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Sample records for 18th century america

  1. [Evaluation of vital constants. 18th century].

    PubMed

    Sánchez González, Natividad; Ortega Martínez, Carmen

    2002-05-01

    The evaluation of patients' vital statistics is part of health care and in many cases this is the first step in knowing what is the health status of a patient. Therefore, we are interested in analysing what knowledge nurses had regarding these vital statistics during the 18th century, how they evaluated these statistics and what treatment they applied in order to maintain or balance them whenever they became unstable. A manual written by a nurse in the 18th century in order to aid her colleagues in their treatment of patients is the source of the authors' research material.

  2. 'Dentists' and the establishment of the Anglo-American profession in the 18th century. Part 4. North America.

    PubMed

    Bishop, M

    2014-12-01

    This series of papers examines how the Anglo-American dental profession was established in the eighteenth century, examining its need for a name and identity, public recognition and official status. This final paper describes the presence of the new dentists in North America before and after the revolution.

  3. Observing Sunspots with 18th Century Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalgaard, Leif

    2016-05-01

    The sunspot and group numbers in the 18th Century relies heavily on the observations by J.C. Staudauch during 1749-1799 performed with a three-foot 'sky tube', likely affected by spherical and chromatc aberration. An observing network has been set up to make drawings of the spots on the solar disk using original telescopes from the 18th Century or reconstructed 'sky tubes' with the same defects as the instruments available to and affordable for amateurs of the period. We report the initial results of the effort, finding that the counts of groups and the sunspot numbers must be multipled by three to reproduce modern observations. This confirms the scale factors derived from recent revisions of the solar record.

  4. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].

    PubMed

    Kugener, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper.

  5. Roads and cities of 18th century France

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Julien; Gribaudi, Maurizio; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of infrastructure networks such as roads and streets are of utmost importance to understand the evolution of urban systems. However, datasets describing these spatial objects are rare and sparse. The database presented here represents the road network at the french national level described in the historical map of Cassini in the 18th century. The digitization of this historical map is based on a collaborative methodology that we describe in detail. This dataset can be used for a variety of interdisciplinary studies, covering multiple spatial resolutions and ranging from history, geography, urban economics to network science. PMID:26401316

  6. Scientific Psychology in the 18th Century: A Historical Rediscovery.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Pfister, Roland

    2016-05-01

    As early as 1783, the almost forgotten philosopher, metaphysicist, and psychologist Ferdinand Ueberwasser (1752-1812) designated himself "Professor für empirische Psychologie und Logik" (professor of empirical psychology and logic) at the University of Münster, Germany. His position was initiated and supported by the minister and educational reformer Franz von Fürstenberg (1729-1810), who considered psychology a core scientific discipline that should be taught at each school and university. At the end of the 18th century, then, psychology seems to have been on the verge of becoming an independent academic discipline, about 100 years before Wilhelm Wundt founded the discipline's first official laboratory. It seems surprising that Ueberwasser's writings-including a seminal textbook on empirical psychology-have been almost entirely overlooked in most historical accounts. We focus on this important founding moment of psychological science and on the circumstances that eventually brought this seminal development to a halt.

  7. Mingantu, 18th-Century Mongol Astronomer and Radioheliograph Namesake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    The 18th-century Mongol astronomer Mingantu (1692-1765) has been honored with a city named after him and a nearby solar telescope array. During the IAU/Beijing, my wife and I went to the new Chinese solar radioheliograph, the Mingantu Observing Station, in Inner Mongolia, ~400 km northwest of Beijing, a project of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It currently contains 40 dishes each 4.5 m across, with a correlator from Beijing. Within a year, 60 2-m dishes will be added. We passed by the 12-century ruins of Xanadu (about 20 km north of Zhangbei) about halfway. The radioheliograph is in a plane about 1 km across, forming a three-armed spiral for interferometric solar mapping, something colleagues and I had carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array, taking advantage of the lunar occultation before annularity at the 20 May 2012 solar eclipse. In the central square of Mingantu city, a statue ~10-m high of the Mongol astronomer Mingantu appears. Its base bears a plaque ~1-m high of IAU Minor Planet Circular MPC 45750 announcing the naming in 2002 of asteroid 28242 Mingantu, discovered at a Chinese observatory in 1999. Mingantu carried out orbital calculations, mapping, mathematical work on infinite series, and other scientific research. He is honored by a modern museum behind the statue. The museum's first 40% describes Mingantu and his work, and is followed by some artifacts of the region from thousands of years ago. The final, large room contains a two-meter-square scale model of the radioheliograph, flat-screen televisions running Solar Dynamics Observatory and other contemporary visualizations, orreries and other objects, and large transparencies of NASA and other astronomical imagery. See my post at http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/ specfically Astro-Sightseeing_in_Inner_Mongolia-167712965.html. We thank Yihua Yan for arranging the visit and Wang Wei (both NAOC) for accompanying us. My solar research

  8. [Clinical medicine of the western medicine in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Zhen, C

    2001-07-01

    The 18th century is an important turning point not only in human history, but also in medical history. G. B. Morgagni was an Italian who founded the organic pathology in the 18th century, which was a bridge between basic medicine and clinical medicine of western medicine. H. Boerhaave called for "paying attention to the development of clinical medicine", and under this situation, western clinical medicine was attached importance and developed again in the 18th century. However, at the same time, the mechanical materialism was also infiltrated into western clinical medicine.

  9. John Wesley's Primitive Physick: An 18th-century Health Psychology.

    PubMed

    Malony, H N

    1996-04-01

    John Wesley was an 18th- century Anglican priest whose evangelistic efforts led to the establishment of Methodist Societies in England, Ireland and America. He became greatly concerned for the spiritual and physical health of the poor. Wesley wrote a book entitled Primitive Physick: Or, an Easy and Natural Method of Curing Most Diseases. He was deeply impressed with the few physicians who called for the prevention of disease through healthy living and who recommended time-honored, inexpensive methods of cure. This article reviews Wesley's ideas and prescriptions for healthy living. The discussion reflects on his contribution to the development of a psychology of health and credits Wesley with being ahead of his time in his dietetic and hygienic recommendations. Using Matarazzo's (1982) definition the article shows that over 200 years ago Wesley dealt with each of the major concerns of health psychology and behavioral medicine.

  10. John Stirling and the Classical Approach to Style in 18th Century England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael G.

    Most 18th-century rhetoricians viewed style as the expression of a writer's individual character and thought, placing little emphasis on the lists of figures common in many 17th-century rhetorics. John Stirling and others, however, continued the 17th-century tradition that reduced rhetoric largely to style and emphasized classical figures of…

  11. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi: 18th Century Swiss Educator and Correctional Reformer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Fredalene B.; Gehring, Thom

    2004-01-01

    This is the second in a series of articles on famous correctional educators. The first article introduced Mary Carpenter: 19th Century English Correctional Education Hero. (Editor's Note: See the September 2003 Issue for the first article) This article focuses on Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, 18th century Swiss educator. It begins with a summary of…

  12. [Almeria faced by contagion: health practice in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Gómez Diaz, Donato; Gómez Diaz, Maria José

    2003-01-01

    Epidemics in Almeria during the 18th century and the beginnings of the 19th century are described, as well as the measures adopted to avoid them, regarding both internal contagion and the need for surveillance of incoming ships. The economic consequences of the prophylactic measures taken are also considered. Finally, the role of the Church in extreme situations is analyzed.

  13. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

  14. Care of the insane in Lübeck during the 17th and 18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Dilling, Horst; Thomsen, Hans Peter; Hohagen, Fritz

    2010-12-01

    Only selected aspects of the history of the House of the Poor Insane in the Hanseatic Free City of Lübeck have been studied to date.This article presents the results of an entire source study of this small institution in the 17th and 18th centuries, and briefly also during the next 40 years after the opening of a new building. In addition to the minute-book of the Governors, now kept in the Lübeck Municipal Archives, the results are based primarily on the account-books,which illustrate the institution's social history and activities. Examples are given. During most of the 17th century, the House was generally rather like a prison for the insane, but at the end of this century and in the early 18th there was a reform phase.This was followed by phases of repression and 'containment' at the end of the 18th century and in the early 19th century, before a renewed reform by the medical profession.The findings for Lübeck are compared with the development of inpatient care in institutions elsewhere, and the decisive factors in Lübeck are discussed.

  15. Migration trends in British rural areas from the 18th to the 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Pooley, C G; Turnbull, J

    1996-09-01

    "Longitudinal residential histories are used to examine the extent to which three rural areas in Britain had distinctive migration histories from the 18th to the 20th centuries. Migration flows into and out of the regions are used to examine the extent to which the regions were integrated into the British migration system, and the relative importance of rural to urban migration is assessed.... Analysis reveals a high degree of short-distance mobility within regions and emphasises the dominance of London in longer-distance migration.... It is also suggested that the role of towns in the migration system has previously been overemphasised, with much migration taking place between small settlements and some movement from large cities to smaller towns and villages.... The analysis challenges some accepted notions about migration in the past, and contributes to the debate about the extent to which British regions became part of a national economic and social system from the 18th century."

  16. Magnetic declination measurements over European Russia and Siberia in the 18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raspopov, O. M.; Meshcheryakov, V. V.

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents the history of measurements of the geomagnetic field parameters over the territory of Russia in the 18th century derived from archival and literature sources. Topographical mapping of the European territory and neighboring seas of the Russian Empire from the late 17th to the mid 18th century during which magnetic measurements were made was of great importance for determining magnetic declination. The magnetic declination in Siberia and its neighboring seas was measured for the first time during the first expedition of V. Bering in 1728 and then during his second expedition (the Great Northern Expedition) in 1733-1742. Magnetic measurements were carried out along the northern coast of Siberia and in the Bering Sea. The academic group of the expedition performed magnetic declination measurements over southern regions of Siberia (Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Nerchinsk, Yakutsk, etc.) in 1735 and 1736. During the second half of the 18th century, Russian expeditions determined geographical coordinates of the cities of European Russia and carried out magnetic declination measurements for them. During these expeditions Inokhodtsev paid attention to the anomalous magnetic declination in the Kursk region. In his opinion, the anomaly could have been caused by the presence of iron ore.

  17. [With human and divine means: the fight against disease and death in 18th century Alicante].

    PubMed

    Perdiguero Gil, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    The nucleus of this work is the wide spectrum of means available to the inhabitants of the city of Alicante in the 18th century to fight against disease. Alongside healthcare professionals properly trained as physicians, surgeons, barbers or midwives, there were both other healers of heterogeneous types and religious resources. The study considers, in a comprehensive and articulated way, the whole repertoire of therapeutic and healthcare alternatives provided to the inhabitants of Alicante. The interpretation of the results is carried out taking into account the historiographical framework developed in recent years that considers the medical marketplace as an economic and cultural concept.

  18. [Inventing the audience in the 18(th) century. Art and its use].

    PubMed

    Brugère, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    18(th) century philosophers analyzed art through the aesthetic experience of the audience. By contrast, Adam Smith was interested in the moral judgment that an impartial audience may formulate. How can art and morality, the beautiful and the good, be combined into one analytical framework? Art and morality convey non-transcendental values that are intrinsic to human experience. With the aesthetic experience of the audience, art is used, and ultimately depends on the ways that humans relate to works or art and to the beautiful.

  19. [The debate on the generation of imperfect plants in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    18th-century discussions on the generation of imperfect plants were often linked with the question of their position in the natural world, namely as whether they were part of the vegetable or mineral realm. As attested by the work of Joseph Gaertner, Johann Jakob Dillen, Pier Antonio Micheli and René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, as well as of Antonio Vallisneri, and Lazzaro Spallanzani, the different images of nature - continuity and discontinuity - adopted by naturalists influenced their solution to this question.

  20. [The professionalization of preaching in 17(th) and 18 (th) century France].

    PubMed

    Brian, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Starting in the 1630s, in French towns, the rise of sermons gave an increasing group of clerics the possibility to become preachers. This article analyses this process of professionalization. First, it takes a look at a number of long - and sometimes quite profitable - careers of men as preachers. Second, it analyzes the know-how that was then developed for to make and recite the sermon. Finally, the article focuses on the transformations brought about by the increasing importance of written communication during the 18(th) century.

  1. From Flamsteed to Piazzi and Lalande: new standards in 18th century astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequeux, James

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The present high accuracy of stellar positions and proper motions allows us to determine the positional accuracy of old stellar catalogues. This has already been done for the most important catalogues from before the 18th century. Our aim is to extend this study to several 18th century catalogues. Methods: To do this, I studied ten catalogues: those of Flamsteed and Rømer, four catalogues of La Caille, and catalogues of Tobias Mayer, Bradley, Piazzi, and Lalande. A comparison with modern data, mostly from Hipparcos, compiled in the Simbad database of the CDS allowed me to determine the position errors of these catalogues. I also compared the stellar visual magnitudes given in eight of these catalogues with photometric V magnitudes. Results: Thanks to novel instruments, the rms positional accuracy improved from thousands to hundreds of arcsec in older catalogues to less than one minute in that of Flamsteed, and to 2-6 arcsec in the other catalogues I examined. These improvements allowed for the first time relatively accurate proper motions to be determined by 19th century astronomers. The catalogues with some corrections are available in digital form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/567/A26

  2. Displayed dexterity and distorted knowledge: amateurism and precision in late 18th century Spain.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the links between scientific practice and precision both in expert networks and popular literature in the second half 18th century Spain. It will be argued that scientific instruments were used and understood in different ways in these two networks, which required opposing strategies for visualizing the degree and goodness of users' dexterities, thereby fostering the emergence of different collective and individual (epistemic) subjects. I will also argue that these subjects' differences and affinities were constructed around three themes: firstly, the degree of precision needed to establish a correlation between data and the world, or, in other words, the degree of fluidity admitted in connecting material and cultural worlds; secondly, the relevance attributed to body and bod(il)y knowledge in producing reliable data and stabilizing expertise; and thirdly, the weight attributed to opinion in leaning towards ephemeral or lasting data. The first part of the paper looks at the epistemological and political confluences which in late 18th century Spain nurtured the emergence of both a culture of precision and a sphere of public opinion, and to the strained relationship that existed between them. The other three sections explore how Spanish people used different sets of practices to construct different images of themselves as supporters of a moral of precision.

  3. Analyses of Etna Eruptive Activity From 18th Century and Characterization of Flank Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Carlo, P.; Branca, S.; Coltelli, M.

    2003-12-01

    Etna explosive activity has usually been considered subordinate with respect to the effusive eruptions. Nevertheless, in the last decade and overall after the 2001 and 2002 flank eruptions, explosive activity has drawn the attention of the scientific and politic communities owing to the damages that the long-lasting ash fall caused to Sicily's economy. We analyzed the eruptions from the 18th century to find some analogous behavior of Etna in the past. A study of the Etna historical record (Branca and Del Carlo, 2003) evidenced that after the 1727 eruption, there are no more errors in the attribution of the year of the eruption. Furthermore from this time on, the scientific quality of the chronicles allowed us to obtain volcanological information and to estimate the magnitude of the major explosive events. The main goal of this work was to characterize the different typologies of Etna eruptions in the last three centuries. Meanwhile, we have tried to find the possible relationship between the two kinds of activity (explosive and effusive) in order to understand the complexity of the eruptive phenomena and define the short-term behavior of Etna. On the base of the predominance of the eruptive typology (effusive or explosive) we have classified the flank eruptions in three classes: i) Type 1: almost purely effusive; ii) Type 2: the intensity of explosive activity comparable with the effusive; iii) Type 3: almost purely explosive with minor lava effusion (only the 1763 La Montagnola and 2002 eruptions belong to this class). Long-lasting explosive activity is produced by flank eruptions with continuous ash emission and prolonged fallout on the flanks (e.g. 1763, 1811, 1852-53, 1886, 1892, 2001 and 2002 eruptions). At summit craters continuous activity is weaker, whereas the strongest explosive eruptions are short-lived events. Furthermore, from the 18th to 20th century there were several years of intense and discontinuous summit explosive activity, from high strombolian

  4. [Public health services and healthcare workforce in Bakar of the 18th and 19th century].

    PubMed

    Čulina, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    This review article draws on scarce and poorly studied archival information and several published articles to describe the development and organisation of public health services in the town of Bakar over the 18th and 19th century. For a short while at the turn of the 19th century, Bakar established a hospital run by two physicians and one surgeon to treat patients affected by the so called Škrljevo disease, an endemic type of syphilis. As the century went on, the number of healthcare providers increased by two more physicians, four surgeons, and three to six licensed midwives. There was also a town pharmacy, that worked all that time. As a busy port, the town also provided well-organised maritime sanitary services. As its economy changed over the two centuries to come to a halt after an initial boom, which resulted in a severe drop in population from 7600 to 2000 people, public services deteriorated, including public health. Maritime services suffered the hardest blow, while the workforce gradually came down to one or two physicians and surgeons and several midwives.

  5. Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.

    The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milanković on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

  6. Isotopic Ag–Cu–Pb record of silver circulation through 16th–18th century Spain

    PubMed Central

    Desaulty, Anne-Marie; Telouk, Philippe; Albalat, Emmanuelle; Albarède, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Estimating global fluxes of precious metals is key to understanding early monetary systems. This work adds silver (Ag) to the metals (Pb and Cu) used so far to trace the provenance of coinage through variations in isotopic abundances. Silver, copper, and lead isotopes were measured in 91 coins from the East Mediterranean Antiquity and Roman world, medieval western Europe, 16th–18th century Spain, Mexico, and the Andes and show a great potential for provenance studies. Pre-1492 European silver can be distinguished from Mexican and Andean metal. European silver dominated Spanish coinage until Philip III, but had, 80 y later after the reign of Philip V, been flushed from the monetary mass and replaced by Mexican silver. PMID:21606351

  7. To feel what others feel: two episodes from 18th century medicine.

    PubMed

    Justman, Stewart

    2011-06-01

    In the late 18th century two medical fashions--Mesmerism in France and the Perkins 'tractor' in the USA and England--appealed to the principle that a single universal force acts on all of us and is responsible for health and illness. This principle served both fashions well, as it made it all the easier for those who came within their force fields to experience the sort of sensations that other subscribers to the fashion also seemed to feel. The first research on what is now known as the placebo effect was in connection with these two movements. The propensity to feel what we suppose or imagine that others like us feel remains even now one of the channels of the placebo effect.

  8. Auroras Observed in Portugal in Late 18th Century Obtained from Printed and Manuscript Meteorological Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, José M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2005-09-01

    We present a new catalogue of observations of the aurora borealis at Lisbon, i.e., at low-latitudes, in the late 18th century by Jacob Præ torius and Henrique Schulze, two German artillery officers. Dates of 18 auroras compiled by Præ torius and Schulze are compared with those published in other catalogues for that period. The number of annual auroras observed by the two Germans is then compared with two indices of solar activity showing a very good level of consistency between all time series. Finally, we have assessed the number of auroras observed taking into consideration the phase of the lunar cycle and the geomagnetic latitude of Lisbon.

  9. [Vitalism and mechanism: their meanings in the milieu of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Hwang, S I

    1993-01-01

    The views on the life in the early modern period (the 17th and 18th centuries) with their socio-cultural backgrounds and their meanings at that time were discussed in this paper. Those views discussed here were the dualistic, mechanistic one of Rene Descartes (1596-1650), the animistic, vitalistic one of Georg Ernst Stahl (1660-1734), and the monistic, mechanistic one of Julien Offray de la Mettrie (1709-1751). Author stressed that the processes of their view formation were influenced by the wide range of the various political and religious factors as well as the scientific, medical facts and opinions at that time, and that not only the contents of the views but also their historical contexts should be pursued in the study on the medical thoughts.

  10. An analytical Raman spectroscopic study of an important english oil painting of the 18th Century.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; Vandenabeele, Peter; Jehlicka, Jan; Benoy, Timothy J

    2014-01-24

    An opportunity was afforded to analyse pigment specimens from an unrestored oil painting in the style of the English School of the mid-18th Century prior to conservation being undertaken. Raman spectroscopy was adopted to characterise the pigments and indicated the presence of a novel red pigment which was assigned to the complex chromium mineral, hemihedrite, in addition to other interesting materials found in combination. This is the first recorded identification of hemihedrite spectral signals in an art context in a range of mineral pigments that are otherwise typical of this period and some hypotheses are presented to explain its presence based on its occurrence with associated mineral pigments. It is suggested that the presence of powdered glass identified in certain areas of the painting enhanced the reflectivity of the pigment matrix.

  11. Head injuries in the 18th century: the management of the damaged brain.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Jeremy C

    2013-07-01

    The 18th century was the time when trauma neurosurgery began to develop into the modern discipline. Before this, the management had, for the most part, changed little from the days of Hippocrates, Celsus, and Galen. Attention was directed to skull injuries, and the brain was treated as the seat of the rational soul but without other function. Symptoms after trauma were attributed to injuries to the bone and meninges. Following the lead of the Royal Academy of Surgery in Paris, it was accepted from the 1730s that the brain was the seat of symptoms after cranial trauma. During the 18th century, at least 12 surgeons published articles on cranial injury, 6 describing significant clinical series on this topic. They were Henri-François Le Dran (1685-1770) of Paris, Percival Pott (1714-1788) of London, James Hill (1703-1776) from Dumfries, Sylvester O'Halloran (1728-1807) of Limerick (Ireland), William Dease (1750-1798) of Dublin, and John Abernethy (1764-1831) of London. This article analyzes these series. Each individual made a different contribution. It is suggested that the relatively lesser-known James Hill in Scotland demonstrated the greatest understanding of the management of brain trauma and achieved the best results. A product of the Scottish Enlightenment, he adapted his management to his own experience and was not tied to the accepted authorities of his day, but he improved the management of each case following his experience with previous patients. He deserves to be remembered.

  12. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  13. Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, João Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Bárbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Séc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Área de de Investigação de Geo-Ecologia, relatório no 2

  14. The development of forensic medicine in the United Kingdom from the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Eckert, W

    1992-06-01

    Forensic medicine in the United Kingdom includes both forensic pathology and clinical forensic medicine on the living. It began at the end of the 18th century, long after its development in Germany, Italy, France, and other countries in Europe. Initial beginnings were in Scotland, where a program began at the University of Edinburgh with the establishment of a chair in Forensic Medicine by Prof. Andrew Duncan Sr. The development in England began in London's Kings College Medical School with a chair held by Prof. William A. Guy. Later chairs in Forensic Medicine were established in Glasgow, Aberdeen, and in London, where Forensic Medicine was taught at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, Guy's Hospital Medical School, London Hospital Medical School, Charing Cross Hospital Medical School, St. Thomas Hospital Medical School, and St. George's Hospital Medical School. In other cities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, departments were founded in Leeds, Manchester, Cardiff, and Belfast. Many textbooks were prepared during this time by professors from these medical schools and by others working in nonacademic areas. The development of coroner activities and those of the police surgeons is also part of the study of forensic medicine.

  15. Two positive tuberculosis cases in the late Nigrovits family, 18th century, Vác, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szikossy, Ildikó; Pálfi, György; Molnár, Erika; Karlinger, Kinga; Kovács, Balázs K; Korom, Csaba; Schultz, Michael; Schmidt-Schultz, Tyede H; Spigelman, Mark; Donoghue, Helen D; Kustár, Ágnes; Pap, Ildikó

    2015-06-01

    Two mummies of the Hungarian mummy collection from Vác were the subjects of anthropological, paleopathological, radiological, paleomicrobiological, paleohistological and paleoproteomic studies. Both individuals belonged to the same family. The father, József Nigrovits (No 29), died at the age of 55 on the 11th of November 1793; his son, Antal Nigrovits (No 54), died on the 16th of July 1803, at the age of 22. They lived in the 18th century in Vác, a small town in northern Hungary. The macroscopic examination of the son showed a severely deformed neck and back region; the father has no visible mark of any illnesses. As earlier researches showed that tuberculosis was widespread in the community, the etiology of these deformities was examined. The paleomicrobiological results found that both individuals were infected with tuberculosis. Although they suffered from TB, the CT scan data of the bodies and their 3D reconstructions showed no skeletal evidence of tuberculosis. The deformity of the son turned to be a developmental abnormality of unknown origin, but no Pott's gibbus was present.

  16. Analysis of Time Data in Chinese Astronomical Almanacs of the Late 18th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.-W.; Mihn, B.-H.; Ahn, Y. S.; Choi, G.-E.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the time data in Chinese astronomical almanacs of the late 18th century in order to estimate the accuracy of the Shixian calendar. It is known that the calendar was enforced during the period of the Ching dynasty (1664--1912), and several astronomical almanacs using the calendar are preserved in the Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies of Korea; these almanacs cover the years 1772, 1773, 1774, 1780, 1781, 1783, 1785, and 1787. We compiled the times of the new moon, sunrise/sunset, and twenty-four seasonal subdivisions from the almanacs and compared them with the results of modern calculations. As a result, we found that the times of the new moon and twenty-four seasonal subdivisions show average differences of ˜ 3.35 ± 4.43 and ˜ 9.67± 13.24 min, respectively. Regarding he sunrise/sunset time, however, we found that the difference was less than 1 min when we defined the time as the moment that the zenith distance (z) of the Sun is 90°, unlike the modern definition, z=90° 50'. We expect that this study to contribute to the understanding of the accuracy obtained by Shixian calendar in calculations of the movements of celestial bodies.

  17. The "System of Chymists" and the "Newtonian Dream" in Greek-Speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-01-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a "philosophy" of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This…

  18. The Struggle To Survive: Work for Racial Ethnic Women in the 18th- and 19th-Century United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    The work situations of Black, Mexican American, and Chinese immigrant women in 18th- and 19th-century United States are explored. Generally, when engaged in agricultural work, all ethnic people were considered units of labor. However, because the slave owner needed to perpetuate his property, Black women were allowed lower rates of production when…

  19. [Semantics of learned quackery in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Füssel, Marian

    2004-06-01

    In the 17th and 18th century republic of letters the problem of scientific fraud was met with a discourse of charlatanism. Departing from Johann Burchhard Menckes famous treatise on the Charlatanry of the learned the following essay traces how the accusations of academic and scientific misconduct put in terms of 'charlatanry' primarily helped to produce the new species of the erudite 'charlatan'. Facing a growing complexity of scientific culture this new frame of meaning, structured by numerous examples of scientific misconduct offered a new way of orientation in the world of learning. But besides its cognitive impacts the discourse of charlatanry allowed to create symbolic boundaries, which determined decisions upon the affiliation or non affiliation to the new forming scientific community by separating honourable from dishonourable scientific personae. Speaking of charlatanry therefore always implied a social distinction as much as a scientific. The discourses on charlatanry also mirror differentiations within the scientific field. At first dominated by a critique built on courteous or bourgeois values, the scientific field later on developed its own criteria of appraisal like authorship, originality, transparency etc. Attracting the attention of a further growing public sphere, the explicit verbalisation of claims not relating to the value system of a republic of letters primarily concerned with the production and distribution of knowledge finally led up to a more implicit moral economy of science. A change that at a large scale level can be described both as an internalisation of the values of scientific conduct and differentiation between justiciable and unjusticiable transgressions of the norms set up by the scientific community.

  20. Comparing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) techniques in 18th-century yard spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carducci, Christiane M.

    Yards surrounding historical homesteads are the liminal space between private houses and public space, and contain artifactural and structural remains that help us understand how the residents interfaced with the world. Comparing different yards means collecting reliable evidence, and what is missing is just as important as what is found. Excavations can rely on randomly placed 50-cm shovel test pits to locate features, but this can miss important features. Shallow geophysics, in particular ground-penetrating radar (GPR), can be used to identify features and reliably and efficiently collect evidence. GPR is becoming more integrated into archaeological investigations due to the potential to quickly and nondestructively identify archaeological features and to recent advancements in processing software that make these methods more user-friendly. The most efficacious GPR surveys must take into consideration what is expected to be below the surface, what features look like in GPR outputs, the best methods for detecting features, and the limitations of GPR surveys. Man-made landscape features are expected to have existed within yard spaces, and the alteration of these features shows how the domestic economy of the residence changed through time. This study creates an inventory of these features. By producing a standardized sampling method for GPR in yard spaces, archaeologists can quickly map subsurface features and carry out broad comparisons between yards. To determine the most effective sampling method, several GPR surveys were conducted at the 18th-century Durant-Kenrick House in Newton, Massachusetts, using varied line spacing, line direction, and bin size. Examples of the GPR signatures of features, obtained using GPR-Slice software, from the Durant-Kenrick House and similar sites were analyzed. The efficacy of each method was determined based on the number of features distinguished, clarity of the results, and the time involved. The survey at Newton showed that

  1. Musical expressions of life: a look at the 18th and 19th century from a human becoming perspective.

    PubMed

    Jonas-Simpson, Christine

    2004-10-01

    What follows is an exploration of 18th and 19th century music of the Western world through a nursing science lens, specifically that of the human becoming theory. This article was written while I was enrolled in a music history course, which afforded me the opportunity to explore music as musical expressions of life. Rooted in the human becoming philosophical perspective, which focuses on unitary human experience and the quality of human life, I discuss musical expressions of life with examples from various composers throughout the 18th and 19th century. This article concludes with a reflection on musical expressions and their contribution to the enhancement of the quality of human life, a focus of nursing from a human becoming perspective.

  2. [Medical care and environmental hygiene in Mexico City from the 16th through the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M E; Rodríguez-de Romo, A C

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with public health in Mexico City from the 16th to the 18th century. The first part is about sickness and epidemics; the origin of a very high concerned with death rate at that time; general and private hospitals foundations, and about the role of the Church, Medical Board and the Viceroy in Health Care and Preventive Medicine. Medical care was efficient in these aspects. The second part deals with public services concerning public health as a clean environment and streets and collecting garbage, problems that caused sickness according to the ideas of those days. A clear environment was good until the second half of the 18th century. The paper is divided as follows: introduction; sickness and epidemics; medical care; actions against epidemics; public services, and final commentary.

  3. MOSQUITO VECTOR CONTROL AND BIOLOGY IN LATIN AMERICA- An 18TH SYMPOSIUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 18th Annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 74th Annual Meeting in Sparks, NV, in March 2008. The principal objective, as for the previous 17 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control speci...

  4. Analysis of 18th-19th century's historical samples of Iranian ink and paper belonging to the Qajar dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agha-Aligol, D.; Khosravi, F.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Baghizadeh, A.; Oliaiy, P.; Shokouhi, F.

    2007-11-01

    Thirteen historical Iranian manuscripts belonging to the Qajar dynasty (18th-19th Century BC) were investigated by micro-PIXE technique using Van de Graaff accelerator in the Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute in Iran. The aim of the present work has mainly been to determine the elemental composition of different inks and papers. In addition, the effects due to the variation of thickness and texture of the paper were simultaneously measured with the off-axis STIM technique. Elemental maps by micro-PIXE were compared to photographs taken in visible light.

  5. Observations of planetary transits made in Ireland in the 18th Century and the development of astronomy in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, C. J.

    2005-04-01

    We review the small number of known observations of planetary transits made in Ireland in the 18th century with particular reference to the 1769 observations of Venus by Charles Mason. Though inconclusive, there is evidence to suggest that planetary transits were instrumental in the foundation of at least one of the principal observatories in Ireland. In addition, we note the close personal involvement and the contributions of Nevil Maskelyne, the prime mover of the UK 1769 Transit observations, in the design and equipment of these observatories.

  6. Bone trace element pattern in an 18th century population sample of Tenerife (Canary Islands): comparison with a prehistoric one.

    PubMed

    Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Gonzalez-Reimers, E; Velasco-Vazquez, J; Barros-Lopez, N; Galindo-Martin, L

    1998-10-01

    We have determined bone strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), and zinc (Zn) content in 24 samples belonging to adult individuals who died toward the end of the 18th century and were interred in a church's floor on the island of Tenerife, comparing the results with those obtained in 14 prehistoric samples of the same island and also with those of 7 modern controls. No differences were observed between the two ancient groups, which showed higher bone strontium and barium than the modern sample, and a slightly lower Ba/Sr ratio, thus pointing to consumption of marine sources.

  7. [The « techno-aesthetics » of smithian economy the value and function of objects in 18(th) Century England].

    PubMed

    Hilaire-Pérez, Liliane

    2012-01-01

    From The Theory of Moral Sentiments to his essay on The Nature of that Imitation Which Takes Place in What Are Called the Imitative Arts, Adam Smith offered a vision of aesthetics combining beauty and utility. An echo of exchange value as the "ability to buy other goods" - the "power" to organize and achieve one's goals - his definition of beauty was premised on the "aptness" of things, that is, the fact that they were also useful. Sustained by the commodification of products, a kind of "techno-aesthetics" thus emerged in England in the 18(th) century, one that implied designing, adapting, reducing and showcasing the means of production.

  8. The historical archaeology of the 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community of Nevis, British West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Michelle M.

    2000-11-01

    This is an historical archaeological examination of a 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies. Unlike earlier archaeological studies of the Jewish Caribbean Diaspora that focused on single sites, this investigation used a community-wide approach to elucidate the daily experience of Sephardic Jews within the colonial Caribbean. This project included an archaeological excavation at the purported location of the community's synagogue, an electrical resistivity survey of the surviving cemetery, the construction of a map of property ownership in 18th-century Charlestown, and archival research. This study was carded out within a multiscalar and contextual framework that emphasized the importance of understanding the diaspora that brought the Jews to the West Indies, the development of the colonial Caribbean, and the surrounding environs of the port city of Charlestown, Nevis. The archaeological analysis of the supposed site of the synagogue proved that it was in fact that of a late 18th-century townhouse, but the associated land record research revealed the actual location of the community's former synagogue. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the physical layout of colonial-period Charlestown from the land records indicated the presence of a distinct Jewish quarter in the undesirable southern portion of the town. Evidence from the public records of Nevis and the social history of the members of the Jewish population unveiled external social and political pressures placed upon the Sephardim as well as internal religious and ethnic ties dig bound the community together. It is argued in closing that the archival evidence, in conjunction with the continued presence of a clustered settlement pattern like that of European Jewish communities during the medieval period, indicates that the Jews of the Caribbean were not fully integrated socially or politically into British colonial society. This examination of the Nevis community

  9. Anthropometric comparison of portraits of Korean and Japanese beauty in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Ho

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study is to elaborate comparative portraits of Korean and Japanese beauty in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Six portraits of beauty in the Korean Joseon Dynasty (early 19th century) and 5 in Japanese Edo Dynasty (late 18th century) were analyzed. Twenty anthropometric items were applied to the measure of the features on each portrait and 18 proportional indices of the face were calculated. Among the 18 indices, Korean and Japanese beauty did not show any significant differences in 13, but in 5: 1) the ratio of eye fissure to intercanthal distance was greater in Japanese beauty; 2) eye inclination was greater in Japanese beauty; 3) the ratio of nasal width to intercanthal distance was greater in Japanese beauty; 4) the ratio of nasal and facial width was greater in Korean beauty; and 5) the ratio of vermilion size to mouth width was greater in Japanese beauty. It is assumed that Korean had narrower eye fissure, lower eye inclination, wider nasal ala, and thinner lip than what Japanese craved during that era.

  10. Meta-analysis of teeth from European populations before and after the 18th century reveals a shift towards increased prevalence of caries and tooth loss.

    PubMed

    Müller, Antonia; Hussein, Kais

    2017-01-01

    Based on single studies, it has been hypothesised that Europeans have suffered less frequently from caries before the 18th century than after the 18th century and that females have higher caries prevalence, but systematic European-wide overviews are sparse. We collected published data on dental diseases (publication between 1981 and 2015 with reports on 29 cohorts with 4998 individuals and a total of 85817 teeth). Meta-analyses revealed that, over several hundred years, including the post-18th century era, Europeans had relatively constant frequencies of caries and ante-mortem tooth loss, but since the 18th century, the mean frequencies of these dental diseases increased (each p<0.05). Tooth loss correlated with caries and odontogenic abscesses (each p<0.05). Although the mean caries and ante-mortem tooth loss frequencies increased since the 18th century, there are overlaps with many pre-18th century cohorts. In addition, in contrast to previous hypotheses, no general increase of caries prevalence in females could in fact be verified. It is likely that changes in nutrition (more sugar) and dental health (possibly higher frequency of tooth extraction) could be the underlying factors which led to this minor to moderate shift of dental disease frequencies in Europe.

  11. Detection of a Tumor Suppressor Gene Variant Predisposing to Colorectal Cancer in an 18th Century Hungarian Mummy.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Michal; Hershkovitz, Israel; Sklan, Ella H; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila; Pap, Ildikó; Szikossy, Ildikó; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are common and strongly associated with the development of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. While extensively studied in modern populations, reports on visceral tumors in ancient populations are scarce. To the best of our knowledge, genetic characterization of mutations associated with colorectal cancer in ancient specimens has not yet been described. In this study we have sequenced hotspots for mutations in the APC gene isolated from 18th century naturally preserved human Hungarian mummies. While wild type APC sequences were found in two mummies, we discovered the E1317Q missense mutation, known to be a colorectal cancer predisposing mutation, in a large intestine tissue of an 18th century mummy. Our data suggests that this genetic predisposition to cancer already existed in the pre-industrialization era. This study calls for similar investigations of ancient specimens from different periods and geographical locations to be conducted and shared for the purpose of obtaining a larger scale analysis that will shed light on past cancer epidemiology and on cancer evolution.

  12. Detection of a Tumor Suppressor Gene Variant Predisposing to Colorectal Cancer in an 18th Century Hungarian Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Michal; Hershkovitz, Israel; Sklan, Ella H.; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila; Pap, Ildikó; Szikossy, Ildikó; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are common and strongly associated with the development of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. While extensively studied in modern populations, reports on visceral tumors in ancient populations are scarce. To the best of our knowledge, genetic characterization of mutations associated with colorectal cancer in ancient specimens has not yet been described. In this study we have sequenced hotspots for mutations in the APC gene isolated from 18th century naturally preserved human Hungarian mummies. While wild type APC sequences were found in two mummies, we discovered the E1317Q missense mutation, known to be a colorectal cancer predisposing mutation, in a large intestine tissue of an 18th century mummy. Our data suggests that this genetic predisposition to cancer already existed in the pre-industrialization era. This study calls for similar investigations of ancient specimens from different periods and geographical locations to be conducted and shared for the purpose of obtaining a larger scale analysis that will shed light on past cancer epidemiology and on cancer evolution. PMID:26863316

  13. Metallographic study of articles of the Kamensk iron foundry and iron works produced in the 18th-20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gizhevski, B. A.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Naumov, S. V.; Egorova, L. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Results have been presented for studies of the microstructure and chemical composition of a number of articles made of iron and cast iron at the Kamensk plant, which cover the period from the start of the production of iron on the territory of the city of Kamensk-Ural'skii at the turn of the 17th-18th centuries to the beginning of the 20th century. Differences in the composition of the Kamensk cast iron and modern grades of foundry cast iron have been established. Possible sources of technological difficulties and production waste at the Kamensk plant have been revealed. The potential of metallographic studies for the attribution of historical articles made of ferrous metals are shown.

  14. [Images of nursing mothers in France, 18th and 19th centuries].

    PubMed

    Morel, Marie-France

    2010-01-01

    As they became more widely adopted in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century France, wet-nursing and wet-nurses appeared prominently in the iconography of the time. Such images turned negative as criticism against “mercenary breast-feeding” mounted. Over the nineteenth century in particular, wet-nurses were heavily featured in press caricatures: they were being mocked while described as simple-minded, dumb, greedy creatures, with proclivities ranging from a taste for garish attire, to sexual appetites fuelling trysts in public gardens with soldiers on leave. A representative sample of such images will be selected to highlight the codes and values underpinning this mockery.

  15. [History of leprosy in Reunion Island from the beginning of the 18th century until today].

    PubMed

    Gaüzere, B A; Aubry, P

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the history of leprosy in Reunion from the early eighteenth century, which long paralleled the slave trace. Lepers were confined to a lazaretto and treated with herbs. Father Raimbault, "doctor" and chaplain of the lepers in the middle of the twentieth century, is still honored today. The improvement in living standards and the use of sulfones finally resulted in the control of leprosy. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2011, an average of three new cases per year were detected among a population of 800,000 inhabitants.

  16. The Lawyers in the 16th-18th Century's Germany: A Historical Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranieri, Filippo

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the sociological backgrounds of German lawyers of the Holy Roman Empire through an analysis of the dissertations and disputations written during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Focuses on their university education, family circumstances, and careers. Creates an information data bank to carry out the project. Predicts further…

  17. Raja Sawai Jai Singh II: An 18th Century Medieval Astronomer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanpied, William A.

    1975-01-01

    Offers a description of the instrumentation and methods utilized in this attempt at naked eye astronomy one century after the invention of the telescope. Also examines the motives which resulted in the implementation of an antiquated mode of observation. (Author/CP)

  18. Electrical treatment of spinal cord injuries in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    PubMed

    Silver, John R; Weiner, M-F

    2013-05-01

    Two centuries ago, electricity was being used for the treatment of paraplegia and trials were taking place in France. This study aims to identify cases of traumatic paraplegia treated with electricity in the 19th century in order to assess the therapeutic benefit. Only four such cases were identified, none with a complete transection of the spinal cord since these patients would have died from pressure sores and urinary tract infections. The personalities involved, William Gull, William Erb, Guillaume Duchenne and Cyril Henry Golding Bird are portrayed and contemporaneous views on electrotherapy analysed. While the four patients apparently benefited from the treatment, the lack of follow-up and the incomplete data prevented a definitive conclusion on the therapeutic value of electrical treatment in traumatic paraplegia.

  19. [Sanitary state of the ships of the Baltic fleet and development of the navy hygiene in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Kostyuk, A V

    2015-09-01

    Sanitary and hygienic state of the Baltic navy ships in the 18th century was considered as unsatisfactory due to inappropriate habitation conditions answering hygienic requirements. The reason for the low ship habitation of that time was limited technological possibilities of the sail shipbuilding, lack of appropriate labour, and life and rest conditions for navy servicemen. In fact, wooden ships were not suitable for life activity of the navy crew, but contributed to disease increase. Because of the rapid development of the' navy hygiene and improvement of shipbuilding technologies, sanitary and hygienic state of local navy ships had became improving. With a glance on recommendations, developed by physicians D.P.Sinopeus and A.G.Bakherakht, were made following improvements: were implemented ventilators on ships, daily fumigation of ships rooms, monitoring of personal hygiene.

  20. [German-Hungarian medical relationships during the Enlightenment; including an 18th century work on inoculation against plague].

    PubMed

    Schultheisz, E

    2001-09-01

    The influence of German science and medicine on the development of Hungarian medicine in the age of Enlightenment has been extraordinary strong. Many Hungarian medical students stayed in German medical faculties. The medical interrelationships between Germany and Hungary in the 18th century are discussed in an overview according to the following dimensions: education of protestant Hungarian medical students at German >Aufklaerungs-Universitaeten<, practical and theoretical resonance, membership of scientific societies, personal contacts and correspondence. Outstanding personalities of this area were Daniel Fischer, István Weszprémi, Abraham Vater. Special attention is given to a new idea: inoculation against plague was first described by A. Vater in his work Blattern-Beltzen (1721). Thirty years later I. Weszprémi published his original conception - independently from Vater - in the Tentamen de inoculanda peste (1755).

  1. [Development of animal husbandry in Groningen in the 18th and 19th century; a broad outline].

    PubMed

    Paping, R F

    2001-01-01

    This overview is mainly focussed on the clay area forming the northern half of the province. It is the wealthiest and most characteristic part, being cultured since the Middle Ages as testified by the many churches that even small villages were able to construct. About 1700 the province of Groningen enjoyed already a modern economy, fitting in with that of the other coastal areas of Friesland, Zeeland and Holland (the last mentioned was the richest region of the world in the 17th and 18th century). As aspects of modernity at that time can be considered: 1) the use of modern agricultural methods with higher yields per hectare and higher milk yields per cow than produced in the land provinces on the sandy soils; 2) Agriculture was aimed at earning money by selling of hte products. In opposition to the farmers in the land provinces, who mainly produced for subsistence farming, the farmers in the coastal areas produced for the trade; 3) A high degree of specialization was found in the rural areas. 30-40% of the families had own farms, 25% of the population were labourers, owing only small pieces of land and the rest of the working population had occupations outside agriculture (craftmen, shopkeepers, shipmasters, merchants etc.). Whereas on the sandy soils practically every family owned a farm, be it mostly a very small one. After reviewing the changes in the distribution of land in use of the production of fieldcrops or for meadows-always in function of the market value of the products-and after a discussion of type of cattle husbandry (breeding, fattening, dairying) it is concluded that a relative decrease of the importance of cattle husbandry in the clay region during the 18th - 19th century can be observed. Intensification of land use had a positive effect on crop-production. The much-heard opinion that the cattle plague epizootic of 1768-1786 caused a transition in land use through a switch from animal husbandry to arable farming, is not held by the author

  2. [The historian's competence tested by authority: on an academic debate of the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Schandeler, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The debate which took place in the 1720s at the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Letters on the possibility or impossibility of understanding the history of the first centuries of Rome is generally interpreted to be less of a debate than an important epistemological clarification. A contextualization which takes into account the political stakes of the debate allows one to understand that the debate was the beginning of a larger process of the autonomisation of the field of historical studies, not only from the perspective of disciplinary divides, but also in relation to monarchal power.

  3. [The origins of the Pavilion Lazaretto: quarantine architecture between the 18th and 19th centuries].

    PubMed

    Bonastra, Quim

    2008-01-01

    The model of pavilion lazaretto was built above the scientific basis established during the hospital reform process held in France on the lasts decades of the eighteenth century. The morphological solutions adopted for the new quarantine taxonomy has not been given by the example borrowed by the new typology of hospital as resulted in this discussion, but by existing quarantine and detention facilities in general. In this paper we will analyse all factors that have influenced in the configuration of this model of lazarettos.

  4. [Flemish psychiatry from the middle ages to the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Van Renynghe de Voxvrie, G

    1993-01-01

    Psychiatric care or the care of the mentally ill is very ancient. However, psychiatry is only getting a part of medicine from the end of the XVIIIth Century on. Flemish psychiatric care means care for mental disturbed people in our Flemish countries; also we attend to the influences between opinions from stranger and Flemish physicians, philosophers and humanists. In the Middle Ages popular medicine, "healers" and priests interfere with the practice of the rare contemporary physicians and surgeons. Pilgrimage was the meeting-place for popular medicine, medical and religious acting. In Antwerp, Brugge, Ghent, the first hospices, hospitals and asylums arose. Geel got very well known as a unique centre of family care for crazy people. Mental disease was known as phrenesis (madness), melancholia, mania, epilepsy, rabies. In this period the possibilities of healing remained extremely limited. The Renaissance period was one of Humanism and Reform. The humanists developed a new image of humans. More, Erasmus and Vives were most critical against medieval philosophy and charged the medieval irrational thinking. Vives influenced medical, psychological and psychiatric thinking of his Flemish contemporaries. Also we can talk about the rise of Flemish humanistic medicine. For the Renaissance doctor the concept of passions of the soul as constituting disease states, treatable by opposite passions, set the stage for the consideration of affective disorders themselves as species of madness, whereas previously, madness was seen as a disorder of reason. Halfway the XVIIth Century arose what can be seen as the first biological revolution. The discovery by Harvey of the circulation in a closed system meant a sudden revolution of the Galenic scheme and introduced new ways for the physiology. The Flemish doctor J. B. van Helmont spent a long time to the reform of the medical art. His system was a prefiguration of actual functional affections, symptomatic drug therapy and talk therapy

  5. Food on foot: long-distance trade in slaughter oxen between Denmark and the Netherlands (14th-18th century).

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, W; Koolmees, P

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a short review of the long-distance trade in slaughter oxen in Northwest Europe. The long-term development of the trade is described against the social-economic background of the production and consumption areas. In the 14th century, the Danes obtained the right to sell cattle in certain Dutch cities. From 1500 onwards, the export of oxen from Denmark and the adjacent duchy of Schleswig-Holstein increased considerably. The export reached its peak in the first quarter of the 17th century; registered export in 1612 amounted to more than 52.000 oxen over land and, in 1624, about 10.000 oxen over sea. Part of that export was destined for the Dutch market. Protectionist tax measures taken by the Dutch government and the outbreaks of rinderpest put an end to the regular ox trade in the first half of the 18th century. By decree, local authorities tried to prevent the spread of contagious animal diseases. The history of international cattle trade and hauling, however, indicates that economic motives largely outweighed animal welfare issues. Thus, in addition to addressing the logistics of the trade, this paper also addresses veterinary aspects and animal welfare issues related to the transport of cattle.

  6. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Masucci, A Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries.

  7. [General practice-oriented forms of education of the 18th century. On the 250th anniversary of the birth of Johann Friedrich Gottlieb Goldhagen (1742-1788)].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1993-02-01

    Widely differing conditions applied to practice-oriented medical teaching at universities in the various German principalities or territorial states in the 18th century. Initially, the institutions used by professors as "collegium clinicum" belonged either to foundations or were being run on a private basis. It was only in the second half of the 18th century that these institutions became state-supervised, with the inclusion of the discipline of surgery. The results of such reorganization are demonstrated, taking Halle and the work done by Johann Friedrich Gottlieb Goldhagen as examples.

  8. (Re)Constructions of Etymology of the Term "Electricity" in French German and Modern Greek Textbooks of Physics of 18th-19th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    The different and contrasting versions of the etymology of the term "electricity" in Modern Greek textbooks of Physics of the 18th and 19th century, which are influenced by French and German textbooks, are not mere (re)constructions that serve the didactic purposes and objectives of their authors. They are (in)directly related to the social and…

  9. Humeral cross-sectional morphology from 18th century Quebec prisoners of war: Limits to activity reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elizabeth

    2005-03-01

    This study uses measures of cross-sectional robusticity and asymmetry (based on humeral areal and inertial cross-sectional components) to test a prediction from bone remodeling theory that a physically active 18th century Quebec prisoner of war sample (N = 25) should have more robust and asymmetrical humeri than a nonphysically active 20th century New Mexico suburbanite sample (N = 27). Narrative accounts document that prisoners of war engaged in labor-intensive activities, and these activities were confirmed by observations of osteoarthritis and other pathologies. The suburbanite sample, for the most part, did not engage in such activities. The prisoners had higher levels of pathology than the suburbanites (e.g., 80% vs. 22% osteoarthritis; F = 17.95, P < 0.01). For robusticity, the populations did not differ significantly in total area, cortical area, moment areas of inertia about the mediolateral plane, or polar moment area of inertia. The Quebec prison sample did have significantly higher values for moment areas of inertia about the anteroposterior plane. For asymmetry, the populations did not differ in any values (total area, cortical area, moment areas of inertia about the mediolateral plane, moment areas of inertia about the anteroposterior plane, or polar moment of inertia). Thus, examinations of cross-sectional robusticity and asymmetry failed to conclusively confirm the hypothesis that intensive labor leads to changes in humeral morphology. Possible explanations for the lack of differences are discussed, such as poor diet impeding bone remodeling. Nevertheless, the one significant finding suggests that cross-sectional shape is more useful in reconstructing activity patterns than amount of bone in a cross section. Results from this study join those from other recent investigations to suggest that additional controls are required before cross-sectional differences may be confidently attributed to activity patterns.

  10. The first Finnish malariologist, Johan Haartman, and the discussion about malaria in 18th century Turku, Finland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    After the Great Northern War in 1721, Sweden ceased to be an important military power. Instead, the kingdom concentrated on developing science. Swedish research got international fame with names as Carolus Linnaeus, Pehr Wargentin and Anders Celsius. Medical research remained limited and malaria was common especially in the coastal area and along the shores of the big lakes. Already in the beginning of the 18th century Swedish physicians recommended Peruvian bark as medication and they also emphasized that bleeding or blood-letting a malaria patient was harmful. Although malaria was a common disease in the kingdom, the situation was worst in the SW-part of Finland which consisted of the town of Turku and a large archipelago in the Baltic. The farmers had no opportunity to get modern healthcare until Johan Haartman was appointed district physician in 1754. To improve the situation he wrote a medical handbook intended for both the farmers and for persons of rank. Haartman's work was first published 1759 and he discussed all the different cures and medications. His aim was to recommend the best ones and warn against the harmful. His first choice was Peruvian bark, but he knew that the farmers could not afford it. Haartman was appointed professor in medicine at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1765. The malaria situation in Finland grew worse in the 1770's and Haartman analysed the situation. He found the connection between the warm summers and the spring epidemics next year. In a later thesis, Haartman analysed the late summer/early autumn malaria epidemics in the archipelago. Althouh Haartman did not know the connection between malaria and the vector, he gave astute advice and encouraged the farmers to build their cottages in windy places away from the shallow bays in which the Anopheles females hatched. Haartman died in 1788. After his death malaria research in Turku declined. His medical handbook would not be replaced until 1844. PMID:21324104

  11. Women's translations of scientific texts in the 18th century: a case study of Marie-Anne Lavoisier.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    In the 18th century, many outstanding translations of scientific texts were done by women. These women were important mediators of science. However, I would like to raise the issue that the 'selection,' which is the process by which intellectual women chose to conduct translation works, and those 'selections' made by male translators, would not be made at the same level. For example, Émilie du Châtelet (1706-1749), the only French translator of Newton's "Principia," admitted her role as participating in important work, but, still, she was not perfectly satisfied with the position. For du Châtelet, the role as a translator was only an option under the current conditions that a female was denied the right to be a creator by society. In the case of Marie-Anne Lavoisier (1743-1794), like du Châtelet, we find an acute feeling in her mind that translation was not the work of creators. Because of her respect toward creative geniuses and her knowledge about the practical situation and concrete results of scientific studies, the translation works done by Marie-Anne Lavoisier were excellent. At the same time, the source of this excellence appears paradoxical at a glance: this excellence of translation was related closely with her low self-estimation in the field of science. Hence, we should not forget the gender problem that is behind such translations of scientific works done by women in that era. Such a possibility was a ray of light that was grasped by females, the sign of a gender that was eliminated from the center of scientific study due to social systems and norms and one of the few valuable opportunities to let people know of her own existence in the field of science.

  12. The ``System of Chymists'' and the ``Newtonian dream'' in Greek-speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-06-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a “philosophy” of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This “philosophical” chemistry was not based on the existence of any academic institutions, it was focused on the ontology of principles and forces governing the analysis/synthesis of matter and formulated two didactic traditions. The one, named “the system of chymists”, close to the Boylean/Cartesian tradition, accepted, contrary to Aristotelianism, the five “chymical” principles and also the analytical ideal, but the “chymical” principles were not under a conceptual and experimental investigation, as they were in Europe. Also, a crucial issue for this tradition remained the “mechanical” principles which were under the influence of the metaphysical nature of the Aristotelian principles. The other, close to the Boylean/Newtonian tradition, was the integrated presentation of the Newtonian “dream”, which maintained a discursive attitude with reference to the “chemical attractions”-“chemical affinities” and actualised the mathematical atomism of Boscovich, according to which the elementary texture of matter could be causally explained within this complex architecture of mathematical “ punkta”. In this tradition also coexisted, in a discursive synthesis, the “chemical element” of Lavoisier and the arguments of the new theory and its opposition to the phlogiston theory, but the “chemical affinities” were under the realm of the “physical element” as “metaphysical point”.

  13. Towards a daily weather type classification for the alpine region back to the late 18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocen, R.; Brönnimann, S.; Breda, L.; Spadin, R.

    2010-09-01

    Synoptic weather type classifications for the alpine region go back to the 1950s. The aim of such a combination of various meteorological elements over a certain area is to better understand atmospheric circulation and weather events and to provide a basis for long-term weather forecasts. For the analyses of climate change an investigation of a change in the atmospheric circulation patterns is of high interest. Such a classification is based on high temporal resolution (subdaily) meteorological information on different parameters. For Switzerland, three long (~250 yrs) historical time series (Basel, Geneva, Gr. St. Bernhard) that were hitherto available in the form of monthly means only have recently been digitized (in cooperation with MeteoSwiss) on a subdaily scale. The digitized time series contain subdaily data (varies from 2-6 daily measurements) on temperature, precipitation/snow height, pressure and humidity, and subdaily descriptions on wind direction, wind speeds and cloud cover. Based on different combinations of the parameters pressure, wind direction and wind speed, a weather type classification can be performed back to the late 18th century. With information on absolute pressure height, tendencies and gradients, as well as changes in wind direction and wind speed, typical circulation patterns can be expressed and subsequently weather types for the alpine region classified. For Switzerland Schüepp's "Alpenwetterstatistik", which is often used for daily weather type classification in the alpine region, contains daily assignments to weather types for the last 50 years. With a probabilistic approach daily weather types can be assigned, based on centralized weather types of the "Alpenwetterstatistik". For the analysis of temperature and precipitation anomalies of the year without a summer (1816) in Switzerland, such weather type classifications based on pressure and wind were already conducted and applied. Daily weather types for a 20 year reference period

  14. [Medicine and religion in Spanish anti-superstition discourse of the 16th to 18th centuries: a battle for hegemony].

    PubMed

    Campagne, F A

    2000-01-01

    The object of this research is the study of the different kinds of relationships between medicine and religion that appear in the Spanish anti-superstition discourse from the 16th to the 18th century. Despite the relationship of alliance and collaboration between the two professional groups proposed by the Spanish theologians in their essays, situations of conflict and mutual distrust could also arise. The professional physician could be an ally of the Christian priest but also a dangerous rival.

  15. Flood hazard and a rapidly growing capital in the floodplain: Social response on major 18th-century Danube floods in Pest (East-Budapest)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Due to its floodplain location, Pest was especially prone to damages caused by great flood events. Before water regulation works, the greatest flood events, and the highest rate of destruction occurred during ice jam floods. Whereas in the first half of the 18th century Pest is restricted to the medieval downtown located on a higher terrain (Danube terrace), from the mid 18th century onwards the rapidly growing population established suburbs around the downtown in the lower-lying flood plain. Thus, while in the first half of the century floods were more dangerous for the harvest in the agricultural lands, in the second half of the century at the same place suburbs, urban areas with thousands of inhabitants were prone to the same danger. In the first half of the century at least three particularly large flood events, in 1712, 1732 and 1744, caused increasing problems in the close vicinity of the town (and its lands), the second half of the century - as part of a climatic anomaly (Maldá) famous of its weather extremes - was characterised by two extreme (in 1775 and 1799), at least two larger (1789 and 1795) and some more, medium-sized ice jam floods. While in terms of damaged houses the loss was only some dozens in the early part of the century, several hundreds of houses - actually, complete suburbs were erased by floods in 1775 and 1799. In the poster presentation a series of known damaging 18th-century floods, occurred at Pest, is presented, the short-term impacts (e.g. damages), and medium-, long-term administrative responses as well as related long-term landscape changes influenced by floods and flood protection are discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to present the main reasons why in the 18th century these great ice jam floods caused much greater damages (e.g. percentage of collapsed houses in suburbs) in Pest protected by dams than, for example, in the Buda suburbs with no dams, partly also located in high flood-risk areas, in the immediate

  16. [Genealogy of the Books of Practica medicinae in Europe before the End of 18th Century: From the Origin to the Disappearance].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2015-09-01

    The Practica medicinae represented the books written in Europe before the end of 18th century that dealt with individual deseases. In total, 100 Practica books, written by 95 authors, were collected and divided into four periods from the early 11th to the end of 18th century. The first Practica book was written at the Salernitan medical school on the basis of ancient medical books in the basic style, dealing with regional deseases arranged in "a capite ad calcem" manner, as well as with the fevers. The basic style comprised a majority in the first period and decreased gradually, becoming a minority in the 3rd and 4th periods. Sennert's practica was the largest and it elaborated with precise construction. The additional categories, such as female, children, and surgical deseases increased in the later periods. Those written in non-basic style based on pathogenesis or in alphabetical order also increased in the later periods. The practica books changed slightly and gradually, indicating the essential consistency of the concepts of diseases in these periods.

  17. A brief history of the changing occupations and demographics of coleopterists from the 18th through the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Elias, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Systematic entomology flourished as a branch of Natural History from the 1750s to the end of the nineteenth century. During this interval, the "era of Heroic Entomology," the majority of workers in the field were dedicated amateurs. This article traces the demographic and occupational shifts in entomology through this 150-year interval and into the early twentieth century. The survey is based on entomologists who studied beetles (Coleoptera), and who named sufficient numbers of species to have their own names abbreviated by subsequent taxonomists. In the eighteenth century, 27 entomologists achieved this level of prominence, of whom 37% were academics, 19% were doctors, 11% had private incomes, 19% were clergymen, and 8% were government officials. Many of those with private incomes were members of the European aristocracy, and all but one were European men. The nineteenth century list included 192 entomologists, of whom 17% were academics, 16% were museum curators, 2% were school teachers, 15% were doctors, 6% were military men, 7% were merchants, 2% were government entomologists, 6% had private incomes, 5% were clergymen, 5% were government officials, and 4% were lawyers. The demographics of entomology shifted dramatically in the nineteenth century. Whereas many of the noteworthy entomologists of the eighteenth century were German, Swedish, or French, in the nineteenth century, many more European countries are represented, and almost one-fifth of the noteworthy entomologists were from the United States. The nineteenth century list, like the eighteenth century list, contains no women. By the twentieth century, 63% of 178 noteworthy systematic entomologists were paid professionals, teaching entomology courses in universities, or studying insect taxonomy in museums and government-sponsored laboratories. Only one person on the twentieth century list had a private income, but women (ten individuals) were included on the list for the first time.

  18. GRANTING A LICENCE FOR OPENING A PHARMACY IN BOLOGNA DURING ACTIVITY OF THE BOLOGNESE ARTE DE' SPEZIALI (13TH - 18TH CENTURY).

    PubMed

    Oszajca, Paulina; Bela, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the main changes in legislation concerning granting the licenses for opening a new pharmacy in Bologna in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period. The organization of all traders, including apothecaries, was subordinated, as almost everywhere in Italy, to the Guilds. In the 2nd half of 16th century the Arte de' Speziali of Bologna came under the jurisdiction of the Collegio di Medicina, leading to disagreements between the two corporations. Giovanni Baldi, in his Notizie storiche su la farmacia bolognese (Bologna, 1955) mentioned one of these controversies, dating on the second half of 18th century. The Authors present this controversy basing on original documents from Archivio di Stato di Bologna.

  19. [The past, education and science. Félix Vicq d'Azyr and the history of medicine in the18th century].

    PubMed

    Mandressi, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    As a result of a process initiated by the end of the 1 7th century, in the second half of the 18th century the history of medicine became an autonomous branch of the medical knowledge. The uses of the past were no longer those which prevailed in the Renaissance times, and the inherited knowledge played no more a significant role in the production of active medical knowledge. The ideas of the French anatomist and doctor Félix Vicq d'Azyr (1748-1794) on the history of medicine represent an original synthesis of the new frames of historical thought, from a theoretical and methodological point of view as well as in regard with the institutional and pedagogical functions of medical history. Vicq d'Azyr was the first, in fact, to assign to what he viewed as an independent discipline a specific place as a new chair in medical education.

  20. Plant phenological records in northern Finland since the 18th century as retrieved from databases, archives and diaries for biometeorological research.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Lappalainen, Hanna; Gregow, Hilppa

    2013-05-01

    Plant phenological data from northern Finland, compiled from several sources, were examined as potential biometeorological indicators of climate change since the 18th century. A common feature of individual series was their sporadic nature. In addition to waning enthusiasm, wartime hardships and crop failures had caused gaps in recording observations during the 18th and 19th centuries. The present study's challenge was to combine separate records, as retrieved from several historical archives and personal diaries, into a single continuous series. To avoid possible biases due to the variability of data availability each year, each phenomenon-specific mean series was transformed into normalized site-specific index series. These series were compared to each other and to a regional instrumental temperature series (years 1802-2011). The inter-phenomena correlations were high. Moreover, a strong biometeorological response of the phenological series, most especially to monthly mean temperature in May, and seasonally to the April through June temperatures, was identified. This response focused on slightly later spring months compared to the responses in an earlier study conducted for southern Finland. The findings encouraged us to compute a total phenological index series as an average of all available phenomenon-specific index series for northern Finland. The earliest phenological springs were found as a cluster in the recent end of the record, whereas the anomalously-late phenological spring could be found through the centuries. This finding could indicate that potential future warming could result in an earlier onset of phenological springs (i.e. as experienced by the plants), with a remaining possibility of late phenological springs. To conclude, it was shown that the indices are reliable biometeorological indicators of the April through June temperature variations and thus of the climate variability in the region.

  1. [Military, sailors and the sick poor: contribution to the history of the San Juan de Dios Hospital in Cartagena de Indias (18th century)].

    PubMed

    Echeverri, Adriana María Alzate

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the history of the San Juan de Dios Hospital in Cartagena de Indias, at the end of the 18th century. Its activities and evolution cannot be understood unless they are analyzed within the context of the Bourbon sanitary reforms. it was precisely at that time when these reforms were being implemented in Nueva Granada. One of the goals of the reforms was to improve the health of the population in order to discipline the vassals, to promote the growth of the workforce and to increase the Crown's wealth. The text reviews different aspects of the institution, and how it operated. It examines the budget, its expenses, and the dynamics of the hospital population and of its employees. In doing so, it intends to explain what the hospital offered to the city's various social groups.

  2. In naming the dead: Autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR typing on human skeletal remains from an 18th/19th century aristocratic crypt in Gallspach, Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Reinhard; Renhart, Silvia; Gruber, Heinz; Kli Mesch, Wolfgang; Neuhuber, Franz; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ancient DNA analyses have shown to be a powerful tool in the joint transdisciplinary assessment of archaeological records involving human remains. In this study we set out to identify single inhumations by synoptically evaluating the historical, archaeological, anthropological and molecular records on human remains from the crypt of the aristocratic family of Hoheneck (or: Hohenegg) dating to the 18(th) and 19(th) century AD. A total of 11 individuals were under investigation, yielding complete autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR profiles for 5 persons clearly showing a family group. DNA results, anthropological data and archaeological records taken together resulted in (almost) unambiguous correlation to historical records on the persons entombed in the crypt.

  3. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  4. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  5. [Records of the invisible: Visa reperta in 18th- and 19th-century forensic medicine and their role as promoters of pathological-anatomical knowledge].

    PubMed

    Müller, Irmgard; Fangerau, Heiner

    2010-01-01

    Case reports in medicine serve as a tool to collect and to transfer knowledge. A special kind of case report in forensic medicine during the 18th and 19th centuries was the so-called Visum repertum. This format of note-taking and of rendering an expert opinion without presuppositions has rarely investigated in the history of medicine. Analyzing Visa reperta the authors argue that due to their special structure and mode of representation Visa reperta not only shaped the practice of forensic medicine but also the standardized examination and documentation in pathological anatomy. Based on previous studies on medical case reports, medical expert witnesses in court and traditions in pathological anatomy the authors examine two examples from the 18th and 19th centuries in order to show how semiological, classifying methods of presenting forensic examinations were replaced by the material aspect of the observation of examination results itself. The examples are a forensic case report by Michael Alberti (1682-1757) from 1728 and a Visum repertum by Joseph Bernt (1770-1842) from 1827. The authors argue that Visa reperta transcended their original forensic purpose and served as a guideline for pathology leading to an understanding of the origin of diseases in organs. They served as a promoter of scientific medicine, and their persuasiveness was backed by factors such as (a) the extreme conditions of forensic practice, (b) the claim to act as a tool for the sound and precise recording of facts and c) the awareness that they documented objects that were destroyed during the process of documentation.

  6. Aspects of informed consent in medical practice in the eastern Mediterranean region during the 17th and 18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Platon; Falagas, Matthew E; Gourzis, Philippos; Trompoukis, Constantinos

    2007-08-01

    Informed consent is a question of central importance in contemporary medical ethics, and clinical practice is inconceivable without considering the issues it raises. Although it is often vigorously argued that consent, informed or otherwise, is a recent phenomenon and that no sources testify to its existence before the 20th century, it is difficult to accept that a process for regulating the common and fundamental parameters in the relationship between doctor and patient and the planning of treatment had not concerned previous eras. A review of the Registers of the Islamic Court of Candia (Heraklion) in Crete, a series of records that touches on, among other things, matters of medical interest, reveals that the concept of informed consent was not only known during a period that stretched from the mid-17th to the early 19th century, but it was concerned with the same principles that prevail or have been a point of contention today. An extension of this study into other periods may thus provide contemporary researchers with material and information valuable in the discussion of today's bioethical issues.

  7. A Role for Historical Experiments: Capturing the Spirit of the Itinerant Lecturers of the 18th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Don; Stinner, Art

    2007-06-01

    Gerald Rutherford (1964), one of the original authors of the Harvard Project Physics course which emphasized the history of science, expressed a view of inquiry which advocated the historical re-constructions of significant experiments. To implement this view we examine two modes of historical re-constructions; Heering's ( Paper presented at the Itinerant Physicists of the 17th century Conference, Pognana, Italy, June 1-6, 2003) replication method for historical experiments and our development of historical representations. Heering describes the replication method in three phases: the construction of the apparatus, the recreation of the experimental procedure, and the contextualisation of the experience. In our adaption of this process for the science classroom we recognize teachers have limited access to methods and resources in historiography. Consequently, the historical re-construction is guided by a historical narrative. As it relates to a historical experiment the narrative has four parts; Introduction, Experimental design, Experimental results, and Analysis.

  8. [Private charity - public health service. Comparison between British and German birthing centers of the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Schlumbohm, Jürgen

    In the eighteenth century, lying-in hospitals were founded in many European towns and cities. The way in which these institutions were financed differed greatly across Europe. In the UK, most of them were "charities" and relied on donations from wealthy benefactors, whereas on the continent they were usually funded by "public" money, be it from the state or local communities. The paper focuses on British charities and German hospitals, and explores the corollaries of the mode of financing. In the eighteenth century, a market emerged in Britain where numerous charities with different aims competed for donations from the well-to-do. For attracting benefactors, a charity had to convince potential donors that its clientele and purpose were particularly deserving, and that it used the money donated in a cost-efficient way. In Germany, it was mainly bureaucrats and governments who had to be persuaded, but public opinion did matter as well. In British lying-in charities, the main donors acted as governors, and benefactors could recommend persons for being admitted. In publicly funded German hospitals, the medical directors had much more power. In the competitive market, in which British charities acted, out-patient dispensaries (policlinics) became increasingly important, since they could argue that they were more cost-efficient and had lower mortality. In Germany, however, hospitals remained the dominant type of assistance in this field, in spite of the criticism they received. The different sources of finance appear to have been one of the reasons for this divergence. Teaching was the main purpose of most German lying-in hospitals. They either trained medical students or midwife apprentices or both. Since the patients served as teaching objects, all women were welcomed, and in fact most patients were single mothers. By contrast, most of the British institutions admitted only married women, because donors did not wish to encourage immorality. The charities staged the

  9. BACCHUS temperature reconstruction for the period 16th to 18th centuries from Viennese and Klosterneuburg grape harvest dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, C.; Koch, E.; Hammerl, C.; Hammerl, T.; Pokorny, E.

    2009-11-01

    In the scientific project "Klosterneuburg Wine and Climate Change in Lower Austria" (BACCHUS), we focused on developing a grape harvest date (GHD) time series for the period 1523-2007 in the area of and around Vienna, one of the northeasternmost regions in Europe where vines are grown professionally. Since grape harvest dates are strongly influenced by spring to (early) summer temperatures, especially in a vine-growing region at a climatic border, we found highly significant correlation coefficients between homogenized multiple monthly mean temperatures at Vienna, Hohe Warte, and GHD. For example, correlation values reach -0.76 (p = 0.01) between GHD and April to July mean temperature or -0.79 (p = 0.01) between GHD and May to July mean temperature. This made it possible to reconstruct May to July mean temperatures, starting in 1523. The years from 1775 to 1850 were used as calibration period for determining the temperature sensitivity of GHD, as the running correlation coefficients (10 year moving window) were most pronounced in this period, varying between almost -1 and -0.7 (p = 0.05). We found warm decades in the 16th century, at the beginning of our series, which were as warm as the 1990s. Afterwards the mean May to July temperatures started to drop; the coldest decade of the record was from 1771 to 1780. A constant temperature increase for more than 30 years, as from the 1970s to the present, seems to be unprecedented during the last 470 years.

  10. The inquisitorial trial of a cross-dressing lesbian: reactions and responses to female homosexuality in 18th-century portugal.

    PubMed

    Soyer, François

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the inquisitorial trial of Maria Duran, a Catalan novice in the Dominican convent of Nossa Senhora do Paraíso in Portugal. Maria Duran was arrested by the Inquisition in 1741 and, after a lengthy trial, condemned in 1744 to a public lashing and exile. She was suspected of having made a pact with the Devil and was accused by many female witnesses of possessing a "secret penis" that she had allegedly used in her amorous relations with fellow nuns and novices. Her voluminous trial dossier offers a rare and fascinating documentary insight into the often extreme reactions that female homosexuality provoked from both men and women in early modern Portugal. Using the evidence offered by the 18th-century trial of Maria Duran, this article highlights female bewilderment when faced with female-on-female sexual violence and the difficulty that men (in this case, churchmen) had coming to terms with the existence of female homosexuality. It also discusses the case in light of the acts/identity debate among historians of the history of sexuality.

  11. The Cause of Death of a Child in the 18th Century Solved by Bone Microbiome Typing Using Laser Microdissection and Next Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    D'Argenio, Valeria; Torino, Marielva; Precone, Vincenza; Casaburi, Giorgio; Esposito, Maria Valeria; Iaffaldano, Laura; Malapelle, Umberto; Troncone, Giancarlo; Coto, Iolanda; Cavalcanti, Paolina; De Rosa, Gaetano; Salvatore, Francesco; Sacchetti, Lucia

    2017-01-06

    The history of medicine abounds in cases of mysterious deaths, especially by infectious diseases, which were probably unresolved because of the lack of knowledge and of appropriate technology. The aim of this study was to exploit contemporary technologies to try to identify the cause of death of a young boy who died from a putative "infection" at the end of the 18th century, and for whom an extraordinarily well-preserved minute bone fragment was available. After confirming the nature of the sample, we used laser microdissection to select the most "informative" area to be examined. Tissue genotyping indicated male gender, thereby confirming the notary's report. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing showed that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were more abundant than Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and that Pseudomonas was the most abundant bacterial genus in the Pseudomonadaceae family. These data suggest that the patient most likely died from Pseudomonas osteomyelitis. This case is an example of how new technological approaches, like laser microdissection and next-generation sequencing, can resolve ancient cases of uncertain etiopathology. Lastly, medical samples may contain a wealth of information that may not be accessible until more sophisticated technology becomes available. Therefore, one may envisage the possibility of systematically storing medical samples for evaluation by future generations.

  12. [Jirí Procháska (1749-1820) I.: a significant Czech anatomist and physiologist of the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Chvátal, A

    2013-01-01

    The Czech anatomist and physiologist of the 18th century, Jirí Procháska (1749-1820), ranks among the major figures of Czech cultural history. Due to historical circumstances, the works of Jirí Procháska were published mostly in Latin and only some in German. However, given that only two of his works have been translated into Czech and one of them also partially into English, the results of his extensive research activities are currently unavailable not only to the international scientific community, but also to the Czech scientific community. Although his research reflected the time in which he lived and thus has been re-evaluated by later researchers, his achievements undoubtedly belong to the major intellectual heritage of Czech science and certainly deserve attention as such. It is therefore our duty not only to remember the work and legacy of Jirí Procháska, which significantly influenced the development of our knowledge, but also to try to critically assess his contribution in terms of today. The article surveys the important biographical events of Jirí Procháska's life, taking into account the importance of his research and teaching.

  13. Structural and optical properties of wood and wood finishes studied using optical coherence tomography: application to an 18th century Italian violin.

    PubMed

    Latour, Gaël; Echard, Jean-Philippe; Soulier, Balthazar; Emond, Isabelle; Vaiedelich, Stéphane; Elias, Mady

    2009-11-20

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is especially attractive for the study of cultural heritage artifacts because it is noninvasive and nondestructive. We have developed an original full-field time-domain OCT system dedicated to the investigation of varnished and painted artifacts: an interferometric Mirau objective allows one to perform the scan without moving the works of art. The axial and transverse high resolution (respectively, 1.5 and 1 microm) are well adapted to the detection of the investigated structures (pigment grains, wood fibers, etc.). The illumination spectrum is in the visible range (centered at 630 nm, 150 nm wide) to potentially allow us to perform spectroscopic OCT on pigment particles. The examination of wood samples coated with a traditional finish, demonstrates the ability of the system to detect particles, characterize layers thickness, and image the three-dimensional wood structures below the varnishes. OCT has finally been applied to study in situ the coated wood surface of an 18th century Italian violin and provides important information for its conservation treatment.

  14. The Cause of Death of a Child in the 18th Century Solved by Bone Microbiome Typing Using Laser Microdissection and Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    D’Argenio, Valeria; Torino, Marielva; Precone, Vincenza; Casaburi, Giorgio; Esposito, Maria Valeria; Iaffaldano, Laura; Malapelle, Umberto; Troncone, Giancarlo; Coto, Iolanda; Cavalcanti, Paolina; De Rosa, Gaetano; Salvatore, Francesco; Sacchetti, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    The history of medicine abounds in cases of mysterious deaths, especially by infectious diseases, which were probably unresolved because of the lack of knowledge and of appropriate technology. The aim of this study was to exploit contemporary technologies to try to identify the cause of death of a young boy who died from a putative “infection” at the end of the 18th century, and for whom an extraordinarily well-preserved minute bone fragment was available. After confirming the nature of the sample, we used laser microdissection to select the most “informative” area to be examined. Tissue genotyping indicated male gender, thereby confirming the notary’s report. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing showed that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were more abundant than Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and that Pseudomonas was the most abundant bacterial genus in the Pseudomonadaceae family. These data suggest that the patient most likely died from Pseudomonas osteomyelitis. This case is an example of how new technological approaches, like laser microdissection and next-generation sequencing, can resolve ancient cases of uncertain etiopathology. Lastly, medical samples may contain a wealth of information that may not be accessible until more sophisticated technology becomes available. Therefore, one may envisage the possibility of systematically storing medical samples for evaluation by future generations. PMID:28067829

  15. Structural and behavioural changes in the short term preventive check in the northwest Balkans in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    PubMed

    Hammel, E A; Galloway, P R

    2000-03-01

    Fertility responded negatively to grain insufficiency (proxied by grain price increases), and mortality responded positively in Croatia-Slavonia-Srem in the 18th and 19th centuries, as in most of Europe. Shifts in the intensity and timing of these responses occurred over time as social and economic structures changed. Shifts in the elasticity of fertility with respect to grain supply inversely mimic and lag changes in the elasticity of mortality. Both appear to be induced by increasing land shortage, the collapse of feudalism, and differences in the patterns of adjustment to post-feudal conditions among former civil and military serfs. Generally, responses are stronger for civil and former civil serfs, who may have been in less favorable economic circumstances than the military. Fertility responses in the year of a price shock come to dominate those in the year following, suggesting a shift from contraception to abortion as economic and social conditions apparently worsened and strategies of control intensified. Analysis of monthly responses supports the conjecture based on the annual responses. The shift to the preventive check and strength of the preventive check in the same year as the price shock is unusual in Europe and beyond. Analysis is based on 25 parishes and employs lagged annual and monthly time series analysis with corrections for autocorrelation, in combination with ethnographic and historical data.

  16. Quantitative analysis of human remains from 18(th)-19(th) centuries using X-ray fluorescence techniques: The mysterious high content of mercury in hair.

    PubMed

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Marta; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Dias, António

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the unusual concentration of mercury in the hair of an individual buried in the 18th to mid-19th centuries and the comparison with the elemental composition of other remains from the same individual. Two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) setups, one with tri-axial geometry and the second one with micro-beam capabilities and a vacuum system, for light elements detection, have been used. Quantitative evaluation of the obtained spectra were made by fundamental parameters and winAXIL program by compare mode method. The levels of Hg in the hair of buried samples presented a concentration over 5% (w/w), a significantly lower presence of this element in the cranium, and no Hg in the remaining organs. Furthermore, there was no evidence of Hg in the burial soil, which has been also analyzed. From this result, we could conclude that the possibility of post-mortem contamination from the burial surroundings is very unlikely. The obtained results are indicative of the apparent use of a mercury-based compound for medical purposes, most likely lice infestation.

  17. Catherine Walpole (1703-22), an 18th-century teenaged patient: a case study from the letters of the physician George Cheyne (1671 or 73-1743).

    PubMed

    Charlton, Anne

    2010-05-01

    In 1720 Catherine Walpole the 16-year-old eldest daughter of Robert Walpole, later to become Prime Minister, became very ill. She was unable to eat, fainted, took fits frequently, and had a persistent pain and swelling in her side. Sir Hans Sloane, the Walpole's doctor, referred her to Dr Cheyne in Bath because he specialized in dietary problems and nervous diseases. Cheyne kept in regular touch with Sir Hans by letter and this correspondence tells the story of Catherine's treatment from her first referral to Cheyne to her death in 1722. The contents and purposes of treatments he used are identifiable in dispensatories of the period. The letters reflect Cheyne's medical skills and knowledge as well as his sympathetic personality. Catherine's family loyalties, personal concerns and personality also emerge as the correspondence progresses. The limitations of 18th-century diagnosis and treatments available are clear but Cheyne is always concerned with Catherine's quality of life, even when he becomes aware that he cannot cure her.

  18. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  19. "Do Not Turn a Deaf Ear or a Blind Eye on Me, as I Am Your Son": New Conceptions of Childhood and Parenthood in 18th- and 19th-Century Jewish Letter-Writing Manuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogman, Tal

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the cultural functions of Hebrew letter-writing manuals published in German-speaking countries in the 18th and 19th centuries, aimed at young people. I argue that these books, which were used frequently as textbooks for studying Hebrew writing, conveyed modern ideological values and at the same time corresponded to the…

  20. The Problem of Longitude in the 18th Century: Jorge Juan, Antonio de Ulloa and the Expedition of the Paris Academy of Sciences to the Kingdom of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Pérez

    2015-05-01

    Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, naval officers of the Spanish Navy in the Midshipmen's Royal Academy were appointed to take part in one of the most important scientific expeditions of the 18th century. The question of the shape of the Earth, of vital importance for navigation, was solved by the Paris Academy of Sciences by request of Louis XV of France in 1735. The aim was to determine the form of the ellipsoid that Newton had described in the 17th century for any spherical and homogeneous body in rotation about an axis. Two expeditions were prepared for the geodetic measures of meridian arc both in high latitudes (Lapland, Finland) and in the equatorial zone (the Kingdom of Peru); Pierre Louis Maupertuis took charge of the northern expedition whereas the second one was charged to La Condamine, along with Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa. The results obtained by the Spaniards were gathered in a publication: Observaciones astronómicas y físicas hechas en los Reinos del Perú. In it, they dedicate a chapter to the determination of astronomic longitude with the only technology that was providing certain precision at the moment: the simultaneous observation of the same astronomic phenomenon in two different places. Specifically, they explain in detail in Book III: Las Observaciones de la Inmersiones y Emersiones de los satélites de Júpiter, como asimismo de los eclipses de Luna; de las cuales de deduce la Longitud de los Lugares, incluyendo las correcciones a efectuar por la variación de la declinación diaria del Sol.

  1. Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired

  2. Paleoclimate Reconstruction during the 17th to 18th Century Using Fossil Coral Tsunami Boulders from Ishigaki Island, the Ryukyus, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Seki, A.; Kawakubo, Y.; Araoka, D.; Suzuki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) to reconstruct paleo SST during LIA (Kawakubo et al., 2014). LA-HR-ICPMS enables us to measure the long coral core rapidly. Our result shows SST variation in 17th-18th century in this area and SST declined in around 1700. This result reveals the response of Little Ice Age in the northwestern Pacific.

  3. Count Nicolaus Ludwig Von Zinzendorf’s Theory for Missions Portrayed at Herrnhut and by Selected 18th-20th Century Moravian Missions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Fred Ernest Stoeffler, German Pietism During The Eighteenth Century p. 166. 4 Sidney E. Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People, p. 236...4 A. J. Lewis, Zinzendorf The Ecumenical Pioneer, p. 24. 5 Weinlick, p. 21. - 6 Ibid. * p. 22. 7F. Ernest Stoeffler, German Pietism During The...not Pietists. 6 F. Ernest Stoeffler, German Pietism DurinQ The Eighteenth Century, p. 138. I..- 7 Winelick, p. 74, 75. 8Ibid., p. 76. 9 Lewis, p. 54

  4. Girls' Secondary Education in the Western World: From the 18th to the 20th Century. Secondary Education in a Changing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albisetti, James C.; Goodman, Joyce; Rogers, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This long-awaited synthesis approaches the past three centuries with an eye to highlighting the importance of significant schools, as well as important women educators in the emergence of secondary education for girls. At the same time, each contributor pays careful attention to the specific political, cultural, and socio-economic factors that…

  5. The Role of Education Redefined: 18th Century British and French Educational Thought and the Rise of the Baconian Conception of the Study of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2011-01-01

    The idea that science teaching in schools should prepare the ground for society's future technical and scientific progress has played an important role in shaping modern education. This idea, however, was not always present. In this article, I examine how this idea first emerged in educational thought. Early in the 17th century, Francis Bacon…

  6. The priority dispute over the function of the lymphatic system and Glisson's ghost (the 18th-century Hunter-Monro Feud).

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Charles T

    2007-01-01

    Basic Immunology has had only two significant public priority disputes. The first began in the late 1650s and concerned the recognition of the peripheral network of vessels which collects lymph throughout the body. The publication of this major anatomical discovery prompted a priority feud discussed in a previous paper. The subject of this essay is the second dispute which occurred a century later in the late 1750s. It focused on the function of the lymphatic system and precipitated a heated war of words between a young Scotch medical graduate (Alexander Monro) and a noted London anatomist (William Hunter). Their published charges and responses ranged from feigned respect to ad hominen invectives. But in retrospect, the priority claims of both were precluded by the observations and speculations of an Englishman (Francis Glisson) a full century before. The several editions of his work were unknown to Hunter and Monro at the inception of their feud.

  7. [Gutiérrez Bueno (1745-1822), textbooks and a new public for chemistry in the last third of the 18th century].

    PubMed

    García Belmar, A; Bertomeu Sánchez, J R

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a part of a general research project on the role that chemistry played in the transition of materia medica to experimental pharmacology during 19th century Spain. Within this general framework, the paper deals with the main characteristics of Spanish textbooks aimed at pharmaceutical and medical students. In a former study, published in this journal, we outlined the institutional context in which these books were read, written and published. Some of these issues are developed in the present paper through analysis of the "Curso de química" written by Pedro Gutiérrez Bueno. New light is shed on the public for chemistry during the late XVIII century Spain and their role in shaping the contents and organisation of chemistry textbooks.

  8. Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch and astronomy in Nuremberg in the second half of the 18th century. (German Title: Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch und die Astronomie in Nürnberg in der zweiten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaab, Hans

    In the second half of the 18th century, Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch (1731 - 1802) was the best-known living mathematician and astronomer in Nuremberg. Being a physician by training, he obtained, in 1769, the post of lecturer in mathematics and physics at the Egidien secondary school. Subsequently, he tried in vain to re-erect the observatory, torn down in 1751. In the early 1770s, he became famous for preparing the second edition of Johann Leonhard Rost's Astronomisches Handbuch that was, in its first edition of 1718, the first compendium of astronomy written in German, and which had a wide circulation. In 1790, Kordenbusch was raised to the nobility for his achievements.

  9. [The beginnings of the nursing profession : the complementary relationship between secular caregivers and hospital nuns in France in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Diebolt, Evelyne

    2013-06-01

    The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salpêtrière hospital, Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charité" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied.

  10. The garden as a laboratory: the role of domestic gardens as places of scientific exploration in the long 18th century.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Clare

    2014-06-01

    Eighteenth-century gardens have traditionally been viewed as spaces designed for leisure, and as representations of political status, power and taste. In contrast, this paper will explore the concept that gardens in this period could be seen as dynamic spaces where scientific experiment and medical practice could occur. Two examples have been explored in the pilot study which has led to this paper - the designed landscapes associated with John Hunter's Earl's Court residence, in London, and the garden at Edward Jenner's house in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Garden history methodologies have been implemented in order to consider the extent to which these domestic gardens can be viewed as experimental spaces.

  11. The garden as a laboratory: the role of domestic gardens as places of scientific exploration in the long 18th century

    PubMed Central

    HICKMAN, CLARE

    2014-01-01

    Eighteenth-century gardens have traditionally been viewed as spaces designed for leisure, and as representations of political status, power and taste. In contrast, this paper will explore the concept that gardens in this period could be seen as dynamic spaces where scientific experiment and medical practice could occur. Two examples have been explored in the pilot study which has led to this paper — the designed landscapes associated with John Hunter’s Earl’s Court residence, in London, and the garden at Edward Jenner’s house in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Garden history methodologies have been implemented in order to consider the extent to which these domestic gardens can be viewed as experimental spaces. PMID:26052165

  12. The Rise of Commercial Telescope Making in 19th Century America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launie, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Very few telescopes were made in America in the 18th century; astronomers needed to rely on distant European makers. While there is evidence of a few American craftsman-made telescopes that were shown at early to mid-19th century Mechanics' Fairs, Massachusetts native Amasa Holcomb appears to have been the first to offer them for sale commercially. Most of Holcomb's instruments were Herschelian reflectors with speculum metal mirrors. Henry Fitz started his optical career by making mirrors used for the first Daguerreotype portrait cameras, and by the mid 1840's he was offering refractors of ever-increasing size. Not long after Fitz started, Alvan Clark began selling telescopes, and the premature death of Fitz in 1863 may have aided Alvan Clark and Sons' rise to prominence. The later decades of the 1800s saw a dramatic increase in the number of college observatories, and with that came more manufacturers to supply the demand.

  13. Two 18th Century Observatories of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambleton, Robert

    A visit to the two major observatories of Ireland, Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland, and Dunsink Observatory in Dublin. Mentioned are Herschel, Thomas Grubb, Thomas Jones transit instrument, Howard Grubb, Kew Observatory, John Arnold & Sons clocks, Birr Castle, and the Earl of Rosse.

  14. Acoustics of early music spaces from the 11th to 18th century: Rediscovery of the acoustical excellence of medium-sized rooms and new perspectives for modern concert hall design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassuet, Alban

    2004-05-01

    The acoustical characteristics of 50 rooms that played a prominent role in the history of music between the 11th and 18th centuries were studied. The rooms include basilicas, oratorios, organ churches, and the great halls and courts of the European palaces. The research provides an understanding of the acoustical features that suit the early music repertoire, and how these rooms achieved an enhanced emotional engagement through their unique acoustical characteristics. This paper provides a summary of the acoustic measurements, which include binaural and B-format recordings in each of the rooms, and presents a unique new approach to understanding their subjective characteristics through detailed analysis and auralization of their 3-D impulse response. The study shows that the timing and direction of reflections in three dimensions is critically important to defining the subjective characteristic of a room. The results emphasize the importance of developing techniques to understand the 3-D impulse response and using auralization techniques for interpreting results and making subjective judgments. The enhanced musical experience that is achieved in these early rooms offers an invitation to rethink modern acoustics and to develop a new design approach that focuses more strongly on the subjective response and emotional engagement of the music.

  15. Cribra orbitalia as a potential indicator of childhood stress: Evidence from paleopathology, stable C, N, and O isotopes, and trace element concentrations in children from a 17(th)-18(th) century cemetery in Jēkabpils, Latvia.

    PubMed

    Zariņa, Gunita; Sholts, Sabrina B; Tichinin, Alina; Rudovica, Vita; Vīksna, Arturs; Engīzere, Austra; Muižnieks, Vitolds; Bartelink, Eric J; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2016-12-01

    Cribra orbitalia (CO), or porotic hyperostosis (PH) of the orbital roof, is one of the most common pathological conditions found in archaeological subadult skeletal remains. Reaching frequencies higher than 50% in many prehistoric samples, CO has been generally attributed to a variety of factors including malnutrition (e.g., megaloblastic anemia) and parasitism. In this study, we tested the relationship between CO, trace element concentrations, and stable isotope values (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O) in subadult skeletons from a 17(th) to 18(th) century cemetery in the historic town of Jēkabpils, Latvia. A total of 28 subadults were examined, seven of which (25%) showed evidence of CO. Bioarchaeological evidence indicated high mortality for children in this cemetery: half of the burials were subadults under the age of 14, while a third were under the age of four. Life expectancy at birth was estimated to have been only 21.6 years. Trace element concentrations measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) showed no relationship between presence or absence of CO and levels of manganese, zinc, strontium, barium, copper, cadmium, or lead in the bones (p>0.05). However, a significant correlation (p<0.05) was found between the presence of CO and decreased levels of iron. The correlations between CO and decreased levels of copper and lead approached significance (p=0.056 for both elements). Individuals with CO furthermore displayed significantly lower δ(15)N isotope values, suggesting greater consumption of lower trophic level food resources than those unaffected by CO; δ(13)C and δ(18)O values, in contrast, showed no significant differences. These results suggest that the prevalence of CO may be related to dietary deficiencies. In this case, low iron levels may also signify a diet low in other key vitamins (e.g., B9 and B12), which are known to cause megaloblastic anemia.

  16. History of individuals of the 18th/19th centuries stored in bones, teeth, and hair analyzed by LA-ICP-MS--a step in attempts to confirm the authenticity of Mozart's skull.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Christina; Reiter, Christian; Patzak, Beatrix; Stingeder, Gerhard; Prohaska, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    A cranium stored in the Stiftung Mozarteum in Salzburg/Austria which is believed to be that of Mozart, and skeletal remains of suspected relatives which have been excavated from the Mozart family grave in the cemetery in Salzburg, have been subjected to scientific investigations to determine whether or not the skull is authentic. A film project by the Austrian television ORF in collaboration with Interspot Film on this issue was broadcast at the beginning of the "Mozart year 2006". DNA analysis could not clarify relationships among the remains and, therefore, assignment of the samples was not really possible. In our work this skull and excavated skeletal remains have been quantified for Pb, Cr, Hg, As, and Sb content by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain information about the living conditions of these individuals. A small splinter of enamel (less than 1 mm(3)) from a tooth of the "Mozart cranium" was also available for investigation. Quantification was performed by using spiked hydroxyapatite standards. Single hair samples which are recorded to originate from Mozart have also been investigated by LA-ICP-MS and compared with hair samples of contemporary citizens stored in the Federal Pathologic-Anatomical Museum, Vienna. In general, Pb concentrations up to approximately 16 mug g(-1) were found in the bone samples of 18th century individuals (a factor of 7 to 8 higher than in recent samples) reflecting elevated Pb levels in food or beverages. Elevated Pb levels were also found in hair samples. The amount of Sb in the enamel sample of the "Mozart cranium" (approx. 3 mug g(-1)) was significantly higher than in all the other tooth samples investigated, indicating possible Sb ingestion in early childhood. Elevated concentrations of elements in single hair samples gave additional information about possible exposure of the individuals to heavy metals at a particular point in their life.

  17. Political Life in Eighteenth-Century Virginia. Essays from Colonial Williamsburg. The Foundations of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jack P.

    This book explores the history of the Virginia colony from the early 18th century to the time of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Virginia, the oldest and most prosperous of Great Britain's North American colonies, assumed a leading role in the political life of the colonies. Some in 17th century Virginia had seen political…

  18. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION DURING EXCAVATION OF 18TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION DURING EXCAVATION OF 18TH CENTURY BASEMENT ENTRY WELL AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Belair, Tulip Grove Drive, Belair-at-Bowie, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

  19. Teachers' Lyceums in Early Nineteenth-Century America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearman, Mindy

    2009-01-01

    Most historians interested in the cultural history of nineteenth-century America are familiar with the lyceum movement, first popularized by Massachusetts' Josiah Holbrook. While lyceums were extremely popular during the 1820s and 1830s, they disappeared with the advent of the Civil War--though later providing inspiration for Chautauquan lectures…

  20. Regionalism and Development in Early Nineteenth Century Spanish America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Douglas

    An understanding of regionalism in early 19th century Spanish America is crucial to any understanding of this region's economic development. Regionalism became the barrier to the kind of integrated national economy that some writers claim could have been implemented had it not been for the imposition of dependency by external forces. This…

  1. The professional and the scientist in nineteenth-century America.

    PubMed

    Lucier, Paul

    2009-12-01

    In nineteenth-century America, there was no such person as a "professional scientist". There were professionals and there were scientists, but they were very different. Professionals were men of science who engaged in commercial relations with private enterprises and took fees for their services. Scientists were men of science who rejected such commercial work and feared the corrupting influences of cash and capitalism. Professionals portrayed themselves as active and useful members of an entrepreneurial polity, while scientists styled themselves as crusading reformers, promoters of a purer science and a more research-oriented university. It was this new ideology, embodied in these new institutions, that spurred these reformers to adopt a special name for themselves--"scientists". One object of this essay, then, is to explain the peculiar Gilded Age, American origins of that ubiquitous term. A larger goal is to explore the different social roles of the professional and the scientist. By attending to the particular vocabulary employed at the time, this essay tries to make clear why a "professional scientist" would have been a contradiction in terms for both the professional and the scientist in nineteenth-century America.

  2. 18th International Conference on Antiviral Research.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, William M

    2005-08-01

    The 18th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held at the Princess Sofia Hotel in Barcelona, Spain, from 11th-14th April, 2005. This is a yearly international meeting sponsored by the International Society for Antiviral Research (ISAR). The current president of ISAR is John A Secrest 3rd of the Southern Research Institute. The scientific programme committee was chaired by John C Drach from the University of Michigan. ISAR was founded in 1987 to exchange prepublication basic, applied and clinical information on the development of antiviral, chemical and biological agents as well as to promote collaborative research. The ISAR has had a major role in the significant advances of the past decade in the reduction of the societal burdens of viral diseases by the focus of ICAR on the discovery and clinical application of antiviral agents. The 18th ICAR was organised as a series of focus presentations on specific viral groups consisting of oral and poster presentations of original research findings. In addition, the conference included plenary speakers, award presentations, a minisymposium on bioterrorism, and a satellite symposium on clinical antiviral drug developments. The size of the conference (> 50 oral and 250 poster presentations) necessitates limitation to the most noteworthy in the judgment of this reviewer. The current membership of the ISAR is approximately 700 with approximately 50% the membership in attendance.

  3. Mustaches and masculine codes in early twentieth-century America.

    PubMed

    Oldstone-Moore, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to deepen our understanding of twentieth-century masculinity by considering the social function of facial hair. The management of facial hair has always been a medium of gendered body language, and as such has elicited a nearly continuous private and public conversation about manliness. Careful attention to this conversation, and to trends in facial hairstyles, illuminates a distinct and consistent pattern of thought about masculinity in early twentieth-century America. The preeminent form of facial hair - mustaches - was used to distinguish between two elemental masculine types: sociable and autonomous. A man was neither wholly one nor the other, but the presence and size of a mustache - or its absence - served to move a man one way or another along the continuum that stretched from one extreme to the other. According to the twentieth-century gender code, a clean-shaven man's virtue was his commitment to his male peers and to local, national or corporate institutions. The mustached man, by contrast, was much more his own man: a patriarch, authority figure or free agent who was able to play by his own rules. Men and women alike read these signals in their evaluation of men.

  4. The 8th Century Megadrought Across North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, D. W.; Therrell, M. D.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Fye, F. K.; Cook, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.; Acuna-Soto, R.

    2002-12-01

    Tree-ring data suggest that the 8th and 16th century megadroughts may have been the most severe and sustained droughts to impact North America in the past 1500 years. The 16th century megadrought may have persisted for up to 40 years, and extended from the tropics to the boreal forest and from the Pacific to Atlantic coasts. Evidence for the 8th century drought is sparse, but tree-ring and lake sediment data indicate that this drought extended from the northern Great Plains, across the southwestern United States, and into central Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula. Tree-ring data from Colorado and New Mexico document severe drought from A.D. 735-765, and may provide accurate and precise dating for the onset of the epic droughts reconstructed during the late first millennium A.D. with sedimentary data from Elk Lake, Minnesota; Moon Lake, South Dakota; La Piscina de Yuriria, Guanajuato; and Lake Chichancanab, Yucatan. If these chronological refinements are correct, then the sedimentary records suggest much greater persistence to the 8th century megadrought than indicated by the very high resolution tree-ring data, and a strong second pulse of prolonged drought late in the first millennium. Analyses of instrumental precipitation and drought indices during the 20th century, along with tree-ring reconstructions of climate in Mexico and the Southwest, indicate that annual and decadal droughts can both simultaneously impact the entire region from New Mexico and Texas down into central Mexico. The intensity and large-scale impact of drought across this region seem to be greatest when La Nina conditions and the low phase of the North Pacific oscillation prevail. The tree-ring dated 8th century megadrought occurred near the decline of the Classic Period civilizations at Teotihuacan in central Mexico and in the Mayan region of the Yucatan. The 8th century megadrought may have interacted with anthropogenic environmental degradation, epidemic disease, and social upheaval to

  5. Lightning and Gunpowder in the 18th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krider, E. P.

    2006-12-01

    On or before June, 1751, Benjamin Franklin and co-workers showed that gunpowder could be ignited by a small electric spark, and subsequently people used gunpowder to enhance the explosions of "thunder houses" to demonstrate that grounded metallic rods would protect model structures against lightning damage. Even before the sentry box and kite experiments proved that thunderclouds are electrified and that lightning is an electrical discharge in 1752, Franklin had hypothesized that a tall, well-grounded conductor might reduce or prevent lightning damage by silently discharging the cloud, and if a discharge did occur, then the tall rod would offer a preferred place for the lightning to strike, and the grounding conductors would guide the current into the ground in a harmless fashion. Over the next 10 years, experience gained through practice showed that grounded rods did indeed protect ordinary structures from lightning damage, but a question remained about the best way to protect gunpowder magazines. In 1762, Franklin recommended a tall "mast not far from it, which may reach 15 or 20 feet above the top of it, with a thick iron rod in one piece fastened to it, pointed at the highest end, and reaching down through the earth till it comes to water," and in 1772 he made a similar recommendation for protecting the British powder magazine at Purfleet. In 1780, Jan Ingenhousz asked Franklin to "communicate to me some short hints, which may occur to you about the most convenient manner of constructing gun powder magazines, the manner of preserving the powder from moisture and securing the building in the best manner from the effects of lightning." In his reply, Franklin detailed a method of protection that is almost perfect, "they should be constructed in the Ground; that the Walls should be lin'd with Lead, the Floor Lead, all 1/4 Inch thick & the Joints well solder'd; the Cover Copper; with a little Scuttle to enter, the whole in the Form of a Canister for Tea. If the Edges of the Cover scuttle fall into a Copper Channel containing Mercury, not the smallest Particle of Air or Moisture can enter to the Powder, even tho' the Walls stood in Water, or the whole was under Water." In 1876, the Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell, made almost exactly the same recommendation for protecting against lightning, a method known today as a "Faraday cage."

  6. Wind Powering America: Clean Energy for the 21st Century (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-09-01

    Wind Powering America: Clean Energy for the 21st Century continues to be one of the most popular publications produced by the Wind Powering America team. This latest revision incorporates new wind facts from the American Wind Energy Association, as well as wind FAQs for consumers, updated wind resource maps, and a list of WPA publications.

  7. Organic Education in Public Schools of Late Nineteenth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    Organic education, which was introduced into the United States during the last third of the 19th century, was based upon Froebel's ideal of life as a connected whole. The late 19th century was a favorable period for innovation, for its economic prosperity made leaders feel that with the use of scientific methods anything was possible, and its…

  8. America's Century III--The Engineer's Opportunity and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cheryl

    1976-01-01

    Presents highlights of the addresses of Arthur G. Hansen, Robert C. Seamans, Jr., and Edward R. Kane to the plenary session of the annual conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. Topics include energy, economics, governmental regulation, and the role of minorities and women in engineering in the coming century. (SL)

  9. America's future: Transition to the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The last several centuries have led humanity to believe that each succeeding generation can expect to live better than did the previous generation. But this is no longer true, and, to survive, the human species must successfully face four impending crises: overpopulation, the destruction of the biosphere, the end of cheap and available energy, and the threat of thermonuclear holocaust.

  10. A Nation of Opportunity: Building America's 21st Century Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Advances in information technology (IT) are reshaping the U.S. labor market. The demand for workers who can read and understand complex material, think analytically, and use technology efficiently will continue to increase. Congress established the 21st Century Workforce Commission to assess current and future demand for IT workers and the…

  11. School Facilities: America's Schools Not Designed or Equipped for 21st Century. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    This document presents findings of a General Accounting Office study that examined the extent to which America's schools have the physical capacity to support learning into the 21st century. Specifically, it looked at facilities requirements, environmental conditions, educational technologies, and facility infrastructure. Data were collected…

  12. America in the 20th Century, Grades 11-12, Course of Study. Project # 1009.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utech, Ron

    Focusing on America from 1900 to the present, the major social, political, and economic developments in this century are presented in this course for grades 11 and 12. Large and small groups, panel discussions, and individual and group reports are all employed, with an emphasis on research techniques. Each student selects a major problem in 20th…

  13. The Role of the Armed Forces in the Americas: Civil-Military Relations for the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    politics, in nostalgic prose and poetry than in academic writings. Authors such as Octavio Paz, Pedro Nava or Jorge Luis Borges had a greater political...Democracy in the Americas Licenciado Luis Tibiletti Ser 2000, Argentina 77 Part Three: National Security and Civil-Military Relations in the 21st...Century: Three Views From Latin America 83 6. Civil-Military Relations in the Americas for the 21st Century: A Latin American Perspective Professor Luis

  14. Immigration, crime, and incarceration in early twentieth-century America.

    PubMed

    Moehling, Carolyn; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2009-11-01

    The major government commissions on immigration and crime in the early twentieth century relied on evidence that suffered from aggregation bias and the absence of accurate population data, which led them to present partial and sometimes misleading views of the immigrant-native criminality comparison. With improved data and methods, we find that in 1904, prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19, for which the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native-born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely than natives to be committed to prisons at all ages 20 and older, but this advantage disappears when one looks at commitments for violent offenses. The time series pattern reflects a growing gap between natives and immigrants at older ages, one that was driven by sharp increases in the commitment rates of the native-born, while commitment rates for the foreign-born were remarkably stable.

  15. Immigration, Crime, and Incarceration in Early Twentieth-Century America

    PubMed Central

    MOEHLING, CAROLYN; PIEHL, ANNE MORRISON

    2009-01-01

    The major government commissions on immigration and crime in the early twentieth century relied on evidence that suffered from aggregation bias and the absence of accurate population data, which led them to present partial and sometimes misleading views of the immigrant-native criminality comparison. With improved data and methods, we find that in 1904, prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19, for which the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native-born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely than natives to be committed to prisons at all ages 20 and older, but this advantage disappears when one looks at commitments for violent offenses. The time series pattern reflects a growing gap between natives and immigrants at older ages, one that was driven by sharp increases in the commitment rates of the native-born, while commitment rates for the foreign-born were remarkably stable. PMID:20084827

  16. Preface: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Buttler, William; Furlanetto, Michael; Evans, William

    2014-05-01

    The 18th Biennial International Conference of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter in conjunction with the 24th Biennial International Conference of the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science & Technology (AIRAPT) was held at the Westin Hotel in Seattle, Washington from 7-12 July, 2013. This is only the second time that these two organizations have held a Joint Conference — the first was 20 years previous (1993) in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Seattle was chosen for this joint conference because of its central location for the world-wide attendees as well as its metropolitan vibrancy. The scientific program consisted of 858 scheduled presentations organized into 23 topical areas and included contributed (537), invited (95), and plenary (6) lectures, as well as two poster sessions with 110 posters each. The scientific focus of the Joint Conference was on fundamental and applied research topics related to the static or dynamic compression of condensed matter. This multidisciplinary field of research encompasses areas of physics, chemistry, materials science, mechanics, geophysics and planetary physics, and applied mathematics. Experimental, computational and theoretical studies all play important roles. The organizers endeavored to intertwine static and dynamic experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials in the organization of the sessions. This goal was aided by the addition of three special focus sessions on deep carbon budget, high energy density materials, and dynamic response of materials. 722 scientists and engineers from 25 countries registered at the conference, including 132 students from 12 countries. The attendee countries represented included: Argentina (2), Australia (2), Brazil (3), Canada (25), China (22), Czech Republic (2), France (35), Germany (19), India (6), Israel (21), Italy (10), Japan (49), Netherlands (1), Poland (1), Portugal (2), Russia (26

  17. A 1,200-year perspective of 21st century drought in southwestern North America

    PubMed Central

    Woodhouse, Connie A.; Meko, David M.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Stahle, Dave W.; Cook, Edward R.

    2010-01-01

    A key feature of anticipated 21st century droughts in Southwest North America is the concurrence of elevated temperatures and increased aridity. Instrumental records and paleoclimatic evidence for past prolonged drought in the Southwest that coincide with elevated temperatures can be assessed to provide insights on temperature-drought relations and to develop worst-case scenarios for the future. In particular, during the medieval period, ∼AD 900–1300, the Northern Hemisphere experienced temperatures warmer than all but the most recent decades. Paleoclimatic and model data indicate increased temperatures in western North America of approximately 1 °C over the long-term mean. This was a period of extensive and persistent aridity over western North America. Paleoclimatic evidence suggests drought in the mid-12th century far exceeded the severity, duration, and extent of subsequent droughts. The driest decade of this drought was anomalously warm, though not as warm as the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The convergence of prolonged warming and arid conditions suggests the mid-12th century may serve as a conservative analogue for severe droughts that might occur in the future. The severity, extent, and persistence of the 12th century drought that occurred under natural climate variability, have important implications for water resource management. The causes of past and future drought will not be identical but warm droughts, inferred from paleoclimatic records, demonstrate the plausibility of extensive, severe droughts, provide a long-term perspective on the ongoing drought conditions in the Southwest, and suggest the need for regional sustainability planning for the future. PMID:21149683

  18. A 1,200-year perspective of 21st century drought in southwestern North America.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Connie A; Meko, David M; MacDonald, Glen M; Stahle, Dave W; Cook, Edward R

    2010-12-14

    A key feature of anticipated 21st century droughts in Southwest North America is the concurrence of elevated temperatures and increased aridity. Instrumental records and paleoclimatic evidence for past prolonged drought in the Southwest that coincide with elevated temperatures can be assessed to provide insights on temperature-drought relations and to develop worst-case scenarios for the future. In particular, during the medieval period, ∼AD 900-1300, the Northern Hemisphere experienced temperatures warmer than all but the most recent decades. Paleoclimatic and model data indicate increased temperatures in western North America of approximately 1 °C over the long-term mean. This was a period of extensive and persistent aridity over western North America. Paleoclimatic evidence suggests drought in the mid-12th century far exceeded the severity, duration, and extent of subsequent droughts. The driest decade of this drought was anomalously warm, though not as warm as the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The convergence of prolonged warming and arid conditions suggests the mid-12th century may serve as a conservative analogue for severe droughts that might occur in the future. The severity, extent, and persistence of the 12th century drought that occurred under natural climate variability, have important implications for water resource management. The causes of past and future drought will not be identical but warm droughts, inferred from paleoclimatic records, demonstrate the plausibility of extensive, severe droughts, provide a long-term perspective on the ongoing drought conditions in the Southwest, and suggest the need for regional sustainability planning for the future.

  19. 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L. (Compiler)

    2005-01-01

    The 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVIII) Conference was held September 16 to 18, 2003, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar cell technology. This year s conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVII-the continued advances of thin-film and multijunction solar cell technologies and the new issues required to qualify those types of cells for space applications.

  20. National Defense Education and Innovation Initiative: Meeting America's Economic and Security Challenges in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Association of American Universities (AAU) calls on the Administration, Congress, and academia, with the help of the business sector, to implement a 21st Century National Defense Education and Innovation Initiative aimed at meeting the economic and security challenges we will face over the next half-century. Government and America's…

  1. Three Centuries of Synchronous Forest Defoliator Outbreaks in Western North America.

    PubMed

    Flower, Aquila

    2016-01-01

    Insect outbreaks often occur synchronously across large spatial scales, but the long-term temporal stability of the phenomenon and the mechanisms behind it are not well understood. In this study, I use a widespread lepidopteran defoliator native to western North America-the western spruce budworm-as a case study to explore patterns of and potential causes for synchronous population fluctuations. Analyses of synchrony are typically severely limited by the short historical records available for many species. To overcome this limitation, I compiled multi-century dendrochronological reconstructions of western spruce budworm outbreaks from across much of the species' range. This allowed me to analyze synchrony at a sub-continental spatial scale over the last three centuries. I found statistically significant synchrony among regional outbreak records up to 2,000 km apart and identified numerous outbreak periods that occurred synchronously across much of the species' range. I quantified spatial and temporal associations between climate and synchronous outbreak periods using paleoclimate reconstructions. The spatial patterns of outbreak histories and climate records were remarkably similar, with higher similarity in outbreak histories apparent between regions with more similar climate conditions. Synchronous outbreaks typically occurred during periods of average or above average moisture availability preceded by periods of low moisture availability. My results suggest that climatic variability has played a key role in synchronizing western spruce budworm population fluctuations in disjunct forests across western North America for at least the last three centuries. Widespread synchrony appears to be a natural part of this species' population dynamics, though synchronous outbreaks have occurred more frequently during the 20th century than during prior centuries. This study uses a novel combination of statistical methods and dendrochronological data to provide analyses of

  2. Increasing Risk of Tree Mortality in Western North America towards the End of 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Rauscher, S. A.; Ringler, T.; Lawrence, D. M.; Williams, A. P.; McDowell, N. G.; Cai, M.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid and large-scale tree mortality due to recent climate change and climate-change induced insect outbreaks has been observed in western North America. Climate models have projected an increase in future temperatures and changes in precipitation for this region. However, quantitative assessments of the magnitude and timing of potential climate-driven changes in vegetation mortality are lacking. We use an Earth System Model (the Community Earth System Model) coupled with a dynamic vegetation model (DGVM) to assess future potential changes in vegetation distributions over western North America under the future A2 emissions scenario. In order to better span uncertainties in future climate, different future sea surface temperature (SST) projections provided by CMIP3 (phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) are used as boundary conditions. Although all model simulations project different future climates, there is a broad consensus amongst our simulations that a decrease (from 45% to 30%) in needleleaf evergreen tree coverage coincident with an increase (from 8% to 20%) in shrubs and grasses will likely happen starting in the mid-21st century over western North America. Our findings suggest that a shift of tree-covered landscape to shrubs and grasses dominated landscape in western North America may take place due to future warming and consequent increases in water deficits.

  3. [A morphology of 'quilombos' in the Americas, sixteenth-nineteenth centuries].

    PubMed

    Florentino, Manolo; Amantino, Márcia

    2012-12-01

    The article begins with the finding that studies on 'quilombos' in slave societies in the Americas have been relatively anodyne, not rarely placing in one sole category ('quilombos', 'cumbes', 'palenques', 'mainels', etc.) structures that might encompass anywhere from less than ten runaways, and last just weeks or months, or - as in the case of Palmares - bring together up to 11,000 'quilombolas' and endure for nearly a century. A similar conceptual anomaly is evident in the absence of taxonomies, which envision 'quilombos' as effectively historical structures, which might have been restricted merely to loose groups or have developed into self-sustaining communities capable of reproducing themselves economically and demographically for long periods in the Americas.

  4. Spanish historical sources to reconstruct climate in the Americas during the XIXth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Herrera, R.; Rubio, F.; Prieto, M.; Hernández, E.; Gimeno, L.

    2001-12-01

    The Spanish colonization of the Americas expanded since the beginning of the XVIth century until the beginning of the XIXth century, when most of the colonies became independent. During this period, a large amount of documentary information was produced, due to the fact that the Spanish Empire was highly centralized and bureaucracy was one of its core elements. Most of these documents are well preserved either in local archives in the Americas or in the Archivo General de Indias in Sevilla, which keeps thousands of bundles relative to any relevant aspect of the ordinary life of the colonies. Different projects are now searching climatic information in this archive with very encouraging results. During the XIXth century Spain kept two colonies in the Americas: Cuba and Puerto Rico, which became independent in 1898. This has allowed that a lot of information survived in Spanish Archives for this period. After a preliminary inspection of different Spanish Archives: Archivo General de Indias, Archivo del Museo Naval and Archivo Histórico Nacional (General Archive of Indies, Archive of the Naval Museum and National Historic Archive), it has been possible to identify two main areas of climatic interest: 1) information from ship logbooks connecting Spain with Cuba and Puerto Rico and 2) reports about hurricanes. The information contained in the ship logbooks is very rich and could help to better characterize elements of the large-scale circulation in the Atlantic; the reports on hurricanes can be very detailed and were elaborated by very skilled personnel. The presentation will provide different examples of the potential of these sources and describe different Spanish projects involved in the abstraction of this type of data.

  5. JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  6. EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2012-02-01

    to the proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (Physica Scripta 2009 T135 011005). The 18th edition of CEWQO (CEWQO11) was held in Madrid in 2011. There were about 250 participants, from practically every European country. Many colleagues from other continents also joined the event, including well-established researchers in the field. This is a clear demonstration that these meetings provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. The organization of CEWQO11 was carried out by a committee consisting of members active in this topic in Madrid. From Universidad Complutense, Alberto Galindo and Luis L Sánchez-Soto from Universidad Autónoma, Jose Calleja and Carlos Tejedor; from Universidad Politécnica, Enrique Calleja; from Universidad Carlos III, Alberto Ibort; and from the National Research Council (CSIC), Juan León and Juan J García-Ripoll. Special thanks go to the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation, Universidad Complutense and the Quitemad Consortium for financial support. The proceedings of the 16th CEWQO held at the University of Turku, Finland and the 17th CEWQO held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK are also available (Physica Scripta 2010 T140 and Physica Scripta 2011 T143). The present Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented in Madrid; they represent an illustrative sample of the major achievements and trends in this area. In turn, they reflect the wide range of interests in this rapidly evolving field. Some collaborators from different scientific centres who could not, due to different reasons, come to Madrid, but participated in previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs, also contributed to this issue. The papers are arranged alphabetically by the name of the first author. Special thanks goes to Roger Wäppling, the Managing Editor of Physica Scripta, and Graeme Watt, the Publisher, for the opportunity to publish CEWQO11. From a Physica Scripta Editorial Board meeting it was

  7. Three Centuries of Synchronous Forest Defoliator Outbreaks in Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Flower, Aquila

    2016-01-01

    Insect outbreaks often occur synchronously across large spatial scales, but the long-term temporal stability of the phenomenon and the mechanisms behind it are not well understood. In this study, I use a widespread lepidopteran defoliator native to western North America—the western spruce budworm—as a case study to explore patterns of and potential causes for synchronous population fluctuations. Analyses of synchrony are typically severely limited by the short historical records available for many species. To overcome this limitation, I compiled multi-century dendrochronological reconstructions of western spruce budworm outbreaks from across much of the species’ range. This allowed me to analyze synchrony at a sub-continental spatial scale over the last three centuries. I found statistically significant synchrony among regional outbreak records up to 2,000 km apart and identified numerous outbreak periods that occurred synchronously across much of the species’ range. I quantified spatial and temporal associations between climate and synchronous outbreak periods using paleoclimate reconstructions. The spatial patterns of outbreak histories and climate records were remarkably similar, with higher similarity in outbreak histories apparent between regions with more similar climate conditions. Synchronous outbreaks typically occurred during periods of average or above average moisture availability preceded by periods of low moisture availability. My results suggest that climatic variability has played a key role in synchronizing western spruce budworm population fluctuations in disjunct forests across western North America for at least the last three centuries. Widespread synchrony appears to be a natural part of this species’ population dynamics, though synchronous outbreaks have occurred more frequently during the 20th century than during prior centuries. This study uses a novel combination of statistical methods and dendrochronological data to provide

  8. Synthesis of the 18th ArgoSpine Symposium.

    PubMed

    Kehr, P; Graftiaux, A; Mazel, C; Richard, N

    2014-07-01

    The subject of this 18th Symposium of ArgoSpine Association was the space of the intervertebral discs. Space of the intervertebral discs must be initially defined anatomically and histologically. A geometrical rebuilding in 3D is possible and must allow a modeling of the intervertebral discs. The physiology of the disc, its nutrition, must be known, in particular that of the center of the disc. The disc constitutes the base of the balance of the rachis, balances which can be only dynamic. The degenerative cascade by the loss of the proteoglycans involves the loss of the biomechanical properties of the disc. The consequences of this degenerative cascade are the base of all the vertebral pathology of origin of the intervertebral discs and even of the posterior articular facets. The origin of the pains and the diagnosis, especially at the lumbar level, are studied by the speakers. Traumatology of the intervertebral discs is the object of a particular chapter. Finally, the average therapeutic ones, that is, decompression of the intervertebral discs, fusion of the intervertebral discs, the recovery of mobility of the intervertebral discs, and the capacity of restoration of space of the intervertebral discs, are studied in detail. The infection of the disc is studied in detail.

  9. The Lost Worlds of Messmore & Damon: Science, Spectacle & Prehistoric Monsters in early-twentieth century America.

    PubMed

    Manias, Chris

    2016-09-01

    In 1924, the model-making company Messmore & Damon, Inc. of New York unleashed their masterpiece: the Amphibious Dinosaurus Brontosaurus, a moving, breathing, roaring animatronic dinosaur, based on displays in the American Museum of Natural History. Over the 1920s and 1930s, this became the focus of an ever-increasing publicity campaign, as Messmore & Damon exhibited prehistoric automata in department stores, the media, and the Chicago World Fair of 1933-34. These displays were hugely popular and widely discussed, drawing from the increasing public appeal of paleontology. Mixing commercial entertainment with invocations of scientific value, Messmore & Damon's prehistoric creations offer a window into the meaning and popularity of the deep time sciences in early-twentieth century America, and the links between science and spectacle in this period.

  10. EDITORIAL: The 18th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 07)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, J. H.

    2008-06-01

    This special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the 18th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 07), which took place at the University of Minho, Guimarães, Portugal from 16-18 September 2007. Since the first workshop at the University of Twente in 1989 the field of micromechanics has grown substantially and new fields have been added: optics, RF, biomedical, chemistry, and in recent years the emergence of nanotechnology. This year an extensive programme was scheduled with contributions from new materials research to new manufacturing techniques. In addition, the invited speakers presented a review of the state-of-the-art in several main trends in current research, with the focus on micro/nanosystems in the ICT Work Programme in EC FP7. As ever, the two day workshop was attended by delegates from all over Europe, the USA, Brazil, Egypt, Japan and Canada. A total of 96 papers were accepted for presentation and there were a further five keynote presentations. The workshop provides a forum for young researchers to learn about new experimental methods and to enhance their knowledge of the field. This special issue presents a selection of 17 of the best papers from the workshop. The papers highlight fluidic and optical devices, energy scavenging microsystems, neural probe arrays and microtechnology fabrication techniques. All the papers went through the regular reviewing procedure of IOP Publishing, and I am grateful to all the referees for their excellent work. I would also like to extend my thanks to Professor Robert Puers for advice on the final selection of papers and to Ian Forbes of IOP Publishing for managing the entire process. My thanks also go to the editorial staff of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. I believe that this special issue will provide a good overview of the topics presented at the workshop and I hope you enjoy reading it.

  11. FOREWORD: 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Genova, Julia; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2014-12-01

    We are delighted to present the Proceedings of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Challenges of Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials, Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and chaired by Professor Alexander G Petrov. On this occasion the School was held in memory of Professor Nikolay Kirov (1943-2013), former Director of the Institute and Chairman between 1991 and 1998. The 18ISCMP was one of several events dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2014, and was held in the welcoming Black Sea resort of St. Constantine and Helena near Varna, at the Hotel and Congress Centre Frederic Joliot-Curie. Participants from 16 countries delivered 32 invited lectures, and 71 contributed posters were presented over three lively and well-attended evening sessions. Manuscripts submitted to the Proceedings were refereed in accordance with the guidelines of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, and we believe the papers published herein testify to the high technical quality and diversity of contributions. A satellite meeting, Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films - Functional Layers in Smart Windows and Water Splitting Devices: Technology and Optoelectronic Properties was held in parallel with the School (http://www.inera.org, 3-6 Sept 2014). This activity, which took place under the FP7-funded project INERA, offered opportunities for crossdisciplinary discussions and exchange of ideas between both sets of participants. As always, a major factor in the success of the 18ISCMP was the social programme, headed by the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and enhanced in no small measure by a variety of pleasant local restaurants, bars and beaches. We are most grateful to staff of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for their continued support for the School, this being the third occasion on which the Proceedings have been published under its

  12. Greenhouse warming and the 21st century hydroclimate of southwestern North America

    PubMed Central

    Seager, Richard; Vecchi, Gabriel A.

    2010-01-01

    Climate models robustly predict that the climate of southwestern North America, defined as the area from the western Great Plains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Oregon border to southern Mexico, will dry throughout the current century as a consequence of rising greenhouse gases. This regional drying is part of a general drying of the subtropics and poleward expansion of the subtropical dry zones. Through an analysis of 15 coupled climate models it is shown here that the drying is driven by a reduction of winter season precipitation associated with increased moisture divergence by the mean flow and reduced moisture convergence by transient eddies. Due to the presence of large amplitude decadal variations of presumed natural origin, observations to date cannot confirm that this transition to a drier climate is already underway, but it is anticipated that the anthropogenic drying will reach the amplitude of natural decadal variability by midcentury. In addition to this drop in total precipitation, warming is already causing a decline in mountain snow mass and an advance in the timing of spring snow melt disrupting the natural water storage systems that are part of the region’s water supply system. Uncertainties in how radiative forcing will impact the tropical Pacific climate system create uncertainties in the amplitude of drying in southwest North America with a La Niña-like response creating a worst case scenario of greater drying. PMID:21149692

  13. America's Demography in the New Century: Aging Baby Boomers and New Immigrants as Major Players. Milken Institute Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, William H.; DeVol, Ross C.

    America's demography in the new century will be affected by the aging baby boom generation and by new immigrants. Focus on just the national implications of aging baby boomers and the new immigrants is inadequate. This policy brief takes a regional perspective, examining recent trends and population statistics and making the case that aging baby…

  14. Projected future changes in vegetation in western North America in the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xiaoyan, Jiang; Rauscher, Sara A.; Ringler, Todd D.; Lawrence, David M.; Williams, A. Park; Allen, Craig D.; Steiner, Allison L.; Cai, D. Michael; McDowell, Nate G.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and broad-scale forest mortality associated with recent droughts, rising temperature, and insect outbreaks has been observed over western North America (NA). Climate models project additional future warming and increasing drought and water stress for this region. To assess future potential changes in vegetation distributions in western NA, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) coupled with its Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) was used under the future A2 emissions scenario. To better span uncertainties in future climate, eight sea surface temperature (SST) projections provided by phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) were employed as boundary conditions. There is a broad consensus among the simulations, despite differences in the simulated climate trajectories across the ensemble, that about half of the needleleaf evergreen tree coverage (from 24% to 11%) will disappear, coincident with a 14% (from 11% to 25%) increase in shrubs and grasses by the end of the twenty-first century in western NA, with most of the change occurring over the latter half of the twenty-first century. The net impact is a ~6 GtC or about 50% decrease in projected ecosystem carbon storage in this region. The findings suggest a potential for a widespread shift from tree-dominated landscapes to shrub and grass-dominated landscapes in western NA because of future warming and consequent increases in water deficits. These results highlight the need for improved process-based understanding of vegetation dynamics, particularly including mortality and the subsequent incorporation of these mechanisms into earth system models to better quantify the vulnerability of western NA forests under climate change.

  15. PREFACE: 18th Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials Conference (MSM XVIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, T.; Hutchison, John L.

    2013-11-01

    YRM logo This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 18th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at St Catherine's College, University of Oxford, on 7-11 April 2013. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Royal Microscopical Society and supported by the Institute of Physics as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 109 delegates from 17 countries world-wide. We were welcomed by Professor Sir Peter Hirsch, who noted that this was the first of these conferences where Professor Tony Cullis was unable to attend, owing to ill-health. During the meeting a card containing greetings from many of Tony's friends and colleagues was signed, and duly sent to Tony afterwards. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes for device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, electronic structure, chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two topics that have at this meeting again highlighted the interesting contributions of aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy were: contrast quantification of annular dark-field STEM images in terms of chemical composition (Z-contrast), sample thickness and strain, and the study of

  16. America Recycles Day 2015: By The President Of The United States of America, A Proclamation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As we approach the 18th America Recycles Day, it is important to recognize the contribution that recycling makes to protecting our environment, conserving natural resources and helping our economy. As described in the President's America Recycles Day Proc

  17. High-resolution dynamically downscaled projections of precipitation in the mid and late 21st century over North America

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-07-29

    This study performs high-spatial-resolution (12 km) Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations over a very large domain (7200 km × 6180 km, covering much of North America) to explore changes in mean and extreme precipitation in the mid and late 21st century under Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 (RCP 4.5) and 8.5 (RCP 8.5). We evaluate WRF model performance for a historical simulation and future projections, applying the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) as initial and boundary conditions with and without a bias correction. WRF simulations using boundary and initial conditions from both versions of CCSM4 show smaller biases versus evaluation data sets than does CCSM4 over western North America. WRF simulations also improve spatial details of precipitation over much of North America. However, driving the WRF with the bias-corrected CCSM4 does not always reduce the bias. WRF-projected changes in precipitation include decreasing intensity over the southwestern United States, increasing intensity over the eastern United States and most of Canada, and an increase in the number of days with heavy precipitation over much of North America. Projected precipitation changes are more evident in the late 21st century than the mid 21st century, and they are more evident under RCP 8.5 than under RCP 4.5 in the late 21st century. Uncertainties in the projected changes in precipitation due to different warming scenarios are non-negligible. Differences in summer precipitation changes between WRF and CCSM4 are significant over most of the United States.

  18. High-resolution dynamically downscaled projections of precipitation in the mid and late 21st century over North America

    DOE PAGES

    none,

    2015-07-29

    This study performs high-spatial-resolution (12 km) Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations over a very large domain (7200 km × 6180 km, covering much of North America) to explore changes in mean and extreme precipitation in the mid and late 21st century under Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 (RCP 4.5) and 8.5 (RCP 8.5). We evaluate WRF model performance for a historical simulation and future projections, applying the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) as initial and boundary conditions with and without a bias correction. WRF simulations using boundary and initial conditions from both versions of CCSM4 show smaller biasesmore » versus evaluation data sets than does CCSM4 over western North America. WRF simulations also improve spatial details of precipitation over much of North America. However, driving the WRF with the bias-corrected CCSM4 does not always reduce the bias. WRF-projected changes in precipitation include decreasing intensity over the southwestern United States, increasing intensity over the eastern United States and most of Canada, and an increase in the number of days with heavy precipitation over much of North America. Projected precipitation changes are more evident in the late 21st century than the mid 21st century, and they are more evident under RCP 8.5 than under RCP 4.5 in the late 21st century. Uncertainties in the projected changes in precipitation due to different warming scenarios are non-negligible. Differences in summer precipitation changes between WRF and CCSM4 are significant over most of the United States.« less

  19. The Flora of North America Project: A 21st-Century Tool for Managing Plant Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Judith M.; Morin, Nancy R.

    1997-01-01

    Describes The Flora of North America, the first comprehensive description of all plants growing spontaneously in North America. Discusses online resources, the publication as an educational resource, the published volumes, and scientific and planning applications. (JRH)

  20. Between the national and the universal: natural history networks in Latin America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Regina Horta

    2013-12-01

    This essay examines contemporary Latin American historical writing about natural history from the nineteenth through the twentieth centuries. Natural history is a "network science," woven out of connections and communications between diverse people and centers of scholarship, all against a backdrop of complex political and economic changes. Latin American naturalists navigated a tension between promoting national science and participating in "universal" science. These tensions between the national and the universal have also been reflected in historical writing on Latin America. Since the 1980s, narratives that recognize Latin Americans' active role have become more notable within the renewal of the history of Latin American science. However, the nationalist slant of these approaches has kept Latin American historiography on the margins. The networked nature of natural history and Latin America's active role in it afford an opportunity to end the historiographic isolation of Latin America and situate it within world history.

  1. [Theriacs in charity books, during the 17th and the 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Lafont, Olivier

    2010-10-01

    "Charity books" were books containing formulas of remedies, which were easy to prepare and not too expensive. Their purpose was to cure poor people who had not enough money to have access to official Medicine or who lived too far away from medicine doctors and apothecaries. They were then useful for charitable people such as country priests or charitable Ladies. Great Theriacs were very expensive and too difficult to prepare to be described in this kind of books for non-professional people. Simplified formulas were then proposed. They contained much less products and were quite cheaper. Some of these medicines are described in this article.

  2. Translation Studies and the History of Science: The Greek Textbooks of the 18th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrou, Georgia

    2006-01-01

    The process of translation has been studied extensively from a philological point of view, and has been lately regarded as a creative activity, during which the translated text is not treated in isolation from the circumstances of its reception. Current research has related communicational and functional approaches with concepts such as…

  3. Bradley's Nutation, 18th-Century Analytic Argument, and the Contemporary Technical Communication Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael G.

    One of the more difficult elements to teach well in the introductory technical writing classroom is rhetorical form. Although textbooks have gotten much better than in the past at teaching this element, some still imply that structure is a matter of filling up a set form with content. One way to help students avoid this difficulty is to introduce…

  4. Complement research in the 18th-21st centuries: Progress comes with new technology.

    PubMed

    Sim, R B; Schwaeble, W; Fujita, T

    2016-10-01

    The complement system has been studied for about 120 years. Progress in defining this large and complex system has been dependent on the research technologies available, but since the introduction of protein chromatography, electrophoresis, and antibody-based assay methods in the 1950s and 60s, and sequencing of proteins and DNA in the 70s and 80s, there has been very rapid accumulation of data. With more recent improvements in 3D structure determination (nmr and X-ray crystallography), the structures of most of the complement proteins have now been solved. Complement research since 1990 has been greatly stimulated by the discoveries of the multiple proteins in the lectin pathway, the strong association of Factor H, C3, Factor B allelic variants with adult macular degeneration and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome, and the introduction of the anti-C5 monoclonal antibody as a therapy for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome. Potential new roles for complement in tissue development and the search for novel therapeutics suggest a very active future for complement research.

  5. Translation Studies and the History of Science: The Greek Textbooks of the 18th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrou, Georgia

    2006-11-01

    The process of translation has been studied extensively from a philological point of view, and has been lately regarded as a creative activity, during which the translated text is not treated in isolation from the circumstances of its reception. Current research has related communicational and functional approaches with concepts such as authorship, textual transmission and cultural factors. Very few historians of science, however, have looked systematically at the issue of translation as worth studying in its own right. Yet the history of translation of philosophical and scientific texts calls, in particular, on the transfer of knowledge from ‘centres’ to ‘peripheries’ and could make serious inroads into reception studies.

  6. Can legislation prevent debauchery? Mother gin and public health in 18th-century England.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, J; Her, M; Gmel, G; Rehm, J

    2001-01-01

    The "gin epidemic" of 1720 to 1751 in England was the first time that government intervened in a systematic fashion to regulate and control sales of alcohol. The epidemic therefore provides an opportunity to gauge the effects of multiple legislative interventions over time. Toward that end, we employed time series analysis in conjunction with qualitative methodologies to test the interplay of multiple independent variables, including real wages and taxes, on the consumption of distilled spirits from 1700 through 1771. The results showed that each of the 3 major gin acts was successful in the short term only, consistent with the state's limited resources for enforcement at the local level, and that in each instance consumption actually increased shortly thereafter. This was true even of the Gin Act of 1751, which, contrary to the assumptions of contemporaries and many historians, succeeded by accident rather than by design. The results also suggest that the epidemic followed the inverse U-shaped trajectory of more recent drug scares and that consumption declined only after the more deleterious effects of distilled spirits had been experienced by large numbers of people. PMID:11236401

  7. Frederica: An 18th-Century Planned Community. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Marion

    The excavated foundations of various structures in Frederica, Saint Simons Island, Georgia, remind visitors that from 1736 until 1758, this planned community served the military garrison quartered there and housed a population of 1000. This lesson is based on the Fort Frederica National Monument listed in the National Register of Historic Places.…

  8. Communicating the New Chemistry in 18th-Century Portugal: Seabra's "Elementos de Chimica"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Simoes, Ana

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the aims, contents and impact of Seabra's two-volume textbook--"Elementos de Chimica" ("Elements of Chemistry")--published in 1788 and 1790. Seabra's "Elements of Chemistry" does not conform to the characteristics usually ascribed to textbooks by traditional historiography, and in particular…

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New standards in 18th century astrometry (Lequeux, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequeux, J.

    2014-05-01

    Catalogue of Flamsteed (flamstee.dat): John Flamsteed (1646-1719) was the first astronomer in charge of Greenwich Observatory. His stellar catalogue (Flamsteed 1725) was built on observations from 1675 to 1683 with a 6-feet radius sextant mounted on an axis parallel to the polar axis of the Earth, then from 1683 to 1719 with a mural circle with a radius of 79.5 inches (2m). 220 stars over 3925. Catalogue of Romer (romer.dat): Ole (or Olaus) Romer (1644-1710) is principally known for his 1676 discovery of the finite velocity of light, a discovery that he shared with Jean-Dominique Cassini. After a long stay in Paris, he returned to Copenhagen in 1681 and was appointed professor of astronomy at the University. The observatory and all the observations were destroyed in the great Copenhagen fire of 1728, with the exception of observations of 88 stars obtained during three observing nights, from 20 to 23 October 1706. La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (lacaifun.dat): Nicolas-Louis La Caille (or Lacaille, or de la Caille, 1713-1762) was a French astronomer who is remembered principally for his survey of the southern sky, where he introduced 14 new constellations that are still in use today. Before leaving for the Cape of Good Hope in 1750, he started a catalogue of the 400 brightest stars of both hemispheres, which he completed during his stays in Cape Town and in the Mauritius island, then after his return to Paris in 1754. He reduced the observations himself, including for the first time corrections for aberration and nutation, and published them with details of the observations and reductions (La Caille 1757). Bailly's adaptation of La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (bailly.dat): After the death of La Caille, Jean-Sylvain Bailly published a catalogue of the brighest stars of both hemispheres for the equinox B1750.0 in Ephemerides for 10 year from 1765 to 1775 (Anonymous (Bailly) 1763, p. lvii-lxiv). This catalogue obviously derives from the catalogue named lacaillefund.dat. La Caille's complete survey of the southern sky (lacaisur.dat): During his stay in Cape Town in 1751-1752, La Caille made the first systematic survey of the sky ever, in the modern sense. 244 stars over 9766. La Caille's catalogue of zodiacal stars (lacaizod.dat): When La Caille returned from his southern expedition in 1754, he undertook the construction of a catalogue of zodiacal stars. Mayer's zodiacal catalogue (mayer.dat): At exactly the same time as La Caille, Tobias Mayer (1723-1762) in Gottingen undertook a similar catalogue of zodiacal stars, using a 6-feet radius mural quadrant made by John Bird (1709-1776). 200 stars over 998. Bradley's stellar catalogue (bradley.dat): James Bradley (1693-1762) is famous for his discovery of aberration and nutation. From 1750 to his death in 1762, he built a large stellar catalogue, from observations first with an old mural sector and after 1753 with the Bird 8-ft mural sector located in Greenwich, where it 215 stars over 3220. Piazzi's stellar catalogue (piazzi.dat): Giuseppe Piazzi (1746-1846) built a large catalogue containing 7646 stars from 1792 to 1813, observed in Palermo with an altazimuthal circle of Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800) can still be seen. 202 stars over 7646. Lalande's stellar catalogue (lalande.dat): L'Histoire celeste francaise de Lalande (Lalande 1801), which contains the unreduced observations of approximately 40,000 stars, is the first very large stellar catalogue. 198 stars over ~45000. (10 data files).

  10. Relationship between Spain and the United States during the 18th and 19th Centuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-21

    su primer Commis. M. Gerard, dej~ndoles tomar una substancia de ella, pars que nunca resultase documento demonstrable. Que el Rey habia concedido dos...haber objeto mis precioso que privarla de esta grande y crecedera :fuente de su mercantil riqueza. su marina y sus Dominios. La corte Britdnica estd tan...ejemnphires de e.ttn credencial ei el misn-o Archtvo y So ccidin, leg. 39I91 bis, expediente 8, documentos 13 y !9). 52 APPENDIX 12 Despacho de J. Jay a

  11. Gestural Enthymemes: Delivering Movement in 18th- and 19th-Century Medical Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sara

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to recent efforts to add life and movement to rhetorical studies by focusing on the representation of movement in medical texts. More specifically, this study examines medical texts, illustrations, and photographs involving movement by Johann Casper Lavater, G. B. Duchenne de Bologne, Charles Darwin, and Etienne-Jules…

  12. Communicating the new chemistry in 18th-century Portugal: Seabra's Elementos de Chimica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Simões, Ana

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, we analyse the aims, contents and impact of Seabra’s two-volume textbook - Elementos de Chimica ( Elements of Chemistry) - published in 1788 and 1790. Seabra’s Elements of Chemistry does not conform to the characteristics usually ascribed to textbooks by traditional historiography, and in particular to textbooks published in the peripheries. Marking the arrival of the new chemistry in Portugal, in a period in which many still resisted Lavoisier’s chemistry, this textbook was a state of the art account written in Portuguese, interspersed with critical evaluations, original comments and novel contributions. Despite being the only Portuguese chemistry textbook written during this period, it had hardly any readers, even among its natural audience at the University of Coimbra.

  13. [A town-physician in the 18th century: Johann Friedrich Glaser].

    PubMed

    Schilling, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Johann Friedrich Glaser rose from an executioner's family to the position of a town physician in Suhl. The contribution concentrates on the importance of this position for Glaser. It first looks at the position of town physicians in Suhl. They possessed due to certain historical circumstances several duties and rights. They enjoyed a remarkably high standing in the town society which made the position especially attractive for Glaser as a road to social acceptance. His interaction with the medical administration in Dresden (Suhl belonged to the jurisdiction of Electoral Saxony) further enhanced his possibilities to interact with local and territorial spheres. Altogether, Glaser's official functions gained importance over his role as a (medical) scientist, because they offered him the best way to gain social and cultural prestige.

  14. Dynamic and Fatigue Analysis of an 18th Century Steel Arch Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boumechra, Nadir; Hamdaoui, Karim

    2008-07-01

    Within the "Oran-Tlemcen" railway line realization project (159 km), several bridges were built by the Railroads Algerian West Company. 7 km from the east of Tlemcen city, this railway line must cross a very broken mountainous collar, that's why the French engineer "Gustave Eiffel" was solicited to construct a 68 m length bridge. In 1890, an arch steel truss bridge was realized. The bridge presents 300 m of apron curvature radius and, currently, is considered as one of the most important monuments of the Algerian historical heritage. Considering the age of the bridge and the evolution of the railway loads in time, it was essential to check the good behavior of the studied structure. For that, analyses to verify the physical and mechanical properties of the growth iron members are made. A finite element model of the bridge was built and numerical simulations were drawn. The structural vibration conducted analysis permit to understand the behavior of this particular structure, then to evaluate (in detail) the rate of the structure fatigue.

  15. Tongue and lip frenectomy in Spanish medical texts of the 16th-18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Romero-Maroto, Martín; Sáez-Gómez, José Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The frena of the tongue and lip are normal structures of the buccal cavity, and surgical resection is only necessary in cases of hypertrophy. This article looks at medical texts of the Early Modern Era to analyze the origins and quality of our knowledge on this topic and examine any therapeutic measures proposed. This review shows that while the indications for carrying out tongue frenectomy are very similar to those today (speech and breastfeeding difficulties), those for carrying out a lip frenectomy are very different. Interestingly, apart from purely surgical or medicinal treatments, some authors indicated the need to complement such treatment with educational intervention and what can only be called basic speech therapy.

  16. Healing with animals in the Levant from the 10th to the 18th century

    PubMed Central

    Lev, Efraim

    2006-01-01

    Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. The article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (The Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad al-Sham) in the medieval and early Ottoman periods. Intensive research into the phenomenon of zootherapy in the medieval and early Ottoman Levant has yielded forty-eight substances of animal origin that were used medicinally. The vast majority of these substances were local and relatively easy to obtain. Most of the substances were domestic (honey, wax, silkworm, etc.), others were part of the local wildlife (adder, cuttle fish, flycatcher, firefly, frog, triton, scorpion, etc.), part of the usual medieval household (milk, egg, cheese, lamb, etc.), or parasites (louse, mouse, stinkbug, etc.). Fewer substances were not local but exotic, and therefore rare and expensive (beaver testicles, musk oil, coral, ambergris, etc.). The range of symptoms that the substances of animal origin were used to treat was extensive and included most of the known diseases and maladies of that era: mainly hemorrhoids, burns, impotence, wounds, and skin, eye, and stomach diseases. Changes in the moral outlook of modern societies caused the use of several substances of animal origin to cease in the course of history. These include mummy, silkworm, stinkbug, scarabees, snail, scorpion, and triton. PMID:16504024

  17. Projected impact of twenty-first century ENSO changes on rainfall over Central America and northwest South America from CMIP5 AOGCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Clark, Martyn P.

    2015-03-01

    Due to the importance that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has on rainfall over the tropical Americas, future changes in ENSO characteristics and teleconnections are important for regional hydroclimate. Projected changes to the ENSO mean state and characteristics, and the resulting impacts on rainfall anomalies over Central America, Colombia, and Ecuador during the twenty-first century are explored for several forcing scenarios using a suite of coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Mean-state warming of eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, drying of Central America and northern Colombia, and wetting of southwest Colombia and Ecuador are consistent with previous studies that used earlier versions of the AOGCMs. Current and projected future characteristics of ENSO (frequency, duration, amplitude) show a wide range of values across the various AOGCMs. The magnitude of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies are currently underestimated by most of the models, but the model ensembles generally simulate the correct sign of the anomalies across the seasons around the peak ENSO effects. While the models capture the broad present-day ENSO-related rainfall anomalies, there is not a clear sense of projected future changes in the precipitation anomalies.

  18. Biography of a technology: North America's power grid through the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, Julie A.

    North Americans are among the world's most intense consumers of electricity. The vast majority in the United States and Canada access power from a network of transmission lines that stretch from the East Coast to the West Coast and from Canada to the Mexican Baja. This network, known as the largest interconnected machine in the world, evolved during the first two thirds of the twentieth century. With the very first link-ups occurring at the end of the 1890s, a wide variety of public and private utilities extended power lines to reach markets, access and manage energy resources, balance loads, realize economies of scale, provide backup power, and achieve economic stability. In 1967, utility managers and the Bureau of Reclamation connected the expansive eastern and western power pools to create the North American grid. Unlike other power grids around the world, built by single, centrally controlled entities, this large technological system emerged as the result of multiple decisions across eighty-five years of development, and negotiations for control at the economic, political, and technological levels. This dissertation describes the process of building the North American grid and the paradoxes the resulting system represents. While the grid functions as a single machine moving electricity across the continent, it is owned by many independent entities. Smooth operations suggest that the grid is a unified system; however, it operates under shared management and divided authority. In addition, although a single power network seems the logical outcome of electrification, in fact it was assembled through aggregation, not planning. Interconnections intentionally increase the robustness of individual sub-networks, yet the system itself is fragile, as demonstrated by major cascading power outages. Finally, the transmission network facilitates increased use of energy resources and consumption of power, but at certain points in the past, it also served as a technology of

  19. What Did It Look Like Then? Eighteenth Century Architectural Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Joshua, Jr.

    Designed primarily for use in the intermediate grades, the teaching unit provides 11 lessons and related activities for teaching students to look at colonial architectural elements as a means of learning about 18th century lifestyles. Although the unit relies upon resources available in Alexandria and Arlington, Virginia, other 18th century cities…

  20. Putting Current North America Drought Conditions into a Multi-Century Perspective. Part 1: Constructing the Paleo Drought Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, E. R.; Vose, R. S.; Heim, R. R.; Lawrimore, J. H.

    2007-12-01

    Drought is an important climatological phenomenon which has significant socioeconomic and environmental impacts. Several drought indices have been developed to quantify drought, but all of them rely on meteorological observations taken at instrumented in situ weather stations. The instrumental record for drought monitoring in the U.S. extends back only about a hundred years, and the record is even shorter in other countries such as Canada and Mexico. Recurrence intervals and water management compacts (for example, the Colorado River Basin domestic or Rio Grande international compacts) based upon such short records may not be built upon the true climatology of a region. Reliable drought information can be derived from paleoclimatic data such as tree- rings, thus enabling researchers and decision-makers to assess drought variability and impacts over a multi- century period. Previous work has developed research-quality paleoclimatic drought reconstructions which have been used in retrospective analyses but, until now, such data bases have not been used comprehensively in operational monitoring. Part 1 of this paper describes the development of the reconstructed paleoclimatic Palmer drought index gridded dataset for North America from tree-ring data. Part 2 of this paper describes how the reconstructed paleoclimatic data base is blended with a 20th century instrumental-based Palmer drought index gridded dataset for operational drought monitoring applications across North America.

  1. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (18th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 14-18, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J. Ed.; Nickelson, Richard, Ed.

    The Pacific Telecommunications Council's 18th annual conference is presented in two volumes. The PTC'96 gathering focused on seven streams: socio-economic issues; regulatory, legal and political issues; business and finance solutions; country studies; education, training, and human resources; convergence and networks; and technologies and…

  2. What Language Teachers Want--Considering the Evaluation of 18th Biennial Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absalom, Matthew; Morgan, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Professional learning (PL) is an essential ingredient in the professional and personal lives of contemporary educators. PL can take many forms but large-scale conferences remain a touchstone in many fields, including languages education. In this paper, we review the evaluation of the 18th biennial conference of the Australian Federation of Modern…

  3. Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical "and" theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and…

  4. Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical and theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and mathematics; its obvious practical importance from raising water in mines to the playful fountains in royal gardens illustrates the social role of science like few others do. The playful character of historic hydraulics problems makes it also an appealing topic for modern science education.

  5. Childhood Poverty and Cognitive Development in Latin America in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segretin, M. Soledad; Hermida, M. Julia; Prats, Lucía M.; Fracchia, Carolina S.; Ruetti, Eliana; Lipina, Sebastián J.

    2016-01-01

    For at least eight decades, researchers have analyzed the association between childhood poverty and cognitive development in different societies worldwide, but few of such studies have been carried out in Latin America. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the empirical studies that have analyzed the associations between…

  6. Reduction in carbon uptake during turn of the century drought in western North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fossil fuel emissions aside, temperate North America is a net sink of carbon dioxide at present1–3. Year-to-year variations in this carbon sink are linked to variations in hydroclimate that affect net ecosystem productivity3,4. The severity and incidence of climatic extremes, including drought, have...

  7. Mutant utopias: evening primroses and imagined futures in early twentieth-century America.

    PubMed

    Endersby, Jim

    2013-09-01

    Hugo de Vries's mutation theory is now little more than a footnote to the history of biology, a failed theory that briefly led a few biologists astray. However, for the first quarter of the twentieth century it attracted considerable attention from both professional biologists and laypeople. De Vries's theory--together with the plant, Oenothera lamarckiana, that had supplied most of his evidence--became the focus of a surprising variety of imaginative hopes. Scientists and their various publics were fascinated by the utopian possibilities that the primrose seemed to offer, and their discussions shaped a public culture around biology that would help define the twentieth century as the "century of the gene." From a conventional history of science perspective (which, in the case of twentieth-century biology, often remains focused on the content of scientific theories and the professional communities that shaped them), the mutation theory seems unimportant. However, while De Vries's new theory of evolution ultimately failed to persuade the scientific community, it was much more important than is now realized, particularly because it helped make biology part of a wide variety of public debates. Understanding the mutation theory's story more fully suggests that we may need to rethink much of the rest of the century of the gene's history, to think less in terms of what happened in the lab and more about how biology came to function as public culture.

  8. Transatlantic Irritability: Brunonian sociology, America and mass culture in the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Budge, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The widespread influence exerted by the medical theories of Scottish doctor, John Brown, whose eponymously named Brunonianism radically simplified the ideas of his mentor, William Cullen, has not been generally recognised. However, the very simplicity of the Brunonian medical model played a key role in ensuring the dissemination of medical ideas about nervous irritability and the harmful effects of overstimulation in the literary culture of the nineteenth century and shaped early sociological thinking. This chapter suggests the centrality of these medical ideas, as mediated by Brunonianism, to the understanding of Romanticism in the nineteenth century, and argues that Brunonian ideas shaped nineteenth-century thinking about the effects of mass print culture in ways which continue to influence contemporary thinking about the effects of media.

  9. Catholic nursing sisters and brothers and racial justice in mid-20th-century America.

    PubMed

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing's work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses' work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of "bearing witness," a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely.

  10. Multiproxy summer and winter surface air temperature field reconstructions for southern South America covering the past centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukom, R.; Luterbacher, J.; Villalba, R.; Küttel, M.; Frank, D.; Jones, P. D.; Grosjean, M.; Wanner, H.; Aravena, J.-C.; Black, D. E.; Christie, D. A.; D'Arrigo, R.; Lara, A.; Morales, M.; Soliz-Gamboa, C.; Srur, A.; Urrutia, R.; von Gunten, L.

    2011-07-01

    We statistically reconstruct austral summer (winter) surface air temperature fields back to ad 900 (1706) using 22 (20) annually resolved predictors from natural and human archives from southern South America (SSA). This represents the first regional-scale climate field reconstruction for parts of the Southern Hemisphere at this high temporal resolution. We apply three different reconstruction techniques: multivariate principal component regression, composite plus scaling, and regularized expectation maximization. There is generally good agreement between the results of the three methods on interannual and decadal timescales. The field reconstructions allow us to describe differences and similarities in the temperature evolution of different sub-regions of SSA. The reconstructed SSA mean summer temperatures between 900 and 1350 are mostly above the 1901-1995 climatology. After 1350, we reconstruct a sharp transition to colder conditions, which last until approximately 1700. The summers in the eighteenth century are relatively warm with a subsequent cold relapse peaking around 1850. In the twentieth century, summer temperatures reach conditions similar to earlier warm periods. The winter temperatures in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were mostly below the twentieth century average. The uncertainties of our reconstructions are generally largest in the eastern lowlands of SSA, where the coverage with proxy data is poorest. Verifications with independent summer temperature proxies and instrumental measurements suggest that the interannual and multi-decadal variations of SSA temperatures are well captured by our reconstructions. This new dataset can be used for data/model comparison and data assimilation as well as for detection and attribution studies at sub-continental scales.

  11. Circuit Chautauqua: From Rural Education to Popular Entertainment in Early Twentieth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, John Edward

    In 1874, Methodist minister John Vincent began a Sunday school retreat on the shores of Lake Chautauqua, New York, the mission of which was education. Initial offerings such as Bible reading, biblical geography, and public oration were supplemented with general education and entertainment activities. In the late 19th century, the Chautauqua…

  12. The Egalitarian Marriages of Six Froebelian Leaders in Late Nineteenth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    During the final years of the nineteenth century, among the leaders of the American Froebelian kindergarten movement were three dual-career couples who exemplified the concept of egalitarian marriage: John Kraus and Maria Kraus-Boelte, William and Eudora Hailmann, and Ada Morean Hughes and John Hughes. This paper focuses on the way these six…

  13. Manners of Speaking: Linguistic Capital and the Rhetoric of Correctness in Late-Nineteenth-Century America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, William Rodney, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    A number of arguments appeared in the late-nineteenth-century United States about "correctness" in language, arguments for and against enforcing a standard of correctness and arguments about what should count as correct in language. Insofar as knowledge about and facility with "correct" linguistic usage could affect one's standing in the social…

  14. The Organization of Knowledge and Bibliographic Classification in Nineteenth-Century America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisser, Katherine M.

    2009-01-01

    Bibliographic classification is culturally bound. This research examines the classification systems created for social libraries in the first half of the nineteenth century in the United States. Social libraries are defined as institutions that have voluntary membership and are dependent on membership fees. Seventeen classified catalogs were…

  15. A Woman's Place Is in the School: Rhetorics of Gendered Space in Nineteenth-Century America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enoch, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Nineteenth-century American leaders in education came to advocate a redesign of the schoolroom that resulted in its being seen as more the province of female teachers than of male teachers. This discourse of reform serves as a case study of how space itself may be rhetorically "gendered." (Contains 1 figure and 9 notes.)

  16. Women and Work in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century America: A Course for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DaGue, Elizabeth L.

    This document describes an interdisciplinary English and history course on women and work in the 19th and 20th centuries. It is designed for 11th and 12th grade students and it includes ideas suitable for use with college bound or vocationally oriented students. A major objective of the course is to help students analyze their ideas on work and…

  17. Information Technology for the Twenty-First Century: A Bold Investment in America's Future. Implementation Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC. National Science and Technology Council.

    This document is the implementation plan for the Information Technology for the 21st Century (IT[squared]) initiative. With this initiative, the Federal Government is making an important re-commitment to fundamental research in information technology. The initiative proposes $366 million in increased investments in computing, information, and…

  18. A 21st Century Science, Technology, and Innovation Strategy for Americas National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    aspects of national security. With guidance from the President and Congress, strategic direction and investment priorities for national security science ...interconnected, fast- evolving science and technology landscape that presents new threats and opportunities, the policy directions called for in this...A 21ST CENTURY SCIENCE , TECHNOLOGY, AND INNOVATION STRATEGY FOR AMERICA’S NATIONAL SECURITY PRODUCT OF THE Committee on Homeland and National

  19. Adapting to America. Catholics, Jesuits, and Higher Education in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, William P.

    This is an examination of how Catholics adapted to the United States and how American culture affected Catholicism during the twentieth century based on an investigation of major developments in Catholic higher education since World War I with emphasis on colleges and universities conducted by the Society of Jesus, the Jesuits. The opening chapter…

  20. Beyond prejudice and pride: The human sciences in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Julia

    2013-12-01

    Grappling with problematics of status and hierarchy, recent literature on the history of the human sciences in Latin America has gone through three overlapping phases. First, the scholarship has reflected a dialogue between Latin American scientists and their European colleagues, characterized by the "center/periphery" model of scientific diffusion. Next, scholars drew on postcolonial theory to undermine the power of the "center" and to recover the role of local agents, including both elites and subalterns. In the wake of numerous studies embracing both models, the way has been cleared to look at multiple dimensions simultaneously. Histories of the human sciences in the complex multicultural societies of Latin America provide an unusually direct path to integration. Moreover, this dynamic and multilayered approach has the potential to address ambivalences about authority and power that have characterized previous analyses of the production and application of knowledge about the human condition.

  1. Science, suffrage, and experimentation: Mary Putnam Jacobi and the controversy over vivisection in late nineteenth-century America.

    PubMed

    Bittel, Carla Jean

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the medical activism of the New York physician Mary Putnam Jacobi (1842-1906), to illustrate the problems of gender and science at the center of the vivisection debate in late nineteenth-century America. In the post-Civil War era, individuals both inside and outside the medical community considered vivisection to be a controversial practice. Physicians divided over the value of live animal experimentation, while reformers and activists campaigned against it. Jacobi stepped into the center of the controversy and tried to use her public defense of experimentation to the advantage of women in the medical profession. Her advocacy of vivisection was part of her broader effort to reform medical education, especially at women's institutions. It was also a political strategy aimed at associating women with scientific practices to advance a women's rights agenda. Her work demonstrates how debates over women in medicine and science in medicine, suffrage, and experimentation overlapped at a critical moment of historical transition.

  2. Geologic and hydrologic hazards in glacierized basins in North America resulting from 19th and 20th century global warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Alpine glacier retreat resulting from global warming since the close of the Little Ice Age in the 19th and 20th centuries has increased the risk and incidence of some geologic and hydrologic hazards in mountainous alpine regions of North America. Abundant loose debris in recently deglaciated areas at the toe of alpine glaciers provides a ready source of sediment during rainstorms or outburst floods. This sediment can cause debris flows and sedimentation problems in downstream areas. Moraines built during the Little Ice Age can trap and store large volumes of water. These natural dams have no controlled outlets and can fail without warning. Many glacier-dammed lakes have grown in size, while ice dams have shrunk, resulting in greater risks of ice-dam failure. The retreat and thinning of glacier ice has left oversteepened, unstable valley walls and has led to increased incidence of rock and debris avalanches. ?? 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  3. Weapon usage in attempted and completed parricides in nineteenth-century America: an archival exploration of the physical strength hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Shon, Phillip C H

    2010-01-01

    The "physical strength hypothesis" (PSH) predicts that where there is the greatest discrepancy in size and strength between offenders and victims, the former will use superior weaponry (e.g., firearms) to overcome structural imbalances against the latter. Using archival data from the New York Times and the Chicago Tribune, 1851-1899, this paper examines the weapons used in attempted and completed parricides in nineteenth-century America. Findings indicate that parricide offenders used firearms most frequently against their fathers while intimate contact methods were used against mothers. When gun usage was combined with level of intent in male offender patricides, where the greatest discrepancy in strength was expected, results indicate that spontaneous gun usage outnumbered premeditated gun usage, thus challenging the assumptions of the PSH. The data suggest that cultural factors such as methods of dispute resolution, weapon carrying, and alcohol consumption may be important factors in understanding parricides.

  4. An ecoregion assessment of projected tree species vulnerabilities in western North America through the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Mathys, Amanda S; Coops, Nicholas C; Waring, Richard H

    2017-02-01

    Forest ecosystems across western North America will likely see shifts in both tree species dominance and composition over the rest of this century in response to climate change. Our objective in this study was to identify which ecological regions might expect the greatest changes to occur. We used the process-based growth model 3-PG, to provide estimates of tree species responses to changes in environmental conditions and to evaluate the extent that species are resilient to shifts in climate over the rest of this century. We assessed the vulnerability of 20 tree species in western North America using the Canadian global circulation model under three different emission scenarios. We provided detailed projections of species shifts by including soil maps that account for the spatial variation in soil water availability and soil fertility as well as by utilizing annual climate projections of monthly changes in air temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit and frost at a spatial resolution of one km. Projected suitable areas for tree species were compared to their current ranges based on observations at >40 000 field survey plots. Tree species were classified as vulnerable if environmental conditions projected in the future appear outside that of their current distribution ≥70% of the time. We added a migration constraint that limits species dispersal to <200 m yr(-1) to provide more realistic projections on species distributions. Based on these combinations of constraints, we predicted the greatest changes in the distribution of dominant tree species to occur within the Northwest Forested Mountains and the highest number of tree species stressed will likely be in the North American Deserts. Projected climatic changes appear especially unfavorable for species in the subalpine zone, where major shifts in composition may lead to the emergence of new forest types.

  5. Surface ozone levels at the end of the nineteenth century in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandroni, S.; Anfossi, D.; Viarengo, S.

    1992-02-01

    Records of surface ozone data collected twice a day by means of the Schönbein method at Villa Colon, Montevideo, Uruguay, during the years 1883-1885 and at Cordoba, Argentina, during the years 1886-1892 have been converted to present-day concentrations. Most of the uncertainties suffered from the original technique are removed by a two-step procedure, in particular a conversion algorithm for humidity and a linear regression constructed by simultaneous readings of Schönbein and a quantitative method. The relative error of this procedure, previously applied to the Moncalieri data series, is 33%. Within these limitations we can state that one century ago the surface ozone levels at that latitude of the southern hemisphere were comparable to those of Moncalieri and Montsouris. Furthermore, the recent levels observed in remote areas at that latitude are approximately twice as large as a century ago.

  6. Precursory effects in the nighttime VLF signal amplitude for the 18th January, 2011 Pakistan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S.; Chakrabarti, S. K.; Sasmal, S.

    2012-02-01

    We have presented the result of the analysis of the nighttime VLF signals transmitted from the Indian Navy station VTX (latitude 8.43°N, longitude 77.73°E) at 19.2 kHz and received at Kolkata (latitude 22.57°N, longitude 88.24°E). On 18th January, 2011 an earthquake of magnitude 7.4 occurred at Southwestern Pakistan (latitude 28.9°N, longitude 64°E). We have analyzed the nighttime VLF signals for 2 weeks around 18th of January, 2011 to see if there have been any precursory effects of this earthquake. We have found that the amplitude of the nighttime VLF signals anomalously fluctuated 4 days before the earthquake. This agrees well with our previous findings based on the analysis of 1 year of earthquake data.

  7. Catholic Nursing Sisters and Brothers and Racial Justice in Mid-20th-Century America

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing’s work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses’ work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of “bearing witness,” a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely. PMID:19461224

  8. Edison and the pure science ideal in 19th-century america.

    PubMed

    Hounshell, D A

    1980-02-08

    Between 1878 and 1882, key members of the American scientific community played an important role in Thomas A. Edison's work on electric lighting. Impressed by his abilities, these scientists came to regard Edison as a peer and led him to see himself as a scientific man. But Edison's high standing among scientists and the American public and his professed self-image as a scientist provoked America's noted experimental physicist, Henry A. Rowland, to make a "Plea for pure science" before the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1883.

  9. Climate Warming and 21st-Century Drought in Southwestern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Glen M.; Stahle, David W.; Diaz, Jose Villanueva; Beer, Nicholas; Busby, Simon J.; Cerano-Paredes, Julian; Cole, Julie E.; Cook, Edward R.; Endfield, Georgina; Gutierrez-Garcia, Genaro; Hall, Beth; Magana, Victor; Meko, David M.; Méndez-Pérez, Matias; Sauchyn, David J.; Watson, Emma; Woodhouse, Connie A.

    2008-02-01

    Since 2000, southwestern North America has experienced widespread drought. Lakes Powell and Mead are now at less than 50% of their reservoir capacity, and drought or fire-related states of emergency were declared this past summer by governors in six western states. As with other prolonged droughts, such as the Dust Bowl during the 1930s, aridity has at times extended from northern Mexico to the southern Canadian prairies. A synthesis of climatological and paleoclimatological studies suggests that a transition to a more arid climate may be occurring due to global warming, with the prospect of sustained droughts being exacerbated by the potential reaction of the Pacific Ocean to warming.

  10. Evolution of disability in late 19th century America: Civil War pensions for Union Army veterans with musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed

    Blanck, Peter; Linares, Claudia; Song, Chen

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of musculoskeletal (MSK) disability and its impact on mortality and work patterns in the late 19th century in America, in the context of the Civil War disability policy scheme. The study was conducted on 17,702 Union Army (UA) Civil War veterans. Of these, 10,789 were examined and diagnosed with major MSK conditions, rheumatism, sciatica, and spinal curvature, between 1862 and 1907. Analyses examine MSK (i) prevalence rates by birth cohort and age group; (ii) fatality rates as compared with other disabilities; (iii) risk rates by occupation type; and (iv) lifespan for MSK patients. MSK conditions are commonly claimed disabilities within the Civil War data set, with prevalence rates increasing with age. Regression studies show that working in clerical and professional (relative to manual labor) occupations decreases the likelihood of being examined for and diagnosed with MSK conditions. MSK patients examined at older ages tended to have longer lifespan than those examined at younger ages. The findings suggest that changes in age, environmental, and occupational conditions during the late 19th century affected MSK condition prevalence and the average lifespan of MSK patients. Implications for contemporary disability policy are discussed.

  11. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were “global” in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others. PMID:26689938

  12. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were "global" in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others.

  13. Peripheral vision: science and Creole patriotism in eighteenth-century Spanish America.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Helen

    2009-09-01

    This article examines the study of natural history on the imperial periphery in late colonial Spanish America. It considers the problems that afflicted peripheral naturalists-lack of books, instruments, scholarly companionship, and skilled technicians. It discusses how these deprivations impacted upon their self-confidence and credibility as men of science and it examines the strategies adopted by peripheral naturalists to boost their scientific credibility. The article argues that Spanish American savants, deprived of the most up-to-date books and sophisticated instruments, emphasised instead their sustained experience of local nature and their familiarity with indigenous knowledge. It details how some creole naturalists, such as the Mexican José Antonio Alzate, questioned the applicability of European classificatory systems to American fauna and flora, and it analyses the complex relationship between natural science and creole patriotism.

  14. Anthropogenic impacts on mosquito populations in North America over the past century

    PubMed Central

    Rochlin, Ilia; Faraji, Ary; Ninivaggi, Dominick V.; Barker, Christopher M.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm

    2016-01-01

    The recent emergence and spread of vector-borne viruses including Zika, chikungunya and dengue has raised concerns that climate change may cause mosquito vectors of these diseases to expand into more temperate regions. However, the long-term impact of other anthropogenic factors on mosquito abundance and distributions is less studied. Here, we show that anthropogenic chemical use (DDT; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and increasing urbanization were the strongest drivers of changes in mosquito populations over the last eight decades in areas on both coasts of North America. Mosquito populations have increased as much as tenfold, and mosquito communities have become two- to fourfold richer over the last five decades. These increases are correlated with the decay in residual environmental DDT concentrations and growing human populations, but not with temperature. These results illustrate the far-reaching impacts of multiple anthropogenic disturbances on animal communities and suggest that interactions between land use and chemical use may have unforeseen consequences on ecosystems. PMID:27922001

  15. Anthropogenic impacts on mosquito populations in North America over the past century.

    PubMed

    Rochlin, Ilia; Faraji, Ary; Ninivaggi, Dominick V; Barker, Christopher M; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2016-12-06

    The recent emergence and spread of vector-borne viruses including Zika, chikungunya and dengue has raised concerns that climate change may cause mosquito vectors of these diseases to expand into more temperate regions. However, the long-term impact of other anthropogenic factors on mosquito abundance and distributions is less studied. Here, we show that anthropogenic chemical use (DDT; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and increasing urbanization were the strongest drivers of changes in mosquito populations over the last eight decades in areas on both coasts of North America. Mosquito populations have increased as much as tenfold, and mosquito communities have become two- to fourfold richer over the last five decades. These increases are correlated with the decay in residual environmental DDT concentrations and growing human populations, but not with temperature. These results illustrate the far-reaching impacts of multiple anthropogenic disturbances on animal communities and suggest that interactions between land use and chemical use may have unforeseen consequences on ecosystems.

  16. Anthropogenic impacts on mosquito populations in North America over the past century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Faraji, Ary; Ninivaggi, Dominick V.; Barker, Christopher M.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm

    2016-12-01

    The recent emergence and spread of vector-borne viruses including Zika, chikungunya and dengue has raised concerns that climate change may cause mosquito vectors of these diseases to expand into more temperate regions. However, the long-term impact of other anthropogenic factors on mosquito abundance and distributions is less studied. Here, we show that anthropogenic chemical use (DDT; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and increasing urbanization were the strongest drivers of changes in mosquito populations over the last eight decades in areas on both coasts of North America. Mosquito populations have increased as much as tenfold, and mosquito communities have become two- to fourfold richer over the last five decades. These increases are correlated with the decay in residual environmental DDT concentrations and growing human populations, but not with temperature. These results illustrate the far-reaching impacts of multiple anthropogenic disturbances on animal communities and suggest that interactions between land use and chemical use may have unforeseen consequences on ecosystems.

  17. Childhood Poverty and Cognitive Development in Latin America in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Segretin, M Soledad; Hermida, M Julia; Prats, Lucía M; Fracchia, Carolina S; Ruetti, Eliana; Lipina, Sebastián J

    2016-06-01

    For at least eight decades, researchers have analyzed the association between childhood poverty and cognitive development in different societies worldwide, but few of such studies have been carried out in Latin America. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the empirical studies that have analyzed the associations between poverty and cognitive development in children under 18 years of age from Latin American and Caribbean countries between 2000 and 2015. This analysis takes into consideration the country where the work was conducted, the experimental and analytical design, sample size and composition, cognitive and poverty paradigms implemented, levels of analysis, and the inclusion of mediation analyses. Through these, we identify common patterns in the negative impact of poverty that have been repeatedly verified in the literature in other continents; we also call attention to a set of issues regarding sample, design, paradigms, impact, and mediation analyses that should be considered in future studies in the region.

  18. Physiology, propaganda, and pound animals: medical research and animal welfare in mid-twentieth century America.

    PubMed

    Parascandola, John

    2007-07-01

    In 1952, the University of Michigan physiologist Robert Gesell shocked his colleagues at the business meeting of the American Physiological Society by reading a prepared statement in which he claimed that some of the animal experimentation being carried out by scientists was inhumane. He especially attacked the National Society for Medical Research (NSMR), an organization that had been founded to defend animal experimentation. This incident was part of a broader struggle taking place at the time between scientists and animal welfare advocates with respect to what restrictions, if any, should be placed on animal research. A particularly controversial issue was whether or not pound animals should be made available to laboratories for research. Two of the prominent players in this controversy were the NSMR and the Animal Welfare Institute, founded and run by Gesell's daughter, Christine Stevens. This article focuses on the interaction between these two organizations within the broader context of the debate over animal experimentation in the mid-twentieth century.

  19. Towards a sustainable America: advancing prosperity, opportunity, and a healthy environment for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    Humanity faces an unprecedented challenge as our numbers grow, while Earth and its capacity to support us do not. People across the United States and around the world aspire to better lives for themselves and for their children: food, shelter, a safe and healthy environment, education, jobs, and other material needs and conveniences. Industries strive to produce more goods, farmers to grow more crops; and human demands on forests, fields, rivers, and oceans increase. Our challenge is to create a future in which prosperity and opportunity increase while life flourishes and pressures on oceans, earth, and atmosphere - the biosphere - diminish; to create, as the Council's vision suggests, "a life- sustaining Earth that supports "a dignified, peaceful, and equitable existence." It is a powerful vision, and the two co-chairs of the President's Council on Sustainable Development (PCSD), fervently believe it is achievable - a unifying and necessary goal for the boundless capacity of human ingenuity so manifest in America. This document addresses climate change, environmental management, metropolitan and rural strategies, and international leadership.

  20. A culture of technical knowledge: Professionalizing science and engineering education in late-nineteenth century America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienkamp, Paul

    This manuscript examines the intellectual, cultural, and practical approaches to science and engineering education as a part of the land-grant college movement in the Midwest between the 1850s and early 1900s. These land-grant institutions began and grew within unique frontier societies that both cherished self-reliance and diligently worked to make themselves part of the larger national experience. College administrators and professors encountered rapidly changing public expectations, regional needs, and employment requirements. They recognized a dire need for technically skilled men and women who could quickly adapt to changes in equipment and processes, and implement advances in scientific knowledge in American homes, fields, and factories. Charged with educating the "industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life," land-grant college supporters and professors sought out the most modern and innovative instructional methods. Combining the humanities, sciences, and practical skills that they believed uniquely suited student needs, these pioneering educators formulated new curricula and training programs that advanced both the knowledge and the social standing of America's agricultural and mechanical working classes.

  1. The impact of childhood sickness on adult socioeconomic outcomes: Evidence from late 19th century America

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John Robert; Knies, Laurie; Haas, Steven; Hernandez, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    We use family fixed-effects models to estimate the impact of childhood health on adult literacy, labor force outcomes, and marital status among pairs of white brothers observed as children in the 1880 U.S. Census and then as adults in the 1900–1930 Censuses. Given our focus on the 19th century, we observed a wider array of infectious, chronic, and traumatic health problems than is observed using data that are more recent; our results thus provide some insights into circumstances in modern developing countries where similar health problems are more frequently observed. Compared to their healthy siblings, sick brothers were less likely to be located (and thus more likely to be dead) 20–50 years after their 1880 enumeration. Sick brothers were also less likely to be literate, to have ever been married, and to have reported an occupation. However, among those with occupations, sick and healthy brothers tended to do similar kinds of work. We discuss the implications of our results for research on the impact of childhood health on socioeconomic outcomes in developed and developing countries. PMID:22809795

  2. Towards an anthropometric history of latin America in the second half of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Challú, Amílcar E; Silva-Castañeda, Sergio

    2016-12-01

    We examine the evolution of adult female heights in twelve Latin American countries during the second half of the twentieth century based on demographic health surveys and related surveys compiled from national and international organizations. Only countries with more than one survey were included, allowing us to cross-examine surveys and correct for biases. We first show that average height varies significantly according to location, from 148.3cm in Guatemala to 158.8cm in Haiti. The evolution of heights over these decades behaves like indicators of human development, showing a steady increase of 2.6cm from the 1950s to the 1990s. Such gains compare favorably to other developing regions of the world, but not so much with recently developed countries. Height gains were not evenly distributed in the region, however. Countries that achieved higher levels of income, such as Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico, gained on average 0.9cm per decade, while countries with shrinking economies, such as Haiti and Guatemala, only gained 0.25cm per decade.

  3. 21st century projections of snowfall and winter severity across central-eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, M.; Lorenz, D. J.; Hoving, C.; Schummer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Statistically downscaled climate projections from nine global climate models (GCMs) are used to force a snow accumulation and ablation model (SNOW-17) across the central-eastern North American Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) to develop high-resolution projections of snowfall, snow depth, and winter severity index (WSI) by the mid- and late 21st century. Here, we use projections of a cumulative WSI (CWSI) known to influence autumn-winter waterfowl migration to demonstrate the utility of SNOW-17 results. The application of statistically downscaled climate data and a snow model leads to a better representation of lake processes in the Great Lakes Basin, topographic effects in the Appalachian Mountains, and spatial patterns of climatological snowfall, compared to the original GCMs. Annual mean snowfall is simulated to decline across the region, particularly in early winter (December-January), leading to a delay in the mean onset of the snow season. Due to a warming-induced acceleration of snowmelt, the percentage loss in snow depth exceeds that of snowfall. Across the Plains and Prairie Potholes LCC and Upper Midwest and Great Lakes LCC, daily snowfall events are projected to become less common, but more intense. The greatest reductions in the number of days per year with a present snowpack are expected close to the historical position of the -5°C isotherm in DJFM, around 44°N. The CWSI is projected to decline substantially during December-January, leading to increased likelihood of delays in timing and intensity of autumn-winter waterfowl migrations.

  4. Circulation and production of knowledge and scientific practices in southern America in the eighteenth century: an analysis of Materia medica misionera, a manuscript by Pedro Montenegro (1710).

    PubMed

    Fleck, Eliane Cristina Deckmann; Poletto, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    The article analyzes a 1790 manuscript copy of Materia medica misionera, a book written in 1710 by a Jesuit, Pedro Montenegro. Alongside knowledge of a magical or religious nature, and exotic ingredients for the recipes, this work also contains the unmistakable presence of Hippocratic and Galenic conceptions and a growing empiricism, characteristic of the scientific transformations seen in the eighteenth century. The analysis of this work also prompts reflections about the diffusion, circulation and production of pharmacological and medical knowledge in the first half of the eighteenth century within the missions and colleges installed in the area that was the Jesuit Province of Paraguay, southern America.

  5. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, RR

    2004-11-02

    The 18th Annual conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on June 2 through June 4, 2004. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research Materials Program (ARM). The objective of the ARM Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications, as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural, ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer.

  6. Campus Activism in the 21st Century: A Historical Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames campus activism by introducing the historical movements that have been important for higher education since the 18th century to the present and exploring the connections and shared characteristics among these various movements.

  7. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-05

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  8. [Evolution of surgical education through the 20th Century into the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Dudrick, Stanley J

    2011-01-01

    An abridged overview of the development of surgery and early surgical education, training and practice is presented, beginning in colonial America in the 18th century, extending throughout the 19th century, evolving rapidly during the 20th century, and progressing into the first decade of the 21st century. The metamorphosis and transformation of surgery training programs in the United States are described and discussed, together with some of the most relevant rationale and justifications for the many changes introduced, established, mandated and in progress. The current accreditation requirements, oversight, and governance of general surgery training programs; the incorporation of multiple technical and technological advances into general surgical practice; the addition of required training modules and systems to the programs; and their secondary implications, consequences, and impact upon the programs, are presented. These include financial and other resource impediments, the 80-h work week implications and constraints, the technological explosion, the demands of the required expanded general surgical curriculum and operative case experience, the continued erosion of general surgery by surgical and medical specialists, the increasing workload coupled with decreasing reimbursement for surgeons and their services; and the challenges and difficulties of amalgamating all of these confounding or conflicting factors into an effective and viable general surgery program. Finally, some of the personal insights, opinions, experiences, and philosophy of the author are incorporated into the narrative.

  9. Böttger stoneware from North America and Europe; are they authentic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, Charles P.; Nelson, Christina H.

    2000-03-01

    In the early 18th century, Johann Friedrich Böttger, an alchemist recently arrived in Dresden, was assigned to ceramic experimentation under the orders of Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. The Elector and his advisors hoped to discover the secret of making hard paste porcelain like the wares imported into Europe from China and Japan. In 1706-1707, Böttger produced his first ceramic body, a red stoneware similar to the wares produced in Yixing, China. The first objects were made following the forms of chinese prototypes or European metalwork of the period. Recently, the authenticity of a number of `Böttger' objects in various museums and private collections in North America and Europe has been questioned. To aide in resolving these questions several non-destructive analytical techniques have been employed, the most important being PIXE. This report is on an initial study of 25 objects with 16 elements from Al to Zr and Pb being analysed. The results strongly suggest three different groupings, one of objects from the Meissen factory during the 20th century, one from the work of Böttger himself early in the 18th century and one from an as yet unknown time period and site. The first two groups were previously identified by one of the authors (C.N.).

  10. [Folk medicine veterinary science in the level of paterfamilias literature of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Krüger, H

    1993-06-01

    Paterfamilial literature in Germany marked the emergence of a literary category, with its householder writings being precursors of some of a farm management theory. Its pamphlets on veterinary medicine reflected latest knowledge in its time in farming. A number of economy housebooks is presented together with the authors in an attempt to give a somewhat closer account of this literature category in populist veterinary medicine.

  11. Spatial-temporal analysis on climate variation in early Qing dynasty (17th -18th century) using China's chronological records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kuan-Hui Elaine; Wang, Pao-Kuan; Fan, I.-Chun; Liao, Yi-Chun; Liao, Hsiung-Ming; Pai, Pi-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change in the form of extreme, variation, and short- or mid-term fluctuation is now widely conceived to challenge the survival of the human beings and the societies. Meanwhile, improving present and future climate modeling needs a comprehensive understanding of the past climate patterns. Although historical climate modeling has gained substantive progress in recent years based on the new findings from dynamical meteorology, phenology, or paleobiology, less known are the mid- to short-term variations or lower-frequency variabilities at different temporal scale and their regional expressions. Enabling accurate historical climate modeling would heavily rely on the robustness of the dataset that could carry specific time, location, and meteorological information in the continuous temporal and spatial chains. This study thus presents an important methodological innovation to reconstruct historical climate modeling at multiple temporal and spatial scales through building a historical climate dataset, based on the Chinese chronicles compiled in a Zhang (2004) edited Compendium of Chinese Meteorological Records of the Last 3,000 Years since Zhou Dynasty (1100BC). The dataset reserves the most delicate meteorological data with accurate time, location, meteorological event, duration, and other phonological, social and economic impact information, and is carefully digitalized, coded, and geo-referenced on the Geographical Information System based maps according to Tan's (1982) historical atlas in China. The research project, beginning in January 2015, is a collaborative work among scholars across meteorology, geography, and historical linguistics disciplines. The present research findings derived from the early 100+ years of the Qing dynasty include the following. First, the analysis is based on the sampling size, denoted as cities/counties, n=1398 across the Mainland China in the observation period. Second, the frequencies of precipitation, cold-warm temperature, flood and drought with an index of social unrest are counted in an interval of a year, five years, ten years, and twenty years to gain their running mean(s) for every cites/counties to depict their temporal variations. Third, the cities and counties are divided into seven zones based on their meteorological and geographical characteristics, in order to interpret the regional expressions of the climate variations. Finally, the Ordinary Least Square regression model is used to estimate the coefficients among precipitation, temperature, flood and drought. Significantly, it is found that in general all these indices fluctuated in past 100+ years. However, the occurrence of drought and flood all have significant correlation with lower (colder) temperature (P=0.00) and also with precipitation (P<0.05). This implies that cold temperature tends to have higher meteorological extremes, and both flood and drought can occur approximately in the same year with abundant precipitation at different time. Among seven geographical zones, North China is found more vulnerable to the temperature changes considering these extreme weathers. Temperature change in Central and South China however are less significant. Central China on the other hand is more sensitive to the precipitation that are both correlated with drought and flood.

  12. Medical electricity and madness in the 18th century: the legacies of Benjamin Franklin and Jan Ingenhousz.

    PubMed

    Beaudreau, Sherry Ann; Finger, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin had at least two accidents that resulted in electricity passing through his brain. In addition, he witnessed a patient's similar accident and performed an experiment that showed how humans could endure shocks to the head without serious ill effects, other than amnesia. Jan Ingenhousz, Franklin's Dutch-born medical correspondent better known for his discovery of photosynthesis, also had a serious accident that sent electricity though his head and, in a letter to Franklin, he described how he felt unusually elated the next day. During the 1780s, Franklin and Ingenhousz encouraged leading French and English electrical "operators" to try shocking the heads of melancholic and other deranged patients in their wards. Although they did not state that they were responding to Ingenhousz's and Franklin's suggestions, Birch, Aldini, and Gale soon did precisely what Ingenhousz and Franklin had suggested. These practitioners did not appear to induce convulsions in their mentally ill patients, but they still reported notable successes.

  13. A Role for Historical Experiments: Capturing the Spirit of the Itinerant Lecturers of the 18th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Don; Stinner, Art

    2007-01-01

    Gerald Rutherford (1964), one of the original authors of the Harvard Project Physics course which emphasized the history of science, expressed a view of inquiry which advocated the historical re-constructions of significant experiments. To implement this view we examine two modes of historical re-constructions; Heering's ("Paper…

  14. Ballistic blocks around Kīlauea Caldera: Their vent locations and number of eruptions in the late 18th century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Donald A.; Zolkos, Scott P.; Haravitch, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of ballistic blocks occur around Kīlauea Caldera and record part of the latest major period of explosive activity on the volcano, in late 1790 or within a few years thereafter. The sizes of the blocks – the largest of which is more than 2 m in nominal diameter – and differences in rock types allow the definition of at least 6 dispersal lobes of mostly undetermined relative age. The orientations of the lobes help approximate the locations of vents or explosion sources on the floor of the caldera, now deeply buried by younger lava flows. The vents may have been distributed northward for about 2 km from near the site of the modern Halema'uma'u Crater and were apparently confined to the western half of the caldera. The blocks are entirely lithic except for those in one dispersal lobe, which contains cored bombs and blocks as well as juvenile lapilli. Eruption parameters calculated from EJECT! suggest that the phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions could have been generated at the water table, about 600 m below the high point on the caldera rim.

  15. The Editorial Policy as a Mirror of Petrine Reforms: Textbooks and Their Translators in Early 18th Century Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouzevitch, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Peter I's editorial policy appears as a starting point in the birth of secular Russian textbooks. Since the printing production was then organized on a massive scale as a response to the needs of European-like modernization, it should be safely suggested that nearly "all" books produced during this pioneering period focused teaching…

  16. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization of the varnish and glue of an ancient 18th century double bass.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Francesco; Orecchio, Santino; Cicero, Maria Grazia; Di Stefano, Cosimo

    2007-04-20

    A GC-MS investigation is conducted on the double bass "Panormus", property of Conservatorio di Musica "Vincenzo Bellini" in Palermo. The most important components of the varnish (fatty acids) and of the glue (proteinaceous amino acids), with which the musical instrument was treated in the past, are determined. The analyses are carried out by prior derivatization of fatty acids by acidic methanol and of amino acids by acidic methanol and trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). Analytes identification is achieved by direct comparison with several reference materials and the use of a digitized library.

  17. America's Children in the 21st Century. Putting Ideas to Work: A Progress Report from the Children's Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Partnership, Santa Monica, CA.

    This report describes The Children's Partnership, which investigates what children need most from their communities and how to provide it. The report presents a snapshot of children in America in 1900 and 2000, noting policy milestones that changed America and its families and discussing progress which has benefited most American children but has…

  18. The occurrence of rabies in pre-Columbian Central America: an historical search.

    PubMed

    Vos, A; Nunan, C; Bolles, D; Müller, T; Fooks, A R; Tordo, N; Baer, G M

    2011-10-01

    Rabies is considered one of the oldest infectious diseases known to humans. However, the first written reports on rabies cases in the Americas did not appear until the first decade of the 18th century from Mexico. In an attempt to clarify if the disease was already present in pre-Columbian times, we searched for evidence in the Maya and Aztec cultures. Other sources of information were early manuscripts written by the conquistadors and early explorers. We did not identify any unequivocal direct evidence that the disease rabies was known in pre-Columbian Central America but sufficient circumstantial evidence is available suggesting that (bat) rabies was already present in these early times.

  19. Pakistan's health system: performance and prospects after the 18th Constitutional Amendment.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania; Boerma, Ties; Amjad, Sohail; Alam, Ali Yawar; Khalid, Faraz; ul Haq, Ihsan; Mirza, Yasir A

    2013-06-22

    Pakistan has undergone massive changes in its federal structure under the 18th Constitutional Amendment. To gain insights that will inform reform plans, we assessed several aspects of health-systems performance in Pakistan. Some improvements were noted in health-systems performance during the past 65 years but key health indicators lag behind those in peer countries. 78·08% of the population pay out of pocket at the point of health care. The private sector provides three-quarters of the health services, and physicians outnumber nurses and midwives by a ratio of about 2:1. Complex governance challenges and underinvestment in health have hampered progress. With devolution of the health mandate, an opportunity has arisen to reform health. The federal government has constitutional responsibility of health information, interprovincial coordination, global health, and health regulation. All other health responsibilities are a provincial mandate. With appropriate policy, institutional, and legislative action within and outside the health system, the existing challenges could be overcome.

  20. Parameterization of 18th January 2011 earthquake in Dalbadin Region, Southwest Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiq-Ur-Rehman; Azeem, Tahir; Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; Nasir, Asma

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake of magnitude 7.3 Mw occurred on 18th January 2011 in Southwestern Pakistan, Baluchistan province (Dalbadin Region). The area has complex tectonics due to interaction of Indian, Eurasian and Arabian plates. Both thrust and strike slip earthquakes are dominant in this region with minor, localized normal faulting events. This earthquake under consideration (Dalbadin Earthquake) posed constraints in depth and focal parameters due to lack of data for evaluation of parameters from Pakistan, Iran or Afghanistan region. Normal faulting mechanism has been proposed by many researchers for this earthquake. In the present study the earthquake was relocated using the technique of travel time residuals. Relocated coordinates and depth were utilized to calculate the focal mechanism solution with outcome of a dominant strike slip mechanism, which is contrary to normal faulting. Relocated coordinates and resulting mechanism are more reliable than many reporting agencies as evaluation in this study is augmented by data from local seismic monitoring network of Pakistan. The tectonics in the area is governed by active subduction along the Makran Subduction Zone. This particular earthquake has strike slip mechanism due to breaking of subducting oceanic plate. This earthquake is located where oceanic lithosphere is subducting along with relative movements between Lut and Helmand blocks. Magnitude of this event i.e. Mw = 7.3, re evaluated depth and a previous study of mechanism of earthquake in same region (Shafiq et al., 2011) also supports the strike slip movement.

  1. Human Values and the Market: The Case of Life Insurance and Death in 19th-Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelizer, Viviana A.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the development of life insurance programs in the United States during the nineteenth century and traces social attitudes about life insurance from rejection to acceptance. Historical data indicate that life insurance emerged in the late nineteenth century as a form of ritual with which to face death. (Author/DB)

  2. The Teacher's Voice: A Social History of Teaching in Twentieth-century America. Studies in Curriculum History Series: 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altenbaugh, Richard J., Ed.

    This collection of essays presents narratives describing the role of classroom teachers in the development of public education in 20th century United States. Following a preface, the book is organized into four parts. The first part, Women's Work, includes "Having a Purpose in Life: Western Women Teachers in the Twentieth Century"…

  3. Synthesis of calcium antimonate nano-crystals by the 18th dynasty Egyptian glassmakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahlil, S.; Biron, I.; Cotte, M.; Susini, J.; Menguy, N.

    2010-01-01

    During the 18th Egyptian dynasty (1570-1292 B.C.), opaque white, blue and turquoise glasses were opacified by calcium antimonate crystals dispersed in a vitreous matrix. The technological processes as well as the antimony sources used to manufacture these crystals remain unknown. Our results shed a new light on glassmaking history: contrary to what was thought, we demonstrate that Egyptian glassmakers did not use in situ crystallization but first synthesized calcium antimonate opacifiers, which do not exist in nature, and then added them to a glass. Furthermore, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the first time in the study of Egyptian opaque glasses, we show that these opacifiers were nano-crystals. Prior to this research, such a process for glassmaking has not been suggested for any kind of ancient opaque glass production. Studying various preparation methods for calcium antimonate, we propose that Egyptian craftsmen could have produced Ca2Sb2O7 by using mixtures of Sb2O3 or Sb2O5 with calcium carbonates (atomic ratio Sb/Ca=1) heat treated between 1000 and 1100°C. We developed an original strategy focused on the investigation of the crystals and the vitreous matrices using an appropriate suite of high-sensitivity and high-resolution micro- and nano-analytical techniques (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), TEM). Synchrotron-based micro X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (μ-XANES) proved to be very well suited to the selective measure of the antimony oxidation state in the vitreous matrix. This work is the starting point for a complete reassessment not only of ancient Egyptian glass studies but more generally of high-temperature technologies used throughout antiquity.

  4. Putting Current North America Drought Conditions Into a Multi-Century Perspective. Part 2: Using the Blended Product in Operational Drought Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, R. R.; Vose, R. S.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Cook, E. R.

    2007-12-01

    Drought is an important climatological phenomenon which has significant socioeconomic and environmental impacts. Several drought indices have been developed to quantify drought, and all of them rely on meteorological observations taken at instrumented in situ weather stations. The instrumental record for drought monitoring in the U.S. extends back only about a hundred years, and the record is even shorter in other countries such as Canada and Mexico. As a result, recurrence intervals and water management compacts (for example, the Colorado River Basin domestic or Rio Grande international compacts) based upon such short records may not be built upon the long-term climatology of a region. Reliable drought information can be derived from paleoclimatic data such as tree-rings, thus enabling researchers and decision-makers to assess drought variability and impacts over a multi-century period. Previous work has developed research-quality paleoclimatic drought reconstructions which have been used in retrospective analyses but, until now, such data have not been used comprehensively in operational monitoring. Part 1 of this paper describes the development of the reconstructed paleoclimatic Palmer drought index gridded dataset for North America from tree-ring data. Part 2 of this paper describes how the reconstructed paleoclimatic data base is blended with a 20th century instrumental- based Palmer drought index gridded dataset for operational drought monitoring applications across North America.

  5. TODAY: For America Recycles Day, EPA and Partners Celebrates Economic Benefits of Recycling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today, in celebration of the 18th annual America Recycles Day, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Assistant Administrator for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Mathy Stanislaus, and EPA Region 4 Regional Administrat

  6. 18th U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference. Program

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-20

    This conference explored the latest developments in low-level radioactive waste management through presentations from professionals in both the public and the private sectors and special guests. The conference included two continuing education seminars, a workshop, exhibits, and a tour of Envirocare of Utah, Inc., one of America's three commercial low-level radioactive waste depositories.

  7. 'Conservation Education' and the Foundations of National Prosperity: Comparative Perspectives from Early Twentieth-Century North America and Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, William E.

    1998-01-01

    Compares the development of conservation education in North America and Britain. Reports that the focus of British conservation education was on preserving the countryside, while the United States focused on protecting natural resources. Finds that a major difference was that the label of 'conservation education' did not appear in Britain. (CMK)

  8. Enlightenment and Education in Eighteenth Century America: A Platform for Further Study in Higher Education and the Colonial Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The prolific educational discussions of America's founding generation have led to extensive treatments surrounding the nature of early-national education in recent scholarship. Republican educational models Jefferson, Rush, and Webster have been scrutinized and praised as the forerunners to modern American higher education. Where these treatments…

  9. Twentieth-century atmospheric river activity along the west coasts of Europe and North America: algorithm formulation, reanalysis uncertainty and links to atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brands, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; San-Martín, D.

    2016-04-01

    A new atmospheric-river detection and tracking scheme based on the magnitude and direction of integrated water vapour transport is presented and applied separately over 13 regions located along the west coasts of Europe (including North Africa) and North America. Four distinct reanalyses are considered, two of which cover the entire twentieth-century: NOAA-CIRES Twentieth Century Reanalysis v2 (NOAA-20C) and ECMWF ERA-20C. Calculations are done separately for the OND and JFM-season and, for comparison with previous studies, for the ONDJFM-season as a whole. Comparing the AR-counts from NOAA-20C and ERA-20C with a running 31-year window looping through 1900-2010 reveals differences in the climatological mean and inter-annual variability which, at the start of the twentieth-century, are much more pronounced in western North America than in Europe. Correlating European AR-counts with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) reveals a pattern reminiscent of the well-know precipitation dipole which is stable throughout the entire century. A similar analysis linking western North American AR-counts to the North Pacific index (NPI) is hampered by the aforementioned poor reanalysis agreement at the start of the century. During the second half of the twentieth-century, the strength of the NPI-link considerably varies with time in British Columbia and the Gulf of Alaska. Considering the period 1950-2010, AR-counts are then associated with other relevant large-scale circulation indices such as the East Atlantic, Scandinavian, Pacific-North American and West Pacific patterns (EA, SCAND, PNA and WP). Along the Atlantic coastline of the Iberian Peninsula and France, the EA-link is stronger than the NAO-link if the OND season is considered and the SCAND-link found in northern Europe is significant during both seasons. Along the west coast of North America, teleconnections are generally stronger during JFM in which case the NPI-link is significant in any of the five considered

  10. Feeling the Spirit: Spiritualism, Literary Aesthetics, and the Reformation of the Senses in Nineteenth-Century America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Tracy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation attempts to explain how nineteenth-century American Spiritualist literature may have made readers feel like they were hearing voices, touching the dead, seeing celestial spaces, or enjoying other sensory proofs of the afterlife. Spiritualists believed that, while all human beings possessed faculties designed to perceive the dead,…

  11. Diversity in Science Education: Its Role in the Development of Latin America in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tewolde, Assefaw

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the diversity of science education in different Latin American countries. Focuses on the evolution of science education and its influence on development, especially agricultural diversity, the paradigm of the 21st century and its influence on higher education, and implications for science education. (Author/VWL)

  12. Seasonal changes of extreme climate indices in Mexico and Central America during the 21st century using CMIP5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavazos, T.; de Grau, P.; Salinas, J. A.; Colorado, G.

    2013-05-01

    We evaluated historical (1961-2000) and climate change projections of temperature and precipitation from 15 general circulation models (GCMs) of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) for Mexico and Central America. Annual cycles, interannual variations and seasonal extreme percentiles (P10 and P90) of temperature and precipitation were validated with observed data from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU). Climate change scenarios for the mean GCM ensemble (ens_GCM) were obtained for the 2075-2099 period, relative to 1961-2000, for low (RCP4.5) and high (RCP8.5) radiating forcings. The ens_GCM was obtained by the Reliability Ensemble Averaging (REA) technique (Giorgi and Mearns 2001). Maximum temperature (Tmax) is underestimated (~2oC) by the ens_GCM in almost all Mexico, while minimum temperature (Tmin) is overestimated. Part of the underestimation may be related to the excess of rainfall that many models produce, especially in autumn and winter. For example, in the monsoon region, the models fail to produce the retreat of the summer rains in autumn, a feature also observed in the CMIP3 models. The ens_GCM overestimates rainfall in the semiarid regions of Northern Mexico and the Southwestern United States, but underestimates rainfall in southern Mexico and Central America, where extreme rainfall (P90 in JJA) can be larger than 8 mm d-1. Seasonal thresholds for extreme climatic indices (P90 and P10) were produced for Mexico and Central America. The largest observed P90 threshold for Tmax from the CRU dataset occurs in JJA along the US-Mexico border (~35-40oC), where the ens_GCM underestimates it by ~5oC; in some coastal regions of Central America the largest thresholds are between 30-35oC. The results for the RCP8.5 scenario show that the P90 threshold for Tmax in JJA may increase (>3oC) in almost all the study region, and >5oC along the Sierra Madre Occidental in the monsoon region. This may have important implications for the monsoon dynamics. The

  13. The black cholera comes to the central valley of America in the 19th century - 1832, 1849, and later.

    PubMed

    Daly, Walter J

    2008-01-01

    In mid-19th Century, cholera was epidemic throughout the world. Small towns of the American Midwest were not spared. The disease was blamed on miasmas arising from local causes, so flight from affected localities were logical and common. Flight, added to mortality, caused virtual depopulation of many small towns. Drinking water was drawn from rivers or shallow wells, often near seeping cesspools. Local merchants tried unsuccessfully to calm panic by suppressing information. Cholera was not good for business. Business was depressed. Organized religion thrived. National and state days of prayer were appointed to appease an angry God. During these frightening times, the people learned nothing about the infectiousness of cholera or about its prevention through sanitation. Their experiences tended to reinforce their belief in miasmas or divine retribution. The great epidemics of mankind describe human behavior in times of unavoidable and incurable crisis. Nineteenth Century cholera experiences illustrate a people's reaction to catastrophic disease, which they believed was incurable and unpreventable.

  14. The Flexner Report of 1910 and Its Impact on Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Psychiatry in North America in the 20th Century

    PubMed Central

    Stahnisch, Frank W.; Verhoef, Marja

    2012-01-01

    America experienced a genuinely vast development of biomedical science in the early decades of the twentieth century, which in turn impacted the community of academic psychiatry and changed the way in which clinical and basic research approaches in psychiatry were conceptualized. This development was largely based on the restructuring of research universities in both of the USA and Canada following the influential report of Johns Hopkins-trained science administrator and politician Abraham Flexner (1866–1959). Flexner's report written in commission for the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching in Washington, DC, also had a major influence on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in psychiatry throughout the 20th century. This paper explores the lasting impact of Flexner's research published on modern medicine and particularly on what he interpreted as the various forms of health care and psychiatric treatment that appeared to compete with the paradigm of biomedicine. We will particularly draw attention to the serious effects of the closing of so many CAM-oriented hospitals, colleges, and medical teaching programs following to the publication of the Flexner Report in 1910. PMID:23346209

  15. MONDAY: EPA, State, and Industry Leaders Hold Press Conference to Discuss Economic Benefits of Recycling for America Recycles Day

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - On Monday, in celebration of the 18 th annual America Recycles Day, EPA Assistant Administrator for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Mathy Stanislaus, and EPA Region 4 Regional Administrator, Heather McTeer Toney

  16. Eight Sages over Five Centuries Share Oxygen's Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severinghaus, John W.

    2016-01-01

    During the last century, historians have discovered that between the 13th and 18th centuries, at least six sages discovered that the air we breathe contains something that we need and use. Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) in Cairo and Michael Servetus (1511-1553) in France accurately described the pulmonary circulation and its effect on blood color.…

  17. Integrating Women into U.S. History: A Sourcebook. Part I: Women in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Part II: Women in the 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, D'Ann; And Others

    This sourcebook, in two parts, aims at supplementing the limited material dealing with women's history normally found in junior and senior high school U.S. history textbooks. The lessons were developed by teachers at an intensive summer institute dealing with women's issues. The teachers and their colleagues field-tested the lessons and revised…

  18. Identifications of ancient Egyptian royal mummies from the 18th Dynasty reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Habicht, M E; Bouwman, A S; Rühli, F J

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, ancient Egyptian Royal mummies have drawn the attention both of the general public and scientists. Many royal mummies from the New Kingdom have survived. The discoveries of the bodies of these ancient rulers have always sparked much attention, yet not all identifications are clear even nowadays. This study presents a meta-analysis to demonstrate the difficulties in identifying ancient Egyptian royal mummies. Various methods and pitfalls in the identification of the Pharaohs are reassessed since new scientific methods can be used, such as ancient DNA-profiling and CT-scanning. While the ancestors of Tutankhamun have been identified, some identities are still highly controversial (e.g., the mystery of the KV-55 skeleton, recently most likely identified as the genetic father of Tutankhamun). The meta-analysis confirms the suggested identity of some mummies (e.g., Amenhotep III, Thutmosis IV, and Queen Tjye).

  19. The Black Cholera Comes to the Central Valley of America in the 19th Century - 1832, 1849, and Later

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Walter J.

    2008-01-01

    In mid-19th Century, cholera was epidemic throughout the world. Small towns of the American Midwest were not spared. The disease was blamed on miasmas arising from local causes, so flight from affected localities were logical and common. Flight, added to mortality, caused virtual depopulation of many small towns. Drinking water was drawn from rivers or shallow wells, often near seeping cesspools. Local merchants tried unsuccessfully to calm panic by suppressing information. Cholera was not good for business. Business was depressed. Organized religion thrived. National and state days of prayer were appointed to appease an angry God. During these frightening times, the people learned nothing about the infectiousness of cholera or about its prevention through sanitation. Their experiences tended to reinforce their belief in miasmas or divine retribution. The great epidemics of mankind describe human behavior in times of unavoidable and incurable crisis. Nineteenth Century cholera experiences illustrate a people's reaction to catastrophic disease, which they believed was incurable and unpreventable. PMID:18596846

  20. One century of arsenic exposure in Latin America: a review of history and occurrence from 14 countries.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Litter, Marta I; Parvez, Faruque; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Nicolli, Hugo B; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chen-Wuing; López, Dina; Armienta, María A; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Cuevas, Alina Gomez; Cornejo, Lorena; Cumbal, Luis; Toujaguez, Regla

    2012-07-01

    The global impact on public health of elevated arsenic (As) in water supplies is highlighted by an increasing number of countries worldwide reporting high As concentrations in drinking water. In Latin America, the problem of As contamination in water is known in 14 out of 20 countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru and Uruguay. Considering the 10 μg/L limit for As in drinking water established by international and several national agencies, the number of exposed people is estimated to be about 14 million. Health effects of As exposure were identified for the first time already in the 1910s in Bellville (Córdoba province, Argentina). Nevertheless, contamination of As in waters has been detected in 10 Latin American countries only within the last 10 to 15 years. Arsenic is mobilized predominantly from young volcanic rocks and their weathering products. In alluvial aquifers, which are water sources frequently used for water supply, desorption of As from metal oxyhydroxides at high pH (>8) is the predominant mobility control; redox conditions are moderate reducing to oxidizing and As(V) is the predominant species. In the Andes, the Middle American cordillera and the Transmexican Volcanic Belt, oxidation of sulfide minerals is the primary As mobilization process. Rivers that originate in the Andean mountains, transport As to more densely populated areas in the lowlands (e.g. Rímac river in Peru, Pilcomayo river in Bolivia/Argentina/Paraguay). In many parts of Latin America, As often occurs together with F and B; in the Chaco-Pampean plain As is found additionally with V, Mo and U whereas in areas with sulfide ore deposits As often occurs together with heavy metals. These co-occurrences and the anthropogenic activities in mining areas that enhance the mobilization of As and other pollutants make more dramatic the environmental problem.

  1. The spatial distribution of C3 and C4 grasses in North America through the next century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, J. M.; Mosier, T. M.; Cerling, T. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Hoppe, K. A.; Still, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    C4 grasses currently cover ~18% of the earth's surface and are economically important as food sources, but their distributions are likely to change with future climate changes. As a result of the opposing impacts of atmospheric CO2 and temperature on C3 and C4 physiology, future changes to the productivity and distributions of these grasses have remained unclear. We have used past and present tooth enamel, collagen, and bone carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of Bison and Mammoth grazers to record the δ13C values of their diet, and the abundance of C3 and C4 vegetation in these habitats. Thus, the δ13C values of bison and mammoth tissues serve as a proxy for vegetation composition across North America through time. We combine these isotope data with ensemble CMIP5 climate model outputs, eight different climatic and fire predictor variables and advanced statistical techniques to model the spatial distribution of C3 and C4 grasses up through the year 2100 for two different emissions scenarios. Using the Random Forest algorithm, our model explains 91% of the spatial and temporal isotopic variability in bison and mammoth tissues and infers that mean summer temperature is the strongest predictor of all climate variables. For the emission scenario RCP4.5, in which atmospheric CO2 levels are predicted to rise to ~540 ppm by 2100, we find decreases in the abundance of C4 grasses of up to 30% in the south-central Great Plains and the Florida peninsula, and increases of up to 50% in the northern Great Plains. For the RCP8.5 scenario, in which atmospheric CO2 levels are expected to rise to ~930 ppm by 2100, our model predicts minor decreases in the abundance of C4 grasses in Texas and Oklahoma, but increases of 30-50% over the majority of the Great Plains. The overall effect of these changes is a homogenization of the Great Plains ecoregion in terms of grassland type distributions, and the loss of the highest abundance of C4 ecosystems of the panhandles of Texas, Oklahoma and

  2. [Health, human development, and governance in Latin America and the Caribbean at the beginning of the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Casas-Zamora, Juan Antonio

    2002-01-01

    The issue of the reciprocal relationship between health and development has recently taken on greater importance in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), given the persistence of extreme poverty and the political and social difficulties due to macroeconomic imbalances and crises of governance. This piece reviews concepts of sustainable human development, social determinants of health in general and of health inequities in particular (gender, ethnic group, income level), and the relationship between health and economic growth in the medium term and the long term. An analysis is made of how persistent poverty in countries of LAC relates to disparities in health conditions, access to health services, and health care financing, as well as to such health determinants as nutrition and environmental sanitation. Health inequities most strongly affect the most excluded and vulnerable sectors of the population. In the face of this situation, the author stresses that putting a priority on health inequities is vital to safeguarding the governability and the social and political stability of countries in LAC in the next decade.

  3. B. F. Skinner and Technology's Nation: Technocracy, Social Engineering, and the Good Life in 20th-Century America.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2017-04-13

    Psychologist B. F. Skinner developed and promoted a technology of behavior as the basis for widespread social reform over much of his career. In 1948, he published his behaviorally engineered vision of the good life in his utopian novel Walden Two (Skinner, 1948). Skinner's efforts were part of a much larger social engineering tradition that received one of its fullest expressions in the Technocracy Movement of the 1930s. Fifteen years before Skinner's Walden Two, at the height of the Technocracy Movement's public visibility in the United States, technocrat Harold Loeb (1933/1996) published his utopia, Life in a Technocracy: What It Might Be Like. In this article, I place the socially engineered visions of the good life promoted by the Technocracy Movement and by Skinner on an intellectual and ideological continuum to amplify and explore American attitudes toward psychology, technology, and social engineering during the middle decades of the 20th century. I argue that responses to both reveal the possibilities and limits of the social engineering enterprise, and suggest that historians of technology might consider how the history of psychology and other psy-disciplines can deepen conceptualizations of the relationships among the psychological, the social, and the technological in this period. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Allan Brooks, naturalist and artist (1869-1946): the travails of an early twentieth century wildlife illustrator in North America.

    PubMed

    Winearls, Joan

    2008-01-01

    British by birth Allan Cyril Brooks (1869-1946) emigrated to Canada in the 1880s, and became one of the most important North American bird illustrators during the first half of the twentieth century. Brooks was one of the leading ornithologists and wildlife collectors of the time; he corresponded extensively with other ornithologists and supplied specimens to many major North American museums. From the 1890s on he hoped to support himself by painting birds and mammals, but this was not possible in Canada at that time and he was forced to turn to American sources for illustration commissions. His work can be compared with that of his contemporary, the leading American bird painter Louis Agassiz Fuertes (1874-1927), and there are striking similarities and differences in their careers. This paper discusses the work of a talented, self-taught wildlife artist working in a North American milieu, his difficulties and successes in a newly developing field, and his quest for Canadian recognition.

  5. PASCOS 2012 - 18th International Symposium on Particles Strings and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    The XVII International Conference on Strings, Particles and Cosmology, PASCOS 2012, was held in the City of Mérida, Mexico, from June 3-8, 2012. The conference series is aimed at exploring the interface and interplay between particle physics, string theory and cosmology. With the advent of new data, the emphasis of the XVIII edition of PASCOS was on phenomenology and the interpretation of recent observational and experimental results. The conference followed the format of previous conferences in this series, with plenary reviews and contributed presentations in parallel sessions. The lectures covered a wide range of subjects which included: Dark matter and dark energy, flavor physics and CP violation, neutrino physics, supersymmetry, Higgs physics, baryogenesis and EDMs, supergravity, high energy cosmic rays, string and F-theory GUTs, and string phenomenology. This is the first time that PASCOS was held in Latin America. The aim to do it in Mexico was to engage the Latin American community and thus to bring the conference to a wider and different audience, a goal which was thoroughly achieved. The venue was held at the Hotel Fiesta Americana in the beautiful city of Mérida. The social events included a reception with typical local food at the Katun restaurant, conference dinner at the historical Quinta Montes Molina, and an excursion to the archeological site of Dzibilchaltún including a swim at the famous cenote. PASCOS 2012 was possible thanks to the generous support of the following sponsors: CONACyT (Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología), UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México: Consejo Técnico de la Investigación Científica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Instituto de Física), Cinvestav, (Centro de Estudios Avanzados del IPN: U. Zacatanco, U. Mérida and Secretaría General), ICyTDF (Instituto Científico y Tecnológico del D.F.), PIFI (Programa Integral de Fortalecimiento Institucional, Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus León), SMF

  6. [The singularity of population policies in Latin America and the Caribbean in the late 20th century].

    PubMed

    Sojo, A

    1993-06-01

    This work questions the assumption that population policies in Latin America and the Caribbean are closely related to population growth, identifies common obstacles to population policies, and recommends actions to increase the efficacy of population policies. The demographic transition has occurred in Latin American countries with widely varying levels of economic development, cultural traditions, and family planning programs. The governments of the region that regard their rates of population growth and fertility as satisfactory seldom intervene to modify them. The demographic transition is well underway in all these countries except Guatemala and Paraguay. A diverse array of strategies has been used by the countries that have achieved significant fertility reductions, ranging from family planning services provided through the national health system in Mexico to key roles by the private and commercial sectors and intensive use of the mass media in Brazil. Governments adopting population policies defined various institutional forms for them, ranging from small technical units at a high level to interministerial councils. Institutionalization of population policies created high hopes for integration of population concerns into development strategies, but performance has largely failed to meet expectations, both because of the fragility and inferior status in the government bureaucracy of policy structures, and because of their inability to develop effective programs integrating population and development. The economic crisis of the 1980s lowered the priority of population themes. Political instability, lack of adequate human resources and financing, limited decision making capacity, and failure to establish strong interinstitutional ties have all been factors in the disappointing results of population policies. The difficulty of pinpointing exactly what constitutes the population policy and the tendency to equate population policy and family planning have been

  7. The role of ENSO and PDO in variability of winter precipitation over North America from twenty first century CMIP5 projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes-Franco, Ramón; Giorgi, Filippo; Coppola, Erika; Kucharski, Fred

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the combined impact of ENSO and PDO on North American winter climate in current and future climate projections from 11 global models in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) dataset. We first analyze winter sea surface temperature, sea level pressure (SLP) and precipitation anomalies for the historical period 1951-2005, and find that the CMIP5 models reproduce well the constructive interference between ENSO and the PDO compared to observations (i.e. positive ENSO and PDO or negative ENSO and PDO). On the other hand, the destructive interference (positive ENSO and negative PDO or negative ENSO and positive PDO) is less accurately reproduced. Consistently with observations, ENSO events show generally more impact on North American winter climate than PDO events, although there is a robust increase of rainfall in the Southeastern US during the negative PDO phase. For the twenty first century projections, we focus on the 2050-2099 period under the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas concentration scenario and we find an overall strengthening of both the ENSO and PDO signals, and particularly the PDO one, on the SLP and related teleconnections. This results in an enhanced influence of the negative PDO phase on flood conditions in the Southeastern United States, and in drier conditions over the Southwest coasts of North America.

  8. Winter-to-Summer Precipitation Phasing in Southwestern North America: A Multi-Century Perspective from Paleoclimatic Model-Data Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coats, Sloan; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Griffin, Daniel; Cook, Benjamin I.

    2015-01-01

    The phasing of winter-to-summer precipitation anomalies in the North American monsoon (NAM) region 2 (113.25 deg W-107.75 deg W, 30 deg N-35.25 deg N-NAM2) of southwestern North America is analyzed in fully coupled simulations of the Last Millennium and compared to tree ring reconstructed winter and summer precipitation variability. The models simulate periods with in-phase seasonal precipitation anomalies, but the strength of this relationship is variable on multidecadal time scales, behavior that is also exhibited by the reconstructions. The models, however, are unable to simulate periods with consistently out-of-phase winter-to-summer precipitation anomalies as observed in the latter part of the instrumental interval. The periods with predominantly in-phase winter-to-summer precipitation anomalies in the models are significant against randomness, and while this result is suggestive of a potential for dual-season drought on interannual and longer time scales, models do not consistently exhibit the persistent dual-season drought seen in the dendroclimatic reconstructions. These collective findings indicate that model-derived drought risk assessments may underestimate the potential for dual-season drought in 21st century projections of hydroclimate in the American Southwest and parts of Mexico.

  9. Energy for America's Third Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Six articles concerned with energy use, energy research and sources of energy are included in this issue. Articles are titled (1) Energy Systems; (2) Energy-Related Research; (3) Solar Energy; (4) Geothermal Energy; (5) Coal; and (6) Utilization of Energy. (RH)

  10. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit.

    PubMed

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Habicht, Michael E; Buckley, Stephen; Fletcher, Joann; Seiler, Roger; Öhrström, Lena M; Vassilika, Eleni; Böni, Thomas; Rühli, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers' village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out) investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated "recipes", whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification.

  11. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit

    PubMed Central

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Habicht, Michael E.; Buckley, Stephen; Fletcher, Joann; Seiler, Roger; Öhrström, Lena M.; Vassilika, Eleni; Böni, Thomas; Rühli, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers’ village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out) investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated “recipes”, whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification. PMID:26200778

  12. The initial giant umbrella cloud of the May 18th, 1980, explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparks, R.S.J.; Moore, J.G.; Rice, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The initial eruption column of May 18th, 1980 reached nearly 30 km altitude and released 1017 joules of thermal energy into the atmosphere in only a few minutes. Ascent of the cloud resulted in forced intrusion of a giant umbrella-shaped cloud between altitudes of 10 and 20 km at radial horizontal velocities initially in excess of 50 m/s. The mushroom cloud expanded 15 km upwind, forming a stagnation point where the radial expansion velocity and wind velocity were equal. The cloud was initiated when the pyroclastic blast flow became buoyant. The flow reduced its density as it moved away from the volcano by decompression, by sedimentation, and by mixing with and heating the surrounding air. Observations indicate that much of the flow, covering an area of 600 km2, became buoyant within 1.5 minutes and abruptly ascended to form the giant cloud. Calculations are presented for the amount of air that must have been entrained into the flow to make it buoyant. Assuming an initial temperature of 450??C and a magmatic origin for the explosion, these calculations indicate that the flow became buoyant when its temperature was approximately 150??C and the flow consisted of a mixture of 3.25 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 5.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. If sedimentation is considered, these figures reduce to 1.1 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 1.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. ?? 1986.

  13. A Historical Vignette: Language Learning Eighteenth-Century Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalwies, Howard H.

    1977-01-01

    French became the foremost medium of communication in Europe in the 18th century. In Germany the most widely used French textbook was Johan Valentin Meidinger's "Practische Franzoesische Grammatik." This textbook was apparently a huge success from the pedagogical and the commerical points of view. With a few minor revisions, it would…

  14. As the Europeans Saw Them: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnow, Patricia H., Comp.

    This booklet is intended for use as reading material for the social studies unit, The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century. Excerpts from journals of seven 18th-century explorers or travelers describe the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands. The accounts have been translated from original notes kept by members of the Russian navy, ship commanders, a…

  15. Decadal Drought and Wetness Reconstructed for Subtropical North America in the Mexican Drought Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnette, D. J.; Stahle, D. W.; Cook, E. R.; Villanueva Diaz, J.; Griffin, D.; Cook, B.

    2014-12-01

    A new drought atlas has been developed for subtropical North America, including the entire Republic of Mexico. This Mexican Drought Atlas (MXDA) is based on 251 tree-ring chronologies, including 82 from Mexico and another 169 from the southern U.S. and western Guatemala. Point-by-point principal components regression was used to reconstruct the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for June-August. Calibration and verification statistics were improved over what was previously possible with the North American Drought Atlas, which was based on fewer chronologies only in Mexico. The MXDA will be served on the web with analytical tools for composite, correlation, and congruence analyses. The new PDSI reconstructions provide a more detailed estimation of decadal moisture regimes over the past 2000 years, but are most robust after 1400 AD, when several chronologies are available across Mexico. Droughts previously identified in a subset of chronologies are confirmed and their spatial impact quantified in the new reconstructions. This includes the intense drought of the mid-15th Century described in Aztec legend, the 16th Century megadrought, and "El Año del Hambre", one of the worst famines in Mexican history. We also use the best replicated portion of the MXDA in the 18th and 19th Centuries to reconstruct moisture anomalies during key time periods of Mexican turmoil (e.g., the Mexican War of Independence).

  16. Multiscale perspectives of fire, climate and humans in western North America and the Jemez Mountains, USA.

    PubMed

    Swetnam, Thomas W; Farella, Joshua; Roos, Christopher I; Liebmann, Matthew J; Falk, Donald A; Allen, Craig D

    2016-06-05

    Interannual climate variations have been important drivers of wildfire occurrence in ponderosa pine forests across western North America for at least 400 years, but at finer scales of mountain ranges and landscapes human land uses sometimes over-rode climate influences. We reconstruct and analyse effects of high human population densities in forests of the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico from ca 1300 CE to Present. Prior to the 1680 Pueblo Revolt, human land uses reduced the occurrence of widespread fires while simultaneously adding more ignitions resulting in many small-extent fires. During the 18th and 19th centuries, wet/dry oscillations and their effects on fuels dynamics controlled widespread fire occurrence. In the late 19th century, intensive livestock grazing disrupted fuels continuity and fire spread and then active fire suppression maintained the absence of widespread surface fires during most of the 20th century. The abundance and continuity of fuels is the most important controlling variable in fire regimes of these semi-arid forests. Reduction of widespread fires owing to reduction of fuel continuity emerges as a hallmark of extensive human impacts on past forests and fire regimes.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'.

  17. Multiscale perspectives of fire, climate and humans in western North America and the Jemez Mountains, USA

    PubMed Central

    Farella, Joshua; Liebmann, Matthew J.; Falk, Donald A.; Allen, Craig D.

    2016-01-01

    Interannual climate variations have been important drivers of wildfire occurrence in ponderosa pine forests across western North America for at least 400 years, but at finer scales of mountain ranges and landscapes human land uses sometimes over-rode climate influences. We reconstruct and analyse effects of high human population densities in forests of the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico from ca 1300 CE to Present. Prior to the 1680 Pueblo Revolt, human land uses reduced the occurrence of widespread fires while simultaneously adding more ignitions resulting in many small-extent fires. During the 18th and 19th centuries, wet/dry oscillations and their effects on fuels dynamics controlled widespread fire occurrence. In the late 19th century, intensive livestock grazing disrupted fuels continuity and fire spread and then active fire suppression maintained the absence of widespread surface fires during most of the 20th century. The abundance and continuity of fuels is the most important controlling variable in fire regimes of these semi-arid forests. Reduction of widespread fires owing to reduction of fuel continuity emerges as a hallmark of extensive human impacts on past forests and fire regimes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The interaction of fire and mankind’. PMID:27216525

  18. Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology (18th, Monticello, New York, March 24-26, 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Patricia A., Ed.; Zaromatidis, Katherine, Ed.; Levine, Judith R., Ed.; Indenbaum, Gene, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This document includes the proceedings and papers of the 18th Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology, which was held on March 24-26, 2004 in Monticello, NY. The conference, which dealt with ideas and innovations in the teaching of psychology, was sponsored by the Psychology Department of the Farmingdale State University. The…

  19. Education for All in Latin America in the Twenty-First Century: The Challenges of Jomtien. Development Discussion Paper No. 358.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimers, Fernando M.

    A declaration for achieving universal basic education adopted by the World Conference on Education for All in Jomtien, Thailand, as it relates to Latin America is discussed in this paper. The document then offers an examination of educational expansion in Latin America, a discussion of disproportionate educational budget cuts, and an analysis of…

  20. United States History: From Community to Society. Unit Four: Revolutionary America. Grade Six. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Revolution is the theme of this resource unit, which is the fourth in a social studies series designed for sixth grade students. In the first part of the unit, case studies are used to examine 18th century Boston, Williamsburg, and Philadelphia, contrasting them to 17th century Jamestown and Plymouth settlements. Emphasis is upon examining causes…

  1. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation through centuries].

    PubMed

    Gajić, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    THE ANCIENT TIMES: Many early civilisations left testimonies about ancient times and resuscitation, as well. Some of them did it successfully and some of them did it less successfully; however, all of them wished to help a dying person and to bring him back to life. The first trustworthy note can be found in the Bible--Old Testament as a very realistic description of resuscitation of a child. THE MIDDLE AGES: The medieval scientists, Paracelsus and Vesalius, described first successful resuscitation attempts in the 15th and 16th century. These two men successfully applied ventilation methods by air inflation with blacksmith bellows. THE MODERN ERA: The first defibrillation was recorded in the 18th century in England, which was conducted by one of the volunteer society members. With the development of mechanics and techniques, the first precursors of modern respirators were introduced in the 19th century. The age of modern cardiopulmonary resuscitation began in the middle of 20th century, when Dr Peter Safar brought in the combination of artificial ventilation and chest compressions as the standard for implementing resuscitation. Adrenalin and defibrillation were introduced into the resuscitation techniques by Dr Redding and Dr Kouwenhaven, respectively; thus beginning the advance life support administration, which has been applied, with minor changes, until today.

  2. [Vampires in the village Žrnovo on the island of Korčula: following an archival document from the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Coralic, Lovorka; Dugac, Zeljko; Sardelic, Sani

    2011-01-01

    The main interest of this essay is the analysis of the document from the State Archive in Venice (file: Capi del Consiglio de' Dieci: Lettere di Rettori e di altre cariche) which is connected with the episode from 1748 when the inhabitants of the village žrnove on the island of Korčula in Croatia opened tombs on the local cemetery in the fear of the vampires treating. This essay try to show some social circumstances connected with this event as well as a local vernacular tradition concerning superstitions.

  3. "A means of restoring the health and preserving the lives of His Majesty's subjects": Ireland's 18th-Century National Hospital System.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, Susan

    2012-01-01

    In 1765, the Irish parliament enacted legislation that established a nationwide hospital network funded by a mixture of taxation and philanthropic donations. The county infirmaries had a similar ethos to the British and Irish voluntary hospitals; only those with an admission ticket were admitted. The legislation also regulated the qualifications of the County Infirmary Surgeons who were authorised to run the infirmaries. This was the first statutory nationwide network of care in Ireland. No other country in contemporary Europe passed similar legislation. The Irish parliamentarians and Charles Lucas in particular appear to have been the impetus for this innovative legislation.

  4. [Rural healthcare in the 17th and 18th centuries: types of conducción (contract) for health professionals in Aragon].

    PubMed

    Fernández Doctor, Asunción; Arcarazo Garcia, Luis A

    2002-01-01

    In order to ensure continuous health care for the population, Town Councils of the rural areas of Aragon offered contracts to health professionals. The contract was known as a "conducta médica" or "conducción". In this study, we review the legislation of the time, the types of contracts and the procedures followed, in addition to the fees and duties of the health professionals (conducidos) hired. Finally, the problems arising from this system are considered and some relevant sources are given.

  5. Loss of genetic diversity in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) associated with the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, S.; Jameson, R.; Etnier, M.; Flemings, M.; Bentzen, P.

    2002-01-01

    During 1969 and 1970, surveys of the endangered Yuma Clapper Rail were conducted using taped calls to elicit responses from the birds. During the two summers, more than 158 Yuma clappers were located in cattailtule marshes along the Colorado River south of Needles, California, to the International Boundary, a distance of about 240 miles. Clappers (probably of the same race) were also found in estuarian marshes of the Colorado River Delta of Mexico; in the Salton Sea; in two freshwater marsh areas near Phoenix, Arizona; and in two freshwater marshes adjacent to the lower Gila River near Tacna, Arizona.....Populations of Sonora Clapper Rails were discovered as permanent residents in five separate mangrove swamps along the west coast of Mexico in the vicinity of Kino Bay, Sonora. These observations were farther north than any heretofore reported for the race R. l. rhizophorae, and the swamps also represent the extreme northward limit of mangroves in Sonora.....During the winter, Yuma clappers did not respond to taped calls north of the International Boundary, whereas clappers along the coast of Sonora readily answered the calls during the same period of time. We conclude that most Yuma Clapper Rails migrate from their summer habitat along the Colorado River in September and do not return to the breeding areas until late April.

  6. [The "conclusions of Pharmacy" in Nancy, at the end of the 18th century: between "synthèses" and "thèses"].

    PubMed

    Julien, P; Martin, J

    1995-01-01

    A special requirement of the law for apothecaries in Nancy in 1764 imposed on the candidates for a master's degree was the written response to four questions following their practical examinations. Two documents heretofore unpublished show the results of this obligation: the Conclusions de Pharmacie by Joseph Pierson (1765) and the Conclusions de Pharmacie et de Chimie by François Mandel (1771). The authors of the present article comment on these documents and make an attempt to place them in the confused history of "synthèses" and "thèses".

  7. [The environment of the first stage of the Academia Médica Matritense (2.0 third of the 18th century): determinant notes for a suitable valuation].

    PubMed

    González de Posada, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    The intrinsic nature of the written histories of the Real Academia Nacional de Medicina until the present is confirmed and the construction of a contextualized history of its first stage and in relation to the proliferation of contemporary health-related academies of pharmacists, surgeons and doctors is started.

  8. The history of botany in Moscow and Russia in the 18th and early 19th centuries in the context of the Linnaean Collection at Moscow University (MW).

    PubMed

    Sokoloff, Dmitry D; Balandin, Sergey A; Gubanov, Ivan A; Jarvis, Charles E; Majorov, Sergey R; Simonov, Sergey S

    2002-01-01

    The Herbarium of Moscow State University, Russia, possesses a relatively small (63 specimens), but historically interesting, collection of herbarium specimens linked with Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778). Some of these originally formed part of Linnaeus' own herbarium while others, although never his property, were nevertheless studied by him and may be original material for the typification of his plant names. This paper discusses the broad historical background to the gathering of these specimens, their study by Linnaeus and their subsequent fate. Specimens linked with Linnaeus have been encountered in each of the four largest historical collections of the Herbarium of Moscow State University, i. e., in the herbaria of J. F. Ehrhart, G. F. Hoffmann, C. B. von Trinius and C. L. Goldbach. Ehrhart's General Herbarium contains 31 sheets, which were more or less certainly collected or studied by Linnaeus. Ehrhart, a pupil of Linnaeus, received some specimens directly from the latter, while others came to him from Linnaeus filius, A. Dahl, and P. J. Bergius. Ehrhart's collections were purchased by G. F. Hoffmann, later, the first head of the Department of Botany at Moscow University, who took them to Russia. Hoffmann's General Herbarium contains three specimens that may be connected with Linnaeus. They were received from C. P. Thunberg, J. A. Murray, and an unknown person, respectively. At least five specimens from Trinius' collection, although certainly never seen by Linnaeus, are probable duplicates of material that was studied by him. Some of them are almost certainly iso-lectotypes of Linnaean names. Finally, 24 specimens linked with Linnaeus were found in Goldbach's herbarium. The majority of them were collected in the Lower Volga Region by J. Lerche and during the Second Kamchatka Expedition (Great Northern Expedition) by J. G. Gmelin and G. W. Steller.

  9. Late 18th to early 19th century sea-level history and inter-seismic behavior along the western Myanmar plate boundary belt recorded by coral microatolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sze-Chieh; Shyu, J. Bruce H.

    2016-04-01

    Along the western Myanmar plate boundary belt, the Indian-Australian plate is subducting obliquely beneath the Burma micro-plate at a rate of about 23 mm/yr. Although information about the 1762 Arakan earthquake, the only major historical event occurred along this plate boundary belt, has been delineated recently from uplifted coastal features, constraints on the inter-seismic behavior of this belt is still very limited, due to the lack of high resolution instrumental records in the area. Therefore, we utilized coral microatolls to analyze relative sea level history, in order to obtain potential information of land-level change along the western coast of Myanmar. Our sample was collected from northwestern Ramree Island, approximately 80 km away from the trench. Previous studies suggest that the coral was uplifted and killed during a local earthquake event in 1848, and recorded relative sea level history of ~80 years prior to that event. Since the highest level of survival (HLS) of coral microatolls is constrained within a few centimeters of the lowest tide level of the area, the patterns of annual growth bands of the coral microatoll in x-radiograph provide us yearly record of relative sea level, and we used U-Th dating technique to constrain the age of the coral. Our results show that this coral microatoll may have recorded the inter-seismic subsidence of northwestern Ramree Island, punctuated by several climatic events that produced die-down records of the coral growth bands. We hope the data obtained from this coral microatoll, combined with previously reported information of the area, will enable us to further understand the seismic behavior of this major plate boundary belt.

  10. Wood Densitometry in 17th and 18th Century Dutch, German, Austrian and French Violins, Compared to Classical Cremonese and Modern Violins

    PubMed Central

    Stoel, Berend C.; Borman, Terry M.; de Jongh, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Classical violins produced by makers such as Antonio Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesu have long been considered the epitome of the luthier's art and the expressive tool of choice for the most celebrated violinists. It has been speculated these makers had access to wood that was unique in some way and that this was responsible for their acclaimed tonal characteristics. In an attempt to discern whether the above conjecture is true, we analyzed 17 modern and classical Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins by wood densitometry using computed tomography and correlated these results with our previous study of modern and Cremonese violins; in all studying 30 instruments of the violin family. In order to make this comparison possible we developed methods to cross calibrate results from different CT manufacturers using calibration wood pieces. We found no significant differences in median densities between modern and classical violins, or between classical violins from different origins. These results suggest that it is unlikely classical Cremonese makers had access to wood with significantly different wood density characteristics than that available to contemporaneous or modern makers. PMID:23071602

  11. Undetected for a century: Palaearctic Agrilus ribesi Schaefer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on currant in North America, with adult morphology, larval biology and DNA barcode.

    PubMed

    Jendek, Eduard; Grebennikov, Vasily V; Bocak, Ladislav

    2015-10-28

    We report the Eurasian species Agrilus ribesi Schaefer, 1946, for the first time from North America and propose that the damage to currants (Ribes spp.) in Ontario prior to 1940 and ascribed to A. cuprescens were caused by this species. We provide morphological diagnostic characters for A. ribesi and closely related A. cuprescens and we complement this information with DNA barcodes from four alien Agrilus species established in North America (i.e., A. ribesi Schaefer, A. cuprescens (Ménétriés), A. planipennis Fairmaire and A. sulcicollis Lacordaire) to enable DNA-based identification of these invasive species. Additionally, published information on A. ribesi is summarized and new data are provided on the host plants and biology of larva in North America. The distribution of A. ribesi is mapped, both in its native Palaearctic region and in Canada and the USA, together with the range of its potential host plants in North America. A. ribesi was recovered as a sister-species of A. cuprescens on the neighbor joining DNA barcoding tree and low genetic variability of North American populations may indicate a single introduction to North America for each of these species.

  12. 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings, 3-6 August 2008, Vail, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B. L.

    2008-09-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 3-6, 2008. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'New Directions for Rapidly Growing Silicon Technologies.'

  13. History of the Balkans: Twentieth Century. Volume 2. The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publication Series. No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelavich, Barbara

    Principal issues in the 20th century development of the Balkan Peninsula are discussed in this introductory history text. Three themes--national rivalries, great power interference, and the economic, social, and political problems of modernization--are given special emphasis. An overview of 18th and 19th century history precedes the two major…

  14. Genetic Footprints of Iberian Cattle in America 500 Years after the Arrival of Columbus

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Amparo M.; Gama, Luis T.; Cañón, Javier; Ginja, Catarina; Delgado, Juan V.; Dunner, Susana; Landi, Vincenzo; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Rodellar, Clementina; Vega-Pla, Jose Luis; Acosta, Atzel; Álvarez, Luz A.; Camacho, Esperanza; Cortés, Oscar; Marques, Jose R.; Martínez, Roberto; Martínez, Ruben D.; Melucci, Lilia; Martínez-Velázquez, Guillermo; Muñoz, Jaime E.; Postiglioni, Alicia; Quiroz, Jorge; Sponenberg, Philip; Uffo, Odalys; Villalobos, Axel; Zambrano, Delsito; Zaragoza, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Background American Creole cattle presumably descend from animals imported from the Iberian Peninsula during the period of colonization and settlement, through different migration routes, and may have also suffered the influence of cattle directly imported from Africa. The introduction of European cattle, which began in the 18th century, and later of Zebu from India, has threatened the survival of Creole populations, some of which have nearly disappeared or were admixed with exotic breeds. Assessment of the genetic status of Creole cattle is essential for the establishment of conservation programs of these historical resources. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled 27 Creole populations, 39 Iberian, 9 European and 6 Zebu breeds. We used microsatellite markers to assess the origins of Creole cattle, and to investigate the influence of different breeds on their genetic make-up. The major ancestral contributions are from breeds of southern Spain and Portugal, in agreement with the historical ports of departure of ships sailing towards the Western Hemisphere. This Iberian contribution to Creoles may also include some African influence, given the influential role that African cattle have had in the development of Iberian breeds, but the possibility of a direct influence on Creoles of African cattle imported to America can not be discarded. In addition to the Iberian influence, the admixture with other European breeds was minor. The Creoles from tropical areas, especially those from the Caribbean, show clear signs of admixture with Zebu. Conclusions/Significance Nearly five centuries since cattle were first brought to the Americas, Creoles still show a strong and predominant signature of their Iberian ancestors. Creole breeds differ widely from each other, both in genetic structure and influences from other breeds. Efforts are needed to avoid their extinction or further genetic erosion, which would compromise centuries of selective adaptation to a wide range of

  15. Southeast Asian Mega-Droughts of the Past 5 Centuries from Tree Rings and Historical Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, B. M.

    2007-12-01

    The need for understanding the natural range of climate variability in the monsoon regions of Asia - among the worldês most heavily populated and most dependent on agriculture - is critical for making sound planning decisions in the face of expected hydrological changes associated with global climate change. As part of a US National Science Foundation-funded project (Tree Ring Reconstructions of Asian Monsoon Climate Variability) we have produced climate-responsive tree-ring records from tropical Asia that span the past five centuries. We find compelling evidence for 18th century decadal-scale summer monsoon droughts that span from India to Vietnam. Historical records corroborate that periods of severe drought occurred across much of the region during this time, while speleothem and coral records suggest multiple decadal-scale droughts for much of the Little Ice Age period in India, and elevated Sea Surface Temperature (SST) during the 18th century for much of the tropical Pacific, respectively. Tropical Pacific SST anomalies are seen as one key component to monsoon variability over the study region, with El Ni?o and La Ni?a like conditions resulting in rainfall reductions and increases, respectively, with corresponding opposite-sign anomalies across much of western North America. Persistent anomaly trends in the SST fields can result in the kinds of decadal-scale variability our studies suggest, although this is not the entire story. We explore the role of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), first defined in 1999 as a Pacific-wide measure of variability that is physically distinct from both the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in contributing to protracted -mega-droughts" in the region related to weakening monsoon strength, as suggested by recent research. Interestingly, near-millennium-aged conifers from Vietnam and Laos have been located and much longer records are now being constructed. Of great interest is

  16. Democracy in America and Education at the End of the American Century: A Note on de Tocqueville, Cultural Literacy, and Other Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Robert O.

    2001-01-01

    Alexis de Tocqueville deplored democratic institutions' tendency to thwart people's awakened passion for equality. America is the G7 country with the greatest inequality-now more than previously. Capitalist democracy goes to extremes, producing destructive, de-democratizing imbalances, despite the growing popularity of obedience and "virtue…

  17. century drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  18. J. E. W. Wallin's Diagnostic Theory for Classifying the Feeble-Minded and Backward in Early Twentieth-Century Public Schools in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshii, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, American psychologists began addressing problems related to the intellectual capacity of students enrolled in public schools. This paper focuses on the role and influence of psychologists in addressing these problems, specifically the difficulty of classifying students deemed feeble-minded and…

  19. Frontier Justice versus the Rule of Law: Two Cases of Intolerance in Mid-19th Century America Illustrate the Role of the Bill of Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopecky, Frank

    1992-01-01

    Presents an essay dealing with two nineteenth-century incidents of religious intolerance. Recounts the story of Joseph Smith, the founder of the Mormon Church, who was murdered by opponents of the new religion. Explains how the writings of Presbyterian minister and newspaper publisher, Elijah Lovejoy, set off a response that led to his death. (SG)

  20. Franklin's Philadelphia Academy and Basedow's Dessau Philanthropine: Two Models of Non-Denominational Schooling in Eighteenth-Century America and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overhoff, Jurgen

    2007-01-01

    The Academy of Philadelphia (today known as the University of Pennsylvania), founded through Benjamin Franklin's influence in 1751, and the Dessau Philanthropine, founded by Johann Bernhard Basedow in 1774, were arguably the first non-denominational schools in the eighteenth century. Yet, the congenial educational ideas of their founders have…

  1. The Idea of an Indian College or University in Twentieth Century America before the Formation of the Navajo Community College in 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crum, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Highlights the efforts of numerous twentieth-century politicians and educators who supported or opposed the creation of an Indian college. Quoting from Native American and White spokespersons, illustrates positions ranging from August Breuninger's who stressed cultural preservation to Richard Pratt's who wanted Indians "to quit being…

  2. Ideological Themes in Movements for Child Labor Reform and in Images of Children in Literature in 19th Century England and America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Suzanne

    This paper explores ideological factors that influenced child labor reform and the image of the child as depicted in romantic and sentimental literature of 19th century England and the United States. In both countries the image of the child and the view of the relative roles of the parent and the state in bearing responsibility for children…

  3. Computer Science and Statistics. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Interface (18th) Held on March 19-21, 1986 in Fort Collins, Colorado.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-26

    while the second set were a Stefik. M.. D.G. Bobrow. S . Nlitt:al. :ind I.. C,,mwav direct consequence of actions taken at the [19831 " Knowledge ...MENUS - i I o - ZW.-M -g- wI 04 a A GADDRESS (iy &Wt. n ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City, Slte. &nd ZIP Code) Fort Collins, CO A M% 3011LUX AID DO .:203.444 S ...2304 I A5 III. TMTE(nld Security ClaSS~lcation) ;omputer Science and Statistics: 18th Symposium on the Interface 12. PERSM A AUTHOR( S ) Thomas J. Boradman

  4. Energy spectrum and arrival direction of primary cosmic rays of energy above 10 to the 18th power eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teshima, M.; Nagano, M.; Hayashida, N.; He, C. X.; Honda, M.; Ishikawa, F.; Kamata, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Mori, M.; Ohoka, H.

    1985-01-01

    The observation of ultra high energy cosmic rays with 20 sq km array has started at Akeno. The preliminary results on energy spectrum and arrival direction of energies above 10 to the 18th eV are prsented with data accumulated for four years with the 1 sq km array, for two years with the 4 sq km array and for a half year with the new array. The energy spectrum is consistent with the previous experiments showing the flattening above 10 to the 18.5 eV.

  5. 20th-Century doubling in dust archived in an Antarctic Peninsula ice core parallels climate change and desertification in South America.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Joseph R; Aristarain, Alberto J; Banta, J Ryan; Edwards, P Ross; Simões, Jefferson C

    2007-04-03

    Crustal dust in the atmosphere impacts Earth's radiative forcing directly by modifying the radiation budget and affecting cloud nucleation and optical properties, and indirectly through ocean fertilization, which alters carbon sequestration. Increased dust in the atmosphere has been linked to decreased global air temperature in past ice core studies of glacial to interglacial transitions. We present a continuous ice core record of aluminum deposition during recent centuries in the northern Antarctic Peninsula, the most rapidly warming region of the Southern Hemisphere; such a record has not been reported previously. This record shows that aluminosilicate dust deposition more than doubled during the 20th century, coincident with the approximately 1 degrees C Southern Hemisphere warming: a pattern in parallel with increasing air temperatures, decreasing relative humidity, and widespread desertification in Patagonia and northern Argentina. These results have far-reaching implications for understanding the forces driving dust generation and impacts of changing dust levels on climate both in the recent past and future.

  6. [The "culture of survival" and international public health in Latin America: the Cold War and the eradication of diseases in the mid-twentieth century].

    PubMed

    Cueto, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the main campaigns run by international agencies and national health bodies to eradicate infectious diseases in rural Latin America in the 1940s and 1950s. The political dimensions of the period have been studied but there has been little attention as yet to the health dimensions. This article proposes the concept of a "culture of survival" to explain the official public health problems of states with limited social policies that did not allow the exercise of citizenship. Public health, as part of this culture of survival, sought a temporary solution without confronting the social problems that led to infections and left a public health legacy in the region.

  7. Remember Native America! The Earthworks of Ancient America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balthazar, Richard

    In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries prehistoric earthworks were to be seen throughout North America. Fascinated colonialist and European settlers attributed these mysterious mounds to mythic Eurocentric sources rather recognizing them as evidence of prehistoric Amerinds. By the end of the nineteenth century interest in the…

  8. Contributions to Botany, the Female Science, by Two Eighteenth-Century Women Technical Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Henrietta Nickels

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the botanical publications of two 18th-century English women writers, Elizabeth Blackwell and Priscilla Bell Wakefield. Analyzes their books. Indicates that they contribute new perspectives and techniques to the historical tradition of botanical writing and illustrating and exhibit modern techniques for effective technical…

  9. Floral Resources in Makushin Bay: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnow, Patricia H.

    This booklet illustrates the major plant resources in Makushin Bay and explains how each plant was used by the 18th-century Aleuts in their daily lives. Seventeen plants are illustrated and identified by their common names and, for many, the Latin names are mentioned, also. The plants represent a variety of habitats that include sandy areas;…

  10. The Lady Hastings' Charity Schools: Accounting for Eighteenth-Century Rural Philanthropy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Mae

    1997-01-01

    Describes the philanthropic activities of Lady Elizabeth Hastings and the local provision of rural charity schools in 18th-century England. Covers Hastings' background, her establishment of girls' charity schools, charity-school curricula, the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, and charity-school teachers. Evaluates Hastings'…

  11. The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century. Social Studies Unit for Junior High School. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnow, Patricia H.

    This teaching guide presents lessons for a social studies unit dealing with 18th century culture of the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands. The unit is designed for intermediate and junior-high school students. Rather than providing a predigested picture of Aleut culture, the unit presents remaining evidence of that culture. Students reconstruct…

  12. Ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in royal Egyptian mummies of 18th -20th Dynasties? CT and archaeology studies.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Sahar N; Hawass, Zahi

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To study the computed tomography(CT) images of royal Ancient Egyptian mummies dated to the 18th to early 20th Dynasties for the claimed diagnoses of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and to correlate the findings with the archaeology literature.Methods. We studied the CT images of 13 royal Ancient Egyptian mummies (1492–1153 BC) for evidence of AS and DISH and correlated our findings with the archaeology literature.Results. The findings of the CT scans excluded the diagnosis of AS, based on the absence of sacroiliac joint erosions or fusion of the facet joints. Four mummies fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for DISH:Amenhotep III (18th Dynasty), Ramesses II, his son Merenptah, and Ramesses III (19th to early 20th Dynasties).The diagnosis of DISH, a commonly a symptomatic disease of old age, in the 4 pharaohs is in concordance with their longevity and active lifestyles.Conclusion. CT findings excluded the diagnosis of AS in the studied royal Ancient Egyptian mummies and brought into question the antiquity of the disease. The CT features of DISH during this ancient period were similar to those commonly seen in modern populations,and it is likely that they will also be similar in the future.The affection of Ramesses II and his son Merenptah supports familial clustering of DISH. The process of mummification may induce changes in the spine that should be considered during investigations of disease in ancient mummies.

  13. Jobs for Renewing America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatkin, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    As America emerges from recession, certain industries are expected to grow particularly fast and will present many job opportunities for both young people and career changers. This article looks at these high-opportunity industries and the kinds of jobs they are expected to open up. In the global economy of the 21st century, many low-skill jobs…

  14. Two Visions of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Since the seventeenth century, there have been two narratives about modernity in general and America in particular. The author uses the term "narrative" to include (a) facts, (b) arguments, and most important, (c) a larger vision of how one sees the world and chooses to engage the world. The first and originalist narrative is the Lockean Liberty…

  15. An Idea Called America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartoonian, Michael; Van Scotter, Richard; White, William E.

    2007-01-01

    America evolved out of the principles of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, suggesting that individuals could govern themselves and that people were "endowed" with "unalienable rights" such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. To secure these principles, Americans would continue to work on forming a more perfect Union, by…

  16. Maltreatment of people with serious mental illness in the early 20th century: a focus on Nazi Germany and eugenics in America.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Bernard A

    2012-12-01

    Prejudice and stigma against people with mental illness can be seen throughout history. The worst instance of this prejudice was connected to the rise of the eugenics movement in the early 20th century. Although the Nazi German T-4 program of killing people with mental illness was the most egregious culmination of this philosophy, the United States has its own dark eugenics history-nearing a slippery slope all too similar to that of the Nazis. Mental health care clinicians need to examine this period to honor the memory of the victims of eugenics and to guarantee that nothing like this will ever happen again.

  17. Review of mammalogical research in the Guianas of northern South America.

    PubMed

    Lim, Burton K

    2016-03-01

    Research on mammals in the Guianas of northern South America has had a checkered history. In this review, I summarize the notable contributions to mammalogical study in Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. These studies began in the mid-18th century with the binomial nomenclature system of scientific classification created by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus, who described 23 species new to science based on holotype specimens from the Guianas. Notwithstanding popular accounts by amateur naturalists visiting this region, over the next 7 decades there was only sporadic taxonomic work done on Guianan mammals primarily by researchers at European museums. The first comprehensive biological exploration took place in the 1840s during a geographic survey of the boundaries of British Guiana. However, it was not until almost half a century later that scientific publications began to regularly document the increasing species diversity in the region, including the prodigious work of Oldfield Thomas at the British Museum of Natural History in London. Another lull in the study of mammals occurred in the mid-1910s to the early 1960s after which foreign researchers began to rediscover the Guianas and their pristine habitats. This biological renaissance is still ongoing and I give a prospectus on the direction of future research in one of the last frontiers of tropical rainforest. An initiative that would be greatly beneficial is the establishment of a university network in the Guianas with graduate-based research to develop a cadre of professional experts on biodiversity and evolution as seen in other countries of South America.

  18. Can't a mother sing the blues? Postpartum depression and the construction of motherhood in late 20th-century America.

    PubMed

    Held, Lisa; Rutherford, Alexandra

    2012-05-01

    Popular depictions of 20th-century American motherhood have typically emphasized the joy and fulfillment that a new mother can expect to experience on her child's arrival. But starting in the 1950s, discussions of the "baby blues" began to appear in the popular press. How did articles about the baby blues, and then postpartum depression, challenge these rosy depictions? In this article, we examine portrayals of postpartum distress in popular magazines and advice books during the second half of the 20th century to examine how the unsettling pairing of distress and motherhood was culturally negotiated in these decades. We show that these portrayals revealed a persistent reluctance to situate motherhood itself as the cause of serious emotional distress and a consistent focus on changing mothers to adapt to their role rather than changing the parameters of the role itself. Regardless of whether these messages actually helped or hindered new mothers themselves, we suggest that they reflected the rarely challenged assumption that motherhood and distress should not mix.

  19. Impact of land-use and land-cover changes on CRCM5 climate projections over North America for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandru, Adelina; Sushama, Laxmi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact of land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) on regional climate projections for North America. To this end, two transient climate change simulations, with and without LULCC, but identical atmospheric forcing, are performed with the 5th generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5) driven by CanESM2 model for the (2006-2100)-RCP4.5 scenario. For the simulation with LULCC, land-cover data sets are taken from the Global Change Assessment Model representing the RCP4.5 scenario for the period 2006-2100. LULCC in RCP4.5 scenario point to significant reduction in cultivated land (e.g. Canadian Prairies and Mississippi basin) due to intense afforestation. Results suggest that biogeophysical effects of LULCC on climate, assessed through differences between the all-forcing (atmospheric and LULCC) run and the atmospheric forcing run (with constant land cover) are substantial for relevant surface variables. It is shown that the afforestation of cropland lead to warmer regional climates, especially in winter (warming above 1.5 °C), as compared with climates resulting from atmospheric forcings alone. The investigation of processes leading to this response shows high sensitivity of the results to changes in albedo as a response to LULCC. Additional roughness, evaporative cooling and water soil availability also seem to play an important role in regional climate especially for the summer season in certain afforested areas (e.g., southeastern US).

  20. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  1. America's foremost early astronomer. [David Rittenhouse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry; Rubincam, Milton, II

    1995-01-01

    The life of 18th century astronomer, craftsman, and partriot David Rittenhouse is detailed. As a craftsman, he distinguished himself as one of the foremost builders of clocks. He also built magnetic compasses and surveying instruments. The finest examples of his craftsmanship are considered two orreries, mechanical solar systems. In terms of astronomical observations, his best-known contribution was his observation of the transit of Venus in 1769. Rittenhouse constructed the first diffraction grating. Working as Treasurer of Pennsylvania throughout the Revolution, he became the first director of the Mint in 1792. Astronomical observations in later life included charting the position of Uranus after its discovery.

  2. Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

  3. American Catholic Schools for the 21st Century: Reflections on the Future of American Catholic Elementary Schools. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Robert J., Ed.

    Catholic schools in the United States today are very different from the Catholic schools that first opened in the 18th and 19th centuries. This handbook is a call to action for all Catholic elementary schools, inviting and challenging all Catholic educators to plan for the future. The volume is the first in a series of handbooks containing essays…

  4. 18th International Seapower Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    interagency partners to be able to work with African nations, with whatever types of requirements they might see, in order to create a better quality of life ...that we live in today—where so much of our prosperity, our livelihood, the quality of our life comes from that which flows on the sea—it is taken for...you feel about the value of nations coming together, to go out onto the global commons, and provide for a better way of life for our countries. I would

  5. [Health instead of gallantry: a paradigm shift in physician's beauty advice in the century of enlightenment].

    PubMed

    Sander, Sabine

    2003-01-01

    The views of femininity and the attempts to standardise it, developed in the 18th century in philosophy, education, literature, theology, anthropology and medicine, have led to intense research in the last years. Such research normally starts with the Enlightenment debates in the second half of the 18th century, but there are interesting sources which allow the tracing of a development over a longer period and which had a wider contemporary readership than any scholarly treatise. These are the popular beauty manuals, which in the German-speaking area started to appear more frequently from the late 17th century on, composed chiefly by physicians who thereby hoped to profit from the growing book and healthcare market. The present article considers the approaches of physicians to female beauty, with special reference to the discontinuities caused by the Enlightenment.

  6. Abortion in early America.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Z

    1979-01-01

    This piece describes abortion practices in use from the 1600s to the 19th century among the inhabitants of North America. The abortive techniques of women from different ethnic and racial groups as found in historical literature are revealed. Thus, the point is made that abortion is not simply a "now issue" that effects select women. Instead, it is demonstrated that it is a widespread practice as solidly rooted in our past as it is in the present.

  7. Eighteenth-century forms of quasicrystals.

    PubMed

    Pina, Carlos M; López-Acevedo, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    A careful inspection of the drawings and baked clay models created by the mineralogist Romé de L'Isle in the 18th century has revealed the existence of a number of intriguing forms with pentagonal symmetries. These forms cannot be classified in any of the 32 crystal classes. They can thus be considered the first crystallographic descriptions of polyhedral forms found in quasicrystals two centuries later. This paper presents a symmetry analysis of the fascinating drawings and clay models with pentagonal symmetries described in the book Cristallographie published in 1783 by Romé de L'Isle, as well as a comparison with quasicrystals recently synthesized. The paper also briefly discusses what could induce Romé de L'Isle to consider forms with pentagonal symmetries as plausible crystal forms.

  8. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on the 14th-18th days of gestation on postnatal growth and development in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-11-01

    Thirty-nine pregnant adult Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of three exposure groups: 0, 0.75, or 1.50 Gy X-radiation total exposure. Animals were exposed from the 14th to the 18th days of gestation at 0, 0.15, or 0.30 Gy per day. At term, 15 rats were killed and morphologic analyses were completed. Twenty-four rats were allowed to deliver their offspring. On the first day of postnatal life, litters were reduced to a maximum of eight pups per litter, with equal numbers of male and female offspring wherever possible. A total of 187 pups were observed for the age of acquisition of five reflexes (air righting, surface righting, visual placing, negative geotaxis, auditory startle) and the appearance of four physiologic markers (pinna detachment, eye opening, vaginal opening, testes descent). There was significant dose-related weight reduction in term fetuses and offspring throughout the 86-day postnatal period. Postnatal growth rate (g gained/day) was unaffected. Adult offspring brain and gonadal weight and organ weight:body weight ratios were reduced. Using the PAC50 methodology, dose-related alterations occurred in the acquisition of several reflexes. All physiologic markers exhibited a dose-related delay in appearance. These results indicate that fractionated exposure to X-radiation during the fetal period in the rat results in dose-dependent alterations in postnatal growth and physiologic development. These studies are important for our understanding of the long-range effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation late in gestation.

  9. Death and Society in Twentieth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert; Owen, Greg

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how American experiences with death have changed since 1900 and shows how changes have served to transform attitudes and responses toward death. Compares individuals born prior to advent of atomic bomb to those born in nuclear age, and considers pervasive influence of television and other media in changing attitudes. (Author/NB)

  10. Creationism in 20th-Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numbers, Ronald L.

    1982-01-01

    As the crusade to outlaw the teaching of evolution changed to a battle for equal time for creationism, the ideological defenses of that doctrine also shifted, from biblical to scientific grounds. The development of "scientific creationism" is described, focusing on the intellectual leaders of creationism, particularly those claiming scientific…

  11. Defining War in 21st Century America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Michael G. Mullen, “Landon Lecture Series Remarks” (lecture, Kansas State University, Manhattan , KS, March 03, 2010). JCS Website, http...demonstrate their understanding of Clausewitzian friction. 5 CNN , “Transcript of President Bush’s address to a joint session of Congress, 20 Sep 2001,” CNN ...and Afghanistan are simultaneously referred to as wars and counterinsurgencies at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of command. Today

  12. Defining War in 21st Century America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-15

    Michael G. Mullen, “Landon Lecture Series Remarks” (lecture, Kansas State University, Manhattan , KS, March 03, 2010). JCS Website, http...demonstrate their understanding of Clausewitzian friction. 5 CNN , “Transcript of President Bush’s address to a joint session of Congress, 20 Sep 2001,” CNN ...and Afghanistan are simultaneously referred to as wars and counterinsurgencies at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of command. Today

  13. America's Community Colleges: A Century of Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This book presents a history, in photos and text, of American community colleges. It includes pictorial tributes, stories of individuals, a list of U.S. community colleges, a list of distinguished alumni, and milestones in community college history. The book is organized according to major career fields for which community colleges commonly…

  14. The 21st Century Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Beverly

    The profound changes of the 21st century are transforming America into what must become a learning society. Never before have museums, libraries and the whole of the non-formal sector of educational institutions faced such challenges and opportunities. The demand is great for fresh and innovative thinking to construct a bold, new learning network…

  15. Prospering Together: America's Citizens, Communities and Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Roundtable, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In this White Paper, the Business Roundtable recommends access to AMERICA 21, a 21st-century approach to lifelong learning for workers, as well as assistance for job dislocation. AMERICA 21 would channel funding from the myriad of existing initiatives into a modernized, streamlined system that leverages and builds on today's best private and…

  16. Urine therapy through the centuries.

    PubMed

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Mallamace, Agostino; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Urine has always interested and attracted the attention of people. It was in fact never considered a waste product of the body but rather as a distilled product selected from the blood and containing useful substances for the care of the body. It was referred to as the "gold of the blood" and "elixir of long life," indicating its therapeutic potential. This paper reports on the practice of urine therapy since its origin attributed to the Indian culture, and briefly reviews its use through the centuries and different cultures and traditions. Records from the Egyptians to Jews, Greeks, Romans and from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance testify to the practice of urine therapy--a practice that continues to be found in more recent times, from the 18th century to the present. Experiences with the practice of urine therapy have even been discussed and shared recently in 2 different conferences: in 1996 in India and in 1999 in Germany, where people from different countries shared and presented their own research on urine therapy.

  17. Perfect in Her Place. Women at Work in Industrial America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Deborah J.

    The economic role of American women is traced from colonial times through the 19th century. In colonial America women shared the economic responsibilities of family livelihood with their husbands and were engaged primarily in the production of food and clothing. Early 19th century America saw a redefinition of the social and economic spheres of…

  18. Views of Chemistry and Chemical Theories: A Comparison between Two University Textbooks in the Bolognese Context at the Beginning of the 19th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligardi, Raffaella

    2006-01-01

    After surveying some 18th century chemistry textbooks in Italy, this case study compares two Bolognese university textbooks related to the subject. Although the works in question represented two different ways of conceiving and using chemistry, both were within the Lavoisian framework. In other words, when a revolutionary theory passes from one…

  19. Women and the American Economy: A Bicentennial Appraisal. Proceedings of the Air Force Academy Assembly (18th, Colorado Springs, Colorado, March 10-13, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffa, Robert P., Jr., Ed.

    The proceedings delve into facets of the women's movement in America and, particularly the effect of women on the national economy. Highlighted are the speeches to the Assembly of Ms. Betty Friedan, Mrs. Catherine East, Dr. Peggy Kruger, Dr. Jean Lipman-Blumen, and Mrs. Phyllis Schlafly, as well as a final report adopted by the Assembly. The…

  20. Joseph Priestley's Legacy in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMeekin, Dorothy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the life and work of Joseph Priestley, a scientist of the late eighteenth century who was famous for his work in both Europe and America. Includes a description of the Joseph Priestley house, a museum containing some of his scientific equipment and exhibitions relating to his work. (MM)

  1. H1N1pdm in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Lessler, Justin; dos Santos, Thais; Aguilera, Ximena; Brookmeyer, Ron; Cummings, Derek A T

    2010-09-01

    In late April 2009 the emergence of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1pdm) virus was detected in humans. From its detection through July 18th, 2009, confirmed cases of H1N1pdm in the Americas were periodically reported to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) by member states. Because the Americas span much of the world's latitudes, this data provides an excellent opportunity to examine variation in H1N1pdm transmission by season. Using reports from PAHO member states from April 26th, 2009 through July 18th, 2009, we characterize the early spread of the H1N1 pandemic in the Americas. For a geographically representative sample of member states we estimate the reproductive number (R) of H1N1pdm over the reporting period. The association between these estimates and latitude, temperature, humidity and population age structure was estimated. Estimates of the peak reproductive number of H1N1pdm ranged from 1.3 (for Panama, Colombia) to 2.1 (for Chile). We found that reproductive number estimates were most associated with latitude in both univariate and multivariate analyses. To the extent that latitude is a proxy for seasonal changes in climate and behavior, this association suggests a strong seasonal component to H1N1pdm transmission. However, the reasons for this seasonality remain unclear.

  2. Yellow fever in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Charles S; Moss, Sandra W; Kahn, Richard J

    2004-06-01

    Dutch slave traders brought yellow fever to the Americas from Africa during the mid-seventeenth century. For the next two and a half centuries, the disease terrorized seaports throughout the Americas. Proof of the mosquito hypothesis was delayed because of two aspects of the disease: patients are viremic only during the first several days of clinical illness, and most mosquitoes require about 2 weeks of viral incubation before becoming infectious. Control of Aedes aegypti in urban centers failed to eliminate the disease because of its transmission by tree-hole-breeding mosquitoes that spend their winged lives mainly in forest canopies. Yellow fever continues to be a significant public health problem in parts of South America and Africa.

  3. Effects of slope on the formation of dunes in dilute, turbulent pyroclastic currents: May 18th, 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendana, Sylvana; Brand, Brittany D.; Self, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    The flanks of Mt St Helens volcano (MSH) are draped with thin, cross-stratified and stratified pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits. These are known as the proximal bedded deposits produced during the May 18th, 1980 eruption of MSH. While the concentrated portions of the afternoon PDCs followed deep topographic drainages down the steep flanks of the volcano, the dilute overriding cloud partially decoupled to develop fully dilute, turbulent PDCs on the flanks of the volcano (Beeson, D.L. 1988. Proximal Flank Facies of the May 18, 1980 Ignimbrite: Mt. St. Helens, Washington.). The deposits along the flank thus vary greatly from those found in the pumice plain, which are generally thick, massive, poorly-sorted, block-rich deposits associated with the more concentrated portions of the flow (Brand et al, accepted. Dynamics of pyroclastic density currents: Conditions that promote substrate erosion and self-channelization - Mount St Helens, Washington (USA). JVGR). We explore the influence of topography on the formation of these dilute currents and influence of slope on the currents transport and depositional mechanisms. The deposits on steeper slopes (>15°) are fines depleted relative to the proximal bedded deposits on shallower slopes (<15°). Bedform amplitude and wavelength increase with increasing slope, as does the occurrence of regressive dunes. Increasing slope causes an increase in flow velocity and thus an increase in flow turbulence. The fines depleted deposits suggest that fine ash elutriation is more efficient in flows with stronger turbulence. The longer wavelength and amplitudes suggest that bedform morphology is directly related to flow velocity, an important finding since the controls on bedform wavelength and amplitude in density stratified flows remains poorly constrained. The occurrence of regressive dunes, often interpreted as high flow-regime bedforms, on steeper slopes relative to progressive dunes on shallower slopes further attests to the

  4. Papers and Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Midwest History of Education Society (18th, Chicago, Illinois, October 29-30, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Edward, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The papers of this proceedings are organized into four parts : religion and education; the politics of urban education; issues in minority education; and concepts of childhood. The first paper in part 1 "I will Declare What He Hath Done for My Soul: Female Conversion Narratives in the Early Nineteenth Century" (V. L. Brereton) explores…

  5. Whooping Cough: A Brief History to the 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Weston, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the history of whooping cough (pertussis) from its first recorded mention in 1190 to the time when its microbial cause was identified. The historical records of the disease are complicated by the variation in the nomenclature employed and through using the same name for disorders with different symptoms. During the early-modern period it was considered to be a disease new to Europe-contagious, dangerous, and potentially epidemic. Believed to be confined to children, its significance was limited until the 18th century when its incidence increased markedly. This essay argues pertussis may have occurred in the late medieval period in individual, though not epidemical, cases.

  6. Preliminary estimation of the peak discharge at the Su Gologone spring (Central-East Sardinia) during the flood event of November 18th, 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossu, Antonello; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Francesco; Sanna, Laura

    2014-05-01

    times at the spring, based on the speed of the water taken with a hydraulic reel specially dedicated for this type of survey. These data show that an increase in water level of just 60 cm, produces a flow rate ten times higher than that during low discharge. During the peak discharge at the spring the probe has recorded a rise in the water level of over 11 metres, between 18:00 and 21:00 on November 18th, 2013. Part of this increase, however, was due to the barrier function of the nearby Cedrino river, whose high water level has blocked the drainage of the water from the karst system. The water spring level curve shows a temporary lowering around noon, before the flood peak, probably due to the opening of the dam. On the basis of the comparison between the measured speed of water flow in the stages immediately preceding and succeeding the flood event and of the values of water level recorded by the multi-parametric probe, it has been possible to estimate the contribution of the karst spring to the peak discharge of the river in around 40 cubic metres per second, a value of two orders of magnitude greater than the average flow of the spring (around 200 L/s).

  7. Theoretical and Applied Mechanics 1992. Proceedings of the International Congress (18th) Held in Haifa, Israel on August 22-28, 1992,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-28

    computation A. LIBAI : Nonlinear membrane theory 257 M.E. McINTYRE : On the role of wave propagation and wave breaking in 281 atmosphere-ocean dynamics J.B... theories and indoctrinate his followers right here on these hills. I mention this, since in the Ninth Century B.C., during the reign of King Ahab of Israel...which some ideological differences ( theories or approaches in our present language) were confronted. Well, here the parallel stops, since meetings in

  8. Building America

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  9. An Odyssey into the New Millennium: Rediscover 21st Century Business & Marketing Education. Proceedings of the Annual Atlantic Coast Business & Marketing Education Conference (18th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 15-17, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sheila, Ed.

    The following 13 papers on business and marketing education are included in this document: "Internet Marketing" (Herb Brown, Jerry Kandies); "Disk This . . . Paper Flow on the Go!" (Mary Evans, Wilbur Whitley); "Production and Evaluation of On-Line Tutorials" (Margie Gallagher, Evelyn Farrior, Jane Geissler);…

  10. [The union of three families of apothecaries in Paris in the 17th and 18th centuries--The apothecaries François Pihoué, François Regnault, Henry Charas and Marie Fourneau].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2015-06-01

    The family network started with Marie Fourneau, daughter of the apothecary Jacques Fourneau, married successively two apothecaries first François Pihoué and then François Regnault and whose only daughter Marie Anne married the apothecary Henry Charas grandson of the famous apothecary Moyse Charas.

  11. ["Each medical practitioner and ordained physician commissioned by the city of Nuremberg shal vow ..." the structures of the public health system in Nuremberg at the beginning of the 18th century of Johann Christoph Götz].

    PubMed

    Splinter, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The medical institutions of Nuremberg were established quite early. The Collegium medicum were already founded in 1592. Though this board held responsibility for the supervision of pharmacies, the creation of Medizinalordnungen (medical legislations) and also had advisory functions, the physicians did not succeed in winning a prominent position. The spheres of competence between the different groups of medical practitioners were not yet clearly defined. Nevertheless the daily work of the practitioner Johann Christoph Götz (1688-1733) was going smoothly due to his cooperation with other doctors, surgeons, midwives and pharmacists.

  12. News and Views: Gemini hits 1000 papers; Comet Elenin? Forget it! Sellers launches course; Merry Christmas from 18th-century Lapland; ET: where are they all hiding? SETI in the city; Complex organic molecules may not mean life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    No-one has yet found artefacts from an alien civilization, but have we looked hard enough? Astronomers seeking signs of extraterrestrial intelligence have suggested a novel approach: look for alien cities. The search for signs of life in the universe has included the detection of complex organic molecules, seen as a step on the way to living things. But now analysis of spectral signatures known as Unidentified Infrared Emission features found in stars, interstellar space and galaxies suggest that complex organic molecules can be made in stars in a matter of weeks without the presence of life.

  13. Analysis of Factors that have Influenced Outcomes of Battles and Wars: A Data Base of Battles and Engagements. Volume 3. Wars from 1805 through 1900. Part 1. Wars of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Government Agencies only; Software Documentation; 6 Nov 1984. Other requests referred to: Dir/USACAA, 8120 Woodmont Ave., Bethesda, MD 20814-2797...16 Janary. 1809 In reaction to aseries of French military disasters an the Peninsula, Napoleon crossed the Pyrenees in November 1808 at the head of...pursued the. defeated army into ** the highlands east of Lima, Bolivar entered Lima and established a government . Source: D.14.3. 81 THE LATIN AMRICAN WARS

  14. Life history of the individuals buried in the St. Benedict Cemetery (Prague, 15th-18th centuries): insights from (14)C dating and stable isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O) analysis.

    PubMed

    Salesse, Kevin; Dufour, Élise; Castex, Dominique; Velemínský, Petr; Santos, Frédéric; Kuchařová, Hedvika; Jun, Libor; Brůžek, Jaroslav

    2013-06-01

    Funerary practices and bioarchaeological (sex and age) data suggest that a mortality crisis linked to an epidemic episode occurred during the fifth phase of the St. Benedict cemetery in Prague (Czech Republic). To identify this mass mortality episode, we reconstructed individual life histories (dietary and mobility factors), assessed the population's biological homogeneity, and proposed a new chronology through stable isotope analysis (δ(13)C, δ(18)O and δ(15)N) and direct radiocarbon dating. Stable isotope analysis was conducted on the bone and tooth enamel (collagen and carbonate) of 19 individuals from three multiple graves (MG) and 12 individuals from individual graves (IG). The δ(15)N values of collagen and the difference between the δ(13)C values of collagen and bone carbonate could indicate that the IG individuals had a richer protein diet than the MG individuals or different food resources. The human bone and enamel carbonate and δ(18)O values suggest that the majority of individuals from MG and all individuals from IG spent most of their lives outside of the Bohemian region. Variations in δ(18)O values also indicate that all individuals experienced residential mobility during their lives. The stable isotope results, biological (age and sex) data and eight (14)C dates clearly differentiate the MG and IG groups. The present work provides evidence for the reuse of the St. Benedict cemetery to bury soldiers despite the funeral protest ban (1635 AD). The Siege of Prague (1742 AD) by French-Bavarian-Saxon armies is identified as the cause of the St. Benedict mass mortality event.

  15. A possible case of acquired syphilis at the former Royal Hospital of All-Saints (RHAS) in Lisbon, Portugal (18th century): a comparative methodological approach to differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Assis, Sandra; Casimiro, Sílvia; Alves Cardoso, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Between the years of 1999 and 2001, during the excavation of the Praça da Figueira (Lisbon, Portugal), several human osteological remains from various chronological periods were discovered. Amongst them several skeletons are known to be related with the Hospital Real de Todos-os-Santos (Royal Hospital of All Saints - RHAS), which had an important role. The hospital history begun in 1492 and ended in 1755 largely as a consequence of the Lisbon earthquake. Of the skeletons exhumed, one in particular, the adult female Sk. 1310 showed significant pathological changes. The bone lesions characterized by new bone deposition, with a symmetric and disseminate pattern, were found in the upper limbs, distal end of femurs and in tibia and fibula diaphyses. A bowing deformity with "sabre shape" morphology was also observed in the tibiae. The most striking lesions, characterized by healed nodular cavitations and similar to those of caries sicca, were recorded on the frontal bone. Considering the value of a complete description, as well as the application of multiple lines of enquiry for a reliable differential diagnosis, three distinct techniques were applied and compared: visual examination, imagiology and histology. The results showed that the macroscopic analysis coupled with conventional X-ray analysis were fundamental to obtain a possible diagnosis of acquired syphilis. In contrast, the CT-scan and the histological analyses were less informative. The application of a new scoring system also supports a diagnosis of acquired syphilis. This case-study constitutes the first evidence of syphilis associated with the RHAS, supporting historical data on the pivotal role that this hospital had on the treatment of several conditions, namely, syphilis.

  16. Analysis of Factors that have Influenced Outcomes of Battles and Wars: A Data Base of Battles and Engagements. Volume 2. Wars from 1600 through 1800. Part 1. Wars of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Washington, D.C.; 2) The operational records (War Diaries) of British units in World War II, on deposit at the "ublic Record Office, Kew , Richmond...Prague (8 November 1620) and utterly routed it after a brief combat. The Bohemian infantry resisted stoutly in the Stern gardens , where some units fought...was made so vigorously that the IVrondists were pushed back from the trenches and gardens outside the suburb and into the streets leading to the gate of

  17. Credentialing Kepler: Transits in the Seventeenth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    2005-08-01

    Kepler's successful prediction of the 1631 transit of Mercury spurred an interest in his decidedly user-unfriendly Rudolfine Tables. Because his Ephemerides went only to 1636, he did not draw attention to the 1639 transit of Venus, although the tables actually predicted the phenomenon, and the observation by Horrocks again proved the superiority of Kepler's work. By mid-century alternative user-friendly versions of the Rudolfine Tables were published by V. Renieri in Italy, J.B. Morin in France, Maria Cunitia in Germany, and (in a more modified form) by J. Shakerley in England. Transits of Mercury were observed in 1651 (by Shakerley in Surat, India), 1661, 1667, 1690, and 1697, giving astronomers opportunities to compare the predictions from these tables as well as those of Lansbergen (which were a variant of the Copernican Prutenic Tables). Because of the subsequent interest in transits for determining the length of the astronomical unit, the 18th-century French astronomer J-N. Delisle compiled for these early transits extensive systematic records, which are now preserved at the Paris Observatory. By his day, however, the as-yet-unpublished tables of Edmond Halley gave the most successful predictions, and Delisle showed little interest in further credentialing the Rudolfine Tables, a process that had already taken place in the previous century.

  18. [Eighteenth century calendars as a source of Polish medical history].

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, W

    1996-01-01

    The general decline of science which took place in the first half of the 18th century was a cause of a huge quantity of calendars editing. Calendars substituted for the former scientific literature. Up to 1763 over 800 calendars appeared. A half of them was published in Cracov. Those calendars differed from the contemporary ones. Apart from dates, they included not only basic information in history, geography agriculture economy but, not seldom, medicine as well. Most often they were written by university professors with a few physicians among them. Obviously, the level of the presented medical knowledge was very low. There wenadductions to astrology, wizardry and Provinience. But some diagnoses and therapeutic advice being a kind of doctor's manual, useful to so-called domestic medicine are still worth of the attention. First of all, phytotherapy chapter based on the folk empiricism, was the most rational. Thought 18th century calendars did not have much in common with real medicine, they make an interesting source to search for history of the Polish medicine of the Saxon times.

  19. Textbook America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on how political attitudes have been influenced by American history textbooks at various times throughout history. Excerpts from traditional and revisionist textbooks are presented, with emphasis on "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald. Journal available from Harper's Magazine Co., 2 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. (DB)

  20. Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and…

  1. Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Gerald Michael

    1986-01-01

    Notes the problematical elements of diversity within Latin America, establishes priorities for the social studies curriculum, and reviews what should be taught about its geography, resources, people, religion, customs, economics, politics, history, and international relationships. Lists Latin American Studies programs and published instructional…

  2. America Revising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Myron

    1982-01-01

    Reviews Frances FitzGerald's book, "America Revised," and discusses FitzGerald's critique of recent revisions in secondary-level U.S. history textbooks. The author advocates the implementation of a core curriculum for U.S. history which emphasizes political and local history. (AM)

  3. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. [and] Teacher's Resource Book. Revised. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. Inst. for International Studies.

    This unit examines the economic and military concerns that have linked the Caribbean and Central America to the United States. The first section of the first booklet reviews the history of U.S. involvement in the region from the mid-1800s to the early 1960s. Part 2 focuses on the Cuban missile crisis of 1962 and presents a day-by-day account of…

  4. Bolivia. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Avery, Robert S.

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural information on Bolivia. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or English--in which the topics are written. The quarterly provides an…

  5. Colombia. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural background information on Colombia and features biographies of Colombian leaders and artists. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or…

  6. The environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal: ten centuries of whale and dolphin records.

    PubMed

    Brito, Cristina; Sousa, Andreia

    2011-01-01

    The history between cetaceans and humans is documented throughout time not only in reports, descriptions, and tales but also in legal documents, laws and regulations, and tithes. This wealth of information comes from the easy spotting and identification of individuals due to their large size, surface breathing, and conspicuous above water behaviour. This work is based on historical sources and accounts accounting for cetacean presence for the period between the 12th and 17th centuries, as well as scientific articles, newspapers, illustrations, maps, non-published scientific reports, and other grey literature from the 18th century onwards. Information on whale use in Portugal's mainland has been found since as early as the 12th century and has continued to be created throughout time. No certainty can be given for medieval and earlier events, but both scavenging of stranded whales or use of captured ones may have happened. There is an increasing number of accounts of sighted, stranded, used, or captured cetaceans throughout centuries which is clearly associated with a growing effort towards the study of these animals. Scientific Latin species denominations only started to be registered from the 18th century onwards, as a consequence of the evolution of natural sciences in Portugal and increasing interest from zoologists. After the 19th century, a larger number of observations were recorded, and from the 20th century to the present day, regular scientific records have been collected. Research on the environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal shows a several-centuries-old exploitation of whales and dolphins, as resources mainly for human consumption, followed in later centuries by descriptions of natural history documenting strandings and at sea encounters. Most cetaceans species currently thought to be present in Portuguese mainland waters were at some point historically recorded.

  7. The Environmental History of Cetaceans in Portugal: Ten Centuries of Whale and Dolphin Records

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Cristina; Sousa, Andreia

    2011-01-01

    The history between cetaceans and humans is documented throughout time not only in reports, descriptions, and tales but also in legal documents, laws and regulations, and tithes. This wealth of information comes from the easy spotting and identification of individuals due to their large size, surface breathing, and conspicuous above water behaviour. This work is based on historical sources and accounts accounting for cetacean presence for the period between the 12th and 17th centuries, as well as scientific articles, newspapers, illustrations, maps, non-published scientific reports, and other grey literature from the 18th century onwards. Information on whale use in Portugal's mainland has been found since as early as the 12th century and has continued to be created throughout time. No certainty can be given for medieval and earlier events, but both scavenging of stranded whales or use of captured ones may have happened. There is an increasing number of accounts of sighted, stranded, used, or captured cetaceans throughout centuries which is clearly associated with a growing effort towards the study of these animals. Scientific Latin species denominations only started to be registered from the 18th century onwards, as a consequence of the evolution of natural sciences in Portugal and increasing interest from zoologists. After the 19th century, a larger number of observations were recorded, and from the 20th century to the present day, regular scientific records have been collected. Research on the environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal shows a several-centuries-old exploitation of whales and dolphins, as resources mainly for human consumption, followed in later centuries by descriptions of natural history documenting strandings and at sea encounters. Most cetaceans species currently thought to be present in Portuguese mainland waters were at some point historically recorded. PMID:21931627

  8. Making a stand: five centuries of population growth in colonizing populations of Pinus ponderosa.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Mark R; Jackson, Stephen T

    2012-05-01

    The processes underlying the development of new populations are important for understanding how species colonize new territory and form viable long-term populations. Life-history-mediated processes such as Allee effects and dispersal capability may interact with climate variability and site-specific factors to govern population success and failure over extended time frames. We studied four disjunct populations of ponderosa pine in the Bighorn Basin of north-central Wyoming to examine population growth spanning more than five centuries. The study populations are separated from continuous ponderosa pine forest by distances ranging from 15 to >100 km. Strong evidence indicates that the initial colonizing individuals are still present, yielding a nearly complete record of population history. All trees in each population were aged using dendroecological techniques. The populations were all founded between 1530 and 1655 cal yr CE. All show logistic growth patterns, with initial exponential growth followed by a slowing during the mid to late 20th century. Initial population growth was slower than expectations from a logistic regression model at all four populations, but increased during the mid-18th century. Initial lags in population growth may have been due to strong Allee effects. A combination of overcoming Allee effects and a transition to favorable climate conditions may have facilitated a mid-18th century pulse in population growth rate.

  9. Invisible Women: The Children's Librarian in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasse, Margo

    1973-01-01

    A remarkable group of 19th Century American women removed the signs, Dogs and Children Not Allowed,'' from the public libraries and originated what has been called America's most valuable contribution to the library world--library service to children. (10 references) (Author/NH)

  10. City of temples discusses signaling templates in cancer cells. Third International Symposium on Translational Cancer Research: Cell Signaling & Cancer Therapy. Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India, December 18th through 21st, 2009.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Varsha; Mehta, Kapil; Pathak, Sen; Ravindran, Balachandran; Mishra, Sandip; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2010-06-01

    The third International Translational Cancer Research symposium on "Cell Signaling and Cancer" was recently (from Dec. 18th through Dec. 21st, 2009) convened in Bhubaneswar, Orissa, which lies along the eastern shores of India, just south of Bengal. Overall, the meeting provided a platform for scientists from different nations to discuss emerging ideas that focused on cell signaling in cancer. This third in a row symposium tried to bridge the gap not only between basic research and clinical trials, but also between developed nations and developing countries. With the continuing success of these meetings, the fourth International Translational Cancer Research Meeting is slated to be in December 2011. Please contact us if you are interested in participating, presenting, or supporting the next conference.

  11. Annual maximum 5-day rainfall total and maximum number of consecutive dry days over Central America and the Caribbean in the late twenty-first century projected by an atmospheric general circulation model with three different horizontal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaegawa, T.; Kitoh, A.; Murakami, H.; Kusunoki, S.

    2014-04-01

    We simulated changes in annual maximum 5-day rainfall (RX5D) and annual maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) in Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean with three different horizontal resolution atmospheric global general circulation models (AGCMs) and quantified the uncertainty of the projections. The RX5Ds and CDDs were projected to increase in most areas in response to global warming. However, consistent changes were confined to small areas: for RX5D, both coastal zones of northern Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula; for CDD, the Pacific coastal zone of Mexico, the Yucatan Peninsula, and Guatemala. All three AGCMs projected that RX5Ds and CDDs averaged over only the land area and over the entire area (land and ocean) would increase. The dependence of RX5D probability density functions on the horizontal resolutions was complex. Precipitation unrelated to tropical cyclones was primarily responsible for the projected increases in the frequency of RX5Ds greater than 300 mm.

  12. Boerhaave: Three Chairs to Oblivion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Alfred

    1971-01-01

    Describes Boerhaave's contributions to botany, physiology, medical education, and chemistry from the late 17th to the early 18th centuries; his influence on other academics in Europe and North America is also discussed. (AL)

  13. Pinta: Latin America's Forgotten Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, Lola V.

    2015-01-01

    Pinta is a neglected, chronic skin disease that was first described in the sixteenth century in Mexico. The World Health Organization lists 15 countries in Latin America where pinta was previously endemic. However, the current prevalence of pinta is unknown due to the lack of surveillance data. The etiological agent of pinta, Treponema carateum, cannot be distinguished morphologically or serologically from the not-yet-cultivable Treponema pallidum subspecies that cause venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel. Although genomic sequencing has enabled the development of molecular techniques to differentiate the T. pallidum subspecies, comparable information is not available for T. carateum. Because of the influx of migrants and refugees from Latin America, U.S. physicians should consider pinta in the differential diagnosis of skin diseases in children and adolescents who come from areas where pinta was previously endemic and have a positive reaction in serological tests for syphilis. All stages of pinta are treatable with a single intramuscular injection of penicillin. PMID:26304920

  14. 'Lazy, slothful and indolent': medical and social perceptions of obesity in Europe to the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Sawbridge, D T; Fitzgerald, R

    2009-12-01

    There is a considerable stigma associated with obesity, among healthcare professionals as well as the general population, which often leads to discrimination and weight bias. But why is there a stigma attached to obesity? The origin of this stigma has been identified in the 18th century but its roots lie much further back in history. There is some debate about how this negative perception of obesity arose and the role of medical professionals in its creation. This paper examines both positive and negative conceptions by following three major aspects of the modern stigma through from Palaeolithic statues to the medical texts of ancient Greece and Rome, finishing with the medical and literary sources of the 18th century 'Enlightenment'. The modern perception of obesity originated in the social and scientific climate of the Enlightenment through the combination of three key themes; obesity as conspicuous consumption, associations with suspect morals and excess, and as an outward representation of the soul. The evolution of each of these themes can be clearly identfied in pre-Enlightenment sources. By the eighteenth century, these perceptions became amplified by, and disseminated through, the literary and media boom to create a recognisably modern stigma against the obese.

  15. First illustrations of female "Neurosurgeons" in the fifteenth century by Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu.

    PubMed

    Bademci, G

    2006-04-01

    Males have dominated medicine for many centuries. Females could not appear in the medical history equally till the end of the 18th century; although they always have been in medicine as healers. It is worth mentioning that first illustrations indicating female surgeons were found in the book written in Turkish by Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu in the 15th century; while Europe was newly waking up from its dark ages and Middle East was under the influence of strict rules of Arabic and Islamic culture. Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu (1385-1470) was the author of the first illustrated surgical textbook Cerrahiyyetu'l-Haniyye (Imperial surgery) in Turkish Literature. Inside miniatures drawn by Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu indicated that the female surgeons, acknowledged "Tabibe", had been allowed to practice alone in Anatolia. Tabibes are illustrated in the miniatures practicing on the management of dead foetus with foetal hydrocephalus and macrocephalus which were the first clues by means of Turkish women in Neurosurgery.

  16. Eighteenth century Yersinia pestis genomes reveal the long-term persistence of an historical plague focus.

    PubMed

    Bos, Kirsten I; Herbig, Alexander; Sahl, Jason; Waglechner, Nicholas; Fourment, Mathieu; Forrest, Stephen A; Klunk, Jennifer; Schuenemann, Verena J; Poinar, Debi; Kuch, Melanie; Golding, G Brian; Dutour, Olivier; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Holmes, Edward C; Krause, Johannes; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-01-21

    The 14th-18th century pandemic of Yersinia pestis caused devastating disease outbreaks in Europe for almost 400 years. The reasons for plague's persistence and abrupt disappearance in Europe are poorly understood, but could have been due to either the presence of now-extinct plague foci in Europe itself, or successive disease introductions from other locations. Here we present five Y. pestis genomes from one of the last European outbreaks of plague, from 1722 in Marseille, France. The lineage identified has not been found in any extant Y. pestis foci sampled to date, and has its ancestry in strains obtained from victims of the 14th century Black Death. These data suggest the existence of a previously uncharacterized historical plague focus that persisted for at least three centuries. We propose that this disease source may have been responsible for the many resurgences of plague in Europe following the Black Death.

  17. The 18th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Topics concerning aerospace mechanisms, their functional performance, and design specifications are presented. Discussed subjects include the design and development of release mechanisms, actuators, linear driver/rate controllers, antenna and appendage deployment systems, position control systems, and tracking mechanisms for antennas and solar arrays. Engine design, spaceborne experiments, and large space structure technology are also examined.

  18. 18th Annual School Construction Report, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The bottom line on school construction in 2012 is that total spending edged up slightly from the previous year, (to $12.9 billion from $12.2 billion), but the spending for new schools declined from $6.9 billion to $6.177 billion. The increase in overall spending was attributable to more spending for additions and a major increase in spending for…

  19. 3 CFR - Making It Easier for America's Small Businesses and America's Exporters To Access Government...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... spurring innovative uses of the data through business-oriented web or mobile applications. (5) Agencies... competitiveness, innovation, and job growth. If we are to thrive in the global economy, and make America the best... innovation and job growth in the 21st century. Accordingly, we must make it easier for businesses to...

  20. Evidence of tungiasis in pre-Hispanic America.

    PubMed

    Maco, Vicente; Tantaleán, Manuel; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2011-05-01

    Ancient parasites of the genus Tunga originated in America and, during the first half of the 19th century, were transported to the Eastern Hemisphere on transatlantic voyages. Although they were first documented by Spanish chroniclers after the arrival of Columbus, little is known about their presence in pre-Hispanic America. To evaluate the antiquity of tungiasis in America, we assessed several kinds of early documentation, including written evidence and pre-Incan earthenware reproductions. We identified 17 written documents and 4 anthropomorphic figures, of which 3 originated from the Chimu culture and 1 from the Maranga culture. Tungiasis has been endemic to Peru for at least 14 centuries. We also identified a pottery fragment during this study. This fragment is the fourth representation of tungiasis in pre-Hispanic America identified and provides explicit evidence of disease endemicity in ancient Peru.

  1. Evidence of Tungiasis in Pre-Hispanic America

    PubMed Central

    Tantaleán, Manuel; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Ancient parasites of the genus Tunga originated in America and, during the first half of the 19th century, were transported to the Eastern Hemisphere on transatlantic voyages. Although they were first documented by Spanish chroniclers after the arrival of Columbus, little is known about their presence in pre-Hispanic America. To evaluate the antiquity of tungiasis in America, we assessed several kinds of early documentation, including written evidence and pre-Incan earthenware reproductions. We identified 17 written documents and 4 anthropomorphic figures, of which 3 originated from the Chimu culture and 1 from the Maranga culture. Tungiasis has been endemic to Peru for at least 14 centuries. We also identified a pottery fragment during this study. This fragment is the fourth representation of tungiasis in pre-Hispanic America identified and provides explicit evidence of disease endemicity in ancient Peru. PMID:21529395

  2. Evaluation of the 2012 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference: six month impact on science, program, and policy.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Danielle E; Goodman, David A; Howlette, Travis; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Law, Mark; Phillips, Donna; Jones, Jessica; Brantley, Mary D; Fitzgerald, Maureen

    2014-09-01

    The 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference took place in December 2012, covering MCH science, program, and policy issues. Assessing the impact of the Conference on attendees' work 6 months post-Conference provides information critical to understanding the impact and the use of new partnerships, knowledge, and skills gained during the Conference. Evaluation assessments, which included collection of quantitative and qualitative data, were administered at two time points: at Conference registration and 6 months post-Conference. The evaluation files were merged using computer IP address, linking responses from each assessment. Percentages of attendees reporting Conference impacts were calculated from quantitative data, and common themes and supporting examples were identified from qualitative data. Online registration was completed by 650 individuals. Of registrants, 30 % responded to the 6 month post-Conference assessment. Between registration and 6 month post-Conference evaluation, the distribution of respondents did not significantly differ by organizational affiliation. In the 6 months following the Conference, 65 % of respondents reported pursuing a networking interaction; 96 % shared knowledge from the Conference with co-workers and others in their agency; and 74 % utilized knowledge from the Conference to translate data into public health action. The Conference produced far-reaching impacts among Conference attendees. The Conference served as a platform for networking, knowledge sharing, and attaining skills that advance the work of attendees, with the potential of impacting organizational and workforce capacity. Increasing capacity could improve MCH programs, policies, and services, ultimately impacting the health of women, infants, and children.

  3. Latin America, Ibero-America, Hispanic America, Spanish America, Portuguese America: A Proposal for Terminological Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, David L.

    1977-01-01

    Latin America is the most widely used of the terms, but a more precise designation, at least in scholarly usage, would be useful. Distinctions are made on the basis of language in favor of the terms in the title. A bibliographical note for further reference is appended. (AMH)

  4. Analysis of an Unusual Mirror in a 16th-Century Painting: A Museum Exercise for Physics Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Sudha; Lamelas, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Physics students at Worcester State University visit the Worcester Art Museum (WAM) at the end of a special 100-level course called Physics in Art. The students have studied geometrical optics, and they have been introduced to concepts in atomic physics. The purpose of the museum tour is to show how physics-based techniques can be used in a nontraditional lab setting. Other examples of the use of museum-based art in physics instruction include analyses of Pointillism and image resolution, and of reflections in soap bubbles in 17- and 18th-century paintings.

  5. Glaciers of North America - Glaciers of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Bruce F.

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers cover about 75,000 km2 of Alaska, about 5 percent of the State. The glaciers are situated on 11 mountain ranges, 1 large island, an island chain, and 1 archipelago and range in elevation from more than 6,000 m to below sea level. Alaska's glaciers extend geographically from the far southeast at lat 55 deg 19'N., long 130 deg 05'W., about 100 kilometers east of Ketchikan, to the far southwest at Kiska Island at lat 52 deg 05'N., long 177 deg 35'E., in the Aleutian Islands, and as far north as lat 69 deg 20'N., long 143 deg 45'W., in the Brooks Range. During the 'Little Ice Age', Alaska's glaciers expanded significantly. The total area and volume of glaciers in Alaska continue to decrease, as they have been doing since the 18th century. Of the 153 1:250,000-scale topographic maps that cover the State of Alaska, 63 sheets show glaciers. Although the number of extant glaciers has never been systematically counted and is thus unknown, the total probably is greater than 100,000. Only about 600 glaciers (about 1 percent) have been officially named by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN). There are about 60 active and former tidewater glaciers in Alaska. Within the glacierized mountain ranges of southeastern Alaska and western Canada, 205 glaciers (75 percent in Alaska) have a history of surging. In the same region, at least 53 present and 7 former large ice-dammed lakes have produced jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods). Ice-capped volcanoes on mainland Alaska and in the Aleutian Islands have a potential for jokulhlaups caused by subglacier volcanic and geothermal activity. Because of the size of the area covered by glaciers and the lack of large-scale maps of the glacierized areas, satellite imagery and other satellite remote-sensing data are the only practical means of monitoring regional changes in the area and volume of Alaska's glaciers in response to short- and long-term changes in the maritime and continental climates of the State. A review of the

  6. Lowell and the Industrial City in Nineteenth-Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pershey, Edward Jay

    1990-01-01

    Documents history of Lowell, Massachusetts, from the careful planning of town, the recruitment of farm family daughters into the labor force, the demise of the town, and Lowell's subsequent regeneration as a high technology center in the 1970s and 1980s. Suggests that the study of this town's history can illuminate the study of current U.S. urban…

  7. Renewal: Remaking America's Schools for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwalwasser, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Harold Kwalwasser has put together a call to action for education reform that makes a clear case for what has to be done in order to educate all children to their full potential. He visited forty high-performing and transforming school districts, charters, parochial, and private schools to understand why they have succeeded where others have…

  8. Epidemic Anthrax in the Eighteenth Century, the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Morens, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Anthrax has been described as a veterinary disease of minor importance to clinical medicine, causing occasional occupational infections in single cases or clusters. Its potential for rapid and widespread epidemic transmission under natural circumstances has not been widely appreciated. A little-known 1770 epidemic that killed 15,000 people in Saint-Domingue (modern Haiti) was probably intestinal anthrax. The epidemic spread rapidly throughout the colony in association with consumption of uncooked beef. Large-scale, highly fatal epidemics of anthrax may occur under unusual but natural circumstances. Historical information may not only provide important clues about epidemic development but may also raise awareness about bioterrorism potential. PMID:12396933

  9. Central and South America: Challenges for the 21st Century.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    checks and balances. The presidents of the region personify these values- Caldera in Venezuela, Fujimori in Peru and Balaguer in Dominican Republic-are... Fujimori , with the assistance of the military, staged a successful coup in 1992. This closed Congress and suspended the constitution. His rationale...the Fujimori government has succeeded in bringing economic prosperity and reducing the foreign debt. The military has significant problems such as

  10. USAF Presence in Latin America in the 21st Century.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    ft -AU 531 4 M 8 2 J4 4C S M & UMCLSSIZIDF/G 15/1 HL 1%~~ ..tm~ILL Q~a w * ~~ 111. u6. c~-v~.~A8M OEILECopy 0 4 DTIC JN08 TE D AIR COMMAND AND...AUTHOR(S) MAJOR TONY SIMPSON, USAF FACULTY ADVISOR LT COL THOMAS M. HENNEMAN , ACSC/EDN SPONSOR LT COL EDWARD P. WESTMEIER, AF/XOXXW Submitted to the...accept a large, permanent U.S. military presence in their country. This is evidenced by the debate between Congressmen Bill Alexander and W . G. Hetner

  11. 1898: The Onset of America's Troubled Asian Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Michael H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the role and effect of the Spanish-American War on the Philippines and its relationship with the United States. The annexation of the Philippines marked the beginning of the U.S. efforts at expanding power and trade throughout the Pacific. Details that effort and the resistance it met. (MJP)

  12. Competing Visions, Shifting Boundaries: The Construction of Latin America as a World Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Marie D.; Cooper, Catherine W.

    2007-01-01

    Latin America is a popularly accepted world region. A systematic review of geographic interpretations of Latin America reveals that the origin of the term goes back to the mid-nineteenth century and that the region's boundaries have shifted over time. This article argues that four basic principles operate in the formation of world regions such as…

  13. Vocational Education in the 19th Century American Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Gordon F.

    The phrase "all things useful and all things ornamental," coined by Benjamin Franklin, describes the stated mission of most of the approximately 6,000 educational academies flourishing in America in the mid-19th century. Built upon the roots of Latin grammar schools, the academies evolved to include courses in many areas, from classical…

  14. Beyond America's War on Drugs: Developing Public Policy to Navigate the Prevailing Pharmacological Revolution.

    PubMed

    Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alex S; Elliott, Luther

    2015-03-30

    This paper places America's "war on drugs" in perspective in order to develop a new metaphor for control of drug misuse. A brief and focused history of America's experience with substance use and substance use policy over the past several hundred years provides background and a framework to compare the current Pharmacological Revolution with America's Nineteenth Century Industrial Revolution. The paper concludes with cautions about growing challenges and provides suggestions for navigating this revolution and reducing its negative impact on individuals and society.

  15. Austrian pharmacy in the 18 and 19th century.

    PubMed

    Kletter, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecaryâs profession and education. In the 18(th) century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecaryâs profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19(th) century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecariesâ missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900.

  16. Historical documents on epilepsy: From antiquity through the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Panteliadis, Christos P; Vassilyadi, Photios; Fehlert, Julia; Hagel, Christian

    2017-02-26

    Historical documents dating back almost 4500years have alluded to the condition of epilepsy, describing signs and symptoms that are well-known today. Epilepsy was thought to be a mystical disorder by almost all Ancient cultures, including the Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, Indians, Iranians and Chinese. Hippocrates was the first to de-mystify the condition of epilepsy, providing a more scientific approach to the condition. As the signs and symptoms of epilepsy occurred without an obvious cause, the idea stood that it was a mystical phenomenon of divine punishment. This portrayal persisted through the early centuries of the common era, including the Middle Ages. It was not until the 16th and 17th century that Paracelsus, le Pois and Sylvius started to investigate internal causes for epilepsy. By the beginning of the 18th century, the general opinion on epilepsy was that it was an idiopathic disease residing in the brain and other inner organs. This resulted in Tissot writing the first modern book on epilepsy. Research continued in the 19th century with Jackson describing different types of seizures and many researchers showing interest in electroencephalography (EEG). The 20th century saw more detailed research being done on epilepsy and EEG, in addition to the establishment of many epilepsy-associated medical societies. The goal of this historical documentation is to provide an overview of the most important milestones in the history of epilepsy.

  17. Special Interest: Teachers Unions and America's Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Why are America's public schools falling so short of the mark in educating the nation's children? Why are they organized in ineffective ways that fly in the face of common sense, to the point that it is virtually impossible to get even the worst teachers out of the classroom? And why, after more than a quarter century of costly education reform,…

  18. Historical perspectives of the role of Spain and Portugal in today's status of psychiatry and mental health in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Baca, Enrique; Lázaro, José; Hernández-Clemente, Juan C

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows how the community of Latin-American and Spanish psychiatry represents a solid platform for the so-called 'continental thought' to meet the analytical Anglo-Saxon thought. It reviews what both Latin America and the Spanish and Portuguese languages represent in the American continent; the relation between Spanish psychiatry and Spanish-speaking psychiatry in America during the twentieth century; the reality of psychiatric research and profession in Latin America; the evolution of Spanish psychiatry in the twentieth century from the post civil war diaspora to the beginning of the twenty-first century, and research on mental health in Spain and the foreseeable future.

  19. Consequences of land use and climate changes on sediment deposition in estuaries during the last centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Clément; Chaumillon, Eric; Arnaud, Fabien; Goubert, Evelyne; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Caurant, Florence

    2010-05-01

    Estuaries are the downstream end-member of fluvial systems. They are experiencing high sedimentation rates, thus providing good opportunities for high resolution studies of Holocene environmental changes at the land/ocean interface. From a thorough literature survey, it appears that a rapid siltation and/or an increase in sedimentation rate were recorded in many estuarine environments, concomitantly to major migrations of human population throughout the world, both in time and space. It has been clearly related to an increase in sediment supply to estuaries in Minor Asia (Bronze Age, e.g. Spezzaferri et al, 2000) and in North America and Southwest Pacific (18th and 19th centuries, e.g. Goff, 1997), in response to deforestation on catchment areas. However, this relationship is less obvious in Europe (Sorrel et al., 2009), because deforestation occurred concomitantly to climate changes of the last millennium (climate instability at the end of Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age) that can also explain an increase in soil erosion. Indeed, these hypotheses have been proposed to explain a similar change in Marennes-Oléron Bay (Atlantic coast of France), which consists in the sudden deposition of a few meters-thick mud drape on basal mixed mud and sand bodies (Billeaud et al., 2005). The methods used to investigate this estuarine bay so far (very high resolution seismic stratigraphy, grain size analysis and radiocarbon dating) provided relevant information about recent environmental changes, but new data are now needed for further investigation. In the present study, we provide a multi-proxy analysis of the Marennes-Oléron Bay mud drape. A new 8 m-long core (M7UC01) was sampled on an intertidal flat, its location being determined on the basis of seismic stratigraphy. Core processing included visual description, physical measurements, grain size analysis every 2.5 to 5 cm, AMS radiocarbon dating, XRF core scanning, clay mineralogy and Rock Eval analysis. Fossil molluscs

  20. Helping America's Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Laura

    2005-01-01

    As First Lady of the United States, Laura Bush is leading the Helping America's Youth initiative of the federal government. She articulates the goal of enlisting public and volunteer resources to foster healthy growth by early intervention and mentoring of youngsters at risk. Helping America's Youth will benefit children and teenagers by…

  1. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  2. Fish biodiversity and conservation in South America.

    PubMed

    Reis, R E; Albert, J S; Di Dario, F; Mincarone, M M; Petry, P; Rocha, L A

    2016-07-01

    The freshwater and marine fish faunas of South America are the most diverse on Earth, with current species richness estimates standing above 9100 species. In addition, over the last decade at least 100 species were described every year. There are currently about 5160 freshwater fish species, and the estimate for the freshwater fish fauna alone points to a final diversity between 8000 and 9000 species. South America also has c. 4000 species of marine fishes. The mega-diverse fish faunas of South America evolved over a period of >100 million years, with most lineages tracing origins to Gondwana and the adjacent Tethys Sea. This high diversity was in part maintained by escaping the mass extinctions and biotic turnovers associated with Cenozoic climate cooling, the formation of boreal and temperate zones at high latitudes and aridification in many places at equatorial latitudes. The fresh waters of the continent are divided into 13 basin complexes, large basins consolidated as a single unit plus historically connected adjacent coastal drainages, and smaller coastal basins grouped together on the basis of biogeographic criteria. Species diversity, endemism, noteworthy groups and state of knowledge of each basin complex are described. Marine habitats around South America, both coastal and oceanic, are also described in terms of fish diversity, endemism and state of knowledge. Because of extensive land use changes, hydroelectric damming, water divergence for irrigation, urbanization, sedimentation and overfishing 4-10% of all fish species in South America face some degree of extinction risk, mainly due to habitat loss and degradation. These figures suggest that the conservation status of South American freshwater fish faunas is better than in most other regions of the world, but the marine fishes are as threatened as elsewhere. Conserving the remarkable aquatic habitats and fishes of South America is a growing challenge in face of the rapid anthropogenic changes of the 21

  3. America = Las Americas. Canada, United States, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, three magazines provide historical and cultural background information on Canada, the United States, and Mexico and feature biographies of Black and Hispanic leaders. Each edition has a table of contents indicating the language--Spanish…

  4. Education, democracy and development in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Candido

    1993-11-01

    The education first brought to America by Europeans was hardly more than ornamental culture, literacy was generally unimportant, and African slaves were not educated at all. Only in this century did industrialization cause some governments to provide economic and technological support through training and education. In the last decade, the debt crisis curtailed spending, while numbers of students and teachers continued to rise. A comparison between Latin America and South Korea illustrates the former's relative decline in investment. The advent of populist and corporatist democracies did not alleviate the situation, although there is now some evidence of concern for basic education for poorer children. With economic adjustment programmes, little else has been done for those who have suffered the heaviest burdens, and no obvious solutions to poverty and technological obsolescence are in prospect. A major reform of State institutions is called for, including a commitment to education, a change in the economic model, and a recognition of global interdependence.

  5. 50 Breakthroughs by America's National Labs

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2011-01-01

    America's National Laboratory system has been changing and improving the lives of millions for more than 80 years. Born at a time of great societal need, this network of Department of Energy Laboratories has now grown into 17 facilities, working together as engines of prosperity and invention. As this list of 50 Breakthroughs attests, National Laboratory discoveries have spawned industries, saved lives, generated new products, fired the imagination, and helped to reveal the secrets of the universe. Rooted in the need to be the best and bring the best, America's National Laboratories have put an American stamp on the past century of science. With equal ingenuity and tenacity, they are now engaged in winning the future.

  6. 21st Century Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Terrence

    2009-01-01

    Bethpage Union Free School District in New York is a high-performing district by almost any current accountability measure. Yet administrators and teachers worried that they were not doing enough to prepare their students as critical thinkers for the 21st century. Inspired by the curriculum framework of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the…

  7. Yale University Is Preserving Its Great Late-19th-Century Architecture by Remodeling the Old Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Architectural Record, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Renovation of four late-19th-century Yale dormitories makes the most of their unique architectural character. Available from: Publications Office, 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10020; $5.00 single copy. (Author/MLF)

  8. Hydrological climate change projections for Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Hugo G.; Amador, Jorge A.; Alfaro, Eric J.; Quesada, Beatriz

    2013-07-01

    Runoff climate change projections for the 21st century were calculated from a suite of 30 General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations for the A1B emission scenario in a 0.5° × 0.5° grid over Central America. The GCM data were downscaled using a version of the Bias Correction and Spatial Downscaling (BCSD) method and then used in the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrological model. The VIC model showed calibration skill in Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama, but the results for some of the northern countries (Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize) and for the Caribbean coast of Central America was not satisfactory. Bias correction showed to remove effectively the biases in the GCMs. Results of the projected climate in the 2050-2099 period showed median significant reductions in precipitation (as much as 5-10%) and runoff (as much as 10-30%) in northern Central America. Therefore in this sub-region the prevalence of severe drought may increase significantly in the future under this emissions scenario. Northern Central America could warm as much as 3 °C during 2050-2099 and southern Central America could reach increases as much as 4 °C during the same period. The projected dry pattern over Central America is consistent with a southward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). In addition, downscaling of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data from 1948 to 2012 and posterior run in VIC, for two locations in the northern and southern sub-regions of Central America, suggested that the annual runoff has been decreasing since ca. 1980, which is consistent with the sign of the runoff changes of the GCM projections. However, the Reanalysis 1980-2012 drying trends are generally much stronger than the corresponding GCM trends. Among the possible reasons for that discrepancy are model deficiencies, amplification of the trends due to constructive interference with natural modes of variability in the Reanalysis data, errors in the Reanalysis

  9. Solving America's Math Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigdor, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Concern about students' math achievement is nothing new, and debates about the mathematical training of the nation's youth date back a century or more. In the early 20th century, American high-school students were starkly divided, with rigorous math courses restricted to a college-bound elite. At midcentury, the "new math" movement sought,…

  10. Lupus Foundation of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... of America Follow @LupusOrg Email Address: ZIP / Postal Code: Spam Control Text: Please leave this field empty ... up for email updates Email Address: ZIP / Postal Code: Spam Control Text: Please leave this field empty ...

  11. More Power to America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Willis H.

    1979-01-01

    Surveys America's current energy situation and considers means of attaining domestic energy self-sufficiency. Information is presented on hazards of decreasing energy production, traditional energy sources, and exotic energy sources. (Author/DB)

  12. Sarcoma Foundation of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... of America | All Rights Reserved. | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy Website Design & Hosting by 270net Technologies, Inc. X - Enter Your Location - - or - Get your current location Home About Us ...

  13. [William Cheselden: singular lithotomist and great illustrator of the XVIII Century].

    PubMed

    Ballesteros Sampol, Juan José

    2007-09-01

    We present a brief historic reference of who probably was the most famous English urologist-surgeon of the 18th century, and who, following the chronicle writers, holds the record for extraction of a bladder stone (between 24 and 54 seconds). He also was an example of humanism related to the medical profession: he was an extraordinary illustrator of his own books with the help of the "dark chamber", so frequently used by Renaissance artists, contributed to the design and performance of civil architectonic work, had relationships with the literature world through poetry, and decisively influenced the reformation and separation of barbers and surgeons, which ultimately lead to the creation of the Royal College of Surgeons.

  14. Orthodontics in 3 millennia. Chapter 1: Antiquity to the mid-19th century.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Norman

    2005-02-01

    Orthodontics had its beginnings in the time of the ancient Egyptians, who used crude metal bands and catgut, but it was not until the late 18th century that the first practical appliances came into use. These were fine-tuned during the early 1900s; today's mechanisms are merely refinements. Major changes occurred when practitioners--originally physicians--began turning their attention from cosmetic "regulating" to occlusion and stability, while empiricism gave way to objectivity and the scientific method. The purpose of this article is to review the history of orthodontics from antiquity to the modern era. The article is divided into chapters that will be presented serially in every other issue of the Journal.

  15. The study of anatomy in England from 1700 to the early 20th century

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Piers D; Boston, Ceridwen; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Chaplin, Simon; Chauhan, Vin; Evans, Jonathan; Fowler, Louise; Powers, Natasha; Walker, Don; Webb, Helen; Witkin, Annsofie

    2011-01-01

    The study of anatomy in England during the 18th and 19th century has become infamous for bodysnatching from graveyards to provide a sufficient supply of cadavers. However, recent discoveries have improved our understanding of how and why anatomy was studied during the enlightenment, and allow us to see the context in which dissection of the human body took place. Excavations of infirmary burial grounds and medical school cemeteries, study of hospital archives, and analysis of the content of surviving anatomical collections in medical museums enables us to re-evaluate the field from a fresh perspective. The pathway from a death in poverty, sale of the corpse to body dealer, dissection by anatomist or medical student, and either the disposal and burial of the remains or preservation of teaching specimens that survive today in medical museums is a complex and fascinating one. PMID:21496014

  16. Polynesia and polygenism: the scientific use of travel literature in the early 19th century.

    PubMed

    Carhart, Michael C

    2009-04-01

    Christoph Meiners (1747-1810) was one of 18th-century Europe's most important readers of global travel literature, and he has been credited as a founder of the disciplines of ethnology and anthropology. This article examines a part of his final work, "Untersuchungen über die Verschiedenheiten der Menschennaturen" [Inquiries on the differences of human natures], published posthumously in the 1810s. Here Meiners developed an elaborate argument, based on empirical evidence, that the different races of men emerged indigenously at different times and in different places in natural history. Specifically this article shows how a sedentary scholar who never left Europe constructed a narrative of human origins and migrations on the basis of (1) French theory from the 1750s (Charles de Brosses and Simon Pelloutier) and (2) data gathered by explorers as reported in travel literature (J.R. Forster, Pérouse, Cook, Marsden).

  17. Gangs in Central America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-02

    introduced – H.R. 1645 ( Gutierrez ), S. 330 (Isakson), and S. 1348 (Reid) – that includes provisions to increase cooperation among U.S., Mexican, and...America, Colombia, and Mexico, U.S. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales stated that “the United States stands with all of our neighbors in our joint fight...deportations on Central America. Legislation in the 110th Congress The 110th Congress has considered immigration legislation – H.R. 1645 ( Gutierrez ), S

  18. Mosquitoes of Middle America.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-30

    survey of mosquitoes in Costa Rica, 197 1. Walsh , Robert D., Aedes aegypti Eradication Program, Public Health Service.—Collections in St. Croix...At least a start has been made in nearly every major group of medical importance in Middle America: Aedes , Anopheles, Culex. Deinocerites, Haemago~us...fauna in the area covered by the project. At least a start has been made in nearl y every major group of medical importance in Middle America: Aedes

  19. Optimism Reborn. Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution, the Citizen Power Development Model and the Construction of "21st Century Socialism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution and the Citizen Power national development model in the construction of socialism in the 21st century in Latin America and the Caribbean through the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America--Peoples' Trade Agreement. Centred around the notion of "revolutionary…

  20. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    In this document, students examine the economic and military concerns that linked the history of the Caribbean and Central America to the United States. Organized into four chapters, the first chapter examines the history of U.S. relations with the Caribbean and Central America from the early 19th century to 1961. The second chapter focuses on the…

  1. Collaborative studies target volcanic hazards in Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluth, Gregg J. S.; Rose, William I.

    Central America is the second-most consistently active volcanic zone on Earth, after Indonesia. Centuries of volcanic activity have produced a spectacular landscape of collapsed calderas, debris flows, and thick blankets of pyroclastic materials. Volcanic activity dominates the history, culture, and daily life of Central American countries.January 2002 marked the third consecutive year in which a diverse group of volcanologists and geophysicists conducted focused field studies in Central America. This type of multi-institutional collaboration reflects the growing involvement of a number of U.S. and non-U.S. universities, and of other organizations, in Guatemala and El Salvador (Table 1).

  2. What was Glaucoma Called Before the 20th Century?

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Giliberti, Francesca M.; Young, Matthew T.; Bermudez, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma involves a characteristic optic neuropathy, often with elevated intraocular pressure. Before 1850, poor vision with a normal eye appearance, as occurs in primary open-angle glaucoma, was termed amaurosis, gutta serena, or black cataract. Few observers noted palpable hardness of the eye in amaurosis. On the other hand, angle-closure glaucoma can produce a green or gray pupil, and therefore was called, variously, glaucoma (derived from the Greek for glaucous, a nonspecific term connoting blue, green, or light gray) and viriditate oculi. Angle closure, with palpable hardness of the eye, mydriasis, and anterior prominence of the lens, was described in greater detail in the 18th and 19th centuries. The introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850 permitted the visualization of the excavated optic neuropathy in eyes with a normal or with a dilated greenish-gray pupil. Physicians developed a better appreciation of the role of intraocular pressure in both conditions, which became subsumed under the rubric “glaucoma”. PMID:26483611

  3. News Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-03-01

    Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

  4. Law of Empires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines…

  5. "Le Droit de L'Enfant:" Ideologies of the Child in 19th Century French Literature and Child Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Suzanne

    This paper examines ideological themes present in movements for child labor reform and in literature in 19th century France. Separate sections cover early industrialization and child labor reform, the image of the romantic child in French literature, and ideology and reforms. By the mid-19th century, England, America, and France all had their…

  6. ​​​History of Cholera Outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, MH; Azizi, F

    2010-01-01

    Cholera is an acute infectious disease with high mortality if left untreated. Historically, between the 19th and 20th centuries seven great pandemics of cholera occurred and worldwide, thousands of people died. Based on an old theory, cholera was considered an air-born disease and the emergence of its outbreaks were attributed to bad weather or miasma. However later in the 18th century, British physician John Snow (1813-1858) explained the association of a terrible cholera outbreak in London in 1849 to contamination of the drinking water supply with human excreta. Despite his finding, the causative agent of this dreaded illness was unidentified until later in the 19th century. In 1854, Filippo Pacini (1812-1883) an anatomist from Italy and then in 1883, Robert Koch (1843-1910) the German bacteriologist, discovered ‘vibrio cholerae’ as the etiologic agent. During the major pandemics of cholera in 19th and 20th centuries this illness reached Iran and led to vast depopulation and a crucial impact on the country’s socioeconomic status. Poor public health conditions, lack of a well-organized public health authority for implementing preventive and quarantine measures as well as Iran’s specific geographic location were the main facilitating factors of the emergence of various epidemics, including cholera in Iran. The present paper briefly reviews the cholera outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries. PMID:25197514

  7. Resolving North America`s environmental disputes

    SciTech Connect

    Mauseth, M.

    1998-12-31

    Seventeen years ago John E. Carroll and Newell B. Mack analyzed the then-current status of environmental protection mechanisms used between Canada and the United States. They criticized the ad hoc nature of North America`s history of environmental dispute resolution, which they dubbed ``ad hockery,`` and believed the present ambiguity hurt business, diplomatic relations, and the citizenry`s environment. Since that publication, increasing efforts to incorporate environmental concerns into Conventions have resulted in several multilateral agreements focusing on environmental protection and dispute resolution. Part 2 of this paper introduces a few of these recent agreements and the mechanisms they have established to monitor environmental damage and to enforce the goals of the agreements. The agreements discussed include: Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer; Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer; Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer; Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal; Canada-United States: Agreement on Air Quality; Rio Declaration on Environment and Development; Framework Convention on Climate Change; Convention on Biological Diversity; and the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. Part 3 discusses the general concern related to economic development (with the need to maintain ``sustainable development``), the possible environmental impact of NAFTA, and the Supplemental Agreement`s strengths and weaknesses.

  8. Developing Strategic Leaders for the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    globally. Clearly the attack on the World Trade Center and subsequent conflicts in both Iraq and Afghanistan changed forever how Americans think...11), were a watershed in American history. The scope and focus of American national security policy changed forever in a few hours. America fought...economic, as well as military. These events of the first decade of the 21st century have changed how Americans must think about viii “national

  9. Eight sages over five centuries share oxygen's discovery.

    PubMed

    Severinghaus, John W

    2016-09-01

    During the last century, historians have discovered that between the 13th and 18th centuries, at least six sages discovered that the air we breathe contains something that we need and use. Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) in Cairo and Michael Servetus (1511-1553) in France accurately described the pulmonary circulation and its effect on blood color. Michael Sendivogius (1566-1636) in Poland called a part of air "the food of life" and identified it as the gas made by heating saltpetre. John Mayow (1641-1679) in Oxford found that one-fifth of air was a special gas he called "spiritus nitro aereus." Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) in Uppsala generated a gas he named "fire air" by heating several metal calcs. He asked Lavoisier how it fit the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier never answered. In 1744, Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) in England discovered how to make part of air by heating red calc of mercury. He found it brightened a flame and supported life in a mouse in a sealed bottle. He called it "dephlogisticated air." He published and personally told Lavoisier and other chemists about it. Lavoisier never thanked him. After 9 years of generating and studying its chemistry, he couldn't understand whether it was a new element. He still named it "principe oxigene." He was still not able to disprove phlogiston. Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) made an inflammable gas in 1766. He and Priestley noted that its flame made a dew. Cavendish proved the dew was pure water and published this in 1778, but all scientists called it impossible to make water, an element. In 1783, on June 24th, Lavoisier was urged to try it, and, when water appeared, he realized that water was not an element but a compound of two gases, proving that oxygen was an element. He then demolished phlogiston and began the new chemistry revolution.

  10. Meadow Fescue: Back to the Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.] was introduced to North America in the 18th century, well over 100 years before tall fescue [Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub]. The introduction of the higher-yielding tall fescue in the early 20th century, particularly the release of ‘KY-31’...

  11. Neosporosis in South America.

    PubMed

    Moore, D P

    2005-01-20

    This work gathers reports about Neospora-infections in South America. Neospora-infections have been reported from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. Evidence of exposure to N. caninum was mentioned in cattle, goats, sheep, dogs, cats, water buffaloes, alpacas, llamas, South American opossums, wolves and other wild canids. No antibodies were found in horses. Interesting epidemiological and pathological data were described. Two isolations were performed from dogs, one from cattle, and recently five from water buffaloes. Since the cattle industry is important in South America and reproductive losses caused by Neospora-infection have been identified, more investigations are needed in order to understand its epidemiology and control the disease.

  12. Solar America Cities Awards: Solar America Initiative Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Solar America Cities activities within the Solar America Initiative and lists the 25 cities that have received financial awards from the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. [Purgatory, mercy and charity: structural conditions of care in Portugal (15th to 19th centuries)].

    PubMed

    Abreu, L

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show how the Portuguese welfare system was organized and how it survived for several centuries. It was rebuilt by the monarchy in the late 15th century, a process that coincided with the birth of the Misericordias under the protection of the King. After the Council of Trent, these fraternities ran the health system, which was financed by people who believed in the power of perpetual Masses to evade Purgatory. These institutions were run by the political elite, who exploited them for their own benefit. The article also analyses the main measures taken by the state in the 18th century to change the old and weak system of public care. These laws were ineffectual and unable to change the real situation: the Misericordias were alone--the elite had run away when money was short--and they received no support from the public purse or from the faithful, who at that time had less faith in the perpetual Mass.

  14. Eighteenth century Yersinia pestis genomes reveal the long-term persistence of an historical plague focus

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Kirsten I; Herbig, Alexander; Sahl, Jason; Waglechner, Nicholas; Fourment, Mathieu; Forrest, Stephen A; Klunk, Jennifer; Schuenemann, Verena J; Poinar, Debi; Kuch, Melanie; Golding, G Brian; Dutour, Olivier; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Holmes, Edward C; Krause, Johannes; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-01-01

    The 14th–18th century pandemic of Yersinia pestis caused devastating disease outbreaks in Europe for almost 400 years. The reasons for plague’s persistence and abrupt disappearance in Europe are poorly understood, but could have been due to either the presence of now-extinct plague foci in Europe itself, or successive disease introductions from other locations. Here we present five Y. pestis genomes from one of the last European outbreaks of plague, from 1722 in Marseille, France. The lineage identified has not been found in any extant Y. pestis foci sampled to date, and has its ancestry in strains obtained from victims of the 14th century Black Death. These data suggest the existence of a previously uncharacterized historical plague focus that persisted for at least three centuries. We propose that this disease source may have been responsible for the many resurgences of plague in Europe following the Black Death. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12994.001 PMID:26795402

  15. Carbon cycle dynamics and solar activity embedded in a high-resolution 14C speleothem record from Belize, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechleitner, Franziska A.; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; McIntyre, Cameron; Asmerom, Yemane; Prufer, Keith M.; Polyak, Victor; Culleton, Brendan J.; Kennett, Douglas J.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Baldini, James U. L.

    2015-04-01

    of old recalcitrant carbon to the soil water, and resulting in closer coupling between atmosphere and cave environment. The resolution of the record (0.3-0.7 mm/sample) permits identification of the dominant drivers of stalagmite 14C during different intervals. For example, hydrologic control on 14C appears dominant during the 11th century drought, while in the 16th to 18th century a clear solar influence exists. Solar activity is reflected in YOK-I as lower a14Cinit, reflecting the atmospheric a14C. We apply simple hydrological models to investigate the different factors influencing 14C in YOK-I. We estimate the importance of mean SOM age to signal dampening, and quantify the strength of the solar influence and the global carbon cycle on the record. References: Genty, D., Baker, A., Massault, M., Proctor, C., Gilmour, M., Pons-Branchu, E., Hamelin, B. (2001) Dead carbon in stalagmites: carbonate bedrock paleodissolution vs. ageing of soil organic matter. Implications for 13C variations in speleothems, GCA, 65 Griffiths, M.L., Fohlmeister, J., Drysdale, R.N., Hua, Q., Johnson, K.R., Hellstrom, J.C., Gagan, M.K., Zhao, J.-x. (2012) Hydrological control of the dead carbon fraction in a Holocene tropical speleothem, Quat. Geochron. 14 Ridley, H.E., Baldini, J.U.L., Prufer, K.M., Walczak, I.W., Breitenbach, S.F.M. (in press) High resolution monitoring of a tropical cave system reveals dynamic ventilation and hydrologic resilience to seismic activity, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies

  16. Dr Robert Robertson (1742-1829): Fever Specialist and Philosopher-Experimenter in the Treatment of Fevers with Peruvian Bark in the Latter Eighteenth-century Royal Navy.

    PubMed

    Short, Bruce

    2015-12-01

    The life and works of Dr Robert Robertson are reviewed set against the background of the extant British management of fevers during the latter 18th-century. Commencing in 1769, using the febrifuge Peruvian bark (cortex Peruvianus; Jesuit's Powder), he experimented and tested Peruvian bark mono-therapy protocols in the tropics in the cure and prevention of intermittent fever (predominantly malaria). His later work also showed the benefit of the bark in the acute care of developed continuous fevers (largely Ship Fever due to Epidemic Louse-borne Typhus Fever) in both the Temperate and Torrid Zones. In the realm of comparative statistics Robertson first demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of bark therapy against the dangerous depleting processes of the antiphlogistic regimen. He was the first to alert the Admiralty to the efficacy of bark in both the cure of acute fevers as well as a prophylactic in the tropics, and signalled the dangers of bloodletting in treating fevers of the tropics. He authored 13 books devoted to fevers outlining his theory of Febrile Infection and its treatment. The essay concludes with his role as the Physician-in-Charge of the Royal Hospital, Greenwich over a 28-year period, as an acknowledged expert in the small British group of 18th-century fever specialists.

  17. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cause Donate Now Retailers Team Up to Support Boys & Girls Clubs of America During Holiday Season Sixteen ... back to nation’s leading advocate for youth MORE» Boys & Girls Clubs of America and the UPS Foundation ...

  18. Heart Failure Society of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... hfsa.org Events Calendar>> Copyright © 2017 Heart Failure Society of America. All Rights Reserved 2017 Call for ... for Organ Sharing (UNOS) asks the Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA) members to comment on the ...

  19. Still Teaching for America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2013-01-01

    In this article, June Kronholz talks to co-chief executives of Teach For America (TFA), Elisa Villanueva Beard and Matt Kramer about how TFA has managed to keep its forward momentum for almost 24 years. Four primary reasons are discussed: (1) Common Vision, Regional Innovation; (2) Data-Driven Improvement; (3) Global Reach; and (4) Stoking the…

  20. Public Opinion in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Alan D.

    The purposes of this book are to summarize and analyze the nature of public opinion in contemporary America and to examine the implications of that nature for the possibility of a functioning democracy. Material in the four sections covers the following topics: "The Study of Public Opinion: Political Theory and Methodology"--opinions and…

  1. Slavs in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donchenko, Adele K.

    The history of Slavic immigration in America is traced and the characteristics that define Slavs as an ethnic group are identified. Focusing on the difficulties experienced by Slavs in melting into accepted American patterns, the paper records the rise in Slavic ethnic consciousness. Topics discussed are Slavic language, geographic concentration…

  2. Western Europe's America Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Andrei S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Europe's anti-Americanism stance. He observes that Europe's aversion to America has become greater, louder, and more determined, and that it has unified Western Europeans more than any other political emotion (with the exception of a common hostility toward Israel). The author contends that the many disastrous…

  3. Movies in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, William

    Two main themes of motion picture development in America are presented in this comprehensive historical guide to movies. The sophistication and broadening of the movies as an art form and the complex relationships between a period and the movies of that period are fully explored. Particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the director.…

  4. Science in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history of science and technology in Latin America that begins with the Mayan civilization and progresses through the colonial period to the present. Compares increased scientific productivity in the Latin American and Caribbean regions to productivity in the United States and European Union. (LZ)

  5. Paralyzed Veterans of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... NW Washington, DC 20006-3517 Use of this website is Subject to PVA's Policy Statement, Disclaimers, and Privacy Policy. Paralyzed Veterans of America is a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt, non-profit organization. DC Web Design by Reef Light Interactive About Us Contact Us ...

  6. Only "In America"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    As the daughter of an interracial couple growing up in a middle-class town on Long Island in the 1970s, Soledad O'Brien learned not to let inappropriate or racist comments throw her. Now as the anchorwoman of CNN's "In America" documentary unit, she says she asks those uncomfortable questions about race all the time. She shines spotlight…

  7. Education in Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, George R.; Waggoner, Barbara Ashton

    The first chapter of this book describes the physical and cultural environment of Central America and includes analytical comments showing the complexity of the problems confronting the region. Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama are then treated in separate chapters including: 1) political, economic, social and…

  8. Greeks in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazacoufa, Demetrius

    Information is presented on various topics related to Greek-Americans, including the different phases of emigration and immigration, language difficulties and other problems encountered in America, and Greek-American organizations and institutions. Particular attention is given to describing the cultural, social, and political characteristics of…

  9. Teaching About Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This publication is offered as a resource guide for teachers rather than as a prescriptive syllabus. No course of study is delineated and no course objectives are spelled out. Instead there are illustrative examples for applying discovery techniques to the study of Latin America, suggestions of various themes useful in organizing a course of study…

  10. Women in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural America, Inc., Washington, DC.

    In rural America 34 million culturally and economically diverse women share the common problem of unfair treatment based on sex. Although in recent years women have begun to question the social attitudes limiting their aspirations, a formidable gap exists between their expectations and the archaic legal, social, and economic policies that continue…

  11. Strengthening America's Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Rose; Kumpfer, Karol

    2000-01-01

    Improving parenting practices and the family environment is the most effective, enduring strategy for combating juvenile delinquency. Describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Strengthening America's Families Initiative. Highlights several family-focused prevention programs identified as exemplary, explaining how they…

  12. Improving America's Schools Act

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cradler, John; Bridgforth, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    The Improving America's Schools ACT (IASA) emphasizes coherent systemic education reform, with Goals 2000 setting common standards for IASA and the recently authorized School-to-Work Program. IASA addresses the need to raise academic achievement, increase opportunities to learn, improve professional development, increase community involvement, utilize instructional applications of technology, and improve assessment, and allow more local flexibility in the use of funds.

  13. Building America's energy corridor: Oil & gas development and Louisiana's wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theriot, Jason P.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last half century, Louisiana's coastal wetlands have evolved into an elaborate energy landscape that supports onshore and offshore oil and gas development. Since the 1950s, this region has become a vital part of America's energy security and economic prosperity. Today, roughly one quarter of America's oil and gas resources flow through this energy corridor. The environmental changes as a result of these activities have been substantial, as the vast network of pipeline canals and related infrastructure have radically altered these wetlands. This work explores the intersection between energy and environment in coastal Louisiana and offers a historical view of how this energy system and this environment system evolved together to form America's Energy Corridor.

  14. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  15. Suidas (tenth century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Greek encyclopedist. In the course of reading Suidas's Lexicon, EDMOND HALLEY mistakenly connected the naming of the Saros cycle of 223 synodic months by the tenth century Greek lexicographer Suidas with the eclipse cycle of the same period. The solar eclipse cycle is thus now known by the name that Suidas used for another phenomenon. Halley's mistake accounts for the historical confusion that th...

  16. The Chemical Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Ralph E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses present and future problems of producing clean energy. Graphically presents the changing patterns of fuel use in the United States over the past century, and predicts population growth and energy sources and consumption up to the year 2100 for the United States and the world. (JR)

  17. World trade in medicinal plants from Spanish America, 1717-1815.

    PubMed

    Gänger, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the history of the commerce in medicinal plants and plant-based remedies from the Spanish American territories in the eighteenth century. It maps the routes used to transport the plants from Spanish America to Europe and, along the arteries of European commerce, colonialism and proselytism, into societies across the Americas, Asia and Africa. Inquiring into the causes of the global 'spread' of American remedies, it argues that medicinal plants like ipecacuanha, guaiacum, sarsaparilla, jalap root and cinchona moved with relative ease into Parisian medicine chests, Moroccan court pharmacies and Manila dispensaries alike, because of their 'exotic' charisma, the force of centuries-old medical habits, and the increasingly measurable effectiveness of many of these plants by the late eighteenth century. Ultimately and primarily, however, it was because the disease environments of these widely separated places, their medical systems and materia medica had long become entangled by the eighteenth century.

  18. World Trade in Medicinal Plants from Spanish America, 1717–1815

    PubMed Central

    Gänger, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the history of the commerce in medicinal plants and plant-based remedies from the Spanish American territories in the eighteenth century. It maps the routes used to transport the plants from Spanish America to Europe and, along the arteries of European commerce, colonialism and proselytism, into societies across the Americas, Asia and Africa. Inquiring into the causes of the global ‘spread’ of American remedies, it argues that medicinal plants like ipecacuanha, guaiacum, sarsaparilla, jalap root and cinchona moved with relative ease into Parisian medicine chests, Moroccan court pharmacies and Manila dispensaries alike, because of their ‘exotic’ charisma, the force of centuries-old medical habits, and the increasingly measurable effectiveness of many of these plants by the late eighteenth century. Ultimately and primarily, however, it was because the disease environments of these widely separated places, their medical systems and materia medica had long become entangled by the eighteenth century. PMID:25498437

  19. Nineteenth century French rose (Rosa sp.) germplasm shows a shift over time from a European to an Asian genetic background

    PubMed Central

    Liorzou, Mathilde; Pernet, Alix; Li, Shubin; Chastellier, Annie; Thouroude, Tatiana; Michel, Gilles; Malécot, Valéry; Gaillard, Sylvain; Briée, Céline; Foucher, Fabrice; Oghina-Pavie, Cristiana; Clotault, Jérémy; Grapin, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization with introduced genetic resources is commonly practiced in ornamental plant breeding to introgress desired traits. The 19th century was a golden age for rose breeding in France. The objective here was to study the evolution of rose genetic diversity over this period, which included the introduction of Asian genotypes into Europe. A large sample of 1228 garden roses encompassing the conserved diversity cultivated during the 18th and 19th centuries was genotyped with 32 microsatellite primer pairs. Its genetic diversity and structure were clarified. Wide diversity structured in 16 genetic groups was observed. Genetic differentiation was detected between ancient European and Asian accessions, and a temporal shift from a European to an Asian genetic background was observed in cultivated European hybrids during the 19th century. Frequent crosses with Asian roses throughout the 19th century and/or selection for Asiatic traits may have induced this shift. In addition, the consistency of the results with respect to a horticultural classification is discussed. Some horticultural groups, defined according to phenotype and/or knowledge of their pedigree, seem to be genetically more consistent than others, highlighting the difficulty of classifying cultivated plants. Therefore, the horticultural classification is probably more appropriate for commercial purposes rather than genetic relatedness, especially to define preservation and breeding strategies. PMID:27406785

  20. Nineteenth century French rose (Rosa sp.) germplasm shows a shift over time from a European to an Asian genetic background.

    PubMed

    Liorzou, Mathilde; Pernet, Alix; Li, Shubin; Chastellier, Annie; Thouroude, Tatiana; Michel, Gilles; Malécot, Valéry; Gaillard, Sylvain; Briée, Céline; Foucher, Fabrice; Oghina-Pavie, Cristiana; Clotault, Jérémy; Grapin, Agnès

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization with introduced genetic resources is commonly practiced in ornamental plant breeding to introgress desired traits. The 19th century was a golden age for rose breeding in France. The objective here was to study the evolution of rose genetic diversity over this period, which included the introduction of Asian genotypes into Europe. A large sample of 1228 garden roses encompassing the conserved diversity cultivated during the 18th and 19th centuries was genotyped with 32 microsatellite primer pairs. Its genetic diversity and structure were clarified. Wide diversity structured in 16 genetic groups was observed. Genetic differentiation was detected between ancient European and Asian accessions, and a temporal shift from a European to an Asian genetic background was observed in cultivated European hybrids during the 19th century. Frequent crosses with Asian roses throughout the 19th century and/or selection for Asiatic traits may have induced this shift. In addition, the consistency of the results with respect to a horticultural classification is discussed. Some horticultural groups, defined according to phenotype and/or knowledge of their pedigree, seem to be genetically more consistent than others, highlighting the difficulty of classifying cultivated plants. Therefore, the horticultural classification is probably more appropriate for commercial purposes rather than genetic relatedness, especially to define preservation and breeding strategies.

  1. Asthma in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Forno, Erick; Gogna, Mudita; Cepeda, Alfonso; Yañez, Anahi; Solé, Dirceu; Cooper, Philip; Avila, Lydiana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the diversity of Latin America, there is profound variability in asthma burden among and within countries in this region. Regional variation in asthma prevalence is likely multifactorial and due to genetics, perinatal exposures, diet, obesity, tobacco use, indoor and outdoor pollutants, psychosocial stress, and microbial or parasitic infections. Similarly, nonuniform progress in asthma management leads to regional variability in disease morbidity. Future studies of distinct asthma phenotypes should follow up well-characterized Latin American subgroups and examine risk factors that are unique or common in Latin America (e.g. stress and violence, parasitic infections and use of biomass fuels for cooking). Because most Latin American countries share the same barriers to asthma management, concerted and multifaceted public health and research efforts are needed, including approaches to curtail tobacco use, campaigns to improve asthma treatment, broadening access to care and clinical trials of non-pharmacologic interventions (e.g. replacing biomass fuels with gas or electric stoves). PMID:26103996

  2. America on the move.

    PubMed

    Catenacci, Victoria A; Wyatt, Holly R

    2007-11-01

    The population is gaining weight, despite our best current obesity education and awareness efforts. America on the Move, a nonprofit public health initiative, was founded to promote small achievable behavioral changes to help stop weight gain, starting with (1) eating 100 kcal less per day and (2) increasing lifestyle activity by 2000 steps per day. These two small changes could stop weight gain and prevent overweight and obesity in many, if not most patients. America on the Move materials and tools to implement, support and sustain these behaviors are available free of charge for individuals, schools, groups, communities, and worksites via a Web based portal. A physician tool kit is also available for health care providers to facilitate these changes in clinical practices.

  3. Cholera in the Americas.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The cholera epidemic 1st hit South America in January 1991 in the coastal town of Chancay, Peru. In 2 weeks, it spread over 2000 km of the Pacific coast. By the end of the 1st month, it had already reached the mountains and tropical forests. By August 1991, cholera cases were reported in order of appearances in Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, Brazil, the US, Mexico, Guatemala, Bolivia, and El Salvador. Health authorities still do not know how it was introduced into South America. The case fatality rate has remained at a low of 1%, probably due to the prompt actions of health authorities in informing the public of the epidemic and what preventive cautions should be taken. This epidemic is part of the 7th pandemic which originated in Celebes, Indonesia in 1961. Cholera can spread relatively unchecked in Latin America because sewage in urban areas is not treated even though they do have sewage collection systems. The untreated wastewater enters rivers and the ocean. Consumption of raw seafood is not unusual and has been responsible for cholera infection in some cases. In fact, many countries placed import restrictions on marine products from Peru following the outbreak at a loss of $US10-$US40 million. Municipal sewage treatment facilities, especially stabilization ponds, would prevent the spread of cholera and other pathogens. In rural areas, pit latrines located away from wells can effectively dispose of human wastes. Most water supplies in Latin America are not disinfected. Disinfection drinking water with adequate levels of chlorine would effectively destroy V. cholera. If this is not possible, boiling the water for 2-3 minutes would destroy the pathogen. Any cases of cholera must be reported to PAHO. PAHO has responded to the outbreak by forming a Cholera Task Force and arranged transport of oral rehydration salts, intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and other essential medical supplies.

  4. Latin America Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-05

    for Trade in Central America ( Jose Molina Calderon; PRENSA LIBRE, 27 Aug 86) 1 Argentina Outlines Economic Assistance to Guatemala (PRENSA...Cutback in Steel Production at Monclova 102 NICARAGUA Minister Borge on Church, Human Rights (Tormas Borge Interview; LA HORA, 21 Sep 86) 103...ECONOMIC-FINANCIAL Supplement) in Spanish 27 Aug 86 (no page given) [Article by Jose Molina Calderon] [Text] Free-For-All, Every Man for Himself The

  5. Johann Gottfried Köhler - inspector at the Mathematical-Physical Salon in Dresden - an active observer of the starry sky in the last quarter of the 18th century (German Title: Johann Gottfried Köhler - Inspektor am Mathematisch-Physikalischen Salon Dresden - aktiver Beobachter des gestirnten Himmels im letzten Viertel des 18. Jahrhunderts )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillinger, Klaus

    In 1777, J. G. Köhler, an academician trained in mathematics and the sciences and with a deep interest in astronomy, was appointed inspector of the Mathematical-Physical Salon. He was lucky to find, in the person of the Saxonian electoral prince and later king, August the Righteous, a ruler who was open-minded to science, and thus he could combine his private interests with those of the sovereign. While the files of the Mathematical-Physical Salon from his time were lost during World War II, his actions can be reconstructed from a few archival sources and notes in the diaries of his successors. The Saxonian residence did not have an astronomical observatory. Köhler used the instruments from the collection of the Mathematical-Physical Salon for numerous celestial observations. He was in close contact with a number of other astronomers like Bode and Zach. They took care of his results, sometimes after editing them. Time determinations based on longitude and latitude determinations, as well as other astronomical observations, led to the development of a time service, which was carried out for about 150 years. Köhler himself constructed the clocks. Because of his responsibilities as an inspector, as well as due to local and material constraints, he was not able to carry out systematic and reproducible measurements over a long time span. His improvement of the circular micrometer and his stop-down photometer are of special interest. He also had considerable talent in drawing, as is shown in his drawings of lunar mountains. A number of instruments used by Köhler are still to be found in the Mathematical-Physical Salon.

  6. Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) and astronomy in Berlin in the 18th century. Contributions of the colloquium held in Berlin-Treptow on March 6, 2010 (German Title: Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) und die Berliner Astronomie im 18. Jahrhundert.) Beiträge des Kolloquiums am 6. März 2010 in Berlin-Treptow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    The contributions of this volume are dedicated to Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710), the first Berlin astronomer, on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of his death. They deal with the astronomy of his times and developments in later times, which are connected to his work. The papers deal with the following topics: The instrumental equipment of Berlin Observatory at the time of G. Kirch and its modernisation up to around 1780; the instruments of Johann Makob Marioni's Viennese observatory around 1730; the heraldic celestial globe by Kirch's teacher Erhard Weigel. In addition, they deal with Kirch's share in the propagation of ideas of the Enlightenment, and with the Berlin meteorological record and its consequences for the investigation of anthropogenous climatic changes. They also deal with astronomical topics in the exchange of letters between Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli, and with the Berlin "Astronomisches Jahrbuch", which is based on Kirch's activities, as a biographical source.

  7. [The oldest children's hospital in the Americas].

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Considering the history of medicine, pediatrics is relatively a recent discipline and so are the institutions devoted to it. The "Spedale degli Innocenti" (Florence, 1419) was the first institution devoted to child care; and is not by chance that it was an orphanage, because the "hospital" concept was then more related to hosting and careing than to health. It was in the 19th century when the pediatric hospitals, as we know them today, appear in Europe (L'Hôpital Des Enfants-Malades, Paris, 1802) and North America (Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 1855); surprisingly "Casa Cuna" (Hospital de Niños Pedro de Elizalde, Buenos Aires, 1779) was already there, witnessing the foundation of both institutions.

  8. American Journalism Historians Association Annual Convention (London, Ontario, Canada, October 3-5, 1996). Part I: Selected Papers Covering the Colonial Period through the 19th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journalism Historians' Association.

    The 16 papers presented in this collection all deal with journalism and journalists from colonial America through the 19th century. The papers and their authors are: "Fighting for a Continent: Newspaper Coverage of the English and French War for Control of North America, 1754-1760" (David A. Copeland); "A Romance with 'Local'…

  9. Anaglyph, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.

    Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.

    East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.

    North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.

    South of the Amazon, the Brazilian

  10. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    PubMed

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness.

  11. Pharmacognosy in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Douglas Kinghorn, A

    2001-02-01

    The term pharmacognosy as a constituent scientific discipline of pharmacy has been in use for nearly 200 years, and it refers to studies on natural product drugs. During the last half of the 20th century, pharmacognosy evolved from being a descriptive botanical subject to one having a more chemical and biological focus. At the beginning of the 21st century, pharmacognosy teaching in academic pharmacy institutions has been given new relevance, as a result of the explosive growth in the use of herbal remedies (phytomedicines) in modern pharmacy practice, particularly in western Europe and North America. In turn, pharmacognosy research areas are continuing to expand, and now include aspects of cell and molecular biology in relation to natural products, ethnobotany and phytotherapy, in addition to the more traditional analytical method development and phytochemistry. Examples are provided in this review of promising bioactive compounds obtained in two multidisciplinary natural product drug discovery projects, aimed at the elucidation of new plant-derived cancer chemotherapeutic agents and novel cancer chemopreventives, respectively. The systematic study of herbal remedies offers pharmacognosy groups an attractive new area of research, ranging from investigating the biologically active principles of phytomedicines and their mode of action and potential drug interactions, to quality control, and involvement in clinical trials.

  12. Ecology of rickettsia in South America.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B

    2009-05-01

    Until the year 2000, only three Rickettsia species were known in South America: (i) Rickettsia rickettsii, transmitted by the ticks Amblyomma cajennense, and Amblyomma aureolatum, reported in Colombia, Argentina, and Brazil, where it is the etiological agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever; (ii) Rickettsia prowazekii, transmitted by body lice and causing epidemic typhus in highland areas, mainly in Peru; (iii) Rickettsia typhi, transmitted by fleas and causing endemic typhus in many countries. During this new century, at least seven other rickettsiae were reported in South America: Rickettsia felis infecting fleas and the tick-associated agents Rickettsia parkeri, Rickettsia massiliae, Candidatus"Rickettsia amblyommii,"Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia rhipicephali, and Candidatus"Rickettsia andeanae." Among these other rickettsiae, only R. felis, R. parkeri, and R. massiliae are currently recognized as human pathogens. R. rickettsii is a rare agent in nature, infecting < or =1% individuals in a few tick populations. Contrastingly, R. parkeri, Candidatus"R. amblyommii," R. rhipicephali, and R. bellii are usually found infecting 10 to 100% individuals in different tick populations. Despite rickettsiae being transmitted transovarially through tick generations, low infection rates for R. rickettsii are possibly related to pathogenic effect of R. rickettsii for ticks, as shown for A. aureolatum under laboratory conditions. This scenario implies that R. rickettsii needs amplifier vertebrate hosts for its perpetuation in nature, in order to create new lines of infected ticks (horizontal transmission). In Brazil, capybaras and opossums are the most probable amplifier hosts for R. rickettsii, among A. cajennense ticks, and small rodents for A. aureolatum.

  13. Culture, Power, and the University in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Powerful nations have influential systems of higher education. The article explores the possible pattern of geopolitics in the twenty-first century, and the competing prospects of America and its rivals in higher education and research. Pressures on both the American and non-American worlds are evaluated, along with relative economic strengths,…

  14. Eugenics, Race Integrity, and the Twentieth-Century Assault on Virginia's Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    This paper documents efforts made by some Virginians in the first half of the 20th century to promote and maintain racial separatism. In the early 1920s, the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America were founded in Virginia, and the leaders of this group successfully persuaded the state legislature to pass, in 1924, the Race Integrity Act. This Act created…

  15. Nineteenth-Century African American Women's Autobiography as Social Discourse: The Example of Harriet Ann Jacobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Johnnie M.

    2003-01-01

    The power of black women's personal narratives emerging out of nineteenth-century America rested in their sociopolitical as well as in their literary contributions. These slave narratives and autobiographical texts, however, were either ignored, sentimentalized, or reduced in scope as addenda to the abolitionist-inspired texts produced by black…

  16. Constructing and Reconstructing the "Rural School Problem": A Century of Rural Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Catharine; Azano, Amy Price

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines 100 years of rural education research in the context of the demographic, migratory, economic, and social changes that have affected rural America in the past century. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature on rural teacher recruitment, retention, and training as a case study to examine the constancy and…

  17. Circumcision of the Female Intellect: 19th Century Women Who Opposed Scholarly Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Marbeth

    2009-01-01

    In 19th century America, some women decried the opportunity for scholarly education as rebellion against religion and predicted a grim decline in the quality of life, home, and hearth for American families and for American culture and politics. In particular, women who opposed scholarly education argued that God had not created men and women…

  18. Seriously Popular: Rethinking 19th-Century American Literature through the Teaching of Popular Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Curious about the connections between the author's students' reading tastes and those of 19th-century readers, the author read Nina Baym's excellent text "Novels, Readers, and Reviewers: Responses to Fiction in Antebellum America" to gain a sense of how readers in the 1800s might have thought about the texts that they read. Nineteenth-century…

  19. Diffusion of knowledge and globalization in the web of twentieth century science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumis, G. G.; Phillips, J. C.

    2012-08-01

    Scientific communication is an essential part of modern science: whereas Archimedes worked alone, Newton (correspondence with Hooke, 1676) acknowledged that “If I have seen a little further, it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants.” How is scientific communication reflected in the patterns of citations in scientific papers? How have these patterns changed in the 20th century, as both means of communication and individual transportation changed rapidly, compared to the earlier post-Newton 18th and 19th centuries? Here we discuss a diffusive model for scientific communications, based on a unique 2009 scientometric study of 25 million papers and 600 million citations that encapsulates the epistemology of modern science. The diffusive model predicts and explains, using no adjustable parameters, a surprisingly universal internal structure in the development of scientific research, which is essentially constant across the natural sciences, but which because of globalization changed qualitatively around 1960. Globalization corresponds physically to anomalous diffusion, which has been observed near the molecular glass transition, and can enhance molecular diffusion by factors as large as 100.

  20. [From spermatic animalcules to sperm cells: the reconceptualization of generation in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Vienne, Florence

    2009-09-01

    At the end of the 18th and still at the beginning of the 19th century most naturalists considered spermatic animalcules to be parasites of the seminal fluid that played no role in procreation. This view was progressively questioned by 19th century physiologists. They gradually redefined the spermatic animals as (cellular) products of the male organism, as agents of fertilization and bearers of the male heredity material. This article discusses this change from two different perspectives: on a microhistorical level, it analyzes the experimental research of the naturalist Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) and of the physiologist Albert Kölliker (1817-1905) in order to show how spermatozoa were turned into a new epistemic object of biology--the sperm cell. Further, it asks how the role of the reconceptualization of spermatic animalcules affected the long-term transformations that gave rise of our modern understanding of heredity, generation and the sexed body. By combining these two perspectives, the article aims to connect historiographies that are often kept separate: the macrohistorical narratives about gender and the body in the modern age and the microhistorical studies of biomedical practices and objects.

  1. North America: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Mark D.; Beaubien, Elisabeth G.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Edited by Schwartz, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenological observations and networks in North America have been largely local and regional in extent until recent decades. In the USA, cloned plant monitoring networks were the exception to this pattern, with data collection spanning the late 1950s until approximately the early 1990s. Animal observation networks, especially for birds have been more extensive. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), established in the mid-2000s is a recent effort to operate a comprehensive national-scale network in the United States. In Canada, PlantWatch, as part of Nature Watch, is the current national-scale plant phenology program.

  2. Bioenergy: America's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Bruce; Volz, Sara; Male, Johnathan; Wolfson, Johnathan; Pray, Todd; Mayfield, Stephen; Atherton, Scott; Weaver, Brandon

    2014-07-31

    Bioenergy: America's Energy Future is a short documentary film showcasing examples of bioenergy innovations across the biomass supply chain and the United States. The film highlights a few stories of individuals and companies who are passionate about achieving the promise of biofuels and addressing the challenges of developing a thriving bioeconomy. This outreach product supports media initiatives to expand the public's understanding of the bioenergy industry and sustainable transportation and was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Green Focus Films, and BCS, Incorporated.

  3. Bioenergy: America's Energy Future

    ScienceCinema

    Nelson, Bruce; Volz, Sara; Male, Johnathan; Wolfson, Johnathan; Pray, Todd; Mayfield, Stephen; Atherton, Scott; Weaver, Brandon

    2016-07-12

    Bioenergy: America's Energy Future is a short documentary film showcasing examples of bioenergy innovations across the biomass supply chain and the United States. The film highlights a few stories of individuals and companies who are passionate about achieving the promise of biofuels and addressing the challenges of developing a thriving bioeconomy. This outreach product supports media initiatives to expand the public's understanding of the bioenergy industry and sustainable transportation and was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Green Focus Films, and BCS, Incorporated.

  4. TIMEKEEPING IN THE AMERICAS

    PubMed Central

    López, J. M.; Lombardi, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Time and its measurement belong to the most fundamental core of physics, and many scientific and technological advances are directly or indirectly related to time measurements. Timekeeping is essential to everyday life, and thus is the most measured physical quantity in modern societies. Time can also be measured with less uncertainty and more resolution than any other physical quantity. The measurement of time is of the utmost importance for many applications, including: global navigation satellite systems, communications networks, electric power generation, astronomy, electronic commerce, and national defense and security. This paper discusses how time is kept, coordinated, and disseminated in the Americas. PMID:26973371

  5. Timekeeping in the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. M.; Lombardi, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Time and its measurement belong to the most fundamental core of physics, and many scientific and technological advances are directly or indirectly related to time measurements. Timekeeping is essential to everyday life, and thus is the most measured physical quantity in modern societies. Time can also be measured with less uncertainty and more resolution than any other physical quantity. The measurement of time is of the utmost importance for many applications, including: global navigation satellite systems, communications networks, electric power generation, astronomy, electronic commerce, and national defense and security. This paper discusses how time is kept, coordinated, and disseminated in the Americas.

  6. TIMEKEEPING IN THE AMERICAS.

    PubMed

    López, J M; Lombardi, M A

    Time and its measurement belong to the most fundamental core of physics, and many scientific and technological advances are directly or indirectly related to time measurements. Timekeeping is essential to everyday life, and thus is the most measured physical quantity in modern societies. Time can also be measured with less uncertainty and more resolution than any other physical quantity. The measurement of time is of the utmost importance for many applications, including: global navigation satellite systems, communications networks, electric power generation, astronomy, electronic commerce, and national defense and security. This paper discusses how time is kept, coordinated, and disseminated in the Americas.

  7. The reproduction of America.

    PubMed

    Rudy, Kathy

    1994-01-01

    ... This essay draws a connection between the medical procedures produced by new reproductive technologies, most specifically the use of pre-natal tests which result in abortion, and the dictates of American liberal theory. There is, I believe, a strong link between certain contemporary American abortion practices and American liberalism's formulation of and emphasis on rational individualism. The touchstone and criterion of reason as the sole measure of humanity has influenced the conditions under which we reproduce, and consequently, when we abort. Although America purports to offer certain kinds of freedom to all individuals, only those who exercise the capacity for rationality are in fact permitted to reap the benefits of liberal society.

  8. a GIS of SARDINIA'S Coastal Defense System (xvi - XVIII Century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidda, M.; Musa, C.; Vacca, G.

    2015-06-01

    The use of GIS as a tool for archival, analysis and representation of geographic information has become significantly popular in many scientific fields that are directly concerned with the "territory" as their object of study. The field of application of GIS, however, has expanded also in other areas, such as those related to humanities and architecture, in which the territory is studied in an "indirect" mode because it constitutes a kind of substrate on which to develop a specific spatial analysis for particular purposes. Among these areas are to be included certainly archeology and restoration, fields in which the GIS has become a useful tool for historical studies. In this work we present a GIS developed for the study of the historical and territorial coastal defense system of Sardinia (16th - 18th century), in order to respond to the need to store, analyze and efficiently manage the information regarding cultural heritage and landscape heritage such as that consisting of the coastal defensive towers of Sardinia. This defensive system, in fact, was composed by over 100 towers positioned around the entire coastal perimeter of Sardinia, of which more than 90 still exist today. Their position was planned on the basis of the following criteria: - Warning the neighboring towers about the sighting of enemy ships - Protecting coasts located near the towns - Monitoring the water sources near the coast - Allowing for the full visibility of the coasts of any morphology With this study we also verified, through the use of high resolution and high accuracy DTM (LiDAR) and the topographic databases, whether the positioning criteria specified in the design of the system were respected and effective.

  9. The Impact of the Bologna Process in Ibero-America: Prospects and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Alejandro Tiana

    2010-01-01

    The Bologna Process is one of the major developments to have taken place in higher education in recent centuries. It has had an impact beyond European borders and repercussions in other parts of the world. Ibero-America has also sat up and taken note, even though scholars agree that there would be difficulties with its direct implementation in the…

  10. An Insider's Look at the Development and Current State of Community Psychology in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero, Maritza

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the rich history of community psychology in Latin America, describing how the field was systematically built during the second half of the 20th century. Discussed are social and political influences such as the critique of individualistic emphasis dominant at that moment, Paulo Freire's popular education, critical sociology…

  11. Food: Images of America. Social Studies Unit, Elementary Grades 2-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Edward; And Others

    Designed to accompany an audiovisual filmstrip series devoted to presenting a visual history of life in America, this guide contains an elementary school (grades 2-6) unit on American food over the last century. Using authentic visuals including paintings, advertising, label art, documentary photography, and a movie still, the guide offers…

  12. Visions of America: Personal Narratives from the Promised Land. A Multicultural Anthology of Autobiography and Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Wesley, Ed.; Ling, Amy, Ed.

    This anthology of personal narratives and excerpts from memoirs and autobiographies is seen as a companion to the earlier anthology, "Imagining America: Stories from the Promised Land." While focusing on nonfiction, this book continues the exploration of emigration to and migration within the United States in the 20th century. However, the scope…

  13. Politics and Society in Latin America at the Start of the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcantara, Manual

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the existing relationships between politics and society at the start of the twenty-first century in Latin America, a region that is characterized by its heterogeneity, and that is addressed as a homogenous whole. Politics are treated as an extension of democracy, the changing role of institutions, the weakness of political…

  14. Revising America: A Symposium at the National Endowment for the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    History Teacher, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents remarks of seven participants in a symposium which discussed Frances FitzGerald's study of history textbooks, "America Revised: History Schoolbooks in the Twentieth Century." Participants responded to the book's indictment that most scholars do not take textbooks seriously. (Author/KC)

  15. Educating America: The President's Initiatives for High School, Higher Education and Job Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Office of the President, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Only one-third of America's workforce has any post-secondary education, yet 60% of new jobs in the 21st century require higher education. The President has set a new national goal to ensure that every high school student graduates and is ready for the workplace or college. While No Child Left Behind will prepare a new generation of students with…

  16. Modeling Habitat Associations for the Common Loon (Gavia immer) at Multiple Scales in Northeastern North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Common Loon (Gavia immer) is considered an emblematic and ecologically important example of aquatic-dependent wildlife in North America. The northern breeding range of Common Loons has contracted over the last century, presumably as a result of habitat degradation from human ...

  17. Pulling in Many Directions: A Short History of Education Governance in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides a short history of educational governance in America during the 20th century. Includes description of the erosion of local control through court decisions, federal legislation, collective bargaining, state accountability, and parental choice. Describes alternative approaches to school governance. (PKP)

  18. Modeling Habitat Preferences and Constraints for the Common Loon in Northeastern North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    The common loon, Gavia immer, is considered an emblematic and ecologically important example of aquatic-dependent wildlife in North America. The northern breeding range of loons has contracted over the last century, presumably as a result of habitat degradation from human disturb...

  19. Grappling with Globalization, Partnership, and Learning: A Look inside Oxfam America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offenheiser, Raymond; Holcombe, Susan; Hopkins, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Oxfam America is an international development and relief organization that is grappling with building a learning organization, creating constructive labor-management relations, and trying to position itself as one of the most effective, forward-looking nongovernmental organizations of the next century. (JOW)

  20. The "New Cooperativism" in Latin America: Worker-Recuperated Enterprises and Socialist Production Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrabure, Manuel; Vieta, Marcelo; Schugurensky, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the first decade of the 21st century, efforts to create alternatives to neoliberalism emerged in many parts of Latin America. Social movements across the region took to the streets, occupied abandoned factories, and started to create new democratic spaces, solidarity networks, and social economy initiatives. In one country after another,…