Science.gov

Sample records for 18th century onwards

  1. Observing Sunspots with 18th Century Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalgaard, Leif

    2016-05-01

    The sunspot and group numbers in the 18th Century relies heavily on the observations by J.C. Staudauch during 1749-1799 performed with a three-foot 'sky tube', likely affected by spherical and chromatc aberration. An observing network has been set up to make drawings of the spots on the solar disk using original telescopes from the 18th Century or reconstructed 'sky tubes' with the same defects as the instruments available to and affordable for amateurs of the period. We report the initial results of the effort, finding that the counts of groups and the sunspot numbers must be multipled by three to reproduce modern observations. This confirms the scale factors derived from recent revisions of the solar record.

  2. [Counteraction against alcoholism in religious letters of 18th century].

    PubMed

    Rok, B

    1999-01-01

    The Polish historiography talks at length about the problem of alcoholism in Poland in the 18th century. Estimates were made about the scale and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Many records are available today, mainly in the form of diaries, which describe the extent of drunkenness at that time. Much information on drinking bouts comes from satires (this article quotes after an anonymous satire found in the Polish manuscripts of the 18th century). Apart from the literature, also preachers contributed to the present knowledge of alcohol consumption within that period. Drunkenness was often mentioned in sermons and varied types of religious guides. The 18th century priests deemed drunkenness as a heavy sin and fiercely counteracted the abuse of alcoholic beverages, by condemning people in a state of intoxication. PMID:14631978

  3. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].

    PubMed

    Kugener, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper. PMID:20882751

  4. The academician astronomers travelling in the 18th century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, S.; Débarbat, S.

    1999-04-01

    In the 18th century, astronomers of the Académie des sciences of Paris made various contributions to the improvement of navigation: terrestrial determinations of longitude which improved charts for navigators, testing of marine clocks for longitude determinations at sea. In order to resolve the Cassini-Newton controversy regarding the shape of the Earth, the Académie proposed in 1735, that two expeditions should be made with a view to measuring a meridian arc. The results concluded that the Earth was flat on the sides of the poles, as predicted by Newton. By the mid-18th century, the first purely astronomical expedition (La Caille, Cap of Good Hope) led to the creation of an austral celestial map and new parallaxes. Later, Chappe d'Auteroche, Le Gentil and Pingré travelled to observe two transits of Venus over the Sun (1761, 1769) for the improvement of the solar parallax.

  5. Roads and cities of 18th century France.

    PubMed

    Perret, Julien; Gribaudi, Maurizio; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of infrastructure networks such as roads and streets are of utmost importance to understand the evolution of urban systems. However, datasets describing these spatial objects are rare and sparse. The database presented here represents the road network at the french national level described in the historical map of Cassini in the 18th century. The digitization of this historical map is based on a collaborative methodology that we describe in detail. This dataset can be used for a variety of interdisciplinary studies, covering multiple spatial resolutions and ranging from history, geography, urban economics to network science. PMID:26401316

  6. Roads and cities of 18th century France

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Julien; Gribaudi, Maurizio; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of infrastructure networks such as roads and streets are of utmost importance to understand the evolution of urban systems. However, datasets describing these spatial objects are rare and sparse. The database presented here represents the road network at the french national level described in the historical map of Cassini in the 18th century. The digitization of this historical map is based on a collaborative methodology that we describe in detail. This dataset can be used for a variety of interdisciplinary studies, covering multiple spatial resolutions and ranging from history, geography, urban economics to network science. PMID:26401316

  7. An 18th century Tuscan pharmacy: analysis of the library.

    PubMed

    Giuffra, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The archival documents of San Luca Hospital, which has long been the most important welfarist institution of the Republic of Lucca (Tuscany), are stored in the Record Offices of Lucca. The hospital was served by a pharmacy, where the medicaments were prepared for patients and for the needs of other institutions in the city. Three different inventories, dating back to 1719, 1749 and 1784, report on a list of books hosted in the pharmacy. The identification and analysis of the works available in the library have allowed to reconstruct the tendencies of pharmacy thoughts and practices in Lucca during the 18th century. The library of the pharmacy of San Luca Hospital revealed the persistence of ancient medicine and of the pharmacy tradition, based mainly on the use of the simples. However, the influence of iatrochemistry, which following the paracelsian theories contributed to convert pharmacy from a botanical science to a chemical discipline, increased in the second half of the century, when the library was enriched with more recent works. The analysis of the inventories demonstrates the presence of both the galenic-arabic and chemical tradition, therefore reflecting an 18th century pharmacy supplied with a composite literature. PMID:26203538

  8. [The interpretation of pulmonary tuberculosis in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Bernier, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis took on alarming proportions in the 18th-century Europe. This study examines the ways learned medical practitioners presented the causes of the malady in Great Britain and France, by analyzing 12 medical treatises. Four etiological models appears to have dominated medical thinking in this context: theories that emphasize contagion; those which attribute the cause to physiological disorders; those which find the origin in hereditary predispositions; and those theories which observe a link with behaviour and lifestyles. The study also shows how one of these theories - the hereditary theory - eventually triumphed over the others and became the dominant for the better part of the 19th century, and will be examined within the context of the growth of liberal and individualist ideology. PMID:15977379

  9. Regina Salomea Pilsztynowa, ophthalmologist in 18th-century Poland.

    PubMed

    Konczacki, Janina M; Aterman, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    Regina Salomea Rusiecki (later Pilsztynowa) was a young, poorly educated Polish Catholic woman in the 18th century who became well known in Eastern Europe and the Ottoman Empire because of her skill in the treatment of cataracts and some other medical problems. She was born in 1718, and at the age of 14 she married an experienced, but significantly older, German Lutheran physician and ophthalmologist, Jakob Halpir. By helping him eagerly in his work, Pilsztynowa learned a great deal of her husband's way of treating cataracts and other ailments, and she ambitiously made use of the friendship and help of other physicians whom she met on her travels. Although there are some occurrences that could lead one to question aspects of Pilsztynowa's straight and honest character, one has also to point to her readiness to help where she could. PMID:11918899

  10. Scientific Psychology in the 18th Century: A Historical Rediscovery.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Pfister, Roland

    2016-05-01

    As early as 1783, the almost forgotten philosopher, metaphysicist, and psychologist Ferdinand Ueberwasser (1752-1812) designated himself "Professor für empirische Psychologie und Logik" (professor of empirical psychology and logic) at the University of Münster, Germany. His position was initiated and supported by the minister and educational reformer Franz von Fürstenberg (1729-1810), who considered psychology a core scientific discipline that should be taught at each school and university. At the end of the 18th century, then, psychology seems to have been on the verge of becoming an independent academic discipline, about 100 years before Wilhelm Wundt founded the discipline's first official laboratory. It seems surprising that Ueberwasser's writings-including a seminal textbook on empirical psychology-have been almost entirely overlooked in most historical accounts. We focus on this important founding moment of psychological science and on the circumstances that eventually brought this seminal development to a halt. PMID:27217252

  11. Austrian Pharmacy in the 18th and 19th Century

    PubMed Central

    Kletter, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecary’s profession and education. In the 18th century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecary’s profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19th century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecaries’ missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900. PMID:21179353

  12. Mingantu, 18th-Century Mongol Astronomer and Radioheliograph Namesake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    The 18th-century Mongol astronomer Mingantu (1692-1765) has been honored with a city named after him and a nearby solar telescope array. During the IAU/Beijing, my wife and I went to the new Chinese solar radioheliograph, the Mingantu Observing Station, in Inner Mongolia, ~400 km northwest of Beijing, a project of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It currently contains 40 dishes each 4.5 m across, with a correlator from Beijing. Within a year, 60 2-m dishes will be added. We passed by the 12-century ruins of Xanadu (about 20 km north of Zhangbei) about halfway. The radioheliograph is in a plane about 1 km across, forming a three-armed spiral for interferometric solar mapping, something colleagues and I had carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array, taking advantage of the lunar occultation before annularity at the 20 May 2012 solar eclipse. In the central square of Mingantu city, a statue ~10-m high of the Mongol astronomer Mingantu appears. Its base bears a plaque ~1-m high of IAU Minor Planet Circular MPC 45750 announcing the naming in 2002 of asteroid 28242 Mingantu, discovered at a Chinese observatory in 1999. Mingantu carried out orbital calculations, mapping, mathematical work on infinite series, and other scientific research. He is honored by a modern museum behind the statue. The museum's first 40% describes Mingantu and his work, and is followed by some artifacts of the region from thousands of years ago. The final, large room contains a two-meter-square scale model of the radioheliograph, flat-screen televisions running Solar Dynamics Observatory and other contemporary visualizations, orreries and other objects, and large transparencies of NASA and other astronomical imagery. See my post at http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/ specfically Astro-Sightseeing_in_Inner_Mongolia-167712965.html. We thank Yihua Yan for arranging the visit and Wang Wei (both NAOC) for accompanying us. My solar research

  13. The conjoined twin sisters Helen and Judith (1701-1723) and their pictorial impact in later 18th-century science.

    PubMed

    van der Weiden, Robin M F; Clausberg, Karl

    2015-08-01

    Given the uniqueness of the Hungarian conjoined twin sisters Helen and Judith (1701–1723) and their lasting influence as an anatomical showcase if not model for mental or social deviant states, we present here a closer scrutiny of their introduction into the scientific literature of the later 18th century by analyzing depictions of the twins from 1707 onwards. PMID:26133671

  14. John Stirling and the Classical Approach to Style in 18th Century England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael G.

    Most 18th-century rhetoricians viewed style as the expression of a writer's individual character and thought, placing little emphasis on the lists of figures common in many 17th-century rhetorics. John Stirling and others, however, continued the 17th-century tradition that reduced rhetoric largely to style and emphasized classical figures of…

  15. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi: 18th Century Swiss Educator and Correctional Reformer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Fredalene B.; Gehring, Thom

    2004-01-01

    This is the second in a series of articles on famous correctional educators. The first article introduced Mary Carpenter: 19th Century English Correctional Education Hero. (Editor's Note: See the September 2003 Issue for the first article) This article focuses on Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, 18th century Swiss educator. It begins with a summary of…

  16. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

  17. Samson Occom: Mohegan Missionary and Writer of the 18th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyer, Bernd

    1982-01-01

    One of the first Native American authors, Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, began writing in the 18th century. His writings included an ethnographic essay on the Montauk Tribe, an autobiographical sketch of his educational experiences and missionary activities, and his first publication, "Sermon at the Execution of Moses Paul." (ERB)

  18. The Treatment of the Motion of a Simple Pendulum in Some Early 18th Century Newtonian Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauld, Colin

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of pendulum motion in early 18th century Newtonian textbooks is quite different to what we find in today's physics textbooks and is based on presuppositions and mathematical techniques which are not widely used today. In spite of a desire to present Newton's new philosophy of nature as found in his "Principia" 18th century textbook…

  19. Solutions To the Problem of Impact in the 17th and 18th Centuries and Teaching Newton's Third Law Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauld, Colin

    1998-01-01

    Compares the ideas of young people about Newton's third law, focusing on youth of today and youth of the 17th and 18th centuries. Examines the use of Newton's third law in understanding impact phenomena in the 17th and 18th centuries. Contains 46 references. (DDR)

  20. Chapter 9: understanding the nervous system in the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christopher U M

    2010-01-01

    The 18th century was an age of transition. The time-honored neuropsychology of classical and medieval times, mechanized in Descartes' hydraulic neurophysiology, was undermined by microscopical observations and careful physiological experimentation. Yet it was not until the very end of the century, when work on electric fish and amphibia began to suggest an acceptable successor to "animal spirit," that the old understanding of human neurophysiology began to fade. This chapter traces this slow retreat from the iatrophysics of the early part of the century, with its hollow nerves and animal spirits, through a number of stop-gap explanations involving mysterious subtle fluids or forces described variously as irritability, élan vital, vis viva, vis insita, the spirit of animation etc., or perhaps involving vibrations and vibratiuncles and mysterious magnetic effluvia, to the dawning electrophysiology of the end of the century and the beginning of the next. This developing understanding filtered slowly through to affect medical education, and the 18th century saw the development of strong medical schools at Leiden, Edinburgh, Paris, Bologna and London. Associated with these developments there was a great increase, as a well-known physician looking back at the beginning of the following century noted, in a class of diseases that had little concerned physicians in the preceding century - "nervous disorders." PMID:19892112

  1. [Masters of obstetrics in the area of Vojvodina in the 18th and 19th century].

    PubMed

    Berić, B M

    1994-01-01

    The author reviews data about masters of obstetrics, physicians and surgeons nonphysicians, who worked in Vojvodina from the second half of the 18th till the beginning of the 20th century. They used to be the professional and time bridge as well as extremely important developmental link of continuity between the obstetrics of untrained and subsequently educated midwives and physicians gyneco--surgeons, later specialists gynecologists--obstetricians all as a part of integral discipline of gynecology and obstetrics in the area of Vojvodina. The existence of about 30 masters of obstetrics in the area of today's Vojvodina from the 18th to the 20th century, educated at medical faculties of Vienna, Budapest and Graz, points to the fact that obstetrics and gynecology in our regions in the 18th and especially 19th and 20th centuries, used to have similar, and somewhere identical trends and directions of development, like the obstetrics and gynecology of Central Europe of that time and that it used to be, just like it is today, a part of European gynecology and obstetrics. PMID:7739446

  2. Zach, Gotha and the Venus transits of the 18th and 19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    Zach was a child and a secondary school boy when the Venus transits of the 18th century occurred, and we try to elucidate the somewhat garbled note given in Lalande' Bibliographie (1803). Zach - like many others - was interested in seeing a definitive result emerge from the observations. Encke, one of the first serious analysts of the observations, was supplied with information by Zach. We will briefly describe the attempts of Euler, du Séjour, Encke, Powalky and Newcomb to determine a reliable value of the solar parallax (the last one being finished only after the next pair of Venus transits had occurred!), and outline Zach's role in this field.

  3. Occupational medicine in the Idria mercury mine in the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Slavec, Z Z

    1998-12-01

    Of all medical sciences in Slovenia, occupational medicine has the longest tradition. It is not a mere coincidence that it had developed already at the beginning of 18th century in Idria. The Mercury mine in Idria, is the second largest European mine of its kind, next to the Spanish Almaden, and has been owned by the Habsburg dynasty for four centuries. To attain higher production, the miners in Idria received medical and social care much earlier than anywhere else; chronic intoxication caused by mercury fumes greatly hindered their working ability. The first and, at the same time, one of the most prominent doctors in Idria, J.A. Scopoli (1723-1788) perfectly described the symptoms of chronic intoxication with mercury in his work De Hydrargyro Idriensi Tentamina Physico-Chymico-Medica (Venice, 1761) and thus ranked himself among the early medical writers of occupational medicine, medical hygiene and toxicology. His predecessors were Ellenbog, Paracelsus, Mattioli and some others. The article describes the situation in the mine of Idria in the 17th and 18th century and focusses on Scopoli's mineralogical and medical discussion on mercury miners and mercurialism. PMID:11623564

  4. From Flamsteed to Piazzi and Lalande: new standards in 18th century astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequeux, James

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The present high accuracy of stellar positions and proper motions allows us to determine the positional accuracy of old stellar catalogues. This has already been done for the most important catalogues from before the 18th century. Our aim is to extend this study to several 18th century catalogues. Methods: To do this, I studied ten catalogues: those of Flamsteed and Rømer, four catalogues of La Caille, and catalogues of Tobias Mayer, Bradley, Piazzi, and Lalande. A comparison with modern data, mostly from Hipparcos, compiled in the Simbad database of the CDS allowed me to determine the position errors of these catalogues. I also compared the stellar visual magnitudes given in eight of these catalogues with photometric V magnitudes. Results: Thanks to novel instruments, the rms positional accuracy improved from thousands to hundreds of arcsec in older catalogues to less than one minute in that of Flamsteed, and to 2-6 arcsec in the other catalogues I examined. These improvements allowed for the first time relatively accurate proper motions to be determined by 19th century astronomers. The catalogues with some corrections are available in digital form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/567/A26

  5. Analyses of Etna Eruptive Activity From 18th Century and Characterization of Flank Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Carlo, P.; Branca, S.; Coltelli, M.

    2003-12-01

    Etna explosive activity has usually been considered subordinate with respect to the effusive eruptions. Nevertheless, in the last decade and overall after the 2001 and 2002 flank eruptions, explosive activity has drawn the attention of the scientific and politic communities owing to the damages that the long-lasting ash fall caused to Sicily's economy. We analyzed the eruptions from the 18th century to find some analogous behavior of Etna in the past. A study of the Etna historical record (Branca and Del Carlo, 2003) evidenced that after the 1727 eruption, there are no more errors in the attribution of the year of the eruption. Furthermore from this time on, the scientific quality of the chronicles allowed us to obtain volcanological information and to estimate the magnitude of the major explosive events. The main goal of this work was to characterize the different typologies of Etna eruptions in the last three centuries. Meanwhile, we have tried to find the possible relationship between the two kinds of activity (explosive and effusive) in order to understand the complexity of the eruptive phenomena and define the short-term behavior of Etna. On the base of the predominance of the eruptive typology (effusive or explosive) we have classified the flank eruptions in three classes: i) Type 1: almost purely effusive; ii) Type 2: the intensity of explosive activity comparable with the effusive; iii) Type 3: almost purely explosive with minor lava effusion (only the 1763 La Montagnola and 2002 eruptions belong to this class). Long-lasting explosive activity is produced by flank eruptions with continuous ash emission and prolonged fallout on the flanks (e.g. 1763, 1811, 1852-53, 1886, 1892, 2001 and 2002 eruptions). At summit craters continuous activity is weaker, whereas the strongest explosive eruptions are short-lived events. Furthermore, from the 18th to 20th century there were several years of intense and discontinuous summit explosive activity, from high strombolian

  6. [Public health services and healthcare workforce in Bakar of the 18th and 19th century].

    PubMed

    Čulina, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    This review article draws on scarce and poorly studied archival information and several published articles to describe the development and organisation of public health services in the town of Bakar over the 18th and 19th century. For a short while at the turn of the 19th century, Bakar established a hospital run by two physicians and one surgeon to treat patients affected by the so called Škrljevo disease, an endemic type of syphilis. As the century went on, the number of healthcare providers increased by two more physicians, four surgeons, and three to six licensed midwives. There was also a town pharmacy, that worked all that time. As a busy port, the town also provided well-organised maritime sanitary services. As its economy changed over the two centuries to come to a halt after an initial boom, which resulted in a severe drop in population from 7600 to 2000 people, public services deteriorated, including public health. Maritime services suffered the hardest blow, while the workforce gradually came down to one or two physicians and surgeons and several midwives. PMID:25632775

  7. Auroras Observed in Portugal in Late 18th Century Obtained from Printed and Manuscript Meteorological Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, José M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2005-09-01

    We present a new catalogue of observations of the aurora borealis at Lisbon, i.e., at low-latitudes, in the late 18th century by Jacob Præ torius and Henrique Schulze, two German artillery officers. Dates of 18 auroras compiled by Præ torius and Schulze are compared with those published in other catalogues for that period. The number of annual auroras observed by the two Germans is then compared with two indices of solar activity showing a very good level of consistency between all time series. Finally, we have assessed the number of auroras observed taking into consideration the phase of the lunar cycle and the geomagnetic latitude of Lisbon.

  8. An analytical Raman spectroscopic study of an important english oil painting of the 18th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Vandenabeele, Peter; Jehlicka, Jan; Benoy, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    An opportunity was afforded to analyse pigment specimens from an unrestored oil painting in the style of the English School of the mid-18th Century prior to conservation being undertaken. Raman spectroscopy was adopted to characterise the pigments and indicated the presence of a novel red pigment which was assigned to the complex chromium mineral, hemihedrite, in addition to other interesting materials found in combination. This is the first recorded identification of hemihedrite spectral signals in an art context in a range of mineral pigments that are otherwise typical of this period and some hypotheses are presented to explain its presence based on its occurrence with associated mineral pigments. It is suggested that the presence of powdered glass identified in certain areas of the painting enhanced the reflectivity of the pigment matrix.

  9. Isotopic Ag-Cu-Pb record of silver circulation through 16th-18th century Spain.

    PubMed

    Desaulty, Anne-Marie; Telouk, Philippe; Albalat, Emmanuelle; Albarède, Francis

    2011-05-31

    Estimating global fluxes of precious metals is key to understanding early monetary systems. This work adds silver (Ag) to the metals (Pb and Cu) used so far to trace the provenance of coinage through variations in isotopic abundances. Silver, copper, and lead isotopes were measured in 91 coins from the East Mediterranean Antiquity and Roman world, medieval western Europe, 16th-18th century Spain, Mexico, and the Andes and show a great potential for provenance studies. Pre-1492 European silver can be distinguished from Mexican and Andean metal. European silver dominated Spanish coinage until Philip III, but had, 80 y later after the reign of Philip V, been flushed from the monetary mass and replaced by Mexican silver. PMID:21606351

  10. Isotopic Ag–Cu–Pb record of silver circulation through 16th–18th century Spain

    PubMed Central

    Desaulty, Anne-Marie; Telouk, Philippe; Albalat, Emmanuelle; Albarède, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Estimating global fluxes of precious metals is key to understanding early monetary systems. This work adds silver (Ag) to the metals (Pb and Cu) used so far to trace the provenance of coinage through variations in isotopic abundances. Silver, copper, and lead isotopes were measured in 91 coins from the East Mediterranean Antiquity and Roman world, medieval western Europe, 16th–18th century Spain, Mexico, and the Andes and show a great potential for provenance studies. Pre-1492 European silver can be distinguished from Mexican and Andean metal. European silver dominated Spanish coinage until Philip III, but had, 80 y later after the reign of Philip V, been flushed from the monetary mass and replaced by Mexican silver. PMID:21606351

  11. To feel what others feel: two episodes from 18th century medicine.

    PubMed

    Justman, Stewart

    2011-06-01

    In the late 18th century two medical fashions--Mesmerism in France and the Perkins 'tractor' in the USA and England--appealed to the principle that a single universal force acts on all of us and is responsible for health and illness. This principle served both fashions well, as it made it all the easier for those who came within their force fields to experience the sort of sensations that other subscribers to the fashion also seemed to feel. The first research on what is now known as the placebo effect was in connection with these two movements. The propensity to feel what we suppose or imagine that others like us feel remains even now one of the channels of the placebo effect. PMID:21515551

  12. Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.

    The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milanković on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

  13. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  14. Flood hazard and a rapidly growing capital in the floodplain: Social response on major 18th-century Danube floods in Pest (East-Budapest)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Due to its floodplain location, Pest was especially prone to damages caused by great flood events. Before water regulation works, the greatest flood events, and the highest rate of destruction occurred during ice jam floods. Whereas in the first half of the 18th century Pest is restricted to the medieval downtown located on a higher terrain (Danube terrace), from the mid 18th century onwards the rapidly growing population established suburbs around the downtown in the lower-lying flood plain. Thus, while in the first half of the century floods were more dangerous for the harvest in the agricultural lands, in the second half of the century at the same place suburbs, urban areas with thousands of inhabitants were prone to the same danger. In the first half of the century at least three particularly large flood events, in 1712, 1732 and 1744, caused increasing problems in the close vicinity of the town (and its lands), the second half of the century - as part of a climatic anomaly (Maldá) famous of its weather extremes - was characterised by two extreme (in 1775 and 1799), at least two larger (1789 and 1795) and some more, medium-sized ice jam floods. While in terms of damaged houses the loss was only some dozens in the early part of the century, several hundreds of houses - actually, complete suburbs were erased by floods in 1775 and 1799. In the poster presentation a series of known damaging 18th-century floods, occurred at Pest, is presented, the short-term impacts (e.g. damages), and medium-, long-term administrative responses as well as related long-term landscape changes influenced by floods and flood protection are discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to present the main reasons why in the 18th century these great ice jam floods caused much greater damages (e.g. percentage of collapsed houses in suburbs) in Pest protected by dams than, for example, in the Buda suburbs with no dams, partly also located in high flood-risk areas, in the immediate

  15. Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, João Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Bárbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Séc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Área de de Investigação de Geo-Ecologia, relatório no 2

  16. Analysis of Time Data in Chinese Astronomical Almanacs of the Late 18th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.-W.; Mihn, B.-H.; Ahn, Y. S.; Choi, G.-E.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the time data in Chinese astronomical almanacs of the late 18th century in order to estimate the accuracy of the Shixian calendar. It is known that the calendar was enforced during the period of the Ching dynasty (1664--1912), and several astronomical almanacs using the calendar are preserved in the Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies of Korea; these almanacs cover the years 1772, 1773, 1774, 1780, 1781, 1783, 1785, and 1787. We compiled the times of the new moon, sunrise/sunset, and twenty-four seasonal subdivisions from the almanacs and compared them with the results of modern calculations. As a result, we found that the times of the new moon and twenty-four seasonal subdivisions show average differences of ˜ 3.35 ± 4.43 and ˜ 9.67± 13.24 min, respectively. Regarding he sunrise/sunset time, however, we found that the difference was less than 1 min when we defined the time as the moment that the zenith distance (z) of the Sun is 90°, unlike the modern definition, z=90° 50'. We expect that this study to contribute to the understanding of the accuracy obtained by Shixian calendar in calculations of the movements of celestial bodies.

  17. Two positive tuberculosis cases in the late Nigrovits family, 18th century, Vác, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szikossy, Ildikó; Pálfi, György; Molnár, Erika; Karlinger, Kinga; Kovács, Balázs K; Korom, Csaba; Schultz, Michael; Schmidt-Schultz, Tyede H; Spigelman, Mark; Donoghue, Helen D; Kustár, Ágnes; Pap, Ildikó

    2015-06-01

    Two mummies of the Hungarian mummy collection from Vác were the subjects of anthropological, paleopathological, radiological, paleomicrobiological, paleohistological and paleoproteomic studies. Both individuals belonged to the same family. The father, József Nigrovits (No 29), died at the age of 55 on the 11th of November 1793; his son, Antal Nigrovits (No 54), died on the 16th of July 1803, at the age of 22. They lived in the 18th century in Vác, a small town in northern Hungary. The macroscopic examination of the son showed a severely deformed neck and back region; the father has no visible mark of any illnesses. As earlier researches showed that tuberculosis was widespread in the community, the etiology of these deformities was examined. The paleomicrobiological results found that both individuals were infected with tuberculosis. Although they suffered from TB, the CT scan data of the bodies and their 3D reconstructions showed no skeletal evidence of tuberculosis. The deformity of the son turned to be a developmental abnormality of unknown origin, but no Pott's gibbus was present. PMID:25814300

  18. The Struggle To Survive: Work for Racial Ethnic Women in the 18th- and 19th-Century United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    The work situations of Black, Mexican American, and Chinese immigrant women in 18th- and 19th-century United States are explored. Generally, when engaged in agricultural work, all ethnic people were considered units of labor. However, because the slave owner needed to perpetuate his property, Black women were allowed lower rates of production when…

  19. The "System of Chymists" and the "Newtonian Dream" in Greek-Speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-01-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a "philosophy" of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This…

  20. A comparison of large 18th-century floods on Danube: Vienna - Bratislava - Budapest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea; Parajka, Juraj

    2013-04-01

    The documentation of historic floods can help in better understanding of factors that might cause and contribute to large and extreme flood events. In particular, the analysis of historic floods provides information about flood seasonality, its changes and anthropogenic impacts on river flood regime which in some cases strongly influenced flood behaviour. The main objective of the present contribution is to document large and medium size flood events on Danube in Vienna, Bratislava and Budapest in the 18th century. In the present study, based on contemporary documentary evidence, for each of the three towns a five-scaled flood index series is developed to describe the magnitude and intensity of flood events. According to this classification, the 100-year flood event was characterised by the index value 5, while great destructive floods - depending on their extension, destructivity and further impacts - received the values 4 and 3, respectively. Less significant but still harmful flood events were classified as No. 2, and floods without further specification remained in the lowest category (No. 1). Beside classification issues, seasonality and flood frequency differences between the three towns are as well discussed. The results indicate that a greater number of flood events took place in the last decades of the century, but only a few flood events of the same magnitude are documented simultaneously in all three towns. And whereas in 1775 no winter flood event was reported in Vienna, an important ice jam flood was documented in Bratislava, and a catastrophic ice jam flood event, greatest of the century, occurred in Budapest. In 1787 autumn the greatest flood event of the century occurred in Vienna, while hardly any flood waves were observed at Budapest. While in Vienna, summer (and partly autumn) floods had great importance, in Budapest a large number of ice jam floods were documented. In some cases the differences are likely caused by different hydrometeorological

  1. [Semantics of learned quackery in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Füssel, Marian

    2004-06-01

    In the 17th and 18th century republic of letters the problem of scientific fraud was met with a discourse of charlatanism. Departing from Johann Burchhard Menckes famous treatise on the Charlatanry of the learned the following essay traces how the accusations of academic and scientific misconduct put in terms of 'charlatanry' primarily helped to produce the new species of the erudite 'charlatan'. Facing a growing complexity of scientific culture this new frame of meaning, structured by numerous examples of scientific misconduct offered a new way of orientation in the world of learning. But besides its cognitive impacts the discourse of charlatanry allowed to create symbolic boundaries, which determined decisions upon the affiliation or non affiliation to the new forming scientific community by separating honourable from dishonourable scientific personae. Speaking of charlatanry therefore always implied a social distinction as much as a scientific. The discourses on charlatanry also mirror differentiations within the scientific field. At first dominated by a critique built on courteous or bourgeois values, the scientific field later on developed its own criteria of appraisal like authorship, originality, transparency etc. Attracting the attention of a further growing public sphere, the explicit verbalisation of claims not relating to the value system of a republic of letters primarily concerned with the production and distribution of knowledge finally led up to a more implicit moral economy of science. A change that at a large scale level can be described both as an internalisation of the values of scientific conduct and differentiation between justiciable and unjusticiable transgressions of the norms set up by the scientific community. PMID:15338535

  2. The historical archaeology of the 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community of Nevis, British West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Michelle M.

    2000-11-01

    This is an historical archaeological examination of a 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies. Unlike earlier archaeological studies of the Jewish Caribbean Diaspora that focused on single sites, this investigation used a community-wide approach to elucidate the daily experience of Sephardic Jews within the colonial Caribbean. This project included an archaeological excavation at the purported location of the community's synagogue, an electrical resistivity survey of the surviving cemetery, the construction of a map of property ownership in 18th-century Charlestown, and archival research. This study was carded out within a multiscalar and contextual framework that emphasized the importance of understanding the diaspora that brought the Jews to the West Indies, the development of the colonial Caribbean, and the surrounding environs of the port city of Charlestown, Nevis. The archaeological analysis of the supposed site of the synagogue proved that it was in fact that of a late 18th-century townhouse, but the associated land record research revealed the actual location of the community's former synagogue. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the physical layout of colonial-period Charlestown from the land records indicated the presence of a distinct Jewish quarter in the undesirable southern portion of the town. Evidence from the public records of Nevis and the social history of the members of the Jewish population unveiled external social and political pressures placed upon the Sephardim as well as internal religious and ethnic ties dig bound the community together. It is argued in closing that the archival evidence, in conjunction with the continued presence of a clustered settlement pattern like that of European Jewish communities during the medieval period, indicates that the Jews of the Caribbean were not fully integrated socially or politically into British colonial society. This examination of the Nevis community

  3. Soil resources and agriculture in the center of European Russia at the end of the 18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyabina, I. O.; Golubinsky, A. A.; Kirillova, V. A.; Khitrov, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Soil-geographic and socioeconomic data were compared with the use of geoinformation technologies. The history of agricultural development of the East European Plain and distribution of population in Russia in the 18th century were studied by the example of Yaroslavl, Vladimir, and Ryazan gubernias (governorates). The analysis of the obtained data demonstrated considerable differences in land uses between the regions of the old (prior to the 16th century) development and the regions actively populated since the end of the 16th century. The soils of Vladimir and a half of Yaroslavl gubernias were most developed; in some local districts (uezds), the maximum possible efficiency of the use of the natural soil fertility was achieved. In contrast, in some chernozemic areas, considerable opportunities for the further extensive development were preserved, and the limits to the population growth were not reached. The level of agricultural loads on the territory remained relatively low.

  4. Non Destructive Investigation on the 17th/18th Century Sicilian Jewellery Collection at the Messina Regional Museum Using Mobile Raman Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, G.; Bersani, D.; Jehlicka, J.; Lottici, P. P.; Mazzoleni, P.; Raneri, S.; Vandenabeele, P.; Di Giacomo, C.; Larinà, G.

    2014-06-01

    A handheld Raman spectrometer operating at 785 nm was used for the in situ analysis of the gems present in the 17th/18th century Sicilian jewelry collection preserved in the Messina Regional Museum (Italy).

  5. Detection of a Tumor Suppressor Gene Variant Predisposing to Colorectal Cancer in an 18th Century Hungarian Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Michal; Hershkovitz, Israel; Sklan, Ella H.; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila; Pap, Ildikó; Szikossy, Ildikó; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are common and strongly associated with the development of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. While extensively studied in modern populations, reports on visceral tumors in ancient populations are scarce. To the best of our knowledge, genetic characterization of mutations associated with colorectal cancer in ancient specimens has not yet been described. In this study we have sequenced hotspots for mutations in the APC gene isolated from 18th century naturally preserved human Hungarian mummies. While wild type APC sequences were found in two mummies, we discovered the E1317Q missense mutation, known to be a colorectal cancer predisposing mutation, in a large intestine tissue of an 18th century mummy. Our data suggests that this genetic predisposition to cancer already existed in the pre-industrialization era. This study calls for similar investigations of ancient specimens from different periods and geographical locations to be conducted and shared for the purpose of obtaining a larger scale analysis that will shed light on past cancer epidemiology and on cancer evolution. PMID:26863316

  6. Metallographic study of articles of the Kamensk iron foundry and iron works produced in the 18th-20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gizhevski, B. A.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Naumov, S. V.; Egorova, L. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Results have been presented for studies of the microstructure and chemical composition of a number of articles made of iron and cast iron at the Kamensk plant, which cover the period from the start of the production of iron on the territory of the city of Kamensk-Ural'skii at the turn of the 17th-18th centuries to the beginning of the 20th century. Differences in the composition of the Kamensk cast iron and modern grades of foundry cast iron have been established. Possible sources of technological difficulties and production waste at the Kamensk plant have been revealed. The potential of metallographic studies for the attribution of historical articles made of ferrous metals are shown.

  7. PCR diagnostics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in historic human long bone remains from 18th century burials in Kaiserebersdorf, Austria

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Lutz; Däubl, Barbara; Lindqvist, Charlotte; Kruckenhauser, Luise; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Haring, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Background In the present pilot study we applied recently published protocols for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human remains. We screened long bones from an 18th century cemetery and skulls from the anatomical "Weisbach collection" (19th century). In addition, besides the study of abundance of tuberculosis in inmates of the poorhouse itself, we were interested to test whether in this particular instance tuberculosis can be identified from cortical bones, which are rarely affected by tuberculosis, but mostly better preserved than the vertebral bodies or epiphyses. Method The DNA extractions from the bone samples were obtained following established ancient DNA protocols. Subsequently extracts were subjected to a series of PCR amplifications using primer pairs published previously [1,2]. PCR products of the expected size were subsequently sequenced. Results Only primers targeting the repetitive IS6110 insertion sequence yielded PCR products of appropriate size. In one sample only (skull sample WB354 of the "Weisbach collection") sequence analysis revealed an authentic M. tuberculosis sequence that matched to a reference sequence from GenBank. Conclusion With a variety of established PCR approaches we failed to detect M. tuberculosis DNA in historic human femurs from an 18th century cemetery relating to a poor house in Kaiserebersdorf, Austria. Our data may indicate that in this particular case, thoracic or lumbar vertebrae, i.e. bones that are severely affected by the disease, would be more suitable for molecular diagnostics than long bones. However, the unpredictable state of DNA preservation in bones from museum collections does not allow any general recommendation of any type of bone. PMID:18799009

  8. The Lawyers in the 16th-18th Century's Germany: A Historical Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranieri, Filippo

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the sociological backgrounds of German lawyers of the Holy Roman Empire through an analysis of the dissertations and disputations written during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Focuses on their university education, family circumstances, and careers. Creates an information data bank to carry out the project. Predicts further…

  9. Raja Sawai Jai Singh II: An 18th Century Medieval Astronomer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanpied, William A.

    1975-01-01

    Offers a description of the instrumentation and methods utilized in this attempt at naked eye astronomy one century after the invention of the telescope. Also examines the motives which resulted in the implementation of an antiquated mode of observation. (Author/CP)

  10. Textbooks at the Crossroads: Scientific and Philosophical Textbooks in 18th Century Greek Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patiniotis, Manolis

    2006-01-01

    Greek society of the eighteenth century did not have the institutional or theoretical background for the development of an original interest in scientific pursuits. The contact with the new scientific ideas aimed basically at the assimilation of these ideas in the body of the existing contemplative philosophy and the context where such undertaking…

  11. Venetian Rule and Control of Plague Epidemics on the Ionian Islands during 17th and 18th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidou, Katerina; Mantadakis, Elpis; Sardi, Thalia; Samonis, George

    2009-01-01

    During the 17th and 18th centuries, measures were taken by the Venetian administration to combat plague on the Ionian Islands. At that time, although the scientific basis of plague was unknown, the Venetians recognized its infectious nature and successfully decreased its spread by implementing an information network. Additionally, by activating a system of inspection that involved establishing garrisons along the coasts, the Venetians were able to control all local movements in plague-infested areas, which were immediately isolated. In contrast, the neighboring coast of mainland Greece, which was under Ottoman rule, was a plague-endemic area during the same period. We conclude that even in the absence of scientific knowledge, close observation and social and political measures can effectively restrain infectious outbreaks to the point of disappearance. PMID:19116047

  12. [Sanitary state of the ships of the Baltic fleet and development of the navy hygiene in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Kostyuk, A V

    2015-09-01

    Sanitary and hygienic state of the Baltic navy ships in the 18th century was considered as unsatisfactory due to inappropriate habitation conditions answering hygienic requirements. The reason for the low ship habitation of that time was limited technological possibilities of the sail shipbuilding, lack of appropriate labour, and life and rest conditions for navy servicemen. In fact, wooden ships were not suitable for life activity of the navy crew, but contributed to disease increase. Because of the rapid development of the' navy hygiene and improvement of shipbuilding technologies, sanitary and hygienic state of local navy ships had became improving. With a glance on recommendations, developed by physicians D.P.Sinopeus and A.G.Bakherakht, were made following improvements: were implemented ventilators on ships, daily fumigation of ships rooms, monitoring of personal hygiene. PMID:26827523

  13. Venetian rule and control of plague epidemics on the Ionian Islands during 17th and 18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidou, Katerina; Mantadakis, Elpis; Falagas, Matthew E; Sardi, Thalia; Samonis, George

    2009-01-01

    During the 17th and 18th centuries, measures were taken by the Venetian administration to combat plague on the Ionian Islands. At that time, although the scientific basis of plague was unknown, the Venetians recognized its infectious nature and successfully decreased its spread by implementing an information network. Additionally, by activating a system of inspection that involved establishing garrisons along the coasts, the Venetians were able to control all local movements in plague-infested areas, which were immediately isolated. In contrast, the neighboring coast of mainland Greece, which was under Ottoman rule, was a plague-endemic area during the same period. We conclude that even in the absence of scientific knowledge, close observation and social and political measures can effectively restrain infectious outbreaks to the point of disappearance. PMID:19116047

  14. Malthus, the 18th century European explorers and the principle of population in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Reniers, Georges

    2012-01-01

    In the second edition of his Essay on the Principle of Population, Malthus included twelve chapters that offer a remarkable description of population dynamics from all corners of the world. His discussion of (sub-Saharan) Africa was almost entirely based on the travel accounts of James Bruce and Mungo Park, two late eighteenth century British explorers. In this essay, I introduce these sources and discuss the insights that Malthus did, or perhaps should have, derived from both. PMID:24259758

  15. [Development of animal husbandry in Groningen in the 18th and 19th century; a broad outline].

    PubMed

    Paping, R F

    2001-01-01

    This overview is mainly focussed on the clay area forming the northern half of the province. It is the wealthiest and most characteristic part, being cultured since the Middle Ages as testified by the many churches that even small villages were able to construct. About 1700 the province of Groningen enjoyed already a modern economy, fitting in with that of the other coastal areas of Friesland, Zeeland and Holland (the last mentioned was the richest region of the world in the 17th and 18th century). As aspects of modernity at that time can be considered: 1) the use of modern agricultural methods with higher yields per hectare and higher milk yields per cow than produced in the land provinces on the sandy soils; 2) Agriculture was aimed at earning money by selling of hte products. In opposition to the farmers in the land provinces, who mainly produced for subsistence farming, the farmers in the coastal areas produced for the trade; 3) A high degree of specialization was found in the rural areas. 30-40% of the families had own farms, 25% of the population were labourers, owing only small pieces of land and the rest of the working population had occupations outside agriculture (craftmen, shopkeepers, shipmasters, merchants etc.). Whereas on the sandy soils practically every family owned a farm, be it mostly a very small one. After reviewing the changes in the distribution of land in use of the production of fieldcrops or for meadows-always in function of the market value of the products-and after a discussion of type of cattle husbandry (breeding, fattening, dairying) it is concluded that a relative decrease of the importance of cattle husbandry in the clay region during the 18th - 19th century can be observed. Intensification of land use had a positive effect on crop-production. The much-heard opinion that the cattle plague epizootic of 1768-1786 caused a transition in land use through a switch from animal husbandry to arable farming, is not held by the author

  16. [Reports on eye diseases and their care in Sweden in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Rehn, Nils O

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the physicians, active in the 1800 century in Sweden, who have reported in the annual proceedings of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, dealing with diseases and care of the eye. These articles, earlier described in a paper by the author, show a wide panorama in this field, discussing cataract surgery as well as surgery of other parts of the eye, injuries and diseases and ways of treatment. Most physicians have gone through their basic medical education in Sweden, completed with often many years studying abroad at well-known universities or hospital clinics. Some of them, particulary Acrel and Odhelius, specialized in eye surgery. PMID:17153173

  17. [The historian's competence tested by authority: on an academic debate of the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Schandeler, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The debate which took place in the 1720s at the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Letters on the possibility or impossibility of understanding the history of the first centuries of Rome is generally interpreted to be less of a debate than an important epistemological clarification. A contextualization which takes into account the political stakes of the debate allows one to understand that the debate was the beginning of a larger process of the autonomisation of the field of historical studies, not only from the perspective of disciplinary divides, but also in relation to monarchal power. PMID:24871882

  18. [Relations between equilibrium and dynamics at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Schmit, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the reception of Galileo and Descartes' principles of statics in the works of some French scientists in the second half of seventeenth century, tracing their importance for the genesis of a concept of force. Through an examination of the link between statics and dynamics--especially concerning the phenomena of collision and the motion of falling bodies--it will be shown, first, that these principles of statics actually contributed to the genesis of dynamics; secondly, that the authors examined in this article managed to unify the various fields of mechanics by building a common axiomatic basis, and, thirdly, that there exists a conceptual identity between actions in engines and actions in dynamic phenomena. The evidence brought fourth in this articles challenges the view according to which statics, and more particularly the law of the lever, was an obstacle for the development of dynamics, and particularly for the conceptualization of force. PMID:25577927

  19. Venusians: the Planet Venus in the 18th-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duner, David

    2013-05-01

    In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it became possible to believe in the existence of life on other planets on scientific grounds. Once the Earth was no longer the center of the universe according to Copernicus, once Galileo had aimed his telescope at the Moon and found it a rough globe with mountains and seas, the assumption of life on other planets became much less far-fetched. In general there were no actual differences between Earth and Venus, since both planets orbited the Sun, were of similar size, and possessed mountains and an atmosphere. If there is life on Earth, one may ponder why it could not also exist on Venus. In the extraterrestrial life debate of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Moon, our closest celestial body, was the prime candidate for life on other worlds, although a number of scientists and scholars also speculated about life on Venus and on other planets, both within our solar system and beyond its frontiers. This chapter discusses the arguments for life on Venus and those scientific findings that were used to support them, which were based in particular on assumptions and claims that both mountains and an atmosphere had been found on Venus. The transits of Venus in the 1760s became especially important for the notion that life could thrive on Venus. Here, I detect two significant cognitive processes that were at work in the search for life on Venus, i.e., analogical reasoning and epistemic perception, while analogies and interpretations of sensory impressions based on prior knowledge played an important role in astrobiological theories.

  20. Textbooks at the Crossroads: Scientific and Philosophical Textbooks in 18th Century Greek Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patiniotis, Manolis

    2006-11-01

    Greek society of the eighteenth century did not have the institutional or theoretical background for the development of an original interest in scientific pursuits. The contact with the new scientific ideas aimed basically at the assimilation of these ideas in the body of the existing contemplative philosophy and the context where such undertaking took place was exclusively education. At the same time, education was the field where the political and ideological pursuits of various social groups intersected. A quasi modernistic profile of the educational activity was especially favored by a new generation of scholars who wished to assert their distinctive intellectual physiognomy, as well as by the emergent group of merchants who strove to establish their distinctive cultural and political authority. As a result, the new interest in the sciences reflects the confluence of the aims of these two social groups. The study of scientific textbooks, which were produced under these circumstances, depicts the consequences of this confluence and brings to light some important aspects of the social and intellectual environment within which the contact of Greek intellectual life with modern sciences occurred.

  1. "Les maladies héréditaires:" 18th century disputes in France.

    PubMed

    López-Beltrán, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the discussions on the subject of hereditary disease that took place between 1748 and 1800 among French physicians. Two essay competitions which set prizes for dissertations on the hereditary transmission of disease (Dijon, 1748; Paris, 1788-1790) prompted several writers to try and specify the peculiarities of hereditary causes. The publication of a sceptical essay written for the first competition by Antoine Louis was a major cause of concern for medics wishing to preserve hereditary influence as a valid etiological category. Louis' analytical denial of even the possibility of the existence of an hereditary cause led both the judges and the best medical writers who took part in the Paris competition to force the situation towards the establishment of clear criteria for isolating the hereditary cause from other pathological influences. The transition from a humoralist to a solidist view of the human constitution (body) provided the frame within which the different criteria for heredity were discussed. The prize essays of the Paris competition shared the position that hereditary influence was characterized by a latent, predisposant kind of causation, which could produce some well known phenomena like atavism (or regression) and homochrony. The solidist causes were thought by most to be better candidates for that role. These developments turned out to be crucial for the emergence and strength of 19th century French (and European) hereditarianism, in medicine and other fields. PMID:11609190

  2. Ergotism in Norway. Part 2: The symptoms and their interpretation from the eighteenth century onwards.

    PubMed

    Alm, Torbjørn; Elvevåg, Brita

    2013-06-01

    Ergotism, the disease caused by consuming Claviceps purpurea, a highly poisonous, grain-infecting fungus, occurred at various places scattered throughout Norway during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. By focusing on these cases we chart the changing interpretations of the peculiar disease, frequently understood within a religious context or considered as a supernatural (e.g. ghostly) experience. However, there was a growing awareness of the disease ergotism, and from the late eighteenth century onwards it was often correctly interpreted as being due to a fungus consumed via bread or porridge. Also, nineteenth-century fairy-tales and regional legends reveal that people were increasingly aware and fearful of the effects of consuming infected grain. PMID:24573255

  3. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Masucci, A Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries. PMID:23950895

  4. [The creation of hospitals by charities in Minas Gerais (Brazil) from 18th to 20th century].

    PubMed

    Marques, Rita de Cássia

    2011-01-01

    This article is the fruit of research into the cultural heritage of healthcare in Minas Gerais (Brazil) and explores the construction of hospitals supported by Catholic charities from the 18th to 20th century. Catholicism has always been strong in Minas Gerais, partly because the Portuguese Crown prohibited the free travel of priests, who were suspected of illegally trading in gold from the mines. A brotherhood was responsible for creating the first Santa Casa, in Vila Rica. Another very important religious group in Brazil, the Vincentians, was also devoted to charitable works and propagated the ideas on charity of Frederico Ozanan, based on the work of St. Vincent de Paul. This group comprised both a lay movement, supported by conferences organized by the St. Vincent de Paul Society, and a religious order, the Vincentian priests and nuns. Catholic physicians make up the third group studied here, organized in a professional association promoted by the Catholic Church. The brotherhoods, Vincentians, and associations, with their Santa Casas, represent a movement that is recognized worldwide. The enormous Catholic participation in these charitable works brought in the physicians, who would often make no charge and exerted efforts to create hospitals that served the population. Although the capital of Minas Gerais was the creation of republicans and positivists in the 20th century, with their ideas of modernity, it remained dependent on Christian charity for the treatment of the poor. PMID:21936227

  5. The construction of the country landscape in Veneto plains (North of Italy) during 18th-21st centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borin, Maurizio; Novello, Elisabetta

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on the transformation that has taken place in the last four centuries in Veneto's plain in northern Italy. The analysis of statistical data over a long period of time has made it possible to chronologically reconstruct the gradual transformation of wetlands into arable land, suitable for human settlement and for the development of industrial activities. Particularly relevant are the policies adopted by the Republic of Venice (14th-18th centuries) with regard to the management of waters, policies which were continued by the Italian State after its unification in 1861. The evolution of the concept of land reclamation gradually came to include draining, hygienic, agrarian and environmental factors, paying attention to the specific character of both mountain and lagoon areas. Over many centuries new country areas were created, 2/5 of them located below sea level, which can be cultivated due to complex systems of canalization and water pumping. Both the State and landowners invested capital in a project that was not only meant to sustain private interest but that also met public needs. Since 1882 (when the Baccarini law was passed) the subject of the 'sanitary reclamation' began to be discussed in Italy. This concerned 1/16 of the total surface of the country, 400,000 hectares of which in Veneto, where malaria was directly or indirectly responsible for the death of thousands of people. New livelihoods substituted those of the past: some economies based, for instance, on the harvesting of the marshes' products or on the common use of marginal lands disappeared. The recent process of industrialization in Veneto, often carried out with little consideration for the environment, has eventually opened up a new chapter in the history of the countryside of this region, that of environmental and landscape enhancement.

  6. Biomechanical beam analysis of long bones from a late 18th century slave cemetery in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ledger, M; Holtzhausen, L M; Constant, D; Morris, A G

    2000-06-01

    This study aims to quantify the physical demands of a sample of late 18th century skeletons from an unmarked burial site on Cobern Street, Cape Town, South Africa. Historical studies suggest that these individuals were either slaves or "free black" people of low socioeconomic standing. Cortical cross-sectional areas of paired humeri and tibiae from the Cobern Street collection (N = 29), a modern cadaver collection (N = 31), and a hunter-gatherer collection (N = 30) were compared by means of biomechanical beam analysis on computerized tomography scans. Results showed that the Cobern Street sample, both males and females, were closer to the modern group in total tibial cortical area and in the second moments and polar moments of cortical area, than to the hunter-gatherer group. It is assumed that these results can be explained by differences in lower limb activity. Tibial strength properties showed the hunter-gatherer peoples to be highly mobile and active walkers in comparison to the Cobern Street and modern samples. The males from the Cobern Street sample showed significantly higher values for humeral strength properties than either the hunter-gatherer or modern individuals, attesting to their status as manual laborers. The humeral cross-sectional strength properties for females were very similar between the Cobern Street and modern groups but again significantly different from the hunter-gatherer sample. The domestic chores performed by females of the recent cadaver sample may be very similar to those performed by the Cobern Street sample. PMID:10813703

  7. Evidence for tuberculosis in 18th/19th century slaves in Anse Sainte-Marguerite (Guadeloupe - French Western Indies).

    PubMed

    Lösch, Sandra; Kim, Mi-Ra; Dutour, Olivier; Courtaud, Patrice; Maixner, Frank; Romon, Thomas; Sola, Christophe; Zink, Albert

    2015-06-01

    During the American colonization in the 18th and 19th century, Africans were captured and shipped to America. Harsh living and working conditions often led to chronic diseases and high mortality rates. Slaves in the Caribbean were forced to work mainly on sugar plantations. They were buried in cemeteries like Anse Sainte-Marguerite on the isle of Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe) which was examined by archaeologists and physical anthropologists. Morphological studies on osseous remains of 148 individuals revealed 15 cases with signs for bone tuberculosis and a high frequency of periosteal reactions which indicates early stages of the disease. 11 bone samples from these cemeteries were analysed for ancient DNA. The samples were extracted with established procedures and examined for the cytoplasmic multicopy β-actin gene and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (IS 6110) by PCR. An amplification product for M. tuberculosis with the size of 123 bp was obtained. Sequencing confirmed the result. This study shows evidence of M. tuberculosis complex DNA in a Caribbean slave population. PMID:25754341

  8. (Re)Constructions of Etymology of the Term "Electricity" in French German and Modern Greek Textbooks of Physics of 18th-19th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    The different and contrasting versions of the etymology of the term "electricity" in Modern Greek textbooks of Physics of the 18th and 19th century, which are influenced by French and German textbooks, are not mere (re)constructions that serve the didactic purposes and objectives of their authors. They are (in)directly related to the social and…

  9. The first Finnish malariologist, Johan Haartman, and the discussion about malaria in 18th century Turku, Finland.

    PubMed

    Hulden, Lena

    2011-01-01

    After the Great Northern War in 1721, Sweden ceased to be an important military power. Instead, the kingdom concentrated on developing science. Swedish research got international fame with names as Carolus Linnaeus, Pehr Wargentin and Anders Celsius. Medical research remained limited and malaria was common especially in the coastal area and along the shores of the big lakes.Already in the beginning of the 18th century Swedish physicians recommended Peruvian bark as medication and they also emphasized that bleeding or blood-letting a malaria patient was harmful. Although malaria was a common disease in the kingdom, the situation was worst in the SW-part of Finland which consisted of the town of Turku and a large archipelago in the Baltic. The farmers had no opportunity to get modern healthcare until Johan Haartman was appointed district physician in 1754. To improve the situation he wrote a medical handbook intended for both the farmers and for persons of rank. Haartman's work was first published 1759 and he discussed all the different cures and medications. His aim was to recommend the best ones and warn against the harmful. His first choice was Peruvian bark, but he knew that the farmers could not afford it. Haartman was appointed professor in medicine at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1765. The malaria situation in Finland grew worse in the 1770's and Haartman analysed the situation. He found the connection between the warm summers and the spring epidemics next year.In a later thesis, Haartman analysed the late summer/early autumn malaria epidemics in the archipelago. Althouh Haartman did not know the connection between malaria and the vector, he gave astute advice and encouraged the farmers to build their cottages in windy places away from the shallow bays in which the Anopheles females hatched. Haartman died in 1788. After his death malaria research in Turku declined. His medical handbook would not be replaced until 1844. PMID:21324104

  10. The first Finnish malariologist, Johan Haartman, and the discussion about malaria in 18th century Turku, Finland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    After the Great Northern War in 1721, Sweden ceased to be an important military power. Instead, the kingdom concentrated on developing science. Swedish research got international fame with names as Carolus Linnaeus, Pehr Wargentin and Anders Celsius. Medical research remained limited and malaria was common especially in the coastal area and along the shores of the big lakes. Already in the beginning of the 18th century Swedish physicians recommended Peruvian bark as medication and they also emphasized that bleeding or blood-letting a malaria patient was harmful. Although malaria was a common disease in the kingdom, the situation was worst in the SW-part of Finland which consisted of the town of Turku and a large archipelago in the Baltic. The farmers had no opportunity to get modern healthcare until Johan Haartman was appointed district physician in 1754. To improve the situation he wrote a medical handbook intended for both the farmers and for persons of rank. Haartman's work was first published 1759 and he discussed all the different cures and medications. His aim was to recommend the best ones and warn against the harmful. His first choice was Peruvian bark, but he knew that the farmers could not afford it. Haartman was appointed professor in medicine at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1765. The malaria situation in Finland grew worse in the 1770's and Haartman analysed the situation. He found the connection between the warm summers and the spring epidemics next year. In a later thesis, Haartman analysed the late summer/early autumn malaria epidemics in the archipelago. Althouh Haartman did not know the connection between malaria and the vector, he gave astute advice and encouraged the farmers to build their cottages in windy places away from the shallow bays in which the Anopheles females hatched. Haartman died in 1788. After his death malaria research in Turku declined. His medical handbook would not be replaced until 1844. PMID:21324104

  11. Women's translations of scientific texts in the 18th century: a case study of Marie-Anne Lavoisier.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    In the 18th century, many outstanding translations of scientific texts were done by women. These women were important mediators of science. However, I would like to raise the issue that the 'selection,' which is the process by which intellectual women chose to conduct translation works, and those 'selections' made by male translators, would not be made at the same level. For example, Émilie du Châtelet (1706-1749), the only French translator of Newton's "Principia," admitted her role as participating in important work, but, still, she was not perfectly satisfied with the position. For du Châtelet, the role as a translator was only an option under the current conditions that a female was denied the right to be a creator by society. In the case of Marie-Anne Lavoisier (1743-1794), like du Châtelet, we find an acute feeling in her mind that translation was not the work of creators. Because of her respect toward creative geniuses and her knowledge about the practical situation and concrete results of scientific studies, the translation works done by Marie-Anne Lavoisier were excellent. At the same time, the source of this excellence appears paradoxical at a glance: this excellence of translation was related closely with her low self-estimation in the field of science. Hence, we should not forget the gender problem that is behind such translations of scientific works done by women in that era. Such a possibility was a ray of light that was grasped by females, the sign of a gender that was eliminated from the center of scientific study due to social systems and norms and one of the few valuable opportunities to let people know of her own existence in the field of science. PMID:22606747

  12. The ``System of Chymists'' and the ``Newtonian dream'' in Greek-speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-06-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a “philosophy” of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This “philosophical” chemistry was not based on the existence of any academic institutions, it was focused on the ontology of principles and forces governing the analysis/synthesis of matter and formulated two didactic traditions. The one, named “the system of chymists”, close to the Boylean/Cartesian tradition, accepted, contrary to Aristotelianism, the five “chymical” principles and also the analytical ideal, but the “chymical” principles were not under a conceptual and experimental investigation, as they were in Europe. Also, a crucial issue for this tradition remained the “mechanical” principles which were under the influence of the metaphysical nature of the Aristotelian principles. The other, close to the Boylean/Newtonian tradition, was the integrated presentation of the Newtonian “dream”, which maintained a discursive attitude with reference to the “chemical attractions”-“chemical affinities” and actualised the mathematical atomism of Boscovich, according to which the elementary texture of matter could be causally explained within this complex architecture of mathematical “ punkta”. In this tradition also coexisted, in a discursive synthesis, the “chemical element” of Lavoisier and the arguments of the new theory and its opposition to the phlogiston theory, but the “chemical affinities” were under the realm of the “physical element” as “metaphysical point”.

  13. [Medicine and religion in Spanish anti-superstition discourse of the 16th to 18th centuries: a battle for hegemony].

    PubMed

    Campagne, F A

    2000-01-01

    The object of this research is the study of the different kinds of relationships between medicine and religion that appear in the Spanish anti-superstition discourse from the 16th to the 18th century. Despite the relationship of alliance and collaboration between the two professional groups proposed by the Spanish theologians in their essays, situations of conflict and mutual distrust could also arise. The professional physician could be an ally of the Christian priest but also a dangerous rival. PMID:11640189

  14. [Health care in Western Europe in the late 18th century, as reported in Sámuel Cseh-Szombaty's travel journal].

    PubMed

    Rab, Irén

    2015-07-19

    Medical doctors working in Hungary and Transylvania were all trained abroad before the medical faculty of the University of Nagyszombat was founded in 1769. Most Roman Catholic medical students were trained in Vienna and Italy, whereas Protestants in Germany, The Netherlands, and Switzerland. In the 18th century a total of 500 Hungarian medical students studied at universities in Western Europe. Medical students' peregrination did not involve academic training only: whenever they had the possibility, students visited renowned hospitals, university clinics and famous doctors in order to gain experience and medical practice to complete their education. Sámuel Cseh-Szombaty studied in Pest and Göttingen, obtained his medical doctor's diploma in Vienna in 1790, and then spent a year and a half at various medical institutions in Germany, The Netherlands, and England. Cseh-Szombaty's so far unpublished travel journal and alba amicorum provide a wealth of information about the practical knowledge that could be learned during peregrination, characteristics of medical training, patients' treatment, quality of German hospitals of the late 18th century, where the most famous doctors worked. It is an exciting description, how a doctor from Hungary spent his time studying in Western Europe. PMID:26170183

  15. [Genealogy of the Books of Practica medicinae in Europe before the End of 18th Century: From the Origin to the Disappearance].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2015-09-01

    The Practica medicinae represented the books written in Europe before the end of 18th century that dealt with individual deseases. In total, 100 Practica books, written by 95 authors, were collected and divided into four periods from the early 11th to the end of 18th century. The first Practica book was written at the Salernitan medical school on the basis of ancient medical books in the basic style, dealing with regional deseases arranged in "a capite ad calcem" manner, as well as with the fevers. The basic style comprised a majority in the first period and decreased gradually, becoming a minority in the 3rd and 4th periods. Sennert's practica was the largest and it elaborated with precise construction. The additional categories, such as female, children, and surgical deseases increased in the later periods. Those written in non-basic style based on pathogenesis or in alphabetical order also increased in the later periods. The practica books changed slightly and gradually, indicating the essential consistency of the concepts of diseases in these periods. PMID:26775338

  16. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  17. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France. PMID:23376265

  18. [Inadequate burials as an important factor in plague epidemic amongst Serbs in the Habsburg monarchy by the end of the 18th century: a historical analysis].

    PubMed

    Vasin, Goran; Božanić, Snežana; Božić, Milica Kisić

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the archaic customs of burying the deceased in Srem, primarily amongst Serbs, in the second half of the 18th century is the essential part of the paper that aims at clarifying the consequences of this negative habit onto the spreading of plague epidemic. The Austrian Empire tried to stop and prevent the epidemic with an array of legal norms, but in practice, these orders were often not upheld. Serbian Metropolitans Pavle Nenadović and Stefan Stratimirović insisted on eradicating superstition and retrograde, often uncivilized actions in burial rituals, and they partially succeeded. The example of plague in Irig and the surroundings in 1795-1796 explicitly shows the hazardous effects of the inadequate attitude towards the deceased as one of the factors in spreading the epidemic. Using primary archives, and published sources, with adequate literature, authors depict this complex historical process. PMID:25731012

  19. Captain Cook's beer: the antiscorbutic use of malt and beer in late 18th century sea voyages.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Brett J

    2003-01-01

    The custom of allowing British seamen the regular use of fermented liquor is an old one. Ale was a standard article of the sea ration as early as the fourteenth century. By the late eighteenth century, beer was considered to be at once a food (a staple beverage and essential part of the sea diet), a luxury (helping to ameliorate the hardship and irregularity of sea life) and a medicine (conducive to health at sea). In particular, beer and its precursors, wort and malt, were administered with the aim of preventing and curing scurvy. This paper examines the use of malt and beer during late eighteenth century British sea voyages, particularly their use as antiscorbutic agents, focusing on James Cook's three voyages during the period 1768-1780. Cook administered sweet wort (an infusion of malt), beer (prepared from an experimental, concentrated malt extract), and spruce beer (prepared mainly from molasses), among many other items, in his attempts to prevent and to cure scurvy. Despite the inconclusive nature of his own experiments, he reported favourably after his second voyage (1772-1775) on the use of wort as an antiscorbutic sea medicine (for which purpose it is now known to be useless). Cook thereby lent credibility to erroneous medical theories about scurvy, helping to perpetuate the use of ineffective treatments and to delay the discovery of a cure for the disorder. PMID:12810402

  20. Changes in annual precipitation over the Earth's land mass excluding Antarctica from the 18th century to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijngaarden, W. A.; Syed, A.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation measurements made at nearly 1000 stations located in 114 countries were studied. Each station had at least 100 years of observations resulting in a dataset comprising over 1½ million monthly precipitation amounts. Data for some stations extend back to the 1700s although most of the data exist for the period after 1850. The total annual precipitation was found if all monthly data in a given year were present. The percentage annual precipitation change relative to 1961-90 was plotted for 6 continents; as well as for stations at different latitudes and those experiencing low, moderate and high annual precipitation totals. The trends for precipitation change together with their 95% confidence intervals were found for various periods of time. Most trends exhibited no clear precipitation change. The global changes in precipitation over the Earth's land mass excluding Antarctica relative to 1961-90 were estimated to be: -1.2 ± 1.7, 2.6 ± 2.5 and -5.4 ± 8.1% per century for the periods 1850-2000, 1900-2000 and 1950-2000, respectively. A change of 1% per century corresponds to a precipitation change of 0.09 mm/year.

  1. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis of house paint and wallpaper samples from an 18th century historic property.

    PubMed

    Harroun, S G; Bergman, J; Jablonski, E; Brosseau, C L

    2011-09-01

    Conservation efforts for heritage buildings require a substantial knowledge of the chemical makeup of materials that were used throughout the lifetime of the property. In particular, conservators are often concerned with the identification of colorants used in both interior and exterior wall treatments (paint, wallpaper, etc.) in order to gain perspective into how the building may have appeared during a certain time period in its existence. Ideally, such an analysis requires a technique that provides molecular level information as to the identity of the colorant as well as other sample components (binders, fillers, etc.), which is useful for dating purposes. In addition, the technique should be easily applied to paint layer samples which can be extremely thin and fragile. Herein we report the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis of paint and wallpaper samples taken from exterior and interior surfaces of a historic building. Several pigments were identified in the samples, which ranged from early inorganic pigments (lead white, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, anhydrous chromium(III) oxide) which have been used in house paints for centuries, to a more modern pigment (phthalocyanine blue), developed in the middle of the 20th century. This analysis highlights the usefulness of SERS in such a conservation effort, and demonstrates for the first time pigment identification in house paints and wallpaper using SERS, which has far-reaching implications not only in the field of conservation, but also in forensics, industrial process control, and environmental health and safety. PMID:21267481

  2. BACCHUS temperature reconstruction for the period 16th to 18th centuries from Viennese and Klosterneuburg grape harvest dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, C.; Koch, E.; Hammerl, C.; Hammerl, T.; Pokorny, E.

    2009-11-01

    In the scientific project "Klosterneuburg Wine and Climate Change in Lower Austria" (BACCHUS), we focused on developing a grape harvest date (GHD) time series for the period 1523-2007 in the area of and around Vienna, one of the northeasternmost regions in Europe where vines are grown professionally. Since grape harvest dates are strongly influenced by spring to (early) summer temperatures, especially in a vine-growing region at a climatic border, we found highly significant correlation coefficients between homogenized multiple monthly mean temperatures at Vienna, Hohe Warte, and GHD. For example, correlation values reach -0.76 (p = 0.01) between GHD and April to July mean temperature or -0.79 (p = 0.01) between GHD and May to July mean temperature. This made it possible to reconstruct May to July mean temperatures, starting in 1523. The years from 1775 to 1850 were used as calibration period for determining the temperature sensitivity of GHD, as the running correlation coefficients (10 year moving window) were most pronounced in this period, varying between almost -1 and -0.7 (p = 0.05). We found warm decades in the 16th century, at the beginning of our series, which were as warm as the 1990s. Afterwards the mean May to July temperatures started to drop; the coldest decade of the record was from 1771 to 1780. A constant temperature increase for more than 30 years, as from the 1970s to the present, seems to be unprecedented during the last 470 years.

  3. Identification of animal glue species in artworks using proteomics: application to a 18th century gilt sample.

    PubMed

    Dallongeville, Sophie; Koperska, Monika; Garnier, Nicolas; Reille-Taillefert, Geneviève; Rolando, Christian; Tokarski, Caroline

    2011-12-15

    This study proposes a proteomic-based strategy for the identification of the origin species of glues used as binding media and adhesives in artworks. The methodology, based on FTICR high resolution mass spectrometry, was evaluated on glues from different animal origin (i.e., bovine, rabbit, and fish). The analysis of the peptide mixture resulting from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the proteins led to the identification of species-specific peptides. Up to 15 specific peptides were identified for the bovine species and three for the rabbit species and, in the case of sturgeon glue, three fish-specific peptides were found by sequence homology to the rainbow trout. Then, the method was applied to authenticate different rabbit skin glue samples, including a 100 year-old sample named "Colle à Doreurs" coming from the "Maison Totin-Frères". For this sample, two specific peptides of rabbit collagen were identified. To evaluate the method in a complex matrix, model paints composed of lead white, linseed oil, and animal glue were prepared. Species-specific peptides were identified in each paint sample. Finally, a gilt sample from St Maximin church dating from the eighteenth century was analyzed, and 13 peptides specific to bovine collagens were identified starting from very low sample amount (50 μg). PMID:22014085

  4. Structural and behavioural changes in the short term preventive check in the northwest Balkans in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    PubMed

    Hammel, E A; Galloway, P R

    2000-03-01

    Fertility responded negatively to grain insufficiency (proxied by grain price increases), and mortality responded positively in Croatia-Slavonia-Srem in the 18th and 19th centuries, as in most of Europe. Shifts in the intensity and timing of these responses occurred over time as social and economic structures changed. Shifts in the elasticity of fertility with respect to grain supply inversely mimic and lag changes in the elasticity of mortality. Both appear to be induced by increasing land shortage, the collapse of feudalism, and differences in the patterns of adjustment to post-feudal conditions among former civil and military serfs. Generally, responses are stronger for civil and former civil serfs, who may have been in less favorable economic circumstances than the military. Fertility responses in the year of a price shock come to dominate those in the year following, suggesting a shift from contraception to abortion as economic and social conditions apparently worsened and strategies of control intensified. Analysis of monthly responses supports the conjecture based on the annual responses. The shift to the preventive check and strength of the preventive check in the same year as the price shock is unusual in Europe and beyond. Analysis is based on 25 parishes and employs lagged annual and monthly time series analysis with corrections for autocorrelation, in combination with ethnographic and historical data. PMID:12159002

  5. Quantitative analysis of human remains from 18(th)-19(th) centuries using X-ray fluorescence techniques: The mysterious high content of mercury in hair.

    PubMed

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Marta; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Dias, António

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the unusual concentration of mercury in the hair of an individual buried in the 18th to mid-19th centuries and the comparison with the elemental composition of other remains from the same individual. Two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) setups, one with tri-axial geometry and the second one with micro-beam capabilities and a vacuum system, for light elements detection, have been used. Quantitative evaluation of the obtained spectra were made by fundamental parameters and winAXIL program by compare mode method. The levels of Hg in the hair of buried samples presented a concentration over 5% (w/w), a significantly lower presence of this element in the cranium, and no Hg in the remaining organs. Furthermore, there was no evidence of Hg in the burial soil, which has been also analyzed. From this result, we could conclude that the possibility of post-mortem contamination from the burial surroundings is very unlikely. The obtained results are indicative of the apparent use of a mercury-based compound for medical purposes, most likely lice infestation. PMID:26653740

  6. The inquisitorial trial of a cross-dressing lesbian: reactions and responses to female homosexuality in 18th-century portugal.

    PubMed

    Soyer, François

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the inquisitorial trial of Maria Duran, a Catalan novice in the Dominican convent of Nossa Senhora do Paraíso in Portugal. Maria Duran was arrested by the Inquisition in 1741 and, after a lengthy trial, condemned in 1744 to a public lashing and exile. She was suspected of having made a pact with the Devil and was accused by many female witnesses of possessing a "secret penis" that she had allegedly used in her amorous relations with fellow nuns and novices. Her voluminous trial dossier offers a rare and fascinating documentary insight into the often extreme reactions that female homosexuality provoked from both men and women in early modern Portugal. Using the evidence offered by the 18th-century trial of Maria Duran, this article highlights female bewilderment when faced with female-on-female sexual violence and the difficulty that men (in this case, churchmen) had coming to terms with the existence of female homosexuality. It also discusses the case in light of the acts/identity debate among historians of the history of sexuality. PMID:25022623

  7. Structural and optical properties of wood and wood finishes studied using optical coherence tomography: application to an 18th century Italian violin.

    PubMed

    Latour, Gaël; Echard, Jean-Philippe; Soulier, Balthazar; Emond, Isabelle; Vaiedelich, Stéphane; Elias, Mady

    2009-11-20

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is especially attractive for the study of cultural heritage artifacts because it is noninvasive and nondestructive. We have developed an original full-field time-domain OCT system dedicated to the investigation of varnished and painted artifacts: an interferometric Mirau objective allows one to perform the scan without moving the works of art. The axial and transverse high resolution (respectively, 1.5 and 1 microm) are well adapted to the detection of the investigated structures (pigment grains, wood fibers, etc.). The illumination spectrum is in the visible range (centered at 630 nm, 150 nm wide) to potentially allow us to perform spectroscopic OCT on pigment particles. The examination of wood samples coated with a traditional finish, demonstrates the ability of the system to detect particles, characterize layers thickness, and image the three-dimensional wood structures below the varnishes. OCT has finally been applied to study in situ the coated wood surface of an 18th century Italian violin and provides important information for its conservation treatment. PMID:19935970

  8. "Do Not Turn a Deaf Ear or a Blind Eye on Me, as I Am Your Son": New Conceptions of Childhood and Parenthood in 18th- and 19th-Century Jewish Letter-Writing Manuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogman, Tal

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the cultural functions of Hebrew letter-writing manuals published in German-speaking countries in the 18th and 19th centuries, aimed at young people. I argue that these books, which were used frequently as textbooks for studying Hebrew writing, conveyed modern ideological values and at the same time corresponded to the…

  9. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  10. The Problem of Longitude in the 18th Century: Jorge Juan, Antonio de Ulloa and the Expedition of the Paris Academy of Sciences to the Kingdom of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Pérez

    2015-05-01

    Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, naval officers of the Spanish Navy in the Midshipmen's Royal Academy were appointed to take part in one of the most important scientific expeditions of the 18th century. The question of the shape of the Earth, of vital importance for navigation, was solved by the Paris Academy of Sciences by request of Louis XV of France in 1735. The aim was to determine the form of the ellipsoid that Newton had described in the 17th century for any spherical and homogeneous body in rotation about an axis. Two expeditions were prepared for the geodetic measures of meridian arc both in high latitudes (Lapland, Finland) and in the equatorial zone (the Kingdom of Peru); Pierre Louis Maupertuis took charge of the northern expedition whereas the second one was charged to La Condamine, along with Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa. The results obtained by the Spaniards were gathered in a publication: Observaciones astronómicas y físicas hechas en los Reinos del Perú. In it, they dedicate a chapter to the determination of astronomic longitude with the only technology that was providing certain precision at the moment: the simultaneous observation of the same astronomic phenomenon in two different places. Specifically, they explain in detail in Book III: Las Observaciones de la Inmersiones y Emersiones de los satélites de Júpiter, como asimismo de los eclipses de Luna; de las cuales de deduce la Longitud de los Lugares, incluyendo las correcciones a efectuar por la variación de la declinación diaria del Sol.

  11. Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired

  12. The men of Nelson's navy: a comparative stable isotope dietary study of late 18th century and early 19th century servicemen from Royal Naval Hospital burial grounds at Plymouth and Gosport, England.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Patrick; Weston, Sam; Wild, Bastien; Boston, Ceridwen; Ditchfield, Peter; Shortland, Andrew J; Pollard, A Mark

    2012-05-01

    We present stable isotopic analyses of collagen from 80 servicemen excavated from the late 18th/early 19th century naval hospitals at Plymouth (50) and Haslar, Gosport (30) in southern England. Historical records suggest that, the diets of these two populations should be essentially identical. While δ(15) N of the rib collagen confirmed that naval servicemen were relatively well-catered for in terms of meat allowance (Plymouth average δ(15) N = 11.1‰, Gosport = 11.9‰), stable carbon isotope analysis produced average values for the two assemblages, which were significantly different (Plymouth average δ(13) C = -18.8‰, Gosport = -20.0‰). We postulate that these differences stem from divergent naval postings, with a greater proportion of Plymouth individuals serving in areas that entailed a greater input of C(4) foodstuffs. By comparison with published data from approximately contemporary burials at Snake Hill, Ontario, Canada and Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, we suggest that this area is the east coast of North America. For 15 of the 30 individuals from Gosport, we have data on ribs, femur, and dentine from the same skeleton, which appear to show that they came from a variety of locations in their preadolescence, but converged in dietary terms onto a "naval average," which is consistent with historical evidence for recruitment patterns into the Navy at the time. By comparison with published data from skeletons recovered from the wreck of the Mary Rose (sank 1545), we conclude that this naval diet was virtually unchanged from the 16th century to the end of the 18th century. PMID:22407735

  13. Paleoclimate Reconstruction during the 17th to 18th Century Using Fossil Coral Tsunami Boulders from Ishigaki Island, the Ryukyus, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Seki, A.; Kawakubo, Y.; Araoka, D.; Suzuki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) to reconstruct paleo SST during LIA (Kawakubo et al., 2014). LA-HR-ICPMS enables us to measure the long coral core rapidly. Our result shows SST variation in 17th-18th century in this area and SST declined in around 1700. This result reveals the response of Little Ice Age in the northwestern Pacific.

  14. Floods of the Lower Tisza from the late 17th century onwards: frequency, magnitude, seasonality and great flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The present paper is based on a recently developed database including contemporary original, administrative, legal and private source materials (published and archival) as well as media reports related to the floods occurred on the lower sections of the Tisza river in Hungary, with special emphasis on the area of Szeged town. The study area is well-represented by contemporary source evidence from the late 17th century onwards, when the town and its broader area was reoccupied from the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Concerning the applied source materials, the main bases of investigation are the administrative (archival) sources such as town council protocols of Szeged and county meeting protocols of Csanád and Csongrád Counties. In these (legal-)administrative documents damaging events (natural/environmental hazards) were systematically recorded. Moreover, other source types such as taxation-related damage accounts as well as private and official reports, letters and correspondence (published, unpublished) were also included. Concerning published evidence, a most important source is flood reports in contemporary newspapers as well as town chronicles and other contemporary narratives. In the presentation the main focus is on the analysis of flood-rich flood-poor periods of the last ca. 330 years; moreover, the seasonality distribution as well as the magnitude of Tisza flood events are also discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to provide a short overview, in the form of case studies, on the greatest flood events (e.g. duration, magnitude, damages, multi-annual consequences), and their further impacts on the urban and countryside development as well as on (changes in) flood defence strategies. In this respect, especially two flood events, the great (1815-)1816 and the catastrophic 1879 flood (shortly with causes and consequences) - that practically erased Szeged town from the ground - are presented in more detail.

  15. The Role of Education Redefined: 18th Century British and French Educational Thought and the Rise of the Baconian Conception of the Study of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2011-01-01

    The idea that science teaching in schools should prepare the ground for society's future technical and scientific progress has played an important role in shaping modern education. This idea, however, was not always present. In this article, I examine how this idea first emerged in educational thought. Early in the 17th century, Francis Bacon…

  16. Girls' Secondary Education in the Western World: From the 18th to the 20th Century. Secondary Education in a Changing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albisetti, James C.; Goodman, Joyce; Rogers, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This long-awaited synthesis approaches the past three centuries with an eye to highlighting the importance of significant schools, as well as important women educators in the emergence of secondary education for girls. At the same time, each contributor pays careful attention to the specific political, cultural, and socio-economic factors that…

  17. [The beginnings of the nursing profession : the complementary relationship between secular caregivers and hospital nuns in France in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Diebolt, Evelyne

    2013-06-01

    The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salpêtrière hospital, Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charité" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied. PMID:23923734

  18. [Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem and his contributions to the inauguration of the thalasso-therapy in Prussia in the 18th century. A medico-historical survey].

    PubMed

    Rummler, S

    2004-06-01

    This article is dedicated in remembrance of Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem, a former student of the University Frankfurt-on-Oder (Viadrina) in later eighteenth-century Germany. Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem from Aurich, was the first physician in the period of the German Enlightenment, who had introduced the thalasso-therapy as a part of a new health-conception. His pioneering achievement led to the foundation of the first health resort on the german coast of the North-Sea in Norderney (East Frisian Islands), May 1797. PMID:15236096

  19. The garden as a laboratory: the role of domestic gardens as places of scientific exploration in the long 18th century

    PubMed Central

    HICKMAN, CLARE

    2014-01-01

    Eighteenth-century gardens have traditionally been viewed as spaces designed for leisure, and as representations of political status, power and taste. In contrast, this paper will explore the concept that gardens in this period could be seen as dynamic spaces where scientific experiment and medical practice could occur. Two examples have been explored in the pilot study which has led to this paper — the designed landscapes associated with John Hunter’s Earl’s Court residence, in London, and the garden at Edward Jenner’s house in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Garden history methodologies have been implemented in order to consider the extent to which these domestic gardens can be viewed as experimental spaces. PMID:26052165

  20. Austrian-Hungarian Astronomical Observatories Run by the Society of Jesus at the Time of the 18th Century Venus Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, Thomas; Aspaas, Per Pippin; Bazso, Akos; Mueller, Isolde

    2013-05-01

    The Venus transit in June 1761 was the first one to be observed on a truly international scale: almost 250 astronomers followed this rare celestial event (e.g. Wulff 2012, p. 115), and at least 130 published successful observations of it (Aspaas 2012, p. 423). The present paper deals with the astronomical observatories built by the Society of Jesus in its eighteenth century "Provincia Austriae", at which the 1761 transit could be observed. Five Jesuit observatories are being presented in this context: three in today's Austria, namely, two in Vienna and one in Graz; one in Trnava in today's Slovakia and one in Cluj in today's Romania. Thereafter, we briefly examine which of these observatories submitted any Venus transit observations for publication in the appendix to Maximilian Hell's "Ephemerides astronomicae ad meridianum Vindobonensem" for the year 1762.

  1. A Multi-Analytical Approach for the Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Conservation-Restoration Treatment of Moroccan Historical Manuscripts Dating to the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Latifa; Boukir, Abdellatif; Assouik, Jamal; Kerbal, Abdelali; Kajjout, Mohamed; Doumenq, Pierre; De Carvalho, Maria Luisa

    2015-08-01

    The most critical steps during the conservation-restoration treatment applied in Moroccan libraries are the deacidification using immersion in a saturated aqueous calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) solution and the consolidation of degraded manuscripts using Japanese paper. The present study aims to assess the efficiency of this restoration method using a multi-analytical approach. For this purpose, three ancient Arabic Moroccan manuscript papers dating back to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries were investigated to characterize the paper support and make a comparative study between pre-restoration and post-restoration states. Three structural and molecular characterization techniques including solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on (13)C with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CP-MAS NMR), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to elucidate the cellulose main features, to identify the inorganic composition of the papers, and to study the crystallinity of the samples. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) allowed us to obtain a qualitative and quantitative characterization of the mineral fillers used in the manufacturing of the papers. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) ascertained the state of conservation of the different papers and helped us to study the elemental composition of the samples. After restoration, it was shown that the deacidification improved the stability of papers by providing an important alkaline buffer, as demonstrated using FT-IR and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) results. However, XRD and ICP-AES did not confirm the pertinence of the treatment for all samples because of the unequal distribution of Ca on the paper surface during the restoration. The consolidation process was studied using SEM analysis; its effectiveness in restoring

  2. History of individuals of the 18th/19th centuries stored in bones, teeth, and hair analyzed by LA-ICP-MS--a step in attempts to confirm the authenticity of Mozart's skull.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Christina; Reiter, Christian; Patzak, Beatrix; Stingeder, Gerhard; Prohaska, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    A cranium stored in the Stiftung Mozarteum in Salzburg/Austria which is believed to be that of Mozart, and skeletal remains of suspected relatives which have been excavated from the Mozart family grave in the cemetery in Salzburg, have been subjected to scientific investigations to determine whether or not the skull is authentic. A film project by the Austrian television ORF in collaboration with Interspot Film on this issue was broadcast at the beginning of the "Mozart year 2006". DNA analysis could not clarify relationships among the remains and, therefore, assignment of the samples was not really possible. In our work this skull and excavated skeletal remains have been quantified for Pb, Cr, Hg, As, and Sb content by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain information about the living conditions of these individuals. A small splinter of enamel (less than 1 mm(3)) from a tooth of the "Mozart cranium" was also available for investigation. Quantification was performed by using spiked hydroxyapatite standards. Single hair samples which are recorded to originate from Mozart have also been investigated by LA-ICP-MS and compared with hair samples of contemporary citizens stored in the Federal Pathologic-Anatomical Museum, Vienna. In general, Pb concentrations up to approximately 16 mug g(-1) were found in the bone samples of 18th century individuals (a factor of 7 to 8 higher than in recent samples) reflecting elevated Pb levels in food or beverages. Elevated Pb levels were also found in hair samples. The amount of Sb in the enamel sample of the "Mozart cranium" (approx. 3 mug g(-1)) was significantly higher than in all the other tooth samples investigated, indicating possible Sb ingestion in early childhood. Elevated concentrations of elements in single hair samples gave additional information about possible exposure of the individuals to heavy metals at a particular point in their life. PMID:17429616

  3. Evolution of Interannual and Decadal/Interdecadal variability of the SPCZ since the late 18th century using a network of Fiji coral δ18O time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassie, E. P.; Linsley, B. K.; Correge, T.; Wu, H. C.; Lemley, G. M.; Cabioch, G.

    2012-12-01

    interannual and D/I coral δ18O variability from equatorial sites in the Pacific (e.g. Maiana). Collectively, our results from the SPCZ region reflect the validity of the coral δ18O composite to track regional climatic variability at both interannual and decadal/interdecadal timescales. From the late 18th century to the late 19th century the D/I band dominates the Fiji composite while the ENSO-band amplitude is relatively small. Starting around 1885, this tendency reverses and we observed a drastic decrease in the D/I signal amplitude, with its variance reduced by more than 50%, while the ENSO-band signal increases progressively in amplitude toward the present, reaching unprecedented values during the mid-20th century. This switch around 1885 A.D. is unique over the last 250 years and may correspond to a reorganization of Pacific-wide climate.

  4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION DURING EXCAVATION OF 18TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION DURING EXCAVATION OF 18TH CENTURY BASEMENT ENTRY WELL AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Belair, Tulip Grove Drive, Belair-at-Bowie, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

  5. 18th International Mouse Genome Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Darla R Miller

    2005-07-01

    The 18th International Mouse Genome Conference was held in Seattle, WA, US on October 18-22,2004. The meeting was partially supported by the Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER63851. Abstracts can be seen at imgs.org and the summary of the meeting was published in “Mammalian Genome”, Vol 16, Number 7, Pages 471-475.

  6. Onward from the cradle

    PubMed Central

    Satir, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This essay records a voyage of discovery from the “cradle of cell biology” to the present, focused on the biology of the oldest known cell organelle, the cilium. In the “romper room” of cilia and microtubule (MT) biology, the sliding MT hypothesis of ciliary motility was born. From the “summer of love,” students and colleagues joined the journey to test switch-point mechanisms of motility. In the new century, interest in nonmotile (primary) cilia, never lost from the cradle, was rekindled, leading to discoveries relating ciliogenesis to autophagy and hypotheses of how molecules cross ciliary necklace barriers for cell signaling. PMID:25360050

  7. 18th International Conference on Antiviral Research.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, William M

    2005-08-01

    The 18th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held at the Princess Sofia Hotel in Barcelona, Spain, from 11th-14th April, 2005. This is a yearly international meeting sponsored by the International Society for Antiviral Research (ISAR). The current president of ISAR is John A Secrest 3rd of the Southern Research Institute. The scientific programme committee was chaired by John C Drach from the University of Michigan. ISAR was founded in 1987 to exchange prepublication basic, applied and clinical information on the development of antiviral, chemical and biological agents as well as to promote collaborative research. The ISAR has had a major role in the significant advances of the past decade in the reduction of the societal burdens of viral diseases by the focus of ICAR on the discovery and clinical application of antiviral agents. The 18th ICAR was organised as a series of focus presentations on specific viral groups consisting of oral and poster presentations of original research findings. In addition, the conference included plenary speakers, award presentations, a minisymposium on bioterrorism, and a satellite symposium on clinical antiviral drug developments. The size of the conference (> 50 oral and 250 poster presentations) necessitates limitation to the most noteworthy in the judgment of this reviewer. The current membership of the ISAR is approximately 700 with approximately 50% the membership in attendance. PMID:16086663

  8. 8. 1770 S. CANALPORT & 530 W. 18TH STREET. SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. 1770 S. CANALPORT & 530 W. 18TH STREET. SOUTH FRONT MAIN ENTRY OF 1770 CANALPORT & SOUTHEAST CORNER OF 530 W. 18TH STREET. VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Peter Schoenhofen Brewery, West Eighteenth Street & Canalport Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  9. Problema vizual'noj registratsii nablyudenij v opticheskoj astronomii XVII-XVIII vekov %t Problem of visual registration of observations in optical astronomy in the 17th-18th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Kostantin V.

    This paper attempts to explain the growth of optical astronomy as a result of more general social and cultural change in European life during the two post-Renaissance centuries. It shows how the introduction of optical instruments into astronomical work was accompanied (and partly conditioned) by a few nonastronomical practices, such as collecting unusual things and their images, producing illusionary effects by means of optical devices, manufacturing pictures that could disturb the common visual perception, etc. The paper draws particular attention to the practices of manipulation with visual images that could help to introduce "illusionary" optical knowledge into making "true" drawings from natural objects, including celestial ones. In this way, the formation of new astronomical language can be understood as closely connected to the explicit formulation of technological instructions and legal rules for making copies from natural objects, as well as the general development of printing production and broadening of the market of printed illustrations. These often not enough co-ordinated practices stipulated the shift of optical astronomy into a significant part of seigniorial culture, where it obtained recognition as an essentially new and elite knowledge, associated with particular technological vigilance. During the transition of European monarchies into the absolutist social order, astronomy, on a level with other court services, assumed a shape of professional occupation supplied with certain monetary salaries, a stable position in official hierarchy, and supreme privileges. This was the way by which astronomy merged with the other natural studies and became one of the publicly recognised scientific disciplines.

  10. Peterburgskaya akademiya nauk v XVIII v. i ee pol' v rasprostranenii N'yutonianstva na kontinente Evropy %t Petersburg Academy of Sciences of 18th century and its role in the dissemination of Newtonianism in teh continental Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevskaya, N. I.

    "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" by I. Newton were published and immediately recognized in England in 1687. However in countries of the continental Europe up to 1744 dominated the Cartesianism. Few newtonians were exposed to persecutions. Under such circumstances in 1724 Peter The Great decided to found an Academy of sciences in Russia. Since in this country there were no scientists, it was decided to invite them from the continental Europe. Two scientists arrived to Russia were newtonians. Other just were graduated from universities and had no hope for scientific work in their native lands. This situation turned out to be rather happy. The newtonians - J. N. Delisle and J. Hermann - trained the youth (D. Bernoulli, L. Euler, F. Ch. Mayer, G. W. Krafft, A. D. Kantemir, G. W. Richmann, M. V. Lomonosov, N. I. Popov, V. K. Trediakovskij, A. D. Krasilnikov etc.). They created the science of Russia and enhanced the doctrine of Newton. Their scientific works were printed in "Commentarii" in Latin. The newspaper "St.-Petersburg sheets" and its appendix, the magazine "Notes on the Sheet" (issued in Russian and German) - published the works of Petersburg Academy of sciences and promoted the Newtonianism. Everyone, who could read in German, used these materials. One of the readers was I. Kant. He relied upon these publications in preparing his lectures at Königsberg University, and then later, in working out the cosmogony theory. The works of J. N. Delisle, L. Euler and A. C. Clairaut on the theory of comets' and planets' movement justified Newtons doctrine. They also forced J. Cassini to accept the doctrine as well. Delisle's papers on the history of astronomy published there are helpful for understanding of the history of development the astronomy. The books of J. F. Weidler "A history of astronomy" (1741) and "Astronomical bibliography" (1755) formed the basis for all histories of astronomy in the XVIII-XIX centuries.

  11. Lightning and Gunpowder in the 18th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krider, E. P.

    2006-12-01

    On or before June, 1751, Benjamin Franklin and co-workers showed that gunpowder could be ignited by a small electric spark, and subsequently people used gunpowder to enhance the explosions of "thunder houses" to demonstrate that grounded metallic rods would protect model structures against lightning damage. Even before the sentry box and kite experiments proved that thunderclouds are electrified and that lightning is an electrical discharge in 1752, Franklin had hypothesized that a tall, well-grounded conductor might reduce or prevent lightning damage by silently discharging the cloud, and if a discharge did occur, then the tall rod would offer a preferred place for the lightning to strike, and the grounding conductors would guide the current into the ground in a harmless fashion. Over the next 10 years, experience gained through practice showed that grounded rods did indeed protect ordinary structures from lightning damage, but a question remained about the best way to protect gunpowder magazines. In 1762, Franklin recommended a tall "mast not far from it, which may reach 15 or 20 feet above the top of it, with a thick iron rod in one piece fastened to it, pointed at the highest end, and reaching down through the earth till it comes to water," and in 1772 he made a similar recommendation for protecting the British powder magazine at Purfleet. In 1780, Jan Ingenhousz asked Franklin to "communicate to me some short hints, which may occur to you about the most convenient manner of constructing gun powder magazines, the manner of preserving the powder from moisture and securing the building in the best manner from the effects of lightning." In his reply, Franklin detailed a method of protection that is almost perfect, "they should be constructed in the Ground; that the Walls should be lin'd with Lead, the Floor Lead, all 1/4 Inch thick & the Joints well solder'd; the Cover Copper; with a little Scuttle to enter, the whole in the Form of a Canister for Tea. If the Edges of the Cover scuttle fall into a Copper Channel containing Mercury, not the smallest Particle of Air or Moisture can enter to the Powder, even tho' the Walls stood in Water, or the whole was under Water." In 1876, the Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell, made almost exactly the same recommendation for protecting against lightning, a method known today as a "Faraday cage."

  12. 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L. (Compiler)

    2005-01-01

    The 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVIII) Conference was held September 16 to 18, 2003, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar cell technology. This year s conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVII-the continued advances of thin-film and multijunction solar cell technologies and the new issues required to qualify those types of cells for space applications.

  13. The Environmental History of Cetaceans in Portugal: Ten Centuries of Whale and Dolphin Records

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Cristina; Sousa, Andreia

    2011-01-01

    The history between cetaceans and humans is documented throughout time not only in reports, descriptions, and tales but also in legal documents, laws and regulations, and tithes. This wealth of information comes from the easy spotting and identification of individuals due to their large size, surface breathing, and conspicuous above water behaviour. This work is based on historical sources and accounts accounting for cetacean presence for the period between the 12th and 17th centuries, as well as scientific articles, newspapers, illustrations, maps, non-published scientific reports, and other grey literature from the 18th century onwards. Information on whale use in Portugal's mainland has been found since as early as the 12th century and has continued to be created throughout time. No certainty can be given for medieval and earlier events, but both scavenging of stranded whales or use of captured ones may have happened. There is an increasing number of accounts of sighted, stranded, used, or captured cetaceans throughout centuries which is clearly associated with a growing effort towards the study of these animals. Scientific Latin species denominations only started to be registered from the 18th century onwards, as a consequence of the evolution of natural sciences in Portugal and increasing interest from zoologists. After the 19th century, a larger number of observations were recorded, and from the 20th century to the present day, regular scientific records have been collected. Research on the environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal shows a several-centuries-old exploitation of whales and dolphins, as resources mainly for human consumption, followed in later centuries by descriptions of natural history documenting strandings and at sea encounters. Most cetaceans species currently thought to be present in Portuguese mainland waters were at some point historically recorded. PMID:21931627

  14. JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  15. EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2012-02-01

    to the proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (Physica Scripta 2009 T135 011005). The 18th edition of CEWQO (CEWQO11) was held in Madrid in 2011. There were about 250 participants, from practically every European country. Many colleagues from other continents also joined the event, including well-established researchers in the field. This is a clear demonstration that these meetings provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. The organization of CEWQO11 was carried out by a committee consisting of members active in this topic in Madrid. From Universidad Complutense, Alberto Galindo and Luis L Sánchez-Soto from Universidad Autónoma, Jose Calleja and Carlos Tejedor; from Universidad Politécnica, Enrique Calleja; from Universidad Carlos III, Alberto Ibort; and from the National Research Council (CSIC), Juan León and Juan J García-Ripoll. Special thanks go to the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation, Universidad Complutense and the Quitemad Consortium for financial support. The proceedings of the 16th CEWQO held at the University of Turku, Finland and the 17th CEWQO held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK are also available (Physica Scripta 2010 T140 and Physica Scripta 2011 T143). The present Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented in Madrid; they represent an illustrative sample of the major achievements and trends in this area. In turn, they reflect the wide range of interests in this rapidly evolving field. Some collaborators from different scientific centres who could not, due to different reasons, come to Madrid, but participated in previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs, also contributed to this issue. The papers are arranged alphabetically by the name of the first author. Special thanks goes to Roger Wäppling, the Managing Editor of Physica Scripta, and Graeme Watt, the Publisher, for the opportunity to publish CEWQO11. From a Physica Scripta Editorial Board meeting it was

  16. FOREWORD: 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Genova, Julia; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2014-12-01

    We are delighted to present the Proceedings of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Challenges of Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials, Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and chaired by Professor Alexander G Petrov. On this occasion the School was held in memory of Professor Nikolay Kirov (1943-2013), former Director of the Institute and Chairman between 1991 and 1998. The 18ISCMP was one of several events dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2014, and was held in the welcoming Black Sea resort of St. Constantine and Helena near Varna, at the Hotel and Congress Centre Frederic Joliot-Curie. Participants from 16 countries delivered 32 invited lectures, and 71 contributed posters were presented over three lively and well-attended evening sessions. Manuscripts submitted to the Proceedings were refereed in accordance with the guidelines of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, and we believe the papers published herein testify to the high technical quality and diversity of contributions. A satellite meeting, Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films - Functional Layers in Smart Windows and Water Splitting Devices: Technology and Optoelectronic Properties was held in parallel with the School (http://www.inera.org, 3-6 Sept 2014). This activity, which took place under the FP7-funded project INERA, offered opportunities for crossdisciplinary discussions and exchange of ideas between both sets of participants. As always, a major factor in the success of the 18ISCMP was the social programme, headed by the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and enhanced in no small measure by a variety of pleasant local restaurants, bars and beaches. We are most grateful to staff of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for their continued support for the School, this being the third occasion on which the Proceedings have been published under its

  17. Managing obesity--from childhood and onwards.

    PubMed

    Lagerros, Ylva Trolle; Rössner, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    It is unclear whether the obesity epidemic has come to a halt. Perhaps the incidence is declining, at least in pre-school children. However, the obesity rate is higher than ever before. Prevention is a priority, especially in children, but has not been very successful to date. Treatment has basically offered the same tools for decades. The recent development of obesity pharmacotherapy has regressed with--in most countries--only one drug of modest effect available. Bariatric surgery has therefore been considered one of the few solutions in the adult setting and is gaining increasing attention as a treatment option, even in pediatric extreme obesity. In some countries, government action for prevention has been taken, but too often resources have not been set aside. This review addresses new and old strategies to manage obesity--from childhood and onwards. PMID:21905821

  18. Preface: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Buttler, William; Furlanetto, Michael; Evans, William

    2014-05-01

    The 18th Biennial International Conference of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter in conjunction with the 24th Biennial International Conference of the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science & Technology (AIRAPT) was held at the Westin Hotel in Seattle, Washington from 7-12 July, 2013. This is only the second time that these two organizations have held a Joint Conference — the first was 20 years previous (1993) in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Seattle was chosen for this joint conference because of its central location for the world-wide attendees as well as its metropolitan vibrancy. The scientific program consisted of 858 scheduled presentations organized into 23 topical areas and included contributed (537), invited (95), and plenary (6) lectures, as well as two poster sessions with 110 posters each. The scientific focus of the Joint Conference was on fundamental and applied research topics related to the static or dynamic compression of condensed matter. This multidisciplinary field of research encompasses areas of physics, chemistry, materials science, mechanics, geophysics and planetary physics, and applied mathematics. Experimental, computational and theoretical studies all play important roles. The organizers endeavored to intertwine static and dynamic experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials in the organization of the sessions. This goal was aided by the addition of three special focus sessions on deep carbon budget, high energy density materials, and dynamic response of materials. 722 scientists and engineers from 25 countries registered at the conference, including 132 students from 12 countries. The attendee countries represented included: Argentina (2), Australia (2), Brazil (3), Canada (25), China (22), Czech Republic (2), France (35), Germany (19), India (6), Israel (21), Italy (10), Japan (49), Netherlands (1), Poland (1), Portugal (2), Russia (26

  19. PREFACE: 18th Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials Conference (MSM XVIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, T.; Hutchison, John L.

    2013-11-01

    YRM logo This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 18th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at St Catherine's College, University of Oxford, on 7-11 April 2013. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Royal Microscopical Society and supported by the Institute of Physics as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 109 delegates from 17 countries world-wide. We were welcomed by Professor Sir Peter Hirsch, who noted that this was the first of these conferences where Professor Tony Cullis was unable to attend, owing to ill-health. During the meeting a card containing greetings from many of Tony's friends and colleagues was signed, and duly sent to Tony afterwards. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes for device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, electronic structure, chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two topics that have at this meeting again highlighted the interesting contributions of aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy were: contrast quantification of annular dark-field STEM images in terms of chemical composition (Z-contrast), sample thickness and strain, and the study of

  20. EDITORIAL: 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varandas, A. J. C.

    2011-08-01

    This special section of Comments on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (CAMOP) in Physica Scripta collects some of the papers that have been presented at the 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems MOLEC 2010 held in September 2010 in Curia, Portugal, as part of a series of biennial MOLEC conferences. This started in 1976 in Trento, Italy, and has continued, visiting 17 cities in 11 countries, namely Denmark, The Netherlands, Israel, France, Italy, Germany, Czech Republic, Spain, United Kingdom, Turkey and Russia. Following the MOLEC tradition, the scientific programme of the Curia meeting focused on experimental and theoretical studies of molecular interactions, collision dynamics, spectroscopy, and related fields. It included invited speakers from 22 countries, who were asked to summarize the problems reported in their presentations with the objective of revealing the current thinking of leading researchers in atomic, molecular and optical physics. It is hoped that their authoritative contributions presented in this CAMOP special section will also appeal to non-specialists through their clear and broad introductions to the field as well as references to the accessible literature. This CAMOP special section comprises ten contributions, which cover theoretical studies on the electronic structure of molecules and clusters as well as dynamics of elastic, inelastic and reactive encounters between atoms, molecules, ions, clusters and surfaces. Specifically, it includes electronic structure calculations using the traditional coupled-cluster method (Barreto et al 028111), the electron-attached equation-of-motion coupled cluster method (Hansen et al 028110), the diffusion Monte Carlo method (López-Durán et al 028107) and the path-integral Monte Carlo method (Barragán et al 028109). The contributions on molecular dynamics include on-the-fly quasi-classical trajectories on a five-atom molecule (Yu 028104), quantum reaction dynamics on triatomics

  1. [A psychopathologic conflict in the 18th century in the East Indies Squadron].

    PubMed

    Alliez, J; Le Goarant de Tromelin, G

    1989-11-01

    The authors first give a psychological evocation of the Bailli de Suffren, a great captain who vastly contributed to improve the image of the French Navy after the appalling seven years war, but whose character showed, nevertheless, originality, authoritarism, violence, sometimes vindictiveness and often negligence. The quarrels he had with most of his subordinates culminated as he was in command of the East Indies Squadron, applying sometimes exaggerated punishments. Chevalier de Tromelin was hierarchically just under him; this Chevalier had a character as chilly and stiff as the Bailli was the opposite; both were ambitious and deserving officers, the Chevalier being as much conformist as his "adversary" was fiery and bold. The shouts and rancours of the Bailli, when confronted to the rigidity and cold technicity of the Chevalier, marked their relationship. More than objective reasons arising from their duties, the fundamental incompatibility of their characters, explain their conflicts. Suffren played a double-game with his immediate subordinate; not lacking verbal smoothness, he nevertheless abused him in such a way in his reports to the authorities, that when Chevalier de Tromelin, being ill, asked to return to France, he learned that he had been dismissed of the Navy without having ever been heard or able to attempt to defend himself. He then spent his time trying to claim for a hearing without ever obtaining it, writing justificatory reports. He was "rehabilitated" in 1793 and died in half-exile in 1815. The authors were struck by the fact that for 200 years, no historian of the Fast Indies has ever taken into account the Squadron's distinctive features and the personality of Suffren. Thanks to their research in family documents, in the National and especially Navy Archives, they are able to show the importance of this psychological, not to say the psychopathological, aspect. One can only be struck by the silence of the various historians who worked on the subject, misjudging this "conditioning" which explains excessive punishments and long-harboured grudges. It is possible that Tromelin was the most affected because he was hierarchically the nearest. As the various documents or testimonies show, no fault or error could ever be retained against him that he could non justify. A detailed study of the handwritings of the two protagonists is presented in the text. Such conflicts are rather common within the Administration, but they seldom are of such duration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2699179

  2. Complement research in the 18th-21st centuries: Progress comes with new technology.

    PubMed

    Sim, R B; Schwaeble, W; Fujita, T

    2016-10-01

    The complement system has been studied for about 120 years. Progress in defining this large and complex system has been dependent on the research technologies available, but since the introduction of protein chromatography, electrophoresis, and antibody-based assay methods in the 1950s and 60s, and sequencing of proteins and DNA in the 70s and 80s, there has been very rapid accumulation of data. With more recent improvements in 3D structure determination (nmr and X-ray crystallography), the structures of most of the complement proteins have now been solved. Complement research since 1990 has been greatly stimulated by the discoveries of the multiple proteins in the lectin pathway, the strong association of Factor H, C3, Factor B allelic variants with adult macular degeneration and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome, and the introduction of the anti-C5 monoclonal antibody as a therapy for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome. Potential new roles for complement in tissue development and the search for novel therapeutics suggest a very active future for complement research. PMID:27371361

  3. Healing with animals in the Levant from the 10th to the 18th century

    PubMed Central

    Lev, Efraim

    2006-01-01

    Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. The article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (The Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad al-Sham) in the medieval and early Ottoman periods. Intensive research into the phenomenon of zootherapy in the medieval and early Ottoman Levant has yielded forty-eight substances of animal origin that were used medicinally. The vast majority of these substances were local and relatively easy to obtain. Most of the substances were domestic (honey, wax, silkworm, etc.), others were part of the local wildlife (adder, cuttle fish, flycatcher, firefly, frog, triton, scorpion, etc.), part of the usual medieval household (milk, egg, cheese, lamb, etc.), or parasites (louse, mouse, stinkbug, etc.). Fewer substances were not local but exotic, and therefore rare and expensive (beaver testicles, musk oil, coral, ambergris, etc.). The range of symptoms that the substances of animal origin were used to treat was extensive and included most of the known diseases and maladies of that era: mainly hemorrhoids, burns, impotence, wounds, and skin, eye, and stomach diseases. Changes in the moral outlook of modern societies caused the use of several substances of animal origin to cease in the course of history. These include mummy, silkworm, stinkbug, scarabees, snail, scorpion, and triton. PMID:16504024

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New standards in 18th century astrometry (Lequeux, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequeux, J.

    2014-05-01

    Catalogue of Flamsteed (flamstee.dat): John Flamsteed (1646-1719) was the first astronomer in charge of Greenwich Observatory. His stellar catalogue (Flamsteed 1725) was built on observations from 1675 to 1683 with a 6-feet radius sextant mounted on an axis parallel to the polar axis of the Earth, then from 1683 to 1719 with a mural circle with a radius of 79.5 inches (2m). 220 stars over 3925. Catalogue of Romer (romer.dat): Ole (or Olaus) Romer (1644-1710) is principally known for his 1676 discovery of the finite velocity of light, a discovery that he shared with Jean-Dominique Cassini. After a long stay in Paris, he returned to Copenhagen in 1681 and was appointed professor of astronomy at the University. The observatory and all the observations were destroyed in the great Copenhagen fire of 1728, with the exception of observations of 88 stars obtained during three observing nights, from 20 to 23 October 1706. La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (lacaifun.dat): Nicolas-Louis La Caille (or Lacaille, or de la Caille, 1713-1762) was a French astronomer who is remembered principally for his survey of the southern sky, where he introduced 14 new constellations that are still in use today. Before leaving for the Cape of Good Hope in 1750, he started a catalogue of the 400 brightest stars of both hemispheres, which he completed during his stays in Cape Town and in the Mauritius island, then after his return to Paris in 1754. He reduced the observations himself, including for the first time corrections for aberration and nutation, and published them with details of the observations and reductions (La Caille 1757). Bailly's adaptation of La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (bailly.dat): After the death of La Caille, Jean-Sylvain Bailly published a catalogue of the brighest stars of both hemispheres for the equinox B1750.0 in Ephemerides for 10 year from 1765 to 1775 (Anonymous (Bailly) 1763, p. lvii-lxiv). This catalogue obviously derives from the catalogue named lacaillefund.dat. La Caille's complete survey of the southern sky (lacaisur.dat): During his stay in Cape Town in 1751-1752, La Caille made the first systematic survey of the sky ever, in the modern sense. 244 stars over 9766. La Caille's catalogue of zodiacal stars (lacaizod.dat): When La Caille returned from his southern expedition in 1754, he undertook the construction of a catalogue of zodiacal stars. Mayer's zodiacal catalogue (mayer.dat): At exactly the same time as La Caille, Tobias Mayer (1723-1762) in Gottingen undertook a similar catalogue of zodiacal stars, using a 6-feet radius mural quadrant made by John Bird (1709-1776). 200 stars over 998. Bradley's stellar catalogue (bradley.dat): James Bradley (1693-1762) is famous for his discovery of aberration and nutation. From 1750 to his death in 1762, he built a large stellar catalogue, from observations first with an old mural sector and after 1753 with the Bird 8-ft mural sector located in Greenwich, where it 215 stars over 3220. Piazzi's stellar catalogue (piazzi.dat): Giuseppe Piazzi (1746-1846) built a large catalogue containing 7646 stars from 1792 to 1813, observed in Palermo with an altazimuthal circle of Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800) can still be seen. 202 stars over 7646. Lalande's stellar catalogue (lalande.dat): L'Histoire celeste francaise de Lalande (Lalande 1801), which contains the unreduced observations of approximately 40,000 stars, is the first very large stellar catalogue. 198 stars over ~45000. (10 data files).

  5. Science and superstition: Comets and the French public in the 18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Philip

    1986-01-01

    The confirmation in 1759 of Halley's prediction for the return of the comet of 1682 was a triumphant scientific event, helping to convince a broad public that comets, like other celestial bodies, were knowable natural objects. Nevertheless, the frightening possibility that an unknown comet could appear at any time led to a startling degree of panic on a later occasion, when a study by Lalande on the statistical probability of a collision between earth and a comet was construed by rumor as a prophecy of imminent destruction.

  6. Can legislation prevent debauchery? Mother gin and public health in 18th-century England.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, J; Her, M; Gmel, G; Rehm, J

    2001-01-01

    The "gin epidemic" of 1720 to 1751 in England was the first time that government intervened in a systematic fashion to regulate and control sales of alcohol. The epidemic therefore provides an opportunity to gauge the effects of multiple legislative interventions over time. Toward that end, we employed time series analysis in conjunction with qualitative methodologies to test the interplay of multiple independent variables, including real wages and taxes, on the consumption of distilled spirits from 1700 through 1771. The results showed that each of the 3 major gin acts was successful in the short term only, consistent with the state's limited resources for enforcement at the local level, and that in each instance consumption actually increased shortly thereafter. This was true even of the Gin Act of 1751, which, contrary to the assumptions of contemporaries and many historians, succeeded by accident rather than by design. The results also suggest that the epidemic followed the inverse U-shaped trajectory of more recent drug scares and that consumption declined only after the more deleterious effects of distilled spirits had been experienced by large numbers of people. PMID:11236401

  7. The Teaching of Astronomy in Jesuit Colleges in the 18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanovas, J.

    On the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the foundation of the astronomical observatory at the college and seminary of Nagyszombat in 1755, it may be of interest to say something about the colleges of the Society of Jesus. The presence of the Jesuits there was brief, only two decades, as under the pressure of various external forces, the Jesuit Order was suppressed by Pope Clement XIV with the bull Dominus ac Redemptor on 23 July 1773. All the colleges that the Society had been running successfully all over the world either were closed, taken over by the governments, or given to the local bishops. Shortly after the Jesuits left the college of Nagyszombat, the king transferred it to Buda, where it gave rise to modern institutions of higher education derived. When Pope Pius VII returned to Rome after the Napoleonic wars, one of the first things he did was to reestablish the Society of Jesus in 1814. Old Jesuits, survivors of so many disgraces, joined younger Jesuits from Russia and Poland where in fact the order had never been suppressed. The most important of the Jesuit colleges, the Collegium Romanum in Rome, was given back to the Society of Jesus in 1823. Many other colleges were lost forever, but new ones were founded to continue the Society's previous successful activity.

  8. [History of ether in the 18th century: George-Louis Lesage's system of corpuscules ultramondains].

    PubMed

    Berger, Jutta

    2005-01-01

    The article presents an account of Lesage's theory of corpuscules ultramondains and ether. It shows that essential attributes of the antique concept of ether still belong to his speculative physics. In accordance with this concept, Lesage understood the corpuscules ultramondains as subtle celestial matter and carriers of the primordial movements in the universe which were characterised by their proximity to the divine. On the other hand, Lesage was engaged in the contemporary debate concerning the problem of causa gravitatis. His position turns out to be halfway between dynamic corpuscularity and mechanistic physics. With the former he shared the rejection of vortex theories and the adherence to the corpuscular theory of light and the nutshell theory, with the latter the rejection of action at-a-distance and forces inherent to matter. Contrary to the accusation that he plagiarised Fatio de Duillier's theory of gravitation, it is shown that Lesage formulated a gravitational mechanism essentially different to Fatio's. Lesage used the term ether for the theory of chemical affinities. His attempt to reduce them to gravitational force failed. The complexity of chemical phenomena could not be mastered theoretically by reduction to a uniform natural force. PMID:16689079

  9. [Exploration of salt in Poland in the second half of the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Danowska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Following the First Partition in 1772, Poland lost the salt mines in Wieliczka, Bochnia and in the territory of Ruthenia to Austria. This was a serious blow to the economy, because since then, it became necessary to import salt, which was primarily taken advantage of by the Royal Prussian Maritime Trading Company (Pruska Kompania Morska) importing it from Austria. King Stanislaw August Poniatowski tried to initiate the exploration and exploitation of salt in the areas where it could be profitable. To this end, he ordered the exploration to Filip Carosi and Stanislaw Okraszewski, among other. The salt-works of the Castellan of Leukow, Jacek Jezierski in the town of Solca, in the Lqczyckie Region, active since 1780, was a private investment. Leopold von Beust's Kompania akcyjna obtained salt from a brine near the town of Busko, and Kompania z Osob Krajowych--from a brine in the town of Raczki nad Pilica. In 1782, the King appointed The Ore Commission (Komisja Kruszcowa), consisted of twelve commissioners, in order to conduct the exploration for minerals, including salt, their extraction and further administration. The Crown Treasury Commission (Komisja Skarbu Koronnego), a magistracy dealing with, among others, the economy of the country in a broad sense, was also involved in the exploration and exploatation of salt. At its command, in the summer of 1788, Tadeusz Czacki made a tour of the Kielce region in search of traces of salt. In view of the important events of the Four-Year Sejm (Sejm Czteroletni) and the subsequent loss of independence, the subject of salt exploration had to be abandoned. PMID:25675732

  10. Tongue and lip frenectomy in Spanish medical texts of the 16th-18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Romero-Maroto, Martín; Sáez-Gómez, José Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The frena of the tongue and lip are normal structures of the buccal cavity, and surgical resection is only necessary in cases of hypertrophy. This article looks at medical texts of the Early Modern Era to analyze the origins and quality of our knowledge on this topic and examine any therapeutic measures proposed. This review shows that while the indications for carrying out tongue frenectomy are very similar to those today (speech and breastfeeding difficulties), those for carrying out a lip frenectomy are very different. Interestingly, apart from purely surgical or medicinal treatments, some authors indicated the need to complement such treatment with educational intervention and what can only be called basic speech therapy. PMID:22916406

  11. Frederica: An 18th-Century Planned Community. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Marion

    The excavated foundations of various structures in Frederica, Saint Simons Island, Georgia, remind visitors that from 1736 until 1758, this planned community served the military garrison quartered there and housed a population of 1000. This lesson is based on the Fort Frederica National Monument listed in the National Register of Historic Places.…

  12. Gestural Enthymemes: Delivering Movement in 18th- and 19th-Century Medical Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sara

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to recent efforts to add life and movement to rhetorical studies by focusing on the representation of movement in medical texts. More specifically, this study examines medical texts, illustrations, and photographs involving movement by Johann Casper Lavater, G. B. Duchenne de Bologne, Charles Darwin, and Etienne-Jules…

  13. Gross enamel hypoplasia in molars from subadults in a 16th-18th century London graveyard.

    PubMed

    Ogden, A R; Pinhasi, R; White, W J

    2007-07-01

    Dental Enamel Hypoplasia has long been used as a common nonspecific stress indicator in teeth from archaeological samples. Most researchers report relatively minor linear and pitted hypoplastic defects on tooth crown surfaces. In this work we report a high prevalence and early age of onset of extensive enamel defects in deciduous and permanent molars in the subadults from the post-medieval cemetery of Broadgate, east central London. Analysis of the dentition of all 45 subadults from the cemetery, using both macroscopic and microscopic methods, reveals disturbed cusp patterns and pitted, abnormal and arrested enamel formation. Forty-one individuals from this group (93.2%) showed some evidence of enamel hypoplasia, 28 of them showing moderate or extensive lesions of molars, deciduous or permanent (63.6% of the sample). Scanning Electron Microscope images reveal many molars with grossly deformed cuspal architecture, multiple extra cusps and large areas of exposed Tomes' process pits, where the ameloblasts have abruptly ceased matrix production, well before normal completion. This indented, rough and poorly mineralized surface facilitates both bacterial adhesion and tooth wear, and when such teeth erupt fully into the mouth they are likely to wear and decay rapidly. We suggest that this complex combination of pitted and plane-form lesions, combined with disruption of cusp pattern and the formation of multiple small cusps, should henceforth be identified as "Cuspal Enamel Hypoplasia." PMID:17492667

  14. [The natural dream: physiology of dreaming in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Tavera, M

    2000-01-01

    To give back dreaming to reason, to remove from it "that which is marvellous, supernatural and often terrible for the common man who studies it seriously", that is the intention of Jérôme Richard and Samuel Formey, who were both contemporaries of the philosophers of the Age of the Enlightenment. Relying on the medical theories of the time as well as on the explanatory models of physiology and psychology, they try to demonstrate "the true cause of dreaming" and the natural character of the oneiric phenomenon. The transmission of sensations, the working of memory and the association of ideas, the nature and power of imagination, the predetermined or random character of dreams constitute the framework of the questions from which the explanation of "all this apparent confusion" is developed. PMID:10986794

  15. Communicating the New Chemistry in 18th-Century Portugal: Seabra's "Elementos de Chimica"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Simoes, Ana

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the aims, contents and impact of Seabra's two-volume textbook--"Elementos de Chimica" ("Elements of Chemistry")--published in 1788 and 1790. Seabra's "Elements of Chemistry" does not conform to the characteristics usually ascribed to textbooks by traditional historiography, and in particular to textbooks published in the…

  16. Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical "and" theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and…

  17. Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical and theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and mathematics; its obvious practical importance from raising water in mines to the playful fountains in royal gardens illustrates the social role of science like few others do. The playful character of historic hydraulics problems makes it also an appealing topic for modern science education.

  18. 6. LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST, 18th STREET BRIDGE AT RIGHT, PENNSYLVANIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST, 18th STREET BRIDGE AT RIGHT, PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD BRIDGE IN MIDDLE, CHICAGO TRANSIT AUTHORITY ORANGE LINE AT LEFT. - Pennsylvania Railroad, South Branch Chicago River Bridge, Spanning South Branch of Chicago River Bridge east of Canal Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  19. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (18th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 14-18, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J. Ed.; Nickelson, Richard, Ed.

    The Pacific Telecommunications Council's 18th annual conference is presented in two volumes. The PTC'96 gathering focused on seven streams: socio-economic issues; regulatory, legal and political issues; business and finance solutions; country studies; education, training, and human resources; convergence and networks; and technologies and…

  20. 76 FR 25710 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Employment and Training (ET) Handbook 336, 18th...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ..., based on BAM survey results. The SQSP Handbook No. 336 includes an action plan for each state to... Request for Information Collection for Employment and Training (ET) Handbook 336, 18th Edition... concerning the collection of data about the proposed extension to ET Handbook 336, 18th...

  1. Campus Activism in the 21st Century: A Historical Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames campus activism by introducing the historical movements that have been important for higher education since the 18th century to the present and exploring the connections and shared characteristics among these various movements.

  2. The 18th Congress of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jolyon P; Nichols, Steven C

    2011-09-01

    The 18th biennial Congress of ISAM was held for 4 days at the De Doelen Congress Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands, at which approximately 350 delegates, including 60 session chairs and speakers, attended. The abstracts of the 49 podium talks and the 126 posters that were presented have been published in the society's technical journal (journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Delivery), and the detailed program can be found on the ISAM website (www.isam.org). Postgraduate courses on the topics: 'Inhalation Therapy at the Intensive Care Unit'; 'Walking the Standards Maze: Standards for Device Development, Device Performance and Regulatory Approval'; and 'Nuts and Bolts of Aerosol Delivery: Theory, Guidelines and Practice', were offered to participants prior to the Congress itself. PMID:22833908

  3. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, RR

    2004-11-02

    The 18th Annual conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on June 2 through June 4, 2004. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research Materials Program (ARM). The objective of the ARM Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications, as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural, ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer.

  4. Proceedings of the 18th annual meeting of Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space.

    PubMed

    2004-11-01

    This issue contains the proceedings from the 18th annual meeting of the Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space, which was held at Fujita Health University, September 30-October 2, 2004. This includes papers from seven symposia: Present Status of the ISS Centrifuge and Its Scientific Goal, Strategy of Frontier Organisms--Plant Growth and Gravi-reception System, Animal Experiment in Space--Scientific Needs and Concerns, Scientific Significance of Biological Effects of Space Radiation, Adaptation of Animal Cells Against Gravity: Dynamics of Proteins and Fiber System, Growth and Gravity--How Has Gravity Associated Homeostasis Evolved and Developed?, and Tenth Anniversary of IML-2 and Its Follow-on Studies. In addition to the symposia papers, 26 general science papers from the annual meeting are included. PMID:15887354

  5. Preface of the 18th International Conference on Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, April S.; Ptak, Aaron J.

    2015-09-01

    The first International Conference on Molecular Beam Epitaxy (IC-MBE) was held in Paris in 1978, chaired by Alfred Y. Cho. Every other year since, with the exception of a four-year break after the initial meeting, the IC-MBE has been held in European, Asian, and North American venues. The 18th and latest IC-MBE was held in Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, September 7-12, 2014, and was chaired by Yong-Hang Zhang (Arizona State University). MBE is an advanced crystal growth method that benefits areas from the study of fundamental physics, all the way through the production of devices used in countless fields. IC-MBE brings together researchers from all over the world, and is the premier forum for scientific and technological exchange among researchers investigating all types of materials growth using the MBE technique.

  6. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  7. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization of the varnish and glue of an ancient 18th century double bass.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Francesco; Orecchio, Santino; Cicero, Maria Grazia; Di Stefano, Cosimo

    2007-04-20

    A GC-MS investigation is conducted on the double bass "Panormus", property of Conservatorio di Musica "Vincenzo Bellini" in Palermo. The most important components of the varnish (fatty acids) and of the glue (proteinaceous amino acids), with which the musical instrument was treated in the past, are determined. The analyses are carried out by prior derivatization of fatty acids by acidic methanol and of amino acids by acidic methanol and trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). Analytes identification is achieved by direct comparison with several reference materials and the use of a digitized library. PMID:17376455

  8. Medical electricity and madness in the 18th century: the legacies of Benjamin Franklin and Jan Ingenhousz.

    PubMed

    Beaudreau, Sherry Ann; Finger, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin had at least two accidents that resulted in electricity passing through his brain. In addition, he witnessed a patient's similar accident and performed an experiment that showed how humans could endure shocks to the head without serious ill effects, other than amnesia. Jan Ingenhousz, Franklin's Dutch-born medical correspondent better known for his discovery of photosynthesis, also had a serious accident that sent electricity though his head and, in a letter to Franklin, he described how he felt unusually elated the next day. During the 1780s, Franklin and Ingenhousz encouraged leading French and English electrical "operators" to try shocking the heads of melancholic and other deranged patients in their wards. Although they did not state that they were responding to Ingenhousz's and Franklin's suggestions, Birch, Aldini, and Gale soon did precisely what Ingenhousz and Franklin had suggested. These practitioners did not appear to induce convulsions in their mentally ill patients, but they still reported notable successes. PMID:16960304

  9. Ballistic blocks around Kīlauea Caldera: Their vent locations and number of eruptions in the late 18th century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Donald A.; Zolkos, Scott P.; Haravitch, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of ballistic blocks occur around Kīlauea Caldera and record part of the latest major period of explosive activity on the volcano, in late 1790 or within a few years thereafter. The sizes of the blocks – the largest of which is more than 2 m in nominal diameter – and differences in rock types allow the definition of at least 6 dispersal lobes of mostly undetermined relative age. The orientations of the lobes help approximate the locations of vents or explosion sources on the floor of the caldera, now deeply buried by younger lava flows. The vents may have been distributed northward for about 2 km from near the site of the modern Halema'uma'u Crater and were apparently confined to the western half of the caldera. The blocks are entirely lithic except for those in one dispersal lobe, which contains cored bombs and blocks as well as juvenile lapilli. Eruption parameters calculated from EJECT! suggest that the phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions could have been generated at the water table, about 600 m below the high point on the caldera rim.

  10. A Role for Historical Experiments: Capturing the Spirit of the Itinerant Lecturers of the 18th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Don; Stinner, Art

    2007-01-01

    Gerald Rutherford (1964), one of the original authors of the Harvard Project Physics course which emphasized the history of science, expressed a view of inquiry which advocated the historical re-constructions of significant experiments. To implement this view we examine two modes of historical re-constructions; Heering's ("Paper…

  11. A 18^th century thermometer recipe: The begin of experimental physics courses in Guadalajara, M'exico?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Alba Martinez, Durruty Jesus

    2007-03-01

    As a part of the Special Funds Collection of the Jalisco's State Public Library ``Juan Jos'e Arreola'' is a physics course manuscript attributed to Francisco Javier Clavigero s.j. (1731-1787), teacher at the Jesuit Colegio de Santo Tom'as (a college-level institution in Guadalajara before the university opening), inside of the vellum bounded volume is a unbounded folio containing instructions on how to build a thermometer. In this work are discussed some evidences of the belonging of such folio to the manuscript in spite of their differences (it is written in Spanish not in Latin as the whole), we also describe the process to construct the thermometer and how could be the experimental part of the physics course. Also is briefly exposed the importance of the educational role of Clavigero as a builder of the concept of mexicanity.

  12. Spatial-temporal analysis on climate variation in early Qing dynasty (17th -18th century) using China's chronological records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kuan-Hui Elaine; Wang, Pao-Kuan; Fan, I.-Chun; Liao, Yi-Chun; Liao, Hsiung-Ming; Pai, Pi-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change in the form of extreme, variation, and short- or mid-term fluctuation is now widely conceived to challenge the survival of the human beings and the societies. Meanwhile, improving present and future climate modeling needs a comprehensive understanding of the past climate patterns. Although historical climate modeling has gained substantive progress in recent years based on the new findings from dynamical meteorology, phenology, or paleobiology, less known are the mid- to short-term variations or lower-frequency variabilities at different temporal scale and their regional expressions. Enabling accurate historical climate modeling would heavily rely on the robustness of the dataset that could carry specific time, location, and meteorological information in the continuous temporal and spatial chains. This study thus presents an important methodological innovation to reconstruct historical climate modeling at multiple temporal and spatial scales through building a historical climate dataset, based on the Chinese chronicles compiled in a Zhang (2004) edited Compendium of Chinese Meteorological Records of the Last 3,000 Years since Zhou Dynasty (1100BC). The dataset reserves the most delicate meteorological data with accurate time, location, meteorological event, duration, and other phonological, social and economic impact information, and is carefully digitalized, coded, and geo-referenced on the Geographical Information System based maps according to Tan's (1982) historical atlas in China. The research project, beginning in January 2015, is a collaborative work among scholars across meteorology, geography, and historical linguistics disciplines. The present research findings derived from the early 100+ years of the Qing dynasty include the following. First, the analysis is based on the sampling size, denoted as cities/counties, n=1398 across the Mainland China in the observation period. Second, the frequencies of precipitation, cold-warm temperature, flood and drought with an index of social unrest are counted in an interval of a year, five years, ten years, and twenty years to gain their running mean(s) for every cites/counties to depict their temporal variations. Third, the cities and counties are divided into seven zones based on their meteorological and geographical characteristics, in order to interpret the regional expressions of the climate variations. Finally, the Ordinary Least Square regression model is used to estimate the coefficients among precipitation, temperature, flood and drought. Significantly, it is found that in general all these indices fluctuated in past 100+ years. However, the occurrence of drought and flood all have significant correlation with lower (colder) temperature (P=0.00) and also with precipitation (P<0.05). This implies that cold temperature tends to have higher meteorological extremes, and both flood and drought can occur approximately in the same year with abundant precipitation at different time. Among seven geographical zones, North China is found more vulnerable to the temperature changes considering these extreme weathers. Temperature change in Central and South China however are less significant. Central China on the other hand is more sensitive to the precipitation that are both correlated with drought and flood.

  13. [Folk medicine veterinary science in the level of paterfamilias literature of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Krüger, H

    1993-06-01

    Paterfamilial literature in Germany marked the emergence of a literary category, with its householder writings being precursors of some of a farm management theory. Its pamphlets on veterinary medicine reflected latest knowledge in its time in farming. A number of economy housebooks is presented together with the authors in an attempt to give a somewhat closer account of this literature category in populist veterinary medicine. PMID:8339711

  14. Chemistry Everywhere. The 18th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education, Iowa State University, July 18-22, 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, K. A.; Freilich, Mark; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Harwood, William S.

    2004-04-01

    This article provides an overview of the upcoming 18th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (BCCE) to be held on the campus of Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, July 18-22, 2004. The report includes details of conference registration, campus housing, campus dining, off-campus housing, tours, social activities, plenary speakers, the conference banquet, travel, and Sci-Mix. The 18th BCCE is using an online abstract submission system, registration and campus housing, and campus dining system. Everything about the conference can be found at the conference Web site (accessed Mar 2004).

  15. Parameterization of 18th January 2011 earthquake in Dalbadin Region, Southwest Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiq-Ur-Rehman; Azeem, Tahir; Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; Nasir, Asma

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake of magnitude 7.3 Mw occurred on 18th January 2011 in Southwestern Pakistan, Baluchistan province (Dalbadin Region). The area has complex tectonics due to interaction of Indian, Eurasian and Arabian plates. Both thrust and strike slip earthquakes are dominant in this region with minor, localized normal faulting events. This earthquake under consideration (Dalbadin Earthquake) posed constraints in depth and focal parameters due to lack of data for evaluation of parameters from Pakistan, Iran or Afghanistan region. Normal faulting mechanism has been proposed by many researchers for this earthquake. In the present study the earthquake was relocated using the technique of travel time residuals. Relocated coordinates and depth were utilized to calculate the focal mechanism solution with outcome of a dominant strike slip mechanism, which is contrary to normal faulting. Relocated coordinates and resulting mechanism are more reliable than many reporting agencies as evaluation in this study is augmented by data from local seismic monitoring network of Pakistan. The tectonics in the area is governed by active subduction along the Makran Subduction Zone. This particular earthquake has strike slip mechanism due to breaking of subducting oceanic plate. This earthquake is located where oceanic lithosphere is subducting along with relative movements between Lut and Helmand blocks. Magnitude of this event i.e. Mw = 7.3, re evaluated depth and a previous study of mechanism of earthquake in same region (Shafiq et al., 2011) also supports the strike slip movement.

  16. Synthesis of calcium antimonate nano-crystals by the 18th dynasty Egyptian glassmakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahlil, S.; Biron, I.; Cotte, M.; Susini, J.; Menguy, N.

    2010-01-01

    During the 18th Egyptian dynasty (1570-1292 B.C.), opaque white, blue and turquoise glasses were opacified by calcium antimonate crystals dispersed in a vitreous matrix. The technological processes as well as the antimony sources used to manufacture these crystals remain unknown. Our results shed a new light on glassmaking history: contrary to what was thought, we demonstrate that Egyptian glassmakers did not use in situ crystallization but first synthesized calcium antimonate opacifiers, which do not exist in nature, and then added them to a glass. Furthermore, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the first time in the study of Egyptian opaque glasses, we show that these opacifiers were nano-crystals. Prior to this research, such a process for glassmaking has not been suggested for any kind of ancient opaque glass production. Studying various preparation methods for calcium antimonate, we propose that Egyptian craftsmen could have produced Ca2Sb2O7 by using mixtures of Sb2O3 or Sb2O5 with calcium carbonates (atomic ratio Sb/Ca=1) heat treated between 1000 and 1100°C. We developed an original strategy focused on the investigation of the crystals and the vitreous matrices using an appropriate suite of high-sensitivity and high-resolution micro- and nano-analytical techniques (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), TEM). Synchrotron-based micro X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (μ-XANES) proved to be very well suited to the selective measure of the antimony oxidation state in the vitreous matrix. This work is the starting point for a complete reassessment not only of ancient Egyptian glass studies but more generally of high-temperature technologies used throughout antiquity.

  17. Floods of the Maros river in the early modern and modern period (16th-20th centuries)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In the poster presentation a series of historical and recent floods of the Maros river, with special emphasis on the flood events occurred on the lower sections, are presented. Similar to the Hungarian flood databases of the Middle-Danube and Lower-Tisza, the main sources of investigations are the institutional (legal-administrative) documentary evidence (e.g. Szeged and Makó town council protocols and related administrative documentation, Csanád County meeting protocols) mainly from the late 17th-early 18th century onwards. However, in case of the Maros river there is an increased importance of narrative sources, with special emphasis on the early modern period (16th-17th century): in this case the (mainly Transylvanian) narratives (chronicles, diaries, memoires etc.) written by aristocrats, other noblemen and town citizens have particular importance. In the presentation the frequency of detected flood events, from the mid-16th century onwards (with an outlook on sporadic medieval evidence), is provided; moreover, a 3-scaled magnitude classification and a seasonality analysis are also presented. Floods of the Maros river, especially those of the lower river sections, often cannot be understood and discussed without the floods of the (Lower-)Tisza; thus, a comparison of the two flood series are also a subject of discussion. Unlike the Lower-Tisza, the Maros is prone to winter and early spring ice jam floods: since the floods that belonged to this type (similar to those of the Middle-Danube at Budapest) were the most destructive among the flood events of the river, this flood type, and the greatest flood events (e.g. 1751-1752, 1784) are also presented in more detail.

  18. American veterinary history: before the nineteenth century. 1940.

    PubMed

    Bierer, Bert W

    2014-11-01

    With the development of our present day domesticated animals in America (during the 16th and 17th centuries), it was not long before animal diseases became troublesome and destructive (especially during the latter half of the 18th century). Though veterinary medicine became rather firmly established in many European countries (including England) during the latter half of the 18th century, veterinary medicine was relatively nonexistent in America, with only self-styled animal doctors and farriers (with their empirical and often destructive remedies). PMID:25799615

  19. Integrating Women into U.S. History: A Sourcebook. Part I: Women in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Part II: Women in the 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, D'Ann; And Others

    This sourcebook, in two parts, aims at supplementing the limited material dealing with women's history normally found in junior and senior high school U.S. history textbooks. The lessons were developed by teachers at an intensive summer institute dealing with women's issues. The teachers and their colleagues field-tested the lessons and revised…

  20. Real-World Vehicle Emissions: A Summary of the 18th Coordinating Research Council On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Cadle, S. H.; Ayala, A.; Black, K. N.; Graze, R. R.; Koupal, J.; Minassian, F.; Murray, H. B.; Natarajan, M.; Tennant, C. J.; Lawson, D. R.

    2009-02-01

    The Coordinating Research Council (CRC) convened its 18th On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop March 31-April 2, 2008, with 104 presentations describing the most recent mobile source-related emissions research. In this paper we summarize the presentations from researchers whose efforts are improving our understanding of the contribution of mobile sources to air quality. Participants in the workshop discussed emission models and emissions inventories, results from gas- and particle-phase emissions studies from spark-ignition and diesel-powered vehicles (with an emphasis in this workshop on particle emissions), effects of fuels on emissions, evaluation of in-use emission-control programs, and efforts to improve our capabilities in performing on-board emissions measurements, as well as topics for future research.

  1. Self-Selection, Earnings and Chicano Migration: Differences between Return and Onward Migrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumway, J. Matthew; Hall, Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines Chicano return migration and earnings differentials between return and onward Chicano migrants by reviewing 1990 Public Use Microdata Sample of the U.S. census. Results indicate that Chicano return migrants have smaller earnings largely due to living in areas with higher concentrations of co-ethnics. Apparently, return migrants are…

  2. Satirizing Women's Speech in Eighteenth-Century England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Stephen H.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the 18th-century rhetorical convention of misogynist satire and how it shaped attitudes toward women speakers. Focuses not so much on the formal properties of the satire but on its convention and content as modes of insinuation. Surveys prominent journals, newspapers, magazines, and reviews of the period. (TB)

  3. The Observing Eye: A Century of Baby Diaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Doris B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Identifies three categories of baby diaries--scientific, educational, and domestic--prevalent from the late 18th to late 19th century in Western Europe and the United States. Discusses the diarists and recurring themes in the diaries, such as the nature of instinctive behaviors and recapitulationism. Explores contemporary uses of the diary method.…

  4. Strangers, the Russian Side: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book Ib.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnow, Patricia H.

    This story is to be used as part of the social studies unit, The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, to show the Russian perspective on their first interaction with the Aleuts. A Russian trapper tells of his experiences on one of the first Russian ships to explore the Aleutian Islands in the 18th century. Written as a diary, the story describes…

  5. Strangers, the Aleut Side: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book Ia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnow, Patricia H.

    In this story, a young Aleutian man relates his impressions about the arrival of the first Russian explorers on the Aleutian Islands in the 18th century. The story is to be used as part of the social studies unit, The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, to show the Aleutian perspective on the event. The narrator tells of the arrival of a strange…

  6. Report on the 18th International Conference on X-ray and Inner-Shell Processes (X99).

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmell, D. S.; Physics

    2000-01-01

    The 18th conference of the series served as a forum for discussing fundamental issues in the field of x-ray and inner-shell processes and their application in various disciplines of science and technology. Special emphasis was given to the opportunities offered by modern synchrotron x-ray sources. The program included plenary talks, progress reports and poster presentations relating to new developments in the field of x-ray and inner-shell processes. The range of topics included: X-ray interactions with atoms, molecules, clusters, surfaces and solids; Decay processes for inner-shell vacancies; X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy - Photoionization processes; Phenomena associated with highly charged ions and collisions with energetic particles; Electron-spin and -momentum spectroscopy; X-ray scattering and spectroscopy in the study of magnetic systems; Applications in materials science, biology, geosciences, and other disciplines; Elastic and inelastic x-ray scattering processes in atoms and molecules; Threshold phenomena (post-collision interaction, resonant Raman processes, etc.); Nuclear absorption and scattering of x-rays; 'Fourth-generation' x-ray sources; Processes exploiting the polarization and coherence properties of x-ray beams; Developments in experimental techniques (x-ray optics, temporal techniques, detectors); Microscopy, spectromicroscopy, and various imaging techniques; Non-linear processes and x-ray lasers; Ionization and excitation induced by charged particles and by x-rays; and Exotic atoms (including 'hollow' atoms and atoms that contain 'exotic' particles).

  7. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit.

    PubMed

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Habicht, Michael E; Buckley, Stephen; Fletcher, Joann; Seiler, Roger; Öhrström, Lena M; Vassilika, Eleni; Böni, Thomas; Rühli, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers' village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out) investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated "recipes", whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification. PMID:26200778

  8. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit

    PubMed Central

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Habicht, Michael E.; Buckley, Stephen; Fletcher, Joann; Seiler, Roger; Öhrström, Lena M.; Vassilika, Eleni; Böni, Thomas; Rühli, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers’ village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out) investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated “recipes”, whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification. PMID:26200778

  9. The initial giant umbrella cloud of the May 18th, 1980, explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparks, R.S.J.; Moore, J.G.; Rice, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The initial eruption column of May 18th, 1980 reached nearly 30 km altitude and released 1017 joules of thermal energy into the atmosphere in only a few minutes. Ascent of the cloud resulted in forced intrusion of a giant umbrella-shaped cloud between altitudes of 10 and 20 km at radial horizontal velocities initially in excess of 50 m/s. The mushroom cloud expanded 15 km upwind, forming a stagnation point where the radial expansion velocity and wind velocity were equal. The cloud was initiated when the pyroclastic blast flow became buoyant. The flow reduced its density as it moved away from the volcano by decompression, by sedimentation, and by mixing with and heating the surrounding air. Observations indicate that much of the flow, covering an area of 600 km2, became buoyant within 1.5 minutes and abruptly ascended to form the giant cloud. Calculations are presented for the amount of air that must have been entrained into the flow to make it buoyant. Assuming an initial temperature of 450??C and a magmatic origin for the explosion, these calculations indicate that the flow became buoyant when its temperature was approximately 150??C and the flow consisted of a mixture of 3.25 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 5.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. If sedimentation is considered, these figures reduce to 1.1 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 1.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. ?? 1986.

  10. Wood Densitometry in 17th and 18th Century Dutch, German, Austrian and French Violins, Compared to Classical Cremonese and Modern Violins

    PubMed Central

    Stoel, Berend C.; Borman, Terry M.; de Jongh, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Classical violins produced by makers such as Antonio Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesu have long been considered the epitome of the luthier's art and the expressive tool of choice for the most celebrated violinists. It has been speculated these makers had access to wood that was unique in some way and that this was responsible for their acclaimed tonal characteristics. In an attempt to discern whether the above conjecture is true, we analyzed 17 modern and classical Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins by wood densitometry using computed tomography and correlated these results with our previous study of modern and Cremonese violins; in all studying 30 instruments of the violin family. In order to make this comparison possible we developed methods to cross calibrate results from different CT manufacturers using calibration wood pieces. We found no significant differences in median densities between modern and classical violins, or between classical violins from different origins. These results suggest that it is unlikely classical Cremonese makers had access to wood with significantly different wood density characteristics than that available to contemporaneous or modern makers. PMID:23071602

  11. Richard Bradley: a unified, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants, animals, and humans in the first decades of the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Santer, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    During the years 1714 to 1721, Richard Bradley, who was later to become the first Professor of Botany at Cambridge University, proposed a unified, unique, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants and animals and the plague of humans. Bradley's agents included microscopic organisms, revealed by the studies of Robert Hooke and Antony van Leeuwenhoek. His theory derived from his experimental studies of plants and their diseases and from microscopic observation of animalcules in different naturally occurring and artificial environments. He concluded that there was a microscopic world of "insects" that lived and reproduced under the appropriate conditions, and that infectious diseases of plants were caused by such "insects." Since there are structural and functional similarities between plants and animals, Bradley concluded that microscopic organisms caused human and animal infectious diseases as well. However, his living agent cause of infectious diseases was not accepted by the contemporary scientific society. PMID:19855125

  12. [Vampires in the village Žrnovo on the island of Korčula: following an archival document from the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Coralic, Lovorka; Dugac, Zeljko; Sardelic, Sani

    2011-01-01

    The main interest of this essay is the analysis of the document from the State Archive in Venice (file: Capi del Consiglio de' Dieci: Lettere di Rettori e di altre cariche) which is connected with the episode from 1748 when the inhabitants of the village žrnove on the island of Korčula in Croatia opened tombs on the local cemetery in the fear of the vampires treating. This essay try to show some social circumstances connected with this event as well as a local vernacular tradition concerning superstitions. PMID:22047480

  13. Loss of genetic diversity in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) associated with the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, S.; Jameson, R.; Etnier, M.; Flemings, M.; Bentzen, P.

    2002-01-01

    During 1969 and 1970, surveys of the endangered Yuma Clapper Rail were conducted using taped calls to elicit responses from the birds. During the two summers, more than 158 Yuma clappers were located in cattailtule marshes along the Colorado River south of Needles, California, to the International Boundary, a distance of about 240 miles. Clappers (probably of the same race) were also found in estuarian marshes of the Colorado River Delta of Mexico; in the Salton Sea; in two freshwater marsh areas near Phoenix, Arizona; and in two freshwater marshes adjacent to the lower Gila River near Tacna, Arizona.....Populations of Sonora Clapper Rails were discovered as permanent residents in five separate mangrove swamps along the west coast of Mexico in the vicinity of Kino Bay, Sonora. These observations were farther north than any heretofore reported for the race R. l. rhizophorae, and the swamps also represent the extreme northward limit of mangroves in Sonora.....During the winter, Yuma clappers did not respond to taped calls north of the International Boundary, whereas clappers along the coast of Sonora readily answered the calls during the same period of time. We conclude that most Yuma Clapper Rails migrate from their summer habitat along the Colorado River in September and do not return to the breeding areas until late April.

  14. The heliospheric Hale cycle over the last 300 years and its implications for a "lost" late 18th century solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Mathew J.; McCracken, Ken G.; Lockwood, Mike; Barnard, Luke

    2015-09-01

    A Hale cycle, one complete magnetic cycle of the Sun, spans two complete Schwabe cycles (also referred to as sunspot and, more generally, solar cycles). The approximately 22-year Hale cycle is seen in magnetic polarities of both sunspots and polar fields, as well as in the intensity of galactic cosmic rays reaching Earth, with odd- and even-numbered solar cycles displaying qualitatively different waveforms. Correct numbering of solar cycles also underpins empirical cycle-to-cycle relations which are used as first-order tests of stellar dynamo models. There has been much debate about whether the unusually long solar cycle 4 (SC4), spanning 1784-1799, was actually two shorter solar cycles combined as a result of poor data coverage in the original Wolf sunspot number record. Indeed, the group sunspot number does show a small increase around 1794-1799 and there is evidence of an increase in the mean latitude of sunspots at this time, suggesting the existence of a cycle "4b". In this study, we use cosmogenic radionuclide data and associated reconstructions of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) to show that the Hale cycle has persisted over the last 300 years and that data prior to 1800 are more consistent with cycle 4 being a single long cycle (the "no SC4b" scenario). We also investigate the effect of cycle 4b on the HMF using an open solar flux (OSF) continuity model, in which the OSF source term is related to sunspot number and the OSF loss term is determined by the heliospheric current sheet tilt, assumed to be a simple function of solar cycle phase. The results are surprising; Without SC4b, the HMF shows two distinct peaks in the 1784-1799 interval, while the addition of SC4b removes the secondary peak, as the OSF loss term acts in opposition to the later rise in sunspot number. The timing and magnitude of the main SC4 HMF peak is also significantly changed by the addition of SC4b. These results are compared with the cosmogenic isotope reconstructions of HMF and historical aurora records. These data marginally favour the existence of SC4b (the "SC4b" scenario), though the result is less certain than that based on the persistence of the Hale cycle. Thus while the current uncertainties in the observations preclude any definitive conclusions, the data favour the "no SC4b" scenario. Future improvements to cosmogenic isotope reconstructions of the HMF, through either improved modelling or additional ice cores from well-separated geographic locations, may enable questions of the existence of SC4b and the phase of Hale cycle prior to the Maunder minimum to be settled conclusively.

  15. From Poverty to Prosperity: The Impact of Socio-Economic Change on Finnish Elementary Education in the Late 18th and Early 19th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikonen, Risto

    2004-01-01

    The present study describes the private pursuit of improved Finnish elementary education in the time of Gustavus (1771-1808). In those days, the Government did not have enough resources to reorganise the Swedish educational system as a whole; therefore, the most efficient way to promote elementary education was to rely on private initiatives. The…

  16. Late 18th to early 19th century sea-level history and inter-seismic behavior along the western Myanmar plate boundary belt recorded by coral microatolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sze-Chieh; Shyu, J. Bruce H.

    2016-04-01

    Along the western Myanmar plate boundary belt, the Indian-Australian plate is subducting obliquely beneath the Burma micro-plate at a rate of about 23 mm/yr. Although information about the 1762 Arakan earthquake, the only major historical event occurred along this plate boundary belt, has been delineated recently from uplifted coastal features, constraints on the inter-seismic behavior of this belt is still very limited, due to the lack of high resolution instrumental records in the area. Therefore, we utilized coral microatolls to analyze relative sea level history, in order to obtain potential information of land-level change along the western coast of Myanmar. Our sample was collected from northwestern Ramree Island, approximately 80 km away from the trench. Previous studies suggest that the coral was uplifted and killed during a local earthquake event in 1848, and recorded relative sea level history of ~80 years prior to that event. Since the highest level of survival (HLS) of coral microatolls is constrained within a few centimeters of the lowest tide level of the area, the patterns of annual growth bands of the coral microatoll in x-radiograph provide us yearly record of relative sea level, and we used U-Th dating technique to constrain the age of the coral. Our results show that this coral microatoll may have recorded the inter-seismic subsidence of northwestern Ramree Island, punctuated by several climatic events that produced die-down records of the coral growth bands. We hope the data obtained from this coral microatoll, combined with previously reported information of the area, will enable us to further understand the seismic behavior of this major plate boundary belt.

  17. [A view of non-professional medicine in the 18th century as reflected by the memoirs of Regina Salomea Rusiecka-Pilsztyn].

    PubMed

    Pluta, Michał

    2003-01-01

    The source of this article were Rusiecka's memoirs entitled 'Proceder podrózy i zycia mego awantur' ('My Life's Travels and Adventures'), written down in about 1760 in Istanbul and published in 1957 under the editorship of Roman Pollak. The authoress of the memoirs was born in 1718 in the Nowogródek area, most probably the daughter of petty gentry. At the age of 14, she was given in marriage to oculist Jakub Halpir. It was from him that she received her first lessons in medicine and with him she travelled to Istanbul. She subsequently undertook a number of journeys, to St Petersburg and Vienna and across Silesia and the Balkans. She also made her way to the Holy Land and Egypt. Rusiecka passed herself off as an oculist although she had never had any formal medical training. Nevertheless, she treated various diseases and ailments. The article presents the medical treatment applied by Rusiecka. Unfortunately, her memoirs did not describe them in detail and only provided general information on the progress of the disease and the therapeutic methods she employed. PMID:17152873

  18. [The participation of German pharmacists in the chemical revolution at the turn of the 18th to the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Friedrich, C; Behnsen, S

    1990-02-01

    Between 1775 and about 1800 the Phlogiston theory was replaced by the Oxygen theory. Both systems are presented briefly. Pharmacists on both sides were involved in the scientific discussions of the Chemical Revolution in Germany. Their contribution is appreciated. Finally the peculiarities of this paradigm exchange are described. PMID:2187203

  19. Spatial trends in S and Cl in ash leachates of the May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mt. St Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayris, Paul M.; Delmelle, Pierre; Durant, Adam J.; Damby, David E.; Maters, Elena C.

    2014-05-01

    It has long been known that surficial deposits of salts and acids on volcanic ash particles derive from interactions of ash with sulphur and halide species within the eruption plume and volcanic cloud. These compounds are mobilised as ash particles are wetted, and beneficial or detrimental environmental and health impacts may be induced where the most concentrated solutions are produced. However, limited mechanistic understanding of gas-ash interactions currently precludes prediction of the spatial distribution or variation in leachate chemistry and concentration following an eruption. Sampling and leachate analysis of freshly-fallen ash therefore offers the sole method by which such variations can be observed. Previous ash leachate studies often involve a limited number of ash samples, and utilise a 'one-dimensional' analysis that considers variation in terms of absolute distance from the source volcano. Here, we demonstrate that extensive sampling and a 'two-dimensional' analysis can uncover more complex spatial trends. We compiled over 358 leachate compositions from the May 18th 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Of the water-extracted leachates, only 95 compositions from ash sampled at 45 localities between 35 and 1129 km from the volcano are sufficiently documented to be retrospectively comparable. To consider the effects of intra-deposit variability, we calculated average concentrations of leachate data within 11×22 km grid cells across the region, and defined a data quality parameter to reflect confidence in the derived values. To investigate any dependence of leachate composition on the grain size distribution, we generated an interpolated map of geometric specific surface area variation across the deposit, normalising ash leachate data to the calculated specific surface area at the corresponding sampling location. The data treatment identifies S and Cl enrichments in proximal blast deposits; relatively constant Cl concentrations across the ashfall deposits

  20. 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings, 3-6 August 2008, Vail, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B. L.

    2008-09-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 3-6, 2008. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'New Directions for Rapidly Growing Silicon Technologies.'

  1. 5.9 Mw, 18th June 2010 earthquake and fault segment linkage at Andaman - A study based on macroseismic survey, GPS geodesy and Coulomb stress changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, S. K.; Jana, Prasun; Mohapatra, S. R.; Nayak, S. K.; Saha, Ashim Kumar

    2013-05-01

    18th June, 2010 5.9 Mw earthquake at North Andaman triggered along NW-SE pre-existing fault with reverse fault mechanism. Macroseismic survey and GPS geodesy reveal maximum damages following NE-SW trend due to normal fault mechanism. Coulomb stress modeling for post- and inter-seismic earthquakes after the 2004 mega-earthquake show different stages of fault segment linkage at North Andaman. The present earthquake has been explained as co-shock due to asiesmic soft linkage of fault propagation.

  2. Energy spectrum and arrival direction of primary cosmic rays of energy above 10 to the 18th power eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagano, M.; Honda, M.; Mori, M.; Teshima, M.; Hayashida, N.; He, C. X.; Ishikawa, F.; Kamata, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Ohoka, H.

    1985-01-01

    The observation of ultra high energy cosmic rays with 20 sq km array has started at Akeno. The preliminary results on energy spectrum and arrival direction of energies above 10 to the 18th eV are prsented with data accumulated for four years with the 1 sq km array, for two years with the 4 sq km array and for a half year with the new array. The energy spectrum is consistent with the previous experiments showing the flattening above 10 to the 18.5 eV.

  3. On the Importance of Halle in the Eighteenth Century for the History of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Hanno

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the very beginnings of pedagogy as it separated from theology at the University of Halle in the 18th century. Discusses the role of the charitable organization, the Francke Foundation, in the establishment of this new discipline. Considers the entrenched opposition pedagogy faced from the University establishment. (MJP)

  4. Ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in royal Egyptian mummies of 18th -20th Dynasties? CT and archaeology studies.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Sahar N; Hawass, Zahi

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To study the computed tomography(CT) images of royal Ancient Egyptian mummies dated to the 18th to early 20th Dynasties for the claimed diagnoses of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and to correlate the findings with the archaeology literature.Methods. We studied the CT images of 13 royal Ancient Egyptian mummies (1492–1153 BC) for evidence of AS and DISH and correlated our findings with the archaeology literature.Results. The findings of the CT scans excluded the diagnosis of AS, based on the absence of sacroiliac joint erosions or fusion of the facet joints. Four mummies fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for DISH:Amenhotep III (18th Dynasty), Ramesses II, his son Merenptah, and Ramesses III (19th to early 20th Dynasties).The diagnosis of DISH, a commonly a symptomatic disease of old age, in the 4 pharaohs is in concordance with their longevity and active lifestyles.Conclusion. CT findings excluded the diagnosis of AS in the studied royal Ancient Egyptian mummies and brought into question the antiquity of the disease. The CT features of DISH during this ancient period were similar to those commonly seen in modern populations,and it is likely that they will also be similar in the future.The affection of Ramesses II and his son Merenptah supports familial clustering of DISH. The process of mummification may induce changes in the spine that should be considered during investigations of disease in ancient mummies. PMID:25329920

  5. Charitable Provision for Blind People and Deaf People in Late Nineteenth Century London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lees, Colin; Ralph, Sue

    2004-01-01

    In nineteenth century England much charitable activity was directed towards the relief of poverty, but such provision developed significantly to support a variety of requirements. Although from the eighteenth century onwards there were instances of co-operation between voluntary charitable effort and the state, governments in the early and mid…

  6. Broadway High School: Moving Ahead in Math. Onward to Excellence II: Committing to CHANGE with OTE II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR. School Improvement Program.

    This document describes the school reform movement at Broadway High School in rural Virginia which has led to great success in mathematics achievement as proven by the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL) tests. The Onward to Excellence II model provided a way for the faculty to focus on math, especially Algebra I, and to involve the entire school…

  7. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  8. Education and Social Control of the Lower Classes in England in the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Bruce

    1974-01-01

    Education for the poor and laboring classes in the latter part of the 18th century was characterized by the goal of maintaining social order and fitting the poor for their duties in the established order of the universe. (Author/DN)

  9. American Catholic Schools for the 21st Century: Reflections on the Future of American Catholic Elementary Schools. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Robert J., Ed.

    Catholic schools in the United States today are very different from the Catholic schools that first opened in the 18th and 19th centuries. This handbook is a call to action for all Catholic elementary schools, inviting and challenging all Catholic educators to plan for the future. The volume is the first in a series of handbooks containing essays…

  10. Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

  11. Upward and onward: high-society American women eluded the antebellum puzzle.

    PubMed

    Sunder, Marco

    2011-03-01

    We analyze archival evidence on the physical stature of 19th-century female US passport applicants. Heights in this group increased markedly at a time when the rest of the population was becoming shorter. While diseases may have affected the physical stature of everyone in the society, the fact that the height of elite women did not decline (and even increased) suggests that their families were wealthy enough to shield them completely from rising price of nutrients. PMID:21333616

  12. Eighteenth-century forms of quasicrystals.

    PubMed

    Pina, Carlos M; López-Acevedo, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    A careful inspection of the drawings and baked clay models created by the mineralogist Romé de L'Isle in the 18th century has revealed the existence of a number of intriguing forms with pentagonal symmetries. These forms cannot be classified in any of the 32 crystal classes. They can thus be considered the first crystallographic descriptions of polyhedral forms found in quasicrystals two centuries later. This paper presents a symmetry analysis of the fascinating drawings and clay models with pentagonal symmetries described in the book Cristallographie published in 1783 by Romé de L'Isle, as well as a comparison with quasicrystals recently synthesized. The paper also briefly discusses what could induce Romé de L'Isle to consider forms with pentagonal symmetries as plausible crystal forms. PMID:26697870

  13. 18th Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer. 30 October-2 November 2003, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

    PubMed

    Marincola, Francesco M; Wang, Ena; Atkins, Michael B

    2004-01-01

    The 18th Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer (iSBTc) was held at the Hyatt Regency, Bethesda, MD, close to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) campus. The meeting was organised on behalf of the society by Neil Berinstein from Aventis Pasteur, Toronto, Canada, Janice P Dutcher from Our Lady of Mercy Medical Center, Bronx, NY and Francesco M Marincola from the NIH, Bethesda, MD. The 2003 meeting included 57 oral presentations and > 100 poster presentations. There were > 800 registrants to the Annual Meeting and the multiple satellite symposia. The iSBTc, formerly the Society of Biological Therapy (SBT), was founded by R Oldham in 1984. Its membership has been rapidly growing of late, with > 500 members at present. The purpose of the iSBTc is to bring together those diverse individuals actively investigating biologic agents and biological response modifiers in the treatment of cancer, including clinicians and basic scientists from industry, government and academia. The President of the Society is Dr Michael B Atkins from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA and the Vice President is Ulrich Keilholz from UKBF, Free University Berlin, Germany. PMID:14680473

  14. [History of the Halle Ars medica Judaica. V. Scientific achievements and medical publications of 2 centuries].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W; Völker, A

    1989-05-01

    A medico-scientific journalism of Jewish origin which became increasedly recognizable on the German territory in the second half of the 17th century was at first based on the activities of Spanish-Portuguese exiles. Beginning with the 18th century at first the inaugural papers, but then also the publications of renowned Jewish physicians determined the profile of this literary group. The access to academic teaching professions becoming possible in the 19th century developed concentration points of research engagement, which in this place shall be indicated at the instance of the Medical Faculty of Halle University. PMID:2662660

  15. Millon's Contributions to Preadolescent and Adolescent Personality Assessment: Searching Onward and Upward.

    PubMed

    Tringone, Robert; Bockian, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Theodore Millon was one of the most influential personality theorists of the 20th century. His theory was originally rooted in biosocial learning models and later reconceptualized as an evolutionary model. This foundation of Millon's work encompasses the entire life span. He had a genuine concern for humankind, especially children. His theory encompasses a comprehensive understanding of the relationship among childhood experiences, parenting styles, and recurring events throughout the life span in shaping the personality. Notable contributions to child and adolescent assessment are the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (Millon, Green, & Meagher, 1982 ), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (Millon, Millon, & Davis, 1993 ), and the Millon Pre-Adolescent Clinical Inventory (M-PACI; Millon, Tringone, Millon, & Grossman, 2005 ). Given Millon's influence on the personality disorders section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the aforementioned instruments have personality constructs tied to familiar DSM categories, and among them, cover the age range of 9 to 18 years old. His development of the Millon Inventories revolutionized personality assessment in the United States and abroad. Millon's legacies will live on through his works and through the respect and compassion he demonstrated toward others. PMID:26226175

  16. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on the 14th-18th days of gestation on postnatal growth and development in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-11-01

    Thirty-nine pregnant adult Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of three exposure groups: 0, 0.75, or 1.50 Gy X-radiation total exposure. Animals were exposed from the 14th to the 18th days of gestation at 0, 0.15, or 0.30 Gy per day. At term, 15 rats were killed and morphologic analyses were completed. Twenty-four rats were allowed to deliver their offspring. On the first day of postnatal life, litters were reduced to a maximum of eight pups per litter, with equal numbers of male and female offspring wherever possible. A total of 187 pups were observed for the age of acquisition of five reflexes (air righting, surface righting, visual placing, negative geotaxis, auditory startle) and the appearance of four physiologic markers (pinna detachment, eye opening, vaginal opening, testes descent). There was significant dose-related weight reduction in term fetuses and offspring throughout the 86-day postnatal period. Postnatal growth rate (g gained/day) was unaffected. Adult offspring brain and gonadal weight and organ weight:body weight ratios were reduced. Using the PAC50 methodology, dose-related alterations occurred in the acquisition of several reflexes. All physiologic markers exhibited a dose-related delay in appearance. These results indicate that fractionated exposure to X-radiation during the fetal period in the rat results in dose-dependent alterations in postnatal growth and physiologic development. These studies are important for our understanding of the long-range effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation late in gestation.

  17. Pre-germination temperature and the survivorship and onward growth of Mediterranean fire-following plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Mick E.; Fenner, Michael

    1998-04-01

    The role of heat shock in the induction of seed germination for numerous Mediterranean fire-following plant species is well documented. However, the influence of pre-germination heating of seeds upon seedling survivorship and onward growth has not been studied. The aim of the experiments described here was to investigate how a range of heat treatments affects seedling survivorship and onward growth for six common fire-following Mediterranean plant species ( Anthyllis vulneraria, Cistus creticus, C. salvifolius, Hippocrepis unisiliquosa, Pinus brutia and P. halepensis). In the first experiment, seeds of five species were heated to temperatures ranging between 80°C and 120°C (at 10°C intervals) for 10 min and subsequent seedling growth monitored over 8 weeks. Survivorship for two pine species ( Pinus halepensis and Pinus brutia) was reduced after seeds were heated above 90°C. Onward growth for Pinus halepensis and the legume, Anthyllis vulneraria, was negatively affected by increasing pre-germination temperature. Survivorship and growth for both Cistus species was unaffected by heating seeds up to 110°C. The second experiment examined more closely seedling performance of Hippocrepis unisiliquosa seedlings when seeds were heated to temperatures ranging between 50°C and 90°C (at 10°C intervals) for 5, 10, 15 and 20 mins. Increasing pre-germination temperature and the length of time seeds were exposed to heating significantly reduced seedling growth rates in this species. The effect of fire on seedling emergence, growth and survivorship in the field is discussed with reference to the adaptation of the six species to post-fire regeneration and the patterns of seedling regeneration observed in the field.

  18. Effects of slope on the formation of dunes in dilute, turbulent pyroclastic currents: May 18th, 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendana, Sylvana; Brand, Brittany D.; Self, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    The flanks of Mt St Helens volcano (MSH) are draped with thin, cross-stratified and stratified pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits. These are known as the proximal bedded deposits produced during the May 18th, 1980 eruption of MSH. While the concentrated portions of the afternoon PDCs followed deep topographic drainages down the steep flanks of the volcano, the dilute overriding cloud partially decoupled to develop fully dilute, turbulent PDCs on the flanks of the volcano (Beeson, D.L. 1988. Proximal Flank Facies of the May 18, 1980 Ignimbrite: Mt. St. Helens, Washington.). The deposits along the flank thus vary greatly from those found in the pumice plain, which are generally thick, massive, poorly-sorted, block-rich deposits associated with the more concentrated portions of the flow (Brand et al, accepted. Dynamics of pyroclastic density currents: Conditions that promote substrate erosion and self-channelization - Mount St Helens, Washington (USA). JVGR). We explore the influence of topography on the formation of these dilute currents and influence of slope on the currents transport and depositional mechanisms. The deposits on steeper slopes (>15°) are fines depleted relative to the proximal bedded deposits on shallower slopes (<15°). Bedform amplitude and wavelength increase with increasing slope, as does the occurrence of regressive dunes. Increasing slope causes an increase in flow velocity and thus an increase in flow turbulence. The fines depleted deposits suggest that fine ash elutriation is more efficient in flows with stronger turbulence. The longer wavelength and amplitudes suggest that bedform morphology is directly related to flow velocity, an important finding since the controls on bedform wavelength and amplitude in density stratified flows remains poorly constrained. The occurrence of regressive dunes, often interpreted as high flow-regime bedforms, on steeper slopes relative to progressive dunes on shallower slopes further attests to the

  19. Papers and Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Midwest History of Education Society (18th, Chicago, Illinois, October 29-30, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Edward, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The papers of this proceedings are organized into four parts : religion and education; the politics of urban education; issues in minority education; and concepts of childhood. The first paper in part 1 "I will Declare What He Hath Done for My Soul: Female Conversion Narratives in the Early Nineteenth Century" (V. L. Brereton) explores the…

  20. Preliminary estimation of the peak discharge at the Su Gologone spring (Central-East Sardinia) during the flood event of November 18th, 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossu, Antonello; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Francesco; Sanna, Laura

    2014-05-01

    times at the spring, based on the speed of the water taken with a hydraulic reel specially dedicated for this type of survey. These data show that an increase in water level of just 60 cm, produces a flow rate ten times higher than that during low discharge. During the peak discharge at the spring the probe has recorded a rise in the water level of over 11 metres, between 18:00 and 21:00 on November 18th, 2013. Part of this increase, however, was due to the barrier function of the nearby Cedrino river, whose high water level has blocked the drainage of the water from the karst system. The water spring level curve shows a temporary lowering around noon, before the flood peak, probably due to the opening of the dam. On the basis of the comparison between the measured speed of water flow in the stages immediately preceding and succeeding the flood event and of the values of water level recorded by the multi-parametric probe, it has been possible to estimate the contribution of the karst spring to the peak discharge of the river in around 40 cubic metres per second, a value of two orders of magnitude greater than the average flow of the spring (around 200 L/s).

  1. Credentialing Kepler: Transits in the Seventeenth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    2005-08-01

    Kepler's successful prediction of the 1631 transit of Mercury spurred an interest in his decidedly user-unfriendly Rudolfine Tables. Because his Ephemerides went only to 1636, he did not draw attention to the 1639 transit of Venus, although the tables actually predicted the phenomenon, and the observation by Horrocks again proved the superiority of Kepler's work. By mid-century alternative user-friendly versions of the Rudolfine Tables were published by V. Renieri in Italy, J.B. Morin in France, Maria Cunitia in Germany, and (in a more modified form) by J. Shakerley in England. Transits of Mercury were observed in 1651 (by Shakerley in Surat, India), 1661, 1667, 1690, and 1697, giving astronomers opportunities to compare the predictions from these tables as well as those of Lansbergen (which were a variant of the Copernican Prutenic Tables). Because of the subsequent interest in transits for determining the length of the astronomical unit, the 18th-century French astronomer J-N. Delisle compiled for these early transits extensive systematic records, which are now preserved at the Paris Observatory. By his day, however, the as-yet-unpublished tables of Edmond Halley gave the most successful predictions, and Delisle showed little interest in further credentialing the Rudolfine Tables, a process that had already taken place in the previous century.

  2. [Eighteenth century calendars as a source of Polish medical history].

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, W

    1996-01-01

    The general decline of science which took place in the first half of the 18th century was a cause of a huge quantity of calendars editing. Calendars substituted for the former scientific literature. Up to 1763 over 800 calendars appeared. A half of them was published in Cracov. Those calendars differed from the contemporary ones. Apart from dates, they included not only basic information in history, geography agriculture economy but, not seldom, medicine as well. Most often they were written by university professors with a few physicians among them. Obviously, the level of the presented medical knowledge was very low. There wenadductions to astrology, wizardry and Provinience. But some diagnoses and therapeutic advice being a kind of doctor's manual, useful to so-called domestic medicine are still worth of the attention. First of all, phytotherapy chapter based on the folk empiricism, was the most rational. Thought 18th century calendars did not have much in common with real medicine, they make an interesting source to search for history of the Polish medicine of the Saxon times. PMID:9245110

  3. Onward to Petaflops Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    With programs such as the US High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCCP), the attention of scientists and engineers worldwide has been focused on the potential of very high performance scientific computing, namely systems that are hundreds or thousands of times more powerful than those typically available in desktop systems at any given point in time. Extending the frontiers of computing in this manner has resulted in remarkable advances, both in computing technology itself and also in the various scientific and engineering disciplines that utilize these systems. Within the month or two, a sustained rate of 1 Tflop/s (also written 1 teraflops, or 10(exp 12) floating-point operations per second) is likely to be achieved by the 'ASCI Red' system at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. With this objective in sight, it is reasonable to ask what lies ahead for high-end computing.

  4. Onward to Petaflops Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    With the recent demonstration of a computing rate of one Tflop/s at Sandia National Lab, one might ask what lies ahead for high-end computing. The next major milestone is a sustained rate of one Pflop/s (also written one petaflops, or 10(exp 15) floating-point operations per second). It should be emphasized that we could just as well use the term "peta-ops", since it appears that large scientific systems will be required to perform intensive integer and logical computation in addition to floating-point operations, and completely non- floating-point applications are likely to be important as well. In addition to prodigiously high computational performance, such systems must of necessity feature very large main memories, between ten Tbyte (10(exp 13) byte) and one Pbyte (10 (exp 15) byte) depending on application, as well as commensurate I/O bandwidth and huge mass storage facilities. The current consensus of scientists who have performed initial studies in this field is that "affordable" petaflops systems may be feasible by the year 2010, assuming that certain key technologies continue to progress at current rates. A sustained petaflops computing capability however is a daunting challenge; it appears significantly more challenging from today's state-of-the-art than achieving one Tflop/s has been from the level of one Gflop/s about 12 years ago. Challenges are faced in the arena of device technology, system architecture, system software, algorithms and applications. This talk will give an overview of some of these challenges, and describe some of the recent initiatives to address them.

  5. Onward, Upward and Outward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Sue; And Others

    The document is intended to provide teachers and parents of preschool or kindergarten aurally handicapped children with a resource of materials and books which can be used to provide and supplement experiences for the child. Play and other manipulative materials are analyzed in chart form according to the skill(s) which they develop. Included are…

  6. News and Views: Gemini hits 1000 papers; Comet Elenin? Forget it! Sellers launches course; Merry Christmas from 18th-century Lapland; ET: where are they all hiding? SETI in the city; Complex organic molecules may not mean life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    No-one has yet found artefacts from an alien civilization, but have we looked hard enough? Astronomers seeking signs of extraterrestrial intelligence have suggested a novel approach: look for alien cities. The search for signs of life in the universe has included the detection of complex organic molecules, seen as a step on the way to living things. But now analysis of spectral signatures known as Unidentified Infrared Emission features found in stars, interstellar space and galaxies suggest that complex organic molecules can be made in stars in a matter of weeks without the presence of life.

  7. An Odyssey into the New Millennium: Rediscover 21st Century Business & Marketing Education. Proceedings of the Annual Atlantic Coast Business & Marketing Education Conference (18th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 15-17, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sheila, Ed.

    The following 13 papers on business and marketing education are included in this document: "Internet Marketing" (Herb Brown, Jerry Kandies); "Disk This . . . Paper Flow on the Go!" (Mary Evans, Wilbur Whitley); "Production and Evaluation of On-Line Tutorials" (Margie Gallagher, Evelyn Farrior, Jane Geissler); "Basic Skills Needed for Entry-Level…

  8. Life history of the individuals buried in the St. Benedict Cemetery (Prague, 15th-18th centuries): insights from (14)C dating and stable isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O) analysis.

    PubMed

    Salesse, Kevin; Dufour, Élise; Castex, Dominique; Velemínský, Petr; Santos, Frédéric; Kuchařová, Hedvika; Jun, Libor; Brůžek, Jaroslav

    2013-06-01

    Funerary practices and bioarchaeological (sex and age) data suggest that a mortality crisis linked to an epidemic episode occurred during the fifth phase of the St. Benedict cemetery in Prague (Czech Republic). To identify this mass mortality episode, we reconstructed individual life histories (dietary and mobility factors), assessed the population's biological homogeneity, and proposed a new chronology through stable isotope analysis (δ(13)C, δ(18)O and δ(15)N) and direct radiocarbon dating. Stable isotope analysis was conducted on the bone and tooth enamel (collagen and carbonate) of 19 individuals from three multiple graves (MG) and 12 individuals from individual graves (IG). The δ(15)N values of collagen and the difference between the δ(13)C values of collagen and bone carbonate could indicate that the IG individuals had a richer protein diet than the MG individuals or different food resources. The human bone and enamel carbonate and δ(18)O values suggest that the majority of individuals from MG and all individuals from IG spent most of their lives outside of the Bohemian region. Variations in δ(18)O values also indicate that all individuals experienced residential mobility during their lives. The stable isotope results, biological (age and sex) data and eight (14)C dates clearly differentiate the MG and IG groups. The present work provides evidence for the reuse of the St. Benedict cemetery to bury soldiers despite the funeral protest ban (1635 AD). The Siege of Prague (1742 AD) by French-Bavarian-Saxon armies is identified as the cause of the St. Benedict mass mortality event. PMID:23588853

  9. [The union of three families of apothecaries in Paris in the 17th and 18th centuries--The apothecaries François Pihoué, François Regnault, Henry Charas and Marie Fourneau].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2015-06-01

    The family network started with Marie Fourneau, daughter of the apothecary Jacques Fourneau, married successively two apothecaries first François Pihoué and then François Regnault and whose only daughter Marie Anne married the apothecary Henry Charas grandson of the famous apothecary Moyse Charas. PMID:26189312

  10. The Early-Career Development of Science Teachers from Initial Training Onwards: The Advantages of a Multifaceted Five-Year Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Julian; Howarth, Sue; King, Chris; Perry, John; Tas, Maarten; Twidle, John; Warhurst, Adrian; Garrett, Caro

    2014-01-01

    If a programme were to be devised for the early-career development of science teachers, what might such a programme look like? This was the focus of a meeting of science educators interested in developing such a structure, from the start of initial teacher training onwards. The contributions, modified and written up here, include a suggested…

  11. Confidence and sensitivity study of the OAFlux multisensor synthesis of the global ocean surface vector wind from 1987 onward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lisan; Jin, Xiangze

    2014-10-01

    This study presented an uncertainty assessment of the high-resolution global analysis of daily-mean ocean-surface vector winds (1987 onward) by the Objectively Analyzed air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux) project. The time series was synthesized from multiple satellite sensors using a variational approach to find a best fit to input data in a weighted least-squares cost function. The variational framework requires the a priori specification of the weights, or equivalently, the error covariances of input data, which are seldom known. Two key issues were investigated. The first issue examined the specification of the weights for the OAFlux synthesis. This was achieved by designing a set of weight-varying experiments and applying the criteria requiring that the chosen weights should make the best-fit of the cost function be optimal with regard to both input satellite observations and the independent wind time series measurements at 126 buoy locations. The weights thus determined represent an approximation to the error covariances, which inevitably contain a degree of uncertainty. Hence, the second issue addressed the sensitivity of the OAFlux synthesis to the uncertainty in the weight assignments. Weight perturbation experiments were conducted and ensemble statistics were used to estimate the sensitivity. The study showed that the leading sources of uncertainty for the weight selection are high winds (>15 ms-1) and heavy rain, which are the conditions that cause divergence in wind retrievals from different sensors. Future technical advancement made in wind retrieval algorithms would be key to further improvement of the multisensory synthesis in events of severe storms.

  12. Lens making for scientific instrumentation in the seventeenth century.

    PubMed

    Bedini, S A

    1966-05-01

    With the invention of the telescope and the microscope early in the 17th century, the production of optical lenses became an important factor in the development of these instruments for scientific observation and investigation. In spite of improvements in equipment and techniques, the obstacles to the production of suitable lenses were not surmounted until the 18th century because of lack of knowledge of the optical properties of lenses, and the difficulties in producing glass of suitable clarity due to primitive grinding and polishing techniques. The early astronomical lenses were produced by means of the primitive equipment of the mirror makers and polishers of pietre dure in Murano and Venice. The first professional apparatus for lens grinding and polishing was developed by Ippolito Francini of Florence, and subsequently improved by Eustachio Divini and Carlo Antonio Manzini. A major advance in the equipment and techniques was made by Giuseppe Campani of Rome in the second half of the century. Other important contributions were made by Christiaan Huygens in Holland and John Marshall in England. Toward the end of the 17th century, craftsmen in England and France made great strides in the improvement of apparatus and techniques for lens grinding and polishing. In spite of them, however, optical workshop practice improved extremely slowly, and it remained virtually unchanged into the 19th century. PMID:20048929

  13. century drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  14. Tick-borne encephalitis-still on the map: Report of the 18th annual meeting of the international scientific working group on tick-borne encephalitis (ISW-TBE).

    PubMed

    Kunze, Ursula

    2016-07-01

    The 18th meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE)-a group of neurologists, general practitioners, clinicians, travel physicians, virologists, pediatricians and epidemiologists-was held under the title 'Tick-borne encephalitis-still on the map'. The conference agenda was divided into six sessions: 'National Implementation of EU notifiable disease status', 'Virology', 'Epidemiology and Risk areas & Poster Walk Epidemiological Update', 'Clinic', 'Environmental Factors' and 'New Findings and Diagnosis'. Key topics such as 'TBE as a notifiable disease-results of the third European survey', 'TBE vaccines over the years', 'Overview of flaviviruses', 'TBE virus phylogenetics', 'Current epidemiological developments and investigations', 'Clinical aspects', 'TBE in veterinary medicine', 'Laboratory diagnostic', 'Occupational risk', 'Allergy, obesity, and vaccination' were presented and extensively discussed. PMID:27189584

  15. Eighteenth century Yersinia pestis genomes reveal the long-term persistence of an historical plague focus.

    PubMed

    Bos, Kirsten I; Herbig, Alexander; Sahl, Jason; Waglechner, Nicholas; Fourment, Mathieu; Forrest, Stephen A; Klunk, Jennifer; Schuenemann, Verena J; Poinar, Debi; Kuch, Melanie; Golding, G Brian; Dutour, Olivier; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Holmes, Edward C; Krause, Johannes; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-01-01

    The 14th-18th century pandemic of Yersinia pestis caused devastating disease outbreaks in Europe for almost 400 years. The reasons for plague's persistence and abrupt disappearance in Europe are poorly understood, but could have been due to either the presence of now-extinct plague foci in Europe itself, or successive disease introductions from other locations. Here we present five Y. pestis genomes from one of the last European outbreaks of plague, from 1722 in Marseille, France. The lineage identified has not been found in any extant Y. pestis foci sampled to date, and has its ancestry in strains obtained from victims of the 14th century Black Death. These data suggest the existence of a previously uncharacterized historical plague focus that persisted for at least three centuries. We propose that this disease source may have been responsible for the many resurgences of plague in Europe following the Black Death. PMID:26795402

  16. Symposium (International) on Combustion, 18th, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Anon

    1980-08-01

    This conference proceedings contains 196 papers. 181 papers are indexed separately. Topics covered include: combustion generated pollution; propellant combustion; fluidized bed combustion; combustion of droplets and spray; premixed flame studies; fire studies; flame stabilization; coal flammability; chemical kinetics; turbulent combustion; soot; coal combustion; modeling of combustion processes; combustion diagnostics; detonations and explosions; ignition; internal combustion engines; combustion studies; and furnaces.

  17. 18th Annual School Construction Report, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The bottom line on school construction in 2012 is that total spending edged up slightly from the previous year, (to $12.9 billion from $12.2 billion), but the spending for new schools declined from $6.9 billion to $6.177 billion. The increase in overall spending was attributable to more spending for additions and a major increase in spending for…

  18. 18th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    It is said that "home is where the heart is." Many colleges and universities are keeping that in mind as they continue to invest in building residential facilities to attract students to on-campus living. Residence hall construction at the nation's higher-education institutions remains strong, as the benefits to students, parents, and the college…

  19. The 18th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Topics concerning aerospace mechanisms, their functional performance, and design specifications are presented. Discussed subjects include the design and development of release mechanisms, actuators, linear driver/rate controllers, antenna and appendage deployment systems, position control systems, and tracking mechanisms for antennas and solar arrays. Engine design, spaceborne experiments, and large space structure technology are also examined.

  20. [New studies on population of the North American colonies from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century and some reflections on migration in the modern age].

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, M

    1995-09-01

    "In recent years, many authors worked on modern era population movements between 1492 and 1870. American scholars stressed that the settlement of the North American colonies, during [the] 17th and 18th centuries, should be considered a form of migration and should be analysed with the same tools used for the study of the great migration of the 19th century. Instead European scholars tried to pinpoint when 'old regime' migrations developed into the 'great migration'.... This review aims at presenting the most important European and American publications on this topic and points to the subjects to be developed." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12291228

  1. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    PubMed

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:27035922

  2. Developmental biology in Geneva: a three century-long tradition.

    PubMed

    Buscaglia, Marino; Duboule, Denis

    2002-01-01

    It was in the first half of the 18th century when life sciences started to flourish in the independent republic of Geneva. However, it is difficult to identify a genuine school of developmental biologists during that era. Nevertheless, several prominent scientists over the past two and a half centuries have established and maintained a strong tradition of studies in embryological development and reproduction. In this short historical account, we briefly pay tribute to these famous forerunners, by emphasizing both the originality and quality of their work, as well as the many accompanying conceptual and methodological advances. We start with Abraham Trembley (1710-1784) and the discovery of Hydra and of regeneration, and with Charles Bonnet (1720-1793) who, amongst other contributions, first observed parthenogenetic development. In the 19th century, Carl Vogt (1817-1895) and Edouard Claparède (1832-1871) were well-known scientists in this field of research, whereas Hermann Fol (1845-1892) can be considered as one of the pioneers, if not the founder, of causal embryology, through his experiments on lateral asymmetry in manipulated chicken. More recently, Emile Guyénot (1885-1963) and Kitty Ponse (1897-1982) perpetuated this tradition, which is well alive nowadays in the city of Calvin. PMID:11902688

  3. [The emergence of the Québec asylum in the 19th century.].

    PubMed

    Paradis, A

    1977-01-01

    This team of five philosophers analyses the 18th and 19th century Quebec discourse on the subject of insanity. The 18th century saw the insane excluded from social contact with the state recognizing only their indigence. They were relegated either to the "Loges", designed to expiate their sins since insanity was linked to an abuse of mind and body, or to prison for appropriate punishment, since madness was considered to lead to crime. But economic pressures produced by the growing number in indigents, including the mentally ill, led to the creation of the Beauport asylum in 1845. The authors then describe how the urban insane, marginal to both the French Canadian and English Canadian communities* were placed in private institutions and subjected to a system of profit maximization controlled by bourgeois physicians. This situation increased the distance between proprietors and occupants, and accounts for the lack of original discourse on the subject of insanity. In addition, the reasoning of the alienist physicians was without scientific foundation, taking root rather in the dominant industrial capitalist ideology. As for the content of the discourse, the Beauport physicians borrowed from moral treatment and restraint system notions, giving them a certain Quebec character. PMID:17093651

  4. On-ward participation of a hospital pharmacist in a Dutch intensive care unit reduces prescribing errors and related patient harm: an intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) are at high risk for prescribing errors and related adverse drug events (ADEs). An effective intervention to decrease this risk, based on studies conducted mainly in North America, is on-ward participation of a clinical pharmacist in an ICU team. As the Dutch Healthcare System is organized differently and the on-ward role of hospital pharmacists in Dutch ICU teams is not well established, we conducted an intervention study to investigate whether participation of a hospital pharmacist can also be an effective approach in reducing prescribing errors and related patient harm (preventable ADEs) in this specific setting. Methods A prospective study compared a baseline period with an intervention period. During the intervention period, an ICU hospital pharmacist reviewed medication orders for patients admitted to the ICU, noted issues related to prescribing, formulated recommendations and discussed those during patient review meetings with the attending ICU physicians. Prescribing issues were scored as prescribing errors when consensus was reached between the ICU hospital pharmacist and ICU physicians. Results During the 8.5-month study period, medication orders for 1,173 patients were reviewed. The ICU hospital pharmacist made a total of 659 recommendations. During the intervention period, the rate of consensus between the ICU hospital pharmacist and ICU physicians was 74%. The incidence of prescribing errors during the intervention period was significantly lower than during the baseline period: 62.5 per 1,000 monitored patient-days versus 190.5 per 1,000 monitored patient-days, respectively (P < 0.001). Preventable ADEs (patient harm, National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention severity categories E and F) were reduced from 4.0 per 1,000 monitored patient-days during the baseline period to 1.0 per 1,000 monitored patient-days during the intervention period (P = 0.25). Per

  5. Extraterrestrial Life as the Great Analogy, Two Centuries Ago and in Modern Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T.

    Mainstream ideas on the existence of extraterrestrial life in the late 18th and early 19th centuries are examined, with a focus on William Herschel, one of the greatest astronomers of all time. Herschel viewed all of the planets and moons of our solar system as inhabited, and gave logical arguments that even the Sun, and by extension all of the stars, was a giant planet fit for habitation by intelligent beings. The importance for astrobiology both two centuries ago and now of the type of inductive reasoning called "analogy" is emphasized. Analogy is an imperfect tool, but given that we have only one known case of life and of a life-bearing planet, it is very difficult to make progress in astrobiology without resorting to analogy, in particular between known life and possible other life. We cannot overcome the "N = 1 Problem" without resorting to this "Great Analogy" to guide our research.

  6. Evaluation of the 2012 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference: six month impact on science, program, and policy.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Danielle E; Goodman, David A; Howlette, Travis; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Law, Mark; Phillips, Donna; Jones, Jessica; Brantley, Mary D; Fitzgerald, Maureen

    2014-09-01

    The 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference took place in December 2012, covering MCH science, program, and policy issues. Assessing the impact of the Conference on attendees' work 6 months post-Conference provides information critical to understanding the impact and the use of new partnerships, knowledge, and skills gained during the Conference. Evaluation assessments, which included collection of quantitative and qualitative data, were administered at two time points: at Conference registration and 6 months post-Conference. The evaluation files were merged using computer IP address, linking responses from each assessment. Percentages of attendees reporting Conference impacts were calculated from quantitative data, and common themes and supporting examples were identified from qualitative data. Online registration was completed by 650 individuals. Of registrants, 30 % responded to the 6 month post-Conference assessment. Between registration and 6 month post-Conference evaluation, the distribution of respondents did not significantly differ by organizational affiliation. In the 6 months following the Conference, 65 % of respondents reported pursuing a networking interaction; 96 % shared knowledge from the Conference with co-workers and others in their agency; and 74 % utilized knowledge from the Conference to translate data into public health action. The Conference produced far-reaching impacts among Conference attendees. The Conference served as a platform for networking, knowledge sharing, and attaining skills that advance the work of attendees, with the potential of impacting organizational and workforce capacity. Increasing capacity could improve MCH programs, policies, and services, ultimately impacting the health of women, infants, and children. PMID:25107597

  7. Is There a Need for Early Palliative Care in Patients With Life-Limiting Illnesses? Interview Study With Patients About Experienced Care Needs From Diagnosis Onward.

    PubMed

    Beernaert, Kim; Deliens, Luc; De Vleminck, Aline; Devroey, Dirk; Pardon, Koen; Block, Lieve Van den; Cohen, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    The early integration of specialist palliative care has been shown to benefit the quality of life of patients with advanced cancer. In order to explore whether other seriously ill people and people at even earlier phases would also benefit from early palliative care, we conducted 18 qualitative interviews with people having cancer, chronic obstructive lung disease, heart failure, or dementia at different phases of the illness trajectory about how they experienced care needs related to their disease from diagnosis onward. Respondents experienced needs within the different domains of palliative care at different stages of the illness and different illness types or duration of the illness. This study contributes to the understanding of primary care needs of patients for whom palliative care (not necessarily specialized palliative care) could be beneficial. PMID:25852203

  8. Austrian pharmacy in the 18 and 19th century.

    PubMed

    Kletter, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecaryâs profession and education. In the 18(th) century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecaryâs profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19(th) century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecariesâ missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900. PMID:21179353

  9. Skills: Onward through the Fog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Jean; Sawma, Terry; Statz, Charles; Vela, Jesse

    The Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) was asked to examine the demands of the workplace and determine whether young people are capable of meeting these demands. Six panels were established to examine all manners of jobs from manufacturing to government employment and conduct in-depth interviews with workers in a wide…

  10. Point: Incident Exposures, Prevalent Exposures, and Causal Inference: Does Limiting Studies to Persons Who Are Followed From First Exposure Onward Damage Epidemiology?

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbroucke, Jan; Pearce, Neil

    2015-01-01

    The idea that epidemiologic studies should start from first exposure onward has been advocated in the past few years. The study of incident exposures is contrasted with studies of prevalent exposures in which follow-up may commence after first exposure. The former approach is seen as a hallmark of a good study and necessary for causal inference. We argue that studying incident exposures may be necessary in some situations, but it is not always necessary and is not the preferred option in many instances. Conducting a study involves decisions as to which person-time experience should be included. Although studies of prevalent exposures involve left truncation (missingness on the left), studies of incident exposures may involve right censoring (missingness on the right) and therefore may not be able to assess the long-term effects of exposure. These considerations have consequences for studies of dynamic (open) populations that involve a mixture of prevalent and incident exposures. We argue that studies with prevalent exposures will remain a necessity for epidemiology. The purpose of this paper is to restore the balance between the emphasis on first exposure cohorts and the richness of epidemiologic information obtained when studying prevalent exposures. PMID:26507305

  11. Immunology's first priority dispute--an account of the 17th-century Rudbeck-Bartholin feud.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Charles T

    2006-07-01

    Modern immunology has been notably free of public disputes over credit for major discoveries in this discipline. But the early recognition of the lymphatic system witnessed two examples of heated priority feuds. The first in the 17th-century concerned the greater anatomical organization of the system, while the second in the 18th-century concerned its function. This essay reviews the earlier of the two disputes, in which a Swedish medical student (Ole Rudbeck) charged a respected Danish Professor (T. Bartholin) with plagiarism and antedating his observations. Thus ethical issues in immunology predate modern times. How this discipline reached this point in its history is another focus of this essay and also an excuse to review briefly the anatomy of the lymphatic system. The influence of nationalistic pride on priority disputes is also discussed. PMID:17083923

  12. The study of anatomy in England from 1700 to the early 20th century

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Piers D; Boston, Ceridwen; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Chaplin, Simon; Chauhan, Vin; Evans, Jonathan; Fowler, Louise; Powers, Natasha; Walker, Don; Webb, Helen; Witkin, Annsofie

    2011-01-01

    The study of anatomy in England during the 18th and 19th century has become infamous for bodysnatching from graveyards to provide a sufficient supply of cadavers. However, recent discoveries have improved our understanding of how and why anatomy was studied during the enlightenment, and allow us to see the context in which dissection of the human body took place. Excavations of infirmary burial grounds and medical school cemeteries, study of hospital archives, and analysis of the content of surviving anatomical collections in medical museums enables us to re-evaluate the field from a fresh perspective. The pathway from a death in poverty, sale of the corpse to body dealer, dissection by anatomist or medical student, and either the disposal and burial of the remains or preservation of teaching specimens that survive today in medical museums is a complex and fascinating one. PMID:21496014

  13. What was Glaucoma Called Before the 20th Century?

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Giliberti, Francesca M.; Young, Matthew T.; Bermudez, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma involves a characteristic optic neuropathy, often with elevated intraocular pressure. Before 1850, poor vision with a normal eye appearance, as occurs in primary open-angle glaucoma, was termed amaurosis, gutta serena, or black cataract. Few observers noted palpable hardness of the eye in amaurosis. On the other hand, angle-closure glaucoma can produce a green or gray pupil, and therefore was called, variously, glaucoma (derived from the Greek for glaucous, a nonspecific term connoting blue, green, or light gray) and viriditate oculi. Angle closure, with palpable hardness of the eye, mydriasis, and anterior prominence of the lens, was described in greater detail in the 18th and 19th centuries. The introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850 permitted the visualization of the excavated optic neuropathy in eyes with a normal or with a dilated greenish-gray pupil. Physicians developed a better appreciation of the role of intraocular pressure in both conditions, which became subsumed under the rubric “glaucoma”. PMID:26483611

  14. ​​​History of Cholera Outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, MH; Azizi, F

    2010-01-01

    Cholera is an acute infectious disease with high mortality if left untreated. Historically, between the 19th and 20th centuries seven great pandemics of cholera occurred and worldwide, thousands of people died. Based on an old theory, cholera was considered an air-born disease and the emergence of its outbreaks were attributed to bad weather or miasma. However later in the 18th century, British physician John Snow (1813-1858) explained the association of a terrible cholera outbreak in London in 1849 to contamination of the drinking water supply with human excreta. Despite his finding, the causative agent of this dreaded illness was unidentified until later in the 19th century. In 1854, Filippo Pacini (1812-1883) an anatomist from Italy and then in 1883, Robert Koch (1843-1910) the German bacteriologist, discovered ‘vibrio cholerae’ as the etiologic agent. During the major pandemics of cholera in 19th and 20th centuries this illness reached Iran and led to vast depopulation and a crucial impact on the country’s socioeconomic status. Poor public health conditions, lack of a well-organized public health authority for implementing preventive and quarantine measures as well as Iran’s specific geographic location were the main facilitating factors of the emergence of various epidemics, including cholera in Iran. The present paper briefly reviews the cholera outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries. PMID:25197514

  15. Constraining the geomagnetic field intensity in Western Europe during the 17-19th centuries from French faience shards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, J.; Genevey, A.; Gallet, Y.

    2003-12-01

    We obtained new archeointensity results for France from the analysis of seven groups of potsherds precisely dated from the beginning of the 17th century to the 19th century. These earthenware shards were found during excavations in Nevers which was an important production center of faience in France during the 17-18th centuries. For our intensity determinations, we used a new variant of the Thellier and Thellier (1959) method. This procedure ("IZZI" method; Tauxe et al., 2003) involves the alternation of pair of heatings in field-zero field ("IZ" steps) and pair of heatings in zero field-in field ("ZI" steps), and was specially designed to detect biased intensity results due to multi-domain magnetic grains. The raw intensity values were corrected for TRM anisotropy and cooling rate effects. Our preliminary results do not show strong intensity variations during the 17-19th centuries. In particularly they do not exhibit a rapid intensity decrease during the 17th century as predicted in Western Europe from the global geomagnetic models of Jackson et al. (2000). To constrain their models during the 1590-1840 period, during which directional but no intensity geomagnetic measurements are available, these authors used a backward extrapolation made on the basis of the linear decay of the dipole moment observed since 1840. Our study challenges the validity of this extrapolation and contributes to our knowledge on the recent variation of the dipole moment of the geomagnetic field.

  16. News Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-03-01

    Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

  17. Eight sages over five centuries share oxygen's discovery.

    PubMed

    Severinghaus, John W

    2016-09-01

    During the last century, historians have discovered that between the 13th and 18th centuries, at least six sages discovered that the air we breathe contains something that we need and use. Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) in Cairo and Michael Servetus (1511-1553) in France accurately described the pulmonary circulation and its effect on blood color. Michael Sendivogius (1566-1636) in Poland called a part of air "the food of life" and identified it as the gas made by heating saltpetre. John Mayow (1641-1679) in Oxford found that one-fifth of air was a special gas he called "spiritus nitro aereus." Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) in Uppsala generated a gas he named "fire air" by heating several metal calcs. He asked Lavoisier how it fit the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier never answered. In 1744, Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) in England discovered how to make part of air by heating red calc of mercury. He found it brightened a flame and supported life in a mouse in a sealed bottle. He called it "dephlogisticated air." He published and personally told Lavoisier and other chemists about it. Lavoisier never thanked him. After 9 years of generating and studying its chemistry, he couldn't understand whether it was a new element. He still named it "principe oxigene." He was still not able to disprove phlogiston. Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) made an inflammable gas in 1766. He and Priestley noted that its flame made a dew. Cavendish proved the dew was pure water and published this in 1778, but all scientists called it impossible to make water, an element. In 1783, on June 24th, Lavoisier was urged to try it, and, when water appeared, he realized that water was not an element but a compound of two gases, proving that oxygen was an element. He then demolished phlogiston and began the new chemistry revolution. PMID:27458241

  18. Eighteenth century Yersinia pestis genomes reveal the long-term persistence of an historical plague focus

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Kirsten I; Herbig, Alexander; Sahl, Jason; Waglechner, Nicholas; Fourment, Mathieu; Forrest, Stephen A; Klunk, Jennifer; Schuenemann, Verena J; Poinar, Debi; Kuch, Melanie; Golding, G Brian; Dutour, Olivier; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Holmes, Edward C; Krause, Johannes; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-01-01

    The 14th–18th century pandemic of Yersinia pestis caused devastating disease outbreaks in Europe for almost 400 years. The reasons for plague’s persistence and abrupt disappearance in Europe are poorly understood, but could have been due to either the presence of now-extinct plague foci in Europe itself, or successive disease introductions from other locations. Here we present five Y. pestis genomes from one of the last European outbreaks of plague, from 1722 in Marseille, France. The lineage identified has not been found in any extant Y. pestis foci sampled to date, and has its ancestry in strains obtained from victims of the 14th century Black Death. These data suggest the existence of a previously uncharacterized historical plague focus that persisted for at least three centuries. We propose that this disease source may have been responsible for the many resurgences of plague in Europe following the Black Death. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12994.001 PMID:26795402

  19. Dr Robert Robertson (1742-1829): Fever Specialist and Philosopher-Experimenter in the Treatment of Fevers with Peruvian Bark in the Latter Eighteenth-century Royal Navy.

    PubMed

    Short, Bruce

    2015-12-01

    The life and works of Dr Robert Robertson are reviewed set against the background of the extant British management of fevers during the latter 18th-century. Commencing in 1769, using the febrifuge Peruvian bark (cortex Peruvianus; Jesuit's Powder), he experimented and tested Peruvian bark mono-therapy protocols in the tropics in the cure and prevention of intermittent fever (predominantly malaria). His later work also showed the benefit of the bark in the acute care of developed continuous fevers (largely Ship Fever due to Epidemic Louse-borne Typhus Fever) in both the Temperate and Torrid Zones. In the realm of comparative statistics Robertson first demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of bark therapy against the dangerous depleting processes of the antiphlogistic regimen. He was the first to alert the Admiralty to the efficacy of bark in both the cure of acute fevers as well as a prophylactic in the tropics, and signalled the dangers of bloodletting in treating fevers of the tropics. He authored 13 books devoted to fevers outlining his theory of Febrile Infection and its treatment. The essay concludes with his role as the Physician-in-Charge of the Royal Hospital, Greenwich over a 28-year period, as an acknowledged expert in the small British group of 18th-century fever specialists. PMID:27172733

  20. The Human Capital Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Reviews public education in the United States during the 20th century through an exploration of the "virtues" of mass education, such as public funding, a practical curriculum, and secular control of schools. Argues that many of these virtues were situational and may now be considered vices. (Contains three graphs.) (WFA)

  1. The Chemical Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Ralph E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses present and future problems of producing clean energy. Graphically presents the changing patterns of fuel use in the United States over the past century, and predicts population growth and energy sources and consumption up to the year 2100 for the United States and the world. (JR)

  2. Suidas (tenth century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Greek encyclopedist. In the course of reading Suidas's Lexicon, EDMOND HALLEY mistakenly connected the naming of the Saros cycle of 223 synodic months by the tenth century Greek lexicographer Suidas with the eclipse cycle of the same period. The solar eclipse cycle is thus now known by the name that Suidas used for another phenomenon. Halley's mistake accounts for the historical confusion that th...

  3. Nineteenth century French rose (Rosa sp.) germplasm shows a shift over time from a European to an Asian genetic background

    PubMed Central

    Liorzou, Mathilde; Pernet, Alix; Li, Shubin; Chastellier, Annie; Thouroude, Tatiana; Michel, Gilles; Malécot, Valéry; Gaillard, Sylvain; Briée, Céline; Foucher, Fabrice; Oghina-Pavie, Cristiana; Clotault, Jérémy; Grapin, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization with introduced genetic resources is commonly practiced in ornamental plant breeding to introgress desired traits. The 19th century was a golden age for rose breeding in France. The objective here was to study the evolution of rose genetic diversity over this period, which included the introduction of Asian genotypes into Europe. A large sample of 1228 garden roses encompassing the conserved diversity cultivated during the 18th and 19th centuries was genotyped with 32 microsatellite primer pairs. Its genetic diversity and structure were clarified. Wide diversity structured in 16 genetic groups was observed. Genetic differentiation was detected between ancient European and Asian accessions, and a temporal shift from a European to an Asian genetic background was observed in cultivated European hybrids during the 19th century. Frequent crosses with Asian roses throughout the 19th century and/or selection for Asiatic traits may have induced this shift. In addition, the consistency of the results with respect to a horticultural classification is discussed. Some horticultural groups, defined according to phenotype and/or knowledge of their pedigree, seem to be genetically more consistent than others, highlighting the difficulty of classifying cultivated plants. Therefore, the horticultural classification is probably more appropriate for commercial purposes rather than genetic relatedness, especially to define preservation and breeding strategies. PMID:27406785

  4. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  5. [Surgical instruments and the emblems of Alsatien craftsmen and the archives of Obernai (16th-17th centuries)].

    PubMed

    Muller, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This study presents some original data concerning the instruments used by Alsatian surgeons-barbers from the 16th to the 18th century. Emblems of professions frequently appear on private houses in Alsace, and 35 emblems of surgeons-barbers have been discovered; six, particularly chararacteristic, are analysed here (Soultz 1568, Marlenheim 1581, Sainte-Croix-en-Plaine 1587, Rosheim 1681, Rosheim 1733, and Wasselonne 1738). The razor (Schermesser), the lancet (Lanzette), and the "flame" (Lasseisen, Fliete) are the most frequently represented instruments. Unpublished inventories after death also bring instructive data and in particular those of the barbers Hans Artz of Molsheim (1597) and Jacob Pflieger of Obernai (c. 1608-1609). At last, are evoked unpublished mentions concerning two barbers originating from Obernai who exercised in Eastern Europe (Sebald Korn around 1583, and Johannes Baur around 1637). PMID:22400473

  6. Governing nursing: curriculum as a rhetorical vehicle using South Australian nursing schools from the 1950s onwards as an illustrative case.

    PubMed

    Kako, Mayumi; Rudge, Trudy

    2008-10-01

    This paper explores how governance processes for nursing curriculum in South Australia changed since the 1950s. The strategy used to undertake this analysis is through discourse analysis of nursing curriculum from the 1950s to recent times. An archive of curriculum data were collected from educational curriculum documents, historical records and government reports. Analysis of this textual data found changes in how curriculum governance occurred as this was increasingly transferred to the discipline of nursing throughout the period explored in this research. Curricula were found to be a rhetorical vehicle, carrying the beliefs and hopes of the nurse educators in their contents. Changes in the focus of the curricula also replicated changes in the locations and maturing of nursing in the higher education sector. Schools of nursing in universities in responding to both internal and external forces were made increasingly responsible as to curriculum content and structures. Historical analysis of South Australian nursing curricula shows changes common in Australia as it moved nurse education from hospital to the tertiary sector in the latter part of the twentieth century, to its contemporary shape as collaboration between profession, industry and discipline to produce nurses for the Australian workforce. PMID:19040381

  7. Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) and astronomy in Berlin in the 18th century. Contributions of the colloquium held in Berlin-Treptow on March 6, 2010 (German Title: Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) und die Berliner Astronomie im 18. Jahrhundert.) Beiträge des Kolloquiums am 6. März 2010 in Berlin-Treptow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    The contributions of this volume are dedicated to Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710), the first Berlin astronomer, on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of his death. They deal with the astronomy of his times and developments in later times, which are connected to his work. The papers deal with the following topics: The instrumental equipment of Berlin Observatory at the time of G. Kirch and its modernisation up to around 1780; the instruments of Johann Makob Marioni's Viennese observatory around 1730; the heraldic celestial globe by Kirch's teacher Erhard Weigel. In addition, they deal with Kirch's share in the propagation of ideas of the Enlightenment, and with the Berlin meteorological record and its consequences for the investigation of anthropogenous climatic changes. They also deal with astronomical topics in the exchange of letters between Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli, and with the Berlin "Astronomisches Jahrbuch", which is based on Kirch's activities, as a biographical source.

  8. Johann Gottfried Köhler - inspector at the Mathematical-Physical Salon in Dresden - an active observer of the starry sky in the last quarter of the 18th century (German Title: Johann Gottfried Köhler - Inspektor am Mathematisch-Physikalischen Salon Dresden - aktiver Beobachter des gestirnten Himmels im letzten Viertel des 18. Jahrhunderts )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillinger, Klaus

    In 1777, J. G. Köhler, an academician trained in mathematics and the sciences and with a deep interest in astronomy, was appointed inspector of the Mathematical-Physical Salon. He was lucky to find, in the person of the Saxonian electoral prince and later king, August the Righteous, a ruler who was open-minded to science, and thus he could combine his private interests with those of the sovereign. While the files of the Mathematical-Physical Salon from his time were lost during World War II, his actions can be reconstructed from a few archival sources and notes in the diaries of his successors. The Saxonian residence did not have an astronomical observatory. Köhler used the instruments from the collection of the Mathematical-Physical Salon for numerous celestial observations. He was in close contact with a number of other astronomers like Bode and Zach. They took care of his results, sometimes after editing them. Time determinations based on longitude and latitude determinations, as well as other astronomical observations, led to the development of a time service, which was carried out for about 150 years. Köhler himself constructed the clocks. Because of his responsibilities as an inspector, as well as due to local and material constraints, he was not able to carry out systematic and reproducible measurements over a long time span. His improvement of the circular micrometer and his stop-down photometer are of special interest. He also had considerable talent in drawing, as is shown in his drawings of lunar mountains. A number of instruments used by Köhler are still to be found in the Mathematical-Physical Salon.

  9. Inflammatory bowel disease in the 21(st) century in China: turning challenges into opportunities.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Qin; Xue, Lin Yun

    2012-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been an international hot spot for research for a long period of time. In China, the prevalence of IBD is rapidly increasing in recent years, mimicking the same fast growing footsteps of the developed world. Chinese literature of the 20(th) century shows that the total number of IBD cases increased by approximately 2.5-fold over the previous decade, in particular a 15.7-fold in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Articles on basic research have increased 4.3-fold, with a particular 9.9-fold increase on immunological mechanisms. The predominantly Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) related clinical trials implied tendency to use a combination of Western Medicine and TCM in the management of Chinese IBD patients. IBD research and collaborations overseas have been markedly promoted since the Chinese Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (COIBD) was founded at the beginning of the 21(st) century. From the second decade of the century onwards, we need to focus on the research hot spots to catch up with the rapid advances worldwide. Big challenges and present achievements provide us with great opportunities for further developments of the study on IBD. The development of some novel target pathogenic factors of the disease will provide us with more effective roll for modern management and optimistic treatment of IBD during this century. PMID:22435503

  10. On the development of German beating-reed organ pipes during the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braasch, Jonas

    2001-05-01

    In the 19th century organ literature, it is often claimed that German organ builders generally adapted the way of building their beating-reed pipes after being influenced by new developments from England and France. To investigate whether this hypothesis is true or false, the reed-pipe sounds of several German historic organs and an English organ by Henry Willis were measured and analyzed. The outcome of the analysis, however, cannot confirm the given hypothesis. Organ builders of the 18th century, such as Gottfried Silbermann for example, were already able to build beating-reed pipes similar in sound to the pipes that are used nowadays in Germany. It is noteworthy that Silbermann used closed shallots in some of his stops, although they are thought to be one of the main inventions in the English and French organ reforms. The use of higher wind pressures, which is also a main part of this reform, on the other hand, never became a common standard in Germany, as was the case for France and Great Britain.

  11. a GIS of SARDINIA'S Coastal Defense System (xvi - XVIII Century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidda, M.; Musa, C.; Vacca, G.

    2015-06-01

    The use of GIS as a tool for archival, analysis and representation of geographic information has become significantly popular in many scientific fields that are directly concerned with the "territory" as their object of study. The field of application of GIS, however, has expanded also in other areas, such as those related to humanities and architecture, in which the territory is studied in an "indirect" mode because it constitutes a kind of substrate on which to develop a specific spatial analysis for particular purposes. Among these areas are to be included certainly archeology and restoration, fields in which the GIS has become a useful tool for historical studies. In this work we present a GIS developed for the study of the historical and territorial coastal defense system of Sardinia (16th - 18th century), in order to respond to the need to store, analyze and efficiently manage the information regarding cultural heritage and landscape heritage such as that consisting of the coastal defensive towers of Sardinia. This defensive system, in fact, was composed by over 100 towers positioned around the entire coastal perimeter of Sardinia, of which more than 90 still exist today. Their position was planned on the basis of the following criteria: - Warning the neighboring towers about the sighting of enemy ships - Protecting coasts located near the towns - Monitoring the water sources near the coast - Allowing for the full visibility of the coasts of any morphology With this study we also verified, through the use of high resolution and high accuracy DTM (LiDAR) and the topographic databases, whether the positioning criteria specified in the design of the system were respected and effective.

  12. The management century.

    PubMed

    Kiechel, Walter

    2012-11-01

    In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it. PMID:23155998

  13. Winter temperature variations over middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River during the past three centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Z.-X.; Zheng, J.-Y.; Ge, Q.-S.; Wang, W.-C.

    2012-01-01

    We present statistically reconstructed annual winter (December-February) mean temperature in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River (24-34° N, east of 108° E) back to 1736. The reconstructions are based on information from snowfall days from Yu-Xue-Fen-Cun archive (one of historical documents proxies) in Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). Those information are calibrated with regional winter temperature series spanning the period 1951 to 2007 period. The gap from 1912 to 1950 is filled using early instrumental observation. With respect to the 1951-2007 climatology, the 18th century was 0.6 °C colder, and the 19th century was 1.0 °C colder. But since the 20th century, climate entered into the warming phase, particular in the last 30 yr, the mean temperature from 1981 to 2007 is 0.25 °C higher than that of climatology, a highest level of the past 300 yr. The uncertainty is existed for the period prior of 1900, and possible causes have been discussed here.

  14. Interdecadal changes of surface temperature since the late nineteenth century

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.E.; Folland, C.K.; Bevan, A.; Jones, P.D.

    1994-07-20

    The authors present global fields of decadal annual surface temperature anomalies, referred to the period 1951-1980, for each decade from 1881-1890 to 1981-1990 and for 1984-1993. In addition, they show decadal calendar-seasonal anomaly fields for the warm decades 1936-1945 and 1981-1990. The fields are based on sea surface temperature (SST) and land surface air temperature data. The SSTs are corrected for the pre-World War II use of uninsulated sea temperature buckets and incorporate adjusted satellite-based SSTs from 1982 onward. These results extend those published in the 1990 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Scientific Assessment. Despite poor data coverage initially and around the two World Wars the generally cold end of the nineteenth century and start to the twentieth century are confirmed, together with the substantial warming between about 1920 and 1940. Slight cooling of the northern hemisphere took place between the 1950s and the mid-1970s, although slight warming continued south of the equator. Recent warmth has been most marked over the northern continents in winter and spring, but the 1980s were warm almost everywhere apart from Greenland, the northwestern Atlantic and the midlatitude North Pacific. Parts of the middle- to high-latitude southern ocean may also have been cool in the 1980s, but in this area the 1951-1980 climatology is unreliable. The impact of the satellite data is reduced because the record of blended satellite and in situ SST is still too short to yield a climatology from which to calculate representative anomalies reflecting climatic change in the southern ocean. However, the authors propose a method of using existing satellite data in a step toward this target. The maps are condensed into global and hemispheric decadal surface temperature anomalies. The authors show the sensitivity of these estimated anomalies to alternative methods of compositing the spatially incomplete fields. 58 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Five centuries of Southern Moravian drought variations revealed from living and historic tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büntgen, Ulf; Brázdil, Rudolf; Dobrovolný, Petr; Trnka, Mirek; Kyncl, Tomáš

    2011-08-01

    Past, present, and projected fluctuations of the hydrological cycle, associated to anthropogenic climate change, describe a pending challenge for natural ecosystems and human civilizations. Here, we compile and analyze long meteorological records from Brno, Czech Republic and nearby tree-ring measurements of living and historic firs from Southern Moravia. This unique paleoclimatic compilation together with innovative reconstruction methods and error estimates allows regional-scale May-June drought variability to be estimated back to ad 1500. Driest and wettest conditions occurred in 1653 and 1713, respectively. The ten wettest decades are evenly distributed throughout time, whereas the driest episodes occurred in the seventeenth century and from the 1840s onward. Discussion emphasizes agreement between the new reconstruction and documentary evidence, and stresses possible sources of reconstruction uncertainty including station inhomogeneity, limited frequency preservation, reduced climate sensitivity, and large-scale constraints.

  16. A century of antenna development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olver, A. D.

    The paper describes a century of antenna development as part of a century of radio communications. This historical review examines, chronologically, the pre-Hertz period, Hertz antennas, the microwave optics period, the Marconi era, short waves, theoretical design before and after computers, and radar. Consideration is also given to mobile antennas, microwave comunications, radio astronomy, and satellite comunications.

  17. 21st Century Skills Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  18. Fueling the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Sheindlin, A.E. ); Zaleski, P. )

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses fueling of the 21st century. Topics include: Basic World Energy Problems at the Turn of the 21st Century, Natural Gas at the Present Stage of Development of Power Engineering, and Biomass-Powered Ice- Making Machine.

  19. Foreword: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2014-05-01

    This second joint conference between the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter and the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science and Technology (AIRAPT) demonstrates that static and dynamic compression of condensed matter continues to be a vibrant field of science and engineering. It is also by its nature an interdisciplinary field, incorporating chemistry, materials science, solid mechanics, plasma physics, and condensed matter physics, and utilizes theoretical, computational, and experimental tools. Recent years have brought about many advances in loading platforms, diagnostics, and computations that are leading to the emergence of many new avenues of research. These advances are also breathing new life into traditional topics such as equations of state, phase transformations, and chemistry at extreme conditions. The plenary lectures by Gennady Kanel, Karl Syassen, David Ceperley, Jon Eggert, Duck Young Kim, and Richard Kraus spanned the disciplines of static and dynamic high pressure physics and illustrated the breadth of the field. They also showed that interesting and important problems remain for researchers of the future to solve. The main guiding principal in the organization of this conference was to intertwine static and dynamical experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials. To achieve this goal, we arranged the conference to include static, dynamic, and computational components in the same sessions, quite often taking presenters out of their comfort zone. The three special sessions on Deep Carbon Budget (organized by Giulia Galli and Rus Hemley), High Energy Density Materials (organized by Raymond Jeanloz and Jon Eggert), and Dynamic Response of Materials (organized by Yogendra Gupta and John Sarrao) furthered this guiding principal. We also endeavored to represent the breadth of static and dynamic high pressure science and technology, notably beyond that done at national laboratories. To this end, a significant fraction of the plenary, invited and contributed presentations showcased work done in academia, defense laboratories and industry, as well as internationally. Although travel distance and visa issues always present difficulties, the conference had strong representation from a record number of international participants, including sizable groups from Russia and China (thanks to Tony Zocher and Frank Cherne), as well as Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Germany, Israel, and Italy. It is our sincere hope that international interactions that occurred at the conference will lead to further collaborations in the future. Finally, we strived to increase student participation at the conference. Through the leadership of Scott Alexander and his committee, a new all-day student symposium was held the day before the main conference, with only student attendees and presenters, in order to acclimate the students to conference participation and help them network with their peers. In cooperation with the APS Topical Group and the AIRAPT and with additional support from DTRA and the AWE, the conference was able to provide financial assistance to a large number of students to attend the conference and present their research. This aid helped increase the number of student attendees significantly over previous conferences. Finally, the conference sponsored a networking lunch for students and representatives from a number of laboratories and other institutions, which was well attended. Seattle proved itself to be an excellent venue for the conference. The international flavor of the city provided ample dining options and numerous activity choices outside of the conference sessions. The major international airport made travel as easy as possible, as Seattle is a convenient central location for attendees from Europe and Asia. The conference was truly a team effort with critical contributions from many individuals. We deeply appreciate their contributions to the success of the conference and the publication of these proceedings. G

  20. The 18th Annual Condensed Matter Physics Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, Don; Hutchinson, Wayne; Yazidjoglou, Nick; Stewart, Glen

    The Handbook contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations covering various aspects of condensed matter physics such as magnetism, superconductivity, semiconductor materials and their properties, as well as the use of nuclear techniques in studies of these materials. 162 contributions have been considered to be in the INIS subject scope and were indexed separately.

  1. The Cosmic Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    2013-04-01

    Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

  2. The Cosmic Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    2006-06-01

    Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

  3. A study on the size of the Chinese population in the middle and late eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y

    1997-01-01

    This study aimed to correct errors in the estimation of the change in population size in China, during the Qing Dynasty (1741-1799). Data were obtained from household census records, the "True Facts of the Qing Dynasty" (Qing Shi Lu), and other historical records of minority, religious, and military population groups. Census records after 1740 included the number of household members instead of registered adult males aged 16-59. During 1741-75, the annual average growth rate was 13.2%. The growth rate during 1742-43 was 15.9% higher than the national average, a measure of undercounts. Underreporting was considered a problem throughout the entire study period. Undercounts in Gansu, Jiangxi, and Hubei provinces are described. Rates and underreporting varied between 30-50% in provinces. The annual average geometric growth rate during 1741-75 was an estimated 14.22%. The growth rate was 8.7% during 1776-94. It is unlikely that growth rates declined in the latter part of the century. The author adjusts figures after 1776 for undercounts of 5.52% annually. The total population undercount of 8 Manshu Banners (9.5 million), other ethnic minorities not registered (6 million), and monks, nuns, priests, and soldiers of the Green Standard (3.6 million) is an estimated 19.1 million. The adjusted total population is 388,150,057 in 1799. The annual growth rate of 14% during 1741-99 was much higher than the global growth rate of 3-5%. The 14% growth rate is likely when the birth rate is 35-38% and the mortality rate is around 20%, rates which agree with 20th century rates. Population growth in the 18th century had far reaching implications for today's population size. PMID:12294141

  4. Sixteenth Century Astronomical Telescopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    2001-12-01

    Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet is named for the ``moist star" which in mythology is the partner of Hamlet's royal Sun. Together the couple seem destined to rule on earth just as their celestial counterparts rule the heavens, but the tragedy is that they are afflicted, just as the Sun and Moon are blemished. In 1.3 Laertes lectures Ophelia on love and chastity, describing first Cytherean phases (crescent to gibbous) and then Lunar craters. Spots mar the Sun (1.1, 3.1). Also reported are Jupiter's Red Spot (3.4) and the resolution of the Milky Way into stars (2.2). These interpretations are well-founded and support the cosmic allegory. Observations must have been made with optical aid, probably the perspective glass of Leonard Digges, father of Thomas Digges. Notably absent from Hamlet is mention of the Galilean moons, owing perhaps to the narrow field-of-view of the telescope. That discovery is later celebrated in Cymbeline, published soon after Galileo's Siderius Nuncius in 1610. In 5.4 of Cymbeline the four ghosts dance ``in imitation of planetary motions" and at Jupiter's behest place a book on the chest of Posthumus Leonatus. His name identifies the Digges father and son as the source of data in Hamlet since Jupiter's moons were discovered after the deaths of Leonard (``leon+hart") and Thomas (the ``lion's whelp"). Lines in 5.4 urge us not to read more into the book than is contained between its covers; this is understandable because Hamlet had already reported the other data in support of heliocentricism and the cosmic model discussed and depicted by Thomas Digges in 1576. I conclude therefore that astronomical telescopy began in England before the last quarter of the sixteenth century.

  5. Convergent Creativity: From Arthur Cropley (1935-) Onwards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ai-Girl

    2015-01-01

    Arthur Cropley's view on convergent thinking is reviewed, with reflections on the relations of divergent and convergent processes and the roles of knowledge and convergent creativity. While divergence is about considering and generating multiplicity, possibility, difference, originality, and so on; convergence is about relating, associating,…

  6. Molecular analysis of transplant rejection: marching onward

    PubMed Central

    Lakkis, Fadi G.

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of organ transplants is increasingly defining the biological pathways responsible for graft rejection at the molecular level and identifying gene transcripts that diagnose or predict rejection. These advances hold significant promise for the treatment of organ rejection and for improving clinical outcomes after transplantation, but hurdles remain. PMID:24145950

  7. Treatment of kidney diseases in the thermal springs of Pithecusa during the XVIII Century.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Elisabetta; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Ricciardi, Biagio

    2016-02-01

    The island of Pithecusa (Ischia) is a volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea in the north end of the Gulf of Naples at about 30 kilometers from the same city. Pithecusa is very popular for its hot springs which even the ancients used. This report aims to analyze the renal therapeutic benefits of the Pithacusa thermal mineral spring through a review of two different manuscripts: i) "Di Napoli il seno cratero"(The gulf of Naples) of Domenico Antonio Parrino (1642-1708) and ii) "De' rimedi naturali che sono nell'isola di Pithecusa oggi detta Ischia"(On the natural cures of the island of Pithecusa known today as Ischia)of Giulio Iasolino (1583-1622). These two manuscripts published during the 18th century and both manuscripts highlight the thermal virtues of the thermal springs of Pithecusa. In the past natural remedies were important in the treatment of different diseases including that of thermal springs dating back to ancient Rome. Thermal springs were used to treat spasms, skin diseases, hair loss and various renal ailments. Both manuscripts describe the thermal springs in Ischia and their therapeutic benefits in medical diseases. PMID:26913894

  8. [Malaria in Pula in the seventies of the 19th century and the epidemic in 1879].

    PubMed

    Cigui, Rino

    2012-01-01

    Malaria played a leading role in the complex Istrian sanitary history. From the beginning of the 18th century, wars, famine, and epidemics depopulated large areas and favoured the spread of the diseases. Socioeconomic structures were also affected, generating a drop in cultivation of the fields, end of drainage works, and later, abandonment of farmed land because of the formation of palustrine stagnant water and decay of traditional sanitary regulations. The dissolution of Benedictine monasteries also played an important role in the spread of malaria. Working on tillage, drainage and cultivation, the Benedictines not only radically changed the Istrian landscape, reducing the impact and spread of infectious diseases but, through a wise land administration, they also succeeded in creating food supplies for famine periods, which were so frequent in the region. Southern Istria and the town of Pula in particular, were the most affected by the disease. Owing to severe famine that hit Istria in 1879, malaria assumed epidemic proportions, causing widespread malnutrition and physiological weakness on the population, which favoured the propagation of infectious agents. PMID:23094841

  9. Luigi Galvani and animal electricity: two centuries after the foundation of electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, M

    1997-10-01

    Luigi Galvani and his famous experiments on frogs carried out in the second half of the 18th century belong more to legend than to the history of science. Galvani not only laid the foundations of a new science, electrophysiology, but also opened the way for the invention of the electric battery, and thus for the development of the physical investigations of electricity. However, in spite of the widespread celebration of his work, Galvani's scientific endeavours have been largely misrepresented in the history of science. The scholar of Bologna has a stereotyped image as an 'occasional' scientist, who started his studies by chance, largely ignored the scientific theories of his time and wandered aimlessly in mental elaborations until the physicist of Pavia, Alessandro Volta, entered the field, correctly interpreted Galvani's results and eventually developed the electric battery. With the present understanding of electrical phenomena in excitable membranes, it is now time to reconsider the real matter raised by Galvani's discoveries and by his hypothesis of an intrinsic 'animal electricity', and to make a clearer evaluation of a revolutionary phase of scientific progress. PMID:9347609

  10. Paleoparasitological results from XVIII century human remains from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Taglioretti, Veronica; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Dias, Ondemar; Neto, Jandira; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2013-03-01

    Paleoparasitological studies of the Brazilian colonial period are scarce. A paleoparasitological analysis was performed on human remains from the archeological site Praça XV Cemetery in Rio de Janeiro, dating from the early 18th to 19th Centuries. The samples were obtained from the Institute of the Brazilian Archaeology collection, and showed evidence of washing and brushing. Sediments were extracted from sacral foramina by scraping. Sediments from skulls were used as negative paleoparasitological controls. Spontaneous sedimentation method was performed prior to microscopic analysis. The results revealed that 8 of 10 individuals were infected with intestinal helminths and/or protozoa. Eggs of the nematodes Trichuris sp. and Ascaris sp. as well as a single taeniid egg were found. Protozoa cysts suggestive of Entamoeba sp. were also observed. Trichuris sp. was the most frequent and abundant parasite, found in 70% of individuals (26 eggs). The study showed the importance of analysis of sediment from human remains preserved in museum or scientific collections, even those subjected to a curating procedure. The levels of infection revealed here should be considered underestimations. This is the first paleoparasitological study from Rio de Janeiro city for the Brazilian colonial period and the first report of human Taenia sp. in the New World. PMID:23200641

  11. Overview of the needs and realities for developing new and improved vaccines in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Hilleman, Maurice R

    2002-01-01

    The science of present day vaccinology is based on the pioneering discoveries of the late 18th and late 19th centuries and the technologic breakthroughs of the past 60 years. The driving force for the development of new vaccines resides in technologic feasibility, public need and economic incentive for translating the basic knowledge into a product. Past efforts by government to define which particular vaccines to develop were mostly irrelevant to the realistic choices which were made. There is a vast array of viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal disease agents against which preventative vaccines may be developed, and to this may be added cancer and certain amyloidoses such as Alzheimer's and 'mad cow' diseases. The proven past for vaccines has relied on live, killed, protein and polysaccharide antigens plus the single example of recombinant-expressed hepatitis B vaccine. The validity of redirection of vaccinology to exploration of simplified vaccines such as recombinant vectored and DNA preparations and reductionist vaccines based on peptides of contrived epitope composition remains to be proved. Reductionism imposes vastly increased complexity and difficulty on vaccine development and might not be capable of achievement. The challenge in the 21st century will involve new and uncertain pathways toward worthwhile accomplishments. PMID:12566702

  12. [Emancipation of the works of artists with psychiatric illness - Artistic reflections from the twentieth century and the Art Brut].

    PubMed

    Plesznivy, Edit

    2015-01-01

    The study presents the emancipation of the artworks of psychiatric patients through the review of four centuries, focusing on some of the most important medical cultural and art historical stages of the period between the 18th and the 21st century, which is a particularly relevant era in this regard. It touches on the collections linked to psychiatrists and hospitals that were formed primarily on the basis of the researches that were analyzing the connection between creativity and mental illness. After that, the study discusses the ever-changing attitudes and preferences of artists' and major artistic movements towards psychosis and the pictorial world of the psychotic. With great care, it analyses the aesthetic category of the art brut, which is connected to the French painter Jean Dubuffet and was born in the middle of the 1940s, and the relationship between contemporary art and art brut. In connection with some of the most significant art brut collections and exhibitions, the works of a few classical and contemporary art brut artists are also discussed (Adolf Wolfli, Louis Soutter, Aloise Corbaz, August Walla ). PMID:26202618

  13. Coping with copper: legacy effect of copper on potential activity of soil bacteria following a century of exposure.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Inês; Jacquiod, Samuel; Brejnrod, Asker; Holm, Peter E; Johansen, Anders; Brandt, Kristian K; Priemé, Anders; Sørensen, Søren J

    2016-11-01

    Copper has been intensively used in industry and agriculture since mid-18(th) century and is currently accumulating in soils. We investigated the diversity of potential active bacteria by 16S rRNA gene transcript amplicon sequencing in a temperate grassland soil subjected to century-long exposure to normal (∼15 mg kg(-1)), high (∼450 mg kg(-1)) or extremely high (∼4500 mg kg(-1)) copper levels. Results showed that bioavailable copper had pronounced impacts on the structure of the transcriptionally active bacterial community, overruling other environmental factors (e.g. season and pH). As copper concentration increased, bacterial richness and evenness were negatively impacted, while distinct communities with an enhanced relative abundance of Nitrospira and Acidobacteria members and a lower representation of Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were selected. Our analysis showed the presence of six functional response groups (FRGs), each consisting of bacterial taxa with similar tolerance response to copper. Furthermore, the use of FRGs revealed that specific taxa like the genus Nitrospira and several Acidobacteria groups could accurately predict the copper legacy burden in our system, suggesting a potential promising role as bioindicators of copper contamination in soils. PMID:27543319

  14. Large ground surface temperature changes of the last three centuries inferred from borehole temperatures in the Southern Canadian Prairies, Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, Jacek A.; Safanda, Jan; Harris, Robert N.; Skinner, Walter R.

    1999-05-01

    New temperature logs in wells located in the grassland ecozone in the Southern Canadian Prairies in Saskatchewan, where surface disturbance is considered minor, show a large curvature in the upper 100 m. The character of this curvature is consistent with ground surface temperature (GST) warming in the 20th century. Repetition of precise temperature logs in southern Saskatchewan (years 1986 and 1997) shows the conductive nature of warming of the subsurface sediments. The magnitude of surface temperature change during that time (11 years) is high (0.3-0.4°C). To assess the conductive nature of temperature variations at the grassland surface interface, several precise air and soil temperature time series in the southern Canadian Prairies (1965-1995) were analyzed. The combined anomalies correlated at 0.85. Application of the functional space inversion (FSI) technique with the borehole temperature logs and site-specific lithology indicates a warming to date of approximately 2.5°C since a minimum in the late 18th century to mid 19th century. This warming represents an approximate increase from 4°C around 1850 to 6.5°C today. The significance of this record is that it suggests almost half of the warming occurred prior to 1900, before dramatic build up of atmospheric green house gases. This result correlates well with the proxy record of climatic change further to the north, beyond the Arctic Circle [Overpeck, J., Hughen, K., Hardy, D., Bradley, R., Case, R., Douglas, M., Finney, B., Gajewski, K., Jacoby, G., Jennings, A., Lamourex, S., Lasca, A., MacDonald, G., Moore, J., Retelle, M., Smith, S., Wolfe, A., Zielinski, G., 1997. Arctic environmental change of the last four centuries, Science 278, 1251-1256.].

  15. White Macael marble: a key element in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia for over 25 centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Rafael; Sol Cruz, Ana; Arriaga, Lourdes; Baltuille, José Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Marble from Macael (Andalusia) is one of the most important natural stones in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia; in particular the variety commercially known as "White Macael". This natural stone has been used outdoors as well as indoors for decorative, ornamental or structural purposes. During the 7th century (B.C.) the Phoenicians began to systematically extract these quarries to be used in their more social important elements such as sarcophagus. During the Roman period this rock had a greater importance in construction; we find columns, pavements, tombstones… in many historical buildings such as the Roman amphitheatre in Mérida (1st century B.C.) and the city of Itálica in Seville (3rd century B.C.). But it is during the Muslim period when marble from Macael is more widely used: the Mosque of Córdoba (8th century), the Lions Court in the Alhambra palace, the Alcazaba in Almería, the Medina-Azahara palace in Córdoba (10th century). Other important buildings using the white marble are: Carlos V palace or the Royal Chapel in Granada (15th century), the Almería cathedral or El Escorial monastery in Madrid (16th century), San Telmo palace in Seville (17th century) or The Royal Palace in Madrid (18th century). Uncountable number of buildings, both historical and contemporary, show different elements made of this marble. From a geological point of view, the quarries are located in the upper part of the Nevado-Filábride Complex, the lowest nappe of the Internal Zones of the Betic Chains. Under the "White Macael" name is also possible to include another commercial denominations such "White Macael Río" or "White Macael Río Veteado". It is a clear white coloured, calcitic marble (up than 97% calcite), with average grain size between 0,16 y 3,2 mm in a mosaic texture with a very homogenous aspect. Regarding the main physical and mechanical properties, this rock has an open porosity value between 0,1-0,6%, bulk density 2,50-2,75 g/cm3, water absorption at

  16. Probabilistic precipitation and temperature downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis over France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillouet, Laurie; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Sauquet, Eric; Graff, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    This work proposes a daily high-resolution probabilistic reconstruction of precipitation and temperature fields in France over the 1871-2012 period built on the NOAA Twentieth Century global extended atmospheric reanalysis (20CR). The objective is to fill in the spatial and temporal data gaps in surface observations in order to improve our knowledge on the local-scale climate variability from the late nineteenth century onwards. The SANDHY (Stepwise ANalogue Downscaling method for HYdrology) statistical downscaling method, initially developed for quantitative precipitation forecast, is used here to bridge the scale gap between large-scale 20CR predictors and local-scale predictands from the Safran high-resolution near-surface reanalysis, available from 1958 onwards only. SANDHY provides a daily ensemble of 125 analogue dates over the 1871-2012 period for 608 climatically homogeneous zones paving France. Large precipitation biases in intermediary seasons are shown to occur in regions with high seasonal asymmetry like the Mediterranean. Moreover, winter and summer temperatures are respectively over- and under-estimated over the whole of France. Two analogue subselection methods are therefore developed with the aim of keeping the structure of the SANDHY method unchanged while reducing those seasonal biases. The calendar selection keeps the analogues closest to the target calendar day. The stepwise selection applies two new analogy steps based on similarity of the sea surface temperature (SST) and the large-scale 2 m temperature (T). Comparisons to the Safran reanalysis over 1959-2007 and to homogenized series over the whole twentieth century show that biases in the interannual cycle of precipitation and temperature are reduced with both methods. The stepwise subselection moreover leads to a large improvement of interannual correlation and reduction of errors in seasonal temperature time series. When the calendar subselection is an easily applicable method suitable in

  17. Probabilistic precipitation and temperature downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis over France

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Caillouet, Laurie; Vidal, Jean -Philippe; Sauquet, Eric; Graff, Benjamin

    2016-03-16

    In this study, this work proposes a daily high-resolution probabilistic reconstruction of precipitation and temperature fields in France over the 1871–2012 period built on the NOAA Twentieth Century global extended atmospheric reanalysis (20CR). The objective is to fill in the spatial and temporal data gaps in surface observations in order to improve our knowledge on the local-scale climate variability from the late nineteenth century onwards. The SANDHY (Stepwise ANalogue Downscaling method for HYdrology) statistical downscaling method, initially developed for quantitative precipitation forecast, is used here to bridge the scale gap between large-scale 20CR predictors and local-scale predictands from the Safranmore » high-resolution near-surface reanalysis, available from 1958 onwards only. SANDHY provides a daily ensemble of 125 analogue dates over the 1871–2012 period for 608 climatically homogeneous zones paving France. Large precipitation biases in intermediary seasons are shown to occur in regions with high seasonal asymmetry like the Mediterranean. Moreover, winter and summer temperatures are respectively over- and under-estimated over the whole of France. Two analogue subselection methods are therefore developed with the aim of keeping the structure of the SANDHY method unchanged while reducing those seasonal biases. The calendar selection keeps the analogues closest to the target calendar day. The stepwise selection applies two new analogy steps based on similarity of the sea surface temperature (SST) and the large-scale 2 m temperature (T). Comparisons to the Safran reanalysis over 1959–2007 and to homogenized series over the whole twentieth century show that biases in the interannual cycle of precipitation and temperature are reduced with both methods. The stepwise subselection moreover leads to a large improvement of interannual correlation and reduction of errors in seasonal temperature time series. When the calendar subselection is an easily

  18. Probabilistic precipitation and temperature downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis over France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillouet, L.; Vidal, J.-P.; Sauquet, E.; Graff, B.

    2015-09-01

    This work proposes a daily high-resolution probabilistic reconstruction of precipitation and temperature fields in France over the 1871-2012 period built on the NOAA Twentieth Century global extended atmospheric reanalysis (20CR). The objective is to fill in the spatial and temporal data gaps in surface observations in order to improve our knowledge on the local-scale climate variability from the late 19th century onwards. The SANDHY (Stepwise ANalogue Downscaling method for HYdrology) statistical downscaling method, initially developed for quantitative precipitation forecast, is used here to bridge the scale gap between large-scale 20CR predictors and local-scale predictands from the SAFRAN high-resolution near-surface reanalysis, available from 1958 onwards only. SANDHY provides a daily ensemble of 125 analogues dates over the 1871-2012 period for 608 climatically homogeneous zones paving France. Large precipitation biases in intermediary seasons are shown to occur in regions with high seasonal asymmetry like the Mediterranean. Moreover, winter and summer temperatures are respectively over- and under-estimated over the whole of France. Two analogue subselection methods are therefore developed with the aim of keeping unchanged the structure of the SANDHY method while reducing those seasonal biases. The calendar selection keeps the closest analogue dates in the year for each target date. The stepwise selection applies two new analogy steps based on similarity of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and the large-scale Two-metre Temperature (T2m). Comparisons to the SAFRAN reanalysis over 1959-2007 and to homogenized series over the whole 20th century show that biases in the interannual cycle of precipitation and temperature are reduced with both methods. The stepwise subselection moreover leads to a large improvement of interannual correlation and reduction of errors in seasonal temperature time series. When the calendar subselection is an easily applicable method

  19. [The mind on the stage of justice: the formation of criminal psychology in the 19th century and its interdisciplinary research].

    PubMed

    Vec, Milos

    2007-09-01

    Criminal psychology emerges at the end of the 18th century as a new academic discipline in lectures and publications. It has recently been investigated by a considerable number of contributions from researchers of different academic backgrounds. In many respects criminal psychology can be seen as a predecessor of criminology. Its subject is the analysis of the origins of crime and its causes and determinants in the human mind. Criminal psychology embraced at that time philosophical, medical, legal and biological aspects. The latter increase in importance in the second half of the 19th century. The conditions of individual responsibility were generally codified in penal law, but had to be individually investigated in crucial cases through expertise in court. There a conflict emerged between medical experts and judges about their ability and competence to decide. At the end of the 19th century criminal psychology is used to fulfil the needs and interests of a criminal law which understands itself as increasingly utilitarian. Force and new instruments of treatment of offenders were legitimized by scientists who were very optimistic about their own epistemological abilities. PMID:18173066

  20. An unmanly vice: self-pollution, anxiety, and the body in the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Stolberg, M

    2000-04-01

    The campaign against masturbation offers one of the outstanding success stories in the history of medical popularization. This paper seeks to identify the reasons for this success, focusing on the campaign's early stages, from the late seventeenth century onwards. It first identifies a series of often quite explicit political, ideological, and economic motives such as religious notions of 'uncleaniness', bourgeois concerns about self-control, marriage, and population growth, and the financial interests of the London veneral trade. Drawing, in particular, on the 'confessions of self-declared victims of masturbation in eighteenth-century patient letters, it then shows that the physical and mental symptoms attributed to masturbation very successfully addressed some of the deepest anxieties in contemporary society, anxieties about virility, gender identity, and physical selfhood. Finally, applying Bourdieu's notion of 'habitus', the central role of a new, implicitly male, more solid, closed and self-contained dominant body image is underlined. Framing the interpretation and the very experience of the body among the proponents and the recipients of anti-onanist discourse alike, it helped to make the dangers of masturbation an almost irrefutable, objective truth. PMID:11624419

  1. From nerves and hormones to bacteria in the stomach; Nobel prize for achievements in gastrology during last century.

    PubMed

    Konturek, S J; Konturek, P C; Brzozowski, T; Konturek, J W; Pawlik, W W

    2005-12-01

    Rapid progress in gastroenterological research, during past century, was initiated by the discovery by W. Prout in early 18th century of the presence of inorganic, hydrochloric acid in the stomach and by I.P. Pavlov at the end of 19th century of neuro-reflex stimulation of secretion of this acid that was awarded by Nobel prize in 1904. Then, J. W. Black, who followed L. Popielski's concept of histamine involvement in the stimulation of this secretion, was awarded second Nobel prize in gastrology within the same century for the identification of histamine H2-receptor (H2-R) antagonists, potent gastric acid inhibitors, accelerating ulcer healing. The concept of H2-R interaction with other receptors such as muscarinic receptors (M3-R), mediating the action of acetylocholine released from local cholinergic nerves, and those mediating the action of gastrin (CCK2-R) on parietal cells, has been confirmed both in vivo studies and in vitro isolated parietal cells. The discovery of H2-R antagonists by Black and their usefulness in control of gastric secretion and ulcer healing, were considered as real breakthrough both in elucidation of gastric secretory mechanisms and in ulcer therapy. Discovery of even more powerful gastric acid inhibitors, proton pump inhibitors (PPI), also highly effective in acceleration of ulcer healing was, however, not awarded Nobel prize. Unexpectedly, two Australian clinical researchers, R.J. Warren and B.J. Marshall, who discovered in the stomach spiral bacteria, named Helicobacter pylori, received the third in past century Nobel prize in gastrology for the finding that this bacterium, is related to the pathogenesis of gastritis and peptic ulcer. They documented that eradication of H. pylori from the stomach, using antibiotics and potent gastric inhibitors, not only accelerates healing of ulcer but also prevents its recurrence, the finding considered as greatest discovery in practical gastrology during last century. Thus, the outstanding

  2. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

  3. Selenography in the seventeenth century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, E. A.

    Contents: 1. Pre-telescopic observations. 2. The first telescopic observations. 3. Galileo's lunar observations. 4. Two new selenographical programmes. 5. A flurry of activity. 6. Hevelius and his Selenographia. 7. Riccioli, Grimaldi, and nomenclature. 8. Robert Hooke and selenology. 9. Cassini and La Hire. 10. Other seventeenth-century selenography. 11. Conclusion.

  4. Twenty-first-century science.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, M R

    1995-01-01

    Scientific life is changing in fundamental ways as the twenty-first century approaches. Advances in technology are changing methods of scientific communications and dissemination of information, while diminishing resources lead to stabilization, politicization, increased public oversight, and the potential for significant downsizing. Libraries can foster the crucial interdisciplinary connections necessary to forge a new vision of scholarship. PMID:7703945

  5. Physics in the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskopf, Victor F.

    1970-01-01

    Provides a review of the great discoveries, theoretical concepts and development of physics in the 20th century. The growth and significance of diverse fields such as quantum theory, relativity theory, atomic physics, molecular physics, the physics of the solid state, nuclear physics, astrophysics, plasma physics, and particle physics are…

  6. Three Centuries of American Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindert, Peter H.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    Income inequality in the United States displays considerable variance since the seventeenth century. There is no eternal constancy to the degree of inequality in total income, in labor earnings, or in income from conventional nonhuman wealth either before or after the effects of government taxes and spending. When all the necessary adjustments to…

  7. [Mercury (and...) through the centuries].

    PubMed

    Kłys, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Mercury has a long history, fascinating in its many aspects. Through the centuries--from ancient times to the present day--the metal in its various forms, also known under the name "quicksilver", accompanied the man and was used for diversified purposes. Today, mercury is employed in manufacturing thermometers, barometers, vacuum pumps and explosives. It is also used in silver and gold mining processes. Mercury compounds play a significant role in dentistry, pharmaceutical industry and crop protection. The contemporary use of mercury markedly decreases, but historically speaking, the archives abound in materials that document facts and events occurring over generations and the immense intellectual effort aiming at discovering the true properties and mechanisms of mercury activity. Mercury toxicity, manifested in destruction of biological membranes and binding of the element with proteins, what disturbs biochemical processes occurring in the body, was discovered only after many centuries of the metal exerting its effect on the lives of individuals and communities. For centuries, mercury was present in the work of alchemists, who searched for the universal essence or quintessence and the so-called philosopher's stone. In the early modern era, between the 16th and 19th centuries, mercury was used to manufacture mirrors. Mercury compounds were employed as a medication against syphilis, which plagued mankind for more than four hundred years--from the Middle Ages till mid 20th century, when the discovery of penicillin became the turning point. This extremely toxic therapy resulted in much suffering, individual tragedies, chronic poisonings leading to fatalities and dramatic sudden deaths. In the last fifty years, there even occurred attempts of mentally imbalanced individuals at injecting themselves with metallic mercury, also as a performance-enhancing drug. Instances of mass mercury poisoning occurred many times in the past in consequence of eating food products

  8. The 21st century propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haloulakos, V. E.; Boehmer, C.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of future space travel in the next millennium starts by examining the past and extrapolating into the far future. Goals for the 21st century include expanded space travel and establishment of permanent manned outposts, and representation of Lunar and Mars outposts as the most immediate future in space. Nuclear stage design/program considerations; launch considerations for manned Mars missions; and far future propulsion schemes are outlined.

  9. Clear cutting (10-13th century) and deep stable economy (18-19th century) as responsible interventions for sand drifting and plaggic deposition in cultural landscapes on aeolian sands (SE-Netherlands).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Jan; Vera, Hein; Wallinga, Jakob

    2013-04-01

    landscapes, characterized by deflation plains (gleyic arenosols) and complexes of inland dunes (haplic arenosols). Clear cutting was responsible for the mediaeval first large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. In such driftsand landscapes, the majority of the podzolic soils in coversand has been truncated by aeolian erosion. Only on scattered sheltered sites in the landscape, palaeopodzols were buried under mono or polycyclic driftsand deposits. They are now the valuable soil archives for palaeoecological research. During the 18th century, the population growth and regional economic activity stimulated the agricultural productivity. Farmers introduced the innovative 'deep stable' technique to increase the production of fertilizers. Farmers started sod digging, including the top of the Ah horizon of the humus forms. This consequently promoted heath degradation and sand drifting, resulting in the extension of driftsand landscapes. Deep stable economy and sod digging was responsible for the 18th century second large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. During the 19th century, farmers tried to find alternative fertilizers and authorities initiated reforestation projects. The invention of chemical fertilizers at the end of the 19th century marked the end of the period of heath management and plaggic agriculture. The heath was no longer used for the harvesting of plaggic matter and new land management practices were introduced. Heath was reclaimed to new arable land or reforested with Scotch pine. Geomorphological features as inland dunes and plaggic covers survived in the landscape and are now included in the geological inheritance.

  10. The 21st Century Skills Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

  11. A two century record of strontium isotopes from an ice core drilled at Mt Blanc, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, G. R.; Rosman, K. J. R.; Van de Velde, K. P.; Boutron, C. F.

    2006-08-01

    New techniques which allow small amounts of Sr to be reliably analysed [G.R. Burton, V.I. Morgan, C.F. Boutron, K.J.R. Rosman, High-sensitivity measurements of strontium isotopes in polar ice, Anal. Chim. Acta 469 (2002) 225-233] by TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) have been used to measure the isotopic composition of Sr and the concentration of Rb and Sr at sub-nanogram per gram levels in a Mt Blanc snow and ice core. This two century time series of Sr isotopes is the first to be reported in an Alpine glacier. The Sr and Rb concentrations range from 3 ng/g to 20 pg/g and 1 ng/g to 10 pg/g, respectively, with higher concentrations evident in more recent times. This trend is consistent with that reported previously for other metals such as Cd, Cu and Zn [K. Van de Velde, C. Barbante, G. Cozzi, I. Moret, T. Bellomi, C. Ferrari, C. Boutron, Changes in the occurrence of silver, gold, platinum, palladium and rhodium in Mont Blanc ice and snow since the 18th century, Atmos. Environ. 34 (2000) 3117-3127; K. Van de Velde, C. Boutron, C. Ferrari, T. Bellomi, C. Barbante, S. Rudnev, M. Bolshov, Seasonal variations of heavy metals in the 1960s Alpine ice: sources versus meteorological factors, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 164 (1998) 521-533; K.J.R. Rosman, C. Ly, K. Van de Velde, C.F. Boutron, A two century record of lead isotopes in high altitude Alpine snow and ice, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 176 (2000) 413-424]. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios vary between 0.7020 and 0.7176 and display relatively larger variations in recent times which have been attributed to seasonal variations made evident by the increased sampling resolution available at shallower depths. No change with time is evident in this ratio which has a mean value of ˜ 0.712 and is similar to Glacial ice at Summit Greenland, suggesting that aerosols reaching Mt Blanc represent the same mixture of sources. Also, anthropogenic sources would appear to have the same isotopic ratio. The presence of Saharan dust in some

  12. Evidence for Precise Calendrical Observations in the 17th Century at the `Bruchhauser Steine', Olsberg, Northrhine-Westphalia, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinrücken, B.

    The `Bruchhauser Steine', four large rocks of volcanic origin in southern Westphalia, form perfect foresights for calendrical observations from the surrounding country. The ancient walls and embankments on the `Istenberg' with the rocks as cornerstones were built 500 BC. In the landscape are placed shrines with images of Christian saints, erected in the late 17th and the early 18th century. The positions of these shrines can be interpreted as observing sites with respect to the stones. The foresights reach several degrees to the sky, so variations in the astronomical refraction are strongly suppressed. The most impressive observing site with a shrine of 1699 (8o31'13'' E, 51o18'49'' N) is exactly at the position to observe the summer solstice sunrise at the topmost rock, the `Feldstein'. The solstice sun rises between two stones and grazes the Feldstein at 6:20 CEST. Today the sun is obstructed 2'-3' by the stone. Taking into account the slight variation of the obliquity of the ecliptic of 2' since 1699 the grazing procedure at the time of erection was perfect, without any obstruction of the suns disc. Similar shrines are placed at positions to observe the sunrise on May 1st in the identical manner (8o29'39'' E, 51o18'41'' N) and the lunar declination minimum on the meridian (8o32'44'' E, 51o20'33'' N). Some evidence indicates a prehistoric origin of this calendrical system.

  13. Response of a benthic suspension feeder ( Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) to three centuries of anthropogenic eutrophication in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Michael X.; Miller, Henry M.

    2005-03-01

    Biogenic reefs built by oysters and other suspension feeders are vital components of estuarine ecosystems. By consuming phytoplankton, suspension feeders act to suppress accumulation of organic matter in the water column. Nutrient loading increases the rate of primary production, thereby causing eutrophication. As suspension feeders consume more organic matter from increasing abundance of phytoplankton, their rate of growth should also increase if they are food limited. We show here that the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin), from St. Mary's and Patuxent rivers, Chesapeake Bay, grew faster during anthropogenic eutrophication relative to C. virginica before eutrophication. Growth of shell height, shell thickness and adductor muscle increased after eutrophication began in the late 18th century. After 1860, growth decreased, perhaps reflecting the negative effects of hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, disease and fishing on oyster growth. These results are consistent with the view that an increasing supply of phytoplankton resulting from eutrophication enhanced growth of C. virginica between 1760 and 1860, before oyster reefs were degraded by destructive fishing practices between 1870 and 1930. Alternative factors, such as changes in water temperature, salinity, and fishing are less likely to be responsible for this pattern. These results have implications for restoration of oyster reefs in order to mitigate the effects of eutrophication in estuaries, as well as the paleoecological relationship between suspension feeders and paleoproductivity.

  14. The discovery of encephalic arteries. From Johann Jacob Wepfer to Charles Foix.

    PubMed

    Tatu, Laurent; Moulin, Thierry; Monnier, Guy

    2005-01-01

    Up until the 17th century, ideas surrounding the discovery of encephalic arteries were to remain largely influenced by the political and religious ideologies of the era. Parts of the encephalic arterial system have been called after several anatomists from this earlier period. From the 18th century onwards, scientists and doctors in particular, liberated themselves from the political and religious trends which had governed their work in previous centuries. Some progress was made by applying the clinico-anatomical method to neurology, but it was only at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century that discoveries about encephalic arteries had gained ground. During the same period, anatomists in several countries were producing detailed descriptions of this arterial system. Moreover, this period saw the advent of the first generation of vascular neurologists, one of whom, Charles Foix, is considered as the founder of the discipline. PMID:16230846

  15. Two Centuries of Solar Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. W.

    2015-10-01

    In 1811, François Arago observed the disk of the Sun with his "lunette polariscopique". From the absence of detectable polarization compared with his laboratory observations of glowing solids, liquids, and flames he concluded that the Sun's visible surface is an incandescent gas. From this beginning, thanks to orders of magnitude technology improvements, a remarkable amount of what we know about the physics of the Sun has continued to flow from solar polarimetry. This short review compares some selected polarimetric discoveries with subsequent recent observations to illustrate the tremendous progress of solar polarimetry during the last two centuries.

  16. [The influence of anatomical treaties on the works of Wendel Dietterlin and his successors in the second half of the 16th century].

    PubMed

    Gampp, Axel

    2011-01-01

    In 1543 in Basel, Johannes Oporinus published one of the most famous treatises in the history of anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius. The book was an immediate success all over Europe, especially in the Upper Rhine region. In Strasbourg, Walter Ryff (Gualterius Rivius) was responsible for an early copy; others followed, as for example Felix Platter in Basel in 1581. One of the novelties of all these books consisted in the fact that for the first time the human body was dissected into its smallest units. Anatomical elements such as the opened thorax, the vertebral column, the kidney sectionned, or the laryngeal cartilages apparently stimulated an artist of the late 16th century in the same geographical region: Wendel Dietterlin (c.1550-1599) who principally worked in Strasbourg and introduced these elements into his treatise on architecture as architectural ornaments. This seems to be the first instance of a transfer of motifs from human anatomy to architecture. From this time on, the transfer reappeared in some works until William Hogarth's era in the 18th century. PMID:22400472

  17. Neurology and War: From Antiquity to Modern Times.

    PubMed

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Arnao, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Here, we chronicle the evolution of warfare from antiquity to modern times (18th century) and its impact on the later-to-be-defined field of neurology, especially with regard to brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve injuries and neurological disorders caused by biological weapons and psychological trauma. We describe how individuals courageously and intelligently dealt with the horrors of war, from the Egyptians to the Greeks and onward to the Romans, up until the physicians of modern times. In doing so, they responded to the call of duty by inventing solutions that benefitted not only soldiers but also civilian medicine. PMID:27035675

  18. The metal alloys from the XIX century and weathering action in the Mercado do Ver-o-Peso building, northern Brazil: Identification with the usage of laboratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Palácios, Flávia Olegário; Angélica, Rômulo Simões; Sanjad, Thais Alessandra Bastos Caminha

    2014-10-15

    The fabrication of metallic buildings started in Europe after the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century. Metallic constructions became very popular, and started being imported by several countries, due to the facility of constructing or assembling. Belém, a northern Brazilian city, holds a great number of buildings entirely made of iron, including the Ver-o-Peso, a fish market which structures were imported from England by the end of the 19th century. This building represents a unique type of architecture and it's an important part of the city's heritage. However, research so far did not focus on its construction materials. Ver-o-Peso building's metal alloys haven't been thoroughly studied concerning physical, chemical and mineralogical characterizations. This paper aims to identify the types of metal alloys used in the building, and also corrosion products' result from weathering actions. The methods used to characterize the materials were scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Through this research it was possible to identify four types of iron alloys used in the different parts of the building, characterize the paint coats, and determine types of corrosion. The characterization of the materials in the building allows enrolling basis for restoration processes, documenting the types of metal alloy used in architectural heritage from the 19th century, as well as understanding the advances of corrosion. - Highlights: • Ver-o-peso is a heritage building from the 19th century with unidentified alloys. • Alloy and weathering product characterization was done using SEM/EDS and XRD. • Four metal alloy types were described, indicating different types of foundries. • Weathering products showed distinct mineral phases and physical characteristics. • Original paint coats were found among corrosion products.

  19. The Diary of Frances Jacobs: Astronomical Observations by a 19th-century Oregon Woman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGown, R. D.

    2002-12-01

    This abstract summarizes my research, transcription and editing of Francis Jacob's 170-page handwritten astronomical diary. This diary is a unique example of a time in early Portland history, illustrating the mind of a young woman who was interested in science and astronomy. Reflected in her diary are the discoveries and mention of leading astronomers of the day like Emerson Bernard and Edward Pickering. Francis Jacobs lived in an era of the great refractors For example, ``The Leviathan," built by Lord Rosse in Ireland was completed in 1847. In this 72-inch telescope, stars of 18th magnitude could be seen. The first spiral nebulae to be revealed was M51 - known today as the Whirlpool Galaxy. The Earl was the first to suggest that these spirals could actually be rotating masses of stars. At the turn of the century, study of observational astronomy was rooted in naked eye observing, study of binary stars and nebula. This was a time when women were becoming interested in the sciences and had begun to play an important role in science and astronomy. It was an incredible inspiration for other women across the country to hear what was happening on the astronomical frontiers at Harvard. Some constellation asterisms used in Francis Jacob's diary were different than they are today. One asterism in particular, the Egyptian Cross, is relatively unknown now. The summer triangle and winter circle asterisms were used in her notes and obviously popular in her era, as today. Her written comments included some Messier catalogue numbers and in some case written on her sketches and diagrams nicknames, such as the 'Dumbbell' nebula. She also referred to M99 as `St. Katherine's Wheel', a nickname that is not in common use today.

  20. Teaching health in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Lee-Ann

    2015-01-01

    School nurses have a broad scope of practice, including direct clinical care, as well as teaching health lessons. Students in the 21st century require educators who understand the current global needs of these learners. Effective health teaching meets these 21st-century needs. This article presents a background of 21st-century learning, with specific recommendations for teaching this generation of students. PMID:25626242

  1. Ambiguous cells: the emergence of the stem cell concept in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    PubMed

    Maehle, Andreas-Holger

    2011-12-20

    This paper elucidates the origins of scientific work on stem cells. From the late nineteenth century onwards, the notion of stem cells became customary in scientific communities of Imperial Germany. Adopting the term Stammzelle from Ernst Haeckel, Theodor Boveri was influential in introducing the concept in embryological studies and early genetics around 1900, describing a capacity of stem cells for self-renewal as well as differentiation. At the same time, blood stem cells were conceptualized by histologists such as Ernst Neumann and Artur Pappenheim in studies of physiological haematopoiesis and various forms of leukaemia. Furthermore, building on Julius Cohnheim's theory that tumours arise from 'embryonic remnants' in the adult body, pathologists aimed at identifying the cells of origin, particularly in the embryo-like teratomas. Embryonic stem cells thus assumed an ambiguous status, partly representing common heritage and normal development, and partly being seen as potential causes of cancer if they had been left behind or displaced during ontogeny. In the 1950s and 1960s experimental research on teratocarcinomas by Leroy Stevens and Barry Pierce in the USA brought together the strands of embryological and pathological work. Alongside the work of Ernest McCulloch and James Till at the Ontario Cancer Institute from the early 1960s on stem cells in haematopoiesis, this led into the beginnings of modern stem cell research. PMID:22332468

  2. Johann Wilhelm Hittorf and the material culture of nineteenth-century gas discharge research.

    PubMed

    Müller, Falk

    2011-06-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, gas discharge research was transformed from a playful and fragmented field into a new branch of physical science and technology. From the 1850s onwards, several technical innovations-powerful high-voltage supplies, the enhancement of glass-blowing skills, or the introduction of mercury air-pumps- allowed for a major extension of experimental practices and expansion of the phenomenological field. Gas discharge tubes served as containers in which resources from various disciplinary contexts could be brought together; along with the experimental apparatus built around them the tubes developed into increasingly complex interfaces mediating between the human senses and the micro-world. The focus of the following paper will be on the physicist and chemist Johann Wilhelm Hittorf (1824-1914), his educational background and his attempts to understand gaseous conduction as a process of interaction between electrical energy and matter. Hittorf started a long-term project in gas discharge research in the early 1860s. In his research he tried to combine a morphological exploration of gas discharge phenomena-aiming at the experimental production of a coherent phenomenological manifold--with the definition and precise measurements of physical properties. PMID:21879606

  3. Ambiguous Cells: The Emergence of the Stem Cell Concept in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Maehle, Andreas-Holger

    2013-01-01

    Summary This paper elucidates the origins of scientific work on stem cells. From the late nineteenth century onwards, the notion of stem cells became customary in scientific communities of Imperial Germany. Adopting the term ‘Stammzelle’ from Ernst Haeckel, Theodor Boveri was influential in introducing the concept in embryological studies and early genetics around 1900, describing a capacity of stem cells for self-renewal as well as differentiation. Blood stem cells were at the same time conceptualized by histologists such as Ernst Neumann and Artur Pappenheim in studies of physiological haematopoiesis and various forms of leukaemia. Furthermore, building on Julius Cohnheim’s theory that tumours arise from ‘embryonic remnants’ in the adult body, pathologists aimed at identifying the cells of origin, particularly in the embryo-like teratomas. Embryonic stem cells thus assumed an ambiguous status, partly representing common heritage and normal development, partly being seen as potential causes of cancer if they had been left behind or displaced during ontogeny. In the 1950s and 1960s experimental research on teratocarcinomas by Leroy Stevens and Barry Pierce in the USA brought the strands of embryological and pathological work together. Alongside the work of Ernest McCulloch and James Till at the Ontario Cancer Institute, from the early 1960s, on stem cells in haematopoiesis, this led into the beginnings of modern stem cell research. PMID:22332468

  4. YI Suki's Yŏksimanpil and the Professional Identity of a Chung'in Medical Official in Eighteenth Century Chosŏn Korea.

    PubMed

    Yi, Kiebok

    2013-08-01

    About one hundred years after the publication of Tongŭibogam (1613), a physician at the court YI Suki (1664-?) wrote a medical manuscript titled Yŏksimanpil (Miscellaneous Jottings on Medical Experiences and Tests, 1734). As indicated in its title, Yŏksimanpil was a medical essay composed of 130 medical case histories, drawing on what YI Suki himself had experienced in his medical practices. This paper examines the messages YI Suki in Yŏksimanpil tried to address to his fellow Korean doctors, and by doing so illuminates an aspect of the medicine in the late Chosŏn period. The argument goes that YI Suki wrote Yŏksimanpil as a vehicle for promulgating his professional identity as a bureaucratic physician who belonged to the network of the chung'in technical officials-a group of government technical functionaries in late Chosŏn Korea. Throughout the late Chosŏn period, the chung'in technical officials had been discriminated, institutionally and socioculturally, against the yangban literati, while their promotion to honored higher positions was blocked. It was in the late 17th and early 18th century that a group of chung'in officials tried to secure their sociocultural places for their professional activity, thus bringing to light their social and professional identity in Chosŏn society. A member of the network of the chung'in technical officials in the early 18th century, YI Suki was in an effort to position himself as a doctor somewhere between the medical tradition and the Confucian literary tradition. In these sociocultural contexts, we can see more clearly what YI Suki tried to speak of in his book and the historical meaning of the medical writing Yŏksimanpil. First, the way he practiced medicine was testing and confirming what the received medical textbooks had asserted (Chŭnghŏmkobang). This style of practicing medicine could be viewed as a reflection of the comprehensivity trait of bureaucratic court physicians network YI Suki belonged to. Also this

  5. Composition, Preservation and Production Technology of Augusta Emerita Roman Glasses from the First to the Sixth Century a.d.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomar, Teresa; Garcia-Heras, Manuel; Sabio, Rafael; Rincon, Jesus-Maria; Villegas, Maria-Angeles

    This paper presents the results derived from an archaeometric study undertaken on glass samples from the Roman town of Augusta Emerita (Mérida, Spain). The main goal of the research was to provide for the first time some compositional and technological insights into the glass finds unearthed in this town. Glass samples from different sites and chronology, either from inside or from outside the perimeter of the ancient town and from the first to the sixth century AD, were analyzed and characterized through optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and VIS spectrophotometry. Resulting data indicated that all the samples studied were natron-based soda lime silicate glasses, even though two chronological and compositionally distinct groups were distinguished. One composed of Early Empire glasses and a second one composed of glasses from the fourth century AD onward, which was characterized by the presence of the so-called HIMT (high iron, manganese, and titanium) glasses. Comparison with coeval glasses suggested that Augusta Emerita shared the same trade glass circles than other contemporary Roman towns, within the frame of a secondary production scale. Finally, some outstanding differences connected to composition and chronology were found, since Late Roman glasses presented a higher and distinct degree of alteration than Early Empire ones.

  6. Urbanization in 21st century.

    PubMed

    Altarejos, R G

    1990-01-01

    Due to a combination of rapid population growth and high levels of rural-urban migration, overcrowding will be common in many cities around the world in the 21st century. Currently at 5.3 billion, the global population is expected to increase to 6 billion by the year 2000, and to 9 billion by 2025. Experts predict that urban centers will bear the brunt of the population growth. Rural areas have seen declines in the standard of living, partly due to natural disasters, civil war, and economic policies favoring urban centers. In search of jobs, better access to education, and health services, rural populations will flock to cities. But the rapid growth of cities will inevitably lead to the creation of slums, which will hamper urban development. Urban demographers predict that by the end of the century, 1/2 of the world's population will be urban, and 1/5 of these people will be concentrated in "mega cities," populations of 4 million or more. International migration will play a significant role, as people cross borders in search of opportunity. But contrary to the traditional model of urban growth, much of it will take place in developing countries. According to a 1985 study, developed nations had an urbanization level of 71%, compared to 31% in developing countries. However, experts calculate that by 2025, these levels will practically even out, with an urbanization level of 74% for developing countries and 77% for developed countries. By 2025, 25 cities will have populations of over 9 million, including Mexico City (25.8), Sao Paulo (24.0), Tokyo (20.2), Calcutta (16.5), Greater Bombay (16.0), and New York (15.8). PMID:12343167

  7. Investigating the pace of temperature change and its implications over the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavaillaz, Y.; Joussaume, S.; Braconnot, P.; Vautard, R.

    2015-12-01

    In most studies, climate change is approached by focusing on the evolution between a fixed current baseline and the future, emphasizing stronger warming as we move further from the current climate. Under climate conditions that are continuously evolving, human systems might have to constantly adapt to a changing target. We propose here an alternative approach, and consider indicators of the pace of temperature change and its effects on temperature distributions estimated from projections of an ensemble of 18 General Circulation Models. The pace is represented by a rate defined by the difference between two subsequent 20-year periods. Under the strongest emission pathway (RCP 8.5), the warming rate strongly increases over the twenty-first century, with a maximum reached before 2080. Whilst northern high-latitudes witness the highest temperature rise, all other latitudes highlight at least a doubling in the warming rate compared to the current period. The spatial extent of significant shifts in annual temperature distributions between two subsequent 20-year periods is projected to be at least four times larger than in the current period. They are mainly located in tropical areas, such as West Africa and South-East Asia. The fraction of the world population exposed to these shifts grows from 8% to 60% from around 2060 onwards, i.e. reaching 6 billions people. In contrast, low mitigation measures (RCP 6.0) are sufficient to keep the warming rate similar to current values. Under the medium mitigation pathway (RCP 4.5), population exposure to significant shifts drops to negligible values by the end of the century. Strong mitigation measures (RCP 2.6) are the only option that generates a global return to historical conditions regarding our indicators. Considering the pace of change can bring an alternative way to interact with climate impacts and adaptation communities.

  8. A century of oceanographic and fisheries exploration on the continental shelf off Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelescu, V.; Sánchez, R. P.

    1995-03-01

    A detailed analysis is presented of the main contributions, both local and international, to the fields of oceanography and fishery sciences resulting from exploratory cruises carried out on the continental shelf off Argentina over the last 100 years. The end of the 19th century is chosen as a starting point for this analysis as it marks the beginning of active marine research by Argentinian scientists and an accumulation of information on Antarctic and Subantarctic organisms in foreign journals. Mention is also made of previous contributions derived from the classic expeditions and global circumnavigational voyages during the 18th and 19th centuries. Although the aims of those were not always strictly oceanographic, they rendered significant information to this field of knowledge. In the early years, references arose mainly from the particular geographic situation of the Argentinian shelf, a necessary passage in the navigation routes to the Pacific Ocean, and later on the way to Antarctica. Sources of information are divided into four categories: (a) foreign scientific projects in the area; (b) investigation by Argentinian scientists and research vessels; (c) joint projects between Argentinian and foreign institutions; and (d) contributions from sources other than oceanographic cruises (commercial navigation, maritime weather reports, satellite images, etc.). The analysis includes an updated and classified bibliographical list of the main contributions to the fields of oceanography and fishery sciences derived from those sources, published either in international or local journals or appearing as technical and internal reports. The motivations, objectives and main achievements of foreign surveys and programmes in the area and their impact on local scientific progress are discussed. The early sixties mark a turning point in the evolution of international research in the area. The creation of biological stations along the Argentinian coast, and the support given to

  9. Theoretical astrophysics in the 19th century (Homage to Radó von Kövesligethy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs, Lajos G.

    The nature of astronomical information is determined mostly by the incoming light. Theoretical astrophysics means basically the theory of light emission and its relation to the physical constitution of the emitting celestial bodies. The necessary physical disciplines include theory of gravitation, theory of radiation, thermodynamics, matter--radiation interaction. The most significant theoretical achievement in the 17th - 18th century was the axiomatic foundation of mechanics and the law of gravitation. In the context of the nature of light, there were two conceptions: Newton contra Huygens, i.e. particle versus wave phenomenon. Using the theory of gravitation, first speculations appeared on black holes (Michell, Laplace), cosmogony (Kant-Laplace theory), the structure of the Milky Way (Kant), and the explanation of motion of the celestial bodies. The Olbers Paradox, formulated in the 19th century, is still one of the most significant constraints on observational cosmology. The development of thermodynamics, matter-radiation interaction, development of the theory of electromagnetism became important milestones. Maxwell's theory was the classical framework of the interaction between matter and radiation. Kirchhoff and Bunsen's revolutionary discovery of spectral analysis (1859) showed that observation of spectra makes it possible to study the chemical composition of emitting bodies. Thermodynamics predicted the existence of the black body radiation. It did not succeed, however, to determine the functional form of the wavelength dependence. A combination of the thermodynamic equation of state with the equation of hydrostatics resulted in the first stellar models (Lane, Ritter, Schuster). The first successful spectral equation of black body radiation was the theory of continuous spectra of celestial bodies by Radó von Kövesligethy (published 1885 in Hungarian, 1890 in German). Kövesligethy made several assumptions on the matter-radiation interaction: radiating

  10. Physics of the Twentieth Century, and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Frederick J.

    2009-05-01

    This talk is intended for a general audience. A brief history of the two primary physical theories of the twentieth century is presented, and the similarity between the late nineteenth and the early twenty-first centuries is highlighted. In particular, the past and possible future of exact solutions in general relativity are briefly described, and reasons why time is growing short are cited.

  11. Preparing Students for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchida, Donna; And Others

    As the 21st century approaches, many educators are debating the role of education in meeting students' and the economy's needs. This booklet describes the results of a modified Delphi study that asked a panel of 55 experts from education, business, and government how to best prepare students for the 21st century. During the course of three survey…

  12. The 21st-Century Urban Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Like schools in the early twentieth century, urban schools in the early 21st century pose challenges to educators at all levels. Large and growing numbers of students whose first language is not English, students with special needs, students of color and students from low-income homes demand new approaches for which many educators might not have…

  13. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  14. The 21st-Century Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Step into a classroom in the 21st century, and the odds are it won't look all that different from one in the 20th century. One decade into the 2000s, many schools and universities have been frustrated in their efforts to upgrade their facilities and resources because of shrinking budgets. But even with the ailing economy, some education…

  15. The Century of Education. CEE DP 109

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisson, Christian; Murtin, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    Global economic transformations have never been as dramatic as in the twentieth century. Most countries have experienced radical changes in the standards of income per capita, technology, fertility, mortality, income inequality and the extent of democracy in the course of the past century. It is the goal of many disciplines--economics, history,…

  16. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  17. 21st Century Skills Map: English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of English.

  18. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  19. 21st Century Skills Map: Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Social Studies.

  20. 21st Century Skills Map: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Science.

  1. An Unfashionable Rhetoric in the Fifteenth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Marjorie Curry

    1989-01-01

    Reveals the continued importance of medieval rhetorical pedagogy throughout the high Middle Ages and early Renaissance by exploring the fifteenth-century popularity, uses of, and references to Geoffrey of Vinsauf's "Poetria nova" (a thirteenth-century verse treatise on the composition of poetry according to rhetorical principles). (SR)

  2. Pedagogical Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson-Lundeberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' perceptions of how intentionally taught 21st century skills have transformed their lives. Personal development education (PDE) encompasses interpersonal and interaction skills that are required for students to function and succeed in global-oriented 21st century colleges and careers. The Common Core State Standards…

  3. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by

  4. A coupled ocean-sea ice-iceberg model over the 20th Century: Iceberg flux at 48°N as a proxy for Greenland iceberg discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilton, David; Bigg, Grant

    2013-04-01

    We have used a coupled ocean-sea ice-iceberg model, the Fine Resolution Greenland and Labrador ocean model [1], to study the variation in, and trajectory of, icebergs over the twentieth century, focusing particularly on Greenland and surrounding areas. The model is forced with daily heat, freshwater and wind fluxes derived from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project [2]. We use the observed iceberg flux at 48°N off Newfoundland (I48N) from 1900 to 2008 [3] as a proxy for the variation in the calving rate of Greenland tidewater glaciers. Model I48N is calculated with both a variable and constant annual calving rate. The results show that ocean and atmosphere changes alone do not account for the variation in observed I48N and, allied analysis using non-linear systems modelling, suggests that this series can be used as a proxy for the interannual Greenland Ice Sheet iceberg discharge. Our models find that in the early decades of the twentieth century I48N was dominated by icebergs originating from south Greenland (below latitude 65°N) with west Greenland becoming the main source of I48N from the late 1930s onwards. References 1. M. R. Wadley, and G. R. Bigg, (2002), Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 128, 2187-2203 2. G. P. Compo, et al. (2011), Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 1-28 3. D. L. Murphy (2011) http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/?pageName=IIPIcebergCounts

  5. [The Piscine Probatica, a painted canvas of the Hotel-Dieu of Rheims, documentation of an epidemic at the end of the 15th century].

    PubMed

    Ségal, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The Piscina Probatica theme is the highly distinctive iconography in an impressive painted canvas from the ancient Rheims hôtel-Dieu, dating back to the late 15th or early 16th century. In the first place, it is interesting to note that the actual site of the pool has been located, so that archaeological findings bring confirmation to testament scriptures. Through the choice of the painted-canvas medium, and thanks to his great pictorial skill, the anonymous Rheims artist has given us a document of exceptional value, concerning the signs and symptoms of an illness which wrought havoc in the Rheims area in his own lifetime, namely ignis plaga or "mal des ardents". Other great artists of the same period, such as J. Bosch, have testified to the horror of the illness. As a matter-of-fact, the illness has been fully documented, from the 17th century onwards, and the medical expert H.A. Tessier, also acting as an agricultural expert, has demonstrated that ergotized rye is responsible for the fatal condition known as ergotism, and for the heavy toll it has levied on human lives in the course of centuries. PMID:22073758

  6. A Coupled Ocean-Iceberg Model Over The 20th Century: Iceberg Flux At 48°N As A Proxy For Greenland Iceberg Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigg, G. R.; Wilton, D.; Hanna, E.

    2013-12-01

    Grant R. Bigg1 , David J. Wilton1 and Edward Hanna1 1Department of Geography, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TN We have used a coupled ocean-iceberg model, the Fine Resolution Greenland and Labrador ocean model [1], to study the variation in, and trajectory of, icebergs over the twentieth century, focusing particularly on Greenland and surrounding areas. The model is forced with daily heat, freshwater and wind fluxes derived from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project [2]. We use the observed iceberg flux at 48°N off Newfoundland (I48N) from 1900 to 2008 [3] to assess the iceberg component of the model. Model I48N is calculated with both a variable and constant annual calving rate. The results show that ocean and atmosphere changes alone do not account for the variation in observed I48N and suggests that this series can be used as a proxy for iceberg discharge from west Greenland tidewater glaciers. The implication of this proxy is that there is significant interannual variability in Greenland iceberg discharge over the whole twentieth century. Our model results suggest that in the early decades of the twentieth century I48N was dominated by icebergs originating from south Greenland (below latitude 65°N) with west Greenland becoming the main source of I48N from the late 1930s onwards. Modeled icebergs from the east of Greenland very rarely reach 48°N. We also present results from the ocean model showing the variation of ocean transport fluxes over the course of the twentieth and early twenty first century. References 1. M. R. Wadley, and G. R. Bigg, (2002), Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 128, 2187-2203 2. G. P. Compo, et al. (2011), Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 1-28 3. D. L. Murphy (2011) http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/?pageName=IIPIcebergCounts

  7. The Ninth-Century Renaissance in Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the events in the ninth century that moved astronomy away from the pursuit of mystical hermetic sciences and astrology back toward observation and measurement. Describes the achievements of astronomers and the instruments and calculations used during that period. (JRH)

  8. The Boylston Professor in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ried, Paul E.

    1987-01-01

    Assesses the Boylston professorship at Harvard University, which, although originally devoted to rhetoric and oratory, has evolved in the twentieth century into a professorship of poetics and poetry. (NKA)

  9. The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, Alan Henry

    2015-08-01

    The term "revolution" in scientific contexts usually refers either to the beginnings of modern western science in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, or to the two great revolutions of early twentieth century physics. Comparison of what was known at the beginning of the nineteenth century with what was known at the end, however, shows that century to have been one of transformation in astronomy, and in the other sciences, that amounts to "revolution". Astronomers in 1800 knew neither the nature of the Sun nor the distances of the stars. Developments in instrumentation enabled the first determinations of stellar parallax in the 1830s, and later enabled the solar prominences to be studied outside the brief momemnts of total eclipses. The development of photography and of spectroscopy led to the birth of observational astrophysics, while the greater understanding of the nature of heat and the rise of thermodynamics made possible the first attempts to investigate the theory of stellar structure. Nothing was known in 1800 of extra-galactic objects apart from some tentative identifcations by William Herschel but, by the end of the century, the discovery of the spiral structure of some nebulae had led some to believe that these were the "island universes" about which Kant had speculated. Of course, astrophysics and cosmology would be much further developed in the twentieth century and those of us whose careers spanned the second half of that century look back on it as a "golden age" for astronomy; but the nineteenth century was undoubtedly a time of rapid transformation and can be reasonably described as as one of the periods of revolution in astronomy.

  10. Twentieth century sea level: An enigma

    PubMed Central

    Munk, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Changes in sea level (relative to the moving crust) are associated with changes in ocean volume (mostly thermal expansion) and in ocean mass (melting and continental storage): ζ(t) = ζsteric(t) + ζeustatic(t). Recent compilations of global ocean temperatures by Levitus and coworkers are in accord with coupled ocean/atmosphere modeling of greenhouse warming; they yield an increase in 20th century ocean heat content by 2 × 1023 J (compared to 0.1 × 1023 J of atmospheric storage), which corresponds to ζgreenhouse(2000) = 3 cm. The greenhouse-related rate is accelerating, with a present value ζ̇greenhouse(2000) ≈ 6 cm/century. Tide records going back to the 19th century show no measurable acceleration throughout the late 19th and first half of the 20th century; we take ζ̇historic = 18 cm/century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change attributes about 6 cm/century to melting and other eustatic processes, leaving a residual of 12 cm of 20th century rise to be accounted for. The Levitus compilation has virtually foreclosed the attribution of the residual rise to ocean warming (notwithstanding our ignorance of the abyssal and Southern Oceans): the historic rise started too early, has too linear a trend, and is too large. Melting of polar ice sheets at the upper limit of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates could close the gap, but severe limits are imposed by the observed perturbations in Earth rotation. Among possible resolutions of the enigma are: a substantial reduction from traditional estimates (including ours) of 1.5–2 mm/y global sea level rise; a substantial increase in the estimates of 20th century ocean heat storage; and a substantial change in the interpretation of the astronomic record. PMID:12011419

  11. Climate, people, fire and vegetation: new insights into vegetation dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean since the 1st century AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, J.; Paulissen, E.; Kaniewski, D.; Poblome, J.; De Laet, V.; Verstraeten, G.; Waelkens, M.

    2012-08-01

    Anatolia forms a bridge between Europe, Africa and Asia and is influenced by all three continents in terms of climate, vegetation and human civilisation. Unfortunately, well dated palynological records focussing on the period from the end of the classical Roman period until subrecent times are rare for Anatolia and completely absent for southwest Turkey, resulting in a lacuna in knowledge concerning the interactions of climatic change, human impact, and environmental change in this important region. Two well dated palaeoecological records from the Western Taurus Mountains, Turkey, provide a first relatively detailed record of vegetation dynamics from late Roman times until the present in SW Turkey. Combining pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal, sedimentological, archaeological data, and newly developed multivariate numerical analyses, allows for the disentangling of climatic and anthropogenic influences on vegetation change. Results show both the regional pollen signal as well as local soil sediment characteristics respond accurately to shifts in regional climatic conditions. Both climatic as well as anthropogenic change had a strong influence on vegetation dynamics and land use. A moist environmental trend during the late 3rd century caused an increase in marshes and wetlands in the moister valley floors, limiting possibilities for intensive crop cultivation at such locations. A mid 7th century shift to pastoralism coincided with a climatic deterioration as well as the start of Arab incursions into the region, the former driving the way in which the vegetation developed afterwards. Resurgence in agriculture was observed in the study during the mid 10th century AD, coinciding with the Medieval Climate Anomaly. An abrupt mid 12th century decrease in agriculture is linked to socio-political change, rather than the onset of the Little Ice Age. Similarly, gradual deforestation occurring from the 16th century onwards has been linked to changes in lands use during

  12. The bezoar stone: a princely antidote, the Távora Sequeira Pinto Collection-Oporto.

    PubMed

    Do Sameiro Barroso, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Bezoar stones, once used as universal antidotes and panaceas, but currently regarded as costly and useless medicines of the past, are a major milestone in the history of toxicology. Arabic physicians had been using bezoars in medicine from the 8th century onwards. In the 16th century, the Portuguese controlled bezoar trade from India, and the Portuguese doctors Garcia de Orta, Amatus Lusitanus, and Cristobal Acosta introduced the medicinal use of Oriental bezoars to European medical literature. Some criticism aside, leading European doctors prescribed bezoars mainly as powerful antidotes. Five bezoars that now adorn the Távora Sequeira Pinto Collection in Oporto testify to the allure and glory of bezoars at the height of their golden age, when they equalled the splendour of gems and noble minerals that dominated the Eastern and Western lithotherapy.The end of the 18th century marked the end of ancient panaceas. This article focuses on the therapeutic and apotropaic use of bezoars. PMID:25310610

  13. Learning for the 21st Century: A Report and MILE Guide for 21st Century Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills is a public-private organization of leaders and educators in business and education that works to close the gap between the knowledge and skills most students learn in school and the knowledge and skills they need in a typical 21st century community and workplace. The Partnership's work includes:…

  14. Physiological responses of herbaceous plants to climate change: a century long assessment based on the stable isotope analysis of herbaria specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Gutierrez, Cristina; Siegwolf, Rolf; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2015-04-01

    at the University of Basel which cover 600'000 specimens collected mostly in Switzerland since the 18th century for a wide range of species and environments in Switzerland.

  15. Oceanography for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    2005-12-01

    Textbooks and most oceanography courses are organized around the 19th century concepts of biological, chemical, geological, and physical oceanography. This approach fails to involve students in the interesting problems of the 21st century: the role of the ocean in climate and weather, fisheries, and coastal problems, all of which involve a complex interplay of chemical, biological, and physical systems plus policy issues. To make my oceanography and environmental geosciences courses more relevant, I organize them around case studies such as coastal pollution or climate change. After using this approach for two years, I find students are much more interested in the ocean, and they understand the relevance of the ocean to their daily lives. Because no textbook is very useful for teaching these case studies, I have begun to write a new open-source book: Oceanography for the 21st Century: An Ocean Planet.

  16. Composition of `Marbrite Fauquez' 20th-century opalescent glass: results of historical study and laboratory analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekeyser, L.; Wouters, H. J. M.; Ligovich, G.; Verdonck, A.; De Clercq, H.

    Belgian Marbrite Fauquez opalescent glass is an innovative material developed at the take-off of the 20th century. S.A. Verreries de Fauquez produced this from 1922 onwards. Low maintenance requirements and appropriate properties in terms of hygienic aspects make these mass coloured glass plates popular as finishes for bathrooms, kitchens, hospitals, store fronts, decorative façade cladding,... Since production of Marbrite stopped in the 1960s, replacement of its applications in the framework of restoration procedures is almost impossible. Limited knowledge of the composition and production results in the lack of a proper conservation strategy. In order to improve the existing knowledge a historical research was conducted. Archive records including patents, literature, building specifications, plans, journals, advertisements, interviews with former directors of the glassworks, etc. were considered and evaluated. Onsite lifted samples of Marbrite glass were submitted to a laboratory investigation using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed crucial information about the original formula and components. This paper discusses the composition of Marbrite, a peculiar Belgian opalescent glass. This interdisciplinary research - a cooperation between the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage - aims to improve the knowledge of Marbrite glass in order to develop repair and renovation techniques.

  17. Diversity trends in bread wheat in Italy during the 20th century assessed by traditional and multivariate approaches.

    PubMed

    Ormoli, Leonardo; Costa, Corrado; Negri, Stefano; Perenzin, Maurizio; Vaccino, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    A collection of 157 Triticum aestivum accessions, representative of wheat breeding in Italy during the 20(th) century, was assembled to describe the evolutionary trends of cultivated varieties throughout this period. The lines were cultivated in Italy, in two locations, over two growing seasons, and evaluated for several agronomical, morphological and qualitative traits. Analyses were conducted using the most common univariate approach on individual plant traits coupled with a correspondance multivariate approach. ANOVA showed a clear trend from old to new varieties, leading towards earliness, plant height reduction and denser spikes with smaller seeds. The average protein content gradually decreased over time; however this trend did not affect bread-making quality, because it was counterbalanced by a gradual increase of SDS sedimentation volume, achieved by the incorporation of favourable alleles into recent cultivars. Correspondence analysis allowed an overall view of the breeding activity. A clear-cut separation was observed between ancient lines and all the others, matched with a two-step gradient, the first, corresponding roughly to the period 1920-1940, which can be ascribed mostly to genetics, the second, from the 40s onward, which can be ascribed also to the farming practice innovations, such as improvement of mechanical devices and optimised use of fertilizers. PMID:25712271

  18. Diversity trends in bread wheat in Italy during the 20th century assessed by traditional and multivariate approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ormoli, Leonardo; Costa, Corrado; Negri, Stefano; Perenzin, Maurizio; Vaccino, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    A collection of 157 Triticum aestivum accessions, representative of wheat breeding in Italy during the 20th century, was assembled to describe the evolutionary trends of cultivated varieties throughout this period. The lines were cultivated in Italy, in two locations, over two growing seasons, and evaluated for several agronomical, morphological and qualitative traits. Analyses were conducted using the most common univariate approach on individual plant traits coupled with a correspondance multivariate approach. ANOVA showed a clear trend from old to new varieties, leading towards earliness, plant height reduction and denser spikes with smaller seeds. The average protein content gradually decreased over time; however this trend did not affect bread-making quality, because it was counterbalanced by a gradual increase of SDS sedimentation volume, achieved by the incorporation of favourable alleles into recent cultivars. Correspondence analysis allowed an overall view of the breeding activity. A clear-cut separation was observed between ancient lines and all the others, matched with a two-step gradient, the first, corresponding roughly to the period 1920–1940, which can be ascribed mostly to genetics, the second, from the 40s onward, which can be ascribed also to the farming practice innovations, such as improvement of mechanical devices and optimised use of fertilizers. PMID:25712271

  19. Climate: Into the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughs, William

    2003-08-01

    Toward the end of the twentieth century, it became evident to professionals working within the meterological arena that the world's climate system was showing signs of change that could not be adequately explained in terms of natural variation. Since that time there has been an increasing recognition that the climate system is changing as a result of human industries and lifestyles, and that the outcomes may prove catastrophic to the world's escalating population. Compiled by an international team formed under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Climate: Into the 21st Century features an unrivalled collection of essays by the world's leading meteorological experts. These fully integrated contributions provide a perspective of the global climate system across the twentieth century, and describe some of the most arresting and extreme climatic events and their effects that have occurred during that time. In addition, the book traces the development of our capabilities to observe and monitor the climate system, and outlines our understanding of the predictability of climate on time-scales of months and longer. It concludes with a summary of the prospects for applying the twentieth century climate experience in order to benefit society in the twenty-first century. Lavishly illustrated in color, Climate is an accessible acccount of the challenges that climate poses at the start of the twenty-first century. Filled with fascinating facts and diagrams, it is written for a wide audience and will captivate the general reader interested in climate issues, and will be a valuable teaching resource. William Burroughs is a successful science author of books on climate, including Weather (Time Life, 2000), and Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2001), Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997) and The Climate Revealed (1999), all published by Cambridge University Press.

  20. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience. PMID:1454278

  1. Maglev: Transportation for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, G.M.; Gillies, G.T.

    1987-04-01

    The noise, gaseous and particulate pollution inherent in 19th and 20th century transportation must be eliminated from the city of the 21st century. If cities are to achieve their full potential as economic and cultural centers they must possess superior transportation systems. Ultra-silent, energy stingy, non-polluting maglevs can furnish the passenger and freight transportation system that the coming millennium will demand. Maglev floats railroad-like cars on a magnetic field a few inches above an elevated guideway. The cars can move at any convenient speed up to 300 mph. Yet, maglev produces less noise than a well muffled automobile, no vibration and no pollution.

  2. Faculty Development for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Veronica; Garrett, P. B.; Kinley, Edward R.; Moore, John F.; Schwartz, Celeste M.; Kohrman, Pat

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, colleges and universities need to consider faculty development programs in the same way that they view academic programs for their Net Gen and Millennial students. In other words, successful faculty development programs should include mentoring, delivery in a variety of on-campus and off-campus formats (face-to-face, blended,…

  3. A Vision of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene

    2006-01-01

    The new vision for the 21st century is reflected in ACTE's recent position paper on strengthening the American high school through career and technical education. Teachers and administrators are encouraged to continue raising students' academic achievements and their high school completion rates. However, the way the American high school is…

  4. Educating for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Kingman; And Others

    Four lectures are presented which were part of the celebration of the 100th annivarsary of the University of Illinois. Although each author addresses himself to a different question there is the common theme of examining whether the university can meet the challenge of preparing today's citizen for life in the next century. Some of the problems…

  5. A Century of Plays by American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Rachel, Ed.

    Chosen for their literary quality and because they reflect the historical periods in which they were written, the 23 one-act dramas in this anthology represent the work of American female playwrights. The plays range from the realistic dramas produced in the "Little Theatres" of New York City at the turn of the century to current off-Broadway…

  6. Workforce Education: Issues for the New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pautler, Albert J., Jr.

    This paper is intended to guide small groups of vocational educators in discussions regarding work force education issues for the next century. The following work force issues are suggested: the aging work force; vocational education's role in reforming K-12 education; distance education for technical education programs; the labor shortages…

  7. American Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishnietsky, Dan H.

    This book examines American education at the turn of the new millennium. It reviews its history and suggests, in broad terms, where it may be headed in the 21st century. Topics considered include a brief survey of the education "scene" today, the notion of a global village and ramifications for a global curriculum, technology related to globalism,…

  8. Business Education for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    Each year, the Policies Commission for Business and Economic Education develops statements regarding business education. The following are among the commission's guidelines regarding planning the business education curriculum for the new century: (1) making business education an integral and equal partner within schools' educational communities…

  9. Transcendent Schools for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monberg, Greg; Kacan, George; Bannourah, Riyad

    2011-01-01

    Amidst the debate over funding cuts, an increased focus on teacher effectiveness, and the move toward e-learning, many question the importance of quality educational facilities. But an examination of developmental and psychological theory suggests that exceptional schools have an exciting and crucial role to play in 21st century education. So,…

  10. Developing Leaders for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Leadership Development for the 21st Century: Linking Research, Academics and Extension program that began in June 2005. This 12-month program, designed to explore different models of leadership, develop peer networks, and enhance skills and knowledge in leadership competencies, is specifically for land grand educators…

  11. Curriculum for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, David

    1983-01-01

    Urges reconsideration of educational ends. Suggests eight curriculum principles that can help Canadian schools move into the next century. Explains six educational needs roughly based on Maslow's hierarchy (aesthetic needs, need for meaning, self-actualization, self-concept, social needs, need for survival) and relates them to curriculum…

  12. Education for Librarianship in the Next Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Michael K.

    1986-01-01

    Divides librarianship into three categories with respect to change--library values, library technology, and library science--and discusses each in the context of changes in the last century to provide a basis for forecasting future changes. The broadening scope of librarianship and the library school curriculum of the future are also considered.…

  13. Advanced Propulsion for the XXIst Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    This document represents a poster presentation offered at the AIAA/CAS International Air & Space Symposium and Exposition from July 14-17, 2003 in Dayton Ohio. This presentation outlines advanced space propulsion concepts as well as associated research and industry activities during the 21st century.

  14. Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnight, Ron

    The Lifelong Learning Center for the 21st Century was proposed to provide personal renewal and technical training for employees at a major United States automotive manufacturing company when it implemented a new, computer-based Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, robotics, and high technology facility. The employees needed training for…

  15. Poetry at Buffalo: The Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoer, Wanda

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the Special Collections at the State University of New York at Buffalo and the role of Charles Abbott in their development. His interest and a serendipitous lack of funds have created an unusual collection containing a Twentieth Century Poetry Collection, James Joyce holographs, and rare book collections. (CHC)

  16. Century High School: Better Than Accessible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Century High School, Rochester, MN.

    A 6-minute videotape shows ways that one newly-built high school (Century High School, Rochester, MN) accommodates the needs of people with disabilities. Various building and room designs are detailed showing both poor and good design provisions. The accessibility and usefulness of the auditorium control room, emergency exits, elevators, science…

  17. The 21st Century Information Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Rod

    This paper on the 21st century information environment begins with a section that discusses the impact of e-commerce over the next ten years. The second section addresses government focus areas, including ensuring a telecommunications infrastructure, developing the IT (information technology) industry, promoting innovation and entrepreneurship,…

  18. Twentieth-Century Art: Issues of Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Julie

    1990-01-01

    Presents lesson plans designed for secondary students that assess the role of naturalistic representation in twentieth-century art by examining the artwork of four artists: Pablo Picasso, Rene Magritte, David Smith, and Jackson Pollock. Provides background information on each illustration, and outlines discussion and art production activities for…

  19. Making Sense of the Eighteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Pressures on curriculum time force us all to make difficult choices about curriculum content, but the eighteenth century seems to have suffered particular neglect. Inspired by the tercentenary of the accession of the first Georgian king and the interest in the Acts of Union prompted by this year's referendum on Scottish independence,…

  20. "Stakes is High": Educating New Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladson-Billings, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    My apologies to iconic hip-hop artists, De La Soul for I have shamelessly appropriated the title, "Stakes is high" to underscore the importance of the work ahead for educators, students, parents, community members, and researchers as we attempt to develop a generation of what I call "new century" students for a world we can hardly imagine. Through…

  1. 20th-Century Gold Rush.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wargo, Joseph G.

    1992-01-01

    Presents Nevada's gold rush activities spurred by technological advancements in search methods. Describes the events that led to the twentieth-century gold rush, the techniques for finding deposits and the geological formation process of disseminated gold deposits. Vignettes present the gold extraction process, cross-section, and profile of a…

  2. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

  3. The Microscope and Nineteenth Century Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milacek, Barbara Roads

    Studied were (1) the evolving use of the microscope in science education, and (2) its relationship to the changing teaching methods, content, and emphases of science courses and to the prevailing philosophies of education of nineteenth century American colleges. To establish the necessary background, the evolution and availability of the…

  4. 21ST CENTURY MOLD ANALYSIS IN FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, the indoor air community has relied on mold analysis performed by either microscopic observations or the culturing of molds on various media to assess indoor air quality. These techniques were developed in the 19th century and are very laborious and time consumin...

  5. Computerized Farm of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrann, James M.

    Advancement in computer technology comes at a time when agriculture is in transition from a production-oriented to a business-oriented activity and will require new skills and knowledge if farmers are to be prepared for the future. Electronic technology applications on 21st century commercial farms and ranches will include farm decision support…

  6. Information Ethics in the Twenty First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The first decade of the twenty first century has seen a growing interest and intellectual debate within the information professions, focusing on issues where an ethical dimension predominates. This paper provides an overview of codes of practice, published literature, conference proceedings and educational programs that focus on information…

  7. Reality Therapy for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wubbolding, Robert E.

    This book serves as a comprehensive and practical guide to reality therapy, and extends its principles and practices beyond the initial descriptions. A central theme of this edition is that reality therapy is a method inherently designed for the exigencies of the 21st century. It contains 22 types of self-evaluations counselors can use to shorten…

  8. Social Studies for the Pacific Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Peter Nien-chu

    1991-01-01

    Discusses using the changing conditions of life within the United States as the starting point for developing global perspectives in social studies teaching and curriculum transformation. Suggests that the Pacific Century will require people of the United States to function in a multicultural world. Examines the history of Asians in the United…

  9. Making a Comeback in the New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Reveals how Ohio's Central State University avoided state closure with a bold mission to rebuild both the academic programs and the facilities. What the new century holds for maintenance, software, card systems, contract services, and security and online purchasing are discussed. (GR)

  10. 21st Century Learning Environment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides short descriptions of systemic approaches for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding including: (1) 21st Century Classroom; (2) Comprehensive Professional Development; (3) Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems; (4) Formative Assessment; (5) Digital Content; (6) Virtual Learning; and (7) Learning Management Systems.

  11. The Constitution in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Paul L.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the development of the United States Constitution in the twentieth century up to and including the Burger Court. Contends that interpreting the Constitution is an important issue of our times. Consequently argues that we should teach students about the development of this document. (RKM)

  12. Transportation fuels for the 21st century

    EPA Science Inventory

    As we enter the 21st century, policymakers face complex decisions regarding options for meeting the demand for transportation fuels. There is now a broad scientific consensus that the burning of fossil fuels has been contributing to climate change, and the transportation sector i...

  13. Creativity in 21st-Century Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Lynn D.; Newton, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    The 2006 UNESCO conference "Building Creative Competencies for the 21st Century" had international participants and a global reach. The Director-General's proclamation that "Creativity is our hope" captured the essence of the proceedings and participants saw the focus on creativity as offering solutions to global problems.…

  14. Museums, Libraries, and 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Museum and Library Services, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a project that underscores the critical role of this nation's museums and libraries in helping citizens build such 21st century skills as information, communications and technology literacy, critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, civic literacy, and global awareness. Recognizing that every individual requires these…

  15. Workforce Education: Issues for the New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pautler, Albert J., Jr., Ed.

    This book contains 22 papers on workforce education issues for the new century: "Introduction" (Alfred J. Pautler, Jr.); "Vocational Education: Past, Present, and Future" (Cheryl L. Hogg); "A Philosophic View for Seeing the Past of Vocational Education and Envisioning the Future of Workforce Education: Pragmatism Revisited" (Melvin D. Miller,…

  16. Music Education Half a Century Hence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahlmann, John J.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on what music education will be like in the year 2050. Addresses issues such as: technology's impact on music, cognitive science's role in music education, the effects of changing delivery systems, and the relationship of music and the elderly. Highlights the next half century's impact on music education. (CMK)

  17. Psychological Science in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacioppo, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Science is constantly changing. If one hopes to keep pace with advances in science, one cannot simply repeat what one has done in the past, whether deciding how to invest limited research funds, searching to replace a retiring colleague, or teaching introductory psychology. Psychological science in the 21st century is more central and integrated…

  18. Educational Planning for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Richard H. P.; Tyler, E. Warren

    1989-01-01

    In the postindustrial era, industry's primary resource is capable people, not minerals and materials--because of the new dependence on computers, communication networks, and instantaneous information processing. Policy and program planners must make the reforms produce the intended outcomes. In twenty-first century planning, nothing in the current…

  19. The "Casa dei Bambini": A Century Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the early history of Montessori education from the Italian State Orthophrenic School to the opening of the original Casa dei Bambini in San Lorenzo, Italy on January 6, 1907. Includes a synopsis of Maria Montessori's progressive revelations of the child's developing self over the past century. (JPB)

  20. Physiology of Penile Erection—A Brief History of the Scientific Understanding up till the Eighties of the 20th Century

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Understanding the physiology of penile erection is important for all who work in the field of sexual medicine. Aim The aim of this study was to highlight and analyze historical aspects of the scientific understanding of penile erection. Methods (i) Review of the chapters on the physiology of erection out of the author's collection of books dealing with male sexual functioning published in the German, French, Dutch, and English language in between 1780 and 1940. (ii) Review of the topic “physiology of penile erection” of relevant chapters of C lassical writings on erectile dysfunction. A n annotated collection of original texts from three millennia, including the study of all relevant references mentioned in these books. Main Outcome Measure The main outcome measure used for the study was the scientific understanding of the physiology of penile erection. Results In Antiquity, Galen considered penile erection as the result the accumulation of air. His ideas so dominated medieval medicine that nearly everyone then alive was a Galenist. The beginning of the Renaissance shows meaningful examples of experimental scientific work on the penis. Da Vinci correctly concluded that erections were caused by blood, and in the 18th century, Von Haller from Switzerland was the first who explained that erections were under the control of the nervous system. In the 19th century, a mindset that emphasized on experimentation determined a new direction, namely experimental physiology. Animal studies clarified that stimulation of the nervi erigentes‐induced small muscle relaxation in the corpora cavernosa. Nearly all were published in the German language. That may be one of the reasons that the existence of the concept of smooth muscle relaxation remained controversial until the first World Congress on Impotence in 1984 in Paris. Conclusions As the Renaissance's innovative research defined neural and vascular physiologic phenomena responsible for penile

  1. Glaciers change over the last century, Caucasus Mountains, Georgia, observed by the old topographical maps, Landsat and ASTER satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tielidze, L. G.

    2015-07-01

    The study of glaciers in the Caucasus began in the first quarter of the 18th century. The first data on glaciers can be found in the works of great Georgian scientist Vakhushti Bagrationi. After almost hundred years the foreign scientists began to describe the glaciers of Georgia. Information about the glaciers of Georgia can be found in the works of W. Abich (1865), D. Freshfield (1869), G. Radde (1873), N. Dinik (1884), I. Rashevskiy (1904), A. Reinhardt (1916, 1917) etc. The first statistical information about the glaciers of Georgia are found in the catalog of the Caucasus glaciers compiled by K. Podozerskiy in 1911 (Podozerkiy, 1911). Then, in 1960s the large-scale (1:25 000, 1:50 000) topographic maps were published, which were compiled in 1955-1960 on the basis of the space images. On the basis of the mentioned maps R. Gobejishvili gave quite detailed statistical information about the glaciers of Georgia (Gobejishvili, 1989). Then in 1975 the glaciological catalog of the former USSR was published (The Catalog of Glaciers of the USSR, Vol. 8-9, 1975), where the statistical information about the glaciers of Georgia was obtained on the basis of the space images of 1970-1975. Thus, complete statistical information on the glaciers of Georgia has not been published for about last 40 years. Data obtained by us by processing of the space images of Landsat and ASTER is the latest material, which is the best tool for identification of the change in the number and area of the glaciers of Georgia during the last one century. The article presents the percentage and quantitative changes in the number and area of the glaciers of Georgia in the years of 1911-1960-1975-2014, according to the individual river basins. The air temperature course of the Georgia's high mountain weather stations has been studied. The river basins have been revealed, where there are the highest indices of the reduction in area and number of the glaciers and the reasons have been explained.

  2. Managing Reliability in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Dellin, T.A.

    1998-11-23

    The rapid pace of change at Ike end of the 20th Century should continue unabated well into the 21st Century. The driver will be the marketplace imperative of "faster, better, cheaper." This imperative has already stimulated a revolution-in-engineering in design and manufacturing. In contrast, to date, reliability engineering has not undergone a similar level of change. It is critical that we implement a corresponding revolution-in-reliability-engineering as we enter the new millennium. If we are still using 20th Century reliability approaches in the 21st Century, then reliability issues will be the limiting factor in faster, better, and cheaper. At the heart of this reliability revolution will be a science-based approach to reliability engineering. Science-based reliability will enable building-in reliability, application-specific products, virtual qualification, and predictive maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate a dialogue on the future of reliability engineering. We will try to gaze into the crystal ball and predict some key issues that will drive reliability programs in the new millennium. In the 21st Century, we will demand more of our reliability programs. We will need the ability to make accurate reliability predictions that will enable optimizing cost, performance and time-to-market to meet the needs of every market segment. We will require that all of these new capabilities be in place prior to the stint of a product development cycle. The management of reliability programs will be driven by quantifiable metrics of value added to the organization business objectives.

  3. Consequences of land use and climate changes on sediment deposition in estuaries during the last centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Clément; Chaumillon, Eric; Arnaud, Fabien; Goubert, Evelyne; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Caurant, Florence

    2010-05-01

    Estuaries are the downstream end-member of fluvial systems. They are experiencing high sedimentation rates, thus providing good opportunities for high resolution studies of Holocene environmental changes at the land/ocean interface. From a thorough literature survey, it appears that a rapid siltation and/or an increase in sedimentation rate were recorded in many estuarine environments, concomitantly to major migrations of human population throughout the world, both in time and space. It has been clearly related to an increase in sediment supply to estuaries in Minor Asia (Bronze Age, e.g. Spezzaferri et al, 2000) and in North America and Southwest Pacific (18th and 19th centuries, e.g. Goff, 1997), in response to deforestation on catchment areas. However, this relationship is less obvious in Europe (Sorrel et al., 2009), because deforestation occurred concomitantly to climate changes of the last millennium (climate instability at the end of Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age) that can also explain an increase in soil erosion. Indeed, these hypotheses have been proposed to explain a similar change in Marennes-Oléron Bay (Atlantic coast of France), which consists in the sudden deposition of a few meters-thick mud drape on basal mixed mud and sand bodies (Billeaud et al., 2005). The methods used to investigate this estuarine bay so far (very high resolution seismic stratigraphy, grain size analysis and radiocarbon dating) provided relevant information about recent environmental changes, but new data are now needed for further investigation. In the present study, we provide a multi-proxy analysis of the Marennes-Oléron Bay mud drape. A new 8 m-long core (M7UC01) was sampled on an intertidal flat, its location being determined on the basis of seismic stratigraphy. Core processing included visual description, physical measurements, grain size analysis every 2.5 to 5 cm, AMS radiocarbon dating, XRF core scanning, clay mineralogy and Rock Eval analysis. Fossil molluscs

  4. 21st century advanced hydropower turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    Brookshier, P.A.; Flynn, J.V.; Loose, R.R.

    1995-11-01

    While hydropower turbine manufacturers have incrementally improved turbine technology to increase efficiency, the basic design concepts haven`t changed for decades. These late 19th and early 20th century designs did not consider environmental effects, since little was known about environmental effects of hydropower at the time. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the hydropower industry recognize that hydropower plants have an effect on the environment and there is a great need to bring turbine designs into the 21st century. DOE has issued a request for proposals (RFP) that requested proposers to discard conventional thinking, search out innovative solutions, and to visualize innovative turbines designed from a new perspective. This perspective would look at the {open_quotes}turbine system{close_quotes} (intake to tailrace) which will balance environmental, technical, and economic considerations. This paper describes the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program.

  5. Snake oil for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Bigby, M

    1998-12-01

    Dermatology has been associated with quackery for at least a century. The dictionary defines a quack as "a pretender to medical knowledge or skill; ignorantly or falsely pretending to cure." The term quack is derived from quacksalver, or one who quacks like a duck in promoting his salves. Quacksalvers hacked many potions, including snake oil, with claims that it cured everything from dermatitis to rheumatism. With the current promulgation of skin "products" and their promotion and even sale by dermatologists, and the use of treatments of no proven efficacy, this association between dermatology and quackery is set to continue well into the 21st century. The list of offending treatments includes silicone gel sheets and onion extract cream (Mederma) for keloids, alpha-hydroxy acid creams and peels, topical ascorbic acid and phytonadione, "laser resurfacing," and cimetidine for warts, to name only a few. PMID:9875187

  6. Meteoric activities during the 11th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon

    2005-04-01

    We have analysed the meteor records in the chronicles that describe the era of the Song dynasty (AD 960-1279). The data are complementary to the record-vacant 10th century of the Koryo dynasty (AD 918-1392). The annual activity of sporadic meteors analysed shows a generic sinusoidal behaviour as in modern observations. In addition, we have also found that there are two prominent meteor showers, one in August and the other in November, appearing on the fluctuating sporadic meteors. The date of occurrence of the August shower indicates it to be the Perseids. By comparing the date of occurrence of the November shower with those of the Leonid showers of the Koryo dynasty, recent visual observations and the world-wide historical meteor storms, we conclude that the November shower is the Leonids. The regression rate of the Leonids is obtained to be days per century, which agrees with recent observations.

  7. Gonadotropin therapy: a 20th century relic.

    PubMed

    Reindollar, Richard H; Goldman, Marlene B

    2012-04-01

    Gonadotropin therapy has been a cornerstone of infertility therapy for half a century. From the very beginning, its use has been associated with a high rate of multiple births, particularly high order multiples, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Initially, success rates seemed acceptable when used for superovulation (SO)/IUI therapy. However, as data from RCTs have emerged, reported outcomes suggest that we question the use of injectible gonadotropins. This manuscript examines the studies that have challenged gonadotropin use for SO/IUI and other research that supports reduced doses of gonadotropins for IVF. We examine the challenges for its continued use for SO/IUI and for moving to lower doses worldwide for IVF. We propose a future that views gonadotropins as a relic of the twentieth century. PMID:22463775

  8. A New Biology for a New Century

    PubMed Central

    Woese, Carl R.

    2004-01-01

    Biology today is at a crossroads. The molecular paradigm, which so successfully guided the discipline throughout most of the 20th century, is no longer a reliable guide. Its vision of biology now realized, the molecular paradigm has run its course. Biology, therefore, has a choice to make, between the comfortable path of continuing to follow molecular biology's lead or the more invigorating one of seeking a new and inspiring vision of the living world, one that addresses the major problems in biology that 20th century biology, molecular biology, could not handle and, so, avoided. The former course, though highly productive, is certain to turn biology into an engineering discipline. The latter holds the promise of making biology an even more fundamental science, one that, along with physics, probes and defines the nature of reality. This is a choice between a biology that solely does society's bidding and a biology that is society's teacher. PMID:15187180

  9. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Ahmed, Shahid; Kanthan, Selliah Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC. PMID:26421012

  10. Great Universalist of the 20TH Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershtein, S. S.

    2013-06-01

    One of the most prominent physicists of the 20th century, Lev Davidovich Landau, was at the same time a great universalist who made fundamental contributions in diverse areas of physics: quantum mechanics, solid state physics, theory of magnetism, phase transition theory, nuclear and particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED), low-temperature physics, fluid dynamics, atomic collision theory, theory of chemical reactions, and other disciplines.

  11. [Mexico's healthcare in the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Fajardo Ortiz, Guillermo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present Mexico's healthcare in the 20th century. This was a process that was based on illustrated rationalism, positivism and neopositivism. Knowledge and science used to veer away from all aspects of charity and beneficence. Liberal legacy were favourable to government stocks and the state managed to raise a considerable amount of financial and human resources. PMID:12602086

  12. Mozart and medicine in the eighteenth century.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, J S

    1995-01-01

    Over the years the medical history and death of Mozart have been the subject of many studies, but in spite of all this attention much remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve some of the difficulty it is useful to see his life, and that of his family as recorded in their letters, in the context of medicine in eighteenth-century Europe. PMID:7562811

  13. NASA prepares for its next half century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Half a century ago this month, on 29 July 1958, US President Dwight Eisenhower signed legislation that created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or NASA. The agency came into being at a critical time. The previous October, the Soviet Union had shocked the world, and particularly the US, when it launched Sputnik 1 - the first Earth-orbiting satellite (see Physics World October 2007 pp23-27).

  14. Medical Articles in Eighteenth Century American Magazines

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Clemency Chase

    1965-01-01

    Formal medical publication began in the United States with The Medical Repository in 1797. Between 1741, the date of the first American magazine, and 1797 medical articles were included in general magazines. This study deals with ten representative magazines and reviews their general content. The varying content of the medical articles is analyzed into broad categories, and several important physicians, contributors to the magazines, are discussed. The Medical Repository is treated as a culmination of eighteenth century medical publication. PMID:14306031

  15. Bronchoscopes of the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Yarmus, Lonny; Feller-Kopman, David

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, bronchoscopy has become an essential tool for pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons, who for many years have employed bronchoscopy with such therapeutic modalities as laser therapy, electrocautery, cryotherapy, and stent placement. Over the past decade, advanced imaging techniques, such as autofluoresence bronchoscopy, electromagnetic navigation, narrow-band imaging, confocal fluorescence microendoscopy, and endobronchial ultrasound, have greatly expanded the diagnostic utility of bronchoscopy. This article reviews the technological advances in the field of diagnostic bronchoscopy. PMID:20172429

  16. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O'Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  17. NASA's Vision for 21st Century Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Woodrow, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents NASA's Vision for the 21st Century Aircraft. The contents include: 1) NASA Vision; 2) NASA Installations; 3) Research and Technology Products; 4) Future Plans; 5) Revolutionary Vehicles; 6) Aeropropulsion-NASA's Future Direction; 7) Gas Turbine Revolution; 8) Variable Capability, Ultra High Bypass Ratio Intelligent Engines: Fundamental Technologies; 9) Distributed Vectored Propulsion; and 10) Alternative Energy Propulsion. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  18. The physiognomist's kidney in the fifteenth century.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Physiognomy, the art of deciphering a person's character and potential behavior by his or her external appearance, is an ancient body of knowledge which was gradually revived in the Latin West in the twelfth and particularly in the thirteenth century. This is a philological study of the scientific discourse about the physiognomy of the kidney in physiognomic sources from Pseudo-Aristotle's Physiognomonics (third century B.C.) through Pietro d'Abano's Liber compilationis phisonomie (ca 1295) to Rolandus Scriptoris's Reductorium phisonomie (ca 1430). Fifteenth-century learned physiognomists devoted specific chapters to the kidney. The physiognomists analyzed the fleshiness of the body-surface outside the kidneys (i.e. the loins and their vicinity). Firm loins denoted boldness, agility, and good fighting capacity and vice versa. The pre-modern kidney was of interest not only to physicians and surgeons wishing to treat kidney conditions and other pathologies arising from the urinary system. There were learned physicians who examined the body not to diagnose diseases, but to decipher their patient's personality. When engaged in this activity the kidneys, that is, the loins or the external area of the kidneys, were one of the body parts that could provide vital physiognomic information. PMID:15372426

  19. Poisson's ratio over two centuries: challenging hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, G. Neville

    2013-01-01

    This article explores Poisson's ratio, starting with the controversy concerning its magnitude and uniqueness in the context of the molecular and continuum hypotheses competing in the development of elasticity theory in the nineteenth century, moving on to its place in the development of materials science and engineering in the twentieth century, and concluding with its recent re-emergence as a universal metric for the mechanical performance of materials on any length scale. During these episodes France lost its scientific pre-eminence as paradigms switched from mathematical to observational, and accurate experiments became the prerequisite for scientific advance. The emergence of the engineering of metals followed, and subsequently the invention of composites—both somewhat separated from the discovery of quantum mechanics and crystallography, and illustrating the bifurcation of technology and science. Nowadays disciplines are reconnecting in the face of new scientific demands. During the past two centuries, though, the shape versus volume concept embedded in Poisson's ratio has remained invariant, but its application has exploded from its origins in describing the elastic response of solids and liquids, into areas such as materials with negative Poisson's ratio, brittleness, glass formation, and a re-evaluation of traditional materials. Moreover, the two contentious hypotheses have been reconciled in their complementarity within the hierarchical structure of materials and through computational modelling. PMID:24687094

  20. Science for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  1. [Smallpox in Ferrara in the nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Guidi, Enrica; Angelini, Lauretta; Cervato, Katia; Pizzo, Francesco; Rizzetto, Roberto; Fortini, Marco; Contini, Carlo

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse the mortality for smallpox and the methods used during the nineteenth-century to control epidemics. Most of the historical material was found in the Historical Archives of the Ferrara City Council. Over the whole period in question, there were 710 deaths in Ferrara (366 males and 344 females). The highest number was found in the years 1816, 1829, 1834, 1842, 1849, 1871 and 1891. Data analysis shows that most deaths occurred during the first half of the century. Subsequently, the phenomenon declined to almost zero. Males were more affected and nearly 70% of the deaths occurred under 5 years of age, 50%of which during the first year of life. At that time, the "guidelines" adopted were analogous to those currently followed when a new vaccination programme is started. The inspiring principles were the active and free supply of vaccine, universal vaccination, the informed consent of the population, the involvement of educators and also monetary rewards to the most industrious doctors in the practice of vaccination. In Ferrara vaccination began in 1801, but was only consistently implemented in 1812. By the end of the 19th century the number of persons vaccinated had increased from 3% to 7%. Vaccination initiatives assumed great importance among the population of Ferrara, in spite of initial resistance and suspicion of a practice which most people found incomprehensible. PMID:17515679

  2. Reinventing Jewish Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woocher, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    A century ago a group of educators led an effort to transform American Jewish education to enable it to operate successfully in the 20th century. Today, with American Jews living under very different conditions, a similar effort is needed to reinvent Jewish education for the 21st century. Changes and new initiatives already taking place on the…

  3. 1. MAIN ELEVATIONS, VIEW SHOWING LEFT ELEVATION WITH TWENTIETH CENTURY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. MAIN ELEVATIONS, VIEW SHOWING LEFT ELEVATION WITH TWENTIETH CENTURY REMODELING, CENTRAL ELEVATION WITH EARLY AND MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY ALTERATIONS, AND RIGHT ELEVATION WITH TWENTIETH CENTURY ALTERATIONS TO GROUND FLOOR - 160-166 Main Street, 160-166 Main Street, Annapolis, Anne Arundel County, MD

  4. The Second Century of Ability Testing: Some Predictions and Speculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    The last century was marked by dazzling changes in many areas, such as technology and communications. Predictions into the second century of testing are seemingly difficult in such a context. Yet, looking back to the turn of the last century, Kirkpatrick (1900), in his American Psychological Association presidential address, presented fundamental…

  5. Who Will the 21st-Century Learners Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dweck, Carol

    2009-01-01

    In the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner," the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) describes the skills, dispositions, responsibilities, and self-assessment strategies that are necessary for a 21st-century learner. However, as wonderful as AASL's 21st-century goals sound, they will fall on deaf ears because students who have a…

  6. Judicial Review of Citizenship Education in Nineteenth Century American Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, George J.

    This paper traces the Supreme Court's powers of judicial review in the 19th century and considers its relation to citizenship education. The 19th century was selected as the major focus because it was during this century that the Court attempted to establish its powers of review and generally to reaffirm judicial powers. Also, the controversy over…

  7. Twentieth Century Thinkers in Adult & Continuing Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Peter, Ed.

    This book contains 19 papers on 20th century thinkers in adult and continuing education. The book is arranged in four parts as follows: early 20th century English thinkers; early 20th century American thinkers; theorists of adult and continuing education; and theorists of adult education and social change. The following papers are included:…

  8. From AGS-SPS and Onwards to the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran,L.

    2008-02-04

    The author reviews the history of the efforts using heavy ion collisions to make new forms of matter. Both the development of the theoretical ideas about such new forms of matter, and as well the past, present and planned experimental efforts are discussed. The development of this activity in both India and China are highlighted.

  9. Onward and Upward Bound: Military Veterans Charge toward Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Reginald L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Reginald L. Stewart asks: "What is the true value of higher education to military veterans?" Military veterans may be underrepresented in higher education due to life adversities including homelessness, medical disabilities, substance abuse, family hardships, and deficient academic skills, however, with the transition of…

  10. An introduction to reproduction in pharaonic Egypt.

    PubMed

    Jauniaux, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Reproductive science is a new-born medical speciality compared with other specialities such as surgery or dentistry. However, infertility and obstetrical complications commonly diagnosed in the 20th century have a history as old as medicine itself. In an attempt to distance themselves from the African and Middle-Eastern roots of our culture, the European intellectuals of the 18th and 19th century have written the history of the democratic world starting with the Greco-Roman period. Egyptian medicine has influenced the medicine of neighbouring civilisations, including the culture of ancient Greece and its influence spread onward, thereby affecting Western civilisation. The aim of this review is to give credit to these early researchers, who often concluded with extremely accurate observations and to present their colourful and sometimes controversial contribution to our knowledge of reproductive anatomy, physiology and pathology. PMID:12537807

  11. Visible signs of illness from the 14th to the 20th century: systematic review of portraits

    PubMed Central

    Als, C; Stüssi, Y; Boschung, U; Tröhler, U; Wäber, J H

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To see whether a collection of portraits depicting inhabitants of a defined geographical region and covering several centuries is a useful source for studying the sociocultural significance and epidemiology of particular visible diseases, such as goitre, which is known to have been common in this region. Design Systematic review of portraits and description of visible signs of illness. Setting The Burgerbibliothek (archives of the burghers' community) in Berne, Switzerland. Data sources 3615 portraits; 2989 of individuals whose identity is known and 626 of individuals whose identity is unknown. Main outcome measures Visible signs of illness evaluated by means of a standardised visual assessment. Results Visible signs of illness in portraits were common and appeared in up to 82% (451/553) of paintings from the 17th and 18th centuries. The most common findings were signs of goitre in women and overweight in men. In only the portraits where the neck region could be evaluated, 41% of women with known identities (139/343) had goitre compared with 24% of men with known identities (21/86). The prevalence of goitre was even higher in sitters whose identities were unknown: 63% in men (5/8) and 68% in women (82/121). Overweight in people with known identities was more common in men than in women (30%, 346/1145 v 44%, 811/1844). Overweight was most common in sitters aged >40 than in those aged 40 or younger. Other conditions, such as missing teeth, amputated limbs, or osteoarthritic deformations were surprisingly rare in the portraits under evaluation. Conclusions Goitre and other diseases are under-represented in the people depicted in these portraits. Artistic idealisation is a likely explanation for this observation: what was reproduced depended on what was considered pathological or shameful at the time, and therefore depended on age and sex. Stigmatising details may have been omitted. Further, artistic skills and contemporary fashion may have influenced the

  12. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 18th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Communications, Inc., Lake Forest, IL.

    This document contains factsheets and news releases which cite findings from a national survey of 1,985 high achieving high school students. Factsheets describe the Who's Who Among American High School Students recognition and service program for high school students and explain the Who's Who survey. A summary report of this eighteenth annual…

  13. Turbulent dynamics and pyroclastic flow generation during the Mount St. Helens May 18th, 1980 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, B. J.; Gardner, J. E.

    2007-12-01

    Eruption behavior at Mount St. Helens changed greatly over the course of 18 May: a buoyant, Plinian column dominated the morning phases of eruption, whereas during the early afternoon, the column partially collapsed, such that a Plinian column and non-buoyant pyroclastic flows were simultaneously erupted. Changes in the plume's turbulent flow dynamics, pyroclastic fall and flow deposit grain size distributions (GSDs), and character of the plume reflect this evolution in eruption dynamics. Optical flow velocimetry of video of the plume immediately above the crater rim indicates the sizes of the largest structures in the plume decreased from a range of ~300 to >1000 m during the morning to 150-200 m during the afternoon. These measurements agree with visual inspection of photographs showing eddy size decreasing from a range of 200 to >500 m (average 300 m) in the morning to a range of 150-350 m (average 250) in the afternoon. During this same time interval, the rotation speed of eddies (as measured by the rms values of the 2D velocity field) increased by a factor of 1.6. Furthermore, the appearance of the column changed through the course of the eruption. In the morning, the column was characterized by discontinuous, large eddies frequently depositing "curtains" of pyroclasts, and an indentation was present on the column's southern margin. In contrast, the column margins were completely covered by smaller eddies and no curtains of sedimenting pyroclasts during the afternoon. Given that during the morning most mass erupted as buoyant plumes, we have estimated total eruptive GSDs from fall deposit GSDs using known mass fluxes and plume sedimentation models. Accounting for changes in buoyant mass flux and depositional axis, the afternoon Plinian fall deposits are 0.5 to 1 phi units coarser than models predict if the bulk, buoyant GSD remained the same. Although the majority of pyroclastic flows were emplaced to the north of the crater during the afternoon, smaller pyroclastic flows were emplaced over the rim of the crater. The GSDs of these "over-the-rim" flow deposits are significantly finer grained than those to the north, despite their shorter run out. Increased total mass flux caused the change from dominantly buoyant to dominantly non-buoyant behavior observed between the morning and afternoon of 18 May. This increase was likely the product of increases in at least two components of mass flux: column density and mean velocity. Shorter length scales of turbulence observed in the afternoon reflect shorter Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability wavelengths resulting from eruption of a denser jet into the atmosphere. Increases in jet velocity are indicated by the increase in turbulence intensity. Coarsening in bulk, buoyant plume GSDs and different groups of flow GSDs suggest either less efficient fragmentation during the afternoon, thus a comparatively coarse-skewed GSD erupted from the vent, or size segregation of pyroclasts between buoyant and non-buoyant parts of the column.

  14. Superintendent's 18th Annual Report, State of Hawaii Department of Education, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State of Hawaii Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This annual report provides a retrospective glimpse of Hawaii public schools for school year 2006-2007. Each year, it provides highlights for partners and stakeholders, new comparisons, presentations, and displays of current Department of Education information while maintaining the reporting of core data, such as student achievement, in a user…

  15. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 18th, Houston, TX, Mar. 16-20, 1987, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, including petrogenesis and chemistry of lunar samples, geology and petrogenesis of the Apollo 15 landing site, lunar geology and applications, cratering records and cratering effects, differentiated meteorites, chondritic meteorites and asteroids, extraterrestrial grains, Venus, Mars, and icy satellites. The importance of lunar granite and KREEP in very high potassium basalt petrogenesis, indentifying parent plutonic rocks from lunar breccia and soil fragments, glasses in ancient and young Apollo 16 regolith breccias, the formation of the Imbrium basin, the chemistry and petrology of the Apennine Front, lunar mare ridges, studies of Rima Mozart, electromagnetic energy applications in lunar resource mining and construction, detecting a periodic signal in the terrestrial cratering record, and a search for water on the moon, are among the topics discussed. Other topics include the bidirectional reflectance properties of Fe-Ni meteorites, the nature and origin of C-rich ordinary chondrites and chondritic clasts, the dehydration kinetics of shocked serpentine, characteristics of Greenland Fe/Ni cosmic grains, electron microscopy of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle, trapping Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in Si2O3 smokes, gossans on Mars, and a model of the porous structure of icy satellites.

  16. PASCOS 2012 - 18th International Symposium on Particles Strings and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    The XVII International Conference on Strings, Particles and Cosmology, PASCOS 2012, was held in the City of Mérida, Mexico, from June 3-8, 2012. The conference series is aimed at exploring the interface and interplay between particle physics, string theory and cosmology. With the advent of new data, the emphasis of the XVIII edition of PASCOS was on phenomenology and the interpretation of recent observational and experimental results. The conference followed the format of previous conferences in this series, with plenary reviews and contributed presentations in parallel sessions. The lectures covered a wide range of subjects which included: Dark matter and dark energy, flavor physics and CP violation, neutrino physics, supersymmetry, Higgs physics, baryogenesis and EDMs, supergravity, high energy cosmic rays, string and F-theory GUTs, and string phenomenology. This is the first time that PASCOS was held in Latin America. The aim to do it in Mexico was to engage the Latin American community and thus to bring the conference to a wider and different audience, a goal which was thoroughly achieved. The venue was held at the Hotel Fiesta Americana in the beautiful city of Mérida. The social events included a reception with typical local food at the Katun restaurant, conference dinner at the historical Quinta Montes Molina, and an excursion to the archeological site of Dzibilchaltún including a swim at the famous cenote. PASCOS 2012 was possible thanks to the generous support of the following sponsors: CONACyT (Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología), UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México: Consejo Técnico de la Investigación Científica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Instituto de Física), Cinvestav, (Centro de Estudios Avanzados del IPN: U. Zacatanco, U. Mérida and Secretaría General), ICyTDF (Instituto Científico y Tecnológico del D.F.), PIFI (Programa Integral de Fortalecimiento Institucional, Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus León), SMF (Sociedad Mexicana de Física), ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics), BUAP (Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla), the Government of the State of Yucatán, the University of Hamburg, and Telmex. We also want to acknowledge the invaluable help of the staff of the Mexican Physical Society, in particular Lic. Santos Zúñniga Sánchez and Ms. Claudia Velasco Marín, and of the conference secretaries, Ms. Lizette Ramírez Bermúdez (UNAM) and Ms. Mariana del Castillo Sánchez (Cinvestav), for their support before, during and after the organization of PASCOS 2012. Last but not least, we would like to thank all the PASCOS 2012 participants for their attendance and for contributing to make the conference an engaging and stimulating event. The organizers, Myriam Mondragón, Adnan Bashir, David Delepine, Francisco Larios, Oscar Loaiza, Axel de la Macorra, Lukas Nellen, Sarira Sahu, Humberto Salazar and Liliana Velasco-Sevilla.

  17. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program 18th annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Department remains focused on the technologies that are critical to making electric and hybrid vehicles commercially viable and competitive with current production gasoline-fueled vehicles in performance, reliability, and affordability. During Fiscal Year 1994, significant progress was made toward fulfilling the intent of Congress. The Department and the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (a partnership of the three major domestic automobile manufacturers) continued to work together and to focus the efforts of battery developers on the battery technologies that are most likely to be commercialized in the near term. Progress was made in industry cost-shared contracts toward demonstrating the technical feasibility of fuel cells for passenger bus and light duty vehicle applications. Two industry teams which will develop hybrid vehicle propulsion technologies have been selected through competitive procurement and have initiated work, in Fiscal Year 1994. In addition, technical studies and program planning continue, as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, to achieve the goals of reducing the transportation sector dependence on imported oil, reducing the level of environmentally harmful emissions, and enhancing industrial productivity and competitiveness.

  18. 18th U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference. Program

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-20

    This conference explored the latest developments in low-level radioactive waste management through presentations from professionals in both the public and the private sectors and special guests. The conference included two continuing education seminars, a workshop, exhibits, and a tour of Envirocare of Utah, Inc., one of America's three commercial low-level radioactive waste depositories.

  19. Developing the 18th indicator for interpreting indicators of rangeland health on Northern Great Plains rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National Resources Inventory (NRI) resource assessment report shows little to no departure on Rangeland Health for most Northern Great Plains Rangelands. This information is supported by Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) data collected at local to regional scales. There is however a...

  20. Proceeding of the 18th Intl. Workshop on Inelastic Ion-Surface Collisions (IISC-18)

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhold, Carlos O; Krstic, Predrag S; Meyer, Fred W

    2011-01-01

    The main topics of this proceedings were: (1) Energy loss of particles at surfaces; (2) Scattering of atoms, ions, molecules and clusters; (3) Charge exchange between particles and surfaces; (4) Ion induced desorption, electronic and kinetic sputtering; (5) Defect formation, surface modification and nanostructuring; (6) Electron, photon and secondary ion emission due to particle impact on surfaces; (7) Sputtering, fragmentation, cluster and ion formation in SIMS and SNMS; (8) Cluster/molecular and highly charged ion beams; and (9) Laser induced desorption.

  1. "Bernardino Ramazzini, three hundred years after his death", Padua (Italy), October 18th, 2014.

    PubMed

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Zampieri, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The year 2014 has marked the tercentenary from the death of Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714), universally credited as the founder of Occupational Health (5, 9, 10, 11). Indeed, the renowned physician died on November 5th 1714 in Padua, where he had been appointed as Professor of Practical Medicine at the local prestigious University from the year 1700. To commemorate this anniversary, the professors of Occupational Health of the University of Padua, the Italian Society of Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene (Società Italiana di Medicina del Lavoro eIgiene Industriale, SIMLII), the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) and the University of Padua organized a conference in the wonderful location of Palazzo Bo (Main Hall) under the patronage of the Padua Municipality, the Workers' Compensation Authority (INAIL), the Venetian Region and the Societas Internationalis Historiae Medicinae.[...]. PMID:25744315

  2. Earthquake induced Landslides in the Sikkim Himalaya - A Consequences of the 18th September 2011 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashok Kumar

    2015-04-01

    On September 18, 2011 an earthquake of 6.8 magnitude on the Richter scale struck Sikkim at 18.11 hours IST. The epicenter of the quake was latidude 27.7o North and longitude 88.2o East about 64 km North-West of Gangtok along the junction point of Teesta lineament and Kanchenjunga fault in the North District of Sikkim. The high intensity tremor triggered various types of natural calamities in the form of landslides, road blocks, falling boulders, lake bursts, flash floods, falling of trees, etc. and caused severe damage to life and property of the people in Sikkim. As the earthquake occurred during the monsoon season, heavy rain and landslides rendered rescue operations extremely difficult. Almost all road connectivity and communication network were disrupted. Sikkim experiences landslides year after year, especially during the monsoons and periods of intense rain. This hazard affects the economy of the State very badly. But due to the earthquake, many new and a few reactivated landslides have occurred in the Sikkim Himalaya.

  3. The 18th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: trends and influences for intelligent ground vehicle control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.; Frederick, Philip; Smuda, William

    2011-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of four, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI). The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 18 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 75 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  4. A Century of Induced Earthquakes in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.; Page, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Seismicity rates have increased sharply since 2009 in the central and eastern United States, with especially high rates of activity in the state of Oklahoma. A growing body of evidence indicates that many of these events are induced, primarily by injection of wastewater in deep disposal wells. The upsurge in activity has raised the questions, what is the background rate of tectonic earthquakes in Oklahoma? And how much has the rate varied throughout historical and early instrumental times? We first review the historical catalog, including assessment of the completeness level of felt earthquakes, and show that seismicity rates since 2009 surpass previously observed rates throughout the 20th century. Furthermore, several lines of evidence suggest that most of the significant (Mw > 3.5) earthquakes in Oklahoma during the 20th century were likely induced by wastewater injection and/or enhanced oil recovery operations. We show that there is a statistically significant temporal and spatial correspondence between earthquakes and disposal wells permitted during the 1950s. The intensity distributions of the 1952 Mw5.7 El Reno earthquake and the 1956 Mw3.9 Tulsa county earthquake are similar to those from recent induced earthquakes, with significantly lower shaking than predicted given a regional intensity-prediction equation. The rate of tectonic earthquakes is thus inferred to be significantly lower than previously estimated throughout most of the state, but is difficult to estimate given scant incontrovertible evidence for significant tectonic earthquakes during the 20th century. We do find evidence for a low level of tectonic seismicity in southeastern Oklahoma associated with the Ouachita structural belt, and conclude that the 22 October 1882 Choctaw Nation earthquake, for which we estimate Mw4.8, occurred in this zone.

  5. Newer Antibacterial Drugs for a New Century

    PubMed Central

    Devasahayam, Gina; Scheld, W. Michael; Hoffman, Paul S.

    2010-01-01

    Antibacterial drug discovery and development has slowed considerably in recent years with novel classes discovered decades ago and regulatory approvals tougher to get. This article describes newer classes of antibacterial drugs introduced or approved after year 2000, their mechanisms of action/ resistance, improved analogs, spectrum of activity and clinical trials. It also discusses new compounds in development with novel mechanisms of action as well as novel unexploited bacterial targets and strategies which may pave the way for combating drug resistance and emerging pathogens in the 21st century. PMID:20053150

  6. Mammalian Developmental Genetics in the Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    Artzt, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This Perspectives is a review of the breathtaking history of mammalian genetics in the past century and, in particular, of the ways in which genetic thinking has illuminated aspects of mouse development. To illustrate the power of that thinking, selected hypothesis-driven experiments and technical advances are discussed. Also included in this account are the beginnings of mouse genetics at the Bussey Institute, Columbia University, and The Jackson Laboratory and a retrospective discussion of one of the classic problems in developmental genetics, the T/t complex and its genetic enigmas. PMID:23212897

  7. Inspiring facility fuses a century of change.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-04-01

    Creating a 21st Century mental healthcare facility which would soon be world-renowned both for its quality of care, and for the high standard of its buildings, was the overriding goal of the project team behind the new pound 75 million, 312-bed Roseberry Park mental healthcare facility in Middlesbrough. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie visited the new PFI facility to discover more about the sizeable new mental healthcare "village", which was highly commended at the 2010 Building Better Healthcare Awards, from MAAP Architects lead designer and director Raechal Ferguson, and project director at the Tees, Esk and Wear Valleys (TEWV) NHS Foundation Trust John Ord. PMID:21585144

  8. Space freighters for the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, H. H.

    1990-10-01

    The present account of the characteristics of a space freighter concept which can transport either 300 metric tons to LEO or 100 metric tons to GEO or lunar orbits gives attention to its performance requirements, operations and schedules criteria, and costs. It is established that technology is not the limiting factor for rapid development of the 'Neptune' three-stage vehicle presently discussed, which uses derivatives of the SSMEs and will be of 6000-metric-ton takeoff mass. The Neptune space freighter could become available in the first decade of the 21st century, when it would be complemented by a second-generation Space Shuttle for passenger transport to LEO.

  9. Antimatter and 20th century science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gary

    2005-03-01

    This article gives an outline of the history of antimatter from the concept first introduced in 1898 up to the present day and is intended to complement the article 'Antihydrogen on Tap’ on page 229. It is hoped that it will provide enough historical background material along with interesting snippets of information for teachers to feel informed about the topic when in the classroom. Antimatter is the perfect example of 20th century science incorporating quantum mechanics and relativity, and showing progression from a theoretical idea to mass production within the space of 100 years. The final section is about using the idea of antihydrogen in the classroom.

  10. The restart of meteorological observations in the 19th century in Lisbon: the contribution of Marino Miguel FRANZINI (1779-1861)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcoforado, Maria-Joao; Nunes, Fatima

    2013-04-01

    After the early meteorological observations of the 1770s to the 1790s in continental Portugal (including a 5 year daily series by J. Velho), there were hardly any until 1815. In December 1815, a meteorological station was set up in Lisbon by Marino Miguel Franzini (1779-1861), an engineer who was also actively involved in Politics (liberal party). Following the tradition of the 18th century enlightenment movement, he took a keen interest in Nature and Sciences, particularly in the "influence" of weather and climate on health and agriculture. Franzini started his observations by request of a physician who sought to understand the reasons why the maximum mortality occurred on the summer months, unlike in northern countries of Europe where maximum mortality occurred in winter (as it happens nowadays in Portugal). The deterministic background of the two scientists is clear. Franzini was a member of the Lisbon Academy of Sciences (founded in 1799) and had contact with foreign Academies and foreign scientists. His instruments were carefully constructed and described, including graduation scales, and stations' location was indicated. Data from two years observations (several meteorological variables) was published in the Academy of Sciences Memoirs. From 1818 until 1826 and from 1835 until 1856 data was divulged in journals and newspapers, such as the "Journal of Medical Sciences", together with data on necrology in some of Lisbon parishes (illustrating the interest of physicians on weather); meteorological data and information about agriculture was also published in the "Lisbon Gazette". Unfortunately, there are hardly any daily data, as Franzini grouped his records according to weather types, as will be explained. Franzini's series will be presented in our talk. The gap between 1826 and 1835 was due to the political activities in which Franzini was involved: the civil war (liberals against absolutist) disruptedscientific research in Portugal. Official meteorological

  11. Physician professionalism for a new century.

    PubMed

    Holsinger, James W; Beaton, Benjamin

    2006-07-01

    During the past 50 years, physicians have become increasingly dissatisfied with certain aspects of their profession. Dissatisfaction has intensified with the advent of managed care in the late 20th century, the medical liability crisis, and the growing divergence between the professional and personal expectations placed upon physicians and their practical ability to meet these expectations. These and other factors have encroached on physician autonomy, the formerly ascendant professional value within medicine. As the underlying values and practical realities of the broader American health care system have changed, the professional values and practices of physicians have failed to adapt correspondingly, resulting in a "professionalism gap" that contributes to physician dissatisfaction. To improve the outlook and efficacy of modern American physicians, the profession must adopt a new values framework that conforms to today's health care system. This means foregoing the 20th century's preferred "independent physician" model in favor of a new professional structure based on teamwork and collaboration. Convincing established physicians to embrace such a model will be difficult, but opportunities exist for significant progress among a new generation of physicians accustomed to the realities of managed care, flexible practice models, and health information technology. The teaching of clinical anatomy, given its incorporation of student collaboration at the earliest stages of medical education, offers a prime opportunity to introduce this generation to a reinvigorated code of professionalism that should reduce physician dissatisfaction and benefit society. PMID:16506233

  12. [Physicians in Tuzla area in nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Ibrahimagić, Omer C; Ibrahimagić, Amela; Smajlović, Dzevdet; Sinanović, Osman

    2006-01-01

    Initial data about organized health work in Tuzla area comes from nineteenth century. Priest Ivan Kljaie, military physicians Muhidin-bey, Mehmed Said-effendi and Ignatius Gulielmus Petelenz are mentioned in it. In Tuzla, Mehmed Sami Serbić in year 1874, found first hospital named Hastahana. As a physician and humanist he leaves indelible trace. Three female physicians: Anna Bayerova, Teodora Krajewska, and Jadviga Olszewska, after the annexing of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary monarchy, were engaged to work in Tuzla area. Each of them gave important contribution to development of health care in Tuzla area and broader. Physicians Josip Lymberski and Jozef Foglar worked in so called Miners Hospital. Due to cholera and malaria epidemics during the year 1893, two epidemiologists-bacteriologists came in Tuzla. Their names were Rudolf Fisher and Jozef Katz. We believe, that this work contributes to saving the memory of the work of the physicians from the Tuzla area in nineteenth century. PMID:18173000

  13. A century of induced earthquakes in Oklahoma?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, Susan E.; Page, Morgan T.

    2015-01-01

    Seismicity rates have increased sharply since 2009 in the central and eastern United States, with especially high rates of activity in the state of Oklahoma. Growing evidence indicates that many of these events are induced, primarily by injection of wastewater in deep disposal wells. The upsurge in activity has raised two questions: What is the background rate of tectonic earthquakes in Oklahoma? How much has the rate varied throughout historical and early instrumental times? In this article, we show that (1) seismicity rates since 2009 surpass previously observed rates throughout the twentieth century; (2) several lines of evidence suggest that most of the significant earthquakes in Oklahoma during the twentieth century were likely induced by oil production activities, as they exhibit statistically significant temporal and spatial correspondence with disposal wells, and intensity measurements for the 1952 El Reno earthquake and possibly the 1956 Tulsa County earthquake follow the pattern observed in other induced earthquakes; and (3) there is evidence for a low level of tectonic seismicity in southeastern Oklahoma associated with the Ouachita structural belt. The 22 October 1882 Choctaw Nation earthquake, for which we estimate Mw 4.8, occurred in this zone.

  14. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    PubMed

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness. PMID:20513626

  15. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.G.

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  16. Vaccines for the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Delany, Isabel; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In the last century, vaccination has been the most effective medical intervention to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. It is believed that vaccines save at least 2–3 million lives per year worldwide. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio has almost disappeared worldwide through global vaccine campaigns. Most of the viral and bacterial infections that traditionally affected children have been drastically reduced thanks to national immunization programs in developed countries. However, many diseases are not yet preventable by vaccination, and vaccines have not been fully exploited for target populations such as elderly and pregnant women. This review focuses on the state of the art of recent clinical trials of vaccines for major unmet medical needs such as HIV, malaria, TB, and cancer. In addition, we describe the innovative technologies currently used in vaccine research and development including adjuvants, vectors, nucleic acid vaccines, and structure-based antigen design. The hope is that thanks to these technologies, more diseases will be addressed in the 21st century by novel preventative and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:24803000

  17. Challenges in 21st Century Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

  18. DIMMING OF THE 17TH CENTURY SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Foukal, Peter; Ortiz, Ada; Schnerr, Roald

    2011-06-01

    Reconstructions of total solar irradiance (TSI) rely mainly on linear relations between TSI variation and indices of facular area. When these are extrapolated to the prolonged 15th-17th century Spoerer and Maunder solar activity minima, the estimated solar dimming is insufficient to explain the mid-millennial climate cooling of the Little Ice Age. We draw attention here to evidence that the relation departs from linearity at the lowest activity levels. Imaging photometry and radiometry indicate an increased TSI contribution per unit area from small network faculae by a factor of 2-4 compared with larger faculae in and around active regions. Even partial removal of this more TSI-effective network at prolonged minima could enable climatically significant solar dimming, yet be consistent with the weakened but persistent 11 yr cycle observed in Be 10 during the Maunder Minimum. The mechanism we suggest would not alter previous findings that increased solar radiative forcing is insufficient to account for 20th century global warming.

  19. Nursing heroism in the 21st Century'

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Vivian Bullwinkel Oration honours the life and work of an extraordinary nurse. Given her story and that of her World War II colleagues, the topic of nursing heroism in the 21st century could not be more germane. Discussion Is heroism a legitimate part of nursing, or are nurses simply 'just doing their job' even when facing extreme personal danger? In this paper I explore the place and relevance of heroism in contemporary nursing. I propose that nursing heroism deserves a broader appreciation and that within the term lie many hidden, 'unsung' or 'unrecorded' heroisms. I also challenge the critiques of heroism that would condemn it as part of a 'militarisation' of nursing. Finally, I argue that nursing needs to be more open in celebrating our heroes and the transformative power of nursing achievements. Summary The language of heroism may sound quaint by 21st Century standards but nursing heroism is alive and well in the best of our contemporary nursing ethos and practice. PMID:21324152

  20. Rural School Consolidation in Early Twentieth Century Iowa: Lessons for the Early Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, David R.

    Rural school consolidation in Iowa in the early 20th century was not simply an attempt at educational reform, but was also an attempt to transform the rural social geography of the region. Since consolidation of corporate power had resulted in economic progress in the cities, it was thought that re-centering rural life around country towns could…

  1. A 21st Century Library in a 20th Century Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graboyes, Alanna S.

    2012-01-01

    The library at George C. Marshall High School in Fairfax County, Virginia, needed an update to better meet the needs of 21st century students. A major renovation was in the works, but head librarian Graboyes wanted to do something to make the library useful and appealing for current students. With careful budgeting and donations of time and money,…

  2. Learning 21st-Century Skills Requires, 21st-Century Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky; Opfer, V. Darleen

    2012-01-01

    For students to learn 21st-century skills, we will have to teach them differently than we have in the past. The outdated, transmission model, through which teachers transmit factual knowledge to students via lectures and textbooks, remains the dominant approach to compulsory education in much of the world, yet it is not the most effective way to…

  3. Nineteenth-Century Agrarian Populism and Twentieth-Century Communitarianism: Points of Contact and Contrast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    Connects contemporary communitarian ideas to the agenda of the 19th-century populist movement. The populist educational agenda (the agrarian revolt and Farmers' Alliance) provides historical examples of the implementation of communitarian educational theory. The populist movement as an example of communitarianism highlights an instance of a…

  4. Global Cooling the in 21 Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, S.; Genda, H.; Ikoma, M.

    2008-12-01

    [Objective] To predict the climate in the 21 Century [Methods employed] Evaluating the functions to control the surface temperature of the Earth in order of potentials from high to low, 1) albedo mainly by glacier and cloud, 2) Sun activity (relative Sunspot number), 3) greenhouse gas, and Millancovich effect, we estimate the climate change in 21 Century. [Result] Albedo is further controlled by a) Galactic cosmic ray radiation, b)Earth's geomagnetic intensity, c)aerosols derived from volcanic ash, aeorian dusts, and d)aircrafts. Albedo effect is the largest; 1% cloud corresponds to 0.6K on the surface temperature of the Earth (Genda, 2008). Activity of Sun has been observed as the relative change of sunspot number for the last 400 years. Moreover, the C14 of annual ring in the old tree such as Jo-mon redwood back to 6000 years has been measured. Periodical change of Sun activity in the past is extrapolated to the future, indicating the Sun activity has just passed the maximum ca. 2 years ago. Greenhouse gas is evaluated independently for each species. Predominant role is H2O which occupies about 90-95% among greenhouse gas. CO2 has increased 1-2 ppm every year for the last 100 years. 1 ppm corresponds to only 0.004K, which is negligibly small, compared to the potential of cloud effect. The Earth is in the stage of near the end of 20,000 years cycle of Millancovich. Although the 100,000 years cycle is clearly regular for the last 400,000 years, the 20,000 years cycle does not seem to be clear, and we are now hanging on the abrupt drop from inter-glacial to glacial period. Moreover, the role of volcanic eruption would force to cool the climate, if erupted as such a case of Pinatuvo in Philippine in 1992 when 0.5K dropped during 2 years. The rapidly decreasing the Earth's geomagnetism promotes the formation of cloud, to raise the amount of cloud in this Century. More active industrial activity in Asia particularly China and India would increase the amounts of

  5. Women in Chemistry: Their Changing Roles from Alchemical Times to the Mid-Twentieth Century (by Marelene Rayner-Canham and Geoffrey Rayner-Canham)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caserio, Marjorie C.

    1999-07-01

    Women who made significant contributions in the chemical sciences prior to the 20th century do not come readily to mind. Yet, as this book relates so engagingly, women have been influential in chemistry since the earliest period of recorded history. However, Women in Chemistry is more than a dated collection of biographical sketches of notable women scientists. The book highlights the main periods of history when it was possible for women to have some measure of success in the chemical sciences and focuses on their changing roles from alchemical times to the mid-20th century. By glimpsing into the life and work of individuals in the context of the time in which they lived, the authors impart a credible and moving image of the restraints imposed on aspiring women scientists and the obstacles that confronted them-making the extent of their contributions all the more remarkable. Each chapter has a theme into which are woven selected biographical sketches. Chapter 1 offers a whirlwind tour of the centuries from Babylonian times (1200 B.C.E.) through the Middle Ages and into the 17th century, giving perspective on how the various civilizations did (or did not) consider women capable of intellectual achievement or permit such of them. This short but powerful chapter invokes appreciation for the major contributions made by women in the face of enormous obstacles of prejudice, superstition (witchcraft), monastic reprisals, pseudoscience (alchemy), and denial of education. The women featured include Maria Hebraea (around 300 C.E.famed for the water bath, bain Marie), Hypatia (mathematician, 400 C.E.), Western alchemists (de Gourney and Meudrac), and Chinese alchemists. By the 18th century, science had progressed and alchemy was at an end. Though enlightened scientifically, western society still considered women's intellect inferior. But, as Chapter 2 relates, the literary salons of France nurtured intellectual discussion in society women, and it was in this context that

  6. Realism of Global Reanalyses over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean across the 20th and Early 21st Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, J. P.; Bromwich, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Thanks to their ability to synthesize a wide variety of meteorological data and "produce data where there are none", nowhere are global atmospheric reanalyses more needed than over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, where long-term records are few and far between. At the same time, because of the reduced observational constraint, nowhere else do reanalyses face more challenges, which can significantly reduce the reliability of their products. Most notably, the transition into the modern satellite era in 1979 greatly affected the skill of the NCEP-NCAR and ERA-40 reanalyses and explains why most reanalysis-based investigations of Antarctic climate change have since focused on the post-1979 period. The most recent generation of reanalyses has benefited from advances in numerical weather prediction, data rescue/quality-control and lessons learned from previous projects, all of which have improved their overall quality in the southern polar region. Alongside comprehensive reanalyses, recent data assimilation experiments using only surface or conventional observations have tried to overcome the 1979 "barrier", but other problems have become apparent, including the necessity to specify realistic ocean boundary conditions (sea ice, SST) around Antarctica prior to 1979. The presentation will provide an overview of the skill of recent global reanalyses in high southern latitudes from the 1900s onward. It will discuss how far back in time we can reasonably go and in what areas caution is needed. The datasets covered will include ERA-Interim, CFSR, MERRA, and JRA-55, as well as recent century-long efforts, 20CR and ERA-20C.

  7. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  8. [Demography and society in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Cambodia].

    PubMed

    Nepote, J

    1979-01-01

    The author analyzes the demography of Cambodia in relation to social changes in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Three phases are examined: the opening of Cambodia to the outside world and the reversal of the demographic situation in the nineteenth century; modernization and accelerated population growth in the twentieth century up to 1970; and recent events, particularly political upheavals, and the new reversal of the demographic situation PMID:12279292

  9. Climate, people, fire and vegetation: new insights into vegetation dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean since the 1st century AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, J.; Paulissen, E.; Kaniewski, D.; Poblome, J.; De Laet, V.; Verstraeten, G.; Waelkens, M.

    2013-01-01

    Anatolia forms a bridge between Europe, Africa and Asia and is influenced by all three continents in terms of climate, vegetation and human civilisation. Unfortunately, well-dated palynological records focussing on the period from the end of the classical Roman period until subrecent times are rare for Anatolia and completely absent for southwest Turkey, resulting in a lacuna in knowledge concerning the interactions of climatic change, human impact, and environmental change in this important region. Two well-dated palaeoecological records from the Western Taurus Mountains, Turkey, provide a first relatively detailed record of vegetation dynamics from late Roman times until the present in SW Turkey. Combining pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal, sedimentological, archaeological data, and newly developed multivariate numerical analyses allows for the disentangling of climatic and anthropogenic influences on vegetation change. Results show changes in both the regional pollen signal as well as local soil sediment characteristics match shifts in regional climatic conditions. Both climatic as well as anthropogenic change had a strong influence on vegetation dynamics and land use. A moist environmental trend during the late-3rd century caused an increase in marshes and wetlands in the moister valley floors, limiting possibilities for intensive crop cultivation at such locations. A mid-7th century shift to pastoralism coincided with a climatic deterioration as well as the start of Arab incursions into the region, the former driving the way in which the vegetation developed afterwards. Resurgence in agriculture was observed in the study during the mid-10th century AD, coinciding with the Medieval Climate Anomaly. An abrupt mid-12th century decrease in agriculture is linked to socio-political change, rather than the onset of the Little Ice Age. Similarly, gradual deforestation occurring from the 16th century onwards has been linked to changes in land use during Ottoman

  10. Changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands inferred from 19th and 20th century landscape paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Wevers, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Geodiversity is the natural and cultural range of geological, geomorphological and soil features. We analysed the large database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis and Buunk (www.Simonis-Buunk.com) to track changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands since pre-photographic times. Peat dominated in two of the eight main landscapes of the Netherlands: the Lowland peats in the Holocene west and the Highland peats in the sandy Pleistocene eastern parts. Painters were mainly attracted by the lowland peats. Since more than thousand years, peat plays a major role in Dutch military security, economy, ecology and cultural life. Natural variety and cultural use resulted in a geodiversity that is unique in Europe. There are more than 100 place names with 'veen' (= peat), and surnames with 'veen' are common. Proof of the exploitation of peat for salt and fuel exists from the Roman times onwards. In the 9th century, peatlands were drained and reclaimed for growing wheat. Already in the 11th century, it was necessary to build dikes to prevent flooding, to control waterlevels to avoid further oxidation, and to convert landuse to grassland. But subsidence continued, and in the 14th century windmills were needed to drain the lands and pump the water out. In the 16th century industrial peat exploitation fuelled the rise of industries and cities. All this draining and digging caused the peat surface to shrink. The few remaining living peats are conserved by nature organisations. Geodiversity and landscape paintings In the peat landscapes, popular painting motives were high water levels, the grasslands of the 'Green Heart', the winding streams and remaining lakes. The paintings of landscapes where peat had been removed, show watermanagement adaptations: wind mills, different water levels, canals made for the transport of fuel, bridges, tow paths and the 'plassen', i.e. the lakes left after peat exploitation. The droogmakerijen (reclaimed lakes), now 2 to 5 m below

  11. Astronomical dating in the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2010-01-01

    Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective. Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was repeatedly used in the second half of the 19th century before the invention of radio-isotopic dating. Building upon earlier ideas of Joseph Adhémar, James Croll started to formulate his astronomical theory of the ice ages in 1864 according to which precession controlled ice ages occur alternatingly on both hemispheres at times of maximum eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The publication of these ideas compelled Charles Lyell to revise his Principles of Geology and add Croll's theory, thus providing an alternative to his own geographical cause of the ice ages. Both Croll and Lyell initially tuned the last glacial epoch to the prominent eccentricity maximum 850,000 yr ago. This age was used as starting point by Lyell to calculate an age of 240 million years for the beginning of the Cambrium. But Croll soon revised the tuning to a much younger less prominent eccentricity maximum between 240,000 and 80,000 yr ago. In addition he tuned older glacial deposits of late Miocene and Eocene ages to eccentricity maxima around 800,000 and 2,800,000 yr ago. Archibald and James Geikie were the first to recognize interglacials during the last glacial epoch, as predicted by Croll's theory, and attempted to tune them to precession. Soon after Frank Taylor linked a series of 15 end-moraines left behind by the retreating ice sheet to precession to arrive at a possible age of 300,000 yr for the maximum glaciation. In a classic paper, Axel Blytt (1876) explained the scattered distribution of plant groups in Norway to precession induced alternating rainy and dry periods as recorded by the

  12. Space Biology in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, Thora W.; Krauss, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Biology is poised to make significant contributions to science in the next century. A carefully crafted, but largely ground-based, program in the United States has evolved major questions that require answers through experiments in space. Science, scientists, and the new long-term spacecrafts designed by NASA will be available for the first time to mount a serious Space Biology effort. The scientific challenge is of such importance that success will provide countless benefits to biologically dependent areas such as medicine, food, and commerce in the decades ahead. The international community is rapidly expanding its role in this field. The United States should generate the resources that will allow progress in Space Biology to match the recognized progress made in aeronautics and the other space sciences.

  13. Half a Century of Physical Review Letters

    ScienceCinema

    Garisto, Robert

    2010-01-08

    Fifty years ago, Sam Goudsmit started an experiment: the journal Physical Review Letters.  Since 1958, the experiment has thrived. PRL has gone through many changes, published many important papers, and become a leader in international scientific publication.  I will trace the rise of PRL from its early 20th century roots as "Letters to the Editor," through changes in editorial process and advents of new technology. Along the way I'll show what has gone on behind the scenes, and give a glimpse of our plans for the future.  I'll also give some advice to would-be authors and referees, illustrated with interesting correspondence we've received.

  14. Two centuries of mineral policy in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrom, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Wisconsin has experienced several major shifts in mineral policy which reflect changing public attitudes about resources. Early law either encouraged mineral development or was mute during the territory and early statehood period because the prevalent attitude was for rapid development to generate capital which would foster economic growth and development. The development push of the 19th century was followed by a slow shift to environmental and social consciousness. This shift subverted Wisconsin's relationship to and dependence on outside sources of mineals and its posture with regard to mineral developent. Development is now strongly controlled by laws, land access, and social responsibility. Increased mineral dependence and high consumer prices are the price which society pays for such policies, and the author suggests the need for a national minerals policy to serve as a model for the states. 3 references.

  15. Saturn through the Telescope: The First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Helden, A.

    2005-08-01

    Saturn was first seen through the telescope by Galileo in the summer of 1610. In the ensuing half century, Saturn's strange appearances became a celebrated puzzle. The problem was often not the poor quality of telescopes: a number of observers drew images that we would interpret as showing a ring around the planet. It was also a problem of concepts because for several decades observers had the wrong model in mind when they observed the planet. Thus we could say that their telescopes could show them the ring, but their preconceptions did not allow them to see it. The manner in which Christiaan Huygens arrived at the solution, in the winter of 1655-56, shows that more than good telescopes were necessary, although for rhetorical reasons Huygens maintained the opposite. And Huygens's ring-theory, elegent as it was, had several shortcomings that were slowly fixed--often by others.

  16. [Twentieth-century Penelopes: popular culture revisited].

    PubMed

    Favaro, Cleci Eulalia

    2010-01-01

    During their settlement of the so-called Old Italian Colonies of Rio Grande do Sul, immigrants constructed a set of positive values that were to serve as an emotional support and a means of outside communication. When women immigrants embroidered images and sayings on wall hangings or kitchen towels made of rustic fabric, they helped nourish the dream of a better life, sought by all and achieved by some. The objects crafted by these twentieth-century Penelopes bear witness to a way of doing, thinking, and acting. Local museums and exhibits have fostered the recovery of old-time embroidery techniques and themes; sold at open-air markets and regional festivals, these products represent income for women whose age excludes them from the formal labor market. PMID:21461540

  17. Interventional radiology: a half century of innovation.

    PubMed

    Baum, Richard A; Baum, Stanley

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of modern interventional radiology began over half century ago with a simple question. Was it possible to use the same diagnostic imaging tools that had revolutionized the practice of medicine to guide the real-time treatment of disease? This disruptive concept led to rapid treatment advances in every organ system of the body. It became clear that by utilizing imaging some patients could undergo targeted procedures, eliminating the need for major surgery, while others could undergo procedures for previously unsolvable problems. The breadth of these changes now encompasses all of medicine and has forever changed the way we think about disease. In this brief review article, major advances in the field, as chronicled in the pages of Radiology, will be described. PMID:25340439

  18. Twentieth-Century Sea Surface Temperature Trends

    PubMed

    Cane; Clement; Kaplan; Kushnir; Pozdnyakov; Seager; Zebiak; Murtugudde

    1997-02-14

    An analysis of historical sea surface temperatures provides evidence for global warming since 1900, in line with land-based analyses of global temperature trends, and also shows that over the same period, the eastern equatorial Pacific cooled and the zonal sea surface temperature gradient strengthened. Recent theoretical studies have predicted such a pattern as a response of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system to an exogenous heating of the tropical atmosphere. This pattern, however, is not reproduced by the complex ocean-atmosphere circulation models currently used to simulate the climatic response to increased greenhouse gases. Its presence is likely to lessen the mean 20th-century global temperature change in model simulations. PMID:9020074

  19. Reliability for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Keller-McNulty, Sallie; Wilson, A. G.

    2002-01-01

    The sophistication of science and teclinology is growing almost exponentially. Government and industry are relying more and more on science's advanced methods to assess reliability coupled with pcrformance, safety, surety, cost, schedule, etc. Unfortunately, policy, cost, schedule, and other constraints imposed by the real world inhibit the ability of researchers to calculate these metrics efficiently and accurately using traditional methods. Because of such constraints, reliability must undergo an evolutionary change. The first step in this evolution is to reinterpret the concepts and responsibilities of scientists responsible for reliability calculations to meet the new century's needs. The next step is to mount a multidisciplinary approach to the quantification of reliability and its associated metrics using both empirical methods and auxiliary data sources, such as expert knowledge, corporate memory, and mathematical modeling and simulation.

  20. World population stabilization unlikely this century.

    PubMed

    Gerland, Patrick; Raftery, Adrian E; Sevčíková, Hana; Li, Nan; Gu, Danan; Spoorenberg, Thomas; Alkema, Leontine; Fosdick, Bailey K; Chunn, Jennifer; Lalic, Nevena; Bay, Guiomar; Buettner, Thomas; Heilig, Gerhard K; Wilmoth, John

    2014-10-10

    The United Nations (UN) recently released population projections based on data until 2012 and a Bayesian probabilistic methodology. Analysis of these data reveals that, contrary to previous literature, the world population is unlikely to stop growing this century. There is an 80% probability that world population, now 7.2 billion people, will increase to between 9.6 billion and 12.3 billion in 2100. This uncertainty is much smaller than the range from the traditional UN high and low variants. Much of the increase is expected to happen in Africa, in part due to higher fertility rates and a recent slowdown in the pace of fertility decline. Also, the ratio of working-age people to older people is likely to decline substantially in all countries, even those that currently have young populations. PMID:25301627

  1. Engineering in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reasonable evolutionary trends in federal outlays for aerospace research and development predict a continuing decline in real resources (1970 dollars) until the mid eighties, and a growth thereafter to the 1970 level by 2000, still well below the 1966 peak. Employment levels will parallel this trend with no shortage of available personnel foreseen. These trends characterize a maturing industry. Shifts in outlook toward the economic use of resources, rather than minimum risk at any cost, and toward missions aligned with societal needs and broad national goals will accompany these trends. These shifts in outlook will arise in part in academia, and will, in turn, influence engineering education. By 2000, space technology will have achieved major advances in the management of information, in space transportation, in space structures, and in energy. The economics of space systems must be the primary consideration if the space program foreseen for the 21st century is to become an actuality.

  2. Six centuries of changing oceanic mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanxu; Jaeglé, Lyatt; Thompson, LuAnne; Streets, David G.

    2014-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global and persistent contaminant, affecting human health primarily via marine fish consumption. Large anthropogenic releases of Hg to the atmosphere by mining and coal combustion have resulted in a significant perturbation to the biogeochemical cycling of Hg. The magnitude of this perturbation and the relative roles of the ocean and land as sinks for anthropogenic Hg remain unclear. Here we use a 3-D global ocean biogeochemical model to show that surface ocean Hg concentrations have increased fourfold over the last 600 years. We find that anthropogenic Hg enters the ocean's interior predominantly by absorption onto sinking organic matter particulates, which decompose and release Hg at a depth of 500-800 m, implying that the human perturbation is largest in subsurface waters of biologically productive regions. Our model simulation predicts that over the last six centuries half of emitted anthropogenic Hg has accumulated in the oceans and marine sediments.

  3. Tropical medicine for the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    De Cock, K. M.; Lucas, S. B.; Mabey, D.; Parry, E.

    1995-01-01

    The specialty of tropical medicine originated from the needs of the colonial era and is removed from many of the health care requirements of tropical countries today. Tropical medicine concentrates on parasitic diseases of warm climates, although other infections and diseases related to poverty rather than climate dominate medicine in developing countries challenged by population pressure, civil strife, and migration. In the new century, tropical medicine would best be absorbed into the specialty of infectious diseases, which should incorporate parasitic diseases, travel medicine, and sexually transmitted diseases. Pressing questions for health care and research in developing countries concern the provision of appropriate services for problems such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, and injuries. The question of how to provide appropriate clinical care in resource poor settings for the major causes of morbidity and premature mortality has been neglected by donors, academic institutions, and traditional tropical medicine. Images p861-a PMID:7580497

  4. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity. PMID:26710571

  5. A Half-century of SETI Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuch, H. Paul

    We begin our journey with a brief review of half a century of SETI science. The material in this introductory chapter is offered for the benefit of those educated laypersons whose enthusiasm for the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence exceeds their detailed knowledge of the relevant technologies. It is my hope that readers of this volume will better appreciate the material which follows if they first have a basic understanding of SETI concepts. Hence, I offer an overview, which is intended not to be exhaustive, but rather representative. Together, we will explore the nature of radio telescopes, experimental design strategies, SETI instrumentation, signal analysis, and the hallmarks of artificiality that allow us to differentiate between natural astrophysical emissions and intelligent interstellar transmissions. If you are already a technical specialist in these areas, feel free to bypass this introduction, and proceed directly to the subsequent chapters.

  6. Acoustic emission: The first half century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouillard, Thomas F.

    The technology of acoustic emission (AE) is approaching the half century mark, having had its beginning in 1950 with the work of Joseph Kaiser. During the 1950s and 1960s researchers delved into the fundamentals of acoustic emission, developed instrumentation specifically for AE, and characterized the AE behavior of many materials. AE was starting to be recognized for its unique capabilities as an NDT method for monitoring dynamic processes. In the decade of the 1970s research activities became more coordinated and directed with the formation of the working groups, and its use as an NDT method continued to increase for industrial applications. In the 1980s the computer became a basic component for both instrumentation and data analysis, and today it has sparked a resurgence of opportunities for research and development. Today we are seeing a transition to waveform-based AE analysis and a shift in AE activities with more emphasis on applications than on research. From the beginning, we have been fortunate to have had so many dedicated savants with different fields of expertise contribute in a collective way to bring AE to a mature, fully developed technology and leave a legacy of knowledge recorded in its literature. AE literature has been a key indicator of the amount of activity, the proportion of research to application, the emphasis on what was of current interest, and the direction AE has taken. The following is a brief survey of the history of acoustic emission with emphasis on development of the infrastructure over the past half century.

  7. Butterfly community shifts over two centuries.

    PubMed

    Habel, Jan Christian; Segerer, Andreas; Ulrich, Werner; Torchyk, Olena; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Schmitt, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Environmental changes strongly impact the distribution of species and subsequently the composition of species assemblages. Although most community ecology studies represent temporal snap shots, long-term observations are rather rare. However, only such time series allow the identification of species composition shifts over several decades or even centuries. We analyzed changes in the species composition of a southeastern German butterfly and burnet moth community over nearly 2 centuries (1840-2013). We classified all species observed over this period according to their ecological tolerance, thereby assessing their degree of habitat specialisation. This classification was based on traits of the butterfly and burnet moth species and on their larval host plants. We collected data on temperature and precipitation for our study area over the same period. The number of species declined substantially from 1840 (117 species) to 2013 (71 species). The proportion of habitat specialists decreased, and most of these are currently endangered. In contrast, the proportion of habitat generalists increased. Species with restricted dispersal behavior and species in need of areas poor in soil nutrients had severe losses. Furthermore, our data indicated a decrease in species composition similarity between different decades over time. These data on species composition changes and the general trends of modifications may reflect effects from climate change and atmospheric nitrogen loads, as indicated by the ecological characteristics of host plant species and local changes in habitat configuration with increasing fragmentation. Our observation of major declines over time of currently threatened and protected species shows the importance of efficient conservation strategies. PMID:26743786

  8. Acoustic emission: The first half century

    SciTech Connect

    Drouillard, T.F.

    1994-08-01

    The technology of acoustic emission (AE) is approaching the half century mark, having had its beginning in 1950 with the work of Joseph Kaiser. During the 1950s and 1960s researchers delved into the fundamentals of acoustic emission, developed instrumentation specifically for AE, and characterized the AE behavior of many materials. AE was starting to be recognized for its unique capabilities as an NDT method for monitoring dynamic processes. In the decade of the 1970s research activities became more coordinated and directed with the formation of the working groups, and its use as an NDT method continued to increase for industrial applications. In the 1980s the computer became a basic component for both instrumentation and data analysis, and today it has sparked a resurgence of opportunities for research and development. Today we are seeing a transition to waveform-based AE analysis and a shift in AE activities with more emphasis on applications than on research. From the beginning, we have been fortunate to have had so many dedicated savants with different fields of expertise contribute in a collective way to bring AE to a mature, fully developed technology and leave a legacy of knowledge recorded in its literature. AE literature has been a key indicator of the amount of activity, the proportion of research to application, the emphasis on what was of current interest, and the direction AE has taken. The following is a brief survey of the history of acoustic emission with emphasis on development of the infrastructure over the past half century.

  9. Isoprene emission variability through the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, N.

    2013-12-01

    biochemical model of isoprene emission embedded within a global chemistry-climate simulation framework is applied to investigate the transient response to environmental change over the past century. In the model, the isoprene production is directly coupled to photosynthesis and depends on intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (CO2), atmospheric CO2, and canopy temperature. Sensitivity runs are performed to isolate the relative roles of individual global change drivers: CO2, physical climate, and anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC). Between 1880 and 2000, atmospheric CO2 increased by ~30% from 291 to 370 ppmv, global average surface air temperature increased by 0.7°C, and the crop cover fraction of vegetated land area more than doubled from 15 to 37%. Over the past century, isoprene emission has decreased globally by 20% from 534 to 449 Tg C/yr, while gross primary productivity has increased by 15% from 107 to 124 Pg C/yr mostly due to CO2 fertilization. In terms of individual drivers, the global isoprene source increased by 7% due to the atmospheric CO2 concentration rise (including the opposing effects of CO2 fertilization and CO2 inhibition), decreased by 22% due to ALCC, and increased by only 3% due to physical climate change. Thus, ALCC is the dominant driver of isoprene emission change. Modeled global isoprene emissions were higher in the preindustrial than in the present day. In the industrial era, isoprene emission change represents a human-induced climate forcing, analogous to land use-driven CO2 emission, not a climate feedback because temperature-driven increase was a relatively weak driver of isoprene emission change from 1880 to 2000.

  10. Food safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Käferstein, F.; Abdussalam, M.

    1999-01-01

    The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will

  11. How to count curves: from nineteenth-century problems to twenty-first-century solutions.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Ian

    2003-12-15

    Find the next term in the sequence 1, 1, 12, 620, 87304. This particular problem belongs to a branch of mathematics called enumerative geometry. This is concerned with curve-counting - counting the number of curves that can be drawn on a particular geometric object. The sequence above is easy to describe: each term represents the number of curves, with increasing complexity, one can draw though a certain number of points on a plane. Despite its simplicity, the problem remained unsolved for most of the twentieth century. The solution - a formula with which one may calculate any term in the series - was discovered only in the century's closing decade. This article will describe the above problem, and some of the unexpected mathematics and physics that was used in finding its solution [corrected] PMID:14667289

  12. Martian weather and climate in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    The historical interest in the weather and climate of Mars and current understanding of aspects of the present climate are addressed. Scientific research into the weather and climate of Mars in the next century is examined. The impact of the Martian weather of the 21st century on humans that may then be inhabiting the planet is considered.

  13. Gender, Science and Modernity in Seventeenth-Century England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    The seventeenth century in England, bounded by the scientific stimulus of Francis Bacon at the beginning and Isaac Newton at the end, seemingly saw a huge leap from the Aristotelian dialectic of the past to a reconstruction of knowledge based on inductive methods, empirical investigation and cooperative research. In mid-century, Puritan reformers…

  14. Global Trends in Language Learning in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Today's language classroom is vastly different from that of the mid- to late 20th century. The study is a meta-analysis of recent research which provided the means to identify current and emerging trends in the field. Informed by this research, some identified trends that are shaping the 21st century language classroom are outdated practices such…

  15. The Worker's Life in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, William L.

    1979-01-01

    What will life be like for occupational education graduates in the next century? This article offers a provocative look at the life of James Jones, a hypothetical twenty-first-century worker whose horizons extend to outer space and inner consciousness. (CT)

  16. Education, Empire and Social Change in Nineteenth Century England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of imperialism on British (or chiefly English) social life and education in the nineteenth century rather than examining the effects on the colonised as is usually done. It is shown that the nineteenth century was infused with different visual and written images which helped develop attitudes and ideas which…

  17. Science in American School Readers of the Nineteenth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter; Rudolph, Emanuel D.

    In 19th century America the textbook for reading, or "reader," was predominant as the learning tool for young children. Science selections in these readers introduced students to their first formal science instruction. This paper presents an analysis of the science used in 19th century popular readers. Through a synthesis of expert opinion, the…

  18. The Constitution in the Twentieth Century: Implications for Citizenship Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Paul L.

    A major constitutional issue in the twentieth century is the extent to which the U.S. Constitution should be interpreted to fit changing times and circumstances. In the latter part of the nineteenth century, the Supreme Court dispensed a "mechanical jurisprudence" based on an "objective" interpretation of the Constitution and the "original intent"…

  19. American Childhoods: Three Centuries of Youth at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormser, Richard

    This study of childhood through the centuries provides a new perspective on the age-old challenge of growing up and thriving in a diverse and complex society. The book consists of a brief introduction followed by eight chapters. Chapter 1, "Crime and Punishment," details crime and punishment of children from the eighteenth century to the present.…

  20. Fostering Higher Order Critical Thinking in 21st Century Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Mary Miller

    2012-01-01

    Teachers working with increasingly diverse student populations are expected, for the first time in American history, to bring all students to high levels of proficiency. American graduates must compete with graduates from other nations, given the realities of the 21st century global economy. American teachers must possess 21st century skills in…

  1. Organic Education in Public Schools of Late Nineteenth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    Organic education, which was introduced into the United States during the last third of the 19th century, was based upon Froebel's ideal of life as a connected whole. The late 19th century was a favorable period for innovation, for its economic prosperity made leaders feel that with the use of scientific methods anything was possible, and its…

  2. Standards for the 21st-Century Learner in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Librarians (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    How are AASL's (American Association of School Librarians) new learning standards, the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner," incorporated into the school library media program? This publication from AASL takes an in-depth look at the strands of the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and the indicators within those strands. It also…

  3. Motives of 21st-Century-Skills Group Questioned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Depending on whom one asks, "21st-century skills" can mean different things: technology literacy, the ability to analyze and apply knowledge, a knack for working effectively with colleagues in teams. In what is probably its most visible form for educators, though, the term refers to the work of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the Tucson,…

  4. Rebuilding the LMS for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Finally--12 years into the 21st century--higher ed classrooms are turning into incubators for the kind of learning environment that curriculum and instructional technology experts have advocated for years. Yet a key question remains: Can legacy learning management systems (LMSs) be dragged into the 21st century as part of this new educational…

  5. Intercultural Education by Governesses (Seventeenth to Twentieth Century)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardach-Pinke, Irene

    2010-01-01

    One of the early forms of intercultural education was the upbringing of children by foreign governesses, who appeared on the European labour market during the seventeenth century. In Germany families of the gentry and the wealthy middle-classes began, since the eighteenth century, to copy the upbringing of princely children. They too wanted their…

  6. 21st Century Readiness Skills for Career and Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Tyrone L.

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century has embraced the technological age by storm and has approached us quicker than most have expected, leaving many still stuck in the 20th century. Technical careers require very skilled workers and their education has sprung as a strong vehicle all over the country but still most of our employed citizens, especially the youth, have…

  7. Preparing Students for the Future--21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century economy is driven by information and communication technologies (ICT). This change has made innovation, manufacturing and production of products and services, rather than manufacturing of material goods, the driving force of economies of leading countries (Wagner, 2008). Due to this shift, today's 21st century society and…

  8. Teaching & Assessing 21st Century Skills. The Classroom Strategies Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    As the 21st century unfolds, the pace of change in the world is accelerating. Teachers and administrators must lead the cultural shift required to ensure their students can survive and thrive in the changing world. In Teaching & Assessing 21st Century Skills the authors present a model of instruction and assessment based on a combination of…

  9. Assessing Transition Skills in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Dawn A.; Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Hirano, Kara; Alverson, Charlotte Y.

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the demanding 21st-century workforce, local education agencies are beginning to refocus and retool to ensure students with disabilities have the knowledge and skills to be productive adults and attain positive postschool outcomes. The skills 21st-century transition assessments address are relevant to teachers and students given the…

  10. Investigating Projective Identity Trajectories for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David; Jamaludin, Azilawati; Chen, Der-Thanq

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the importance of studying identity in the context of 21st century learning. Identity is an evolving trajectory that is always in-flux or changing. In a fast changing 21st century, educators are recognizing the significance of identity work, in particular projective identity, as individuals participate in…

  11. Between Citizens and the State: The Politics of American Higher Education in the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loss, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    This book tracks the dramatic outcomes of the federal government's growing involvement in higher education between World War I and the 1970s, and the conservative backlash against that involvement from the 1980s onward. Using cutting-edge analysis, Christopher Loss recovers higher education's central importance to the larger social and political…

  12. Architecture of Primary Schools in Serbia in the 21st Century: A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brkovic, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000, when education reform in Serbia began education goals, teachers' training, curriculum and teaching/learning methods have been modernised and improved. However, a closer examination of the schools built from 2000 onwards reveals that architectural design of primary schools rests on standardised school design schemes from socialist…

  13. Constraints, Dangers, and Challenges of the Twenty-First Century. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondel, Daniele

    This document groups together the ideas about the difficulties, dangers, and challenges of the 21st century expressed by the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century. In discussing constraints created by contemporary world history, the paper suggests that the development of the world economy and society is at present…

  14. Century Scale Evaporation Trend: An Observational Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoui, Lahouari

    2012-01-01

    Several climate models with different complexity indicate that under increased CO2 forcing, runoff would increase faster than precipitation overland. However, observations over large U.S watersheds indicate otherwise. This inconsistency between models and observations suggests that there may be important feedbacks between climate and land surface unaccounted for in the present generation of models. We have analyzed century-scale observed annual runoff and precipitation time-series over several United States Geological Survey hydrological units covering large forested regions of the Eastern United States not affected by irrigation. Both time-series exhibit a positive long-term trend; however, in contrast to model results, these historic data records show that the rate of precipitation increases at roughly double the rate of runoff increase. We considered several hydrological processes to close the water budget and found that none of these processes acting alone could account for the total water excess generated by the observed difference between precipitation and runoff. We conclude that evaporation has increased over the period of observations and show that the increasing trend in precipitation minus runoff is correlated to observed increase in vegetation density based on the longest available global satellite record. The increase in vegetation density has important implications for climate; it slows but does not alleviate the projected warming associated with greenhouse gases emission.

  15. Shelter for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, J D

    1990-01-01

    Housing for the twenty-first century will be shaped by the changes that are occurring in society. These include the demographics of the occupant, the products and materials used for construction and furnishing, and the basic use of the structure. An aging population will have different demands on design and function. The health concerns of an aging population encompass chronic degenerative diseases as well as injury. The lessons of the past must make us mindful that chronic, low-level exposures to substances can occur at home. Products and materials used in homes can release vapors that may affect immunologic and neurologic function. Manifestations of dysfunctions will be more important as our population ages and if there is a continued reliance on new chemical formulation for products used in homes and workplaces. The future portends changes in functional use of residences. Electronic communications and robotics will decentralize our work force. Manufacturing or office functions will occur at home. This will present new challenges for health and safety for both monitoring and prevention. PMID:2401266

  16. Global phytoplankton decline over the past century.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Daniel G; Lewis, Marlon R; Worm, Boris

    2010-07-29

    In the oceans, ubiquitous microscopic phototrophs (phytoplankton) account for approximately half the production of organic matter on Earth. Analyses of satellite-derived phytoplankton concentration (available since 1979) have suggested decadal-scale fluctuations linked to climate forcing, but the length of this record is insufficient to resolve longer-term trends. Here we combine available ocean transparency measurements and in situ chlorophyll observations to estimate the time dependence of phytoplankton biomass at local, regional and global scales since 1899. We observe declines in eight out of ten ocean regions, and estimate a global rate of decline of approximately 1% of the global median per year. Our analyses further reveal interannual to decadal phytoplankton fluctuations superimposed on long-term trends. These fluctuations are strongly correlated with basin-scale climate indices, whereas long-term declining trends are related to increasing sea surface temperatures. We conclude that global phytoplankton concentration has declined over the past century; this decline will need to be considered in future studies of marine ecosystems, geochemical cycling, ocean circulation and fisheries. PMID:20671703

  17. [Physicians' households in the 16th century].

    PubMed

    Walter, Tilmann

    2008-01-01

    16th-century's medicine was marked by a wave of professionalization: besides scientific influences--evident by new ambitious texts on botany, anatomy, and chemiatry--functions of medical expertise for political purposes were an important factor. Based on findings made in my DFG-funded project "Arztliche Autorität in der Frühen Neuzeit" (medical authority in early modem times) is discussed how these influences altered the professional conditions for physicians. "Haushalt" (household) can be understood as a social community as well as a monetary budget in this context: physicians earned their money with a lot of different ventures beside medical practice, as commerce, farming, banking, or mining etc. Expenses for houses, gardens, interior etc. were based on needs of everyday life but could also be signs of luxury. Thus the physicians demonstrated the high social status they had acquired, and some of them thereby placed themselves at one social level with the nobility. Even scientific books can be estimated as a special case of such a conspicuous consumption for in most cases publishing made high investments without monetary benefit necessary. Thus scientific reputation was to some degree foreseeable: epoch-making books like above all Andreas Vesalius' "De humani Corporis fabrica libri septem" (Basel 1543) had to be financed out of the assets of the family (in Vesalius' case: a high-standing family in the emperor's services). Other sources show clearly that many doctors were not able to afford publishing comparable elaborated and expensive books. PMID:19830955

  18. Epidemiology of Stuttering: 21st Century Advances

    PubMed Central

    Yairi, Ehud; Ambrose, Nicoline

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological advances in stuttering during the current century are reviewed within the perspectives of past knowledge. The review is organized in six sections: (a) onset (b) incidence (c) prevalence (d) developmental paths, (e) genetics and (f) subtypes. It is concluded that: (1) most of the risk for stuttering onset is over by age 5, earlier than has been previously thought, with a male-to-female ratio near onset smaller than what has been thought, (2) there are indications that the lifespan incidence in the general population may be higher than the 5% commonly cited in past work, (3) the average prevalence over the lifespan may be lower than the commonly held 1%, (4) the effects of race, ethnicity, culture, bilingualism, and socioeconomic status on the incidence/prevalence of stuttering remain uncertain, (5) longitudinal, as well as incidence and prevalence studies support high levels of natural recovery from stuttering, (6) advances in biological genetic research have brought within reach the identification of candidate genes that contribute to stuttering in the population at large, (7) subtype-differentiation has attracted growing interest, with most of the accumulated evidence supporting a distinction between persistent and recovered subtypes. PMID:23773662

  19. Black Hole Astrophysics in the New Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    The new century has seen a transformation in the way we think about supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies. It has become clear that these monsters are not just rare quirks of nature. As well as being ubiquitous, growing evidence signals a fascinating connection between the relativistic physics occurring in the immediate vicinity of the black hole and the formation and evolution of galactic-scale structure. My talk will comprise of two parts. Firstly, I will discuss observational and theoretical evidence that accretion onto supermassive black holes can indeed influence galaxy formation (which suggests a solution to the well-known cooling flow problem of galaxy clusters). In particular, I will focus on the successes and failures of recent theoretical work aimed at understanding Chandra observations of galaxy cluster cores. Secondly, I will discuss the ability of X-ray observations to probe the relativistic physics occurring in the central parts of the black hole accretion flow. Using data from the XMM-Newton satellite, we are now beginning to make crude measurements of black hole spin, a crucial parameter if we are to understand the physics of jet formation which are so important for the large-scale feedback. I will end by discussing the exciting developments that will be made possibly by the launch of LISA and Constellation-X.

  20. Planetary Missions of the 20th Century*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, V. I.; Huntress, W. T.; Shevalev, I. L.

    2002-09-01

    Among of the highlights of the 20th century were flights of spacecraft to other bodies of the Solar System. This paper describes briefly the missions attempted, their goals, and fate. Information is presented in five tables on the missions launched, their goals, mission designations, dates, discoveries when successful, and what happened if they failed. More detailed explanations are given in the accompanying text. It is shown how this enterprise developed and evolved step by step from a politically driven competition to intense scientific investigations and international cooperation. Initially, only the USA and USSR sent missions to the Moon and planets. Europe and Japan joined later. The USSR carried out significant research in Solar System exploration until the end of the 1980s. The Russian Federation no longer supports robotic planetary exploration for economic reasons, and it remains to be seen whether the invaluable Russian experience in planetary space flight will be lost. Collaboration between Russian and other national space agencies may be a solution.