bacteria, parasitic organisms, and endosymbionts. Although the evolutionary distances calculated with LSU rRNAs are somewhat longer than those with SSU rRNAs, the difference, probably due to a slight difference in functional constraint, is substantially decreased when the distances are converted into the divergence times of organisms by the measure of the time scale estimated in each type of rRNAs. The divergence times of main branches agree fairly well with the geological record of organisms, at least after the appearance of oxygen-releasing photosynthesis, although the divergence times of Eukaryota, Archaebacteria, and Eubacteria are somewhat overestimated in comparison with the geological record of Earth formation. This result is explained by considering that the mutation rate is determined by the accumulation of misrepairs for DNA damage caused by radiation and that the effect of radiation had been stronger before the oxygen molecules became abundant in the atmosphere of the Earth.

  19. Diversity of microbial eukaryotes in sediment at a deep-sea methane cold seep: surveys of ribosomal DNA libraries from raw sediment samples and two enrichment cultures.

    PubMed

    Takishita, Kiyotaka; Yubuki, Naoji; Kakizoe, Natsuki; Inagaki, Yuji; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2007-07-01

    Recent culture-independent surveys of eukaryotic small-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) from many environments have unveiled unexpectedly high diversity of microbial eukaryotes (microeukaryotes) at various taxonomic levels. However, such surveys were most probably biased by various technical difficulties, resulting in underestimation of microeukaryotic diversity. In the present study on oxygen-depleted sediment from a deep-sea methane cold seep of Sagami Bay, Japan, we surveyed the diversity of eukaryotic rDNA in raw sediment samples and in two enrichment cultures. More than half of all clones recovered from the raw sediment samples were of the basidiomycetous fungus Cryptococcus curvatus. Among other clones, phylotypes of eukaryotic parasites, such as Apicomplexa, Ichthyosporea, and Phytomyxea, were identified. On the other hand, we observed a marked difference in phylotype composition in the enrichment samples. Several phylotypes belonging to heterotrophic stramenopiles were frequently found in one enrichment culture, while a phylotype of Excavata previously detected at a deep-sea hydrothermal vent dominated the other. We successfully established a clonal culture of this excavate flagellate. Since these phylotypes were not identified in the raw sediment samples, the approach incorporating a cultivation step successfully found at least a fraction of the "hidden" microeukaryotic diversity in the environment examined.

  20. The Pentatricopeptide Repeat Protein EMB2654 Is Essential for Trans-Splicing of a Chloroplast Small Ribosomal Subunit Transcript1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sanglard, Lilian Vincis Pereira; Bussell, John D.; Howell, Katharine A.

    2017-01-01

    We report the partial complementation and subsequent comparative molecular analysis of two nonviable mutants impaired in chloroplast translation, one (emb2394) lacking the RPL6 protein, and the other (emb2654) carrying a mutation in a gene encoding a P-class pentatricopeptide repeat protein. We show that EMB2654 is required for the trans-splicing of the plastid rps12 transcript and that therefore the emb2654 mutant lacks Rps12 protein and fails to assemble the small subunit of the plastid ribosome, explaining the loss of plastid translation and consequent embryo-lethal phenotype. Predictions of the EMB2654 binding site match a small RNA “footprint” located on the 5′ half of the trans-spliced intron that is almost absent in the partially complemented mutant. EMB2654 binds sequence specifically to this target sequence in vitro. Altered patterns in nuclease-protected small RNA fragments in emb2654 show that EMB2654 binding must be an early step in, or prior to, the formation of a large protein-RNA complex covering the free ends of the two rps12 intron halves. PMID:28011633

  1. Microbial diversity in an in situ reactor system treating monochlorobenzene contaminated groundwater as revealed by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Alfreider, Albin; Vogt, Carsten; Babel, Wolfgang

    2002-08-01

    A molecular approach based on the construction of 16S ribosomal DNA clone libraries was used to investigate the microbial diversity of an underground in situ reactor system filled with the original aquifer sediments. After chemical steady state was reached in the monochlorobenzene concentration between the original inflowing groundwater and the reactor outflow, samples from different reactor locations and from inflowing and outflowing groundwater were taken for DNA extraction. Small-subunit rRNA genes were PCR-amplified with primers specific for Bacteria, subsequently cloned and screened for variation by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). A total of 87 bacterial 16S rDNA genes were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The original groundwater was found to be dominated by a bacterial consortium affiliated with various members of the class of Proteobacteria, by phylotypes not affiliated with currently recognized bacterial phyla, and also by sporulating and non-sporulating sulfate-reducing bacteria. The most occurring clone types obtained from the sediment samples of the reactor were related to the beta-Proteobacteria, dominated by sequences almost identical to the widespread bacterium Alcaligenes faecalis, to low G+C gram-positive bacteria and to Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (formerly Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) within the gamma subclass of Proteobacteria in the upper reactor sector. Although bacterial phylotypes originating from the groundwater outflow of the reactors also grouped within different subdivisions of Proteobacteria and low G+C gram-positive bacteria, most of the 16S rDNA sequences were not associated with the sequence types observed in the reactor samples. Our results suggest that the different environments were inhabited by distinct microbial communities in respect to their taxonomic diversity, particular pronounced between sediment attached microbial communities from the reactor samples and free-living bacteria from the

  2. Active yeast ribosome preparation using monolithic anion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Antonio M; Yourik, Paul; Rajagopal, Vaishnavi; Nanda, Jagpreet S; Lorsch, Jon R; Walker, Sarah E

    2017-02-01

    In vitro studies of translation provide critical mechanistic details, yet purification of large amounts of highly active eukaryotic ribosomes remains a challenge for biochemists and structural biologists. Here, we present an optimized method for preparation of highly active yeast ribosomes that could easily be adapted for purification of ribosomes from other species. The use of a nitrogen mill for cell lysis coupled with chromatographic purification of the ribosomes results in 10-fold-increased yield and less variability compared with the traditional approach, which relies on sedimentation through sucrose cushions. We demonstrate that these ribosomes are equivalent to those made using the traditional method in a host of in vitro assays, and that utilization of this new method will consistently produce high yields of active yeast ribosomes.

  3. Active yeast ribosome preparation using monolithic anion exchange chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Antonio M.; Yourik, Paul; Rajagopal, Vaishnavi; Lorsch, Jon R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In vitro studies of translation provide critical mechanistic details, yet purification of large amounts of highly active eukaryotic ribosomes remains a challenge for biochemists and structural biologists. Here, we present an optimized method for preparation of highly active yeast ribosomes that could easily be adapted for purification of ribosomes from other species. The use of a nitrogen mill for cell lysis coupled with chromatographic purification of the ribosomes results in 10-fold-increased yield and less variability compared with the traditional approach, which relies on sedimentation through sucrose cushions. We demonstrate that these ribosomes are equivalent to those made using the traditional method in a host of in vitro assays, and that utilization of this new method will consistently produce high yields of active yeast ribosomes. PMID:27981882

  4. Different organisms associated with heartwater as shown by analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Allsopp, M; Visser, E S; du Plessis, J L; Vogel, S W; Allsopp, B A

    1997-08-01

    Cowdria ruminantium is a rickettsial parasite which causes heartwater, a economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants in tropical and subtropical Africa and parts of the Caribbean. Because existing diagnostic methods are unreliable, we investigated the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (srRNA) gene from heartwater-infected material to characterise the organisms present and to develop specific oligonucleotide probes for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnosis. DNA was obtained from ticks and ruminants from heartwater-free and heartwater-endemic areas from Cowdria in tissue culture. PCR was carried out using primers designed to amplify only rickettsial srRNA genes, the target region being the highly variable V1 loop. Amplicons were cloned and sequenced; 51% were C. ruminantium sequences corresponding to four genotypes, two of which were identical to previously reported C. ruminantium sequences while the other two were new. The four different Cowdria genotypes can be correlated with different phenotypes. Tissue-culture samples yielded only Cowdria genotype sequences, but an extraordinary heterogeneity of 16S sequences was obtained from field samples. In addition to Cowdria genotypes we found sequences from previously unknown Ehrlichia spp., sequences showing homology to other Rickettsiales and a variety of Pseudomonadaceae. One Ehrlichia sequence was phylogenetically closely related to Ehrlichia platys (Group II Ehrlichia) and one to Ehrlichia canis (Group III Ehrlichia). This latter sequence was from an isolate (Germishuys) made from a naturally infected sheep which, from brain smear examination and pathology, appeared to be suffering from heartwater; nevertheless no Cowdria genotype sequences were found in this isolate. In addition no Cowdria sequences were obtained from uninfected ticks. Complete 16S rRNA gene sequences were determined for two C. ruminantium genotypes and for two previously uncharacterised heartwater-associated Ehrlichia spp

  5. Dual Role of a SAS10/C1D Family Protein in Ribosomal RNA Gene Expression and Processing Is Essential for Reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Jiun C.; Wang, Huei-Jing

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are transcribed, processed, and assembled with ribosomal proteins in the nucleolus. Regulatory mechanisms of rRNA gene (rDNA) transcription and processing remain elusive in plants, especially their connection to nucleolar organization. We performed an in silico screen for essential genes of unknown function in Arabidopsis thaliana and identified Thallo (THAL) encoding a SAS10/C1D family protein. THAL disruption caused enlarged nucleoli in arrested embryos, aberrant processing of precursor rRNAs at the 5’ External Transcribed Spacer, and repression of the major rDNA variant (VAR1). THAL overexpression lines showed de-repression of VAR1 and overall reversed effects on rRNA processing sites. Strikingly, THAL overexpression also induced formation of multiple nucleoli per nucleus phenotypic of mutants of heterochromatin factors. THAL physically associated with histone chaperone Nucleolin 1 (NUC1), histone-binding NUC2, and histone demethylase Jumonji 14 (JMJ14) in bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay, suggesting that it participates in chromatin regulation. Furthermore, investigation of truncated THAL proteins revealed that the SAS10 C-terminal domain is likely important for its function in chromatin configuration. THAL also interacted with putative Small Subunit processome components, including previously unreported Arabidopsis homologue of yeast M Phase Phosphoprotein 10 (MPP10). Our results uncovering the dual role of THAL in transcription and processing events critical for proper rRNA biogenesis and nucleolar organization during reproduction are the first to define the function of SAS10/C1D family members in plants. PMID:27792779

  6. Homoiterons and expansion in ribosomal RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Michael S.; Sallee, Floyd R.; Park, Edwards A.; Parker, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal RNAs in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes feature numerous repeats of three or more nucleotides with the same nucleobase (homoiterons). In prokaryotes these repeats are much more frequent in thermophile compared to mesophile or psychrophile species, and have similar frequency in both large RNAs. These features point to use of prokaryotic homoiterons in stabilization of both ribosomal subunits. The two large RNAs of eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomes have expanded to a different degree across the evolutionary ladder. The big RNA of the larger subunit (60S LSU) evolved expansion segments of up to 2400 nucleotides, and the smaller subunit (40S SSU) RNA acquired expansion segments of not more than 700 nucleotides. In the examined eukaryotes abundance of rRNA homoiterons generally follows size and nucleotide bias of the expansion segments, and increases with GC content and especially with phylogenetic rank. Both the nucleotide bias and frequency of homoiterons are much larger in metazoan and angiosperm LSU compared to the respective SSU RNAs. This is especially pronounced in the tetrapod vertebrates and seems to culminate in the hominid mammals. The stability of secondary structure in polyribonucleotides would significantly connect to GC content, and should also relate to G and C homoiteron content. RNA modeling points to considerable presence of homoiteron-rich double-stranded segments especially in vertebrate LSU RNAs, and homoiterons with four or more nucleotides in the vertebrate and angiosperm LSU RNAs are largely confined to the expansion segments. These features could mainly relate to protein export function and attachment of LSU to endoplasmic reticulum and other subcellular networks. PMID:26636029

  7. Homoiterons and expansion in ribosomal RNAs.

    PubMed

    Parker, Michael S; Sallee, Floyd R; Park, Edwards A; Parker, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal RNAs in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes feature numerous repeats of three or more nucleotides with the same nucleobase (homoiterons). In prokaryotes these repeats are much more frequent in thermophile compared to mesophile or psychrophile species, and have similar frequency in both large RNAs. These features point to use of prokaryotic homoiterons in stabilization of both ribosomal subunits. The two large RNAs of eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomes have expanded to a different degree across the evolutionary ladder. The big RNA of the larger subunit (60S LSU) evolved expansion segments of up to 2400 nucleotides, and the smaller subunit (40S SSU) RNA acquired expansion segments of not more than 700 nucleotides. In the examined eukaryotes abundance of rRNA homoiterons generally follows size and nucleotide bias of the expansion segments, and increases with GC content and especially with phylogenetic rank. Both the nucleotide bias and frequency of homoiterons are much larger in metazoan and angiosperm LSU compared to the respective SSU RNAs. This is especially pronounced in the tetrapod vertebrates and seems to culminate in the hominid mammals. The stability of secondary structure in polyribonucleotides would significantly connect to GC content, and should also relate to G and C homoiteron content. RNA modeling points to considerable presence of homoiteron-rich double-stranded segments especially in vertebrate LSU RNAs, and homoiterons with four or more nucleotides in the vertebrate and angiosperm LSU RNAs are largely confined to the expansion segments. These features could mainly relate to protein export function and attachment of LSU to endoplasmic reticulum and other subcellular networks.

  8. On the Ribosomal Density that Maximizes Protein Translation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zarai, Yoram; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

    2016-01-01

    During mRNA translation, several ribosomes attach to the same mRNA molecule simultaneously translating it into a protein. This pipelining increases the protein translation rate. A natural and important question is what ribosomal density maximizes the protein translation rate. Using mathematical models of ribosome flow along both a linear and a circular mRNA molecules we prove that typically the steady-state protein translation rate is maximized when the ribosomal density is one half of the maximal possible density. We discuss the implications of our results to endogenous genes under natural cellular conditions and also to synthetic biology. PMID:27861564

  9. Ribosome recycling: An essential process of protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Michael C; Kaji, Hideko; Kaji, Akira

    2007-01-01

    A preponderance of textbooks outlines cellular protein synthesis (translation) in three basic steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. However, researchers in the field of translation accept that a vital fourth step exists; this fourth step is called ribosome recycling. Ribosome recycling occurs after the nascent polypeptide has been released during the termination step. Despite the release of the polypeptide, ribosomes remain bound to the mRNA and tRNA. It is only during the fourth step of translation that ribosomes are ultimately released from the mRNA, split into subunits, and are free to bind new mRNA, thus the term "ribosome recycling." This step is essential to the viability of cells. In bacteria, it is catalyzed by two proteins, elongation factor G and ribosome recycling factor, a near perfect structural mimic of tRNA. Eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts possess ribosome recycling factor and elongation factor G homologues, but the nature of ribosome recycling in eukaryotic cytoplasm is still under investigation. In this review, the discovery of ribosome recycling and the basic mechanisms involved are discussed so that textbook writers and teachers can include this vital step, which is just as important as the three conventional steps, in sections dealing with protein synthesis.

  10. Ribosome hibernation factor promotes Staphylococcal survival and differentially represses translation

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arnab; Yap, Mee-Ngan F.

    2016-01-01

    In opportunistic Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, a small protein called hibernation-promoting factor (HPFSa) is sufficient to dimerize 2.5-MDa 70S ribosomes into a translationally inactive 100S complex. Although the 100S dimer is observed in only the stationary phase in Gram-negative gammaproteobacteria, it is ubiquitous throughout all growth phases in S. aureus. The biological significance of the 100S ribosome is poorly understood. Here, we reveal an important role of HPFSa in preserving ribosome integrity and poising cells for translational restart, a process that has significant clinical implications for relapsed staphylococcal infections. We found that the hpf null strain is severely impaired in long-term viability concomitant with a dramatic loss of intact ribosomes. Genome-wide ribosome profiling shows that eliminating HPFSa drastically increased ribosome occupancy at the 5′ end of specific mRNAs under nutrient-limited conditions, suggesting that HPFSa may suppress translation initiation. The protective function of HPFSa on ribosomes resides at the N-terminal conserved basic residues and the extended C-terminal segment, which are critical for dimerization and ribosome binding, respectively. These data provide significant insight into the functional consequences of 100S ribosome loss for protein synthesis and stress adaptation. PMID:27001516

  11. Commandeering the Ribosome: Lessons Learned from Dicistroviruses about Translation

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Craig H.

    2016-01-01

    To replicate, all viruses depend entirely on the enslavement of host cell ribosomes for their own advantage. To this end, viruses have evolved a multitude of translational strategies to usurp the ribosome. RNA-based structures known as internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) are among the most notable mechanisms employed by viruses to seize host ribosomes. In this article, we spotlight the intergenic region IRES from the Dicistroviridae family of viruses and its importance as a model for IRES-dependent translation and in understanding fundamental properties of translation. PMID:27053555

  12. Complete kinetic mechanism for recycling of the bacterial ribosome.

    PubMed

    Borg, Anneli; Pavlov, Michael; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2016-01-01

    How EF-G and RRF act together to split a post-termination ribosomal complex into its subunits has remained obscure. Here, using stopped-flow experiments with Rayleigh light scattering detection and quench-flow experiments with radio-detection of GTP hydrolysis, we have clarified the kinetic mechanism of ribosome recycling and obtained precise estimates of its kinetic parameters. Ribosome splitting requires that EF-G binds to an already RRF-containing ribosome. EF-G binding to RRF-free ribosomes induces futile rounds of GTP hydrolysis and inhibits ribosome splitting, implying that while RRF is purely an activator of recycling, EF-G acts as both activator and competitive inhibitor of RRF in recycling of the post-termination ribosome. The ribosome splitting rate and the number of GTPs consumed per splitting event depend strongly on the free concentrations of EF-G and RRF. The maximal recycling rate, here estimated as 25 sec(-1), is approached at very high concentrations of EF-G and RRF with RRF in high excess over EF-G. The present in vitro results, suggesting an in vivo ribosome recycling rate of ∼5 sec(-1), are discussed in the perspective of rapidly growing bacterial cells.

  13. Complete kinetic mechanism for recycling of the bacterial ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Borg, Anneli; Pavlov, Michael

    2016-01-01

    How EF-G and RRF act together to split a post-termination ribosomal complex into its subunits has remained obscure. Here, using stopped-flow experiments with Rayleigh light scattering detection and quench-flow experiments with radio-detection of GTP hydrolysis, we have clarified the kinetic mechanism of ribosome recycling and obtained precise estimates of its kinetic parameters. Ribosome splitting requires that EF-G binds to an already RRF-containing ribosome. EF-G binding to RRF-free ribosomes induces futile rounds of GTP hydrolysis and inhibits ribosome splitting, implying that while RRF is purely an activator of recycling, EF-G acts as both activator and competitive inhibitor of RRF in recycling of the post-termination ribosome. The ribosome splitting rate and the number of GTPs consumed per splitting event depend strongly on the free concentrations of EF-G and RRF. The maximal recycling rate, here estimated as 25 sec−1, is approached at very high concentrations of EF-G and RRF with RRF in high excess over EF-G. The present in vitro results, suggesting an in vivo ribosome recycling rate of ∼5 sec−1, are discussed in the perspective of rapidly growing bacterial cells. PMID:26527791

  14. Investigation of Ribosomes Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation Methods.

    PubMed

    Makarov, G I; Makarova, T M; Sumbatyan, N V; Bogdanov, A A

    2016-12-01

    The ribosome as a complex molecular machine undergoes significant conformational changes while synthesizing a protein molecule. Molecular dynamics simulations have been used as complementary approaches to X-ray crystallography and cryoelectron microscopy, as well as biochemical methods, to answer many questions that modern structural methods leave unsolved. In this review, we demonstrate that all-atom modeling of ribosome molecular dynamics is particularly useful in describing the process of tRNA translocation, atomic details of behavior of nascent peptides, antibiotics, and other small molecules in the ribosomal tunnel, and the putative mechanism of allosteric signal transmission to functional sites of the ribosome.

  15. Direct Activation of Ribosome-Associated Double-Stranded RNA-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKR) by Deoxynivalenol, Anisomycin and Ricin: A New Model for Ribotoxic Stress Response Induction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui-Ren; He, Kaiyu; Landgraf, Jeff; Pan, Xiao; Pestka, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) is a critical upstream mediator of the ribotoxic stress response (RSR) to the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) and other translational inhibitors. Here, we employed HeLa cell lysates to: (1) characterize PKR’s interactions with the ribosome and ribosomal RNA (rRNA); (2) demonstrate cell-free activation of ribosomal-associated PKR and (3) integrate these findings in a unified model for RSR. Robust PKR-dependent RSR was initially confirmed in intact cells. PKR basally associated with 40S, 60S, 80S and polysome fractions at molar ratios of 7, 2, 23 and 3, respectively. Treatment of ATP-containing HeLa lysates with DON or the ribotoxins anisomycin and ricin concentration-dependently elicited phosphorylation of PKR and its substrate eIF2α. These phosphorylations could be blocked by PKR inhibitors. rRNA immunoprecipitation (RNA-IP) of HeLa lysates with PKR-specific antibody and sequencing revealed that in the presence of DON or not, the kinase associated with numerous discrete sites on both the 18S and 28S rRNA molecules, a number of which contained double-stranded hairpins. These findings are consistent with a sentinel model whereby multiple PKR molecules basally associate with the ribosome positioning them to respond to ribotoxin-induced alterations in rRNA structure by dimerizing, autoactivating and, ultimately, evoking RSR. PMID:25521494

  16. Human AATF/Che-1 forms a nucleolar protein complex with NGDN and NOL10 required for 40S ribosomal subunit synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bammert, Lukas; Jonas, Stefanie; Ungricht, Rosemarie; Kutay, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian AATF/Che-1 is essential for embryonic development, however, the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. By immunoprecipitation of human AATF we discovered that AATF forms a salt-stable protein complex together with neuroguidin (NGDN) and NOL10, and demonstrate that the AATF-NGDN-NOL10 (ANN) complex functions in ribosome biogenesis. All three ANN complex members localize to nucleoli and display a mutual dependence with respect to protein stability. Mapping of protein-protein interaction domains revealed the importance of both the evolutionary conserved WD40 repeats in NOL10 and the UTP3/SAS10 domain in NGDN for complex formation. Functional analysis showed that the ANN complex supports nucleolar steps of 40S ribosomal subunit biosynthesis. All complex members were required for 18S rRNA maturation and their individual depletion affected the same nucleolar cleavage steps in the 5′ETS and ITS1 regions of the ribosomal RNA precursor. Collectively, we identified the ANN complex as a novel functional module supporting the nucleolar maturation of 40S ribosomal subunits. Our data help to explain the described role of AATF in cell proliferation during mouse development as well as its requirement for malignant tumor growth. PMID:27599843

  17. Ribosomal RNA: a key to phylogeny

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    As molecular phylogeny increasingly shapes our understanding of organismal relationships, no molecule has been applied to more questions than have ribosomal RNAs. We review this role of the rRNAs and some of the insights that have been gained from them. We also offer some of the practical considerations in extracting the phylogenetic information from the sequences. Finally, we stress the importance of comparing results from multiple molecules, both as a method for testing the overall reliability of the organismal phylogeny and as a method for more broadly exploring the history of the genome.

  18. Transition State Analogues Rescue Ribosomes from Saporin-L1 Ribosome Inactivating Protein†

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Matthew B.; Tyler, Peter C.; Evans, Gary B.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2009-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) catalyze the hydrolytic depurination of one or more adenosine residues from eukaryotic ribosomes. Depurination of the ribosomal sarcin-ricin tetraloop (GAGA) causes inhibition of protein synthesis and cellular death. We characterized the catalytic properties of saporin-L1 from Saponaria officinalis (soapwort) leaves and demonstrate robust activity against defined nucleic acid substrates and mammalian ribosomes. Transition state analogue mimics of small oligonucleotide substrates of saporin-L1 are powerful, slow-onset inhibitors when adenosine is replaced with the transition state mimic 9-deazaadenine-9-methylene-N-hydroxypyrrolidine (DADMeA). Linear, cyclic and stem-loop oligonucleotide inhibitors containing DADMeA and based on the GAGA sarcin-ricin tetraloop gave slow-onset tight-binding inhibition constants (Ki*) of 2.3 to 8.7 nM at physiological conditions and bind up to 40,000-fold tighter than RNA substrates. Saporin-L1 inhibition of rabbit reticulocyte translation was protected by these inhibitors. Transition state analogues of saporin-L1 have potential in cancer therapy that employs saporin-L1 linked immunotoxins. PMID:19764816

  19. Ribosome-messenger recognition: mRNA target sites for ribosomal protein S1.

    PubMed Central

    Boni, I V; Isaeva, D M; Musychenko, M L; Tzareva, N V

    1991-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S1 is known to play an important role in translational initiation, being directly involved in recognition and binding of mRNAs by 30S ribosomal particles. Using a specially developed procedure based on efficient crosslinking of S1 to mRNA induced by UV irradiation, we have identified S1 binding sites on several phage RNAs in preinitiation complexes. Targets for S1 on Q beta and fr RNAs are localized upstream from the coat protein gene and contain oligo(U)-sequences. In the case of Q beta RNA, this S1 binding site overlaps the S-site for Q beta replicase and the site for S1 binding within a binary complex. It is reasonable that similar U-rich sequences represent S1 binding sites on bacterial mRNAs. To test this idea we have used E. coli ssb mRNA prepared in vitro with the T7 promoter/RNA polymerase system. By the methods of toeprinting, enzymatic footprinting, and UV crosslinking we have shown that binding of the ssb mRNA to 30S ribosomes is S1-dependent. The oligo(U)-sequence preceding the SD domain was found to be the target for S1. We propose that S1 binding sites, represented by pyrimidine-rich sequences upstream from the SD region, serve as determinants involved in recognition of mRNA by the ribosome. Images PMID:2011495

  20. Further evidence for the variability of the 18S rDNA loci in the family Tingidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Natalia V.; Golub, Viktor B.; Kuznetsova, Valentina G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As of now, within the lace bug family Tingidae (Cimicomorpha), only 1.5% of the species described have been cytogenetically studied. In this paper, male karyotypes of Stephanitis caucasica, Stephanitis pyri, Physatocheila confinis, Lasiacantha capucina, Dictyla rotundata and Dictyla echii were studied using FISH mapping with an 18S rDNA marker. The results show variability: the major rDNA sites are predominantly located on a pair of autosomes but occasionally on the X and Y chromosomes. All currently available data on the distribution of the major rDNA in the Tingidae karyotypes are summarized and shortly discussed. Our main concern is to clarify whether the chromosomal position of rDNA loci can contribute to resolving the phylogenetic relationships among the Tingidae taxa. PMID:28123675

  1. Granulomatous prostatitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans: diagnostic usefulness of special stains and molecular analysis of 18S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Wada, R; Nakano, N; Yajima, N; Yoneyama, T; Wakasaya, Y; Murakami, C; Yamato, K; Yagihashi, S

    2008-01-01

    A 57-year-old Japanese man complained of pain on micturition. The prostate was of normal size but hard. Transrectal needle biopsy demonstrated granulomatous prostatitis with small focal abscesses. Staining with periodic acid-Schiff, Grocott's methenamine silver and Fontana-Masson revealed yeast-form fungus in the granulomas. The mucoid capsule of the fungus stained with mucicarmine. PCR specific for cryptococcal 18S rDNA using DNA extracted from the pathological specimen was positive, and the sequence was homologous to Cryptococcus neoformans. A diagnosis of cryptococcal granulomatous prostatitis was made. The patient was then found to suffer from meningitis and lung abscess, and was treated with amphotericin B and flucytosine. Careful histological and molecular studies are beneficial to reach the correct diagnosis and to prevent an unfavorable outcome of disseminated cryptococcosis.

  2. Molecular Diversity of Eukaryotes in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Processes as Revealed by 18S rRNA Gene Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Kengo; Kubota, Kengo; Harada, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic communities involved in sewage treatment processes have been investigated by morphological identification, but have not yet been well-characterized using molecular approaches. In the present study, eukaryotic communities were characterized by constructing 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. The phylogenetic affiliations of a total of 843 clones were Alveolata, Fungi, Rhizaria, Euglenozoa, Stramenopiles, Amoebozoa, and Viridiplantae as protozoans and Rotifera, Gastrotricha, and Nematoda as metazoans. Sixty percent of the clones had <97% sequence identity to described eukaryotes, indicating the greater diversity of eukaryotes than previously recognized. A core OTU closely related to Epistylis chrysemydis was identified, and several OTUs were shared by 4–8 libraries. Members of the uncultured lineage LKM11 in Cryptomycota were predominant fungi in sewage treatment processes. This comparative study represents an initial step in furthering understanding of the diversity and role of eukaryotes in sewage treatment processes. PMID:25491751

  3. Analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences suggests significant molecular differences between Macrodasyida and Chaetonotida (Gastrotricha).

    PubMed

    Manylov, Oleg G; Vladychenskaya, Natalia S; Milyutina, Irina A; Kedrova, Olga S; Korokhov, Nikolai P; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady A; Aleshin, Vladimir V; Petrov, Nikolai B

    2004-03-01

    Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences of four macrodasyid and one chaetonotid gastrotrichs were obtained and compared with the available sequences of other gastrotrich species and representatives of various metazoan phyla. Contrary to the earlier molecular data, the gastrotrich sequences did not comprise a monophyletic group but formed two distinct clades, corresponding to the Macrodasyida and Chaetonotida, with the basal position occupied by the sequences of Tetranchyroderma sp. and Xenotrichula sp., respectively. Depending on the taxon sampling and methods of analysis, the two clades were separated by various combinations of clades Rotifera, Gnathostomulida, and Platyhelminthes, and never formed a clade with Nematoda. Thus, monophyly of the Gastrotricha is not confirmed by analysis of the presently available molecular data.

  4. Molecular diversity of eukaryotes in municipal wastewater treatment processes as revealed by 18S rRNA gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Kengo; Kubota, Kengo; Harada, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic communities involved in sewage treatment processes have been investigated by morphological identification, but have not yet been well-characterized using molecular approaches. In the present study, eukaryotic communities were characterized by constructing 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. The phylogenetic affiliations of a total of 843 clones were Alveolata, Fungi, Rhizaria, Euglenozoa, Stramenopiles, Amoebozoa, and Viridiplantae as protozoans and Rotifera, Gastrotricha, and Nematoda as metazoans. Sixty percent of the clones had <97% sequence identity to described eukaryotes, indicating the greater diversity of eukaryotes than previously recognized. A core OTU closely related to Epistylis chrysemydis was identified, and several OTUs were shared by 4-8 libraries. Members of the uncultured lineage LKM11 in Cryptomycota were predominant fungi in sewage treatment processes. This comparative study represents an initial step in furthering understanding of the diversity and role of eukaryotes in sewage treatment processes.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of extant gymnosperms and seed plant evolution: analysis of nuclear 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Chaw, S M; Zharkikh, A; Sung, H M; Lau, T C; Li, W H

    1997-01-01

    To study the evolutionary relationships among the four living gymnosperm orders and the interfamilial relationships in each order, a set of 65 nuclear 18S rRNA sequences from ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms was analyzed using the neighbor-joining and maximum-parsimony methods. With Selaginella as the outgroup, the analysis strongly indicates that the seed plants form a monophyletic group with the ferns as a sister group. Within the seed plants the angiosperms are clearly a monophyletic group. Although the bootstrap support for the monophyly of the gymnosperm clade is moderate, the monophyly is further supported by its lack of angiosperm-specific indels. Within the gymnosperms there appear to be three monophyletic clades: Cycadales-Ginkgoales, Gnetales, and Coniferales. The cycad-ginkgo clade is the earliest gymnosperm lineage. Given the strong support for the sister group relationship between Gnetales and Coniferales, it is unlikely that Gnetales is a sister group of the angiosperms, contrary to the view of many plant taxonomists. Within Coniferales, Pinaceae is monophyletic and basal to the remaining conifer families, among which there are three monophyletic clades: Phyllocladaceae-Podocarpaceae, Araucariaceae, and Sciadopityaceae-Taxaceae-Cephalotaxaceae-Taxodiacea e-Cupressaceae. Within the latter clade, Sciadopityaceae may be an outgroup to the other four families. Among the angiosperms, no significant cluster at the level of subclass was found, but there was evidence that Nymphaeaceae branched off first. With