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Sample records for 18th european pv

  1. EDITORIAL: The 18th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 07)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, J. H.

    2008-06-01

    This special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the 18th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 07), which took place at the University of Minho, Guimarães, Portugal from 16-18 September 2007. Since the first workshop at the University of Twente in 1989 the field of micromechanics has grown substantially and new fields have been added: optics, RF, biomedical, chemistry, and in recent years the emergence of nanotechnology. This year an extensive programme was scheduled with contributions from new materials research to new manufacturing techniques. In addition, the invited speakers presented a review of the state-of-the-art in several main trends in current research, with the focus on micro/nanosystems in the ICT Work Programme in EC FP7. As ever, the two day workshop was attended by delegates from all over Europe, the USA, Brazil, Egypt, Japan and Canada. A total of 96 papers were accepted for presentation and there were a further five keynote presentations. The workshop provides a forum for young researchers to learn about new experimental methods and to enhance their knowledge of the field. This special issue presents a selection of 17 of the best papers from the workshop. The papers highlight fluidic and optical devices, energy scavenging microsystems, neural probe arrays and microtechnology fabrication techniques. All the papers went through the regular reviewing procedure of IOP Publishing, and I am grateful to all the referees for their excellent work. I would also like to extend my thanks to Professor Robert Puers for advice on the final selection of papers and to Ian Forbes of IOP Publishing for managing the entire process. My thanks also go to the editorial staff of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. I believe that this special issue will provide a good overview of the topics presented at the workshop and I hope you enjoy reading it.

  2. EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2012-02-01

    to the proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (Physica Scripta 2009 T135 011005). The 18th edition of CEWQO (CEWQO11) was held in Madrid in 2011. There were about 250 participants, from practically every European country. Many colleagues from other continents also joined the event, including well-established researchers in the field. This is a clear demonstration that these meetings provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. The organization of CEWQO11 was carried out by a committee consisting of members active in this topic in Madrid. From Universidad Complutense, Alberto Galindo and Luis L Sánchez-Soto from Universidad Autónoma, Jose Calleja and Carlos Tejedor; from Universidad Politécnica, Enrique Calleja; from Universidad Carlos III, Alberto Ibort; and from the National Research Council (CSIC), Juan León and Juan J García-Ripoll. Special thanks go to the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation, Universidad Complutense and the Quitemad Consortium for financial support. The proceedings of the 16th CEWQO held at the University of Turku, Finland and the 17th CEWQO held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK are also available (Physica Scripta 2010 T140 and Physica Scripta 2011 T143). The present Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented in Madrid; they represent an illustrative sample of the major achievements and trends in this area. In turn, they reflect the wide range of interests in this rapidly evolving field. Some collaborators from different scientific centres who could not, due to different reasons, come to Madrid, but participated in previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs, also contributed to this issue. The papers are arranged alphabetically by the name of the first author. Special thanks goes to Roger Wäppling, the Managing Editor of Physica Scripta, and Graeme Watt, the Publisher, for the opportunity to publish CEWQO11. From a Physica Scripta Editorial Board meeting it was

  3. Magnetic declination measurements over European Russia and Siberia in the 18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raspopov, O. M.; Meshcheryakov, V. V.

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents the history of measurements of the geomagnetic field parameters over the territory of Russia in the 18th century derived from archival and literature sources. Topographical mapping of the European territory and neighboring seas of the Russian Empire from the late 17th to the mid 18th century during which magnetic measurements were made was of great importance for determining magnetic declination. The magnetic declination in Siberia and its neighboring seas was measured for the first time during the first expedition of V. Bering in 1728 and then during his second expedition (the Great Northern Expedition) in 1733-1742. Magnetic measurements were carried out along the northern coast of Siberia and in the Bering Sea. The academic group of the expedition performed magnetic declination measurements over southern regions of Siberia (Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Nerchinsk, Yakutsk, etc.) in 1735 and 1736. During the second half of the 18th century, Russian expeditions determined geographical coordinates of the cities of European Russia and carried out magnetic declination measurements for them. During these expeditions Inokhodtsev paid attention to the anomalous magnetic declination in the Kursk region. In his opinion, the anomaly could have been caused by the presence of iron ore.

  4. Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.

    The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milanković on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

  5. Meta-analysis of teeth from European populations before and after the 18th century reveals a shift towards increased prevalence of caries and tooth loss.

    PubMed

    Müller, Antonia; Hussein, Kais

    2017-01-01

    Based on single studies, it has been hypothesised that Europeans have suffered less frequently from caries before the 18th century than after the 18th century and that females have higher caries prevalence, but systematic European-wide overviews are sparse. We collected published data on dental diseases (publication between 1981 and 2015 with reports on 29 cohorts with 4998 individuals and a total of 85817 teeth). Meta-analyses revealed that, over several hundred years, including the post-18th century era, Europeans had relatively constant frequencies of caries and ante-mortem tooth loss, but since the 18th century, the mean frequencies of these dental diseases increased (each p<0.05). Tooth loss correlated with caries and odontogenic abscesses (each p<0.05). Although the mean caries and ante-mortem tooth loss frequencies increased since the 18th century, there are overlaps with many pre-18th century cohorts. In addition, in contrast to previous hypotheses, no general increase of caries prevalence in females could in fact be verified. It is likely that changes in nutrition (more sugar) and dental health (possibly higher frequency of tooth extraction) could be the underlying factors which led to this minor to moderate shift of dental disease frequencies in Europe.

  6. [Evaluation of vital constants. 18th century].

    PubMed

    Sánchez González, Natividad; Ortega Martínez, Carmen

    2002-05-01

    The evaluation of patients' vital statistics is part of health care and in many cases this is the first step in knowing what is the health status of a patient. Therefore, we are interested in analysing what knowledge nurses had regarding these vital statistics during the 18th century, how they evaluated these statistics and what treatment they applied in order to maintain or balance them whenever they became unstable. A manual written by a nurse in the 18th century in order to aid her colleagues in their treatment of patients is the source of the authors' research material.

  7. Photovoltaics: reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and changing PV efficiencies and costs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H L; Van Gerven, T; Baeyens, J; Degrève, J

    2014-01-01

    Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i) briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii) describes the developments of PV, (iii) applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium); and finally (iv) predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future.

  8. Photovoltaics: Reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and Changing PV Efficiencies and Costs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H. L.; Van Gerven, T.; Baeyens, J.; Degrève, J.

    2014-01-01

    Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i) briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii) describes the developments of PV, (iii) applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium); and finally (iv) predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future. PMID:24959614

  9. Observing Sunspots with 18th Century Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalgaard, Leif

    2016-05-01

    The sunspot and group numbers in the 18th Century relies heavily on the observations by J.C. Staudauch during 1749-1799 performed with a three-foot 'sky tube', likely affected by spherical and chromatc aberration. An observing network has been set up to make drawings of the spots on the solar disk using original telescopes from the 18th Century or reconstructed 'sky tubes' with the same defects as the instruments available to and affordable for amateurs of the period. We report the initial results of the effort, finding that the counts of groups and the sunspot numbers must be multipled by three to reproduce modern observations. This confirms the scale factors derived from recent revisions of the solar record.

  10. 18th International Conference on Antiviral Research.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, William M

    2005-08-01

    The 18th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held at the Princess Sofia Hotel in Barcelona, Spain, from 11th-14th April, 2005. This is a yearly international meeting sponsored by the International Society for Antiviral Research (ISAR). The current president of ISAR is John A Secrest 3rd of the Southern Research Institute. The scientific programme committee was chaired by John C Drach from the University of Michigan. ISAR was founded in 1987 to exchange prepublication basic, applied and clinical information on the development of antiviral, chemical and biological agents as well as to promote collaborative research. The ISAR has had a major role in the significant advances of the past decade in the reduction of the societal burdens of viral diseases by the focus of ICAR on the discovery and clinical application of antiviral agents. The 18th ICAR was organised as a series of focus presentations on specific viral groups consisting of oral and poster presentations of original research findings. In addition, the conference included plenary speakers, award presentations, a minisymposium on bioterrorism, and a satellite symposium on clinical antiviral drug developments. The size of the conference (> 50 oral and 250 poster presentations) necessitates limitation to the most noteworthy in the judgment of this reviewer. The current membership of the ISAR is approximately 700 with approximately 50% the membership in attendance.

  11. 18TH Annual Meeting of the European Neuroscience Association.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Bristol BS2 8HW UK. Blaise Pascal - 67084 Strasbourg Cedex - France. Trk A (p140trk A) belongs to the family of tyrosine kinase receptors and binds The...Neurobiologla, Biologla Celular, Universitat de Valdncia, Spain. 5 rue Blaise Pascal , 67000 Strasbourg, FRANCE. The NMDA receptor is involved in the

  12. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].

    PubMed

    Kugener, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper.

  13. Isotopic Ag–Cu–Pb record of silver circulation through 16th–18th century Spain

    PubMed Central

    Desaulty, Anne-Marie; Telouk, Philippe; Albalat, Emmanuelle; Albarède, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Estimating global fluxes of precious metals is key to understanding early monetary systems. This work adds silver (Ag) to the metals (Pb and Cu) used so far to trace the provenance of coinage through variations in isotopic abundances. Silver, copper, and lead isotopes were measured in 91 coins from the East Mediterranean Antiquity and Roman world, medieval western Europe, 16th–18th century Spain, Mexico, and the Andes and show a great potential for provenance studies. Pre-1492 European silver can be distinguished from Mexican and Andean metal. European silver dominated Spanish coinage until Philip III, but had, 80 y later after the reign of Philip V, been flushed from the monetary mass and replaced by Mexican silver. PMID:21606351

  14. 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L. (Compiler)

    2005-01-01

    The 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVIII) Conference was held September 16 to 18, 2003, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar cell technology. This year s conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVII-the continued advances of thin-film and multijunction solar cell technologies and the new issues required to qualify those types of cells for space applications.

  15. Roads and cities of 18th century France

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Julien; Gribaudi, Maurizio; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of infrastructure networks such as roads and streets are of utmost importance to understand the evolution of urban systems. However, datasets describing these spatial objects are rare and sparse. The database presented here represents the road network at the french national level described in the historical map of Cassini in the 18th century. The digitization of this historical map is based on a collaborative methodology that we describe in detail. This dataset can be used for a variety of interdisciplinary studies, covering multiple spatial resolutions and ranging from history, geography, urban economics to network science. PMID:26401316

  16. JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  17. Scientific Psychology in the 18th Century: A Historical Rediscovery.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Pfister, Roland

    2016-05-01

    As early as 1783, the almost forgotten philosopher, metaphysicist, and psychologist Ferdinand Ueberwasser (1752-1812) designated himself "Professor für empirische Psychologie und Logik" (professor of empirical psychology and logic) at the University of Münster, Germany. His position was initiated and supported by the minister and educational reformer Franz von Fürstenberg (1729-1810), who considered psychology a core scientific discipline that should be taught at each school and university. At the end of the 18th century, then, psychology seems to have been on the verge of becoming an independent academic discipline, about 100 years before Wilhelm Wundt founded the discipline's first official laboratory. It seems surprising that Ueberwasser's writings-including a seminal textbook on empirical psychology-have been almost entirely overlooked in most historical accounts. We focus on this important founding moment of psychological science and on the circumstances that eventually brought this seminal development to a halt.

  18. Synthesis of the 18th ArgoSpine Symposium.

    PubMed

    Kehr, P; Graftiaux, A; Mazel, C; Richard, N

    2014-07-01

    The subject of this 18th Symposium of ArgoSpine Association was the space of the intervertebral discs. Space of the intervertebral discs must be initially defined anatomically and histologically. A geometrical rebuilding in 3D is possible and must allow a modeling of the intervertebral discs. The physiology of the disc, its nutrition, must be known, in particular that of the center of the disc. The disc constitutes the base of the balance of the rachis, balances which can be only dynamic. The degenerative cascade by the loss of the proteoglycans involves the loss of the biomechanical properties of the disc. The consequences of this degenerative cascade are the base of all the vertebral pathology of origin of the intervertebral discs and even of the posterior articular facets. The origin of the pains and the diagnosis, especially at the lumbar level, are studied by the speakers. Traumatology of the intervertebral discs is the object of a particular chapter. Finally, the average therapeutic ones, that is, decompression of the intervertebral discs, fusion of the intervertebral discs, the recovery of mobility of the intervertebral discs, and the capacity of restoration of space of the intervertebral discs, are studied in detail. The infection of the disc is studied in detail.

  19. FOREWORD: 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Genova, Julia; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2014-12-01

    We are delighted to present the Proceedings of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Challenges of Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials, Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and chaired by Professor Alexander G Petrov. On this occasion the School was held in memory of Professor Nikolay Kirov (1943-2013), former Director of the Institute and Chairman between 1991 and 1998. The 18ISCMP was one of several events dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2014, and was held in the welcoming Black Sea resort of St. Constantine and Helena near Varna, at the Hotel and Congress Centre Frederic Joliot-Curie. Participants from 16 countries delivered 32 invited lectures, and 71 contributed posters were presented over three lively and well-attended evening sessions. Manuscripts submitted to the Proceedings were refereed in accordance with the guidelines of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, and we believe the papers published herein testify to the high technical quality and diversity of contributions. A satellite meeting, Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films - Functional Layers in Smart Windows and Water Splitting Devices: Technology and Optoelectronic Properties was held in parallel with the School (http://www.inera.org, 3-6 Sept 2014). This activity, which took place under the FP7-funded project INERA, offered opportunities for crossdisciplinary discussions and exchange of ideas between both sets of participants. As always, a major factor in the success of the 18ISCMP was the social programme, headed by the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and enhanced in no small measure by a variety of pleasant local restaurants, bars and beaches. We are most grateful to staff of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for their continued support for the School, this being the third occasion on which the Proceedings have been published under its

  20. Mingantu, 18th-Century Mongol Astronomer and Radioheliograph Namesake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    The 18th-century Mongol astronomer Mingantu (1692-1765) has been honored with a city named after him and a nearby solar telescope array. During the IAU/Beijing, my wife and I went to the new Chinese solar radioheliograph, the Mingantu Observing Station, in Inner Mongolia, ~400 km northwest of Beijing, a project of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It currently contains 40 dishes each 4.5 m across, with a correlator from Beijing. Within a year, 60 2-m dishes will be added. We passed by the 12-century ruins of Xanadu (about 20 km north of Zhangbei) about halfway. The radioheliograph is in a plane about 1 km across, forming a three-armed spiral for interferometric solar mapping, something colleagues and I had carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array, taking advantage of the lunar occultation before annularity at the 20 May 2012 solar eclipse. In the central square of Mingantu city, a statue ~10-m high of the Mongol astronomer Mingantu appears. Its base bears a plaque ~1-m high of IAU Minor Planet Circular MPC 45750 announcing the naming in 2002 of asteroid 28242 Mingantu, discovered at a Chinese observatory in 1999. Mingantu carried out orbital calculations, mapping, mathematical work on infinite series, and other scientific research. He is honored by a modern museum behind the statue. The museum's first 40% describes Mingantu and his work, and is followed by some artifacts of the region from thousands of years ago. The final, large room contains a two-meter-square scale model of the radioheliograph, flat-screen televisions running Solar Dynamics Observatory and other contemporary visualizations, orreries and other objects, and large transparencies of NASA and other astronomical imagery. See my post at http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/ specfically Astro-Sightseeing_in_Inner_Mongolia-167712965.html. We thank Yihua Yan for arranging the visit and Wang Wei (both NAOC) for accompanying us. My solar research

  1. Preface: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Buttler, William; Furlanetto, Michael; Evans, William

    2014-05-01

    The 18th Biennial International Conference of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter in conjunction with the 24th Biennial International Conference of the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science & Technology (AIRAPT) was held at the Westin Hotel in Seattle, Washington from 7-12 July, 2013. This is only the second time that these two organizations have held a Joint Conference — the first was 20 years previous (1993) in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Seattle was chosen for this joint conference because of its central location for the world-wide attendees as well as its metropolitan vibrancy. The scientific program consisted of 858 scheduled presentations organized into 23 topical areas and included contributed (537), invited (95), and plenary (6) lectures, as well as two poster sessions with 110 posters each. The scientific focus of the Joint Conference was on fundamental and applied research topics related to the static or dynamic compression of condensed matter. This multidisciplinary field of research encompasses areas of physics, chemistry, materials science, mechanics, geophysics and planetary physics, and applied mathematics. Experimental, computational and theoretical studies all play important roles. The organizers endeavored to intertwine static and dynamic experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials in the organization of the sessions. This goal was aided by the addition of three special focus sessions on deep carbon budget, high energy density materials, and dynamic response of materials. 722 scientists and engineers from 25 countries registered at the conference, including 132 students from 12 countries. The attendee countries represented included: Argentina (2), Australia (2), Brazil (3), Canada (25), China (22), Czech Republic (2), France (35), Germany (19), India (6), Israel (21), Italy (10), Japan (49), Netherlands (1), Poland (1), Portugal (2), Russia (26

  2. PREFACE: 18th Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials Conference (MSM XVIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, T.; Hutchison, John L.

    2013-11-01

    YRM logo This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 18th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at St Catherine's College, University of Oxford, on 7-11 April 2013. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Royal Microscopical Society and supported by the Institute of Physics as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 109 delegates from 17 countries world-wide. We were welcomed by Professor Sir Peter Hirsch, who noted that this was the first of these conferences where Professor Tony Cullis was unable to attend, owing to ill-health. During the meeting a card containing greetings from many of Tony's friends and colleagues was signed, and duly sent to Tony afterwards. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes for device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, electronic structure, chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two topics that have at this meeting again highlighted the interesting contributions of aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy were: contrast quantification of annular dark-field STEM images in terms of chemical composition (Z-contrast), sample thickness and strain, and the study of

  3. [Clinical medicine of the western medicine in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Zhen, C

    2001-07-01

    The 18th century is an important turning point not only in human history, but also in medical history. G. B. Morgagni was an Italian who founded the organic pathology in the 18th century, which was a bridge between basic medicine and clinical medicine of western medicine. H. Boerhaave called for "paying attention to the development of clinical medicine", and under this situation, western clinical medicine was attached importance and developed again in the 18th century. However, at the same time, the mechanical materialism was also infiltrated into western clinical medicine.

  4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION DURING EXCAVATION OF 18TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION DURING EXCAVATION OF 18TH CENTURY BASEMENT ENTRY WELL AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Belair, Tulip Grove Drive, Belair-at-Bowie, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

  5. The historical archaeology of the 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community of Nevis, British West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Michelle M.

    2000-11-01

    This is an historical archaeological examination of a 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies. Unlike earlier archaeological studies of the Jewish Caribbean Diaspora that focused on single sites, this investigation used a community-wide approach to elucidate the daily experience of Sephardic Jews within the colonial Caribbean. This project included an archaeological excavation at the purported location of the community's synagogue, an electrical resistivity survey of the surviving cemetery, the construction of a map of property ownership in 18th-century Charlestown, and archival research. This study was carded out within a multiscalar and contextual framework that emphasized the importance of understanding the diaspora that brought the Jews to the West Indies, the development of the colonial Caribbean, and the surrounding environs of the port city of Charlestown, Nevis. The archaeological analysis of the supposed site of the synagogue proved that it was in fact that of a late 18th-century townhouse, but the associated land record research revealed the actual location of the community's former synagogue. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the physical layout of colonial-period Charlestown from the land records indicated the presence of a distinct Jewish quarter in the undesirable southern portion of the town. Evidence from the public records of Nevis and the social history of the members of the Jewish population unveiled external social and political pressures placed upon the Sephardim as well as internal religious and ethnic ties dig bound the community together. It is argued in closing that the archival evidence, in conjunction with the continued presence of a clustered settlement pattern like that of European Jewish communities during the medieval period, indicates that the Jews of the Caribbean were not fully integrated socially or politically into British colonial society. This examination of the Nevis community

  6. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi: 18th Century Swiss Educator and Correctional Reformer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Fredalene B.; Gehring, Thom

    2004-01-01

    This is the second in a series of articles on famous correctional educators. The first article introduced Mary Carpenter: 19th Century English Correctional Education Hero. (Editor's Note: See the September 2003 Issue for the first article) This article focuses on Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, 18th century Swiss educator. It begins with a summary of…

  7. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (18th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 14-18, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J. Ed.; Nickelson, Richard, Ed.

    The Pacific Telecommunications Council's 18th annual conference is presented in two volumes. The PTC'96 gathering focused on seven streams: socio-economic issues; regulatory, legal and political issues; business and finance solutions; country studies; education, training, and human resources; convergence and networks; and technologies and…

  8. [Almeria faced by contagion: health practice in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Gómez Diaz, Donato; Gómez Diaz, Maria José

    2003-01-01

    Epidemics in Almeria during the 18th century and the beginnings of the 19th century are described, as well as the measures adopted to avoid them, regarding both internal contagion and the need for surveillance of incoming ships. The economic consequences of the prophylactic measures taken are also considered. Finally, the role of the Church in extreme situations is analyzed.

  9. What Language Teachers Want--Considering the Evaluation of 18th Biennial Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absalom, Matthew; Morgan, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Professional learning (PL) is an essential ingredient in the professional and personal lives of contemporary educators. PL can take many forms but large-scale conferences remain a touchstone in many fields, including languages education. In this paper, we review the evaluation of the 18th biennial conference of the Australian Federation of Modern…

  10. John Stirling and the Classical Approach to Style in 18th Century England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael G.

    Most 18th-century rhetoricians viewed style as the expression of a writer's individual character and thought, placing little emphasis on the lists of figures common in many 17th-century rhetorics. John Stirling and others, however, continued the 17th-century tradition that reduced rhetoric largely to style and emphasized classical figures of…

  11. MOSQUITO VECTOR CONTROL AND BIOLOGY IN LATIN AMERICA- An 18TH SYMPOSIUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 18th Annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 74th Annual Meeting in Sparks, NV, in March 2008. The principal objective, as for the previous 17 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control speci...

  12. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

  13. Precursory effects in the nighttime VLF signal amplitude for the 18th January, 2011 Pakistan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S.; Chakrabarti, S. K.; Sasmal, S.

    2012-02-01

    We have presented the result of the analysis of the nighttime VLF signals transmitted from the Indian Navy station VTX (latitude 8.43°N, longitude 77.73°E) at 19.2 kHz and received at Kolkata (latitude 22.57°N, longitude 88.24°E). On 18th January, 2011 an earthquake of magnitude 7.4 occurred at Southwestern Pakistan (latitude 28.9°N, longitude 64°E). We have analyzed the nighttime VLF signals for 2 weeks around 18th of January, 2011 to see if there have been any precursory effects of this earthquake. We have found that the amplitude of the nighttime VLF signals anomalously fluctuated 4 days before the earthquake. This agrees well with our previous findings based on the analysis of 1 year of earthquake data.

  14. Migration trends in British rural areas from the 18th to the 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Pooley, C G; Turnbull, J

    1996-09-01

    "Longitudinal residential histories are used to examine the extent to which three rural areas in Britain had distinctive migration histories from the 18th to the 20th centuries. Migration flows into and out of the regions are used to examine the extent to which the regions were integrated into the British migration system, and the relative importance of rural to urban migration is assessed.... Analysis reveals a high degree of short-distance mobility within regions and emphasises the dominance of London in longer-distance migration.... It is also suggested that the role of towns in the migration system has previously been overemphasised, with much migration taking place between small settlements and some movement from large cities to smaller towns and villages.... The analysis challenges some accepted notions about migration in the past, and contributes to the debate about the extent to which British regions became part of a national economic and social system from the 18th century."

  15. Care of the insane in Lübeck during the 17th and 18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Dilling, Horst; Thomsen, Hans Peter; Hohagen, Fritz

    2010-12-01

    Only selected aspects of the history of the House of the Poor Insane in the Hanseatic Free City of Lübeck have been studied to date.This article presents the results of an entire source study of this small institution in the 17th and 18th centuries, and briefly also during the next 40 years after the opening of a new building. In addition to the minute-book of the Governors, now kept in the Lübeck Municipal Archives, the results are based primarily on the account-books,which illustrate the institution's social history and activities. Examples are given. During most of the 17th century, the House was generally rather like a prison for the insane, but at the end of this century and in the early 18th there was a reform phase.This was followed by phases of repression and 'containment' at the end of the 18th century and in the early 19th century, before a renewed reform by the medical profession.The findings for Lübeck are compared with the development of inpatient care in institutions elsewhere, and the decisive factors in Lübeck are discussed.

  16. [With human and divine means: the fight against disease and death in 18th century Alicante].

    PubMed

    Perdiguero Gil, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    The nucleus of this work is the wide spectrum of means available to the inhabitants of the city of Alicante in the 18th century to fight against disease. Alongside healthcare professionals properly trained as physicians, surgeons, barbers or midwives, there were both other healers of heterogeneous types and religious resources. The study considers, in a comprehensive and articulated way, the whole repertoire of therapeutic and healthcare alternatives provided to the inhabitants of Alicante. The interpretation of the results is carried out taking into account the historiographical framework developed in recent years that considers the medical marketplace as an economic and cultural concept.

  17. [Inventing the audience in the 18(th) century. Art and its use].

    PubMed

    Brugère, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    18(th) century philosophers analyzed art through the aesthetic experience of the audience. By contrast, Adam Smith was interested in the moral judgment that an impartial audience may formulate. How can art and morality, the beautiful and the good, be combined into one analytical framework? Art and morality convey non-transcendental values that are intrinsic to human experience. With the aesthetic experience of the audience, art is used, and ultimately depends on the ways that humans relate to works or art and to the beautiful.

  18. [The debate on the generation of imperfect plants in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    18th-century discussions on the generation of imperfect plants were often linked with the question of their position in the natural world, namely as whether they were part of the vegetable or mineral realm. As attested by the work of Joseph Gaertner, Johann Jakob Dillen, Pier Antonio Micheli and René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, as well as of Antonio Vallisneri, and Lazzaro Spallanzani, the different images of nature - continuity and discontinuity - adopted by naturalists influenced their solution to this question.

  19. [The professionalization of preaching in 17(th) and 18 (th) century France].

    PubMed

    Brian, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Starting in the 1630s, in French towns, the rise of sermons gave an increasing group of clerics the possibility to become preachers. This article analyses this process of professionalization. First, it takes a look at a number of long - and sometimes quite profitable - careers of men as preachers. Second, it analyzes the know-how that was then developed for to make and recite the sermon. Finally, the article focuses on the transformations brought about by the increasing importance of written communication during the 18(th) century.

  20. Displayed dexterity and distorted knowledge: amateurism and precision in late 18th century Spain.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the links between scientific practice and precision both in expert networks and popular literature in the second half 18th century Spain. It will be argued that scientific instruments were used and understood in different ways in these two networks, which required opposing strategies for visualizing the degree and goodness of users' dexterities, thereby fostering the emergence of different collective and individual (epistemic) subjects. I will also argue that these subjects' differences and affinities were constructed around three themes: firstly, the degree of precision needed to establish a correlation between data and the world, or, in other words, the degree of fluidity admitted in connecting material and cultural worlds; secondly, the relevance attributed to body and bod(il)y knowledge in producing reliable data and stabilizing expertise; and thirdly, the weight attributed to opinion in leaning towards ephemeral or lasting data. The first part of the paper looks at the epistemological and political confluences which in late 18th century Spain nurtured the emergence of both a culture of precision and a sphere of public opinion, and to the strained relationship that existed between them. The other three sections explore how Spanish people used different sets of practices to construct different images of themselves as supporters of a moral of precision.

  1. From Flamsteed to Piazzi and Lalande: new standards in 18th century astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequeux, James

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The present high accuracy of stellar positions and proper motions allows us to determine the positional accuracy of old stellar catalogues. This has already been done for the most important catalogues from before the 18th century. Our aim is to extend this study to several 18th century catalogues. Methods: To do this, I studied ten catalogues: those of Flamsteed and Rømer, four catalogues of La Caille, and catalogues of Tobias Mayer, Bradley, Piazzi, and Lalande. A comparison with modern data, mostly from Hipparcos, compiled in the Simbad database of the CDS allowed me to determine the position errors of these catalogues. I also compared the stellar visual magnitudes given in eight of these catalogues with photometric V magnitudes. Results: Thanks to novel instruments, the rms positional accuracy improved from thousands to hundreds of arcsec in older catalogues to less than one minute in that of Flamsteed, and to 2-6 arcsec in the other catalogues I examined. These improvements allowed for the first time relatively accurate proper motions to be determined by 19th century astronomers. The catalogues with some corrections are available in digital form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/567/A26

  2. Analyses of Etna Eruptive Activity From 18th Century and Characterization of Flank Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Carlo, P.; Branca, S.; Coltelli, M.

    2003-12-01

    Etna explosive activity has usually been considered subordinate with respect to the effusive eruptions. Nevertheless, in the last decade and overall after the 2001 and 2002 flank eruptions, explosive activity has drawn the attention of the scientific and politic communities owing to the damages that the long-lasting ash fall caused to Sicily's economy. We analyzed the eruptions from the 18th century to find some analogous behavior of Etna in the past. A study of the Etna historical record (Branca and Del Carlo, 2003) evidenced that after the 1727 eruption, there are no more errors in the attribution of the year of the eruption. Furthermore from this time on, the scientific quality of the chronicles allowed us to obtain volcanological information and to estimate the magnitude of the major explosive events. The main goal of this work was to characterize the different typologies of Etna eruptions in the last three centuries. Meanwhile, we have tried to find the possible relationship between the two kinds of activity (explosive and effusive) in order to understand the complexity of the eruptive phenomena and define the short-term behavior of Etna. On the base of the predominance of the eruptive typology (effusive or explosive) we have classified the flank eruptions in three classes: i) Type 1: almost purely effusive; ii) Type 2: the intensity of explosive activity comparable with the effusive; iii) Type 3: almost purely explosive with minor lava effusion (only the 1763 La Montagnola and 2002 eruptions belong to this class). Long-lasting explosive activity is produced by flank eruptions with continuous ash emission and prolonged fallout on the flanks (e.g. 1763, 1811, 1852-53, 1886, 1892, 2001 and 2002 eruptions). At summit craters continuous activity is weaker, whereas the strongest explosive eruptions are short-lived events. Furthermore, from the 18th to 20th century there were several years of intense and discontinuous summit explosive activity, from high strombolian

  3. To feel what others feel: two episodes from 18th century medicine.

    PubMed

    Justman, Stewart

    2011-06-01

    In the late 18th century two medical fashions--Mesmerism in France and the Perkins 'tractor' in the USA and England--appealed to the principle that a single universal force acts on all of us and is responsible for health and illness. This principle served both fashions well, as it made it all the easier for those who came within their force fields to experience the sort of sensations that other subscribers to the fashion also seemed to feel. The first research on what is now known as the placebo effect was in connection with these two movements. The propensity to feel what we suppose or imagine that others like us feel remains even now one of the channels of the placebo effect.

  4. Auroras Observed in Portugal in Late 18th Century Obtained from Printed and Manuscript Meteorological Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, José M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2005-09-01

    We present a new catalogue of observations of the aurora borealis at Lisbon, i.e., at low-latitudes, in the late 18th century by Jacob Præ torius and Henrique Schulze, two German artillery officers. Dates of 18 auroras compiled by Præ torius and Schulze are compared with those published in other catalogues for that period. The number of annual auroras observed by the two Germans is then compared with two indices of solar activity showing a very good level of consistency between all time series. Finally, we have assessed the number of auroras observed taking into consideration the phase of the lunar cycle and the geomagnetic latitude of Lisbon.

  5. John Wesley's Primitive Physick: An 18th-century Health Psychology.

    PubMed

    Malony, H N

    1996-04-01

    John Wesley was an 18th- century Anglican priest whose evangelistic efforts led to the establishment of Methodist Societies in England, Ireland and America. He became greatly concerned for the spiritual and physical health of the poor. Wesley wrote a book entitled Primitive Physick: Or, an Easy and Natural Method of Curing Most Diseases. He was deeply impressed with the few physicians who called for the prevention of disease through healthy living and who recommended time-honored, inexpensive methods of cure. This article reviews Wesley's ideas and prescriptions for healthy living. The discussion reflects on his contribution to the development of a psychology of health and credits Wesley with being ahead of his time in his dietetic and hygienic recommendations. Using Matarazzo's (1982) definition the article shows that over 200 years ago Wesley dealt with each of the major concerns of health psychology and behavioral medicine.

  6. [Vitalism and mechanism: their meanings in the milieu of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Hwang, S I

    1993-01-01

    The views on the life in the early modern period (the 17th and 18th centuries) with their socio-cultural backgrounds and their meanings at that time were discussed in this paper. Those views discussed here were the dualistic, mechanistic one of Rene Descartes (1596-1650), the animistic, vitalistic one of Georg Ernst Stahl (1660-1734), and the monistic, mechanistic one of Julien Offray de la Mettrie (1709-1751). Author stressed that the processes of their view formation were influenced by the wide range of the various political and religious factors as well as the scientific, medical facts and opinions at that time, and that not only the contents of the views but also their historical contexts should be pursued in the study on the medical thoughts.

  7. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, RR

    2004-11-02

    The 18th Annual conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on June 2 through June 4, 2004. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research Materials Program (ARM). The objective of the ARM Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications, as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural, ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer.

  8. An analytical Raman spectroscopic study of an important english oil painting of the 18th Century.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; Vandenabeele, Peter; Jehlicka, Jan; Benoy, Timothy J

    2014-01-24

    An opportunity was afforded to analyse pigment specimens from an unrestored oil painting in the style of the English School of the mid-18th Century prior to conservation being undertaken. Raman spectroscopy was adopted to characterise the pigments and indicated the presence of a novel red pigment which was assigned to the complex chromium mineral, hemihedrite, in addition to other interesting materials found in combination. This is the first recorded identification of hemihedrite spectral signals in an art context in a range of mineral pigments that are otherwise typical of this period and some hypotheses are presented to explain its presence based on its occurrence with associated mineral pigments. It is suggested that the presence of powdered glass identified in certain areas of the painting enhanced the reflectivity of the pigment matrix.

  9. Head injuries in the 18th century: the management of the damaged brain.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Jeremy C

    2013-07-01

    The 18th century was the time when trauma neurosurgery began to develop into the modern discipline. Before this, the management had, for the most part, changed little from the days of Hippocrates, Celsus, and Galen. Attention was directed to skull injuries, and the brain was treated as the seat of the rational soul but without other function. Symptoms after trauma were attributed to injuries to the bone and meninges. Following the lead of the Royal Academy of Surgery in Paris, it was accepted from the 1730s that the brain was the seat of symptoms after cranial trauma. During the 18th century, at least 12 surgeons published articles on cranial injury, 6 describing significant clinical series on this topic. They were Henri-François Le Dran (1685-1770) of Paris, Percival Pott (1714-1788) of London, James Hill (1703-1776) from Dumfries, Sylvester O'Halloran (1728-1807) of Limerick (Ireland), William Dease (1750-1798) of Dublin, and John Abernethy (1764-1831) of London. This article analyzes these series. Each individual made a different contribution. It is suggested that the relatively lesser-known James Hill in Scotland demonstrated the greatest understanding of the management of brain trauma and achieved the best results. A product of the Scottish Enlightenment, he adapted his management to his own experience and was not tied to the accepted authorities of his day, but he improved the management of each case following his experience with previous patients. He deserves to be remembered.

  10. Supported PV module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  11. [Public health services and healthcare workforce in Bakar of the 18th and 19th century].

    PubMed

    Čulina, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    This review article draws on scarce and poorly studied archival information and several published articles to describe the development and organisation of public health services in the town of Bakar over the 18th and 19th century. For a short while at the turn of the 19th century, Bakar established a hospital run by two physicians and one surgeon to treat patients affected by the so called Škrljevo disease, an endemic type of syphilis. As the century went on, the number of healthcare providers increased by two more physicians, four surgeons, and three to six licensed midwives. There was also a town pharmacy, that worked all that time. As a busy port, the town also provided well-organised maritime sanitary services. As its economy changed over the two centuries to come to a halt after an initial boom, which resulted in a severe drop in population from 7600 to 2000 people, public services deteriorated, including public health. Maritime services suffered the hardest blow, while the workforce gradually came down to one or two physicians and surgeons and several midwives.

  12. Pakistan's health system: performance and prospects after the 18th Constitutional Amendment.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania; Boerma, Ties; Amjad, Sohail; Alam, Ali Yawar; Khalid, Faraz; ul Haq, Ihsan; Mirza, Yasir A

    2013-06-22

    Pakistan has undergone massive changes in its federal structure under the 18th Constitutional Amendment. To gain insights that will inform reform plans, we assessed several aspects of health-systems performance in Pakistan. Some improvements were noted in health-systems performance during the past 65 years but key health indicators lag behind those in peer countries. 78·08% of the population pay out of pocket at the point of health care. The private sector provides three-quarters of the health services, and physicians outnumber nurses and midwives by a ratio of about 2:1. Complex governance challenges and underinvestment in health have hampered progress. With devolution of the health mandate, an opportunity has arisen to reform health. The federal government has constitutional responsibility of health information, interprovincial coordination, global health, and health regulation. All other health responsibilities are a provincial mandate. With appropriate policy, institutional, and legislative action within and outside the health system, the existing challenges could be overcome.

  13. The development of forensic medicine in the United Kingdom from the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Eckert, W

    1992-06-01

    Forensic medicine in the United Kingdom includes both forensic pathology and clinical forensic medicine on the living. It began at the end of the 18th century, long after its development in Germany, Italy, France, and other countries in Europe. Initial beginnings were in Scotland, where a program began at the University of Edinburgh with the establishment of a chair in Forensic Medicine by Prof. Andrew Duncan Sr. The development in England began in London's Kings College Medical School with a chair held by Prof. William A. Guy. Later chairs in Forensic Medicine were established in Glasgow, Aberdeen, and in London, where Forensic Medicine was taught at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, Guy's Hospital Medical School, London Hospital Medical School, Charing Cross Hospital Medical School, St. Thomas Hospital Medical School, and St. George's Hospital Medical School. In other cities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, departments were founded in Leeds, Manchester, Cardiff, and Belfast. Many textbooks were prepared during this time by professors from these medical schools and by others working in nonacademic areas. The development of coroner activities and those of the police surgeons is also part of the study of forensic medicine.

  14. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  15. Two positive tuberculosis cases in the late Nigrovits family, 18th century, Vác, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szikossy, Ildikó; Pálfi, György; Molnár, Erika; Karlinger, Kinga; Kovács, Balázs K; Korom, Csaba; Schultz, Michael; Schmidt-Schultz, Tyede H; Spigelman, Mark; Donoghue, Helen D; Kustár, Ágnes; Pap, Ildikó

    2015-06-01

    Two mummies of the Hungarian mummy collection from Vác were the subjects of anthropological, paleopathological, radiological, paleomicrobiological, paleohistological and paleoproteomic studies. Both individuals belonged to the same family. The father, József Nigrovits (No 29), died at the age of 55 on the 11th of November 1793; his son, Antal Nigrovits (No 54), died on the 16th of July 1803, at the age of 22. They lived in the 18th century in Vác, a small town in northern Hungary. The macroscopic examination of the son showed a severely deformed neck and back region; the father has no visible mark of any illnesses. As earlier researches showed that tuberculosis was widespread in the community, the etiology of these deformities was examined. The paleomicrobiological results found that both individuals were infected with tuberculosis. Although they suffered from TB, the CT scan data of the bodies and their 3D reconstructions showed no skeletal evidence of tuberculosis. The deformity of the son turned to be a developmental abnormality of unknown origin, but no Pott's gibbus was present.

  16. Analysis of Time Data in Chinese Astronomical Almanacs of the Late 18th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.-W.; Mihn, B.-H.; Ahn, Y. S.; Choi, G.-E.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the time data in Chinese astronomical almanacs of the late 18th century in order to estimate the accuracy of the Shixian calendar. It is known that the calendar was enforced during the period of the Ching dynasty (1664--1912), and several astronomical almanacs using the calendar are preserved in the Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies of Korea; these almanacs cover the years 1772, 1773, 1774, 1780, 1781, 1783, 1785, and 1787. We compiled the times of the new moon, sunrise/sunset, and twenty-four seasonal subdivisions from the almanacs and compared them with the results of modern calculations. As a result, we found that the times of the new moon and twenty-four seasonal subdivisions show average differences of ˜ 3.35 ± 4.43 and ˜ 9.67± 13.24 min, respectively. Regarding he sunrise/sunset time, however, we found that the difference was less than 1 min when we defined the time as the moment that the zenith distance (z) of the Sun is 90°, unlike the modern definition, z=90° 50'. We expect that this study to contribute to the understanding of the accuracy obtained by Shixian calendar in calculations of the movements of celestial bodies.

  17. Parameterization of 18th January 2011 earthquake in Dalbadin Region, Southwest Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiq-Ur-Rehman; Azeem, Tahir; Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; Nasir, Asma

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake of magnitude 7.3 Mw occurred on 18th January 2011 in Southwestern Pakistan, Baluchistan province (Dalbadin Region). The area has complex tectonics due to interaction of Indian, Eurasian and Arabian plates. Both thrust and strike slip earthquakes are dominant in this region with minor, localized normal faulting events. This earthquake under consideration (Dalbadin Earthquake) posed constraints in depth and focal parameters due to lack of data for evaluation of parameters from Pakistan, Iran or Afghanistan region. Normal faulting mechanism has been proposed by many researchers for this earthquake. In the present study the earthquake was relocated using the technique of travel time residuals. Relocated coordinates and depth were utilized to calculate the focal mechanism solution with outcome of a dominant strike slip mechanism, which is contrary to normal faulting. Relocated coordinates and resulting mechanism are more reliable than many reporting agencies as evaluation in this study is augmented by data from local seismic monitoring network of Pakistan. The tectonics in the area is governed by active subduction along the Makran Subduction Zone. This particular earthquake has strike slip mechanism due to breaking of subducting oceanic plate. This earthquake is located where oceanic lithosphere is subducting along with relative movements between Lut and Helmand blocks. Magnitude of this event i.e. Mw = 7.3, re evaluated depth and a previous study of mechanism of earthquake in same region (Shafiq et al., 2011) also supports the strike slip movement.

  18. The "System of Chymists" and the "Newtonian Dream" in Greek-Speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-01-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a "philosophy" of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This…

  19. The Struggle To Survive: Work for Racial Ethnic Women in the 18th- and 19th-Century United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    The work situations of Black, Mexican American, and Chinese immigrant women in 18th- and 19th-century United States are explored. Generally, when engaged in agricultural work, all ethnic people were considered units of labor. However, because the slave owner needed to perpetuate his property, Black women were allowed lower rates of production when…

  20. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-05

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  1. Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, João Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Bárbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Séc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Área de de Investigação de Geo-Ecologia, relatório no 2

  2. [Semantics of learned quackery in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Füssel, Marian

    2004-06-01

    In the 17th and 18th century republic of letters the problem of scientific fraud was met with a discourse of charlatanism. Departing from Johann Burchhard Menckes famous treatise on the Charlatanry of the learned the following essay traces how the accusations of academic and scientific misconduct put in terms of 'charlatanry' primarily helped to produce the new species of the erudite 'charlatan'. Facing a growing complexity of scientific culture this new frame of meaning, structured by numerous examples of scientific misconduct offered a new way of orientation in the world of learning. But besides its cognitive impacts the discourse of charlatanry allowed to create symbolic boundaries, which determined decisions upon the affiliation or non affiliation to the new forming scientific community by separating honourable from dishonourable scientific personae. Speaking of charlatanry therefore always implied a social distinction as much as a scientific. The discourses on charlatanry also mirror differentiations within the scientific field. At first dominated by a critique built on courteous or bourgeois values, the scientific field later on developed its own criteria of appraisal like authorship, originality, transparency etc. Attracting the attention of a further growing public sphere, the explicit verbalisation of claims not relating to the value system of a republic of letters primarily concerned with the production and distribution of knowledge finally led up to a more implicit moral economy of science. A change that at a large scale level can be described both as an internalisation of the values of scientific conduct and differentiation between justiciable and unjusticiable transgressions of the norms set up by the scientific community.

  3. Synthesis of calcium antimonate nano-crystals by the 18th dynasty Egyptian glassmakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahlil, S.; Biron, I.; Cotte, M.; Susini, J.; Menguy, N.

    2010-01-01

    During the 18th Egyptian dynasty (1570-1292 B.C.), opaque white, blue and turquoise glasses were opacified by calcium antimonate crystals dispersed in a vitreous matrix. The technological processes as well as the antimony sources used to manufacture these crystals remain unknown. Our results shed a new light on glassmaking history: contrary to what was thought, we demonstrate that Egyptian glassmakers did not use in situ crystallization but first synthesized calcium antimonate opacifiers, which do not exist in nature, and then added them to a glass. Furthermore, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the first time in the study of Egyptian opaque glasses, we show that these opacifiers were nano-crystals. Prior to this research, such a process for glassmaking has not been suggested for any kind of ancient opaque glass production. Studying various preparation methods for calcium antimonate, we propose that Egyptian craftsmen could have produced Ca2Sb2O7 by using mixtures of Sb2O3 or Sb2O5 with calcium carbonates (atomic ratio Sb/Ca=1) heat treated between 1000 and 1100°C. We developed an original strategy focused on the investigation of the crystals and the vitreous matrices using an appropriate suite of high-sensitivity and high-resolution micro- and nano-analytical techniques (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), TEM). Synchrotron-based micro X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (μ-XANES) proved to be very well suited to the selective measure of the antimony oxidation state in the vitreous matrix. This work is the starting point for a complete reassessment not only of ancient Egyptian glass studies but more generally of high-temperature technologies used throughout antiquity.

  4. European Solid State Device Research Conference (18th) ESSDERC 88 Held In Montpellier, France on 13-16 September 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-16

    low resistance via plugs on alu- minum.............................................................. C4-179 l7h3O - 2B5 J. TORRES, J. PALLEAU, N...STRUDER and J. KEMMER.- JFET for com- pletely depleted high resistivity silicon ........................ C4-363 17h00 - 4A3 J.N. BURGHARTZ, B.J...Unified model for bipolar transistors including the voltage and current dependence of the base and collector resistances as well as the breakdown limits

  5. European Solid State Device Research Conference (18th) Held on September 13-16 1988 in Montpellier, France. (ESSDERC 88)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-16

    supreme Leader would generate. That is the reason why, we decide that this town will set up, henceforth, a Studium generale where masters might teach ...Metallurgical Thermochemistry (1979), p. 312 151 S.P. Muraka et al, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B5 (4), (1987), p. 865 /6/ P. Lippens et al, to be published in

  6. Comparing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) techniques in 18th-century yard spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carducci, Christiane M.

    Yards surrounding historical homesteads are the liminal space between private houses and public space, and contain artifactural and structural remains that help us understand how the residents interfaced with the world. Comparing different yards means collecting reliable evidence, and what is missing is just as important as what is found. Excavations can rely on randomly placed 50-cm shovel test pits to locate features, but this can miss important features. Shallow geophysics, in particular ground-penetrating radar (GPR), can be used to identify features and reliably and efficiently collect evidence. GPR is becoming more integrated into archaeological investigations due to the potential to quickly and nondestructively identify archaeological features and to recent advancements in processing software that make these methods more user-friendly. The most efficacious GPR surveys must take into consideration what is expected to be below the surface, what features look like in GPR outputs, the best methods for detecting features, and the limitations of GPR surveys. Man-made landscape features are expected to have existed within yard spaces, and the alteration of these features shows how the domestic economy of the residence changed through time. This study creates an inventory of these features. By producing a standardized sampling method for GPR in yard spaces, archaeologists can quickly map subsurface features and carry out broad comparisons between yards. To determine the most effective sampling method, several GPR surveys were conducted at the 18th-century Durant-Kenrick House in Newton, Massachusetts, using varied line spacing, line direction, and bin size. Examples of the GPR signatures of features, obtained using GPR-Slice software, from the Durant-Kenrick House and similar sites were analyzed. The efficacy of each method was determined based on the number of features distinguished, clarity of the results, and the time involved. The survey at Newton showed that

  7. Musical expressions of life: a look at the 18th and 19th century from a human becoming perspective.

    PubMed

    Jonas-Simpson, Christine

    2004-10-01

    What follows is an exploration of 18th and 19th century music of the Western world through a nursing science lens, specifically that of the human becoming theory. This article was written while I was enrolled in a music history course, which afforded me the opportunity to explore music as musical expressions of life. Rooted in the human becoming philosophical perspective, which focuses on unitary human experience and the quality of human life, I discuss musical expressions of life with examples from various composers throughout the 18th and 19th century. This article concludes with a reflection on musical expressions and their contribution to the enhancement of the quality of human life, a focus of nursing from a human becoming perspective.

  8. [Medical care and environmental hygiene in Mexico City from the 16th through the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M E; Rodríguez-de Romo, A C

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with public health in Mexico City from the 16th to the 18th century. The first part is about sickness and epidemics; the origin of a very high concerned with death rate at that time; general and private hospitals foundations, and about the role of the Church, Medical Board and the Viceroy in Health Care and Preventive Medicine. Medical care was efficient in these aspects. The second part deals with public services concerning public health as a clean environment and streets and collecting garbage, problems that caused sickness according to the ideas of those days. A clear environment was good until the second half of the 18th century. The paper is divided as follows: introduction; sickness and epidemics; medical care; actions against epidemics; public services, and final commentary.

  9. Energy 101: Solar PV

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses.

  10. Energy 101: Solar PV

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses.

  11. Comparative Analysis and Considerations for PV Interconnection Standards in the United States and China

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, David Wenzhong; Muljadi, Eduard; Tian, Tian; Miller, Mackay

    2017-01-01

    The main objectives of this report are to evaluate China's photovoltaic (PV) interconnection standards and the U.S. counterparts and to propose recommendations for future revisions to these standards. This report references the 2013 report Comparative Study of Standards for Grid-Connected PV System in China, the U.S. and European Countries, which compares U.S., European, and China's PV grid interconnection standards; reviews various metrics for the characterization of distribution network with PV; and suggests modifications to China's PV interconnection standards and requirements. The recommendations are accompanied by assessments of four high-penetration PV grid interconnection cases in the United States to illustrate solutions implemented to resolve issues encountered at different sites. PV penetration in China and in the United States has significantly increased during the past several years, presenting comparable challenges depending on the conditions of the grid at the point of interconnection; solutions are generally unique to each interconnected PV installation or PV plant.

  12. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  13. Analysis of 18th-19th century's historical samples of Iranian ink and paper belonging to the Qajar dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agha-Aligol, D.; Khosravi, F.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Baghizadeh, A.; Oliaiy, P.; Shokouhi, F.

    2007-11-01

    Thirteen historical Iranian manuscripts belonging to the Qajar dynasty (18th-19th Century BC) were investigated by micro-PIXE technique using Van de Graaff accelerator in the Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute in Iran. The aim of the present work has mainly been to determine the elemental composition of different inks and papers. In addition, the effects due to the variation of thickness and texture of the paper were simultaneously measured with the off-axis STIM technique. Elemental maps by micro-PIXE were compared to photographs taken in visible light.

  14. Observations of planetary transits made in Ireland in the 18th Century and the development of astronomy in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, C. J.

    2005-04-01

    We review the small number of known observations of planetary transits made in Ireland in the 18th century with particular reference to the 1769 observations of Venus by Charles Mason. Though inconclusive, there is evidence to suggest that planetary transits were instrumental in the foundation of at least one of the principal observatories in Ireland. In addition, we note the close personal involvement and the contributions of Nevil Maskelyne, the prime mover of the UK 1769 Transit observations, in the design and equipment of these observatories.

  15. Bone trace element pattern in an 18th century population sample of Tenerife (Canary Islands): comparison with a prehistoric one.

    PubMed

    Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Gonzalez-Reimers, E; Velasco-Vazquez, J; Barros-Lopez, N; Galindo-Martin, L

    1998-10-01

    We have determined bone strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), and zinc (Zn) content in 24 samples belonging to adult individuals who died toward the end of the 18th century and were interred in a church's floor on the island of Tenerife, comparing the results with those obtained in 14 prehistoric samples of the same island and also with those of 7 modern controls. No differences were observed between the two ancient groups, which showed higher bone strontium and barium than the modern sample, and a slightly lower Ba/Sr ratio, thus pointing to consumption of marine sources.

  16. [The « techno-aesthetics » of smithian economy the value and function of objects in 18(th) Century England].

    PubMed

    Hilaire-Pérez, Liliane

    2012-01-01

    From The Theory of Moral Sentiments to his essay on The Nature of that Imitation Which Takes Place in What Are Called the Imitative Arts, Adam Smith offered a vision of aesthetics combining beauty and utility. An echo of exchange value as the "ability to buy other goods" - the "power" to organize and achieve one's goals - his definition of beauty was premised on the "aptness" of things, that is, the fact that they were also useful. Sustained by the commodification of products, a kind of "techno-aesthetics" thus emerged in England in the 18(th) century, one that implied designing, adapting, reducing and showcasing the means of production.

  17. Detection of a Tumor Suppressor Gene Variant Predisposing to Colorectal Cancer in an 18th Century Hungarian Mummy.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Michal; Hershkovitz, Israel; Sklan, Ella H; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila; Pap, Ildikó; Szikossy, Ildikó; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are common and strongly associated with the development of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. While extensively studied in modern populations, reports on visceral tumors in ancient populations are scarce. To the best of our knowledge, genetic characterization of mutations associated with colorectal cancer in ancient specimens has not yet been described. In this study we have sequenced hotspots for mutations in the APC gene isolated from 18th century naturally preserved human Hungarian mummies. While wild type APC sequences were found in two mummies, we discovered the E1317Q missense mutation, known to be a colorectal cancer predisposing mutation, in a large intestine tissue of an 18th century mummy. Our data suggests that this genetic predisposition to cancer already existed in the pre-industrialization era. This study calls for similar investigations of ancient specimens from different periods and geographical locations to be conducted and shared for the purpose of obtaining a larger scale analysis that will shed light on past cancer epidemiology and on cancer evolution.

  18. Detection of a Tumor Suppressor Gene Variant Predisposing to Colorectal Cancer in an 18th Century Hungarian Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Michal; Hershkovitz, Israel; Sklan, Ella H.; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila; Pap, Ildikó; Szikossy, Ildikó; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are common and strongly associated with the development of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. While extensively studied in modern populations, reports on visceral tumors in ancient populations are scarce. To the best of our knowledge, genetic characterization of mutations associated with colorectal cancer in ancient specimens has not yet been described. In this study we have sequenced hotspots for mutations in the APC gene isolated from 18th century naturally preserved human Hungarian mummies. While wild type APC sequences were found in two mummies, we discovered the E1317Q missense mutation, known to be a colorectal cancer predisposing mutation, in a large intestine tissue of an 18th century mummy. Our data suggests that this genetic predisposition to cancer already existed in the pre-industrialization era. This study calls for similar investigations of ancient specimens from different periods and geographical locations to be conducted and shared for the purpose of obtaining a larger scale analysis that will shed light on past cancer epidemiology and on cancer evolution. PMID:26863316

  19. Anthropometric comparison of portraits of Korean and Japanese beauty in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Ho

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study is to elaborate comparative portraits of Korean and Japanese beauty in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Six portraits of beauty in the Korean Joseon Dynasty (early 19th century) and 5 in Japanese Edo Dynasty (late 18th century) were analyzed. Twenty anthropometric items were applied to the measure of the features on each portrait and 18 proportional indices of the face were calculated. Among the 18 indices, Korean and Japanese beauty did not show any significant differences in 13, but in 5: 1) the ratio of eye fissure to intercanthal distance was greater in Japanese beauty; 2) eye inclination was greater in Japanese beauty; 3) the ratio of nasal width to intercanthal distance was greater in Japanese beauty; 4) the ratio of nasal and facial width was greater in Korean beauty; and 5) the ratio of vermilion size to mouth width was greater in Japanese beauty. It is assumed that Korean had narrower eye fissure, lower eye inclination, wider nasal ala, and thinner lip than what Japanese craved during that era.

  20. PV_LIB Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-11

    While an organized source of reference information on PV performance modeling is certainly valuable, there is nothing to match the availability of actual examples of modeling algorithms being used in practice. To meet this need, Sandia has developed a PV performance modeling toolbox (PV_LIB) for Matlab. It contains a set of well-documented, open source functions and example scripts showing the functions being used in practical examples. This toolbox is meant to help make the multi-step process of modeling a PV system more transparent and provide the means for model users to validate and understand the models they use and or develop. It is fully integrated into Matlab’s help and documentation utilities. The PV_LIB Toolbox provides more than 30 functions that are sorted into four categories

  1. [Sanitary state of the ships of the Baltic fleet and development of the navy hygiene in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Kostyuk, A V

    2015-09-01

    Sanitary and hygienic state of the Baltic navy ships in the 18th century was considered as unsatisfactory due to inappropriate habitation conditions answering hygienic requirements. The reason for the low ship habitation of that time was limited technological possibilities of the sail shipbuilding, lack of appropriate labour, and life and rest conditions for navy servicemen. In fact, wooden ships were not suitable for life activity of the navy crew, but contributed to disease increase. Because of the rapid development of the' navy hygiene and improvement of shipbuilding technologies, sanitary and hygienic state of local navy ships had became improving. With a glance on recommendations, developed by physicians D.P.Sinopeus and A.G.Bakherakht, were made following improvements: were implemented ventilators on ships, daily fumigation of ships rooms, monitoring of personal hygiene.

  2. Metallographic study of articles of the Kamensk iron foundry and iron works produced in the 18th-20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gizhevski, B. A.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Naumov, S. V.; Egorova, L. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Results have been presented for studies of the microstructure and chemical composition of a number of articles made of iron and cast iron at the Kamensk plant, which cover the period from the start of the production of iron on the territory of the city of Kamensk-Ural'skii at the turn of the 17th-18th centuries to the beginning of the 20th century. Differences in the composition of the Kamensk cast iron and modern grades of foundry cast iron have been established. Possible sources of technological difficulties and production waste at the Kamensk plant have been revealed. The potential of metallographic studies for the attribution of historical articles made of ferrous metals are shown.

  3. [German-Hungarian medical relationships during the Enlightenment; including an 18th century work on inoculation against plague].

    PubMed

    Schultheisz, E

    2001-09-01

    The influence of German science and medicine on the development of Hungarian medicine in the age of Enlightenment has been extraordinary strong. Many Hungarian medical students stayed in German medical faculties. The medical interrelationships between Germany and Hungary in the 18th century are discussed in an overview according to the following dimensions: education of protestant Hungarian medical students at German >Aufklaerungs-Universitaeten<, practical and theoretical resonance, membership of scientific societies, personal contacts and correspondence. Outstanding personalities of this area were Daniel Fischer, István Weszprémi, Abraham Vater. Special attention is given to a new idea: inoculation against plague was first described by A. Vater in his work Blattern-Beltzen (1721). Thirty years later I. Weszprémi published his original conception - independently from Vater - in the Tentamen de inoculanda peste (1755).

  4. Food of paradise: Tahitian breadfruit and the autocritique of European consumption.

    PubMed

    Spary, Emma; White, Paul

    2004-06-01

    In many ways, Tahiti was central to European colonialism, for it was there that European visitors forged a model of primitive nature that served as a comparison to, and sometimes critique of, European civilization. Tahiti was also the place from which a unique plant, the breadfruit, was brought to European colonies and to England and France during the late 18th century, at the behest of naturalists. With the breadfruit travelled contrasting perceptions of the Tahitian way of life. The autocritique of European lifestyles and the naturalization of the breadfruit are closely intertwined. The breadfruit indeed became a radical food of the end of the 18th century.

  5. GridPV Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Robert; Quiroz, Jimmy; Grijalva, Santiago; Reno, Matthew; Coogan, Kyle

    2014-07-15

    Matlab Toolbox for simulating the impact of solar energy on the distribution grid. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving GridPV Toolbox information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions.

  6. Grid integrated distributed PV (GridPV).

    SciTech Connect

    Reno, Matthew J.; Coogan, Kyle

    2013-08-01

    This manual provides the documentation of the MATLAB toolbox of functions for using OpenDSS to simulate the impact of solar energy on the distribution system. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions. Each function in the toolbox is documented with the function use syntax, full description, function input list, function output list, example use, and example output.

  7. [Development of animal husbandry in Groningen in the 18th and 19th century; a broad outline].

    PubMed

    Paping, R F

    2001-01-01

    This overview is mainly focussed on the clay area forming the northern half of the province. It is the wealthiest and most characteristic part, being cultured since the Middle Ages as testified by the many churches that even small villages were able to construct. About 1700 the province of Groningen enjoyed already a modern economy, fitting in with that of the other coastal areas of Friesland, Zeeland and Holland (the last mentioned was the richest region of the world in the 17th and 18th century). As aspects of modernity at that time can be considered: 1) the use of modern agricultural methods with higher yields per hectare and higher milk yields per cow than produced in the land provinces on the sandy soils; 2) Agriculture was aimed at earning money by selling of hte products. In opposition to the farmers in the land provinces, who mainly produced for subsistence farming, the farmers in the coastal areas produced for the trade; 3) A high degree of specialization was found in the rural areas. 30-40% of the families had own farms, 25% of the population were labourers, owing only small pieces of land and the rest of the working population had occupations outside agriculture (craftmen, shopkeepers, shipmasters, merchants etc.). Whereas on the sandy soils practically every family owned a farm, be it mostly a very small one. After reviewing the changes in the distribution of land in use of the production of fieldcrops or for meadows-always in function of the market value of the products-and after a discussion of type of cattle husbandry (breeding, fattening, dairying) it is concluded that a relative decrease of the importance of cattle husbandry in the clay region during the 18th - 19th century can be observed. Intensification of land use had a positive effect on crop-production. The much-heard opinion that the cattle plague epizootic of 1768-1786 caused a transition in land use through a switch from animal husbandry to arable farming, is not held by the author

  8. [General practice-oriented forms of education of the 18th century. On the 250th anniversary of the birth of Johann Friedrich Gottlieb Goldhagen (1742-1788)].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1993-02-01

    Widely differing conditions applied to practice-oriented medical teaching at universities in the various German principalities or territorial states in the 18th century. Initially, the institutions used by professors as "collegium clinicum" belonged either to foundations or were being run on a private basis. It was only in the second half of the 18th century that these institutions became state-supervised, with the inclusion of the discipline of surgery. The results of such reorganization are demonstrated, taking Halle and the work done by Johann Friedrich Gottlieb Goldhagen as examples.

  9. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit.

    PubMed

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Habicht, Michael E; Buckley, Stephen; Fletcher, Joann; Seiler, Roger; Öhrström, Lena M; Vassilika, Eleni; Böni, Thomas; Rühli, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers' village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out) investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated "recipes", whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification.

  10. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit

    PubMed Central

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Habicht, Michael E.; Buckley, Stephen; Fletcher, Joann; Seiler, Roger; Öhrström, Lena M.; Vassilika, Eleni; Böni, Thomas; Rühli, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers’ village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out) investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated “recipes”, whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification. PMID:26200778

  11. The initial giant umbrella cloud of the May 18th, 1980, explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparks, R.S.J.; Moore, J.G.; Rice, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The initial eruption column of May 18th, 1980 reached nearly 30 km altitude and released 1017 joules of thermal energy into the atmosphere in only a few minutes. Ascent of the cloud resulted in forced intrusion of a giant umbrella-shaped cloud between altitudes of 10 and 20 km at radial horizontal velocities initially in excess of 50 m/s. The mushroom cloud expanded 15 km upwind, forming a stagnation point where the radial expansion velocity and wind velocity were equal. The cloud was initiated when the pyroclastic blast flow became buoyant. The flow reduced its density as it moved away from the volcano by decompression, by sedimentation, and by mixing with and heating the surrounding air. Observations indicate that much of the flow, covering an area of 600 km2, became buoyant within 1.5 minutes and abruptly ascended to form the giant cloud. Calculations are presented for the amount of air that must have been entrained into the flow to make it buoyant. Assuming an initial temperature of 450??C and a magmatic origin for the explosion, these calculations indicate that the flow became buoyant when its temperature was approximately 150??C and the flow consisted of a mixture of 3.25 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 5.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. If sedimentation is considered, these figures reduce to 1.1 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 1.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. ?? 1986.

  12. Food on foot: long-distance trade in slaughter oxen between Denmark and the Netherlands (14th-18th century).

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, W; Koolmees, P

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a short review of the long-distance trade in slaughter oxen in Northwest Europe. The long-term development of the trade is described against the social-economic background of the production and consumption areas. In the 14th century, the Danes obtained the right to sell cattle in certain Dutch cities. From 1500 onwards, the export of oxen from Denmark and the adjacent duchy of Schleswig-Holstein increased considerably. The export reached its peak in the first quarter of the 17th century; registered export in 1612 amounted to more than 52.000 oxen over land and, in 1624, about 10.000 oxen over sea. Part of that export was destined for the Dutch market. Protectionist tax measures taken by the Dutch government and the outbreaks of rinderpest put an end to the regular ox trade in the first half of the 18th century. By decree, local authorities tried to prevent the spread of contagious animal diseases. The history of international cattle trade and hauling, however, indicates that economic motives largely outweighed animal welfare issues. Thus, in addition to addressing the logistics of the trade, this paper also addresses veterinary aspects and animal welfare issues related to the transport of cattle.

  13. Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology (18th, Monticello, New York, March 24-26, 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Patricia A., Ed.; Zaromatidis, Katherine, Ed.; Levine, Judith R., Ed.; Indenbaum, Gene, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This document includes the proceedings and papers of the 18th Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology, which was held on March 24-26, 2004 in Monticello, NY. The conference, which dealt with ideas and innovations in the teaching of psychology, was sponsored by the Psychology Department of the Farmingdale State University. The…

  14. (Re)Constructions of Etymology of the Term "Electricity" in French German and Modern Greek Textbooks of Physics of 18th-19th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    The different and contrasting versions of the etymology of the term "electricity" in Modern Greek textbooks of Physics of the 18th and 19th century, which are influenced by French and German textbooks, are not mere (re)constructions that serve the didactic purposes and objectives of their authors. They are (in)directly related to the social and…

  15. The first Finnish malariologist, Johan Haartman, and the discussion about malaria in 18th century Turku, Finland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    After the Great Northern War in 1721, Sweden ceased to be an important military power. Instead, the kingdom concentrated on developing science. Swedish research got international fame with names as Carolus Linnaeus, Pehr Wargentin and Anders Celsius. Medical research remained limited and malaria was common especially in the coastal area and along the shores of the big lakes. Already in the beginning of the 18th century Swedish physicians recommended Peruvian bark as medication and they also emphasized that bleeding or blood-letting a malaria patient was harmful. Although malaria was a common disease in the kingdom, the situation was worst in the SW-part of Finland which consisted of the town of Turku and a large archipelago in the Baltic. The farmers had no opportunity to get modern healthcare until Johan Haartman was appointed district physician in 1754. To improve the situation he wrote a medical handbook intended for both the farmers and for persons of rank. Haartman's work was first published 1759 and he discussed all the different cures and medications. His aim was to recommend the best ones and warn against the harmful. His first choice was Peruvian bark, but he knew that the farmers could not afford it. Haartman was appointed professor in medicine at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1765. The malaria situation in Finland grew worse in the 1770's and Haartman analysed the situation. He found the connection between the warm summers and the spring epidemics next year. In a later thesis, Haartman analysed the late summer/early autumn malaria epidemics in the archipelago. Althouh Haartman did not know the connection between malaria and the vector, he gave astute advice and encouraged the farmers to build their cottages in windy places away from the shallow bays in which the Anopheles females hatched. Haartman died in 1788. After his death malaria research in Turku declined. His medical handbook would not be replaced until 1844. PMID:21324104

  16. Women's translations of scientific texts in the 18th century: a case study of Marie-Anne Lavoisier.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    In the 18th century, many outstanding translations of scientific texts were done by women. These women were important mediators of science. However, I would like to raise the issue that the 'selection,' which is the process by which intellectual women chose to conduct translation works, and those 'selections' made by male translators, would not be made at the same level. For example, Émilie du Châtelet (1706-1749), the only French translator of Newton's "Principia," admitted her role as participating in important work, but, still, she was not perfectly satisfied with the position. For du Châtelet, the role as a translator was only an option under the current conditions that a female was denied the right to be a creator by society. In the case of Marie-Anne Lavoisier (1743-1794), like du Châtelet, we find an acute feeling in her mind that translation was not the work of creators. Because of her respect toward creative geniuses and her knowledge about the practical situation and concrete results of scientific studies, the translation works done by Marie-Anne Lavoisier were excellent. At the same time, the source of this excellence appears paradoxical at a glance: this excellence of translation was related closely with her low self-estimation in the field of science. Hence, we should not forget the gender problem that is behind such translations of scientific works done by women in that era. Such a possibility was a ray of light that was grasped by females, the sign of a gender that was eliminated from the center of scientific study due to social systems and norms and one of the few valuable opportunities to let people know of her own existence in the field of science.

  17. Humeral cross-sectional morphology from 18th century Quebec prisoners of war: Limits to activity reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elizabeth

    2005-03-01

    This study uses measures of cross-sectional robusticity and asymmetry (based on humeral areal and inertial cross-sectional components) to test a prediction from bone remodeling theory that a physically active 18th century Quebec prisoner of war sample (N = 25) should have more robust and asymmetrical humeri than a nonphysically active 20th century New Mexico suburbanite sample (N = 27). Narrative accounts document that prisoners of war engaged in labor-intensive activities, and these activities were confirmed by observations of osteoarthritis and other pathologies. The suburbanite sample, for the most part, did not engage in such activities. The prisoners had higher levels of pathology than the suburbanites (e.g., 80% vs. 22% osteoarthritis; F = 17.95, P < 0.01). For robusticity, the populations did not differ significantly in total area, cortical area, moment areas of inertia about the mediolateral plane, or polar moment area of inertia. The Quebec prison sample did have significantly higher values for moment areas of inertia about the anteroposterior plane. For asymmetry, the populations did not differ in any values (total area, cortical area, moment areas of inertia about the mediolateral plane, moment areas of inertia about the anteroposterior plane, or polar moment of inertia). Thus, examinations of cross-sectional robusticity and asymmetry failed to conclusively confirm the hypothesis that intensive labor leads to changes in humeral morphology. Possible explanations for the lack of differences are discussed, such as poor diet impeding bone remodeling. Nevertheless, the one significant finding suggests that cross-sectional shape is more useful in reconstructing activity patterns than amount of bone in a cross section. Results from this study join those from other recent investigations to suggest that additional controls are required before cross-sectional differences may be confidently attributed to activity patterns.

  18. The ``System of Chymists'' and the ``Newtonian dream'' in Greek-speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-06-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a “philosophy” of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This “philosophical” chemistry was not based on the existence of any academic institutions, it was focused on the ontology of principles and forces governing the analysis/synthesis of matter and formulated two didactic traditions. The one, named “the system of chymists”, close to the Boylean/Cartesian tradition, accepted, contrary to Aristotelianism, the five “chymical” principles and also the analytical ideal, but the “chymical” principles were not under a conceptual and experimental investigation, as they were in Europe. Also, a crucial issue for this tradition remained the “mechanical” principles which were under the influence of the metaphysical nature of the Aristotelian principles. The other, close to the Boylean/Newtonian tradition, was the integrated presentation of the Newtonian “dream”, which maintained a discursive attitude with reference to the “chemical attractions”-“chemical affinities” and actualised the mathematical atomism of Boscovich, according to which the elementary texture of matter could be causally explained within this complex architecture of mathematical “ punkta”. In this tradition also coexisted, in a discursive synthesis, the “chemical element” of Lavoisier and the arguments of the new theory and its opposition to the phlogiston theory, but the “chemical affinities” were under the realm of the “physical element” as “metaphysical point”.

  19. Open PV Project: Unlocking PV Installation Data (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    This brochure summarizes the Open PV Project, a collaborative effort of government, industry, and the public to compile a comprehensive database of PV installations in the United States. The brochure outlines the purpose and history of the project as well as the main capabilities and benefits of the online Open PV tool. The brochure also introduces how features of the tool are used, and it describes the sources and characteristics of Open PV's data and data collection processes.

  20. Testing for PV Reliability (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Bansal, S.

    2014-09-01

    The DOE SUNSHOT workshop is seeking input from the community about PV reliability and how the DOE might address gaps in understanding. This presentation describes the types of testing that are needed for PV reliability and introduces a discussion to identify gaps in our understanding of PV reliability testing.

  1. Towards a daily weather type classification for the alpine region back to the late 18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocen, R.; Brönnimann, S.; Breda, L.; Spadin, R.

    2010-09-01

    Synoptic weather type classifications for the alpine region go back to the 1950s. The aim of such a combination of various meteorological elements over a certain area is to better understand atmospheric circulation and weather events and to provide a basis for long-term weather forecasts. For the analyses of climate change an investigation of a change in the atmospheric circulation patterns is of high interest. Such a classification is based on high temporal resolution (subdaily) meteorological information on different parameters. For Switzerland, three long (~250 yrs) historical time series (Basel, Geneva, Gr. St. Bernhard) that were hitherto available in the form of monthly means only have recently been digitized (in cooperation with MeteoSwiss) on a subdaily scale. The digitized time series contain subdaily data (varies from 2-6 daily measurements) on temperature, precipitation/snow height, pressure and humidity, and subdaily descriptions on wind direction, wind speeds and cloud cover. Based on different combinations of the parameters pressure, wind direction and wind speed, a weather type classification can be performed back to the late 18th century. With information on absolute pressure height, tendencies and gradients, as well as changes in wind direction and wind speed, typical circulation patterns can be expressed and subsequently weather types for the alpine region classified. For Switzerland Schüepp's "Alpenwetterstatistik", which is often used for daily weather type classification in the alpine region, contains daily assignments to weather types for the last 50 years. With a probabilistic approach daily weather types can be assigned, based on centralized weather types of the "Alpenwetterstatistik". For the analysis of temperature and precipitation anomalies of the year without a summer (1816) in Switzerland, such weather type classifications based on pressure and wind were already conducted and applied. Daily weather types for a 20 year reference period

  2. Quantifying PV power Output Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, Thomas E.; Perez, Richard

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to rigorously quantify power Output Variability from a fleet of photovoltaic (PV) systems, ranging from a single central station to a set of distributed PV systems. The approach demonstrates that the relative power Output Variability for a fleet of identical PV systems (same size, orientation, and spacing) can be quantified by identifying the number of PV systems and their Dispersion Factor. The Dispersion Factor is a new variable that captures the relationship between PV Fleet configuration, Cloud Transit Speed, and the Time Interval over which variability is evaluated. Results indicate that Relative Output Variability: (1) equals the inverse of the square root of the number of systems for fully dispersed PV systems; and (2) could be further minimized for optimally-spaced PV systems. (author)

  3. The Editorial Policy as a Mirror of Petrine Reforms: Textbooks and Their Translators in Early 18th Century Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouzevitch, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Peter I's editorial policy appears as a starting point in the birth of secular Russian textbooks. Since the printing production was then organized on a massive scale as a response to the needs of European-like modernization, it should be safely suggested that nearly "all" books produced during this pioneering period focused teaching…

  4. [Medicine and religion in Spanish anti-superstition discourse of the 16th to 18th centuries: a battle for hegemony].

    PubMed

    Campagne, F A

    2000-01-01

    The object of this research is the study of the different kinds of relationships between medicine and religion that appear in the Spanish anti-superstition discourse from the 16th to the 18th century. Despite the relationship of alliance and collaboration between the two professional groups proposed by the Spanish theologians in their essays, situations of conflict and mutual distrust could also arise. The professional physician could be an ally of the Christian priest but also a dangerous rival.

  5. 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings, 3-6 August 2008, Vail, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B. L.

    2008-09-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 3-6, 2008. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'New Directions for Rapidly Growing Silicon Technologies.'

  6. PV Hourly Simulation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, Jesse; Metzger, Ian

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple general building characteristics and usage information to calculate the energy and cost benefits of solar PV. This tool conducts and complex hourly simulation of solar PV based primarily on the area available on the rooftop. It uses a simplified efficiency calculation method and real panel characteristics. It includes a detailed rate structure to account for time-of-use rates, on-peak and off-peak pricing, and multiple rate seasons. This tool includes the option for advanced system design inputs if they are known. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, incentives and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  7. WOCSDICE 94 - European Workshop on Compound Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuits (18th) Held in Kinsale, Ireland on 29 May-1 June 1994

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    industrial laboratories to perform the optimization and the development of power PMHFETs. They can also be useful for approach simulations such as quasi two...10-1 IHorinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi 243-01, Japan ABSTRACT The role of high speed devices in semiconductor industry is changing very rapidly during these...fUr Mikroelektronik, Universitt Linz A-4040 Linz, Austria The trend to higher operating frequencies in commercial and industrial millimeter-wave

  8. Acoustics of early music spaces from the 11th to 18th century: Rediscovery of the acoustical excellence of medium-sized rooms and new perspectives for modern concert hall design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassuet, Alban

    2004-05-01

    The acoustical characteristics of 50 rooms that played a prominent role in the history of music between the 11th and 18th centuries were studied. The rooms include basilicas, oratorios, organ churches, and the great halls and courts of the European palaces. The research provides an understanding of the acoustical features that suit the early music repertoire, and how these rooms achieved an enhanced emotional engagement through their unique acoustical characteristics. This paper provides a summary of the acoustic measurements, which include binaural and B-format recordings in each of the rooms, and presents a unique new approach to understanding their subjective characteristics through detailed analysis and auralization of their 3-D impulse response. The study shows that the timing and direction of reflections in three dimensions is critically important to defining the subjective characteristic of a room. The results emphasize the importance of developing techniques to understand the 3-D impulse response and using auralization techniques for interpreting results and making subjective judgments. The enhanced musical experience that is achieved in these early rooms offers an invitation to rethink modern acoustics and to develop a new design approach that focuses more strongly on the subjective response and emotional engagement of the music.

  9. PV water pumping: NEOS Corporation recent PV water pumping activities

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, C.

    1995-11-01

    NEOS Corporation has been very active in PV-powered water pumping, particularly with respect to electric utilities. Most of the recent activity has been through the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN). The PSN is an independent, not-for-profit organization comprised of all types of electric utilities: rural electric coops, public power districts, investor-owned utilities, and power marketing agencies. The PSN`s mission is to work pro-actively to promote utility involvement in PV through education and training. PV information is distributed by the PSN in three primary forms: (1) consultation with PSN technical service representatives: (2) literature generated by the PSN; and (3) literature published by other organizations. The PSN can also provide assistance to members in developing PV customer service programs. The PSN`s product support activities include consolidation of information on existing packaged PV systems and facilitation of the development of new PV product packages that meet utility-defined specifications for cost performance, and reliability. The PSN`s initial product support efforts will be focused on commercially available packaged PV systems for a variety of off-grid applications. In parallel with this effort, if no products exist that meet the PSN`s functional specifications, the PSN will initiate the second phase of product development support process by encouraging the development of new packaged systems. Through these services and product support activities, the PSN anticipates engaging all segments for the PV industry, thus providing benefits to PV systems suppliers as well as local PV service contractors.This paper describes field testing of pv power systems for water pumping.

  10. A brief history of the changing occupations and demographics of coleopterists from the 18th through the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Elias, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Systematic entomology flourished as a branch of Natural History from the 1750s to the end of the nineteenth century. During this interval, the "era of Heroic Entomology," the majority of workers in the field were dedicated amateurs. This article traces the demographic and occupational shifts in entomology through this 150-year interval and into the early twentieth century. The survey is based on entomologists who studied beetles (Coleoptera), and who named sufficient numbers of species to have their own names abbreviated by subsequent taxonomists. In the eighteenth century, 27 entomologists achieved this level of prominence, of whom 37% were academics, 19% were doctors, 11% had private incomes, 19% were clergymen, and 8% were government officials. Many of those with private incomes were members of the European aristocracy, and all but one were European men. The nineteenth century list included 192 entomologists, of whom 17% were academics, 16% were museum curators, 2% were school teachers, 15% were doctors, 6% were military men, 7% were merchants, 2% were government entomologists, 6% had private incomes, 5% were clergymen, 5% were government officials, and 4% were lawyers. The demographics of entomology shifted dramatically in the nineteenth century. Whereas many of the noteworthy entomologists of the eighteenth century were German, Swedish, or French, in the nineteenth century, many more European countries are represented, and almost one-fifth of the noteworthy entomologists were from the United States. The nineteenth century list, like the eighteenth century list, contains no women. By the twentieth century, 63% of 178 noteworthy systematic entomologists were paid professionals, teaching entomology courses in universities, or studying insect taxonomy in museums and government-sponsored laboratories. Only one person on the twentieth century list had a private income, but women (ten individuals) were included on the list for the first time.

  11. Outdoor PV Degradation Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D. C.; Smith, R. M.; Osterwald, C. R.; Gelak, E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output; may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined; accurately. At the Performance and Energy Rating Testbed (PERT) at the Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) at the; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) more than 40 modules from more than 10 different manufacturers; were compared for their long-term outdoor stability. Because it can accommodate a large variety of modules in a; limited footprint the PERT system is ideally suited to compare modules side-by-side under the same conditions.

  12. Interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) architecture for PV devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Rui Q.; Tian, Zhaobing; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Klem, John F.

    2015-10-20

    A photovoltaic (PV) device, comprising a PV interband cascade (IC) stage, wherein the IC PV stage comprises an absorption region with a band gap, the absorption region configured to absorb photons, an intraband transport region configured to act as a hole barrier, and an interband tunneling region configured to act as an electron barrier. An IC PV architecture for a photovoltaic device, the IC PV architecture comprising an absorption region, an intraband transport region coupled to the absorption region, and an interband tunneling region coupled to the intraband transport region and to the adjacent absorption region, wherein the absorption region, the intraband transport region, and the interband tunneling region are positioned such that electrons will flow from the absorption region to the intraband transport region to the interband tunneling region.

  13. Computer Science and Statistics. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Interface (18th) Held on March 19-21, 1986 in Fort Collins, Colorado.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-26

    while the second set were a Stefik. M.. D.G. Bobrow. S . Nlitt:al. :ind I.. C,,mwav direct consequence of actions taken at the [19831 " Knowledge ...MENUS - i I o - ZW.-M -g- wI 04 a A GADDRESS (iy &Wt. n ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City, Slte. &nd ZIP Code) Fort Collins, CO A M% 3011LUX AID DO .:203.444 S ...2304 I A5 III. TMTE(nld Security ClaSS~lcation) ;omputer Science and Statistics: 18th Symposium on the Interface 12. PERSM A AUTHOR( S ) Thomas J. Boradman

  14. Energy spectrum and arrival direction of primary cosmic rays of energy above 10 to the 18th power eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teshima, M.; Nagano, M.; Hayashida, N.; He, C. X.; Honda, M.; Ishikawa, F.; Kamata, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Mori, M.; Ohoka, H.

    1985-01-01

    The observation of ultra high energy cosmic rays with 20 sq km array has started at Akeno. The preliminary results on energy spectrum and arrival direction of energies above 10 to the 18th eV are prsented with data accumulated for four years with the 1 sq km array, for two years with the 4 sq km array and for a half year with the new array. The energy spectrum is consistent with the previous experiments showing the flattening above 10 to the 18.5 eV.

  15. Flood hazard and a rapidly growing capital in the floodplain: Social response on major 18th-century Danube floods in Pest (East-Budapest)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Due to its floodplain location, Pest was especially prone to damages caused by great flood events. Before water regulation works, the greatest flood events, and the highest rate of destruction occurred during ice jam floods. Whereas in the first half of the 18th century Pest is restricted to the medieval downtown located on a higher terrain (Danube terrace), from the mid 18th century onwards the rapidly growing population established suburbs around the downtown in the lower-lying flood plain. Thus, while in the first half of the century floods were more dangerous for the harvest in the agricultural lands, in the second half of the century at the same place suburbs, urban areas with thousands of inhabitants were prone to the same danger. In the first half of the century at least three particularly large flood events, in 1712, 1732 and 1744, caused increasing problems in the close vicinity of the town (and its lands), the second half of the century - as part of a climatic anomaly (Maldá) famous of its weather extremes - was characterised by two extreme (in 1775 and 1799), at least two larger (1789 and 1795) and some more, medium-sized ice jam floods. While in terms of damaged houses the loss was only some dozens in the early part of the century, several hundreds of houses - actually, complete suburbs were erased by floods in 1775 and 1799. In the poster presentation a series of known damaging 18th-century floods, occurred at Pest, is presented, the short-term impacts (e.g. damages), and medium-, long-term administrative responses as well as related long-term landscape changes influenced by floods and flood protection are discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to present the main reasons why in the 18th century these great ice jam floods caused much greater damages (e.g. percentage of collapsed houses in suburbs) in Pest protected by dams than, for example, in the Buda suburbs with no dams, partly also located in high flood-risk areas, in the immediate

  16. Ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in royal Egyptian mummies of 18th -20th Dynasties? CT and archaeology studies.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Sahar N; Hawass, Zahi

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To study the computed tomography(CT) images of royal Ancient Egyptian mummies dated to the 18th to early 20th Dynasties for the claimed diagnoses of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and to correlate the findings with the archaeology literature.Methods. We studied the CT images of 13 royal Ancient Egyptian mummies (1492–1153 BC) for evidence of AS and DISH and correlated our findings with the archaeology literature.Results. The findings of the CT scans excluded the diagnosis of AS, based on the absence of sacroiliac joint erosions or fusion of the facet joints. Four mummies fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for DISH:Amenhotep III (18th Dynasty), Ramesses II, his son Merenptah, and Ramesses III (19th to early 20th Dynasties).The diagnosis of DISH, a commonly a symptomatic disease of old age, in the 4 pharaohs is in concordance with their longevity and active lifestyles.Conclusion. CT findings excluded the diagnosis of AS in the studied royal Ancient Egyptian mummies and brought into question the antiquity of the disease. The CT features of DISH during this ancient period were similar to those commonly seen in modern populations,and it is likely that they will also be similar in the future.The affection of Ramesses II and his son Merenptah supports familial clustering of DISH. The process of mummification may induce changes in the spine that should be considered during investigations of disease in ancient mummies.

  17. [Genealogy of the Books of Practica medicinae in Europe before the End of 18th Century: From the Origin to the Disappearance].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2015-09-01

    The Practica medicinae represented the books written in Europe before the end of 18th century that dealt with individual deseases. In total, 100 Practica books, written by 95 authors, were collected and divided into four periods from the early 11th to the end of 18th century. The first Practica book was written at the Salernitan medical school on the basis of ancient medical books in the basic style, dealing with regional deseases arranged in "a capite ad calcem" manner, as well as with the fevers. The basic style comprised a majority in the first period and decreased gradually, becoming a minority in the 3rd and 4th periods. Sennert's practica was the largest and it elaborated with precise construction. The additional categories, such as female, children, and surgical deseases increased in the later periods. Those written in non-basic style based on pathogenesis or in alphabetical order also increased in the later periods. The practica books changed slightly and gradually, indicating the essential consistency of the concepts of diseases in these periods.

  18. [Private charity - public health service. Comparison between British and German birthing centers of the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Schlumbohm, Jürgen

    In the eighteenth century, lying-in hospitals were founded in many European towns and cities. The way in which these institutions were financed differed greatly across Europe. In the UK, most of them were "charities" and relied on donations from wealthy benefactors, whereas on the continent they were usually funded by "public" money, be it from the state or local communities. The paper focuses on British charities and German hospitals, and explores the corollaries of the mode of financing. In the eighteenth century, a market emerged in Britain where numerous charities with different aims competed for donations from the well-to-do. For attracting benefactors, a charity had to convince potential donors that its clientele and purpose were particularly deserving, and that it used the money donated in a cost-efficient way. In Germany, it was mainly bureaucrats and governments who had to be persuaded, but public opinion did matter as well. In British lying-in charities, the main donors acted as governors, and benefactors could recommend persons for being admitted. In publicly funded German hospitals, the medical directors had much more power. In the competitive market, in which British charities acted, out-patient dispensaries (policlinics) became increasingly important, since they could argue that they were more cost-efficient and had lower mortality. In Germany, however, hospitals remained the dominant type of assistance in this field, in spite of the criticism they received. The different sources of finance appear to have been one of the reasons for this divergence. Teaching was the main purpose of most German lying-in hospitals. They either trained medical students or midwife apprentices or both. Since the patients served as teaching objects, all women were welcomed, and in fact most patients were single mothers. By contrast, most of the British institutions admitted only married women, because donors did not wish to encourage immorality. The charities staged the

  19. PV module mounting method and mounting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.S.; Johnson, Kurt M.

    2013-04-23

    A method for mounting PV modules to a deck includes selecting PV module layout pattern so that adjacent PV module edges are spaced apart. PV mounting and support assemblies are secured to the deck according to the layout pattern using fasteners extending into the deck. The PV modules are placed on the PV mounting and support assemblies. Retaining elements are located over and secured against the upper peripheral edge surfaces of the PV modules so to secure them to the deck with the peripheral edges of the PV modules spaced apart from the deck. In some examples a PV module mounting assembly, for use on a shingled deck, comprises flashing, a base mountable on the flashing, a deck-penetrating fastener engageable with the base and securable to the deck so to secure the flashing and the base to the shingled deck, and PV module mounting hardware securable to the base.

  20. Pressure-equalizing PV assembly and method

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2004-10-26

    Each PV assembly of an array of PV assemblies comprises a base, a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the upper surface of the base. Vents are formed through the base. A pressure equalization path extends from the outer surface of the PV module, past the PV module, to and through at least one of the vents, and to the lower surface of the base to help reduce wind uplift forces on the PV assembly. The PV assemblies may be interengaged, such as by interengaging the bases of adjacent PV assemblies. The base may include a main portion and a cover and the bases of adjacent PV assemblies may be interengaged by securing the covers of adjacent bases together.

  1. PSCAD Modules Representing PV Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-08-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPs) have been growing in size, and the installation time is very short. With the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels dropping in recent years, it can be predicted that in the next 10 years the contribution of PVPs to the total number of renewable energy power plants will grow significantly. In this project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a dynamic modeling of the modules to be used as building blocks to develop simulation models of single PV arrays, expanded to include Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), expanded to include PV inverter, or expanded to cover an entire PVP. The focus of the investigation and complexity of the simulation determines the components that must be included in the simulation. The development of the PV inverter was covered in detail, including the control diagrams. Both the current-regulated voltage source inverter and the current-regulated current source inverter were developed in PSCAD. Various operations of the PV inverters were simulated under normal and abnormal conditions. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults were simulated, presented, and discussed. Both the three-phase analysis and the symmetrical component analysis were included to clarify the understanding of unsymmetrical faults. The dynamic model validation was based on the testing data provided by SCE. Testing was conducted at SCE with the focus on the grid interface behavior of the PV inverter under different faults and disturbances. The dynamic model validation covers both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.

  2. [Military, sailors and the sick poor: contribution to the history of the San Juan de Dios Hospital in Cartagena de Indias (18th century)].

    PubMed

    Echeverri, Adriana María Alzate

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the history of the San Juan de Dios Hospital in Cartagena de Indias, at the end of the 18th century. Its activities and evolution cannot be understood unless they are analyzed within the context of the Bourbon sanitary reforms. it was precisely at that time when these reforms were being implemented in Nueva Granada. One of the goals of the reforms was to improve the health of the population in order to discipline the vassals, to promote the growth of the workforce and to increase the Crown's wealth. The text reviews different aspects of the institution, and how it operated. It examines the budget, its expenses, and the dynamics of the hospital population and of its employees. In doing so, it intends to explain what the hospital offered to the city's various social groups.

  3. In naming the dead: Autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR typing on human skeletal remains from an 18th/19th century aristocratic crypt in Gallspach, Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Reinhard; Renhart, Silvia; Gruber, Heinz; Kli Mesch, Wolfgang; Neuhuber, Franz; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ancient DNA analyses have shown to be a powerful tool in the joint transdisciplinary assessment of archaeological records involving human remains. In this study we set out to identify single inhumations by synoptically evaluating the historical, archaeological, anthropological and molecular records on human remains from the crypt of the aristocratic family of Hoheneck (or: Hohenegg) dating to the 18(th) and 19(th) century AD. A total of 11 individuals were under investigation, yielding complete autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR profiles for 5 persons clearly showing a family group. DNA results, anthropological data and archaeological records taken together resulted in (almost) unambiguous correlation to historical records on the persons entombed in the crypt.

  4. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  5. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  6. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  7. GRANTING A LICENCE FOR OPENING A PHARMACY IN BOLOGNA DURING ACTIVITY OF THE BOLOGNESE ARTE DE' SPEZIALI (13TH - 18TH CENTURY).

    PubMed

    Oszajca, Paulina; Bela, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the main changes in legislation concerning granting the licenses for opening a new pharmacy in Bologna in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period. The organization of all traders, including apothecaries, was subordinated, as almost everywhere in Italy, to the Guilds. In the 2nd half of 16th century the Arte de' Speziali of Bologna came under the jurisdiction of the Collegio di Medicina, leading to disagreements between the two corporations. Giovanni Baldi, in his Notizie storiche su la farmacia bolognese (Bologna, 1955) mentioned one of these controversies, dating on the second half of 18th century. The Authors present this controversy basing on original documents from Archivio di Stato di Bologna.

  8. [The past, education and science. Félix Vicq d'Azyr and the history of medicine in the18th century].

    PubMed

    Mandressi, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    As a result of a process initiated by the end of the 1 7th century, in the second half of the 18th century the history of medicine became an autonomous branch of the medical knowledge. The uses of the past were no longer those which prevailed in the Renaissance times, and the inherited knowledge played no more a significant role in the production of active medical knowledge. The ideas of the French anatomist and doctor Félix Vicq d'Azyr (1748-1794) on the history of medicine represent an original synthesis of the new frames of historical thought, from a theoretical and methodological point of view as well as in regard with the institutional and pedagogical functions of medical history. Vicq d'Azyr was the first, in fact, to assign to what he viewed as an independent discipline a specific place as a new chair in medical education.

  9. [Records of the invisible: Visa reperta in 18th- and 19th-century forensic medicine and their role as promoters of pathological-anatomical knowledge].

    PubMed

    Müller, Irmgard; Fangerau, Heiner

    2010-01-01

    Case reports in medicine serve as a tool to collect and to transfer knowledge. A special kind of case report in forensic medicine during the 18th and 19th centuries was the so-called Visum repertum. This format of note-taking and of rendering an expert opinion without presuppositions has rarely investigated in the history of medicine. Analyzing Visa reperta the authors argue that due to their special structure and mode of representation Visa reperta not only shaped the practice of forensic medicine but also the standardized examination and documentation in pathological anatomy. Based on previous studies on medical case reports, medical expert witnesses in court and traditions in pathological anatomy the authors examine two examples from the 18th and 19th centuries in order to show how semiological, classifying methods of presenting forensic examinations were replaced by the material aspect of the observation of examination results itself. The examples are a forensic case report by Michael Alberti (1682-1757) from 1728 and a Visum repertum by Joseph Bernt (1770-1842) from 1827. The authors argue that Visa reperta transcended their original forensic purpose and served as a guideline for pathology leading to an understanding of the origin of diseases in organs. They served as a promoter of scientific medicine, and their persuasiveness was backed by factors such as (a) the extreme conditions of forensic practice, (b) the claim to act as a tool for the sound and precise recording of facts and c) the awareness that they documented objects that were destroyed during the process of documentation.

  10. Plant phenological records in northern Finland since the 18th century as retrieved from databases, archives and diaries for biometeorological research.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Lappalainen, Hanna; Gregow, Hilppa

    2013-05-01

    Plant phenological data from northern Finland, compiled from several sources, were examined as potential biometeorological indicators of climate change since the 18th century. A common feature of individual series was their sporadic nature. In addition to waning enthusiasm, wartime hardships and crop failures had caused gaps in recording observations during the 18th and 19th centuries. The present study's challenge was to combine separate records, as retrieved from several historical archives and personal diaries, into a single continuous series. To avoid possible biases due to the variability of data availability each year, each phenomenon-specific mean series was transformed into normalized site-specific index series. These series were compared to each other and to a regional instrumental temperature series (years 1802-2011). The inter-phenomena correlations were high. Moreover, a strong biometeorological response of the phenological series, most especially to monthly mean temperature in May, and seasonally to the April through June temperatures, was identified. This response focused on slightly later spring months compared to the responses in an earlier study conducted for southern Finland. The findings encouraged us to compute a total phenological index series as an average of all available phenomenon-specific index series for northern Finland. The earliest phenological springs were found as a cluster in the recent end of the record, whereas the anomalously-late phenological spring could be found through the centuries. This finding could indicate that potential future warming could result in an earlier onset of phenological springs (i.e. as experienced by the plants), with a remaining possibility of late phenological springs. To conclude, it was shown that the indices are reliable biometeorological indicators of the April through June temperature variations and thus of the climate variability in the region.

  11. Locational Sensitivity Investigation on PV Hosting Capacity and Fast Track PV Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Ainsworth, Nathan; Gotseff, Peter; Baker, Kyri

    2016-05-05

    A 15% PV penetration threshold is commonly used by utilities to define photovoltaic (PV) screening methods where PV penetration is defined as the ratio of total solar PV capacity on a line section to peak load. However, this method doesn't take into account PV locational impact or feeder characteristics that could strongly change the feeder's capability to host PVs. This paper investigates the impact of PV location and phase connection type on PV hosting capacity, and then proposes a fast-track PV screening approach that leverages various PV hosting capacity metric responding to different PV locations and types. The proposed study could help utilities to evaluate PV interconnection requests and also help increase the PV hosting capacity of distribution feeders without adverse impacts on system voltages.

  12. PV system testing and standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBlasio, Richard

    1999-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) PV Program System Performance and Engineering Project is being conducted by The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), and Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). It provides PV system, subsystem, and component-level technology-performance characterization testing; test-method development and validation; national and international consensus standards and codes development, test-facility product certification, and laboratory-accreditation program implementation; and information exchange and technical assistance to the PV community. Emphasis is placed on reducing technical and infrastructural barriers to system acceptance, reducing life-cycle cost of systems, providing systems-engineering best practices and guidelines, and leading the national effort in performance and reliability testing, and consensus standards, codes, and certification program development and implementation—thereby ensuring that PV systems meet customers' needs and expectations. A summary of project activities, accomplishments, and future plans is provided and highlighted by an overview of PV system test-procedure and standards development.

  13. 18th International Seapower Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    interagency partners to be able to work with African nations, with whatever types of requirements they might see, in order to create a better quality of life ...that we live in today—where so much of our prosperity, our livelihood, the quality of our life comes from that which flows on the sea—it is taken for...you feel about the value of nations coming together, to go out onto the global commons, and provide for a better way of life for our countries. I would

  14. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  15. Comparison of Pyranometers vs. PV Reference Cells for Evaluation of PV Array Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, L.; Gostein, M.; Emery, K.

    2012-09-01

    As the photovoltaics (PV) industry has grown, the need for accurately monitoring the solar resource of PV power plants has increased. Historically, the PV industry has relied on thermopile pyranometers for irradiance measurements, and a large body of historical irradiance data taken with pyranometers exists. However, interest in PV reference devices is increasing. In this paper, we discuss why PV reference devices are better suited for PV applications, and estimate the typical uncertainties in irradiance measurements made with both pyranometers and PV reference devices. We assert that the quantity of interest in monitoring a PV power plant is the equivalent irradiance under the IEC 60904-3 reference solar spectrum that would produce the same electrical response in the PV array as the incident solar radiation. For PV-plant monitoring applications, we find the uncertainties in irradiance measurements of this type to be on the order of +/-5% for thermopile pyranometers and +/-2.4% for PV reference devices.

  16. The inquisitorial trial of a cross-dressing lesbian: reactions and responses to female homosexuality in 18th-century portugal.

    PubMed

    Soyer, François

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the inquisitorial trial of Maria Duran, a Catalan novice in the Dominican convent of Nossa Senhora do Paraíso in Portugal. Maria Duran was arrested by the Inquisition in 1741 and, after a lengthy trial, condemned in 1744 to a public lashing and exile. She was suspected of having made a pact with the Devil and was accused by many female witnesses of possessing a "secret penis" that she had allegedly used in her amorous relations with fellow nuns and novices. Her voluminous trial dossier offers a rare and fascinating documentary insight into the often extreme reactions that female homosexuality provoked from both men and women in early modern Portugal. Using the evidence offered by the 18th-century trial of Maria Duran, this article highlights female bewilderment when faced with female-on-female sexual violence and the difficulty that men (in this case, churchmen) had coming to terms with the existence of female homosexuality. It also discusses the case in light of the acts/identity debate among historians of the history of sexuality.

  17. The Cause of Death of a Child in the 18th Century Solved by Bone Microbiome Typing Using Laser Microdissection and Next Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    D'Argenio, Valeria; Torino, Marielva; Precone, Vincenza; Casaburi, Giorgio; Esposito, Maria Valeria; Iaffaldano, Laura; Malapelle, Umberto; Troncone, Giancarlo; Coto, Iolanda; Cavalcanti, Paolina; De Rosa, Gaetano; Salvatore, Francesco; Sacchetti, Lucia

    2017-01-06

    The history of medicine abounds in cases of mysterious deaths, especially by infectious diseases, which were probably unresolved because of the lack of knowledge and of appropriate technology. The aim of this study was to exploit contemporary technologies to try to identify the cause of death of a young boy who died from a putative "infection" at the end of the 18th century, and for whom an extraordinarily well-preserved minute bone fragment was available. After confirming the nature of the sample, we used laser microdissection to select the most "informative" area to be examined. Tissue genotyping indicated male gender, thereby confirming the notary's report. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing showed that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were more abundant than Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and that Pseudomonas was the most abundant bacterial genus in the Pseudomonadaceae family. These data suggest that the patient most likely died from Pseudomonas osteomyelitis. This case is an example of how new technological approaches, like laser microdissection and next-generation sequencing, can resolve ancient cases of uncertain etiopathology. Lastly, medical samples may contain a wealth of information that may not be accessible until more sophisticated technology becomes available. Therefore, one may envisage the possibility of systematically storing medical samples for evaluation by future generations.

  18. [Jirí Procháska (1749-1820) I.: a significant Czech anatomist and physiologist of the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Chvátal, A

    2013-01-01

    The Czech anatomist and physiologist of the 18th century, Jirí Procháska (1749-1820), ranks among the major figures of Czech cultural history. Due to historical circumstances, the works of Jirí Procháska were published mostly in Latin and only some in German. However, given that only two of his works have been translated into Czech and one of them also partially into English, the results of his extensive research activities are currently unavailable not only to the international scientific community, but also to the Czech scientific community. Although his research reflected the time in which he lived and thus has been re-evaluated by later researchers, his achievements undoubtedly belong to the major intellectual heritage of Czech science and certainly deserve attention as such. It is therefore our duty not only to remember the work and legacy of Jirí Procháska, which significantly influenced the development of our knowledge, but also to try to critically assess his contribution in terms of today. The article surveys the important biographical events of Jirí Procháska's life, taking into account the importance of his research and teaching.

  19. Structural and optical properties of wood and wood finishes studied using optical coherence tomography: application to an 18th century Italian violin.

    PubMed

    Latour, Gaël; Echard, Jean-Philippe; Soulier, Balthazar; Emond, Isabelle; Vaiedelich, Stéphane; Elias, Mady

    2009-11-20

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is especially attractive for the study of cultural heritage artifacts because it is noninvasive and nondestructive. We have developed an original full-field time-domain OCT system dedicated to the investigation of varnished and painted artifacts: an interferometric Mirau objective allows one to perform the scan without moving the works of art. The axial and transverse high resolution (respectively, 1.5 and 1 microm) are well adapted to the detection of the investigated structures (pigment grains, wood fibers, etc.). The illumination spectrum is in the visible range (centered at 630 nm, 150 nm wide) to potentially allow us to perform spectroscopic OCT on pigment particles. The examination of wood samples coated with a traditional finish, demonstrates the ability of the system to detect particles, characterize layers thickness, and image the three-dimensional wood structures below the varnishes. OCT has finally been applied to study in situ the coated wood surface of an 18th century Italian violin and provides important information for its conservation treatment.

  20. The Cause of Death of a Child in the 18th Century Solved by Bone Microbiome Typing Using Laser Microdissection and Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    D’Argenio, Valeria; Torino, Marielva; Precone, Vincenza; Casaburi, Giorgio; Esposito, Maria Valeria; Iaffaldano, Laura; Malapelle, Umberto; Troncone, Giancarlo; Coto, Iolanda; Cavalcanti, Paolina; De Rosa, Gaetano; Salvatore, Francesco; Sacchetti, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    The history of medicine abounds in cases of mysterious deaths, especially by infectious diseases, which were probably unresolved because of the lack of knowledge and of appropriate technology. The aim of this study was to exploit contemporary technologies to try to identify the cause of death of a young boy who died from a putative “infection” at the end of the 18th century, and for whom an extraordinarily well-preserved minute bone fragment was available. After confirming the nature of the sample, we used laser microdissection to select the most “informative” area to be examined. Tissue genotyping indicated male gender, thereby confirming the notary’s report. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing showed that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were more abundant than Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and that Pseudomonas was the most abundant bacterial genus in the Pseudomonadaceae family. These data suggest that the patient most likely died from Pseudomonas osteomyelitis. This case is an example of how new technological approaches, like laser microdissection and next-generation sequencing, can resolve ancient cases of uncertain etiopathology. Lastly, medical samples may contain a wealth of information that may not be accessible until more sophisticated technology becomes available. Therefore, one may envisage the possibility of systematically storing medical samples for evaluation by future generations. PMID:28067829

  1. Structural and behavioural changes in the short term preventive check in the northwest Balkans in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    PubMed

    Hammel, E A; Galloway, P R

    2000-03-01

    Fertility responded negatively to grain insufficiency (proxied by grain price increases), and mortality responded positively in Croatia-Slavonia-Srem in the 18th and 19th centuries, as in most of Europe. Shifts in the intensity and timing of these responses occurred over time as social and economic structures changed. Shifts in the elasticity of fertility with respect to grain supply inversely mimic and lag changes in the elasticity of mortality. Both appear to be induced by increasing land shortage, the collapse of feudalism, and differences in the patterns of adjustment to post-feudal conditions among former civil and military serfs. Generally, responses are stronger for civil and former civil serfs, who may have been in less favorable economic circumstances than the military. Fertility responses in the year of a price shock come to dominate those in the year following, suggesting a shift from contraception to abortion as economic and social conditions apparently worsened and strategies of control intensified. Analysis of monthly responses supports the conjecture based on the annual responses. The shift to the preventive check and strength of the preventive check in the same year as the price shock is unusual in Europe and beyond. Analysis is based on 25 parishes and employs lagged annual and monthly time series analysis with corrections for autocorrelation, in combination with ethnographic and historical data.

  2. Quantitative analysis of human remains from 18(th)-19(th) centuries using X-ray fluorescence techniques: The mysterious high content of mercury in hair.

    PubMed

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Marta; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Dias, António

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the unusual concentration of mercury in the hair of an individual buried in the 18th to mid-19th centuries and the comparison with the elemental composition of other remains from the same individual. Two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) setups, one with tri-axial geometry and the second one with micro-beam capabilities and a vacuum system, for light elements detection, have been used. Quantitative evaluation of the obtained spectra were made by fundamental parameters and winAXIL program by compare mode method. The levels of Hg in the hair of buried samples presented a concentration over 5% (w/w), a significantly lower presence of this element in the cranium, and no Hg in the remaining organs. Furthermore, there was no evidence of Hg in the burial soil, which has been also analyzed. From this result, we could conclude that the possibility of post-mortem contamination from the burial surroundings is very unlikely. The obtained results are indicative of the apparent use of a mercury-based compound for medical purposes, most likely lice infestation.

  3. Catherine Walpole (1703-22), an 18th-century teenaged patient: a case study from the letters of the physician George Cheyne (1671 or 73-1743).

    PubMed

    Charlton, Anne

    2010-05-01

    In 1720 Catherine Walpole the 16-year-old eldest daughter of Robert Walpole, later to become Prime Minister, became very ill. She was unable to eat, fainted, took fits frequently, and had a persistent pain and swelling in her side. Sir Hans Sloane, the Walpole's doctor, referred her to Dr Cheyne in Bath because he specialized in dietary problems and nervous diseases. Cheyne kept in regular touch with Sir Hans by letter and this correspondence tells the story of Catherine's treatment from her first referral to Cheyne to her death in 1722. The contents and purposes of treatments he used are identifiable in dispensatories of the period. The letters reflect Cheyne's medical skills and knowledge as well as his sympathetic personality. Catherine's family loyalties, personal concerns and personality also emerge as the correspondence progresses. The limitations of 18th-century diagnosis and treatments available are clear but Cheyne is always concerned with Catherine's quality of life, even when he becomes aware that he cannot cure her.

  4. Progress & Frontiers in PV Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, Chris; DiOrio, Nick; Jordan, Dirk; Toor, Fatima

    2016-09-12

    PowerPoint slides for a presentation given at Solar Power International 2016. Presentation includes System Advisor Model (SAM) introduction and battery modeling, bifacial PV modules and modeling, shade modeling and module level power electronics (MLPE), degradation rates, and PVWatts updates and validation.

  5. "Do Not Turn a Deaf Ear or a Blind Eye on Me, as I Am Your Son": New Conceptions of Childhood and Parenthood in 18th- and 19th-Century Jewish Letter-Writing Manuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogman, Tal

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the cultural functions of Hebrew letter-writing manuals published in German-speaking countries in the 18th and 19th centuries, aimed at young people. I argue that these books, which were used frequently as textbooks for studying Hebrew writing, conveyed modern ideological values and at the same time corresponded to the…

  6. Grid Integrated Distributed PV (GridPV) Version 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Reno, Matthew J.; Coogan, Kyle

    2014-12-01

    This manual provides the documentation of the MATLAB toolbox of functions for using OpenDSS to simulate the impact of solar energy on the distribution system. The majority of the functio ns are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in th e OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions. Each function i n the toolbox is documented with the function use syntax, full description, function input list, function output list, example use, and example output.

  7. Lightweight IMM PV Flexible Blanket Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) photovoltaic (PV) integrated modular blanket assembly (IMBA) that can be rolled or z-folded. This IMM PV IMBA technology enables a revolutionary flexible PV blanket assembly that provides high specific power, exceptional stowed packaging efficiency, and high-voltage operation capability. DSS's technology also accommodates standard third-generation triple junction (ZTJ) PV device technologies to provide significantly improved performance over the current state of the art. This SBIR project demonstrated prototype, flight-like IMM PV IMBA panel assemblies specifically developed, designed, and optimized for NASA's high-voltage solar array missions.

  8. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  9. The Problem of Longitude in the 18th Century: Jorge Juan, Antonio de Ulloa and the Expedition of the Paris Academy of Sciences to the Kingdom of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Pérez

    2015-05-01

    Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, naval officers of the Spanish Navy in the Midshipmen's Royal Academy were appointed to take part in one of the most important scientific expeditions of the 18th century. The question of the shape of the Earth, of vital importance for navigation, was solved by the Paris Academy of Sciences by request of Louis XV of France in 1735. The aim was to determine the form of the ellipsoid that Newton had described in the 17th century for any spherical and homogeneous body in rotation about an axis. Two expeditions were prepared for the geodetic measures of meridian arc both in high latitudes (Lapland, Finland) and in the equatorial zone (the Kingdom of Peru); Pierre Louis Maupertuis took charge of the northern expedition whereas the second one was charged to La Condamine, along with Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa. The results obtained by the Spaniards were gathered in a publication: Observaciones astronómicas y físicas hechas en los Reinos del Perú. In it, they dedicate a chapter to the determination of astronomic longitude with the only technology that was providing certain precision at the moment: the simultaneous observation of the same astronomic phenomenon in two different places. Specifically, they explain in detail in Book III: Las Observaciones de la Inmersiones y Emersiones de los satélites de Júpiter, como asimismo de los eclipses de Luna; de las cuales de deduce la Longitud de los Lugares, incluyendo las correcciones a efectuar por la variación de la declinación diaria del Sol.

  10. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on the 14th-18th days of gestation on postnatal growth and development in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-11-01

    Thirty-nine pregnant adult Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of three exposure groups: 0, 0.75, or 1.50 Gy X-radiation total exposure. Animals were exposed from the 14th to the 18th days of gestation at 0, 0.15, or 0.30 Gy per day. At term, 15 rats were killed and morphologic analyses were completed. Twenty-four rats were allowed to deliver their offspring. On the first day of postnatal life, litters were reduced to a maximum of eight pups per litter, with equal numbers of male and female offspring wherever possible. A total of 187 pups were observed for the age of acquisition of five reflexes (air righting, surface righting, visual placing, negative geotaxis, auditory startle) and the appearance of four physiologic markers (pinna detachment, eye opening, vaginal opening, testes descent). There was significant dose-related weight reduction in term fetuses and offspring throughout the 86-day postnatal period. Postnatal growth rate (g gained/day) was unaffected. Adult offspring brain and gonadal weight and organ weight:body weight ratios were reduced. Using the PAC50 methodology, dose-related alterations occurred in the acquisition of several reflexes. All physiologic markers exhibited a dose-related delay in appearance. These results indicate that fractionated exposure to X-radiation during the fetal period in the rat results in dose-dependent alterations in postnatal growth and physiologic development. These studies are important for our understanding of the long-range effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation late in gestation.

  11. Development of standardized, low-cost AC PV systems. Phase I annual report, 7 September 1995--7 November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, S.J.; Wohlgemuth, J.H.; Kaelin, M.

    1997-06-01

    The objectives of this two-year program are to improve the reliability and safety and reduce the cost of installed grid-connected PV systems by creating standardized, pre-engineered components and an enhanced, low-cost, 250-Watt micro inverter. These advances will be combined with the new, large area Solarex MSX-240 PV module resulting in standard, modular AC PV {open_quotes}building blocks{close_quotes} used to create utility-interactive PV systems as small as one module to many thousands of modules to suit virtually any application. AC PV building blocks will be developed to meet the requirements of the U.S., Japanese and European markets.

  12. Heritage Park Facilities PV Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hobaica, Mark

    2013-09-26

    Project Objective: To procure a photovoltaic array (PV) system which will generate approximately 256kW of power to be used for the operations of the Aquatic Complex and the adjacent Senior Facility at the Heritage Park. This project complies with the EERE’s work and objectives by promoting the development and deployment of an energy system that will provide current and future generations with clean, efficient, affordable, and reliable energy.

  13. Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired

  14. Effects of slope on the formation of dunes in dilute, turbulent pyroclastic currents: May 18th, 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendana, Sylvana; Brand, Brittany D.; Self, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    The flanks of Mt St Helens volcano (MSH) are draped with thin, cross-stratified and stratified pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits. These are known as the proximal bedded deposits produced during the May 18th, 1980 eruption of MSH. While the concentrated portions of the afternoon PDCs followed deep topographic drainages down the steep flanks of the volcano, the dilute overriding cloud partially decoupled to develop fully dilute, turbulent PDCs on the flanks of the volcano (Beeson, D.L. 1988. Proximal Flank Facies of the May 18, 1980 Ignimbrite: Mt. St. Helens, Washington.). The deposits along the flank thus vary greatly from those found in the pumice plain, which are generally thick, massive, poorly-sorted, block-rich deposits associated with the more concentrated portions of the flow (Brand et al, accepted. Dynamics of pyroclastic density currents: Conditions that promote substrate erosion and self-channelization - Mount St Helens, Washington (USA). JVGR). We explore the influence of topography on the formation of these dilute currents and influence of slope on the currents transport and depositional mechanisms. The deposits on steeper slopes (>15°) are fines depleted relative to the proximal bedded deposits on shallower slopes (<15°). Bedform amplitude and wavelength increase with increasing slope, as does the occurrence of regressive dunes. Increasing slope causes an increase in flow velocity and thus an increase in flow turbulence. The fines depleted deposits suggest that fine ash elutriation is more efficient in flows with stronger turbulence. The longer wavelength and amplitudes suggest that bedform morphology is directly related to flow velocity, an important finding since the controls on bedform wavelength and amplitude in density stratified flows remains poorly constrained. The occurrence of regressive dunes, often interpreted as high flow-regime bedforms, on steeper slopes relative to progressive dunes on shallower slopes further attests to the

  15. Paleoclimate Reconstruction during the 17th to 18th Century Using Fossil Coral Tsunami Boulders from Ishigaki Island, the Ryukyus, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Seki, A.; Kawakubo, Y.; Araoka, D.; Suzuki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) to reconstruct paleo SST during LIA (Kawakubo et al., 2014). LA-HR-ICPMS enables us to measure the long coral core rapidly. Our result shows SST variation in 17th-18th century in this area and SST declined in around 1700. This result reveals the response of Little Ice Age in the northwestern Pacific.

  16. PV output smoothing with energy storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2012-03-01

    This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

  17. Ensuring Quality of PV Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Hacke, P.; Kempe, M.; Sample, T.; Yamamichi, M.; Kondo, M.; Doi, T.; Otani, K.; Amano, J.

    2011-07-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) customers need to have confidence in the PV modules they purchase. Currently, no test can quantify a module's lifetime with confidence, but stress tests are routinely used to differentiate PV product designs. We suggest that the industry would be strengthened by using the wisdom of the community to develop a single set of tests that will help customers quantify confidence in PV products. This paper evaluates the need for quality assurance (QA) standards and suggests a path for creating these. Two types of standards are needed: 1) QA of the module design and 2) QA of the manufacturing process.

  18. 46 CFR 153.355 - PV venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false PV venting systems. 153.355 Section 153.355 Shipping... Systems § 153.355 PV venting systems. When Table 1 requires a PV venting system, the cargo tank must have a PV valve in its vent line. The PV valve must be located between the tank and any connection...

  19. 46 CFR 153.355 - PV venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false PV venting systems. 153.355 Section 153.355 Shipping... Systems § 153.355 PV venting systems. When Table 1 requires a PV venting system, the cargo tank must have a PV valve in its vent line. The PV valve must be located between the tank and any connection...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  1. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  2. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  3. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  4. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  5. Preliminary estimation of the peak discharge at the Su Gologone spring (Central-East Sardinia) during the flood event of November 18th, 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossu, Antonello; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Francesco; Sanna, Laura

    2014-05-01

    times at the spring, based on the speed of the water taken with a hydraulic reel specially dedicated for this type of survey. These data show that an increase in water level of just 60 cm, produces a flow rate ten times higher than that during low discharge. During the peak discharge at the spring the probe has recorded a rise in the water level of over 11 metres, between 18:00 and 21:00 on November 18th, 2013. Part of this increase, however, was due to the barrier function of the nearby Cedrino river, whose high water level has blocked the drainage of the water from the karst system. The water spring level curve shows a temporary lowering around noon, before the flood peak, probably due to the opening of the dam. On the basis of the comparison between the measured speed of water flow in the stages immediately preceding and succeeding the flood event and of the values of water level recorded by the multi-parametric probe, it has been possible to estimate the contribution of the karst spring to the peak discharge of the river in around 40 cubic metres per second, a value of two orders of magnitude greater than the average flow of the spring (around 200 L/s).

  6. Distributed PV Adoption - Sensitivity to Market Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2016-02-01

    NREL staff used the dSolar (distributed solar) model to forecast the adoption of distributed, behind-the-meter PV through the year 2050 for 9 different scenarios. The scenarios varied in their assumptions about a carbon tax, the cost of PV systems in the future, and what credit would be given for excess generation once current net metering policies expire.

  7. Terawatt Challenge for Thin-Film PV

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, K.

    2005-08-01

    The evolution of PV into one of the world's largest industries is not going to happen without major unforeseen problems. However, this study attempts to address the obvious ones, so that we can put aside the mythology of PV (for example, that it is only ''boutique power'' or that one must pave the world with it to be useful) and get on with changing the world's energy infrastructure. With the years of rapid market growth now under way in PV, the author is sure this will not be the last effort to understand the real potential and pitfalls of meeting the Challenge.

  8. A new flexible a-Si PV module and its application to rooftop PV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Yukimi; Ihara, Takuro; Hama, Toshio

    1994-12-31

    A novel photovoltaic (PV) module for roof top systems, solar roofing, was proposed. Solar roofing is a flexible amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV sheet having the function of roofing. Tempered glass is used as roof covering material. Technical items for roof top systems using solar roofing were discussed. Preliminary studies on module component materials showed feasibility of solar roofing. The authors designed a construction technology for tempered glass covered roofs. Effects of shadows on PV module upon its performance were also analyzed.

  9. Rating PV Power and Energy: Cell, Module, and System Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, Keith

    2016-06-02

    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current vs. voltage measurement theory including basic PV operation, equivalent circuit, and concept of spectral error; PV power performance including PV irradiance sensors, simulators and commercial and generic I-V systems; PV measurement artifacts, intercomparisons, and alternative rating methods.

  10. Distributed PV Adoption in Maine Through 2021

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-11-06

    NREL has used its dSolar (distributed solar) model to generate low-medium-high estimates of distributed PV adoption in Maine through 2021. This presentation gives a high-level overview of the model and modeling results.

  11. PV Module Reliability Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its PV module reliability research. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed and recent publications are listed.

  12. PV System Energy Evaluation Method (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes a comparison of the "predicted" energy (based on historical weather data) with the "expected" energy (based on the measured weather data) to determine whether a PV system is performing as modeled in order to verify the accuracy of a model. A key factor in defining this energy test is determining the test boundary so that weather variations are not inadvertently included in what is considered to be PV system performance.

  13. Updating Technical Screens for PV Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Coddington, M.; Ellis, A.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Key, T.; Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hill, R.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-08-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the dominant type of distributed generation (DG) technology interconnected to electric distribution systems in the United States, and deployment of PV systems continues to increase rapidly. Considering the rapid growth and widespread deployment of PV systems in United States electric distribution grids, it is important that interconnection procedures be as streamlined as possible to avoid unnecessary interconnection studies, costs, and delays. Because many PV interconnection applications involve high penetration scenarios, the process needs to allow for a sufficiently rigorous technical evaluation to identify and address possible system impacts. Existing interconnection procedures are designed to balance the need for efficiency and technical rigor for all DG. However, there is an implicit expectation that those procedures will be updated over time in order to remain relevant with respect to evolving standards, technology, and practical experience. Modifications to interconnection screens and procedures must focus on maintaining or improving safety and reliability, as well as accurately allocating costs and improving expediency of the interconnection process. This paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offers potential short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen.

  14. DOE High Performance Concentrator PV Project

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2005-08-01

    Much in demand are next-generation photovoltaic (PV) technologies that can be used economically to make a large-scale impact on world electricity production. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project to substantially increase the viability of PV for cost-competitive applications so that PV can contribute significantly to both our energy supply and environment. To accomplish such results, the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) directs in-house and subcontracted research in high-performance polycrystalline thin-film and multijunction concentrator devices with the goal of enabling progress of high-efficiency technologies toward commercial-prototype products. We will describe the details of the subcontractor and in-house progress in exploring and accelerating pathways of III-V multijunction concentrator solar cells and systems toward their long-term goals. By 2020, we anticipate that this project will have demonstrated 33% system efficiency and a system price of $1.00/Wp for concentrator PV systems using III-V multijunction solar cells with efficiencies over 41%.

  15. PV system field experience and reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Steven; Rosenthal, Andrew; Thomas, Mike

    1997-02-01

    Hybrid power systems consisting of battery inverters coupled with diesel, propane, or gasoline engine-driven electrical generators, and photovoltaic arrays are being used in many remote locations. The potential cost advantages of hybrid systems over simple engine-driven generator systems are causing hybrid systems to be considered for numerous applications including single-family residential, communications, and village power. This paper discusses the various design constraints of such systems and presents one technique for reducing hybrid system losses. The Southwest Technology Development Institute under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories has been installing data acquisition systems (DAS) on a number of small and large hybrid PV systems. These systems range from small residential systems (1 kW PV - 7 kW generator), to medium sized systems (10 kW PV - 20 kW generator), to larger systems (100 kW PV - 200 kW generator). Even larger systems are being installed with hundreds of kilowatts of PV modules, multiple wind machines, and larger diesel generators.

  16. PV performance modeling workshop summary report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Tasca, Coryne Adelle; Cameron, Christopher P.

    2011-05-01

    During the development of a solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project, predicting expected energy production from a system is a key part of understanding system value. System energy production is a function of the system design and location, the mounting configuration, the power conversion system, and the module technology, as well as the solar resource. Even if all other variables are held constant, annual energy yield (kWh/kWp) will vary among module technologies because of differences in response to low-light levels and temperature. A number of PV system performance models have been developed and are in use, but little has been published on validation of these models or the accuracy and uncertainty of their output. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, Sandia National Laboratories organized a PV Performance Modeling Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico, September 22-23, 2010. The workshop was intended to address the current state of PV system models, develop a path forward for establishing best practices on PV system performance modeling, and set the stage for standardization of testing and validation procedures for models and input parameters. This report summarizes discussions and presentations from the workshop, as well as examines opportunities for collaborative efforts to develop objective comparisons between models and across sites and applications.

  17. Evaluation of Encapsulant Materials for PV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M.

    2010-01-01

    Encapsulant materials used in PV modules serve multiple purposes. They physically hold components in place, provide electrical insulation, optically couple superstrate materials (e.g., glass) to PV cells, protect components from mechanical stress by mechanically de-coupling components via strain relief, and protect materials from corrosion. To do this, encapsulants must adhere well to all surfaces, remain compliant, and transmit light after exposure to temperature, humidity, and UV radiation histories. Encapsulant materials by themselves do not completely prevent water vapour ingress [1-3], but if they are well adhered, they will prevent the accumulation of liquid water providing protection against corrosion as well as electrical shock. Here, a brief review of some of the polymeric materials under consideration for PV applications is provided, with an explanation of some of their advantages and disadvantages.

  18. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrova, Olga; Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay; Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Schindelholz, Eric John; Sorensen, Neil R.; Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh

    2015-12-01

    The continued exponential growth of photovoltaic technologies paves a path to a solar-powered world, but requires continued progress toward low-cost, high-reliability, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) systems. High reliability is an essential element in achieving low-cost solar electricity by reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and extending system lifetime and availability, but these attributes are difficult to verify at the time of installation. Utilities, financiers, homeowners, and planners are demanding this information in order to evaluate their financial risk as a prerequisite to large investments. Reliability research and development (R&D) is needed to build market confidence by improving product reliability and by improving predictions of system availability, O&M cost, and lifetime. This project is focused on understanding, predicting, and improving the reliability of PV systems. The two areas being pursued include PV arc-fault and ground fault issues, and inverter reliability.

  19. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Kochergin, Vladimir; Crawford, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  20. Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch and astronomy in Nuremberg in the second half of the 18th century. (German Title: Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch und die Astronomie in Nürnberg in der zweiten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaab, Hans

    In the second half of the 18th century, Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch (1731 - 1802) was the best-known living mathematician and astronomer in Nuremberg. Being a physician by training, he obtained, in 1769, the post of lecturer in mathematics and physics at the Egidien secondary school. Subsequently, he tried in vain to re-erect the observatory, torn down in 1751. In the early 1770s, he became famous for preparing the second edition of Johann Leonhard Rost's Astronomisches Handbuch that was, in its first edition of 1718, the first compendium of astronomy written in German, and which had a wide circulation. In 1790, Kordenbusch was raised to the nobility for his achievements.

  1. City of temples discusses signaling templates in cancer cells. Third International Symposium on Translational Cancer Research: Cell Signaling & Cancer Therapy. Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India, December 18th through 21st, 2009.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Varsha; Mehta, Kapil; Pathak, Sen; Ravindran, Balachandran; Mishra, Sandip; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2010-06-01

    The third International Translational Cancer Research symposium on "Cell Signaling and Cancer" was recently (from Dec. 18th through Dec. 21st, 2009) convened in Bhubaneswar, Orissa, which lies along the eastern shores of India, just south of Bengal. Overall, the meeting provided a platform for scientists from different nations to discuss emerging ideas that focused on cell signaling in cancer. This third in a row symposium tried to bridge the gap not only between basic research and clinical trials, but also between developed nations and developing countries. With the continuing success of these meetings, the fourth International Translational Cancer Research Meeting is slated to be in December 2011. Please contact us if you are interested in participating, presenting, or supporting the next conference.

  2. Large-Scale PV Integration Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Diao, Ruisheng; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin; Hafen, Ryan P.; Jin, Chunlian; Kirkham, Harold; Shlatz, Eugene; Frantzis, Lisa; McClive, Timothy; Karlson, Gregory; Acharya, Dhruv; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua; Hansen, Clifford; Chadliev, Vladimir; Smart, Michael; Salgo, Richard; Sorensen, Rahn; Allen, Barbara; Idelchik, Boris

    2011-07-29

    This research effort evaluates the impact of large-scale photovoltaic (PV) and distributed generation (DG) output on NV Energy’s electric grid system in southern Nevada. It analyzes the ability of NV Energy’s generation to accommodate increasing amounts of utility-scale PV and DG, and the resulting cost of integrating variable renewable resources. The study was jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy and NV Energy, and conducted by a project team comprised of industry experts and research scientists from Navigant Consulting Inc., Sandia National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and NV Energy.

  3. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-02-01

    This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

  4. International PV QA Task Force's Proposed Comparative Rating System for PV Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2014-10-01

    The International PV Quality Assurance Task Force is developing a rating system that provides comparative information about the relative durability of PV modules. Development of accelerated stress tests that can provide such comparative information is seen as a major step toward being able to predict PV module service life. This paper will provide details of the ongoing effort to determine the format of such an overall module rating system. The latest proposal is based on using three distinct climate zones as defined in IEC 60721-2-1 for two different mounting systems. Specific stresses beyond those used in the qualification tests are being developed for each of the selected climate zones.

  5. PV Cephei: Young Star Caught Speeding?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.; Arce, Héctor G.

    2004-06-01

    Three independent lines of evidence imply that the young star PV Cep is moving at roughly 20 km s-1 through the interstellar medium. The first and strongest suggestion of motion comes from the geometry of the Herbig-Haro (HH) knots in the ``giant'' HH flow associated with PV Cep. Bisectors of lines drawn between pairs of knots at nearly equal distances from PV Cep imply an east-west motion of the source, and a plasmon model fitted to the knot positions gives a good fit of 22 km s-1 motion for the star. The second bit of damning evidence comes from a redshifted trail of molecular gas pointing in the same east-west direction implied by the HH knot geometry. The third exhibit we offer in accusing PV Cep of speeding involves the apparent tilt in the high-velocity molecular jet now emanating from the star. This tilt is best explained if the true, current jet direction is north-south, as it is in Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images, and the star is moving, again at roughly 20 km s-1. Tracing the motion of PV Cep backward in time to the nearest cluster from which it might have been ejected, we find that it is very likely to have been thrown out of the massive star-forming cluster NGC 7023, more than 10 pc away. PV Cep and NGC 7023 are at similar distances, and the backward trace of PV Cep's motion is astonishingly well aligned with a dark, previously unexplained rift in NGC 7023. We propose that PV Cep was ejected, at a speed large enough to escape NGC 7023, at least 100,000 yr ago but that it did not enter the molecular cloud in which it now finds itself until more like 35,000 yr ago. Our calculations show that the currently observable molecular outflow associated with PV Cep is about 10,000 yr old, so the flow has had plenty of time to form while in its current molecular cloud. However, the question of what PV Cep was doing and what gas/disk it took along with it in the time it was traveling through the low-density region between NGC 7023 and its current home is an open

  6. PV Ceph: Young Star Caught Speeding?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, A. A.; Arce, H. G.

    2003-12-01

    Three independent lines of evidence imply that the young star PV Ceph is moving at roughly 20 km s-1 through the interstellar medium. The first, and strongest, suggestion of motion comes from the geometry of the HH knots in the ``giant" Herbig-Haro flow associated with PV Ceph. Bisectors of lines drawn between pairs of knots at nearly equal distances from PV Ceph imply an E-W motion of the source, and a plasmon model fit to the knot positions gives a good fit of 22 km s-1 motion for the star. The second bit of damning evidence comes from a redshifted ``trail" of molecular gas, pointing in the same E-W direction implied by the HH knot geometry. The third exhibit we offer in accusing PV Ceph of speeding involves the tilt apparent in the high-velocity molecular jet now emanating from the star. This tilt is best explained if the true, current, jet direction is N-S, as it is in HST WFPC images, and the star is moving--again at roughly 20 km s-1. Tracing the motion of PV Ceph backward in time, to the nearest cluster from which it might have been ejected, we find that it is very likely to have been thrown out of the massive star-forming cluster NGC7023--more than 10 pc away. PV Ceph and NGC7023 are at similar distances, and the backward-trace of PV Ceph's motion is astonishingly well-aligned with a dark, previously unexplained, rift in NGC7023. We propose that PV Ceph was ejected, at a speed large enough to escape NGC7023, at least 100,000 years ago, but that it did not enter the molecular cloud in which it now finds itself until more like 10,000 years ago. Our calculations show that currently-observable molecular outflow associated with PV Ceph is about 10,000 years old, so that the flow has had plenty of time to form while in its current molecular cloud. But, the question of what PV Ceph was doing, and what gas/disk it took along with it in the time it was traveling through the low-density region between NGC7023 and its current home is open to question. Recent numerical

  7. Transcription Factors PvERF15 and PvMTF-1 Form a Cadmium Stress Transcriptional Pathway1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tingting; Yang, Wanning; Lu, Wen; Wang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    In plants, cadmium (Cd)-responsive transcription factors are key downstream effectors of Cd stress transcriptional pathways, which are capable of converging Cd stress signals through triggering the expression of Cd detoxification genes. However, the upstream transcriptional regulatory pathways that modulate their responses to Cd are less clear. Previously, we identified the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) METAL RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1 (PvMTF-1) that responds to Cd and confers Cd tolerance in planta. Here, we demonstrate an upstream transcriptional regulation of the PvMTF-1 response to Cd. Using a yeast one-hybrid system, we cloned the bean ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR15 (PvERF15) that binds to the PvMTF-1 promoter. PvERF15 was strongly induced by Cd stress, and its overexpression resulted in the up-regulation of PvMTF-1. DNA-protein interaction assays further revealed that PvERF15 binds directly to a 19-bp AC-rich element in the PvMTF-1 promoter. The AC-rich element serves as a positive element bound by PvERF15 to activate gene expression. More importantly, knockdown of PvERF15 by RNA interference resulted in reduced Cd-induced expression of PvMTF-1. PvERF15 seems to be involved in Cd tolerance, since knockdown of PvERF15 by RNA interference in bean leaf discs decreased Cd tolerance in a transient assay. Since PvERF15 is a component of the Cd stress transcriptional pathway in beans and PvMTF-1 is one of its downstream targets, our findings provide a PvERF15/PvMTF-1 transcriptional pathway and thereby contribute to the understanding of Cd stress transcriptional regulatory pathways in plants. PMID:28073984

  8. TRNSYS HYBRID wind diesel PV simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, P.J.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.; Blair, N.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Solar Energy Laboratory (SEL) has developed a wind diesel PV hybrid systems simulator, UW-HYBRID 1.0, an application of the TRNSYS 14.2 time-series simulation environment. An AC/DC bus links up to five diesels and wind turbine models, along with PV modules, a battery bank, and an AC/DC converter. Multiple units can be selected. PV system simulations include solar angle and peak power tracking options. Weather data are Typical Meteorological Year data, parametrically generated synthesized data, or external data files. PV performance simulations rely on long-standing SEL-developed algorithms. Loads data are read as scalable time series. Diesel simulations include estimated fuel-use and waste heat output, and are dispatched using a least-cost of fuel strategy. Wind system simulations include varying air density, wind shear and wake effects. Time step duration is user-selectable. UW-HYBRID 1.0 runs in Windows{reg_sign}, with TRNSED providing a customizable user interface. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Final Technical Report: PV Fault Detection Tool.

    SciTech Connect

    King, Bruce Hardison; Jones, Christian Birk

    2015-12-01

    The PV Fault Detection Tool project plans to demonstrate that the FDT can (a) detect catastrophic and degradation faults and (b) identify the type of fault. This will be accomplished by collecting fault signatures using different instruments and integrating this information to establish a logical controller for detecting, diagnosing and classifying each fault.

  10. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.

  11. Role of Polycrystalline Thin-Film PV Technologies in Competitive PV Module Markets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    von Roedern, B.; Ullal, H. S.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the developments in thin-film PV technologies and provides an outlook on future commercial module efficiencies achievable based on today's knowledge about champion cell performance.

  12. Beacons In Brief. P/PV In Brief. Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Susan; Farley, Chelsea

    2004-01-01

    This second issue in P/PV's "In Brief" series focuses on the San Francisco Beacon Initiative and P/PV's recently released evaluation results. The Beacon Initiative established after-school programs in eight public schools in low-income San Francisco neighborhoods. P/PV's 36-month evaluation examined key developmental and academic outcomes.…

  13. High Resolution PV Power Modeling for Distribution Circuit Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    NREL has contracted with Clean Power Research to provide 1-minute simulation datasets of PV systems located at three high penetration distribution feeders in the service territory of Southern California Edison (SCE): Porterville, Palmdale, and Fontana, California. The resulting PV simulations will be used to separately model the electrical circuits to determine the impacts of PV on circuit operations.

  14. Determination of Parameters of PV Concentrating System With Heliostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardanyan, R.; Norsoyan, A.; Dallakyan, V.

    2010-10-01

    The structure of PV concentrating system with heliostat is analyzed. The mathematical model of system consisting of PV concentrating module and heliostat is developed. With the use of developed mathematical model the optimal parameters of the system are determined. The results of this work can be used during the design of PV concentrating systems with heliostats.

  15. Technologies to Increase PV Hosting Capacity in Distribution Feeders

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Gotseff, Peter

    2016-11-14

    This paper studies the distributed photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity in distribution feeders by using the stochastic analysis approach. Multiple scenario simulations are conducted to analyze several factors that affect PV hosting capacity, including the existence of voltage regulator, PV location, the power factor of PV inverter and Volt/VAR control. Based on the conclusions obtained from simulation results, three approaches are then proposed to increase distributed PV hosting capacity, which can be formulated as the optimization problem to obtain the optimal solution. All technologies investigated in this paper utilize only existing assets in the feeder and therefore are implementable for a low cost. Additionally, the tool developed for these studies is described.

  16. PV_LIB Toolbox v. 1.3

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-09

    PV_LIB comprises a library of Matlab? code for modeling photovoltaic (PV) systems. Included are functions to compute solar position and to estimate irradiance in the PV system’s plane of array, cell temperature, PV module electrical output, and conversion from DC to AC power. Also included are functions that aid in determining parameters for module performance models from module characterization testing. PV_LIB is open source code primarily intended for research and academic purposes. All algorithms are documented in openly available literature with the appropriate references included in comments within the code.

  17. Technologies to Increase PV Hosting Capacity in Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Gotseff, Peter

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies the distributed photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity in distribution feeders by using the stochastic analysis approach. Multiple scenario simulations are conducted to analyze several factors that affect PV hosting capacity, including the existence of voltage regulator, PV location, the power factor of PV inverter and Volt/VAR control. Based on the conclusions obtained from simulation results, three approaches are then proposed to increase distributed PV hosting capacity, which can be formulated as the optimization problem to obtain the optimal solution. All technologies investigated in this paper utilize only existing assets in the feeder and therefore are implementable for a low cost. Additionally, the tool developed for these studies is described.

  18. The 18th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Topics concerning aerospace mechanisms, their functional performance, and design specifications are presented. Discussed subjects include the design and development of release mechanisms, actuators, linear driver/rate controllers, antenna and appendage deployment systems, position control systems, and tracking mechanisms for antennas and solar arrays. Engine design, spaceborne experiments, and large space structure technology are also examined.

  19. Two 18th Century Observatories of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambleton, Robert

    A visit to the two major observatories of Ireland, Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland, and Dunsink Observatory in Dublin. Mentioned are Herschel, Thomas Grubb, Thomas Jones transit instrument, Howard Grubb, Kew Observatory, John Arnold & Sons clocks, Birr Castle, and the Earl of Rosse.

  20. 18th Annual School Construction Report, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The bottom line on school construction in 2012 is that total spending edged up slightly from the previous year, (to $12.9 billion from $12.2 billion), but the spending for new schools declined from $6.9 billion to $6.177 billion. The increase in overall spending was attributable to more spending for additions and a major increase in spending for…

  1. Cascaded Microinverter PV System for Reduced Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Bellus, Daniel R.; Ely, Jeffrey A.

    2013-04-29

    In this project, a team led by Delphi will develop and demonstrate a novel cascaded photovoltaic (PV) inverter architecture using advanced components. This approach will reduce the cost and improve the performance of medium and large-sized PV systems. The overall project objective is to develop, build, and test a modular 11-level cascaded three-phase inverter building block for photovoltaic applications and to develop and analyze the associated commercialization plan. The system will be designed to utilize photovoltaic panels and will supply power to the electric grid at 208 VAC, 60 Hz 3-phase. With the proposed topology, three inverters, each with an embedded controller, will monitor and control each of the cascade sections, reducing costs associated with extra control boards. This report details the final disposition on this project.

  2. PV Manufacturing R&D Project -- Trends in the U.S. PV Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K. E.; Mitchell, R. L.; Bower, W. I.; King, R.

    2005-01-01

    To foster continued growth in the U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the PV Manufacturing R&D (PVMR&D) Project--a partnership with U.S. PV industry participants to perform cost-shared manufacturing research and development. Throughout FY 2004, PVMR&D managed fourteen subcontracts across the industry. The impact of PVMR&D is quantified by reductions in direct module manufacturing costs, scale-up of existing PV production capacity, and accrual of cost savings to the public and industry. An analysis of public and industry investment shows that both recaptured funds by mid-1998 based on estimated manufacturing cost savings from PVMR&D participation. Since project inception, total PV manufacturing capacity has increased from 14 MW to 201 MW at the close of 2003, while direct manufacturing costs declined from $5.55/W to $2.49/W. These results demonstrate continued progress toward the overriding goals of the PVMR&D project.

  3. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    PubMed

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-02

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  4. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved

  5. PV solar electricity: status and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-04-01

    Within the four main market segments of PV solar electricity there are already three areas competitive today. These are off-grid industrial and rural as well as consumer applications. The overall growth within the past 8 years was almost 40 % p.a. with a "normal" growth of about 18 % p.a. for the first three market segments whereas the grid connected market increased with an astonishing 63 % p.a. The different growth rates catapulted the contribution of grid connected systems in relation to the total market from about one quarter 6 years ago towards more than three quarters today. The reason for this development is basically due to industry-politically induced market support programs in the aforementioned countries. It is quite important to outline under which boundary conditions grid connected systems will be competitive without support programs like the feed in tariff system in Germany, Spain and some more to come in Europe as well as investment subsidies in Japan, US and some other countries. It will be shown that in a more and more liberalized utility market worldwide electricity produced by PV solar electricity systems will be able to compete with their generating cost against peak power prices from utilities. The point of time for this competitiveness is mainly determined by the following facts: 1. Price decrease for PV solar electricity systems leading to an equivalent decrease in the generated cost for PV produced kWh. 2. Development of a truly liberalized electricity market. 3. Degree of irradiation between times of peak power demand and delivery of PV electricity. The first topic is discussed using price experience curves. Some explanations will be given to correlate the qualitative number of 20 % price decrease for doubling cumulative worldwide sales derived from the historic price experience curve with a more quantitative analysis based on our EPIA-Roadmap (productivity increase and ongoing improvements for existing technologies as well as development

  6. PV technology and success of solar electricity in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Dung, T.Q.

    1997-12-31

    Since 1990 the PV Technology and the Solar electricity have been strongly developed in Vietnam. The PV experts of Solarlab have studied and set up an appropriate PV Technology responding to local Market needs. It has not only stood well but has been also transferred to Mali Republic and Lao P.D.R. The PV off grid systems of Solarlab demonstrate good efficiency and low prices. Over 60 solar stations and villages have been built to provide solar lighting for about 3000 families along the country in remote, mountainous areas and islands. 400 families are using stand-alone Solar Home Systems. The Solar electricity has been chosen for Rural Electrification and National Telecommunication Network in remote and mountainous regions. Many International projects in cooperation with FONDEM-France, SELF USA and Governmental PV projects have been realized by Solarlab. The experiences of maintenance, management and finance about PV development in Vietnam are also mentioned.

  7. Photovoltaic (PV) Power Systems for Enhancing Energy Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-24

    Energy and Environment Technology Transition – Supporting DoD Readiness, Sustainability, and the Warfighter Photovoltaic (PV) Power Systems for...to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photovoltaic (PV) Power Systems for Enhancing Energy Security 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...use of 235W solar panels Note [2] System AC Rating based upon typical .77 conversion factor from DC power to AC power ConsiderationNo. PV LAYOUT OPTION

  8. Evaluation of the 2012 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference: six month impact on science, program, and policy.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Danielle E; Goodman, David A; Howlette, Travis; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Law, Mark; Phillips, Donna; Jones, Jessica; Brantley, Mary D; Fitzgerald, Maureen

    2014-09-01

    The 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference took place in December 2012, covering MCH science, program, and policy issues. Assessing the impact of the Conference on attendees' work 6 months post-Conference provides information critical to understanding the impact and the use of new partnerships, knowledge, and skills gained during the Conference. Evaluation assessments, which included collection of quantitative and qualitative data, were administered at two time points: at Conference registration and 6 months post-Conference. The evaluation files were merged using computer IP address, linking responses from each assessment. Percentages of attendees reporting Conference impacts were calculated from quantitative data, and common themes and supporting examples were identified from qualitative data. Online registration was completed by 650 individuals. Of registrants, 30 % responded to the 6 month post-Conference assessment. Between registration and 6 month post-Conference evaluation, the distribution of respondents did not significantly differ by organizational affiliation. In the 6 months following the Conference, 65 % of respondents reported pursuing a networking interaction; 96 % shared knowledge from the Conference with co-workers and others in their agency; and 74 % utilized knowledge from the Conference to translate data into public health action. The Conference produced far-reaching impacts among Conference attendees. The Conference served as a platform for networking, knowledge sharing, and attaining skills that advance the work of attendees, with the potential of impacting organizational and workforce capacity. Increasing capacity could improve MCH programs, policies, and services, ultimately impacting the health of women, infants, and children.

  9. Cribra orbitalia as a potential indicator of childhood stress: Evidence from paleopathology, stable C, N, and O isotopes, and trace element concentrations in children from a 17(th)-18(th) century cemetery in Jēkabpils, Latvia.

    PubMed

    Zariņa, Gunita; Sholts, Sabrina B; Tichinin, Alina; Rudovica, Vita; Vīksna, Arturs; Engīzere, Austra; Muižnieks, Vitolds; Bartelink, Eric J; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2016-12-01

    Cribra orbitalia (CO), or porotic hyperostosis (PH) of the orbital roof, is one of the most common pathological conditions found in archaeological subadult skeletal remains. Reaching frequencies higher than 50% in many prehistoric samples, CO has been generally attributed to a variety of factors including malnutrition (e.g., megaloblastic anemia) and parasitism. In this study, we tested the relationship between CO, trace element concentrations, and stable isotope values (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O) in subadult skeletons from a 17(th) to 18(th) century cemetery in the historic town of Jēkabpils, Latvia. A total of 28 subadults were examined, seven of which (25%) showed evidence of CO. Bioarchaeological evidence indicated high mortality for children in this cemetery: half of the burials were subadults under the age of 14, while a third were under the age of four. Life expectancy at birth was estimated to have been only 21.6 years. Trace element concentrations measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) showed no relationship between presence or absence of CO and levels of manganese, zinc, strontium, barium, copper, cadmium, or lead in the bones (p>0.05). However, a significant correlation (p<0.05) was found between the presence of CO and decreased levels of iron. The correlations between CO and decreased levels of copper and lead approached significance (p=0.056 for both elements). Individuals with CO furthermore displayed significantly lower δ(15)N isotope values, suggesting greater consumption of lower trophic level food resources than those unaffected by CO; δ(13)C and δ(18)O values, in contrast, showed no significant differences. These results suggest that the prevalence of CO may be related to dietary deficiencies. In this case, low iron levels may also signify a diet low in other key vitamins (e.g., B9 and B12), which are known to cause megaloblastic anemia.

  10. History of individuals of the 18th/19th centuries stored in bones, teeth, and hair analyzed by LA-ICP-MS--a step in attempts to confirm the authenticity of Mozart's skull.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Christina; Reiter, Christian; Patzak, Beatrix; Stingeder, Gerhard; Prohaska, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    A cranium stored in the Stiftung Mozarteum in Salzburg/Austria which is believed to be that of Mozart, and skeletal remains of suspected relatives which have been excavated from the Mozart family grave in the cemetery in Salzburg, have been subjected to scientific investigations to determine whether or not the skull is authentic. A film project by the Austrian television ORF in collaboration with Interspot Film on this issue was broadcast at the beginning of the "Mozart year 2006". DNA analysis could not clarify relationships among the remains and, therefore, assignment of the samples was not really possible. In our work this skull and excavated skeletal remains have been quantified for Pb, Cr, Hg, As, and Sb content by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain information about the living conditions of these individuals. A small splinter of enamel (less than 1 mm(3)) from a tooth of the "Mozart cranium" was also available for investigation. Quantification was performed by using spiked hydroxyapatite standards. Single hair samples which are recorded to originate from Mozart have also been investigated by LA-ICP-MS and compared with hair samples of contemporary citizens stored in the Federal Pathologic-Anatomical Museum, Vienna. In general, Pb concentrations up to approximately 16 mug g(-1) were found in the bone samples of 18th century individuals (a factor of 7 to 8 higher than in recent samples) reflecting elevated Pb levels in food or beverages. Elevated Pb levels were also found in hair samples. The amount of Sb in the enamel sample of the "Mozart cranium" (approx. 3 mug g(-1)) was significantly higher than in all the other tooth samples investigated, indicating possible Sb ingestion in early childhood. Elevated concentrations of elements in single hair samples gave additional information about possible exposure of the individuals to heavy metals at a particular point in their life.

  11. PV modules with optimized energy balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weixlberger, Johann; Bruckner, Richard

    2011-09-01

    The overall energy balance of a solar PV-module across its life time needs a consideration incl. its energy consumption during manufacturing process versus its energy harvesting capabilities during life time. A glass-glass-module based on thin tempered glass on front and backside can dramatically influence this overall balance, since more than 50 % of encapsulation materials manufacturing energy can be saved, followed by a an further impact on frameless mounting of light-weighted modules, reducing mounting costs and enabling simpler BIPV.

  12. Development of a Dispatchable PV Peak Shainv System. PV: Bonus Program - Phase 1 Report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Delmarva Power and Light and its subcontractors in Phase 1 of the US Department of Energy's PV:BONUS Program. The purpose of the program is to develop products and systems for buildings which utilize photovoltaic (N) technology. Beginning with a cooperative research effort with the University of Delaware's Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Delmarva Power developed and demonstrated the concept of Dispatchable PV Peak Shaving. This concept and the system which resulted horn the development work are unique from other grid-connected PV systems because it combines a PV, battery energy storage, power conversion and control technologies into an integrated package. Phase 1 began in July 1993 with the installation of a test and demonstration system at Delmarva's Northern Division General Office building near Newark, Delaware. Following initial testing throughout the summer and fall of 1993, significant modifications were made under an amendment to the DOE contract. Work on Phase 1 concluded in the early spring of 1995. Significant progress towards the goal of commercializing the system was made during Phase 1, and is summarized. Based on progress in Phase 1, a proposal to continue the work in Phase 2 was submitted to the US DOE in May 1995. A contract amendment and providing funds for the Phase 2 work is expected in July 1995.

  13. Measuring the benefits of climate forecasts in predicting PV power production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Matteo; Alessandri, Andrea; Pollino, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Surface solar radiation is an important variable to model and predict solar power output. Having accurate forecast may be of potential use for planning and operational tasks, both at short- and long-time scales. This study examines the predictability of seasonal surface solar radiation comparing ECMWF System4 Seasonal operational forecasts the SARAH Satellite Dataset on the period 1984-2007. This work tries to answer the following question: how useful are climate forecasts in predicting seasonal PV production? The "information layer" provided by climate information is overlapped with 1) the information about the land cover (CLC2006) to consider the potential amount of land available for PV panels and 2) the information about the solar power installed capacity for European region in order to define the areas where an improved forecast could have a bigger impact. All the information layers are summarised by using a simple scalar index (Index of Opportunity) computed for all the European regions for the four seasons. The results are very interesting, in fact the potential benefits of climate forecasts are not (only) related to their statistical skills (e.g. probabilistic scores) but also to the actual and potential installed capacity of solar power. Here, we show that to assess the usefulness of climate forecasts in the energy sector we should use all the relevant information layers, combining them according to the "needs" of the potential users.

  14. A fatal case of poisoning related to new cathinone designer drugs, 4-methoxy PV8, PV9, and 4-methoxy PV9, and a dissociative agent, diphenidine.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Keiko; Usumoto, Yosuke; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Sameshima, Naomi; Tsuji, Akiko; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2015-09-01

    A woman in her thirties was found dead on a bed. Considerable amounts of "aroma liquid" and "bath salt" products and hypnotic drug tablets were scattered beside the bed. Autopsy showed pulmonary congestion and edema. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses of "aroma liquid" and "bath salt" products showed the presence of new cathinone designer drugs, 4-methoxy PV8 (4-methoxy PHPP), PV9 (α-POP), and 4-methoxy PV9 (4-methoxy α-POP), and a dissociative agent, diphenidine. Drug screening in stomach contents, blood and hydrolyzed urine of the woman by GC-MS and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed the presence of the above 4 types of drugs and 3 types of benzodiazepines, triazolam, flunitrazepam, and nitrazepam, and their metabolites. The above 7 drugs and 3 benzodiazepine metabolites were simultaneously determined by LC-MS/MS after modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, Safe) extraction using diazepam-d5 as the internal standard. The concentrations of 4-methoxy PV8, PV9, 4-methoxy PV9, and diphenidine in the femoral blood were 2.69, 0.743, 0.261, and 1.38μg/ml, respectively, which were significantly higher than concentrations reported in previous cases. Alcohol concentration in the femoral blood was 1.52mg/ml. Based on the pathological and toxicological findings, the cause of death was determined to be 3 types of cathinone drugs, 4-methoxy PV8, PV9, and 4-methoxy PV9, and diphenidine poisoning under the influence of 3 benzodiazepines and alcohol.

  15. Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European

    PubMed Central

    Fregel, Rosa; Gomes, Verónica; Gusmão, Leonor; González, Ana M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Amorim, António; Larruga, Jose M

    2009-01-01

    Background The origin and prevalence of the prehispanic settlers of the Canary Islands has attracted great multidisciplinary interest. However, direct ancient DNA genetic studies on indigenous and historical 17th–18th century remains, using mitochondrial DNA as a female marker, have only recently been possible. In the present work, the analysis of Y-chromosome polymorphisms in the same samples, has shed light on the way the European colonization affected male and female Canary Island indigenous genetic pools, from the conquest to present-day times. Results Autochthonous (E-M81) and prominent (E-M78 and J-M267) Berber Y-chromosome lineages were detected in the indigenous remains, confirming a North West African origin for their ancestors which confirms previous mitochondrial DNA results. However, in contrast with their female lineages, which have survived in the present-day population since the conquest with only a moderate decline, the male indigenous lineages have dropped constantly being substituted by European lineages. Male and female sub-Saharan African genetic inputs were also detected in the Canary population, but their frequencies were higher during the 17th–18th centuries than today. Conclusion The European colonization of the Canary Islands introduced a strong sex-biased change in the indigenous population in such a way that indigenous female lineages survived in the extant population in a significantly higher proportion than their male counterparts. PMID:19650893

  16. Chemotaxis by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato.

    PubMed

    Cuppels, Diane A

    1988-03-01

    Optimal laboratory conditions for studying chemotaxis by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato were determined by using the Adler capillary tube assay. Although they are not an absolute requirement for chemotaxis, the presence of 0.1 mM EDTA and 1 mM MgCl(2) in the chemotaxis buffer (10 mM potassium phosphate [pH 7.2]) significantly enhanced the response to attractant. The addition of mannitol as an energy source had little effect. The optimal temperature for chemotaxis was 23 degrees C, which is 5 degrees C below the optimal growth temperature for this pathogen. The best response occurred when the bacteria were exposed to attractant for 60 min at a concentration of approximately 5 x 10 CFU/ml. P. syringae pv. tomato was strongly attracted to citric and malic acids, which are the predominant organic acids in tomato fruit. With the exception of asparagine, the major amino acids of tomatoes were weak to moderate attractants. Glucose and fructose, which account for approximately 47% of tomato dry matter, also elicited poor responses. In assays with tomato intercellular fluid and leaf surface water, the bacterial speck pathogen could not chemotactically distinguish between a resistant and a susceptible cultivar of tomato.

  17. Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, S. H.; delCueto, J. A.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2005-11-01

    Dielectric thin-film barrier and adhesion-promoting layers consisting of silicon oxynitride materials (SiOxNy, with various stoichiometry) were investigated. For process development, films were applied to glass (TCO, conductive SnO2:F; or soda-lime), polymer (PET, polyethylene terephthalate), aluminized soda-lime glass, or PV cell (a-Si, CIGS) substrates. Design strategy employed de-minimus hazard criteria to facilitate industrial adoption and reduce implementation costs for PV manufacturers or suppliers. A restricted process window was explored using dilute compressed gases (3% silane, 14% nitrous oxide, 23% oxygen) in nitrogen (or former mixtures, and 11.45% oxygen mix in helium and/or 99.999% helium dilution) with a worst-case flammable and non-corrosive hazard classification. Method employed low radio frequency (RF) power, less than or equal to 3 milliwatts per cm2, and low substrate temperatures, less than or equal to 100 deg C, over deposition areas less than or equal to 1000 cm2. Select material properties for barrier film thickness (profilometer), composition (XPS/FTIR), optical (refractive index, %T and %R), mechanical peel strength and WVTR barrier performance are presented.

  18. Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Testing (SSADT) for Photovoltaic (PV) Devices and Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Elmore, R.; Suh, C.; Jones, W.

    2010-10-01

    Presentation on step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) for photovoltaics (PV). Developed are a step-stress degradation test (SSADT) for PV reliability tests and a lifetime prediction model for PV products.

  19. Impact of residential PV adoption on Retail Electricity Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, DWH; Adlakha, S; Low, SH; De Martini, P; Chandy, KM

    2013-11-01

    The price of electricity supplied from home rooftop photo voltaic (PV) solar cells has fallen below the retail price of grid electricity in some areas. A number of residential households have an economic incentive to install rooftop PV systems and reduce their purchases of electricity from the grid. A significant portion of the costs incurred by utility companies are fixed costs which must be recovered even as consumption falls. Electricity rates must increase in order for utility companies to recover fixed costs from shrinking sales bases. Increasing rates will, in turn, result in even more economic incentives for customers to adopt rooftop PV. In this paper, we model this feedback between PV adoption and electricity rates and study its impact on future PV penetration and net-metering costs. We find that the most important parameter that determines whether this feedback has an effect is the fraction of customers who adopt PV in any year based solely on the money saved by doing so in that year, independent of the uncertainties of future years. These uncertainties include possible changes in rate structures such as the introduction of connection charges, the possibility of PV prices dropping significantly in the future, possible changes in tax incentives, and confidence in the reliability and maintainability of PV. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Applications of ``PV Optics`` for solar cell and module design

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.L.; Madjdpour, J.; Chen, W.

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes some applications of a new optics software package, PV Optics, developed for the optical design of solar cells and modules. PV Optics is suitable for the analysis and design of both thick and thin solar cells. It also includes a feature for calculation of metallic losses related to contacts and back reflectors.

  1. AtPV42a and AtPV42b Redundantly Regulate Reproductive Development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lei; Hou, Xingliang; Lee, Li Yen Candy; Liu, Lu; Yan, Xiaojing; Yu, Hao

    2011-01-01

    Background The conserved SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 complexes are global regulators of metabolic responses in eukaryotes and play a key role in the control of energy balance. Although α-type subunits of the SnRK1 complex have been characterized in several plant species, the biological function of β-type and γ-type subunits remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized AtPV42a and AtPV42b, the two homologous genes in Arabidopsis, which encode cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) domain-containing proteins that belong to the PV42 class of γ-type subunits of the plant SnRK1 complexes. Methodology/Principal Findings Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine the expression of AtPV42a and AtPV42b in various tissues. Transgenic plants that expressed artificial microRNAs targeting these two genes were created. Reproductive organ development and fertilization in these plants were examined by various approaches, including histological analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and phenotypic analyses of reciprocal crosses between wild-type and transgenic plants. We found that AtPV42a and AtPV42b were expressed in various tissues during different developmental stages. Transgenic plants where AtPV42a and AtPV42b were simultaneously silenced developed shorter siliques and reduced seed sets. Such low fertility phenotype resulted from deregulation of late stamen development and impairment of pollen tube attraction conferred by the female gametophyte. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that AtPV42a and AtPV42b play redundant roles in regulating male gametogenesis and pollen tube guidance, indicating that the Arabidopsis SnRK1 complexes might be involved in the control of reproductive development. PMID:21533063

  2. Fire hazard and other safety concerns of PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2011-09-01

    Photovoltaic modules are usually considered safe and reliable. But in case of grid-connected PV systems that are becoming very popular, the issue of fire safety of PV modules is becoming increasingly important due to the employed high voltages of 600 V to 1000 V. The two main factors i.e. open circuiting of the bypass diode and ground fault that are responsible for the fire in the PV systems have been discussed in detail along with numerous real life examples. Recommendations are provided for preventing the fire hazards such as having at least class C fire rated PV modules, proper bypass and blocking diodes and interestingly, having an ungrounded PV system.

  3. Molecular detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Burkholderia glumae in infected rice seeds and leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is particularly useful for plant pathogen detection. In the present study, multiplex PCR and SYBR green real-time PCR were developed to facilitate simultaneous detection of three important rice pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Bur...

  4. Previous reports of bacterial diseases on crucifers attributed to Pseuomonas syringae pv. maculicola were caused by P. cannabina pv. alisalensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis (Pca) causes bacterial blight on crucifers, which can reduce crucifer yields and result in economic losses in the US. Prior to the late 1990s Pca was not distinguished from the pepper spot pathogen of crucifers, Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm), althoug...

  5. Innovations in Wind and Solar PV Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Jenkin, T.; Pater, J.; Swezey, B.

    2008-02-01

    There is growing national interest in renewable energy development based on the economic, environmental, and security benefits that these resources provide. Historically, greater development of our domestic renewable energy resources has faced a number of hurdles, primarily related to cost, regulation, and financing. With the recent sustained increase in the costs and associated volatility of fossil fuels, the economics of renewable energy technologies have become increasingly attractive to investors, both large and small. As a result, new entrants are investing in renewable energy and new business models are emerging. This study surveys some of the current issues related to wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project financing in the electric power industry, and identifies both barriers to and opportunities for increased investment.

  6. Progress in PV:BONUS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaeth, James J.; Pierce, Lizana K.

    1996-01-01

    The PV:BONUS (Building Opportunities in the U.S. for Photovoltaics) program, to develop photovoltaic products and the associated infrastructure for a sustainable photovoltaic market in the building sector, has attracted a variety of promising projects ranging from integrated modular homes, rooftop integrated photovoltaic systems, dispatchable peak shaving systems, alternating-current module, photovoltaic glazing systems, and curtain wall systems. The mutual commitment by the Department of Energy and the program recipients has inspired diverse partnerships among manufacturers, utilities, construction companies, and universities for the development of niche markets for building-integrated photovoltaics. Many of the photovoltaic systems are currently being demonstrated with market campaigns underway to commercialize these innovative renewable energy, building-integrated products.

  7. Electrochemical Approaches to PV Busbar Application

    SciTech Connect

    Pankow, J. W.

    2005-01-01

    Busbars are an integral component of any thin-film photovoltaic module and must be easy and quick to apply by PV manufacturers, as well as provide long-term reliability in deployed modules. Potential reliability issues include loss of adhesion and delamination, chemical instability under current collection conditions (electromigration or corrosion), compatibility of material and application method with subsequent encapsulation steps. Several new and novel busbar materials and application methods have been explored, including adhering metal busbars with various one- and two-part conductive epoxies or conductive adhesive films, ultrasonic bonding of metal busbar strips, and bonding of busbar strips using low-temperature solders. The most promising approach to date has been the direct application of metal busbars via various electrochemical techniques, which offers a variety of distinct advantages.

  8. Managing PV Power on Mars - MER Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Chin, Keith; Wood, Eric; Herman, Jennifer; Ewell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The MER Rovers have recently completed over 5 years of operation! This is a remarkable demonstration of the capabilities of PV power on the Martian surface. The extended mission required the development of an efficient process to predict the power available to the rovers on a day-to-day basis. The performance of the MER solar arrays is quite unlike that of any other Space array and perhaps more akin to Terrestrial PV operation, although even severe by that comparison. The impact of unpredictable factors, such as atmospheric conditions and dust accumulation (and removal) on the panels limits the accurate prediction of array power to short time spans. Based on the above, it is clear that long term power predictions are not sufficiently accurate to allow for detailed long term planning. Instead, the power assessment is essentially a daily activity, effectively resetting the boundary points for the overall predictive power model. A typical analysis begins with the importing of the telemetry from each rover's previous day's power subsystem activities. This includes the array power generated, battery state-of-charge, rover power loads, and rover orientation, all as functions of time. The predicted performance for that day is compared to the actual performance to identify the extent of any differences. The model is then corrected for these changes. Details of JPL's MER power analysis procedure are presented, including the description of steps needed to provide the final prediction for the mission planners. A dust cleaning event of the solar array is also highlighted to illustrate the impact of Martian weather on solar array performance

  9. Lessons Learned from the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology/PV Manufacturing R&D and Thin Film PV Partnership Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, R.; Mitchell, R.; Zweibel, K.

    2006-09-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program initiates new cost-shared solar energy R&D under the Solar America Initiative (SAI), it is useful to analyze the experience gained from cost-shared R&D projects that have been funded through the program to date. This report summarizes lessons learned from two DOE-sponsored photovoltaic (PV) projects: the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology/PV Manufacturing R&D (PVMaT/PVMR&D) project and the Thin-Film PV Partnership project. During the past 10-15 years, these two projects have invested roughly $330 million of government resources in cost-shared R&D and leveraged another $190 million in private-sector PV R&D investments. Following a description of key findings and brief descriptions of the PVMaT/PVMR&D and Thin-Film PV Partnership projects, this report presents lessons learned from the projects.

  10. Development of an Efficient Real-Time Quantitative PCR Protocol for Detection of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in Prunus Species ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; Cubero, Jaime; Cambra, Miguel A.; Collados, Raquel; Berruete, Isabel M.; López, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni, the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruit, is considered a quarantine organism by the European Union and the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). The bacterium can undergo an epiphytic phase and/or be latent and can be transmitted by plant material, but currently, only visual inspections are used to certify plants as being X. arboricola pv. pruni free. A novel and highly sensitive real-time TaqMan PCR detection protocol was designed based on a sequence of a gene for a putative protein related to an ABC transporter ATP-binding system in X. arboricola pv. pruni. Pathogen detection can be completed within a few hours with a sensitivity of 102 CFU ml−1, thus surpassing the sensitivity of the existing conventional PCR. Specificity was assessed for X. arboricola pv. pruni strains from different origins as well as for closely related Xanthomonas species, non-Xanthomonas species, saprophytic bacteria, and healthy Prunus samples. The efficiency of the developed protocol was evaluated with field samples of 14 Prunus species and rootstocks. For symptomatic leaf samples, the protocol was very efficient even when washed tissues of the leaves were directly amplified without any previous DNA extraction. For samples of 117 asymptomatic leaves and 285 buds, the protocol was more efficient after a simple DNA extraction, and X. arboricola pv. pruni was detected in 9.4% and 9.1% of the 402 samples analyzed, respectively, demonstrating its frequent epiphytic or endophytic phase. This newly developed real-time PCR protocol can be used as a quantitative assay, offers a reliable and sensitive test for X. arboricola pv. pruni, and is suitable as a screening test for symptomatic as well as asymptomatic plant material. PMID:21037298

  11. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K; Coddington, M; Burman, K; Hayter, S; Kroposki, B; Watson, and A

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to networks in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and

  12. Three junction holographic micro-scale PV system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuechen; Vorndran, Shelby; Ayala Pelaez, Silvana; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2016-09-01

    In this work a spectrum splitting micro-scale concentrating PV system is evaluated to increase the conversion efficiency of flat panel PV systems. In this approach, the dispersed spectrum splitting concentration systems is scaled down to a small size and structured in an array. The spectrum splitting configuration allows the use of separate single bandgap PV cells that increase spectral overlap with the incident solar spectrum. This results in an overall increase in the spectral conversion efficiency of the resulting system. In addition other benefits of the micro-scale PV system are retained such reduced PV cell material requirements, more versatile interconnect configurations, and lower heat rejection requirements that can lead to a lower cost system. The system proposed in this work consists of two cascaded off-axis holograms in combination with a micro lens array, and three types of PV cells. An aspherical lens design is made to minimize the dispersion so that higher concentration ratios can be achieved for a three-junction system. An analysis methodology is also developed to determine the optical efficiency of the resulting system, the characteristics of the dispersed spectrum, and the overall system conversion efficiency for a combination of three types of PV cells.

  13. Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) PV integration study.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Abraham; Mousseau, Tom

    2011-08-01

    This report investigates the effects that increased distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation would have on the Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) system operating requirements. The study focused on determining reserve requirements needed to mitigate the impact of PV variability on system frequency, and the impact on operating costs. Scenarios of 5-MW, 10-MW, and 15-MW nameplate capacity of PV generation plants distributed across the Kauai Island were considered in this study. The analysis required synthesis of the PV solar resource data and modeling of the KIUC system inertia. Based on the results, some findings and conclusions could be drawn, including that the selection of units identified as marginal resources that are used for load following will change; PV penetration will displace energy generated by existing conventional units, thus reducing overall fuel consumption; PV penetration at any deployment level is not likely to reduce system peak load; and increasing PV penetration has little effect on load-following reserves. The study was performed by EnerNex under contract from Sandia National Laboratories with cooperation from KIUC.

  14. Sub-synchronous resonance damping using high penetration PV plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khayyatzadeh, M.; Kazemzadeh, R.

    2017-02-01

    The growing need to the clean and renewable energy has led to the fast development of transmission voltage-level photovoltaic (PV) plants all over the world. These large scale PV plants are going to be connected to power systems and one of the important subjects that should be investigated is the impact of these plants on the power system stability. Can large scale PV plants help to damp sub-synchronous resonance (SSR) and how? In this paper, this capability of a large scale PV plant is investigated. The IEEE Second Benchmark Model aggregated with a PV plant is utilized as the case study. A Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) based conventional damping controller is designed and added to the main control loop of PV plant in order to damp the SSR and also investigation of the destructive effect of time delay in remote feedback signal. A new optimization algorithm called teaching-learning-based-optimization (TLBO) algorithm has been used for managing the optimization problems. Fast Furrier Transformer (FFT) analysis and also transient simulations of detailed nonlinear system are considered to investigate the performance of the controller. Robustness of the proposed system has been analyzed by facing the system with disturbances leading to significant changes in generator and power system operating point, fault duration time and PV plant generated power. All the simulations are carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

  15. Optimal Solar PV Arrays Integration for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Li, Xueping

    2012-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems hold great potential for distributed energy generation by installing PV panels on rooftops of residential and commercial buildings. Yet challenges arise along with the variability and non-dispatchability of the PV systems that affect the stability of the grid and the economics of the PV system. This paper investigates the integration of PV arrays for distributed generation applications by identifying a combination of buildings that will maximize solar energy output and minimize system variability. Particularly, we propose mean-variance optimization models to choose suitable rooftops for PV integration based on Markowitz mean-variance portfolio selection model. We further introduce quantity and cardinality constraints to result in a mixed integer quadratic programming problem. Case studies based on real data are presented. An efficient frontier is obtained for sample data that allows decision makers to choose a desired solar energy generation level with a comfortable variability tolerance level. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the tradeoffs between solar PV energy generation potential and variability.

  16. PV Project Finance in the United States, 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, David; Lowder, Travis; Schwabe, Paul

    2016-09-01

    This brief is a compilation of data points and market insights that reflect the state of the project finance market for solar photovoltaic (PV) assets in the United States as of the third quarter of 2016. This information can generally be used as a simplified benchmark of the costs associated with securing financing for solar PV as well as the cost of the financing itself (i.e., the cost of capital). Three sources of capital are considered -- tax equity, sponsor equity, and debt -- across three segments of the PV marketplace.

  17. Photovoltaic (PV) Impact Assessment for Very High Penetration Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Danling; Mather, Barry A.; Seguin, Richard; Hambrick, Joshua; Broadwater, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a granular approach for investigating the impacts of very high photovoltaic (PV) generation penetration. Studies on two real-world distribution feeders connected to PV plants are presented. The studies include both steady-state and time-series power flow analyses, which include the effects of solar variability. The goal of the study is to predict the effects of increasing levels of PV generation as it reaches very high penetration levels. The loss and return of generation with and without regulation is simulated to capture short-term problems such as voltage fluctuations. Impact results from the analyses are described along with potential mitigations.

  18. CPV Vs. PV from a grid-matching perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobach, E.; Bader, S.; Faiman, D.; Solomon, A. A.; Meron, G.

    2012-10-01

    In a recently-published series of papers we studied the general problem of matching large PV systems of various kinds to the electricity grid. In those studies CPV systems were simulated via an artificial ansatz in which they were treated as 2-axis flat-panel PV systems whose light sensitivity is only to the direct normal component (DNI) of solar irradiance. The present study replaces this ansatz with an experimentally validated model of a real CPV system. We compare a genuine 2-axis high-concentration CPV system with a static flat-panel PV system from the standpoint of matching both system types to the Israeli electricity grid.

  19. PV Validation and Bankability Workshop: San Jose, California

    SciTech Connect

    Granata, J.; Howard, J.

    2011-12-01

    This report is a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). The report provides feedback from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Program PV Validation and Bankability Workshop in San Jose, California on August 31, 2011. It focuses on the current state of PV in the United States, private funding to fund U.S. PV industry growth, roles and functions of the regional test center program, and ways to improve the current validation and bankability practices.

  20. 3-Port Single-Stage PV & Battery Converter Improves Efficiency and Cost in Combined PV/Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bundschuh, Paul

    2013-03-23

    Due to impressive cost reductions in recent years, photovoltaic (PV) generation is now able to produce electricity at highly competitive prices, but PV’s inherent intermittency reduces the potential value of this energy. The integration of battery storage with PV will be transformational by increasing the value of solar. Utility scale systems will benefit by firming intermittency including PV ramp smoothing, grid support and load shifting, allowing PV to compete directly with conventional generation. For distributed grid-tied PV adding storage will reduce peak demand utility charges, as well as providing backup power during power grid failures. The largest long term impact of combined PV and battery systems may be for delivering reliable off-grid power to the billions of individuals globally without access to conventional power grids, or for billions more that suffer from daily power outages. PV module costs no longer dominate installed PV system costs. Balance-of-System (BOS) costs including the PV inverter and installation now contribute the majority of installed system costs. Battery costs are also dropping faster than installation and battery power converter systems. In each of these separate systems power converters have become a bottleneck for efficiency, cost and reliability. These bottlenecks are compounded in hybrid power conversion systems that combine separate PV and battery converters. Hybrid power conversion systems have required multiple power converters hardware units and multiple power conversion steps adding to efficiency losses, product and installation costs, and reliability issues. Ideal Power Converters has developed and patented a completely new theory of operation for electronic power converters using its indirect EnergyPacket Switching™ topology. It has established successful power converter products for both PV and battery systems, and its 3-Port Hybrid Converter is the first product to exploit the topology’s capability for the

  1. Effect of wind speed on performance of a solar-pv array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thousands of solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays have been installed over the past few years, but the effect of wind speed on the predicted performance of PV arrays is not usually considered by installers. An increase in wind speed will cool the PV array, and the electrical power of the PV modules will ...

  2. Instrumentation for Evaluating PV System Performance Losses from Snow

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Pruett, J.

    2009-01-01

    When designing a photovoltaic (PV) system for northern climates, the prospective installation should be evaluated with respect to the potentially detrimental effects of snow preventing solar radiation from reaching the PV cells. The extent to which snow impacts performance is difficult to determine because snow events also increase the uncertainty of the solar radiation measurement, and the presence of snow needs to be distinguished from other events that can affect performance. This paper describes two instruments useful for evaluating PV system performance losses from the presence of snow: (1) a pyranometer with a heater to prevent buildup of ice and snow, and (2) a digital camera for remote retrieval of images to determine the presence of snow on the PV array.

  3. Full Steam Ahead for PV in US Homes?

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2009-01-15

    In October 2008, the United States Congress extended both the residential and commercial solar investment tax credits (ITCs) for an unprecedented eight years, lifted the $2,000 cap on the residential credit, removed the prohibition on utility use of the commercial credit, and eliminated restrictions on the use of both credits in conjunction with the Alternative Minimum Tax. These significant changes, which apply to systems placed in service on or after January 1, 2009, will increase the value of the solar credits for residential system owners in particular, and are likely--in conjunction with state, local, and utility rebate programs targeting solar--to spur significant growth in residential, commercial, and utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) installations in the years ahead. This article focuses specifically on the residential credit, describing three areas in which removal of the $2,000 cap on the residential ITC will have significant implications for PV rebate program administrators, PV system owners, and the PV industry.

  4. Retaining the Value of PV at High Penetration Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Sarah; Bolen, Michael

    2016-10-13

    PV prices have dropped and are now attractive without incentives for peaking applications in some locations. Modeling suggests and, empirically, some regions demonstrate that as PV penetration increases its value decreases, predominantly due to a decrease in energy and capacity value. It is not apparent what technologies and price may be needed for PV to supply tens of percent of electricity in the most economically efficient manner. A 1-day workshop was co-sponsored by EPRI and NREL with support from ASU. A dozen presentations and discussions introduced how the interplay of various technologies impact the value of PV, identified technical challenges and gaps impeding implementation, and discussed future R&D needs and opportunities.

  5. Evaluation of PV Module Field Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, John; Silverman, Timothy; Miller, David C.; McNutt, Peter; Kempe, Michael; Deceglie, Michael

    2015-06-14

    This paper describes an effort to inspect and evaluate PV modules in order to determine what failure or degradation modes are occurring in field installations. This paper will report on the results of six site visits, including the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) Hedge Array, Tucson Electric Power (TEP) Springerville, Central Florida Utility, Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), the TEP Solar Test Yard, and University of Toledo installations. The effort here makes use of a recently developed field inspection data collection protocol, and the results were input into a corresponding database. The results of this work have also been used to develop a draft of the IEC standard for climate and application specific accelerated stress testing beyond module qualification. TEP Solar Test Yard, and University of Toledo installations. The effort here makes use of a recently developed field inspection data collection protocol, and the results were input into a corresponding database. The results of this work have also been used to develop a draft of the IEC standard for climate and application specific accelerated stress testing beyond module qualification. TEP Solar Test Yard, and University of Toledo installations. The effort here makes use of a recently developed field inspection data collection protocol, and the results were input into a corresponding database. The results of this work have also been used to develop a draft of the IEC standard for climate and application specific accelerated stress testing beyond module qualification.

  6. The Ramakrishna Mission economic PV development initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S.; Sherring, C.

    1998-09-01

    India is the world`s second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion persons. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many of the people have little or no access to electricity and all of the benefits associated with it. There are areas that are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission, and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics to provide limited supplies of electricity for such applications as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications, and economic development activities. This paper details initial results from approximately 30 kilowatts of PV systems installed in the area, including socio-economic impacts and technical performance.

  7. Performance and Degradation Analysis of Operating PV Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva Freire, Felipe

    The environmental concerns together with the decrease in technology cost lead the solar market to growth rapidly along the last decade. The photovoltaic (PV) systems are one of the solar energy alternatives and the silicon solar cells are currently the most widespread technology. Photovoltaic (PV) modules are considered the most reliable component of a photovoltaic system. The reliability and lifetime depends on the modules energy conversion performance and degradation modes. The analysis of monitoring data give insights about the PV system performance along its service time. The comparison between this data and mathematical models configure a way to predict the futures and new PV installations performance. The goal of this study is to understand the PV systems performance and degradation along its lifetime. A mathematical model was employed to predict the power output of a real, relatively new operating PV system with respect to environmental parameters temperature, irradiance and cloud coverage. The model used is based on one diode ideality factor and takes into account the parasitic series resistance. The results have been compared with the actual PV output data collected for the year 2014 and show good correlation. As the model predicts the system power output assuming the system in new conditions, the deviation in performance of the real data in comparison to the modeling results need to be further investigated for systems in service for longer time. For this propose, the study presents a condensed review of various causes of degradation in silicon PV modules and techniques to observe and investigate these degradation mechanisms. Major effects on output performance exhibit increase in observed ideality factor n2 and recombination current J02 primarily caused by decrease in minority carrier lifetime, shunts and increase in series resistance. The study further, investigates the governing degradation modes on a ten years old PV crystalline silicon module

  8. PV Derived Data for Predicting Performance; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, Bill

    2015-09-14

    A method is described for providing solar irradiance data for modeling PV performance by using measured PV performance data and back-solving for the unknown direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), which can then be used to model the performance of PV systems of any size, PV array tilt, or PV array azimuth orientation. Ideally situated for using the performance data from PV modules with micro-inverters, the PV module operating current is used to determine the global tilted irradiance (GTI), and a separation model is then used to determine the DNI and DHI from the GTI.

  9. Microgrid-Ready Solar PV; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    Designing new solar projects to be 'microgrid-ready' enables the U.S. DoD, other federal agencies, and the private sector to plan future microgrid initiatives to utilize solar PV as a generating resource. This fact sheet provides background information with suggested language for several up-front considerations that can be added to a solar project procurement or request for proposal (RFP) that will help ensure that PV systems are built for future microgrid connection.

  10. pV3-Gold Visualization Environment for Computer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babrauckas, Theresa L.

    1997-01-01

    A new visualization environment, pV3-Gold, can be used during and after a computer simulation to extract and visualize the physical features in the results. This environment, which is an extension of the pV3 visualization environment developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with guidance and support by researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center, features many tools that allow users to display data in various ways.

  11. Draft genome sequences of three Xanthomonas translucens pathovar reference strains (pv. arrhenatheri, pv. poae and pv. phlei) with different specificities for forage grasses.

    PubMed

    Hersemann, Lena; Wibberg, Daniel; Widmer, Franco; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Kölliker, Roland

    2016-01-01

    As causal agents of bacterial wilt in pastures and meadows, bacteria of the species Xanthomonas translucens are a serious issue in forage grass production. So far, only little is known about host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level and the lack of comprehensive genome data impeded targeted breeding strategies towards resistant forage grass cultivars. Here we announce the draft genome sequences of three grass-pathogenic Xanthomonas translucens pathotype strains, i.e. pv. arrhenatheri LMG 727, pv. poae LMG 728 and pv. phlei LMG 730 isolated from Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) P. Beauv. ex J. Presl & C. Presl (Switzerland), Poa trivialis L. (Switzerland) and Phleum pratense L. (Norway), respectively. The genomes of all three strains revealed a non-canonical type III secretion system and a set of 22 type III effectors as common virulence-related traits. Distinct inter-pathovar differences were observed for the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis gene cluster and the presence of nonribosomal peptide synthetases.

  12. Residential Solar PV Systems in the Carolinas: Opportunities and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Bandar Jubran; Holt, Kyra Moore; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Pratson, Lincoln

    2016-02-16

    This paper presents a first-order analysis of the feasibility and technical, environmental, and economic effects of large levels of solar photovoltaic (PV) penetration within the services areas of the Duke Energy Carolinas (DEC) and Duke Energy Progress (DEP). A PV production model based on household density and a gridded hourly global horizontal irradiance data set simulates hourly PV power output from roof-top installations, while a unit commitment and real-time economic dispatch (UC-ED) model simulates hourly system operations. We find that the large generating capacity of base-load nuclear power plants (NPPs) without ramping capability in the region limits PV integration levels to 5.3% (6510 MW) of 2015 generation. Enabling ramping capability for NPPs would raise the limit of PV penetration to near 9% of electricity generated. If the planned retirement of coal-fired power plants together with new installations and upgrades of natural gas and nuclear plants materialize in 2025, and if NPPs operate flexibly, then the share of coal-fired electricity will be reduced from 37% to 22%. A 9% penetration of electricity from PV would further reduce the share of coal-fired electricity by 4-6% resulting in a system-wide CO2 emissions rate of 0.33 to 0.40 tons/MWh and associated abatement costs of 225-415 (2015$ per ton).

  13. High Penetration PV Deployment in the Arizona Public Service System

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, D.; Hambrick, J.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the impacts of high penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) generators on distribution systems, Arizona Public Service (APS) and its partners have begun work on a multi-year project to develop the tools and knowledgebase needed to safely and reliably integrate high penetrations of utility and residential scale PV. Building upon the APS Community Power Project - Flagstaff Pilot, this project will analyze the impact of PV on a representative feeder in northeast Flagstaff. To quantify and catalog the effects of the estimated 1.5 MW of PV that will be installed on the feeder (both smaller units at homes as well as large, centrally located systems), high-speed weather and electrical data acquisition systems and digital 'smart' meters are being designed and installed to facilitate monitoring and to build and validate comprehensive, high-resolution models of the distribution system. These models will be used to analyze the impacts of the PV on distribution circuit protection systems (including anti-islanding), predict voltage regulation and phase balance issues, and develop volt/var control schemes. The goal of this paper is to provide insight and lessons learned on the early stages of high penetration PV deployment. Primarily focusing on modeling and data acquisition, this paper describes the overall project, early results, and plans for future phases of the project.

  14. How Can We Make PV Modules Safer?: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    Safety is a prime concern for the photovoltaics (PV) industry. As a technology deployed on residential and commercial buildings, it is critical that PV not cause damage to the buildings nor harm the occupants. Many of the PV systems on buildings are of sufficiently high voltage (300 to 600 Volts dc) that they may present potential hazards. These PV systems must be safe in terms of mechanical damage (nothing falls on someone), shock hazard (no risk of electrical shock when touching an exposed circuit element), and fire (the modules neither cause nor promote a fire). The present safety standards (IEC 61730 and UL 1703) do a good job of providing for design rules and test requirements for mechanical, shock, and spread of flame dangers. However, neither standard addresses the issue of electrical arcing within a module that can cause a fire. To make PV modules, they must be designed, built, and installed with an emphasis on minimizing the potential for open circuits and ground faults. This paper provides recommendations on redundant connection designs, robust mounting methods, and changes to the safety standards to yield safer PV modules.

  15. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hasper-Tuttle, J.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.

    2011-01-01

    California regulators recently approved a plan proposed by Southern California Edison (SCE) to install 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy in its utility service territory over the next 5 years. The installations will include 250 MW of utility-owned solar and 250 MW of independently owned solar. SCE expects that the majority of these systems will be commercial-scale rooftop PV systems connected at various points in the distribution system. Each of the SCE rooftop PV systems will typically have a rating of 1-3 MW. To understand the impact of high-penetration PV on the distribution grid, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE brought together a team of experts in resource assessment, distribution modeling, and planning to help analyze the impacts of adding high penetration of PV into the distribution system. Through modeling and simulation, laboratory testing, and field demonstrations, the team will address the issues identified in the analysis by fully examining the challenges, developing solutions, and transitioning those solutions to the field for large-scale deployment. This paper gives an update on the project and discusses technical results of integrating a large number of distributed PV systems into the grid.

  16. Continuing Developments in PV Risk Management: Strategies, Solutions, and Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.; Speer, B.; Hill, R.

    2013-02-01

    As the PV industry matures, successful risk management practices will become more imperative to ensure investor confidence, control costs, and facilitate further growth. This report discusses several key aspects of risk management during the commercial- and utility-scale project life cycle, from identification of risks, to the process of mitigating and allocating those risks among project parties, to transferring those risks through insurance. The report also explores novel techniques in PV risk management, options to offload risks onto the capital markets, and innovative insurance policies (namely warranty policies) that address risks unique to the PV sector. One of the major justifications for robust risk management in the PV industry is the cost-reduction opportunities it affords. If the PV industry can demonstrate the capability to successfully manage its risks, thereby inspiring confidence in financiers, it may be able to obtain a lower cost of capital in future transactions. A lower cost of capital translates to a lower cost of energy, which will in turn enhance PV?s competitiveness at a time when it will have to rely less on subsidies to support its market penetration.

  17. Review of PV Inverter Technology Cost and Performance Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Navigant Consulting Inc.

    2006-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has a major responsibility in the implementation of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has a major role in supporting inverter development, characterization, standards, certifications, and verifications. The Solar Energy Technologies Program recently published a Multiyear Technical Plan, which establishes a goal of reducing the Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) for photovoltaic (PV) systems to $0.06/kWh by 2020. The Multiyear Technical Plan estimates that, in order to meet the PV system goal, PV inverter prices will need to decline to $0.25-0.30 Wp by 2020. DOE determined the need to conduct a rigorous review of the PV Program's technical and economic targets, including the target set for PV inverters. NREL requested that Navigant Consulting Inc.(NCI) conduct a review of historical and projected cost and performance improvements for PV inverters, including identification of critical barriers identified and the approaches government might use to address them.

  18. Control Strategies for the DAB Based PV Interface System.

    PubMed

    El-Helw, Hadi M; Al-Hasheem, Mohamed; Marei, Mostafa I

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an interface system based on the Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter for Photovoltaic (PV) arrays. Two control strategies are proposed for the DAB converter to harvest the maximum power from the PV array. The first strategy is based on a simple PI controller to regulate the terminal PV voltage through the phase shift angle of the DAB converter. The Perturb and Observe (P&O) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is utilized to set the reference of the PV terminal voltage. The second strategy presented in this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to directly set the phase shift angle of the DAB converter that results in harvesting maximum power. This feed-forward strategy overcomes the stability issues of the feedback strategy. The proposed PV interface systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the EMTDC/PSCAD software packages. The simulation results reveal accurate and fast response of the proposed systems. The dynamic performance of the proposed feed-forward strategy outdoes that of the feedback strategy in terms of accuracy and response time. Moreover, an experimental prototype is built to test and validate the proposed PV interface system.

  19. Control Strategies for the DAB Based PV Interface System

    PubMed Central

    El-Helw, Hadi M.; Al-Hasheem, Mohamed; Marei, Mostafa I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an interface system based on the Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter for Photovoltaic (PV) arrays. Two control strategies are proposed for the DAB converter to harvest the maximum power from the PV array. The first strategy is based on a simple PI controller to regulate the terminal PV voltage through the phase shift angle of the DAB converter. The Perturb and Observe (P&O) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is utilized to set the reference of the PV terminal voltage. The second strategy presented in this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to directly set the phase shift angle of the DAB converter that results in harvesting maximum power. This feed-forward strategy overcomes the stability issues of the feedback strategy. The proposed PV interface systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the EMTDC/PSCAD software packages. The simulation results reveal accurate and fast response of the proposed systems. The dynamic performance of the proposed feed-forward strategy outdoes that of the feedback strategy in terms of accuracy and response time. Moreover, an experimental prototype is built to test and validate the proposed PV interface system. PMID:27560138

  20. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    SciTech Connect

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  1. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  2. Review of Artificial Abrasion Test Methods for PV Module Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Muller, Matt T.; Simpson, Lin J.

    2016-08-01

    This review is intended to identify the method or methods--and the basic details of those methods--that might be used to develop an artificial abrasion test. Methods used in the PV literature were compared with their closest implementation in existing standards. Also, meetings of the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force Task Group 12-3 (TG12-3, which is concerned with coated glass) were used to identify established test methods. Feedback from the group, which included many of the authors from the PV literature, included insights not explored within the literature itself. The combined experience and examples from the literature are intended to provide an assessment of the present industry practices and an informed path forward. Recommendations toward artificial abrasion test methods are then identified based on the experiences in the literature and feedback from the PV community. The review here is strictly focused on abrasion. Assessment methods, including optical performance (e.g., transmittance or reflectance), surface energy, and verification of chemical composition were not examined. Methods of artificially soiling PV modules or other specimens were not examined. The weathering of artificial or naturally soiled specimens (which may ultimately include combined temperature and humidity, thermal cycling and ultraviolet light) were also not examined. A sense of the purpose or application of an abrasion test method within the PV industry should, however, be evident from the literature.

  3. Lightweight PV Inverters: Dual Bi-Directional IGBTs Modules Enables Breakthrough PV Inverter Using Current Modulation Topology

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-30

    Solar ADEPT Project: PV inverters convert DC power generated by modules into usable AC power. IPC’s initial 30kW 94lb. PV inverter reduces the weight of comparable 30kW PV inverters by 90%—reducing the cost of materials, manufacturing, shipping, and installation. With ARPA-E support, new bi-directional silicon power switches will be developed, commercialized, and utilized in IPC’s next-generation PV inverter. With these components, IPC will produce 100kW inverters that weight less than 100lb., reducing the weight of conventional 3,000lb. 100kW inverters by more than 95%. The new power switches will cut IPC’s $/W manufacturing cost in half, as well as further reduce indirect shipping and installation costs.

  4. Proposal of Xanthomonas translucens pv. pistaciae pv. nov., pathogenic to pistachio (Pistacia vera).

    PubMed

    Giblot-Ducray, Danièle; Marefat, Alireza; Gillings, Michael R; Parkinson, Neil M; Bowman, John P; Ophel-Keller, Kathy; Taylor, Cathy; Facelli, Evelina; Scott, Eileen S

    2009-12-01

    Strains of Xanthomonas translucens have caused dieback in the Australian pistachio industry for the last 15 years. Such pathogenicity to a dicotyledonous woody host contrasts with that of other pathovars of X. translucens, which are characterized by their pathogenicity to monocotyledonous plant families. Further investigations, using DNA-DNA hybridization, gyrB gene sequencing and integron screening, were conducted to confirm the taxonomic status of the X. translucens pathogenic to pistachio. DNA-DNA hybridization provided a clear classification, at the species level, of the pistachio pathogen as a X. translucens. In the gyrB-based phylogeny, strains of the pistachio pathogen clustered among the X. translucens pathovars as two distinct lineages. Integron screening revealed that the cassette arrays of strains of the pistachio pathogen were different from those of other Xanthomonas species, and again distinguished two groups. Together with previously reported pathogenicity data, these results confirm that the pistachio pathogen is a new pathovar of X. translucens and allow hypotheses about its origin. The proposed name is Xanthomonas translucens pv. pistaciae pv. nov.

  5. All-AC, building integrated PV system for mass deployment of residential PV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cammack, Kevin; Augenbraun, Joe; Sun, Dan

    2011-05-17

    Project Objective: Solar Red is developing novel PV installation methods and system designs that lower costs dramatically and allow seamless integration into the structure of any sloped roof using existing construction tools and processes. The overall objective of this project is to address the greatest barriers to massive adoption of residential and small commercial rooftop solar – scalability of installation and total cost of ownership - by moving Solar Red’s snap-in/snap-out PV installation method from the pre-prototype design phase to the development and construction of a deployed prototype system. Financial Summary: Funded through ARRA, DOE and Match Funding Original Project Budget: $229,310 o DOE/ARRA Funding: $150,000 o Match Funding: $79,310 Actual Cost: $216,598 o DOE/ARRA Funding: $150,000 o Match Funding: $120,087 Project Summary: Develop snap-in/snap-out mounting system for low-cost, thin-film solar panels – Lower installation cost – Lower sales costs – Lower training/expertise barriers

  6. On the spectral response of PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, J. Y.; Guo, S.; Walsh, T. M.; Hishikawa, Y.; Stangl, R. A.

    2014-09-01

    The spectral response of silicon wafer based and thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules is studied using simulation and experimental methods. Circuit simulations show that the module spectral response (SR) depends on (1) the SR of the cells, (2) the shunt resistance Rshunt of the cells, and (3) the bypass diodes of the module. For realistic Rshunt values, the module SR is significantly higher than the minimal SR of the individual cells (which would be the module SR in the case of infinite Rshunt). Round-robin tests using different experimental methods (partial illumination and full-area illumination) to determine the SR of a wafer-based module and a thin-film silicon module were conducted. Both SR methods are found to agree reasonably well. However, circuit simulations indicate that if only one cell, or a few cells, within the module have significantly different characteristics but not known, the results may differ considerably. The partial illumination method can access the SR of the individual cells within a module, but it possibly requires a long measurement time in order to measure the SR and Rshunt of each cell for confirming the SR of the whole module. In contrast, full-area illumination methods measure the module SR directly, but they cannot access the cell SRs if problematic cells exist. An uncertainty analysis of the full-area illumination method is conducted, which reveals that—if the calibrated reference cell is chosen properly—the calibration uncertainty of the reference cell itself is the main source of uncertainty.

  7. Structure and Origin of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni Populations Causing Bacterial Spot of Stone Fruit Trees in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Boudon, Sylvain; Manceau, Charles; Nottéghem, Jean-Loup

    2005-09-01

    ABSTRACT Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni, the causal agent of bacterial spot on stone fruit, was found in 1995 in several orchards in southeastern France. We studied population genetics of this emerging pathogen in comparison with populations from the United States, where the disease was first described, and from Italy, where the disease has occurred since 1920. Four housekeeping genes (atpD, dnaK, efp, and glnA) and the intergenic transcribed spacer region were sequenced from a total of 3.9 kb of sequences, and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) analysis was performed. A collection of 64 X. arboricola pv. pruni strains, including 23 strains from France, was analyzed. The X. arboricola pv. pruni population had a low diversity because no sequence polymorphisms were observed. Population diversity revealed by FAFLP was lower for the West European population than for the American population. The same bacterial genotype was detected from five countries on three continents, a geographic distribution that can be explained by human-aided migration of bacteria. Our data support the hypothesis that the pathogen originated in the United States and subsequently has been disseminated to other stone-fruit-growing regions of the world. In France, emergence of this disease was due to a recent introduction of the most prevalent genotype of the bacterium found worldwide.

  8. Plug and Play PV Systems for American Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoepfner, Christian

    2016-12-22

    The core objectives of the Plug & Play PV Systems Project were to develop a PV system that can be installed on a residential rooftop for less than $1.50/W in 2020, and in less than 10 hours (from point of purchase to commissioning). The Fraunhofer CSE team’s approach to this challenge involved a holistic approach to system design – hardware and software – that make Plug & Play PV systems: • Quick, easy, and safe to install • Easy to demonstrate as code compliant • Permitted, inspected, and interconnected via an electronic process Throughout the three years of work during this Department of Energy SunShot funded project, the team engaged in a substantive way with inspectional services departments and utilities, manufacturers, installers, and distributors. We received iterative feedback on the system design and on ideas for how such systems can be commercialized. This ultimately led us to conceiving of Plug & Play PV Systems as a framework, with a variety of components compatible with the Plug & Play PV approach, including string or microinverters, conventional modules or emerging lightweight modules. The framework enables a broad group of manufacturers to participate in taking Plug & Play PV Systems to market, and increases the market size for such systems. Key aspects of the development effort centered on the system hardware and associated engineering work, the development of a Plug & Play PV Server to enable the electronic permitting, inspection and interconnection process, understanding the details of code compliance and, on occasion, supporting applications for modifications to the code to allow lightweight modules, for example. We have published a number of papers on our testing and assessment of novel technologies (e.g., adhered lightweight modules) and on the electronic architecture.

  9. Investigation of bias radiation effect on PV cell measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuebo; Quan, Chenggen; Chan, Joanne; Ng, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells are photo-electrical devices that convert light energy directly into electricity through the photovoltaic effect. PV cell assemblies are used to make solar modules employed in a variety of ways ranging from space applications to domestic energy consumption. Characterisation and performance testing of PV cells are critical to the development of PV technologies and growth of the solar industry. As new solar products are being developed, its energy conversion efficiency and other critical parameters must be accurately measured and tested against globally recognised metrological standards. The differential spectral responsivity (DSR) measurement is one of the primary methods for calibrating reference PV cells. This is done by calculating its spectral responsivities through measuring the AC short-circuit current produced by a PV cell under a modulated monochromatic radiation and different levels of steady-state broadband bias light radiation. It is observed that different types of bias light source will produce different signal-to-noise levels and significantly influence measurement accuracy. This paper aims to investigate the noise sources caused by different types of bias light sources (e.g. xenon arc and tungsten-halogen lamps) and the relevant measurement uncertainties so as to propose a guideline for selection of bias light source which can improve the signal-to-noise level and measurement uncertainty. The DSRs of the PV cells are measured using a commercial DSR measurement system under different levels of bias radiation from 0 to 1 kWm-2. The data analysis and uncertainty evaluation are presented in this paper using experimental data and mathematical tools.

  10. Thermal performances of vertical hybrid PV/T air collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabet, I.; Touafek, K.; Bellel, N.; Khelifa, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, numerical analyses and the experimental validation of the thermal behavior of a vertical photovoltaic thermal air collector are investigated. The thermal model is developed using the energy balance equations of the PV/T air collector. Experimental tests are conducted to validate our mathematical model. The tests are performed in the southern Algerian region (Ghardaïa) under clear sky conditions. The prototype of the PV/T air collector is vertically erected and south oriented. The absorber upper plate temperature, glass cover temperature, air temperature in the inlet and outlet of the collector, ambient temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation are measured. The efficiency of the collector increases with increase in mass flow of air, but the increase in mass flow of air reduces the temperature of the system. The increase in efficiency of the PV/T air collector is due to the increase in the number of fins added. In the experiments, the air temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet of the PV/T air collector reaches 10 ° C on November 21, 2014, the interval time is between 10:00 and 14:00, and the temperature of the upper plate reaches 45 ° C at noon. The mathematical model describing the dynamic behavior of the typical PV/T air collector is evaluated by calculating the root mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. A good agreement between the experiment and the simulation results is obtained.

  11. The reliability of bypass diodes in PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Shiradkar, Narendra; Schneller, Eric; Gade, Vivek

    2013-09-01

    The operating conditions of bypass diodes in PV modules deployed in the field are considerably harsher than the conditions at which the diode manufacturers test the diodes. This has a potential to significantly reduce the operating life of bypass diodes and has raised concerns about the safety and reliability of PV modules as a whole. The study of modes and mechanisms of the failures encountered in bypass diodes used in PV modules can provide important information which would be useful to predict the module lifetime. This paper presents the review of the failure modes and mechanisms observed in bypass diodes and current work related to reliability testing of bypass diodes. The International PV Module Quality Assurance Task Force has recommended following four potential areas of research to understand the reliability issues of bypass diodes: Electrostatic Discharge, reverse bias thermal runaway testing, forward bias overheating and transition testing of forward bias to reverse bias. As a joint collaborative effort between Florida Solar Energy Center and Solar and Environmental Test Laboratory at Jabil Inc., laboratory testing of bypass diodes on the guidelines provided by the International PV Module Quality Assurance Task Force has been initiated. Preliminary results from this work are presented in this paper.

  12. Economic analysis of PV hybrid power system: Pinnacles National Monument

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.; Durand, S.; Thomas, M.; Post, H.

    1997-11-01

    PV hybrid electric power systems can offer an economically competitive alternative to engine generator (genset) systems in many off-grid applications. Besides the obvious `green` advantages of producing less noise and emissions, the PV hybrid can, in some cases, offer a lower life-cycle cost (LCC) then the genset. This paper evaluates the LCC of the 9.6 kWp PV hybrid power system installed by the National Park Services (NPS) at Pinnacles National Monument, CA. NPS motivation for installation of this hybrid was not based on economics, but rather the need to replace two aging diesel gensets with an alternative that would be quieter, fuel efficient, and more in keeping with new NPS emphasis on sustainable design and operations. In fact, economic analysis shows a lower 20-year LCC for the installed PV hybrid than for simple replacement of the two gensets. The analysis projects are net savings by the PV hybrid system of $83,561 and over 162,000 gallons of propane when compared with the genset-only system. This net savings is independent of the costs associated with environmental emissions. The effects of including emissions costs, according to NPS guidelines, is also discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Estimation of PV energy production based on satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurek, G.

    2015-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is an attractive source of power for systems without connection to power grid. Because of seasonal variations of solar radiation, design of such a power system requires careful analysis in order to provide required reliability. In this paper we present results of three-year measurements of experimental PV system located in Poland and based on polycrystalline silicon module. Irradiation values calculated from results of ground measurements have been compared with data from solar radiation databases employ calculations from of satellite observations. Good convergence level of both data sources has been shown, especially during summer. When satellite data from the same time period is available, yearly and monthly production of PV energy can be calculated with 2% and 5% accuracy, respectively. However, monthly production during winter seems to be overestimated, especially in January. Results of this work may be helpful in forecasting performance of similar PV systems in Central Europe and allow to make more precise forecasts of PV system performance than based only on tables with long time averaged values.

  14. Geographic smoothing of solar PV: results from Gujarat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, Kelly; Apt, Jay

    2015-10-01

    We examine the potential for geographic smoothing of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation using 13 months of observed power production from utility-scale plants in Gujarat, India. To our knowledge, this is the first published analysis of geographic smoothing of solar PV using actual generation data at high time resolution from utility-scale solar PV plants. We use geographic correlation and Fourier transform estimates of the power spectral density (PSD) to characterize the observed variability of operating solar PV plants as a function of time scale. Most plants show a spectrum that is linear in the log-log domain at high frequencies f, ranging from {f}-1.23 to {f}-1.56 (slopes of -1.23 and -1.56), thus exhibiting more relative variability at high frequencies than exhibited by wind plants. PSDs for large PV plants have a steeper slope than those for small plants, hence more smoothing at short time scales. Interconnecting 20 Gujarat plants yields a {f}-1.66 spectrum, reducing fluctuations at frequencies corresponding to 6 h and 1 h by 23% and 45%, respectively. Half of this smoothing can be obtained through connecting 4-5 plants; reaching marginal improvement of 1% per added plant occurs at 12-14 plants. The largest plant (322 MW) showed an {f}-1.76 spectrum. This suggests that in Gujarat the potential for smoothing is limited to that obtained by one large plant.

  15. Planar holographic spectrum-splitting PV module design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Michael; Zhang, Deming; Vorndran, Shelby; Russo, Juan M.; Luscombe, Christine K.; Shaheen, Sean E.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2012-10-01

    A design is presented for a planar spectrum-splitting photovoltaic (PV) module using Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs). A repeating array of HOEs diffracts portions of the solar spectrum onto different PV materials arranged in alternating strips. Several combinations of candidate PV materials are explored, and theoretical power conversion efficiency is quantified and compared for each case. The holograms are recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG) film, an inexpensive material which is easily encapsulated directly into the panel. If desired, the holograms can focus the light to achieve concentration. The side-by-side split spectrum layout has advantages compared to a stacked tandem cell approach: since the cells are electrically isolated, current matching constraints are eliminated. Combinations of dissimilar types of cells are also possible: including crystalline, thin film, and organic PV cells. Configurations which yield significant efficiency gain using relatively inexpensive PV materials are of particular interest. A method used to optimize HOE design to work with a different candidate cells and different package aspect ratios is developed and presented. (Aspect ratio is width of the cell strips vs. the thickness of the panel) The relationship between aspect ratio and HOE performance properties is demonstrated. These properties include diffraction efficiency, spectral selectivity, tracking alignment sensitivity, and uniformity of cell illumination.

  16. Geographic smoothing of solar PV: Results from Gujarat

    DOE PAGES

    Klima, Kelly; Apt, Jay

    2015-09-24

    We examine the potential for geographic smoothing of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation using 13 months of observed power production from utility-scale plants in Gujarat, India. To our knowledge, this is the first published analysis of geographic smoothing of solar PV using actual generation data at high time resolution from utility-scale solar PV plants. We use geographic correlation and Fourier transform estimates of the power spectral density (PSD) to characterize the observed variability of operating solar PV plants as a function of time scale. Most plants show a spectrum that is linear in the log–log domain at high frequencies f,more » ranging from f-1.23 to f-1.56 (slopes of -1.23 and -1.56), thus exhibiting more relative variability at high frequencies than exhibited by wind plants. PSDs for large PV plants have a steeper slope than those for small plants, hence more smoothing at short time scales. Interconnecting 20 Gujarat plants yields a f-1.66 spectrum, reducing fluctuations at frequencies corresponding to 6 h and 1 h by 23% and 45%, respectively. Half of this smoothing can be obtained through connecting 4-5 plants; reaching marginal improvement of 1% per added plant occurs at 12-14 plants. The largest plant (322 MW) showed an f-1.76 spectrum. Furthermore, this suggests that in Gujarat the potential for smoothing is limited to that obtained by one large plant.« less

  17. News Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-03-01

    Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

  18. Estimation of Curve Tracing Time in Supercapacitor based PV Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu Pal, Sudipta; Das Bhattacharya, Konika; Mukherjee, Dipankar; Paul, Debkalyan

    2017-01-01

    Smooth and noise-free characterisation of photovoltaic (PV) generators have been revisited with renewed interest in view of large size PV arrays making inroads into the urban sector of major developing countries. Such practice has recently been observed to be confronted by the use of a suitable data acquisition system and also the lack of a supporting theoretical analysis to justify the accuracy of curve tracing. However, the use of a selected bank of supercapacitors can mitigate the said problems to a large extent. Assuming a piecewise linear analysis of the V-I characteristics of a PV generator, an accurate analysis of curve plotting time has been possible. The analysis has been extended to consider the effect of equivalent series resistance of the supercapacitor leading to increased accuracy (90-95%) of curve plotting times.

  19. Recent developments in high-efficiency PV cells

    SciTech Connect

    Deb, S.

    2000-05-22

    Enormous progress has been made in recent years on a number of photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices in terms of conversion efficiencies. Ultrahigh-efficiency (>30{percent}) PV cells have been fabricated from gallium arsenide (GaAs) and its ternary alloys such as gallium indium phosphide (GaInP{sub 2}). The high-efficiency GaAs-based solar cells are being produced on a commercial scale, particularly for space applications. Efficiencies in the range of 18{percent} to 24{percent} have been achieved in traditional silicon-based devices fabricated from both multicrystalline and single-crystal materials. Major advances in efficiency have also been made on various thin-film solar cells based on amorphous silicon (aSi:H), copper gallium indium diselenide (CIGS), and cadmium telluride materials. This paper gives a brief overview of the recent progress in PV cell efficiencies based on these materials and devices.

  20. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    SciTech Connect

    Enbar, Nadav; Weng, Dean; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2016-01-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefit the industry at-large.

  1. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    SciTech Connect

    Enbar, Nadav; Weng, Dean; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2015-12-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefi t the industry at-large.

  2. Time series power flow analysis for distribution connected PV generation.

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Robert Joseph; Quiroz, Jimmy Edward; Ellis, Abraham; Reno, Matthew J.; Smith, Jeff; Dugan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Distributed photovoltaic (PV) projects must go through an interconnection study process before connecting to the distribution grid. These studies are intended to identify the likely impacts and mitigation alternatives. In the majority of the cases, system impacts can be ruled out or mitigation can be identified without an involved study, through a screening process or a simple supplemental review study. For some proposed projects, expensive and time-consuming interconnection studies are required. The challenges to performing the studies are twofold. First, every study scenario is potentially unique, as the studies are often highly specific to the amount of PV generation capacity that varies greatly from feeder to feeder and is often unevenly distributed along the same feeder. This can cause location-specific impacts and mitigations. The second challenge is the inherent variability in PV power output which can interact with feeder operation in complex ways, by affecting the operation of voltage regulation and protection devices. The typical simulation tools and methods in use today for distribution system planning are often not adequate to accurately assess these potential impacts. This report demonstrates how quasi-static time series (QSTS) simulation and high time-resolution data can be used to assess the potential impacts in a more comprehensive manner. The QSTS simulations are applied to a set of sample feeders with high PV deployment to illustrate the usefulness of the approach. The report describes methods that can help determine how PV affects distribution system operations. The simulation results are focused on enhancing the understanding of the underlying technical issues. The examples also highlight the steps needed to perform QSTS simulation and describe the data needed to drive the simulations. The goal of this report is to make the methodology of time series power flow analysis readily accessible to utilities and others responsible for evaluating

  3. PREFACE: INERA Workshop: Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films-functional Layers in "Smart windows" and Water Splitting Devices. Parallel session of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    The Special issue presents the papers for the INERA Workshop entitled "Transition Metal Oxides as Functional Layers in Smart windows and Water Splitting Devices", which was held in Varna, St. Konstantin and Elena, Bulgaria, from the 4th-6th September 2014. The Workshop is organized within the context of the INERA "Research and Innovation Capacity Strengthening of ISSP-BAS in Multifunctional Nanostructures", FP7 Project REGPOT 316309 program, European project of the Institute of Solid State Physics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. There were 42 participants at the workshop, 16 from Sweden, Germany, Romania and Hungary, 11 invited lecturers, and 28 young participants. There were researchers present from prestigious European laboratories which are leaders in the field of transition metal oxide thin film technologies. The event contributed to training young researchers in innovative thin film technologies, as well as thin films characterization techniques. The topics of the Workshop cover the field of technology and investigation of thin oxide films as functional layers in "Smart windows" and "Water splitting" devices. The topics are related to the application of novel technologies for the preparation of transition metal oxide films and the modification of chromogenic properties towards the improvement of electrochromic and termochromic device parameters for possible industrial deployment. The Workshop addressed the following topics: Metal oxide films-functional layers in energy efficient devices; Photocatalysts and chemical sensing; Novel thin film technologies and applications; Methods of thin films characterizations; From the 37 abstracts sent, 21 manuscripts were written and later refereed. We appreciate the comments from all the referees, and we are grateful for their valuable contributions. Guest Editors: Assoc. Prof. Dr.Tatyana Ivanova Prof. DSc Kostadinka Gesheva Prof. DSc Hassan Chamatti Assoc. Prof. Dr. Georgi Popkirov Workshop Organizing Committee Prof

  4. Progress Toward Sequestering Carbon Nanotubes in PmPV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bley, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Sequestration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in molecules of poly(m-phenylenevinylene-co-2,5-diocty-loxy-p-phenylenevinylene) [PmPV] is a candidate means of promoting dissolution of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) into epoxies for making strong, lightweight epoxy-matrix/carbon-fiber composite materials. Bare SWNTs cannot be incorporated because they are not soluble in epoxies. In the present approach, one exploits the tendency of PmPV molecules to wrap themselves around SWNTs without chemically bonding to them.

  5. Amp-hour counting control for PV hybrid power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.D.; Thompson, B.

    1997-06-01

    The performance of an amp-hour (Ah) counting battery charge control algorithm has been defined and tested using the Digital Solar Technologies MPR-9400 microprocessor based PV hybrid charge controller. This work included extensive field testing of the charge algorithm on flooded lead-antimony and valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. The test results after one-year have demonstrated that PV charge utilization, battery charge control, and battery state of charge (SOC) has been significantly improved by providing maximum charge to the batteries while limiting battery overcharge to manufacturers specifications during variable solar resource and load periods.

  6. Toward integrated PV panels and power electronics using printing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ababei, Cristinel; Yuvarajan, Subbaraya; Schulz, Douglas L.

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, we review the latest developments in the area of printing technologies with an emphasis on the fabrication of control-embedded photovoltaics (PV) with on-board active and passive devices. We also review the use of power converters and maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuits with PV panels. Our focus is on the investigation of the simplest implementations of such circuits in view of their integration with solar cells using printing technologies. We see this concept as potentially enabling toward further cost reduction. Besides a discussion as to feasibility, we shall also present some projections and guidelines toward possible integration. (author)

  7. Outdoor PV Module Degradation of Current-Voltage Parameters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R. M.; Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module degradation rate analysis quantifies the loss of PV power output over time and is useful for estimating the impact of degradation on the cost of energy. An understanding of the degradation of all current-voltage (I-V) parameters helps to determine the cause of the degradation and also gives useful information for the design of the system. This study reports on data collected from 12 distinct mono- and poly-crystalline modules deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. Most modules investigated showed < 0.5%/year decrease in maximum power due to short-circuit current decline.

  8. Selecting Solar: Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Carolyn; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Before investing in a system, a prospective PV customer must not only have initial concept 'buy in,' but also be able to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with different system parameters. Prospective customers might need to evaluate disparate costs for each system attribute by comparing multiple bids. The difficulty of making such an evaluation with limited information can create a cognitive barrier to proceeding with the investment. This analysis leverages recently available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  9. Modular Power Converters for PV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M

    2012-05-01

    This report describes technical opportunities to serve as parts of a technological roadmap for Shoals Technologies Group in power electronics for PV applications. There are many different power converter circuits that can be used for solar inverter applications. The present applications do not take advantage of the potential for using common modules. We envision that the development of a power electronics module could enable higher reliability by being durable and flexible. Modules would have fault current limiting features and detection circuits such that they can limit the current through the module from external faults and can identify and isolate internal faults such that the remaining modules can continue to operate with only minimal disturbance to the utility or customer. Development of a reliable, efficient, low-cost, power electronics module will be a key enabling technology for harnessing more power from solar panels and enable plug and play operation. Power electronics for computer power supplies, communication equipment, and transportation have all targeted reliability and modularity as key requirements and have begun concerted efforts to replace monolithic components with collections of common smart modules. This is happening on several levels including (1) device level with intelligent control, (2) functional module level, and (3) system module. This same effort is needed in power electronics for solar applications. Development of modular units will result in standard power electronic converters that will have a lower installed and operating cost for the overall system. These units will lead to increased adaptability and flexibility of solar inverters. Incorporating autonomous fault current limiting and reconfiguration capabilities into the modules and having redundant modules will lead to a durable converter that can withstand the rigors of solar power generation for more than 30 years. Our vision for the technology roadmap is that there is no need

  10. Berkeley Program Offers New Option for Financing Residential PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2008-07-06

    Readily accessible credit has often been cited as a necessary ingredient to open up the market for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems. Though financing does not reduce the high up-front cost of PV, by spreading that cost over some portion of the system's life, financing can certainly make PV systems more affordable. As a result, a number of states have, in the past, set up special residential loan programs targeting the installation of renewable energy systems and/or energy-efficiency improvements and often featuring low interest rates, longer terms and no-hassle application requirements. Historically, these loan programs have had mixed success (particularly for PV), for a variety of reasons, including a historical lack of homeowner interest in PV, a lack of program awareness, a reduced appeal in a low-interest-rate environment, and a tendency for early PV adopters to be wealthy and not in need of financing. Some of these barriers have begun to fade. Most notably, homeowner interest in PV has grown in some states, particularly those that offer solar rebates. The passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005), however, introduced one additional roadblock to the success of low-interest PV loan programs: a residential solar investment tax credit (ITC), subject to the Federal government's 'anti-double-dipping' rules. Specifically, the residential solar ITC--equal to 30% of the system's tax basis, capped at $2000--will be reduced or offset if the system also benefits from what is known as 'subsidized energy financing', which is likely to include most government-sponsored low-interest loan programs. Within this context, it has been interesting to note the recent flurry of announcements from a number of U.S cities concerning a new type of PV financing program. Led by the city of Berkeley, Calif., these cities propose to offer their residents the ability to finance the installation of a PV system using increased property tax assessments, rather than a more

  11. Climatically Diverse Data Set for Flat-Plate PV Module Model Validations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, B.

    2013-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module I-V curves were measured at Florida, Colorado, and Oregon locations to provide data for the validation and development of models used for predicting the performance of PV modules.

  12. Photovoltaic (PV) Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, David; Barbose, Galen; Margolis, Robert; Wiser, Ryan; Darghouth, Naim; Goodrich, Alan

    2012-11-30

    The installed capacity of global and U.S. photovoltaic (PV) systems has soared in recent years, driven by declining PV prices and government incentives. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) SunShot Initiative aims to make PV cost competitive without incentives by reducing the cost of PV-generated electricity by about 75% between 2010 and 2020. This summary report—based on research at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)—examines progress in PV price reductions to help DOE and other PV stakeholders manage the transition to a market-driven PV industry, and to provide clarity surrounding the wide variety of potentially conflicting data available about PV system prices.

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis Strains Associated with Walnut Blight in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Higuera, Gastón; González-Escalona, Narjol; Véliz, Camila; Vera, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis is an important pathogen responsible for walnut blight outbreaks globally. Here, we report four draft genome sequences of X. arboricola pv. juglandis strains isolated from Chilean walnut trees. PMID:26450732

  14. Draft genome sequences of five Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum strains isolated in France.

    PubMed

    Cunty, Amandine; Cesbron, Sophie; Briand, Martial; Carrère, Sébastien; Poliakoff, Françoise; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Manceau, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum causes necrotic spots on the leaves of Actinidia deliciosa and Actinidia chinensis. P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum has been detected in New Zealand, Australia, France and Spain. Four lineages were previously identified within the P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum species group. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of five strains of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum representative of lineages 1, 2 and 4, isolated in France. The whole genomes of strains isolated in New Zealand, representative of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum lineages 1 and 3, were previously sequenced. The availability of supplementary P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum genome sequences will be useful for developing molecular tools for pathogen detection and for performing comparative genomic analyses to study the relationship between P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum and other kiwifruit pathogens, such as P. syringae pv. actinidiae.

  15. Dynamic Model Validation of PV Inverters Under Short-Circuit Conditions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Bravo, R.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-03-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules have dramatically decreased in price in the past few years, spurring the expansion of photovoltaic deployment. Residential and commercial rooftop installations are connected to the distribution network; large-scale installation PV power plants (PVPs) have benefited from tax incentives and the low cost of PV modules. As the level penetration of PV generation increases, the impact on power system reliability will also be greater. Utility power system planners must consider the role of PV generation in power systems more realistically by representing PV generation in dynamic stability analyses. Dynamic models of PV inverters have been developed in the positive sequence representation. NREL has developed a PV inverter dynamic model in PSCAD/EMTDC. This paper validates the dynamic model with an actual hardware bench test conducted by Southern California Edison's Distributed Energy Resources laboratory. All the fault combinations -- symmetrical and unsymmetrical -- were performed in the laboratory. We compare the simulation results with the bench test results.

  16. PV industry growth and module reliability in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenvidhya, Dhirayut; Seapan, Manit; Sangpongsanont, Yaowanee; Chenvidhya, Tanokkorn; Limsakul, Chamnan; Songprakorp, Roongrojana

    2015-09-01

    The PV applications in Thailand are now installed more than 1.2 GWp cumulatively. It is due to the National Renewable Energy Program and its targets. In the latest Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP), the PV electricity production target has increased from 2 GWp to 3 GWp. With this rapid growth, customers and manufacturers seek for module standard testing. So far over one thousands of PV modules per annum have been tested since 2012. The normal tests include type approval test according to TIS standard, acceptance test and testing for local standard development. For type test, the most module failure was found during damp heat test. For annual evaluation test, the power degradation and delamination of power was found between 0 to 6 percent from its nameplate after deployment of 0 to 5 years in the field. For thin-film module, the degradation and delamination was found in range of 0 to 13 percent (about 5 percent on average) from its nameplate for the modules in operation with less than 5 years. However, for the PV modules at the reference site on campus operated for 12 years, the power degradation was ranging from 10 to 15 percent. Therefore, a long term performance assessment needs to be considered to ensure the system reliability.

  17. Selecting Solar. Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Carolyn; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This analysis leverages available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  18. Baseline testing procedures for PV modules beyond the qualification testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneller, Eric; Shiradkar, Narendra S.; Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2013-09-01

    The qualification tests described in IEC 61215 for the c-Si PV modules are essentially pass/fail tests that assist in avoiding infant mortality. This paper reports on the baseline test procedure carried out on PV modules at Florida Solar Energy Center that go beyond the pass/fail criteria of the qualification tests and obtain information about the degradation modes and mechanisms. The importance and limitations of the various characterization techniques are described. Electroluminescence imaging has been used to detect and categorize the faults at the cell level. Indoor infrared imaging has been used to study the quality of electrical interconnects in the module. The infrared imaging carried out on the modules while they are undergoing outdoor exposure has provided information about the presence and distribution of hot spots in these modules. Conventionally, the insulation resistance tester has been used mostly for the dry and wet leakage test. In this study, the importance of the polarization index test and voltage excursion test are described. The use of these tests is essential to provide insight into the modes and mechanisms of degradation, during reliability and durability studies of PV modules. A predictive model for the service life of a PV module may be developed through the results obtained from these characterization techniques in conjunction with long-term exposure and accelerated lifetime tests.

  19. Assessing the Causes of Encapsulant Delamination in PV Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, John H.; Hacke, Peter; Bosco, Nick; Miller, David C.; Kempe, Michael D.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2016-11-21

    Delamination of the encapsulant is one of the most prevalent PV module field failures. This paper will present examples of various types of delaminations that have been observed in the field. It will then discuss the development of accelerated stress tests designed to duplicate those field failures and thus provide tools for avoiding them in the future.

  20. Detection of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. glycinea in soybean seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is one of 52 that will compose the second edition of the Laboratory Manual for the Detection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria from Seeds and other Planting Material, to be published by the American Phytopathological Society. The chapter presents a description of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. ...

  1. National solar technology roadmap: Wafer-silicon PV

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan

    2007-06-01

    This report applies to all bulk-silicon-based PV technologies, including those based on Czochralski, multicrystalline, float-zone wafers, and melt-grown crystals that are 100 μm or thicker, such as ribbons, sheet, or spheral silicon.

  2. Silicon Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    del Cueto, J. A.; Glick, S. H.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2006-10-03

    Dielectric, adhesion-promoting, moisture barriers comprised of silicon oxynitride thin film materials (SiOxNy with various material stoichiometric compositions x,y) were applied to: 1) bare and pre-coated soda-lime silicate glass (coated with transparent conductive oxide SnO2:F and/or aluminum), and polymer substrates (polyethylene terephthalate, PET, or polyethylene napthalate, PEN); plus 2) pre- deposited photovoltaic (PV) cells and mini-modules consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film PV technologies. We used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process with dilute silane, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide/oxygen gas mixtures in a low-power (< or = 10 milliW per cm2) RF discharge at ~ 0.2 Torr pressure, and low substrate temperatures < or = 100(degrees)C, over deposition areas ~ 1000 cm2. Barrier properties of the resulting PV cells and coated-glass packaging structures were studied with subsequent stressing in damp-heat exposure at 85(degrees)C/85% RH. Preliminary results on PV cells and coated glass indicate the palpable benefits of the barriers in mitigating moisture intrusion and degradation of the underlying structures using SiOxNy coatings with thicknesses in the range of 100-200 nm.

  3. SToPV: A Five Minute Assessment of Place Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    Place value underpins much of what people do in number. In this article, the author describes some simple tasks that may be used to assess students' understanding of place value. This set of tasks, the Six Tasks of Place Value (SToPV), takes five minutes to administer and can give direct insight into a student's understanding of the number system…

  4. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrova, Olga; Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  5. Fault Current Contribution from Single-Phase PV Inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.; Kroposki, B.; Bravo, R.; Robles, S.

    2011-01-01

    A significant increase in photovoltaic (PV) system installations is expected to come on line in the near future and as the penetration level of PV increases, the effect of PV may no longer be considered minimal. One of the most important attributions of additional PV is what effect this may have on protection systems. Protection engineers design protection systems to safely eliminate faults from the electric power system. One of the new technologies recently introduced into the electric power system are distributed energy resources (DER). Currently, inverter-based DER contributes very little to the power balance on all but a few utility distribution systems. As DER become prevalent in the distribution system, equipment rating capability and coordination of protection systems merit a closer investigation. A collaborative research effort between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Southern California Edison (SCE) involved laboratory short-circuit testing single-phase (240 VAC) residential type (between 1.5 and 7kW) inverters. This paper will reveal test results obtained from these short-circuit tests.

  6. Recent advances in PV systems technology development in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, M.; Grottke, M.; Weiss, I.

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of the photovoltaics (PV) systems technology development were to study several aspects of plant design, monitoring, control, operation, and management of different types of photovoltaic plants. Unsolved problems were to be identified and analysed, and guidelines to improve the monitoring system were to be developed. Principal studies are summarized.

  7. Opportunities and Challenges for Power Electronics in PV Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Deline, C.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Marion, B.; Granata, J.

    2011-02-01

    The presentation describes the value of adding DC converters and other power electronics to modules to improve their output even when shading or bad cells would otherwise decrease the module output. The presentation was part of a workshop sponsored by ARPA-E exploring the opportunities for power electronics to support PV applications.

  8. Lettuce cultivar influences Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians population levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial Leaf Spot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (Xcv), is a widespread and economically important disease of lettuce. Cultivars with resistance to Xcv have been identified, but mechanisms for resistance in this pathosystem have not been investigated. We hypothesized that susceptibl...

  9. Rooftop PV system. PV:BONUS Phase 3B, final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Under the PV:BONUS Program, ECD and United Solar developed, demonstrated and commercialized two new lightweight, flexible BIPV modules specifically designed as replacements for conventional asphalt shingles and standing seam metal roofing. These modules can be economically and aesthetically integrated into new residential and commercial buildings, and can be used to address the even larger roofing-replacement market. An important design feature of these modules, which minimizes the installation and balance-of-system costs, is their ability to be installed by conventional roofing contractors without special training. The modules are fabricated from high-efficiency, triple-junction spectrum-splitting a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. These cells are produced on thin, flexible stainless steel substrates and encapsulated with polymer materials. The Phase 3 program began in August 1995. The principal tasks and goals of this program, which have all been successfully completed by ECD and United Solar, are described in the body and appendices of this report.

  10. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  11. Defining Bankability for Each Step of a PV Project Using IECRE

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Sarah

    2016-07-12

    How can a PV customer know whether a PV plant is 'good'? IECRE was created to provide a cost-effective way to identify 'good' PV plants. This presentation describes the motivation, strategy, and status of the IECRE effort as of July, 2016.

  12. Methods for high-voltage bias testing of PV modules in hot and humid climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Pethe, Shirish A.; Kaul, Ashwani

    2011-09-01

    The accelerated tests currently carried out on PV modules reduce the infant mortality as well as improve the production techniques during the manufacture of PV modules. However, the accelerated tests do not completely duplicate the real world operating conditions of PV modules. Hence it is essential to deploy PV modules in the field for extended periods in order to estimate the degradation, if any, as well as to elucidate the degradation mechanisms. Moreover, PV modules should be tested by specially designed tests in harsh climates. At Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) high-voltage bias testing of PV modules was carried out in hot and humid climate with the individual modules biased at +/- 600 V. It was observed that the leakage currents flowing from the PV circuit to the ground is directly proportional to the bias voltage. PV systems with maximum voltage of 1000 V are installed in Europe and elsewhere which means higher leakage currents will be produced in the PV modules. Based on this fact and the earlier observations, high voltage bias testing of c-Si PV modules specially designed for high voltage operation was carried out in hot and humid climate with the individual modules biased at +/-1500 V at FSEC and higher. This paper provides results of high voltage bias testing of PV modules. The results indicate that the test can be considered as reliable metric in determination of the long term performance of PV modules.

  13. Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    Distributed Solar PV systems have the potential of increasing the grid's resiliency to unforeseen events, such as extreme weather events and attacks. This paper presents the role that distributed PV can play in electric grid resiliency, introduces basic system design requirements and options, and discusses the regulatory and policy options for supporting the use of distributed PV for the purpose of increased electricity resiliency.

  14. DOE Request for Information (RFI) DE-FOA-0000153 PV Manufacturing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-02-01

    This draft report summarizes the results of the U.S. Department of Energy PV Manufacturing Request for Information (RFI), DE-FOA-0000153, that was released in September 2009. The PV Manufacturing Initiative is intended to help facilitate the development of a strong PV manufacturing industry in the United States.

  15. Geographic smoothing of solar PV: Results from Gujarat

    SciTech Connect

    Klima, Kelly; Apt, Jay

    2015-09-24

    We examine the potential for geographic smoothing of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation using 13 months of observed power production from utility-scale plants in Gujarat, India. To our knowledge, this is the first published analysis of geographic smoothing of solar PV using actual generation data at high time resolution from utility-scale solar PV plants. We use geographic correlation and Fourier transform estimates of the power spectral density (PSD) to characterize the observed variability of operating solar PV plants as a function of time scale. Most plants show a spectrum that is linear in the log–log domain at high frequencies f, ranging from f-1.23 to f-1.56 (slopes of -1.23 and -1.56), thus exhibiting more relative variability at high frequencies than exhibited by wind plants. PSDs for large PV plants have a steeper slope than those for small plants, hence more smoothing at short time scales. Interconnecting 20 Gujarat plants yields a f-1.66 spectrum, reducing fluctuations at frequencies corresponding to 6 h and 1 h by 23% and 45%, respectively. Half of this smoothing can be obtained through connecting 4-5 plants; reaching marginal improvement of 1% per added plant occurs at 12-14 plants. The largest plant (322 MW) showed an f-1.76 spectrum. Furthermore, this suggests that in Gujarat the potential for smoothing is limited to that obtained by one large plant.

  16. Cost of energy from utility-scale PV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, W.J.; Whisnant, R.A.; McGowin, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    The cost of energy produced by three different photovoltaic (PV) power plants was estimated based on PV cell and module technology expected to be available by 1995. Plant designs were created for two high concentration PV plants (500 suns), both based on advanced back-contact silicon cell technology, and a thin-film, flat plate plant using copper indium diselenide (CIS) cell technology. The concentrator plants included a central receiver plant using stretched-membrane heliostats and a Fresnel-lens module plant, both utilizing two-axis tracking. Basic plant design factors were selected to minimize 30-year levelized energy costs. Total capital requirements to construct the three plants were estimated through detailed cost estimates. Costs of the cell and module components of the plants were determined by modeling their manufacturing processes when producing modules at an annual rate of both 25 MW/year and 100 MW/year. Energy outputs were determined by computer modeling with hourly insolation and temperature profiles for the two sites. Power system simulation studies were carried out to estimate the impact of the PV plants on system power production cost using synthetic, but realistic, utility system definitions. Both high and low growth rate utility system expansion plans were considered, and capacity and energy credits were calculated. Additionally, credits were calculated for environmental externalities. Benefit/cost ratios for each plant and site were determined. The results of the study provide projections in 1990 dollars of the cost of electric energy from utility-scale PV plants assuming a mature technology that may be available by about 1995. The cost of energy produced by the CIS flat plate plant was projected to be as low as 10.8 cents/kWh. The concentrator plant results were only slightly higher at 12.3 cents/kWh for the Fresnel lens plant and 13.1 cents/kWh for the central receiver plant. 18 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Global Genomic Analysis of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi Plasmids▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Martínez, Isabel; Zhao, Youfu; Murillo, Jesús; Sundin, George W.; Ramos, Cayo

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains harbor native plasmids belonging to the pPT23A plasmid family (PFPs) which are detected in all pathovars of the related species Pseudomonas syringae examined and contribute to the ecological and pathogenic fitness of their host. However, there is a general lack of information about the gene content of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi plasmids and their role in the interaction of this pathogen with olive plants. We designed a DNA macroarray containing 135 plasmid-borne P. syringae genes to conduct a global genetic analysis of 32 plasmids obtained from 10 P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains. Hybridization results revealed that the number of PFPs per strain varied from one to four. Additionally, most strains contained at least one plasmid (designated non-PFP) that did not hybridize to the repA gene of pPT23A. Only three PFPs contained genes involved in the biosynthesis of the virulence factor indole-3-acetic acid (iaaM, iaaH, and iaaL). In contrast, ptz, a gene involved in the biosynthesis of cytokinins, was found in five PFPs and one non-PFP. Genes encoding a type IV secretion system (T4SS), type IVA, were found in both PFPs and non-PFPs; however, type IVB genes were found only on PFPs. Nine plasmids encoded both T4SSs, whereas seven other plasmids carried none of these genes. Most PFPs and non-PFPs hybridized to at least one putative type III secretion system effector gene and to a variety of additional genes encoding known P. syringae virulence factors and one or more insertion sequence transposase genes. These results indicate that non-PFPs may contribute to the virulence and fitness of the P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi host. The overall gene content of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi plasmids, with their repeated information, mosaic arrangement, and insertion sequences, suggests a possible role in adaptation to a changing environment. PMID:17993520

  18. Experimental comparison of PV-smoothing controllers using distributed generators

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Ellis, Abraham; Denda, Atsushi; Morino, Kimio; Hawkins, John N.; Arellano, Brian; Shinji, Takao; Ogata, Takao; Tadokoro, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    The power output variability of photovoltaic systems can affect local electrical grids in locations with high renewable energy penetrations or weak distribution or transmission systems. In those rare cases, quick controllable generators (e.g., energy storage systems) or loads can counteract the destabilizing effects by compensating for the power fluctuations. Previously, control algorithms for coordinated and uncoordinated operation of a small natural gas engine-generator (genset) and a battery for smoothing PV plant output were optimized using MATLAB/Simulink simulations. The simulations demonstrated that a traditional generation resource such as a natural gas genset in combination with a battery would smooth the photovoltaic output while using a smaller battery state of charge (SOC) range and extending the life of the battery. This paper reports on the experimental implementation of the coordinated and uncoordinated controllers to verify the simulations and determine the differences in the controllers. The experiments were performed with the PNM PV and energy storage Prosperity site and a gas engine-generator located at the Aperture Center at Mesa Del Sol in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two field demonstrations were performed to compare the different PV smoothing control algorithms: (1) implementing the coordinated and uncoordinated controls while switching off a subsection of the PV array at precise times on successive clear days, and (2) comparing the results of the battery and genset outputs for the coordinated control on a high variability day with simulations of the coordinated and uncoordinated controls. It was found that for certain PV power profiles the SOC range of the battery may be larger with the coordinated control, but the total amp-hours through the battery-which approximates battery wear-will always be smaller with the coordinated control.

  19. Field Demonstration of Using Advanced PV Inverter Functionality to Mitigate the Impacts of High-Penetration PV Grid Integration on the Distribution System

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, Barry; Gebeyehu, Araya

    2015-06-14

    This paper describes a field demonstration that was completed to show the ability of currently installed PV inverters to implement advanced PV inverter functionality and that such functionality was effective at reducing the voltage-related PV impacts of high-penetration PV integration. A distribution circuit was instrumented and then tested for a two week period using off-unity power factor operation. Specifically, an inductive power factor of -0.95 was demonstrated. The results show that the PV inverters were capable of such operation and that the use of off-unity power factor operation was highly effective at reducing the voltage-related impacts of the PV systems interconnected to the circuits used in the demonstration. The impacts of using off-unity power factor operation - resulting in additional reactive current flow on the distribution circuit - are also presented and analyzed.

  20. Time matters: A stock-pollution approach to authorisation decision-making for PBT/vPvB chemicals under REACH.

    PubMed

    Gabbert, Silke; Hilber, Isabel

    2016-12-01

    A core aim of the European chemicals legislation REACH is to ensure that the risks caused by substances of very high concern (SVHC) are adequately controlled. Authorisation - i.e. the formal approval of certain uses of SVHC for a limited time - is a key regulatory instrument in order to achieve this goal. For SVHC which are, in addition to their toxicity, (very) persistent and/or (very) bioaccumulative (PBT/vPvB chemicals), decision-making on the authorisation is conditional on a socio-economic analysis (SEA). In a SEA companies must demonstrate that the gains from keeping a chemical in use outweigh expected damage costs for society. The current setup of the REACH authorisation process, including existing guidance on performing a SEA, ignores that PBT/vPvB chemicals are stock pollutants. This paper explores the implications of incorporating stock pollution effects of these chemicals into a SEA on authorisation decision-making. We develop a cost-benefit approach which includes stock dynamics of PBT/vPvB chemicals. This allows identifying the decision rules for granting or refusing an authorisation. Furthermore, we generalize the model to an entire set of damage functions. We show that ignoring stock pollution effects in a SEA may lead to erroneous decisions on the use of PBT/vPvB chemicals because long-term impacts are not adequately captured. Using a historic case of DDT soil contamination as an illustrative example we discuss information requirements and challenges for authorisation decisions on the use of PBT/vPvB chemicals under REACH.

  1. Impact of siderophore production by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 on epiphytic fitness and biocontrol activity against Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea 1a/96.

    PubMed

    Wensing, Annette; Braun, Sascha D; Büttner, Petra; Expert, Dominique; Völksch, Beate; Ullrich, Matthias S; Weingart, Helge

    2010-05-01

    The use of naturally occurring microbial antagonists to suppress plant diseases offers a favorable alternative to classical methods of plant protection. The soybean epiphyte Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain 22d/93 shows great potential for controlling P. syringae pv. glycinea, the causal agent of bacterial blight of soybean. Its activity against P. syringae pv. glycinea is highly reproducible even in field trials, and the suppression mechanisms involved are of special interest. In this work we demonstrated that P. syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 produced a significantly larger amount of siderophores than the pathogen P. syringae pv. glycinea produced. While P. syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 and P. syringae pv. glycinea produce the same siderophores, achromobactin and pyoverdin, the regulation of siderophore biosynthesis in the former organism is very different from that in the latter organism. The epiphytic fitness of P. syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 mutants defective in siderophore biosynthesis was determined following spray inoculation of soybean leaves. The population size of the siderophore-negative mutant P. syringae pv. syringae strain 22d/93DeltaSid was 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the wild type 10 days after inoculation. The growth deficiency was compensated for when wound inoculation was used, indicating the availability of iron in the presence of small lesions on the leaves. Our results suggest that siderophore production has an indirect effect on the biocontrol activity of P. syringae pv. syringae 22d/93. Although siderophore-defective mutants of P. syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 still suppressed development of bacterial blight caused by P. syringae pv. glycinea, siderophore production enhanced the epiphytic fitness and thus the competitiveness of the antagonist.

  2. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California: Year 2 Project Update; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, B.; Neal, R.

    2012-08-01

    Southern California Edison (SCE) is well into a five-year project to install a total of 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy within its utility service territory. Typical installations to date are 1-3 MW peak rooftop PV systems that interconnect to medium-voltage urban distribution circuits or larger (5 MW peak) ground-mounted systems that connect to medium-voltage rural distribution circuits. Some of the PV system interconnections have resulted in distribution circuits that have a significant amount of PV generation compared to customer load, resulting in high-penetration PV integration scenarios. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE have assembled a team of distribution modeling, resource assessment, and PV inverter technology experts in order to investigate a few of the high-penetration PV distribution circuits. Currently, the distribution circuits being studied include an urban circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 46% and a rural circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 60%. In both cases, power flow on the circuit reverses direction, compared to traditional circuit operation, during periods of high PV power production and low circuit loading. Research efforts during year two of the five-year project were focused on modeling the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, the development and installation of distribution circuit data acquisition equipment appropriate for quantifying the impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, and investigating high-penetration PV impact mitigation strategies. This paper outlines these research efforts and discusses the following activities in more detail: the development of a quasi-static time-series test feeder for evaluating high-penetration PV integration modeling tools; the advanced inverter functions being investigated for deployment in the project's field demonstration and a power hardware-in-loop test of a 500-kW PV inverter implementing a

  3. Detecting loss mechanisms of c-Si PV modules in-situ I-V measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Siyu; Schneller, Eric; Walters, Joe; Davis, Kristopher O.; Schoenfeld, Winston V.

    2016-09-01

    PV module reliability is alsways an important issue for PV industry. In an outdoor PV system, PV modules suffer from degradation due to different factors. It is then very important to determine the loss mechanisms of a PV module and making improvement based on this. It is found in this work that due to mismatch effect, using fitting method to extract I-V characteristics might not be well applied on a PV module, especially when it has non-uniform degradation problem. This work proposes a method to accurately quantify the power loss of PV modules due to different degradation mechanisms, including series resistance (Rs) loss, non-uniform shunting loss and number of shunted cells, uniform shunting loss, uniform current loss, non-uniform current (mismatch) loss, recombination current (J01 and J02) losses of a PV module. All required input information are the measured current-voltage (I-V) curves and short circuit current- open circuit voltage (Isc-Voc) of PV module initial state and final state. The method is first applied to a simulated PV module with various degradation problems. Power loss due to each loss mechanism for the simulated PV module is then extracted using the proposed method and a pie chart can be generated. Comparing with the actual power loss on each loss mechanism, the method proposed in this work is proved to be very accurate. The method is then further applied to a degradated PV module istalled in an outdoor PV system. The power loss on series resistance, shunting and current mismatch are effectively identified and the number of shunted cells is accurately calculated. In the real application, this method can be used in both indoor and outdoor characterization, which can be very beneficial for PV degradation analysis of PV modules and systems.

  4. A MPPT Algorithm Based PV System Connected to Single Phase Voltage Controlled Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekanth, G.; Narender Reddy, N.; Durga Prasad, A.; Nagendrababu, V.

    2012-10-01

    Future ancillary services provided by photovoltaic (PV) systems could facilitate their penetration in power systems. In addition, low-power PV systems can be designed to improve the power quality. This paper presents a single-phase PV systemthat provides grid voltage support and compensation of harmonic distortion at the point of common coupling thanks to a repetitive controller. The power provided by the PV panels is controlled by a Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm based on the incremental conductance method specifically modified to control the phase of the PV inverter voltage. Simulation and experimental results validate the presented solution.

  5. Solar Photovoltaic Economic Development: Building and Growing a Local PV Industry, August 2011 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry is forecast to grow, and it represents an opportunity for economic development and job creation in communities throughout the United States. This report helps U.S. cities evaluate economic opportunities in the PV industry. It serves as a guide for local economic development offices in evaluating their community?s competitiveness in the solar PV industry, assessing the viability of solar PV development goals, and developing strategies for recruiting and retaining PV companies to their areas.

  6. Sensitivity of Rooftop PV Projections in the SunShot Vision Study to Market Assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-01-01

    The SunShot Vision Study explored the potential growth of solar markets if solar prices decreased by about 75% from 2010 to 2020. The SolarDS model was used to simulate rooftop PV demand for this study, based on several PV market assumptions--future electricity rates, customer access to financing, and others--in addition to the SunShot PV price projections. This paper finds that modeled PV demand is highly sensitive to several non-price market assumptions, particularly PV financing parameters.

  7. Pseudomonas cannabina pv.cannabina pv. nov., and Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis(Cintas Koike and Bull 2000)comb. nov., are members of the emended species Pseudomonas cannabina(ex Šutic & Dowson 1959)Gardan et al., 1999

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic data suggested that the crucifer pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis belongs to P. syringae sensu lato and this was confirmed by sequence similarity in the 16S rDNA gene demonstrated in this research. Labeled DNA from P. syringae pv. alisalensis was used as a probe in DNA/DNA hy...

  8. How PV system ownership can impact the market value of residential homes

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Johnson, Jamie L.

    2014-01-01

    There are multiple ways for a homeowner to obtain the electricity generating and savings benefits offered by a photovoltaic (PV) system. These include purchasing a PV system through various financing mechanisms, or by leasing the PV system from a third party with multiple options that may include purchase, lease renewal or PV system removal. The different ownership options available to homeowners presents a challenge to appraisal and real estate professionals during a home sale or refinance in terms of how to develop a value that is reflective of the PV systems operational characteristics, local market conditions, and lender and underwriter requirements. This paper presents these many PV system ownership options with a discussion of what considerations an appraiser must make when developing the contributory value of a PV system to a residential property.

  9. A decade of PV lighting in the Colorado Rockies

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, L.

    1996-11-01

    In the mountains between Aspen and Vail there are twenty-two ski huts that all use solar photovoltaic power for their lighting needs. The huts are managed by a non-profit corporation called the Tenth Mountain Division Hut Association (TMDHA). The systems were installed in the early 1980s and have all been or are in the process of being upgraded as the technology improves over the years. The huts have been a test in the design and maintenance of remote PV systems, due to their location, the users and their time of use. Yet, the past ten years have shown that remote PV systems can be made safe, reliable, understandable, educational and economical.

  10. Best practices for PV solar home system projects

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove-Davies, M.; Cabraal, A.

    1994-12-31

    PV solar home systems (SHS) are increasingly employed as an energy supply option for rural populations. The past 20 years` experience with small-scale SHS programs in developing countries has had mixed results. However, efforts in recent years have been more successful. In support of World Bank lending operations, the Banks Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) has undertaken a series of case studies of currently operating SHS programs in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and the Dominican Republic. These programs have varying degrees of government, NGO, and private sector involvement. This paper summarizes ASTAE`s draft Solar Photovoltaics: Best Practices for Household Electrification report which identifies the institutional, financial, and technical factors fundamental to the success of a PV solar home system project. The final version of the ASTAE report will incorporate comments from an international group of peer reviewers.

  11. High-Penetration PV Integration Handbook for Distribution Engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Seguin, Rich; Woyak, Jeremy; Costyk, David; Hambrick, Josh; Mather, Barry

    2016-01-01

    This handbook has been developed as part of a five-year research project which began in 2010. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Southern California Edison (SCE), Quanta Technology, Satcon Technology Corporation, Electrical Distribution Design (EDD), and Clean Power Research (CPR) teamed together to analyze the impacts of high-penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected onto the SCE distribution system. This project was designed specifically to leverage the experience that SCE and the project team would gain during the significant installation of 500 MW of commercial scale PV systems (1-5 MW typically) starting in 2010 and completing in 2015 within SCE’s service territory through a program approved by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC).

  12. Scalable Optimization Methods for Distribution Networks With High PV Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Guggilam, Swaroop S.; Dall'Anese, Emiliano; Chen, Yu Christine; Dhople, Sairaj V.; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a suite of algorithms to determine the active- and reactive-power setpoints for photovoltaic (PV) inverters in distribution networks. The objective is to optimize the operation of the distribution feeder according to a variety of performance objectives and ensure voltage regulation. In general, these algorithms take a form of the widely studied ac optimal power flow (OPF) problem. For the envisioned application domain, nonlinear power-flow constraints render pertinent OPF problems nonconvex and computationally intensive for large systems. To address these concerns, we formulate a quadratic constrained quadratic program (QCQP) by leveraging a linear approximation of the algebraic power-flow equations. Furthermore, simplification from QCQP to a linearly constrained quadratic program is provided under certain conditions. The merits of the proposed approach are demonstrated with simulation results that utilize realistic PV-generation and load-profile data for illustrative distribution-system test feeders.

  13. Quantify Degradation Rates and Mechanisms of PV Modules and Systems Installed in Florida Through Comprehensive Experimental and Theoretical Analysis (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Sorloaica-Hickman, N.; Davis, K.; Kurtz, S.; Jordan, D.

    2011-02-01

    The economic viability of photovoltaic (PV) technologies is inextricably tied to both the electrical performance and degradation rate of the PV systems, which are the generators of electrical power in PV systems. Over the past 15 years, performance data have been collected on numerous PV systems installed throughout the state of Florida and will be presented.

  14. High Penetration PV: How High Can We Go?

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-01

    Brochure highlighting NREL's partnership with SolarCity and Hawaiian Electric (HECO) to increase the penetration of solar photovoltaics on the electricity grid. To better understand the potential impact of transient overvoltages due to load rejection, NREL collaborated with SolarCity and HECO to run a series of tests measuring the magnitude and duration of load rejection overvoltage events and demonstrating the ability of advanced PV inverters to mitigate their impacts.

  15. Regulation of resistance to copper in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria.

    PubMed

    Voloudakis, Andreas E; Reignier, Therese M; Cooksey, Donald A

    2005-02-01

    Copper-resistant strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria were previously shown to carry plasmid-borne copper resistance genes related to the cop and pco operons of Pseudomonas syringae and Escherichia coli, respectively. However, instead of the two-component (copRS and pcoRS) systems determining copper-inducible expression of the operons in P. syringae and E. coli, a novel open reading frame, copL, was found to be required for copper-inducible expression of the downstream multicopper oxidase copA in X. axonopodis. copL encodes a predicted protein product of 122 amino acids that is rich in histidine and cysteine residues, suggesting a possible direct interaction with copper. Deletions or frameshift mutations within copL, as well as an amino acid substitution generated at the putative start codon of copL, caused a loss of copper-inducible transcriptional activation of copA. A nonpolar insertion of a kanamycin resistance gene in copL resulted in copper sensitivity in the wild-type strain. However, repeated attempts to complement copL mutations in trans failed. Analysis of the genomic sequence databases shows that there are copL homologs upstream of copAB genes in X. axonopodis pv. citri, X. campestris pv. campestris, and Xylella fastidiosa. The cloned promoter area upstream of copA in X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria did not function in Pseudomonas syringae or in E. coli, nor did the P. syringae cop promoter function in Xanthomonas. However, a transcriptional fusion of the Xanthomonas cop promoter with the Pseudomonas copABCDRS was able to confer resistance to copper in Xanthomonas, showing divergence in the mechanisms of regulation of the resistance to copper in phytopathogenic bacteria.

  16. Rooftop PV system. Final technical progress report, Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Under this four-year PV:BONUS Program, ECD and United Solar are developing and demonstrating two new lightweight flexible building integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) modules specifically designed as exact replacements for conventional asphalt shingles and standing seam metal roofing. These modules can be economically and aesthetically integrated into new residential and commercial buildings, and address the even larger roofing replacement market. The modules are designed to be installed by roofing contractors without special training which minimizes the installation and balance of system costs. The modules will be fabricated from high-efficiency, multiple-junction a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. Under the Phase I Program, which ended in March 1994, we developed two different concept designs for rooftop PV modules: (1) the United Solar overlapping (asphalt shingle replacement) shingle-type modules and (2) the ECD metal roof-type modules. We also developed a plan for fabricating, testing and demonstrating these modules. Candidate demonstration sites for our rooftop PV modules were identified and preliminary engineering designs for these demonstrations were developed; a marketing study plan was also developed. The major objectives of the Phase II Program, which started in June 1994 was (1) to develop, test, and qualify these new rooftop modules; (2) to develop mechanical and electrical engineering specifications for the demonstration projects; and (3) to develop a marketing/commercialization plan.

  17. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  18. Performance of a multifunctional PV/T hybrid solar window

    SciTech Connect

    Davidsson, Henrik; Perers, Bengt; Karlsson, Bjoern

    2010-03-15

    A building-integrated multifunctional PV/T solar window has been developed and evaluated. It is constructed of PV cells laminated on solar absorbers placed in a window behind the glazing. To reduce the cost of the solar electricity, tiltable reflectors have been introduced in the construction to focus radiation onto the solar cells. The reflectors render the possibility of controlling the amount of radiation transmitted into the building. The insulated reflectors also reduce the thermal losses through the window. A model for simulation of the electric and hot water production was developed. The model can perform yearly energy simulations where different features such as shading of the cells or effects of the glazing can be included or excluded. The simulation can be run with the reflectors in an active, up right, position or in a passive, horizontal, position. The simulation program was calibrated against measurements on a prototype solar window placed in Lund in the south of Sweden and against a solar window built into a single family house, Solgaarden, in Aelvkarleoe in the central part of Sweden. The results from the simulation shows that the solar window annually produces about 35% more electric energy per unit cell area compared to a vertical flat PV module. (author)

  19. Comparative Study Between Wind and Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Wesam

    This paper reviews two renewable energy systems; wind and photovoltaic (PV) systems. The common debate between the two of them is to conclude which one is better, in terms of cost and efficiency. Therefore, comparative study, in terms of cost and efficiency, is attempted. Regarding total cost of both, wind and PV systems, many parameters must be taken into consideration such as availability of energy (either wind or solar), operation and maintenance, availability of costumers, political influence, and the components used in building the system. The main components and parameters that play major role in determining the overall efficiency of wind systems are the wind turbine generator (WTG), gearbox and control technologies such as power, and speed control. On the other hand, in grid-connected PV systems (GCPVS), converter architecture along with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm and inverter topologies are the issues that affects the efficiency significantly. Cost and efficiency analyses of both systems have been carried out based on the statistics available till today and would be useful in the progress of renewable energy penetration throughout the world.

  20. PvaPy: Python API for EPICS PV Access

    SciTech Connect

    Veseli, S.

    2016-01-01

    As the number of sites deploying and adopting EPICS Version 4 grows, so does the need to support PV Access from multiple languages. Especially important are the widely used scripting languages that tend to reduce both software development time and the learning curve for new users. In this paper we describe PvaPy, a Python API for the EPICS PV Access protocol and its accompanying structured data API. Rather than implementing the protocol itself in Python, PvaPy wraps the existing EPICS Version 4 C++ libraries using the Boost.Python framework. This approach allows us to benefit from the existing code base and functionality, and to significantly reduce the Python API development effort. PvaPy objects are based on Python dictionaries and provide users with the ability to access even the most complex of PV Data structures in a relatively straightforward way. Its interfaces are easy to use, and include support for advanced EPICS Version 4 features such as implementation of client and server Remote Procedure Calls (RPC).

  1. Stochastic PV performance/reliability model : preview of alpha version.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Miller, Steven P.

    2010-03-01

    Problem Statement: (1) Uncertainties in PV system performance and reliability impact business decisions - Project cost and financing estimates, Pricing service contracts and guarantees, Developing deployment and O&M strategies; (2) Understanding and reducing these uncertainties will help make the PV industry more competitive (3) Performance has typically been estimated without much attention to reliability of components; and (4) Tools are needed to assess all inputs to the value proposition (e.g., LCOE, cash flow, reputation, etc.). Goals and objectives are: (1) Develop a stochastic simulation model (in GoldSim) that can represent PV system performance as a function of system design, weather, reliability, and O&M policies; (2) Evaluate performance for an example system to quantify sources of uncertainty and identify dominant parameters via a sensitivity study; and (3) Example System - 1 inverter, 225 kW DC Array latitude tilt (90 strings of 12 modules {l_brace}1080 modules{r_brace}), Weather from Tucumcari, NM (TMY2 with annual uncertainty).

  2. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA) isolates from recent bacterial canker of kiwifruit outbreaks belong to the same genetic lineage.

    PubMed

    Mazzaglia, Angelo; Studholme, David J; Taratufolo, Maria C; Cai, Rongman; Almeida, Nalvo F; Goodman, Tokia; Guttman, David S; Vinatzer, Boris A; Balestra, Giorgio M

    2012-01-01

    Intercontinental spread of emerging plant diseases is one of the most serious threats to world agriculture. One emerging disease is bacterial canker of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease first occurred in China and Japan in the 1980s and in Korea and Italy in the 1990s. A more severe form of the disease broke out in Italy in 2008 and in additional countries in 2010 and 2011 threatening the viability of the global kiwi fruit industry. To start investigating the source and routes of international transmission of PSA, genomes of strains from China (the country of origin of the genus Actinidia), Japan, Korea, Italy and Portugal have been sequenced. Strains from China, Italy, and Portugal have been found to belong to the same clonal lineage with only 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3,453,192 bp and one genomic island distinguishing the Chinese strains from the European strains. Not more than two SNPs distinguish each of the Italian and Portuguese strains from each other. The Japanese and Korean strains belong to a separate genetic lineage as previously reported. Analysis of additional European isolates and of New Zealand isolates exploiting genome-derived markers showed that these strains belong to the same lineage as the Italian and Chinese strains. Interestingly, the analyzed New Zealand strains are identical to European strains at the tested SNP loci but test positive for the genomic island present in the sequenced Chinese strains and negative for the genomic island present in the European strains. Results are interpreted in regard to the possible direction of movement of the pathogen between countries and suggest a possible Chinese origin of the European and New Zealand outbreaks.

  3. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA) Isolates from Recent Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit Outbreaks Belong to the Same Genetic Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Taratufolo, Maria C.; Cai, Rongman; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Goodman, Tokia; Guttman, David S.; Vinatzer, Boris A.; Balestra, Giorgio M.

    2012-01-01

    Intercontinental spread of emerging plant diseases is one of the most serious threats to world agriculture. One emerging disease is bacterial canker of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease first occurred in China and Japan in the 1980s and in Korea and Italy in the 1990s. A more severe form of the disease broke out in Italy in 2008 and in additional countries in 2010 and 2011 threatening the viability of the global kiwi fruit industry. To start investigating the source and routes of international transmission of PSA, genomes of strains from China (the country of origin of the genus Actinidia), Japan, Korea, Italy and Portugal have been sequenced. Strains from China, Italy, and Portugal have been found to belong to the same clonal lineage with only 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3,453,192 bp and one genomic island distinguishing the Chinese strains from the European strains. Not more than two SNPs distinguish each of the Italian and Portuguese strains from each other. The Japanese and Korean strains belong to a separate genetic lineage as previously reported. Analysis of additional European isolates and of New Zealand isolates exploiting genome-derived markers showed that these strains belong to the same lineage as the Italian and Chinese strains. Interestingly, the analyzed New Zealand strains are identical to European strains at the tested SNP loci but test positive for the genomic island present in the sequenced Chinese strains and negative for the genomic island present in the European strains. Results are interpreted in regard to the possible direction of movement of the pathogen between countries and suggest a possible Chinese origin of the European and New Zealand outbreaks. PMID:22590555

  4. The European Clinical, Molecular, and Pathological (ECMP) Criteria and the 2007/2008 Revisions of the World Health Organization for the Diagnosis, Classification, and Staging of Prefibrotic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Carrying the JAK2V617F Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Michiels, Jan Jacques; Kate, Fibo Ten; Lam, King H.; Schroyens, Wilfried; Berneman, Zwi; De Raeve, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The prefibrotic stages of JAK2V617F essential thrombocythemia (ET) and JAK2V617F polycythemia vera (PV) can easily be diagnosed clinically without use of bone marrow biopsy histology. We assessed the 2008 WHO and European Clinical, Molecular, and Pathological (ECMP) criteria for the diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Materials and Methods: Studied patients included 6 JAK2V617F-mutated ET and 4 PV patients during long-term follow-up in view of critical analysis of the literature. The bone marrow biopsy histology diagnosis without use of clinical data was PV in 7 (of which 3 were cases of ET with features of early prodromal PV) and classical PV in 4. Results: The ECMP criteria distinguish 3 sequential phenotypes (1, 2, or 3) of JAK2V617F-mutated ET: normocellular ET-1; ET-2, with clinical and bone marrow features of PV (prodromal PV), and ET-3, with hypercellular dysmorphic megakaryocytic and granulocytic myeloproliferation (ET.MGM). The 3 patients with ET-2 or prodromal PV developed slow-onset PV after a follow-up of about 10 years. Bone marrow biopsy histology differentiates MPNs of various molecular etiologies from all variants of primary or secondary erythrocytoses and thrombocytoses with sensitivity and specificity of near 100%. Conclusion: Normocellular ET (WHO-ET), prodromal PV, and classical PV show overlapping bone marrow biopsy histology features with similar pleomorphic clustered megakaryocytes in the prefibrotic stages of JAK2V617F mutated MPN. Erythrocytes are below 6x1012/L in normocellular ET and prodromal PV, and are consistently above 6x1012/L in classical PV and at the time of transition from prodromal PV into classical PV. Red cell count at a cut-off level of 6x1012/L separates ET from PV and obviates the need for red cell mass measurement when bone marrow histology and JAK2V617F mutation screening are included in the diagnostic work-up of MPNs.

  5. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners.

  6. Estimating the frequency of Asian cytochrome B haplotypes in standard European and local Spanish pig breeds

    PubMed Central

    Clop, Alex; Amills, Marcel; Noguera, José Luís; Fernández, Ana; Capote, Juan; Ramón, Maria Misericòrdia; Kelly, Lucía; Kijas, James MH; Andersson, Leif; Sànchez, Armand

    2004-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA has been widely used to perform phylogenetic studies in different animal species. In pigs, genetic variability at the cytochrome B gene and the D-loop region has been used as a tool to dissect the genetic relationships between different breeds and populations. In this work, we analysed four SNP at the cytochrome B gene to infer the Asian (A1 and A2 haplotypes) or European (E1 and E2 haplotypes) origins of several European standard and local pig breeds. We found a mixture of Asian and European haplotypes in the Canarian Black pig (E1, A1 and A2), German Piétrain (E1, A1 and A2), Belgian Piétrain (E1, A1), Large White (E1 and A1) and Landrace (E1 and A1) breeds. In contrast, the Iberian (Guadyerbas, Ervideira, Caldeira, Campanario, Puebla and Torbiscal strains) and the Majorcan Black pig breeds only displayed the E1 haplotype. Our results show that the introgression of Chinese pig breeds affected most of the major European standard breeds, which harbour Asian haplotypes at diverse frequencies (15–56%). In contrast, isolated local Spanish breeds, such as the Iberian and Majorcan Black pig, only display European cytochrome B haplotypes, a feature that evidences that they were not crossed with other Chinese or European commercial populations. These findings illustrate how geographical confinement spared several local Spanish breeds from the extensive introgression event that took place during the 18th and 19th centuries in Europe. PMID:14713412

  7. Statistical overview of findings by IR-inspections of PV-plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buerhop, Claudia; Pickel, Tobias; Scheuerpflug, Hans; Camus, Christian; Hauch, Jens; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2016-09-01

    First statistical evaluation of IR-inspections of PV-plants reveals that 86% of the installed PV-plants show IR-abnormalities. More than 120 PV-plants with more than 160,000 PV-modules were inspected and evaluated statistically. Main IR-abnormalities or failures in modules and string installations are analyzed, respectively. The average failure rate for PV-modules is about 8% and for module strings approximately 4%. The differentiation between the installation locations reveals that small residential installation show relatively more defective modules than large field installations. - Therefore, IR-imaging is a valuable method to give fast and reliable information about the actual quality and failure rate in inspected PV-installations.

  8. Photovoltaics (PV) as an Eligible Measure in Residential PACE Programs: Benefits and Challenges (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J.

    2010-06-01

    Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing is one of several new financial models broadening access to clean energy by addressing the barrier of initial capital cost. The majority of the PACE programs in the market today include PV as an eligible measure. PV appeals to homeowners as a way to reduce utility bills, self-generate sustainable power, increase energy independence and demonstrate a commitment to the environment. If substantial state incentives for PV exist, PV projects can be economic under PACE, especially when partnered with good net metering policies. At the same time, PV is expensive relative to other eligible measures with a return on investment horizon that might exceed program targets. This fact sheet reviews the benefits and potential challenges of including PV in PACE programs.

  9. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote Performance: A Reviewof Current Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-06-01

    Increasing levels of financial support for customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems, provided through publicly-funded incentive programs, has heightened concerns about the long-term performance of these systems. Given the barriers that customers face to ensuring that their PV systems perform well, and the responsibility that PV incentive programs bear to ensure that public funds are prudently spent, these programs should, and often do, play a critical role in ensuring that PV systems receiving incentives perform well. To provide a point of reference for assessing the current state of the art, and to inform program design efforts going forward, we examine the approaches to encouraging PV system performance used by 32 prominent PV incentive programs in the U.S. We identify eight general strategies or groups of related strategies that these programs have used to address performance issues, and highlight important differences in the implementation of these strategies among programs.

  10. Optimal Planning Strategy for Large PV/Battery System Based on Long-Term Insolation Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yona, Atsushi; Uchida, Kosuke; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are rapidly gaining acceptance as some of the best alternative energy sources. Usually the power output of PV system fluctuates depending on weather conditions. In order to control the fluctuating power output for PV system, it requires control method of energy storage system. This paper proposes an optimization approach to determine the operational planning of power output for PV system with battery energy storage system (BESS). This approach aims to obtain more benefit for electrical power selling and to smooth the fluctuating power output for PV system. The optimization method applies genetic algorithm (GA) considering PV power output forecast error. The forecast error is based on our previous works with the insolation forecasting at one day ahead by using weather reported data, fuzzy theory and neural network(NN). The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by the computer simulations.

  11. Final Technical Report: Advanced Measurement and Analysis of PV Derate Factors.

    SciTech Connect

    King, Bruce Hardison; Burton, Patrick D.; Hansen, Clifford; Jones, Christian Birk

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Measurement and Analysis of PV Derate Factors project focuses on improving the accuracy and reducing the uncertainty of PV performance model predictions by addressing a common element of all PV performance models referred to as “derates”. Widespread use of “rules of thumb”, combined with significant uncertainty regarding appropriate values for these factors contribute to uncertainty in projected energy production.

  12. NREL PV working with industry, first quarter 2000; pulling out all the stops

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S.; Poole, L.; Cook, G.

    2000-05-03

    NREL PV Working With Industry is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the research, development, and deployment performed by NREL staff in concert with their industry and university partners. The First Quarter, 2000, issue offers an in-depth look at the PV Program's Five Year Plan and the PV industry's progress in developing a 20-year roadmap. The editorialist is Roger Little, President and CEO of Spire Corporation and a member of the NCPV Advisory Board.

  13. Results from Undergraduate PV Projects at Seven Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R. D.

    1999-03-03

    In 1995, the NREL/Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program funded seven Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in its HBCU Photovoltaic Research Associates Program for a period of three years. The program's purpose is to advance HBCU undergraduate knowledge of photovoltaics, primarily as a result of research investigations performed, and to encourage students to pursue careers in photovoltaics. This paper presents results from PV projects ranging from fundamental materials research on PV materials to field projects of PV systems.

  14. Lightning and Gunpowder in the 18th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krider, E. P.

    2006-12-01

    On or before June, 1751, Benjamin Franklin and co-workers showed that gunpowder could be ignited by a small electric spark, and subsequently people used gunpowder to enhance the explosions of "thunder houses" to demonstrate that grounded metallic rods would protect model structures against lightning damage. Even before the sentry box and kite experiments proved that thunderclouds are electrified and that lightning is an electrical discharge in 1752, Franklin had hypothesized that a tall, well-grounded conductor might reduce or prevent lightning damage by silently discharging the cloud, and if a discharge did occur, then the tall rod would offer a preferred place for the lightning to strike, and the grounding conductors would guide the current into the ground in a harmless fashion. Over the next 10 years, experience gained through practice showed that grounded rods did indeed protect ordinary structures from lightning damage, but a question remained about the best way to protect gunpowder magazines. In 1762, Franklin recommended a tall "mast not far from it, which may reach 15 or 20 feet above the top of it, with a thick iron rod in one piece fastened to it, pointed at the highest end, and reaching down through the earth till it comes to water," and in 1772 he made a similar recommendation for protecting the British powder magazine at Purfleet. In 1780, Jan Ingenhousz asked Franklin to "communicate to me some short hints, which may occur to you about the most convenient manner of constructing gun powder magazines, the manner of preserving the powder from moisture and securing the building in the best manner from the effects of lightning." In his reply, Franklin detailed a method of protection that is almost perfect, "they should be constructed in the Ground; that the Walls should be lin'd with Lead, the Floor Lead, all 1/4 Inch thick & the Joints well solder'd; the Cover Copper; with a little Scuttle to enter, the whole in the Form of a Canister for Tea. If the Edges of the Cover scuttle fall into a Copper Channel containing Mercury, not the smallest Particle of Air or Moisture can enter to the Powder, even tho' the Walls stood in Water, or the whole was under Water." In 1876, the Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell, made almost exactly the same recommendation for protecting against lightning, a method known today as a "Faraday cage."

  15. Foreword: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2014-05-01

    This second joint conference between the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter and the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science and Technology (AIRAPT) demonstrates that static and dynamic compression of condensed matter continues to be a vibrant field of science and engineering. It is also by its nature an interdisciplinary field, incorporating chemistry, materials science, solid mechanics, plasma physics, and condensed matter physics, and utilizes theoretical, computational, and experimental tools. Recent years have brought about many advances in loading platforms, diagnostics, and computations that are leading to the emergence of many new avenues of research. These advances are also breathing new life into traditional topics such as equations of state, phase transformations, and chemistry at extreme conditions. The plenary lectures by Gennady Kanel, Karl Syassen, David Ceperley, Jon Eggert, Duck Young Kim, and Richard Kraus spanned the disciplines of static and dynamic high pressure physics and illustrated the breadth of the field. They also showed that interesting and important problems remain for researchers of the future to solve. The main guiding principal in the organization of this conference was to intertwine static and dynamical experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials. To achieve this goal, we arranged the conference to include static, dynamic, and computational components in the same sessions, quite often taking presenters out of their comfort zone. The three special sessions on Deep Carbon Budget (organized by Giulia Galli and Rus Hemley), High Energy Density Materials (organized by Raymond Jeanloz and Jon Eggert), and Dynamic Response of Materials (organized by Yogendra Gupta and John Sarrao) furthered this guiding principal. We also endeavored to represent the breadth of static and dynamic high pressure science and technology, notably beyond that done at national laboratories. To this end, a significant fraction of the plenary, invited and contributed presentations showcased work done in academia, defense laboratories and industry, as well as internationally. Although travel distance and visa issues always present difficulties, the conference had strong representation from a record number of international participants, including sizable groups from Russia and China (thanks to Tony Zocher and Frank Cherne), as well as Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Germany, Israel, and Italy. It is our sincere hope that international interactions that occurred at the conference will lead to further collaborations in the future. Finally, we strived to increase student participation at the conference. Through the leadership of Scott Alexander and his committee, a new all-day student symposium was held the day before the main conference, with only student attendees and presenters, in order to acclimate the students to conference participation and help them network with their peers. In cooperation with the APS Topical Group and the AIRAPT and with additional support from DTRA and the AWE, the conference was able to provide financial assistance to a large number of students to attend the conference and present their research. This aid helped increase the number of student attendees significantly over previous conferences. Finally, the conference sponsored a networking lunch for students and representatives from a number of laboratories and other institutions, which was well attended. Seattle proved itself to be an excellent venue for the conference. The international flavor of the city provided ample dining options and numerous activity choices outside of the conference sessions. The major international airport made travel as easy as possible, as Seattle is a convenient central location for attendees from Europe and Asia. The conference was truly a team effort with critical contributions from many individuals. We deeply appreciate their contributions to the success of the conference and the publication of these proceedings. Gilbert (RIP) Collins David S Moore Choong-Shik Yoo

  16. JPRS Report, Science and Technology Japan, 18th FRP Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    user part ( ISUP ) for line switching, and X.75 interface for packet switching. It is expected that Japan will adopt these interfaces. terminal ISD...terminal-to-terminal transfers will become possible in 1990 when the No 7 ISUP signal mode is introduced for communications between international terminal

  17. Senior Officer Debriefing Report: 18th Engineer Brigade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    regional development and nationhood; support of US and Free World Forces; other items of interest....considerably more related to relocating US units from forward areas being turned over to ARVN and to supporting US units in pacification and regional ... development of populated areas. At the same time, the major Engineer effort once assigned to base construction is now being expended to build a primary

  18. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment`s final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  19. A modeling framework for potential induced degradation in PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermel, Peter; Asadpour, Reza; Zhou, Chao; Alam, Muhammad A.

    2015-09-01

    Major sources of performance degradation and failure in glass-encapsulated PV modules include moisture-induced gridline corrosion, potential-induced degradation (PID) of the cell, and stress-induced busbar delamination. Recent studies have shown that PV modules operating in damp heat at -600 V are vulnerable to large amounts of degradation, potentially up to 90% of the original power output within 200 hours. To improve module reliability and restore power production in the presence of PID and other failure mechanisms, a fundamental rethinking of accelerated testing is needed. This in turn will require an improved understanding of technology choices made early in development that impact failures later. In this work, we present an integrated approach of modeling, characterization, and validation to address these problems. A hierarchical modeling framework will allows us to clarify the mechanisms of corrosion, PID, and delamination. We will employ a physics-based compact model of the cell, topology of the electrode interconnection, geometry of the packaging stack, and environmental operating conditions to predict the current, voltage, temperature, and stress distributions in PV modules correlated with the acceleration of specific degradation modes. A self-consistent solution will capture the essential complexity of the technology-specific acceleration of PID and other degradation mechanisms as a function of illumination, ambient temperature, and relative humidity. Initial results from our model include specific lifetime predictions suitable for direct comparison with indoor and outdoor experiments, which are qualitatively validated by prior work. This approach could play a significant role in developing novel accelerated lifetime tests.

  20. Determining the Effects of Environment and Atmospheric Parameters on PV Field Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Micheli, Leonardo; Muller, Matthew; Kurtz, Sarah

    2016-11-21

    The performance losses due to soiling occurring on any photovoltaic (PV) device are caused by a complex mechanism that involves numerous factors and their interactions. For this reason, the present work analyzes the outputs of reference PV cells installed in various locations, with the aim of contributing to the identification of the most important factors influencing the accumulation of dust on a PV surface. Parameters such as the air-quality indexes, the recurrence and the amount of rainfall and the climate zone are investigated and related to the soiling losses of the PV device.

  1. Precursor Report of Data Needs and Recommended Practices for PV Plant Availability Operations and Maintenance Reporting.

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Roger R.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Balfour, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the factors that affect reliability of a photovoltaic (PV) power plant is an important aspect of optimal asset management. This document describes the many factors that affect operation and maintenance (O&M) of a PV plant, identifies the data necessary to quantify those factors, and describes how data might be used by O&M service providers and others in the PV industry. This document lays out data needs from perspectives of reliability, availability, and key performance indicators and is intended to be a precursor for standardizing terminology and data reporting, which will improve data sharing, analysis, and ultimately PV plant performance.

  2. Pyranometers and Reference Cells: Part 2: What Makes the Most Sense for PV Power Plants?; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Meydbray, J.; Riley, E.; Dunn, L.; Emery, K.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-10-01

    As described in Part 1 of this two-part series, thermopile pyranometers and photovoltaic (PV) reference cells can both be used to measure irradiance; however, there are subtle differences between the data that are obtained. This two-part article explores some implications of uncertainty and subtleties of accurately measuring PV efficiency in the field. Part 2 of the series shows how reference cells can be used to more confidently predict PV performance, but how this could best be accomplished if historic irradiance data could be available in PV-technology-specific formats.

  3. Intelligent control of PV system on the basis of the fuzzy recurrent neuronet*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E. A.; Kovalev, I. V.; Engel, N. E.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the fuzzy recurrent neuronet for PV system’s control. Based on the PV system’s state, the fuzzy recurrent neural net tracks the maximum power point under random perturbations. The validity and advantages of the proposed intelligent control of PV system are demonstrated by numerical simulations. The simulation results show that the proposed intelligent control of PV system achieves real-time control speed and competitive performance, as compared to a classical control scheme on the basis of the perturbation & observation algorithm.

  4. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  5. Computer Modelling and Simulation of Solar PV Array Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Nalin Kumar

    2003-02-01

    The main objective of my PhD research work was to study the behaviour of inter-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The approach involved the construction of mathematical models to investigate different types of research problems related to the energy yield, fault tolerance, efficiency and optimal sizing of inter-connected solar PV array systems. My research work can be divided into four different types of research problems: 1. Modeling of inter-connected solar PV array systems to investigate their electrical behavior, 2. Modeling of different inter-connected solar PV array networks to predict their expected operational lifetimes, 3. Modeling solar radiation estimation and its variability, and 4. Modeling of a coupled system to estimate the size of PV array and battery-bank in the stand-alone inter-connected solar PV system where the solar PV system depends on a system providing solar radiant energy. The successful application of mathematics to the above-m entioned problems entailed three phases: 1. The formulation of the problem in a mathematical form using numerical, optimization, probabilistic and statistical methods / techniques, 2. The translation of mathematical models using C++ to simulate them on a computer, and 3. The interpretation of the results to see how closely they correlated with the real data. Array is the most cost-intensive component of the solar PV system. Since the electrical performances as well as life properties of an array are highly sensitive to field conditions, different characteristics of the arrays, such as energy yield, operational lifetime, collector orientation, and optimal sizing were investigated in order to improve their efficiency, fault-tolerance and reliability. Three solar cell interconnection configurations in the array - series-parallel, total-cross-tied, and bridge-linked, were considered. The electrical characteristics of these configurations were investigated to find out one that is comparatively less susceptible to

  6. Analysis of Irradiance Models for Bifacial PV Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Clifford W.; Stein, Joshua S.; Deline, Chris; MacAlpine, Sara; Marion, Bill; Asgharzadeh, Amir; Toor, Fatima

    2016-11-21

    We describe and compare two methods for modeling irradiance on the back surface of rack-mounted bifacial PV modules: view factor models and ray-tracing simulations. For each method we formulate one or more models and compare each model with irradiance measurements and short circuit current for a bifacial module mounted a fixed tilt rack with three other similarly sized modules. Our analysis illustrates the computational requirements of the different methods and provides insight into their practical applications. We find a level of consistency among the models which indicates that consistent models may be obtained by parameter calibrations.

  7. Enhanced symbiotic nitrogen fixation with P. syringae pv tabaci

    SciTech Connect

    Langston-Unkefer, P.J.; Knight, T.J. New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces ); Sengupta-Gopalan, C. )

    1989-04-01

    Infestation of legumes such as alfalfa and soybeans with the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci is accompanied by increased plant growth, nodulation, overall nitrogen fixation, and total assimilated nitrogen. These effects are observed only in plants infested with Tox{sup +} pathogen; the toxin is tabtoxinine-{beta}-lactam, an active site-directed irreversible inhibitor of glutamine synthetase. The key to the legumes survival of this treatment is the insensitivity of the nodule-specific form of glutamine synthetase to the toxin. As expected, significant changes are observed in ammonia assimilation in these plants. The biochemical and molecular biological consequences of this treatment are being investigated.

  8. Space shuttle Production Verification Motor 1 (PV-1) static fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    All inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the PV-1 static test firing conducted 18 Aug. 1988 was successful. With the exception of the intentionally flawed joints and static test modifications, PV-1 was flight configuration. Fail-safe flaws guaranteeing pressure to test the sealing capability of primary O-rings were included in the aft field joint, case-to-nozzle joint, and nozzle internal Joint 5. The test was conducted at ambient conditions, with the exception of the field joints and case/nozzle joints which were maintained at a minimum of 75 F. Ballistics performance values were within specification requirements. The PV-1 motor exhibited chamber pressure oscillations similar to previously tested Space Shuttle redesigned solid rocket motors, particularly QM-7. The first longitudinal mode oscillations experienced by PV-1 were the strongest ever measured in a Space Shuttle motor. Investigation into this observation is being conducted. Joint insulation performed as designed with no evidence of gas flow within unflawed forward field joints. The intentionally flawed center and aft case field joint insulation performance was excellent. There was no evidence of hot gas past the center field joint capture feature O-ring, the case-to-nozzle joint primary O-ring, or the aft field joint primary O-ring. O-ring seals and barriers with assured pressure at the flaws showed erosion and heat effect, but all sealed against passage of hot gases with the exception of the aft field joint capture feature O-ring. There was no evidence of erosion, heat effect, or blowby on any O-ring seals or barriers at the unflawed joints. Nozzle performance was nominal with typical erosion. Post-test examination revealed that the forward nose ring was of the old high performance motor design configuration with the 150-deg ply angle. All nozzle components remained intact for post-test evaluation. The thrust vector control system operated correctly. The water deluge system, CO2 quench, and

  9. New Barrier Coating Materials for PV Module Backsheets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, G. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S. H.; Pern, J.; McMahon, T. J.

    2002-05-01

    This conference paper describes the high moisture barrier high resistivity coatings on polyethylene terepthalate (PET) have been fabricated and characterized for use in PV module back sheet applications. These thin film barriers exhibit water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) as low as 0.1 g/m2-day at 37.8 C and have shown excellent adhesion (> 10 N/mm) to both ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and PET even after filtered xenon arc lamp UV exposure. The WVTR and adhesion values for this construction are compared to and shown to be superior to candidate polymeric backsheet materials.

  10. Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High Penetration PV Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, C.; Burman, K.

    2010-04-01

    Overview of the solar resource assessment conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in cooperation with Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) in Hawaii to determine the technical feasibility of increasing the contribution of solar renewable energy generation on the island of Kauaii through the use of photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The analysis, which was performed using a custom version of NREL's In My Back Yard (IMBY) software tool, showed that there is potential to generate enough energy to cover the peak load as reported for Kauai in 2007.

  11. Approaches to improving energy yield from PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaus, Joachim; Duell, Matthias; Eckert, Johannes; Adurodija, Frederick O.; Li, Biao; Mickiewicz, Rafal A.; Doble, Dan M.

    2010-08-01

    PV modules were fabricated that incorporated various methods to increase the amount of light which is ultimately transmitted to the solar cell in order to improve energy yield. The techniques employed included diffuse scattering and reflection to minimize shading losses, as well as using structured glass to increase the probability of incident light capture. In the first technology, a laser is used to create a scattering pattern on the front-side glass of the module. This pattern directed light away from the bus bars and grid fingers, resulting in an increase in short circuit current (ISC) of up to 3.3%. In the second technology, the bus wires were coated with a diffuse reflective coating. A part of the incident sunlight is reflected from this coating at such angles that internal reflection at the front surface of the front-side glass occurs. The light is reflected back to the active area of the solar cell and contributes to the generated photocurrent resulting in an average increase of 0.9% in ISC. Finally, four different types of commercially available structured glass were investigated: grooves, pyramids, inverted pyramids, and a very lightly textured glass with only 5% increased surface area. Results showed an increase in ISC of up to 3.2% for pyramid structures using normally incident light, with the effect increasing at higher angles of incidence. The results demonstrated the possibility of improving PV module energy yield by taking advantage of basic optical principles and straightforward processing methods.

  12. Temperature Dependences on Various Types of Photovoltaic (PV) Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audwinto, I. A.; Leong, C. S.; Sopian, K.; Zaidi, S. H.

    2015-09-01

    Temperature is one of the key roles in PV technology performance, since with the increases of temperature the open-circuit voltage will drop accordingly so do the electrical efficiency and power output generation. Different types of Photovoltaic (PV) panels- silicon solar panels and thin film solar panels; mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline, CIS, CIGS, CdTe, back-contact, and bi-facial solar panel under 40°C to 70°C approximately with 5°C interval have been comparatively analyzed their actual performances with uniformly distribution of light illumination from tungsten halogen light source, ±500W/m2. DC-Electronic Load and Data Logger devices with “Lab View” data program interface were used to collect all the necessary parameters in this study. Time needed to achieve a certain degree of temperature was recorded. Generally, each of the panels needed 15 minutes to 20 minutes to reach 70°C. Halogen based light source is not compatible in short wave-length in response to thin-film solar cell. Within this period of times, all the panels are facing a performance loss up to 15%. Other parameters; Pmax, Vmax, Imax, Voc, Isc, Rserries, Rshunt, Fillfactor were collected as study cases. Our study is important in determining Photovoltaic type selection and system design as for study or industrial needed under different temperature condition.

  13. Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osullivan, George; Bonn, Russell; Bower, Ward

    1994-12-01

    Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT's with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

  14. Assuring long-term reliability of concentrator PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Brown, J.; Crawford, C.; Darban, K.; Dutra, D.; Geer, S.; Ghassemian, V.; Gordon, R.; Kinsey, G.; Stone, K.; Turner, G.

    2009-08-01

    Concentrator PV (CPV) systems have attracted significant interest because these systems incorporate the world's highest efficiency solar cells and they are targeting the lowest cost production of solar electricity for the world's utility markets. Because these systems are just entering solar markets, manufacturers and customers need to assure their reliability for many years of operation. There are three general approaches for assuring CPV reliability: 1) field testing and development over many years leading to improved product designs, 2) testing to internationally accepted qualification standards (especially for new products) and 3) extended reliability tests to identify critical weaknesses in a new component or design. Amonix has been a pioneer in all three of these approaches. Amonix has an internal library of field failure data spanning over 15 years that serves as the basis for its seven generations of CPV systems. An Amonix product served as the test CPV module for the development of the world's first qualification standard completed in March 2001. Amonix staff has served on international standards development committees, such as the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), in support of developing CPV standards needed in today's rapidly expanding solar markets. Recently Amonix employed extended reliability test procedures to assure reliability of multijunction solar cell operation in its seventh generation high concentration PV system. This paper will discuss how these three approaches have all contributed to assuring reliability of the Amonix systems.

  15. A control strategy for PV stand-alone applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slouma, S.; Baccar, H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system study in domestic applications. Because of the decrease in power of photovoltaic module as a consequence of changes in solar radiation and temperature which affect the photovoltaic module performance, the design and control of DC-DC buck converter was proposed for providing power to the load from a photovoltaic source.In fact, the control of this converter is carried out with integrated MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm which ensures a maximum energy generated by the PV arrays. Moreover, the output stage is composed by a battery energy storage system, dc-ac inverter, LCL filter which enables higher efficiency, low distortion ac waveforms and low leakage currents. The control strategy adopted is cascade control composed by two regulation loops.Simulations performed with PSIM software were able to validate the control system.The realization and testing of the photovoltaic system were achieved in the Photovoltaic laboratory of the Centre for Research and Energy Technologies at the Technopark Borj Cedria. Experimental results verify the effeciency of the proposed system.

  16. Newer Concepts in Mars Exploration; LORPEX and PV Enhanced Aerobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Natale, Guy; Marcozzi, Massimiliano; Greene, Jack; Duke, Vanessa

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes two new concepts in Mars Exploration, both of which involve the utilization of in-situ resources. In the first invention, we describe a Locally Refueled Planetary Explorer (LORPEX) which has practically unlimited range and life since it "lives off the land/atmosphere" by extracting fuel and oxidizer from the atmosphere, and possibly water at a later stage, as a source of hydrogen. The robot has been built and demonstrated to the media, including one science show in Pasadena. In the second invention, the concept is to obviate the difficulty of finding a suitable, lightweight substrate to bond the photovoltaic cells to; if we have an aerobot anyway for covering vast terrains, the balloon surface provides an ideal substrate for the PV cells at a minimal additional mass. Because of the truly large areas, and because sun-pointing is no longer a factor, the power availability is constant and represents at least a ten-fold increase over comparable/competing technologies; when this is combined with the minimum mass, the advantages should be apparent. Both of these technologies, LORPEX and PV-Enhanced Aerobots, won NASA NTR awards.

  17. The European experience.

    PubMed

    Roels, Leo; Rahmel, Axel

    2011-04-01

    This mini-review on European experiences with tackling the problem of organ shortage for transplantation was based on a literature review of predominantly European publications dealing with the issue of organ donation from deceased donors. The authors tried to identify the most significant factors that have demonstrated to impact on donation rates from deceased donors and subsequent transplant successes. These factors include legislative measures (national laws and European Directives), optimization of the donation process, use of expanded criteria donors, innovative preservation and surgical techniques, organizational efforts, and improved allocation algorithms.

  18. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroos M.; Calaga R.; Bousson S.; Danared H.; Devanz G. et al

    2011-04-20

    In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

  19. European journals on microbiology.

    PubMed

    Ronda, C; Vázquez, M

    1997-12-01

    A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).

  20. Historical Y. pestis Genomes Reveal the European Black Death as the Source of Ancient and Modern Plague Pandemics.

    PubMed

    Spyrou, Maria A; Tukhbatova, Rezeda I; Feldman, Michal; Drath, Joanna; Kacki, Sacha; Beltrán de Heredia, Julia; Arnold, Susanne; Sitdikov, Airat G; Castex, Dominique; Wahl, Joachim; Gazimzyanov, Ilgizar R; Nurgaliev, Danis K; Herbig, Alexander; Bos, Kirsten I; Krause, Johannes

    2016-06-08

    Ancient DNA analysis has revealed an involvement of the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis in several historical pandemics, including the second plague pandemic (Europe, mid-14(th) century Black Death until the mid-18(th) century AD). Here we present reconstructed Y. pestis genomes from plague victims of the Black Death and two subsequent historical outbreaks spanning Europe and its vicinity, namely Barcelona, Spain (1300-1420 cal AD), Bolgar City, Russia (1362-1400 AD), and Ellwangen, Germany (1485-1627 cal AD). Our results provide support for (1) a single entry of Y. pestis in Europe during the Black Death, (2) a wave of plague that traveled toward Asia to later become the source population for contemporary worldwide epidemics, and (3) the presence of an historical European plague focus involved in post-Black Death outbreaks that is now likely extinct.

  1. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznań, Poland.

    PubMed

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Marczak, Łukasz; Łuczak, Magdalena; Stobiecki, Maciej; Widlak, Piotr; Kovarova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Every year since 2007, the Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) has excelled in representing state-of-the-art proteomics in and around Central and Eastern Europe, and linking it to international institutions worldwide. Its mission remains to contribute to all approaches of proteomics including traditional and often-revisited methodologies as well as the latest technological achievements in clinical, quantitative and structural proteomics with a view to systems biology of a variety of processes. The 9th CEEPC was held from June 15th to 18th, 2015, at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The scientific program stimulated exchange of proteomic knowledge whilst the spectacular venue of the conference allowed participants to enjoy the cobblestoned historical city of Poznań.

  2. Kula Geopark: Turkeys first European and Global Geopark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumus, Erdal; Zouros, Nickolas

    2014-05-01

    The Kula European and Global Geopark is situated in the Aegean Region of Turkey at Western Anatolia, within Manisa Province. The Geopark area covers 300 km2. The Kula Geopark area is the youngest volcanic region of Turkey where the volcanic activity continued up to prehistoric times. The outstanding volcanic structures of Kula Geopark area are well known at least for 2 thousand years. The great ancient Greek Geographer Strabo (63BC-24AD) in his majestic book "Geographica" named Kula as "Katakekaumene" (fire-born) because of the coal black lava. The geological significance and the cultural richness of Kula was mentioned by many foreign travellers and researchers like Charles Texier (1832) "Asia Minor" and Henry Washington's PhD thesis in 1893 where he named Kula basalts as "Kulaite". Kula Geopark area is awarded with high geodiversity representing 200 million years of earth history from Palaeozoic to Holocene including maars, monogenic cinder cones, successive lava flow plains, lava caves and tubes, craters, basalt columns, xenoliths, contact metamorphism, ash deposits, waterfalls in volcanic canyons, active karstic caves, badlands and fairy chimneys, mesa structures and schist tor, as far as 15 thousand years of fossil human foot prints preserved in volcanic ash. Kula Geopark is the land of miniature volcanoes where cinder cones are not higher than 150m. As a result, the geosites are easy to access and visiting the area requires very little risk, effort and time which makes the area excellent for geotourism and geoeducation. In addition to these outstanding natural and geological heritages, Kula Geopark reveals rich cultural, architectural historical, archaeological, and paleontological monuments. Kula represents well-preserved monuments of the 18th century Ottoman urban architecture in Turkey. The Kula Geopark Project was initiated in 2011 by PhD Erdal Gümüş with the support of the Kula Municipality. In September 2013 the Kula Geopark was certified as the first

  3. Complete DNA Sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the Causal Agent of Kiwifruit Canker Disease.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Matthew D; Warren, Benjamin A; Andersen, Mark T; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Fineran, Peter C

    2015-09-17

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit, a disease that has rapidly spread worldwide. We have fully sequenced and assembled the chromosomal and plasmid DNA from P. syringae pv. actinidiae ICMP 18884 using the PacBio RS II platform.

  4. Prevalence and geographical distribution of Papio hamadryas papillomavirus 1 (PhPV1) in Kenyan baboons.

    PubMed

    Chai, Daniel; Bassis, Christine M; Bergin, Ingrid L; Bell, Jason D; Nyachieo, Atunga; Gathumbi, Peter K

    2017-02-01

    Papio hamadryas papillomavirus (PhPV) 1, 2, and 3, are Alphapapillomaviruses that have been detected in Kenyan Olive baboons but the distribution is unknown. Therefore, cervical screening for PhPV1 was performed in baboons from various areas in Kenya using a nested polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence rate was 33%.

  5. A fault diagnosis system for PV power station based on global partitioned gradually approximation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, X. N.; Gao, D. D.; Liu, H. X.; Ye, J.; Li, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    As the solar photovoltaic (PV) power is applied extensively, more attentions are paid to the maintenance and fault diagnosis of PV power plants. Based on analysis of the structure of PV power station, the global partitioned gradually approximation method is proposed as a fault diagnosis algorithm to determine and locate the fault of PV panels. The PV array is divided into 16x16 blocks and numbered. On the basis of modularly processing of the PV array, the current values of each block are analyzed. The mean current value of each block is used for calculating the fault weigh factor. The fault threshold is defined to determine the fault, and the shade is considered to reduce the probability of misjudgments. A fault diagnosis system is designed and implemented with LabVIEW. And it has some functions including the data realtime display, online check, statistics, real-time prediction and fault diagnosis. Through the data from PV plants, the algorithm is verified. The results show that the fault diagnosis results are accurate, and the system works well. The validity and the possibility of the system are verified by the results as well. The developed system will be benefit for the maintenance and management of large scale PV array.

  6. Draft genome sequences of pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae ALF3 isolated from alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the annotated draft genome of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain ALF3, isolated in Wyoming, USA. Comparison of this genome sequence with those of closely related strains of P. syringae pv. syringae adapted to other hosts will facilitate research into interactions between this pathoge...

  7. NREL PV Module Reliability and Performance R&D Status and Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C. R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the status and accomplishments during Fiscal Year (FY)2004 of the Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability and Performance R&D Subtask, which is part of the PV Module Reliability R&D Project (a joint NREL-Sandia project).

  8. Stabilization of hexa-coordinated P(v) corroles by axial silyloxy groups.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tamal; Lee, Way-Zen; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli

    2016-05-04

    We report the stabilization of the hexa-coordination environment for P(v) corroles by using alkyl/aryl substituted silyloxy groups as axial ligands. The P(v) corroles are highly fluorescent in a hexa-coordination environment compared to in a penta-coordination environment. However, P(v) corroles generally undergo axial ligand dissociation to form a mixture of penta- and hexa-coordinated P(v) corroles in non-coordinating solvents such as toluene, CH2Cl2, CHCl3. The usage of moderately bulkier and electron-donating silyloxy groups helps to restrict the axial ligand dissociation of silyloxy substituted hexa-coordinated P(v) corroles in non-coordinating solvents. The crystal structure confirmed the hexa-coordination geometry for the P(v) corroles. The P(v) corroles strongly absorb and emit in the visible region, with decent quantum yields and singlet state lifetimes. The hexa-coordinated P(v) corroles are highly stable under electrochemical conditions.

  9. Design and Performance of a Hybrid PV/T Solar Water Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Makris, Th.; Georgostathis, P.; Sarris, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present design considerations and experimental results of a thermosyphonic hybrid PV/T solar system that is investigated at the University of Patras. Hybrid PV/T systems can provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation. We tested outdoors PV/T prototypes consisted of pc-Si PV modules and heat exchanger of copper sheet with copper pipes, for two system types (PVT/UNGL and PVT/GL). We used commercial PV modules, which give about 12%-15% efficiency, depending on the operating temperature and the use or not of additional glazing. During the experiments the generated electricity was transmitted to a load, simulating real system operation. Steady state tests of the system were performed outdoors to determine collector thermal efficiency. The glazed PV/T collector presents remarkably higher thermal output than the unglazed PV/T collector, but the electrical output of it is reduced due to additional optical losses. The experimental study of the tested thermosyphonic hybrid PV/T solar device showed that it can perform effectively during all year long, achieving at least 40° C of hot water and producing electricity at a satisfactory level.

  10. Moving to a Higher Level for PV Reliability through Comprehensive Standards Based on Solid Science (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2014-11-01

    PV reliability is a challenging topic because of the desired long life of PV modules, the diversity of use environments and the pressure on companies to rapidly reduce their costs. This presentation describes the challenges, examples of failure mechanisms that we know or don't know how to test for, and how a scientific approach is being used to establish international standards.

  11. Irrigation water is an unlikely source of inoculum of Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis causes severe bacterial blight on crucifers across the United States. These experiments examined the potential of irrigation water as a source of inoculum for P. cannabina pv. alisalensis. Water samples were collected from multiple irrigation reservoirs and spri...

  12. Identification of Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis previously isolated from diseased crucifers in Australia.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis causes bacterial blight on crucifers, a severe disease which can reduce crucifer yields and result in economic losses in the US. Prior to the late 1990s P. cannabina pv. alisalensis was not distinguished from the pepper spot pathogen of crucifers, Pseudomonas s...

  13. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dona, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Jenson, Alfred B.; Bonde, Robert K.; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  14. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A.

    2013-03-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies.

  15. Creating dynamic equivalent PV circuit models with impedance spectroscopy for arc-fault modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Strauch, Jason E.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2011-06-01

    Article 690.11 in the 2011 National Electrical Code{reg_sign} (NEC{reg_sign}) requires new photovoltaic (PV) systems on or penetrating a building to include a listed arc fault protection device. Currently there is little experimental or empirical research into the behavior of the arcing frequencies through PV components despite the potential for modules and other PV components to filter or attenuate arcing signatures that could render the arc detector ineffective. To model AC arcing signal propagation along PV strings, the well-studied DC diode models were found to inadequately capture the behavior of high frequency arcing signals. Instead dynamic equivalent circuit models of PV modules were required to describe the impedance for alternating currents in modules. The nonlinearities present in PV cells resulting from irradiance, temperature, frequency, and bias voltage variations make modeling these systems challenging. Linearized dynamic equivalent circuits were created for multiple PV module manufacturers and module technologies. The equivalent resistances and capacitances for the modules were determined using impedance spectroscopy with no bias voltage and no irradiance. The equivalent circuit model was employed to evaluate modules having irradiance conditions that could not be measured directly with the instrumentation. Although there was a wide range of circuit component values, the complex impedance model does not predict filtering of arc fault frequencies in PV strings for any irradiance level. Experimental results with no irradiance agree with the model and show nearly no attenuation for 1 Hz to 100 kHz input frequencies.

  16. OUT Success Stories: Thin-Film PV: Leadership in Materials R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Pitchford, P.

    2000-08-31

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a modern energy technology that makes use of semiconductor materials to convert sunlight directly to electricity. The idea of thin film technology is to produce truly low-cost PV devices by using pennies worth of active semiconductor materials.

  17. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M; Bossart, Gregory D; Jenson, Alfred B; Bonde, Robert K; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-07-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  18. Solar PV O&M Standards and Best Practices - Existing Gaps and Improvement Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Balfour, John R.; Keating, T. J.

    2014-11-01

    As greater numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are being installed, operations & maintenance (O&M) activities will need to be performed to ensure the PV system is operating as designed over its useful lifetime. To mitigate risks to PV system availability and performance, standardized procedures for O&M activities are needed to ensure high reliability and long-term system bankability. Efforts are just getting underway to address the need for standard O&M procedures as PV gains a larger share of U.S. generation capacity. Due to the existing landscape of how and where PV is installed, including distributed generation from small and medium PV systems, as well as large, centralized utility-scale PV, O&M activities will require different levels of expertise and reporting, making standards even more important. This report summarizes recent efforts made by solar industry stakeholders to identify the existing standards and best practices applied to solar PV O&M activities, and determine the gaps that have yet to be, or are currently being addressed by industry.

  19. Solar PV O&M Standards and Best Practices – Existing Gaps and Improvement Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Balfour, John R.; Keating, T. J.

    2014-11-01

    As greater numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are being installed, operations & maintenance (O&M) activities will need to be performed to ensure the PV system is operating as designed over its useful lifetime. To mitigate risks to PV system availability and performance, standardized procedures for O&M activities are needed to ensure high reliability and long-term system bankability. Efforts are just getting underway to address the need for standard O&M procedures as PV gains a larger share of U.S. generation capacity. Due to the existing landscape of how and where PV is installed, including distributed generation from small and medium PV systems, as well as large, centralized utility-scale PV, O&M activities will require different levels of expertise and reporting, making standards even more important. This report summarizes recent efforts made by solar industry stakeholders to identify the existing standards and best practices applied to solar PV O&M activities, and determine the gaps that have yet to be, or are currently being addressed by industry.

  20. Amplified fragment length polymorphism and multilocus sequence analysis-based genotypic relatedness among pathogenic variants of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri and Xanthomonas campestris pv. bilvae.

    PubMed

    Bui Thi Ngoc, Lan; Vernière, Christian; Jouen, Emmanuel; Ah-You, Nathalie; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Gagnevin, Lionel; Pruvost, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    Three pathogenic variants (i.e. pathotypes) have been described within Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker. Pathotype A strains naturally infect a wide range of Citrus species and members of some related genera. In contrast, pathotypes A* and A(w) have narrow host ranges within the genus Citrus and have been isolated from Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia L.) and from Mexican lime and alemow (Citrus macrophylla L.), respectively. We used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on four partial housekeeping gene sequences (atpD, dnaK, efp and gyrB ) for the genotypic classification of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri and the poorly characterized citrus pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. bilvae. A Mantel test showed that genetic distances derived from AFLP and MLSA were highly correlated. X. campestris pv. bilvae showed a close relatedness to the type strain of X. citri, indicating that this pathovar should be reclassified as X. citri pv. bilvae. All pathotype A* and A(w) strains were most closely related to X. citri pv. citri strains with a wide host range (pathotype A), confirming previous DNA-DNA hybridization data. Pathotype A(w) should be considered a junior synonym of pathotype A* on the basis of pathogenicity tests, AFLP, MLSA and PCR using pathovar-specific primers. Evolutionary genome divergences computed from AFLP data suggested that pathotype A* (including A(w) strains) is a group of strains that shows a wider genetic diversity than pathotype A.

  1. European PTTI report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, Franco; Grimaldi, Sabrina; Leschiutta, Sigfrido

    1994-01-01

    Time and frequency metrology in Europe presents some peculiar features in its three main components: research on clocks, comparisons and dissemination methods, and dissemination services. Apart from the usual activities of the national metrological laboratories, an increasing number of cooperation between the European countries are promoted inside some European organizations, such as the ECC, EFTA, EUROMET, and WECC. Cooperation between these organizations is covered. The present, evolving situation will be further influenced by the recent political changes in Eastern Europe.

  2. Analysis of Photovoltaic (PV) Module during Partial Shading based on Simplified Two-Diode Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitti Babu, B.; Gurjar, Suresh; Meher, Ashish

    2015-02-01

    Generally, the characteristics of photovoltaic (PV) array are largely affected by solar temperature, solar irradiance, shading patterns, array configuration and location of shading modules. Partial shading is due to moving clouds and shadows of nearby obstacles and can cause a significant degradation in the output of PV system. Hence, the characteristics of PV array get more multifaceted with multiple peaks. The ultimate aim of the paper is to analyze the performance of PV module during such adverse condition based on simplified two-diode model. To reduce the computational time, the simplified two-diode model has a photocurrent source in parallel with two ideal diodes. Only four parameters are required to be calculated from datasheet in order to simulate the model. Moreover, the performance of PV array is evaluated at different shaded patterns and it is found that the model has less computational time and gives accurate results.

  3. Simplified Method for Modeling the Impact of Arbitrary Partial Shading Conditions on PV Array Performance: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    MacAlpine, Sara; Deline, Chris

    2015-09-15

    It is often difficult to model the effects of partial shading conditions on PV array performance, as shade losses are nonlinear and depend heavily on a system's particular configuration. This work describes and implements a simple method for modeling shade loss: a database of shade impact results (loss percentages), generated using a validated, detailed simulation tool and encompassing a wide variety of shading scenarios. The database is intended to predict shading losses in crystalline silicon PV arrays and is accessed using basic inputs generally available in any PV simulation tool. Performance predictions using the database are within 1-2% of measured data for several partially shaded PV systems, and within 1% of those predicted by the full, detailed simulation tool on an annual basis. The shade loss database shows potential to considerably improve performance prediction for partially shaded PV systems.

  4. Analysis of PV Advanced Inverter Functions and Setpoints under Time Series Simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Seuss, John; Reno, Matthew J.; Broderick, Robert Joseph; Grijalva, Santiago

    2016-05-01

    Utilities are increasingly concerned about the potential negative impacts distributed PV may have on the operational integrity of their distribution feeders. Some have proposed novel methods for controlling a PV system's grid - tie inverter to mitigate poten tial PV - induced problems. This report investigates the effectiveness of several of these PV advanced inverter controls on improving distribution feeder operational metrics. The controls are simulated on a large PV system interconnected at several locations within two realistic distribution feeder models. Due to the time - domain nature of the advanced inverter controls, quasi - static time series simulations are performed under one week of representative variable irradiance and load data for each feeder. A para metric study is performed on each control type to determine how well certain measurable network metrics improve as a function of the control parameters. This methodology is used to determine appropriate advanced inverter settings for each location on the f eeder and overall for any interconnection location on the feeder.

  5. Simplified Method for Modeling the Impact of Arbitrary Partial Shading Conditions on PV Array Performance

    SciTech Connect

    MacAlpine, Sara; Deline, Chris

    2015-06-14

    It is often difficult to model the effects of partial shading conditions on PV array performance, as shade losses are nonlinear and depend heavily on a system's particular configuration. This work describes and implements a simple method for modeling shade loss: a database of shade impact results (loss percentages), generated using a validated, detailed simulation tool and encompassing a wide variety of shading scenarios. The database is intended to predict shading losses in crystalline silicon PV arrays and is accessed using basic inputs generally available in any PV simulation tool. Performance predictions using the database are within 1-2% of measured data for several partially shaded PV systems, and within 1% of those predicted by the full, detailed simulation tool on an annual basis. The shade loss database shows potential to considerably improve performance prediction for partially shaded PV systems.

  6. A Best Practice for Developing Availability Guarantee Language in Photovoltaic (PV) O&M Agreements.

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Balfour, John

    2015-11-01

    This document outlines the foundation for developing language that can be utilized in an Equipment Availability Guarantee, typically included in an O&M services agreement between a PV system or plant owner and an O&M services provider, or operator. Many of the current PV O&M service agreement Availability Guarantees are based on contracts used for traditional power generation, which create challenges for owners and operators due to the variable nature of grid-tied photovoltaic generating technologies. This report documents language used in early PV availability guarantees and presents best practices and equations that can be used to more openly communicate how the reliability of the PV system and plant equipment can be expressed in an availability guarantee. This work will improve the bankability of PV systems by providing greater transparency into the equipment reliability state to all parties involved in an O&M services contract.

  7. Design and Implementation of an Innovative Residential PV System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najm, Elie Michel

    This work focuses on the design and implementation of an innovative residential PV system. In chapter one, after an introduction related to the rapid growth of solar systems' installations, the most commonly used state of the art solar power electronics' configurations are discussed, which leads to introducing the proposed DC/DC parallel configuration. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the power electronics' configurations are deliberated. The scope of work in the power electronics is defined in this chapter to be related to the panel side DC/DC converter. System integration and mechanical proposals are also within the scope of work and are discussed in later chapters. Operation principle of a novel low cost PV converter is proposed in chapter 2. The proposal is based on an innovative, simplified analog implementation of a master/slave methodology resulting in an efficient, soft-switched interleaved variable frequency flybacks, operating in the boundary conduction mode (BCM). The scheme concept and circuit configuration, operation principle and theoretical waveforms, design equations, and design considerations are presented. Furthermore, design examples are also given, illustrating the significance of the newly derived frequency equation for flybacks operating in BCM. In chapters 3, 4, and 5, the design implementation and optimization of the novel DC/DC converter illustrated in chapter 2 are discussed. In chapter 3, a detailed variable frequency BCM flyback design model leading to optimizing the component selections and transformer design, detailed in chapter 4, is presented. Furthermore, in chapter 4, the method enabling the use of lower voltage rating switching devices is also discussed. In chapter 5, circuitry related to Start-UP, drive for the main switching devices, zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) as well as turn OFF soft switching and interleaving control are fully detailed. The experimental results of the proposed DC/DC converter are presented in

  8. 1366 Project Silicon: Reclaiming US Silicon PV Leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, Adam

    2016-02-16

    1366 Technologies’ Project Silicon addresses two of the major goals of the DOE’s PV Manufacturing Initiative Part 2 program: 1) How to reclaim a strong silicon PV manufacturing presence and; 2) How to lower the levelized cost of electricity (“LCOE”) for solar to $0.05-$0.07/kWh, enabling wide-scale U.S. market adoption. To achieve these two goals, US companies must commercialize disruptive, high-value technologies that are capable of rapid scaling, defensible from foreign competition, and suited for US manufacturing. These are the aims of 1366 Technologies Direct Wafer ™ process. The research conducted during Project Silicon led to the first industrial scaling of 1366’s Direct Wafer™ process – an innovative, US-friendly (efficient, low-labor content) manufacturing process that destroys the main cost barrier limiting silicon PV cost-reductions: the 35-year-old grand challenge of making quality wafers (40% of the cost of modules) without the cost and waste of sawing. The SunPath program made it possible for 1366 Technologies to build its demonstration factory, a key and critical step in the Company’s evolution. The demonstration factory allowed 1366 to build every step of the process flow at production size, eliminating potential risk and ensuring the success of the Company’s subsequent scaling for a 1 GW factory to be constructed in Western New York in 2016 and 2017. Moreover, the commercial viability of the Direct Wafer process and its resulting wafers were established as 1366 formed key strategic partnerships, gained entry into the $8B/year multi-Si wafer market, and installed modules featuring Direct Wafer products – the veritable proving grounds for the technology. The program also contributed to the development of three Generation 3 Direct Wafer furnaces. These furnaces are the platform for copying intelligently and preparing our supply chain – large-scale expansion will not require a bigger machine but more machines. SunPath filled the

  9. Characterization of the hrpF pathogenicity peninsula of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Sugio, Akiko; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F

    2005-06-01

    The hrp gene cluster of Xanthomonas spp. contains genes for the assembly and function of a type III secretion system (TTSS). The hrpF genes reside in a region between hpaB and the right end of the hrp cluster. The region of the hrpF gene of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is bounded by two IS elements and also contains a homolog of hpaF of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria and two newly identified genes, hpa3 and hpa4. A comparison of the hrp gene clusters of different species of Xanthomonas revealed that the hrpF region is a constant yet more variable peninsula of the hrp pathogenicity island. Mutations in hpaF, hpa3, and hpa4 had no effect on virulence, whereas hrpF mutants were severely reduced in virulence on susceptible rice cultivars. The hrpF genes from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, X. campestris pv. campestris, and X. axonopodis pv. citri each were capable of restoring virulence to the hrpF mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Correspondingly, none of the Xanthomonas pathovars with hrpF from X. oryzae pv. oryzae elicited a hypersensitive reaction in their respective hosts. Therefore, no evidence was found for hrpF as a host-specialization factor. In contrast to the loss of Bs3-dependent reactions by hrpF mutants of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, hrpF mutants of X. oryzae pv. oryzae with either avrXa10 or avrXa7 elicited hypersensitive reactions in rice cultivars with the corresponding R genes. A double hrpFxoo-hpa1 mutant also elicited an Xa10-dependent resistance reaction. Thus, loss of hrpF, hpal, or both may reduce delivery or effectiveness of type III effectors. However, the mutations did not completely prevent the delivery of effectors from X. oryzae pv. oryzae into the host cells.

  10. An investigation of the maximum penetration level of a photovoltaic (PV) system into a traditional distribution grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalise, Santosh

    Although solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have remained the fastest growing renewable power generating technology, variability as well as uncertainty in the output of PV plants is a significant issue. This rapid increase in PV grid-connected generation presents not only progress in clean energy but also challenges in integration with traditional electric power grids which were designed for transmission and distribution of power from central stations. Unlike conventional electric generators, PV panels do not have rotating parts and thus have no inertia. This potentially causes a problem when the solar irradiance incident upon a PV plant changes suddenly, for example, when scattered clouds pass quickly overhead. The output power of the PV plant may fluctuate nearly as rapidly as the incident irradiance. These rapid power output fluctuations may then cause voltage fluctuations, frequency fluctuations, and power quality issues. These power quality issues are more severe with increasing PV plant power output. This limits the maximum power output allowed from interconnected PV plants. Voltage regulation of a distribution system, a focus of this research, is a prime limiting factor in PV penetration levels. The IEEE 13-node test feeder, modeled and tested in the MATLAB/Simulink environment, was used as an example distribution feeder to analyze the maximum acceptable penetration of a PV plant. The effect of the PV plant's location was investigated, along with the addition of a VAR compensating device (a D-STATCOM in this case). The results were used to develop simple guidelines for determining an initial estimate of the maximum PV penetration level on a distribution feeder. For example, when no compensating devices are added to the system, a higher level of PV penetration is generally achieved by installing the PV plant close to the substation. The opposite is true when a VAR compensator is installed with the PV plant. In these cases, PV penetration levels over 50% may be

  11. Packaging Materials and Design for Improved PV Module Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Kempe, M.; Pern, J.; Glick, S.; del Cueto, J.; Kennedy, C.; McMahon, T.

    2005-01-01

    A number of candidate alternative encapsulant and soft backsheet materials have been evaluated in terms of their suitability for photovoltaic (PV) module packaging applications. Relevant properties, including peel strength as a function of damp heat exposure and permeability, have been measured. Based on these tests, promising new encapsulants with adhesion-promoting primers have been identified that result in improved properties. Test results for backsheets provided by industry and prepared at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have suggested strategies to achieve significantly improved products. The ability of glass/glass and glass/breathable backsheet constructions laminated with various encapsulant and/or edge seal materials to protect thin-film aluminum coatings deposited onto glass substrates was assessed. Glass/glass laminate constructions can trap harmful compounds that catalyze moisture-driven corrosion of the aluminum. Constructions with breathable backsheets allow higher rates of moisture ingress, but also allow egress of deleterious substances that can result in decreased corrosion.

  12. Final Technical Report - Photovoltaics for You (PV4You) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, J. M.; Sherwood, L.; Pulaski, J.; Cook, C.; Kalland, S.; Haynes, J.

    2005-08-14

    In September 2000, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) began its 5-year work on contract # DE-FGO3-00SF22116, the Photovoltaics for You (PV4You) Project. The objective was to develop and distribute information on photovoltaics and to educate key stakeholder groups including state government agencies, local government offices, consumer representative agencies, school officials and students, and Million Solar Roofs Partnerships. In addition, the project was to identify barriers to the deployment of photovoltaics and implement strategies to overcome them. Information dissemination and education was accomplished by publishing newsletters; creating a base of information, guides, and models on the www.irecusa.org and the www.millionsolarroofs.org web sites; convening workshops and seminars; engaging multiple stakeholders; and widening the solar network to include new consumers and decision makers. Two major web sites were maintained throughout the project cycle. The www.irecusa.org web site housed dedicated pages for Connecting to the Grid, Schools Going Solar, Community Outreach, and Certification & Training. The www.millionsolarroofs.org web site was created to serve the MSR Partnerships with news, interviews, key documents, and resource material. Through the course of this grant, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council has been supporting the Department of Energy's solar energy program goals by providing the Department with expertise services for their network of city, state, and community stakeholders. IREC has been the leading force at the state and federal levels regarding net metering and interconnection policy for photovoltaic systems. The principal goal and benefit of the interconnection and net metering work is to lower both barriers and cost for the installation of PV. IREC typically plays a leadership role among small generator stakeholders and has come to be relied upon for its expertise by industry and regulators. IREC also took a leadership

  13. Painlevé equations from Darboux chains: I. PIII PV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willox, Ralph; Hietarinta, Jarmo

    2003-10-01

    We show that the Painlevé equations PIII-PVI can be derived in a unified way from a periodic sequence of Darboux transformations for a Schrödinger problem with quadratic eigenvalue dependence. The general problem naturally divides into three different branches, each described by an infinite chain of equations. The Painlevé equations are obtained by closing the chain periodically at the lowest nontrivial level(s). The chains provide 'symmetric forms' for the Painlevé equations, from which Hirota bilinear forms and Lax pairs are derived. In this paper (part I) we analyse in detail the cases PIII-PV, while PVI will be studied in part II.

  14. PV Degradation Methodology Comparison -- A Basis for a Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Dirk C.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2016-11-21

    What is the best method to determine long-term PV system performance and degradation rates? Ideally, one universally applicable methodology would be desirable so that a single number could be derived. However, data sets vary in their attributes and evidence is presented that defining two methodologies may be preferable. Monte Carlo simulations of artificial performance data allowed investigation of different methodologies and their respective confidence intervals. Tradeoffs between different approaches were delineated, elucidating as to why two separate approaches may need to be included in a standard. Regression approaches tend to be preferable when data sets are less contaminated by seasonality, noise and occurrence of outliers although robust regression can significantly improve the accuracy when outliers are present. In the presence of outliers, marked seasonality, or strong soiling events, year-on-year approaches tend to outperform regression approaches.

  15. Comparison of four MPPT techniques for PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atik, L.; Petit, P.; Sawicki, J. P.; Ternifi, Z. T.; Bachir, G.; Aillerie, M.

    2016-07-01

    The working behavior of a module / PV array is non-linear and highly dependent on working conditions. As a given condition, there is only one point at which the level of available power at its output is maximum. This point varies with time, enlightenment and temperature. To ensure optimum operation, the use of MPPT control allows us to extract the maximum power. This paper presents a comparative study of four widely-adopted MPPT algorithms, such as Perturb and Observe, Incremental Conductance, Measurements of the variation of the open circuit voltage or of the short-circuit current. Their performance is evaluated using, for all these techniques. In particular, this study compares the behaviors of each technique in presence of solar irradiation variations and temperature fluctuations. These MPPT techniques will be compared using the Matlab / Simulink tool.

  16. The reliability and stability of multijunction amorphous silicon PV modules

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.E.

    1995-11-01

    Solarex is developing a manufacturing process for the commercial production of 8 ft{sup 2} multijunction amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV modules starting in 1996. The device structure used in these multijunction modules is: glass/textured tin oxide/p-i-n/p-i-n/ZnO/Al/EVA/Tedlar where the back junction of the tandem structure contains an amorphous silicon germanium alloy. As an interim step, 4 ft{sup 2} multijunction modules have been fabricated in a pilot production mode over the last several months. The distribution of initial conversion efficiencies for an engineering run of 67 modules (4 ft{sup 2}) is shown. Measurements recently performed at NREL indicate that the actual efficiencies are about 5% higher than those shown, and thus exhibit an average initial conversion efficiency of about 9.5%. The data indicates that the process is relatively robust since there were no modules with initial efficiencies less than 7.5%.

  17. Comparative analysis of DG and solar PV water pumping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tharani, Kusum; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    Looking at present day electricity scenario, there is a major electricity crisis in rural areas. The farmers are still dependant on the monsoon rains for their irrigation needs and livestock maintenance. Some of the agrarian population has opted to use Diesel Generators for pumping water in their fields. But taking into consideration the economics and environmental conditions, the above choice is not suitable for longer run. An effort to shift from non-renewable sources such as diesel to renewable energy source such as solar has been highlighted. An approximate comparative analysis showing the life cycle costs of a PV pumping system with Diesel Generator powered water pumping is done using MATLAB/STMULTNK.

  18. Copper Antimony Chalcogenide Thin Film PV Device Development

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Adam W.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; de Souza Lucas, Francisco Willian; Toberer, Eric S.; Wolden, Colin A.; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2015-06-14

    Emerging ternary chalcogenide thin film solar cell technologies, such as CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2, have recently attracted attention as simpler alternatives to quaternary Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS). Despite suitable photovoltaic properties, the initial energy conversion efficiency of CuSbS2 is rather low (0.3%). Here, we report on our progress towards improving the efficiency of CuSbS2 solar cells using a high throughput approach. The combinatorial methodology quickly results in baseline solar cell prototypes with 0.6% efficiency, and then modification of the back contact architecture leads to 1% PV devices. We then translate the optimal CuSbS2 synthesis parameters to CuSbSe2 devices, which show 3% efficiencies.

  19. Electronic processes in thin-film PV materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.C.; Chen, D.; Chen, S.L.

    1998-07-01

    The electronic and optical processes in an important class of thin-film PV materials, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and related alloys, have been investigated using several experimental techniques designed for thin-film geometries. The experimental techniques include various magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopies and combinations of these two spectroscopies. Two-step optical excitation processes through the manifold of silicon dangling bond states have been identifies as important at low excitation energies. Local hydrogen motion has been studied using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and found to be much more rapid than long range diffusion as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. A new metastable effect has been found in a-Si:H films alloyed with sulfur. Spin-one optically excited states have been unambiguously identified using optically detected electron spin resonance. Local hydrogen bonding in microcrystalline silicon films has been studied using NMR.

  20. The N-Glycan Cluster from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    PubMed Central

    Dupoiron, Stéphanie; Zischek, Claudine; Ligat, Laetitia; Carbonne, Julien; Boulanger, Alice; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Lautier, Martine; Rival, Pauline; Arlat, Matthieu; Jamet, Elisabeth; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Albenne, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    N-Glycans are widely distributed in living organisms but represent only a small fraction of the carbohydrates found in plants. This probably explains why they have not previously been considered as substrates exploited by phytopathogenic bacteria during plant infection. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the causal agent of black rot disease of Brassica plants, possesses a specific system for GlcNAc utilization expressed during host plant infection. This system encompasses a cluster of eight genes (nixE to nixL) encoding glycoside hydrolases (GHs). In this paper, we have characterized the enzymatic activities of these GHs and demonstrated their involvement in sequential degradation of a plant N-glycan using a N-glycopeptide containing two GlcNAcs, three mannoses, one fucose, and one xylose (N2M3FX) as a substrate. The removal of the α-1,3-mannose by the α-mannosidase NixK (GH92) is a prerequisite for the subsequent action of the β-xylosidase NixI (GH3), which is involved in the cleavage of the β-1,2-xylose, followed by the α-mannosidase NixJ (GH125), which removes the α-1,6-mannose. These data, combined to the subcellular localization of the enzymes, allowed us to propose a model of N-glycopeptide processing by X. campestris pv. campestris. This study constitutes the first evidence suggesting N-glycan degradation by a plant pathogen, a feature shared with human pathogenic bacteria. Plant N-glycans should therefore be included in the repertoire of molecules putatively metabolized by phytopathogenic bacteria during their life cycle. PMID:25586188

  1. Transparent building-integrated PV modules. Phase 1: Comprehensive report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-28

    This Comprehensive Report encompasses the activities that have been undertaken by Kiss + Cathcart, Architects, in conjunction with Energy Photovoltaics, Incorporated (EPV), to develop a flexible patterning system for thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules for building applications. There are two basic methods for increasing transparency/light transmission by means of patterning the PV film: widening existing scribe lines, or scribing a second series of lines perpendicular to the first. These methods can yield essentially any degree of light transmission, but both result in visible patterns of light and dark on the panel surface. A third proposed method is to burn a grid of dots through the films, independent of the normal cell scribing. This method has the potential to produce a light-transmitting panel with no visible pattern. Ornamental patterns at larger scales can be created using combinations of these techniques. Kiss + Cathcart, Architects, in conjunction with EPV are currently developing a complementary process for the large-scale lamination of thin-film PVs, which enables building integrated (BIPV) modules to be produced in sizes up to 48 in. x 96 in. Flexible laser patterning will be used for three main purposes, all intended to broaden the appeal of the product to the building sector: To create semitransparent thin-film modules for skylights, and in some applications, for vision glazing.; to create patterns for ornamental effects. This application is similar to fritted glass, which is used for shading, visual screening, graphics, and other purposes; and to allow BIPV modules to be fabricated in various sizes and shapes with maximum control over electrical characteristics.

  2. High Performance Packaging Solutions for Low Cost, Reliable PV Modules: Final Subcontract Report, 26 May 2005 - 30 November 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Keotla, B. M.; Marinik, B. J.

    2009-06-01

    During this research effort, Dow Corning Corporation has addressed the PV manufacturing goals of: (i) improving PV manufacturing processes and equipment; (ii) accelerating manufacturing cost reductions of PV modules; (iii) increasing commercial product performance and reliability; and (iv) scaling up U.S. manufacturing capacity.

  3. Plug and Play Components for Building Integrated PV Systems, Phase II Final Report, 20 February 2003 - 31 May 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Rowell, D.

    2008-04-01

    Progress by Schott Solar, Inc. under NREL's PV Manufacturing R&D Project. Details progress on meter-interconnect device; free-standing mounting system; dark I-V curves to unearth problems with PV module strings; new 34-V version of ASE-300 PV module; and updated source-circuit protectors.

  4. First report of the crucifer pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis causing bacterial blight on radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis is a severe pathogen of crucifers across the U.S. We compared a strain isolated from diseased radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany to pathotypes and additional strains of P. cannabina pv. alisalensis and P. syringae pv. maculicola. We demonstrated that the patho...

  5. Comparison of the complete genome sequences of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a and pv. tomato DC3000

    SciTech Connect

    Feil, Helene; Feil, William; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Larimer, Frank W; DiBartolo, Genevieve; Copeland, A; Lykidis, A; Trong, Stephen; Nolan, Matt; Goltsman, Eugene; Thiel, James; Malfatti, Stephanie; Loper, Joyce E.; Detter, J C; Lapidus, Alla L.; Land, Miriam L; Richardson, P M; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, N; Lindow, Steven E.

    2005-01-01

    The complete genomic sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a (Pss B728a) has been determined and is compared with that of A syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). The two pathovars of this economically important species of plant pathogenic bacteria differ in host range and other interactions with plants, with Pss having a more pronounced epiphytic stage of growth and higher abiotic stress tolerance and Pst DC3000 having a more pronounced apoplastic growth habitat. The Pss B728a genome (6.1 Mb) contains a circular chromosome and no plasmid, whereas the Pst DC3000 genome is 6.5 mbp in size, composed of a circular chromosome and two plasmids. Although a high degree of similarity exists between the two sequenced Pseudomonads, 976 protein-encoding genes are unique to Pss B728a when compared with Pst DC3000, including large genomic islands likely to contribute to virulence and host specificity. Over 375 repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences unique to Pss B728a when compared with Pst DC3000 are widely distributed throughout the chromosome except in 14 genomic islands, which generally had lower GC content than the genome as a whole. Content of the genomic islands varies, with one containing a prophage and another the plasmid pKLC102 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Among the 976 genes of Pss B728a with no counterpart in Pst DC3000 are those encoding for syringopeptin, syringomycin, indole acetic acid biosynthesis, arginine degradation, and production of ice nuclei. The genomic comparison suggests that several unique genes for Pss B728a such as ectoine synthase, DNA repair, and antibiotic production may contribute to the epiphytic fitness and stress tolerance of this organism.

  6. Novel insights into the regulatory roles of gene hshB in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhiwei; Zhao, Yancun; Qian, Guoliang; Odhiambo, Benard Omondi; Liu, Fengquan

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola causes leaf streak disease of rice. The gene hshB is a newly identified virulence-associated gene that is co-regulated by diffusible signal factor signaling and global regulator Clp in X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. Our previous study showed that mutation of hshB remarkably impaired the virulence, extracellular protease activity, extracellular polysaccharide production and resistance to oxidative stress of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. In this study, the regulatory role of hshB in X. oryzae pv .oryzicola was expanded. Results showed that hshB was also required for cell swimming motility. Transcriptome analysis showed that 305 genes were significantly differentially expressed after deletion of hshB in X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. Further analysis of transcriptome data indicated that the differentially expressed genes focused on two aspects: namely, cell motility and cell signal transduction. This finding strongly identified the closely related function of hshB to cell motility and signal transduction. In addition, the mutation of hshB of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola enhanced biofilm formation. Collectively, the study showed novel functions of gene hshB in cell motility and biofilm formation by transcriptome analysis, thus expanding our understanding of the roles of gene hshB in the pathogenic X. oryzae pv. oryzicola.

  7. Active power control of solar PV generation for large interconnection frequency regulation and oscillation damping

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Lin; Zhan, Lingwei; ...

    2015-06-23

    Because of zero greenhouse gas emission and decreased manufacture cost, solar photovoltaic (PV) generation is expected to account for a significant portion of future power grid generation portfolio. Because it is indirectly connected to the power grid via power electronic devices, solar PV generation system is fully decoupled from the power grid, which will influence the interconnected power grid dynamic characteristics as a result. In this study, the impact of solar PV penetration on large interconnected power system frequency response and inter-area oscillation is evaluated, taking the United States Eastern Interconnection (EI) as an example. Furthermore, based on the constructedmore » solar PV electrical control model with additional active power control loops, the potential contributions of solar PV generation to power system frequency regulation and oscillation damping are examined. The advantages of solar PV frequency support over that of wind generator are also discussed. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that solar PV generations can effectively work as ‘actuators’ in alleviating the negative impacts they bring about.« less

  8. Active power control of solar PV generation for large interconnection frequency regulation and oscillation damping

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Lin; Zhan, Lingwei; Gracia, Jose R.; King, Thomas Jr.; Liu, Yilu

    2015-06-23

    Because of zero greenhouse gas emission and decreased manufacture cost, solar photovoltaic (PV) generation is expected to account for a significant portion of future power grid generation portfolio. Because it is indirectly connected to the power grid via power electronic devices, solar PV generation system is fully decoupled from the power grid, which will influence the interconnected power grid dynamic characteristics as a result. In this study, the impact of solar PV penetration on large interconnected power system frequency response and inter-area oscillation is evaluated, taking the United States Eastern Interconnection (EI) as an example. Furthermore, based on the constructed solar PV electrical control model with additional active power control loops, the potential contributions of solar PV generation to power system frequency regulation and oscillation damping are examined. The advantages of solar PV frequency support over that of wind generator are also discussed. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that solar PV generations can effectively work as ‘actuators’ in alleviating the negative impacts they bring about.

  9. A hybrid life-cycle inventory for multi-crystalline silicon PV module manufacturing in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuan; Chang, Yuan; Masanet, Eric

    2014-11-01

    China is the world’s largest manufacturer of multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic (mc-Si PV) modules, which is a key enabling technology in the global transition to renewable electric power systems. This study presents a hybrid life-cycle inventory (LCI) of Chinese mc-Si PV modules, which fills a critical knowledge gap on the environmental implications of mc-Si PV module manufacturing in China. The hybrid LCI approach combines process-based LCI data for module and poly-silicon manufacturing plants with a 2007 China IO-LCI model for production of raw material and fuel inputs to estimate ‘cradle to gate’ primary energy use, water consumption, and major air pollutant emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen oxides). Results suggest that mc-Si PV modules from China may come with higher environmental burdens that one might estimate if one were using LCI results for mc-Si PV modules manufactured elsewhere. These higher burdens can be reasonably explained by the efficiency differences in China’s poly-silicon manufacturing processes, the country’s dependence on highly polluting coal-fired electricity, and the expanded system boundaries associated with the hybrid LCI modeling framework. The results should be useful for establishing more conservative ranges on the potential ‘cradle to gate’ impacts of mc-Si PV module manufacturing for more robust LCAs of PV deployment scenarios.

  10. Insertion sequence- and tandem repeat-based genotyping techniques for Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae.

    PubMed

    Pruvost, O; Vernière, C; Vital, K; Guérin, F; Jouen, E; Chiroleu, F; Ah-You, N; Gagnevin, L

    2011-07-01

    Molecular fingerprinting techniques that have the potential to identify or subtype bacteria at the strain level are needed for improving diagnosis and understanding of the epidemiology of pathogens such as Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae, which causes mango bacterial canker disease. We developed a ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction targeting the IS1595 insertion sequence as a means to differentiate pv. mangiferaeindicae from the closely related pv. anacardii (responsible for cashew bacterial spot), which has the potential to infect mango but not to cause significant disease. This technique produced weakly polymorphic fingerprints composed of ≈70 amplified fragments per strain for a worldwide collection of X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae but produced no or very weak amplification for pv. anacardii strains. Together, 12 tandem repeat markers were able to subtype X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae at the strain level, distinguishing 231 haplotypes from a worldwide collection of 299 strains. Multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA), IS1595-ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction, and amplified fragment length polymorphism showed differences in discriminatory power and were congruent in describing the diversity of this strain collection, suggesting low levels of recombination. The potential of the MLVA scheme for molecular epidemiology studies of X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae is discussed.

  11. PV Ramping in a Distributed Generation Environment: A Study Using Solar Measurements; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, M.; Keller, J.

    2012-06-01

    Variability in Photovoltaic (PV) generation resulting from variability in the solar radiation over the PV arrays is a topic of continuing concern for those involved with integrating renewables onto existing electrical grids. The island of Lanai, Hawaii is an extreme example of the challenges that integrators will face due to the fact that it is a small standalone grid. One way to study this problem is to take high-resolution solar measurements in multiple locations and model simultaneous PV production for various sizes at those locations. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected high-resolution solar data at four locations on the island where proposed PV plants will be deployed in the near future. This data set provides unique insight into how the solar radiation may vary between points that are proximal in distance, but diverse in weather, due to the formation of orographic clouds in the center of the island. Using information about each proposed PV plant size, power output was created at high resolution. The team analyzed this output to understand power production ramps at individual locations and the effects of aggregating the production from all four locations. Hawaii is a unique environment, with extremely variable events occurring on a daily basis. This study provided an excellent opportunity for understanding potential worst-case scenarios for PV ramping. This paper provides an introduction to the datasets that NREL collected over a year and a comprehensive analysis of PV variability in a distributed generation scenario.

  12. Moving Toward Quantifying Reliability - The Next Step in a Rapidly Maturing PV Industry: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Sarah; Sample, Tony; Wohlgemuth, John; Zhou, Wei; Bosco, Nick; Althaus, Joerg; Phillips, Nancy; Deceglie, Michael; Flueckiger, Chris; Hacke, Peter; Miller, David; Kempe, Michael; Yamamichi, Masaaki; Kondo, Michio

    2015-12-07

    Some may say that PV modules are moving toward being a simple commodity, but most major PV customers ask: 'How can I minimize chances of a module recall?' Or, 'How can I quantify the added value of a 'premium' module?' Or, 'How can I assess the value of an old PV system that I'm thinking of purchasing?' These are all questions that PVQAT (the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force) and partner organizations are working to answer. Defining standard methods for ensuring minimal acceptable quality of PV modules, differentiating modules that provide added value in the toughest of environments, and creating a process (e.g. through IECRE [1]) that can follow a PV system from design through installation and operation are tough tasks, but having standard approaches for these will increase confidence, reduce costs, and be a critical foundation of a mature PV industry. This paper summarizes current needs for new tests, some challenges for defining those tests, and some of the key efforts toward development of international standards, emphasizing that meaningful quantification of reliability (as in defining a service life prediction) must be done in the context of a specific product with design parameters defined through a quality management system.

  13. Colonization of Dormant Walnut Buds by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis Is Predictive of Subsequent Disease.

    PubMed

    Lindow, Steven; Olson, William; Buchner, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The potential role of walnut buds as a driver of walnut blight disease, caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis, was addressed by quantifying its temporal dynamics in a large number of orchards in California. The abundance of X. arboricola pv. juglandis on individual dormant and developing buds and shoots of walnut trees varied by >10(6)-fold at any sample time and within a given tree. X. arboricola pv. juglandis population size in shoots was often no larger than that in the buds from which the shoots were derived but was strongly correlated with prior pathogen population sizes in buds. X. arboricola pv. juglandis populations on developing nuts were strongly related to that on the shoots on which they were borne. The incidence of disease of nuts in June was strongly correlated with the logarithm of the population size of X. arboricola pv. juglandis in dormant buds in March. Inoculum efficiency, the slope of this linear relationship, varied between years but was strongly related to the number of rain events following bud break in each year. Thus, inoculum of X. arboricola pv. juglandis present on dormant buds is the primary determinant of nut infections and the risk of disease can be predicted from both the numbers of X. arboricola pv. juglandis in buds and the incidence of early spring rain.

  14. Integration, Validation, and Application of a PV Snow Coverage Model in SAM

    SciTech Connect

    Ryberg, David; Freeman, Janine

    2015-09-01

    Due to the increasing deployment of PV systems in snowy climates, there is significant interest in a method capable of estimating PV losses resulting from snow coverage that has been verified for a wide variety of system designs and locations. A scattering of independent snow coverage models have been developed over the last 15 years; however, there has been very little effort spent on verifying these models beyond the system design and location on which they were based. Moreover, none of the major PV modeling software products have incorporated any of these models into their workflow. In response to this deficiency, we have integrated the methodology of the snow model developed in the paper by Marion et al. [1] into the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) System Advisor Model (SAM). In this work we describe how the snow model is implemented in SAM and discuss our demonstration of the model's effectiveness at reducing error in annual estimations for two PV arrays. Following this, we use this new functionality in conjunction with a long term historical dataset to estimate average snow losses across the United States for a typical PV system design. The open availability of the snow loss estimation capability in SAM to the PV modeling community, coupled with our results of the nation-wide study, will better equip the industry to accurately estimate PV energy production in areas affected by snowfall.

  15. Moving Toward Quantifying Reliability - The Next Step in a Rapidly Maturing PV Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Sarah; Sample, Tony; Wohlgemuth, John; Zhou, Wei; Bosco, Nick; Althaus, Joerg; Phillips, Nancy; Deceglie, Michael; Flueckiger, Chris; Hacke, Peter; Miller, David; Kempe, Michael; Yamamichi, Masaaki; Kondo, Michio

    2015-06-14

    Some may say that PV modules are moving toward being a simple commodity, but most major PV customers ask: 'How can I minimize chances of a module recall?' Or, 'How can I quantify the added value of a 'premium' module?' Or, 'How can I assess the value of an old PV system that I'm thinking of purchasing?' These are all questions that PVQAT (the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force) and partner organizations are working to answer. Defining standard methods for ensuring minimal acceptable quality of PV modules, differentiating modules that provide added value in the toughest of environments, and creating a process (e.g. through IECRE [1]) that can follow a PV system from design through installation and operation are tough tasks, but having standard approaches for these will increase confidence, reduce costs, and be a critical foundation of a mature PV industry. This paper summarizes current needs for new tests, some challenges for defining those tests, and some of the key efforts toward development of international standards, emphasizing that meaningful quantification of reliability (as in defining a service life prediction) must be done in the context of a specific product with design parameters defined through a quality management system.

  16. PvRbohB negatively regulates Rhizophagus irregularis colonization in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Montiel, Jesús; Nava, Noreide; Santana, Olivia; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Cárdenas, Luis; Quinto, Carmen

    2013-08-01

    Plant NADPH oxidases (RBOHs) regulate the early stages of rhizobial infection in Phaseolus vulgaris and affect nodule function in Medicago truncatula. In contrast, the role of RBOHs in the plant-arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis and in the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during the establishment of the AM interaction is largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the role of P. vulgaris Rboh (PvRbohB) during the symbiosis with the AM fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis. Our results indicate that the PvRbohB transcript is significantly up-regulated in the mycorrhized roots of P. vulgaris. Further, the PvRbohB promoter was found to be active during the invasion of R. irregularis. Down-regulation of PvRbohB transcription by RNAi (RNA interference) silencing resulted in diminished ROS levels in the transgenic mycorrhized roots and induced early hyphal root colonization. Interestingly, the size of appressoria increased in PvRbohB-RNAi roots (760 ± 70.1 µm) relative to controls (251 ± 73.2 µm). Finally, the overall level of mycorrhizal colonization significantly increased in PvRbohB-RNAi roots [48.1 ± 3.3% root length colonization (RLC)] compared with controls (29.4 ± 1.9% RLC). We propose that PvRbohB negatively regulates AM colonization in P. vulgaris.

  17. Advanced Inverter Technology for High Penetration Levels of PV Generation in Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schauder, C.

    2014-03-01

    This subcontract report was completed under the auspices of the NREL/SCE High-Penetration Photovoltaic (PV) Integration Project, which is co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD&D) program funded by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) and managed by Itron. This project is focused on modeling, quantifying, and mitigating the impacts of large utility-scale PV systems (generally 1-5 MW in size) that are interconnected to the distribution system. This report discusses the concerns utilities have when interconnecting large PV systems that interconnect using PV inverters (a specific application of frequency converters). Additionally, a number of capabilities of PV inverters are described that could be implemented to mitigate the distribution system-level impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Finally, the main issues that need to be addressed to ease the interconnection of large PV systems to the distribution system are presented.

  18. The Economic Value of PV and Net Metering to Residential Customers in California

    SciTech Connect

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-05-17

    In this paper, we analyze the bill savings from PV for residential customers of the California's two largest electric utilities, under existing net metering tariffs as well as under several alternative compensation mechanisms. We find that economic value of PV to the customer is dependent on the structure of the underlying retail electricity rate and can vary quite significantly from one customer to another. In addition, we find that the value of the bill savings from PV generally declines with PV penetration level, as increased PV generation tends to offset lower-priced usage. Customers in our sample from both utilities are significantly better off with net metering than with a feed-in tariff where all PV generation is compensated at long-run avoided generation supply costs. Other compensation schemeswhich allow customers to displace their consumption with PV generation within each hour or each month, and are also based on the avoided costs, yield similar value to the customer as net metering.

  19. SMART empirical approaches for predicting field performance of PV modules from results of reliability tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardikar, Kedar Y.; Liu, Bill J. J.; Bheemreddy, Venkata

    2016-09-01

    Gaining an understanding of degradation mechanisms and their characterization are critical in developing relevant accelerated tests to ensure PV module performance warranty over a typical lifetime of 25 years. As newer technologies are adapted for PV, including new PV cell technologies, new packaging materials, and newer product designs, the availability of field data over extended periods of time for product performance assessment cannot be expected within the typical timeframe for business decisions. In this work, to enable product design decisions and product performance assessment for PV modules utilizing newer technologies, Simulation and Mechanism based Accelerated Reliability Testing (SMART) methodology and empirical approaches to predict field performance from accelerated test results are presented. The method is demonstrated for field life assessment of flexible PV modules based on degradation mechanisms observed in two accelerated tests, namely, Damp Heat and Thermal Cycling. The method is based on design of accelerated testing scheme with the intent to develop relevant acceleration factor models. The acceleration factor model is validated by extensive reliability testing under different conditions going beyond the established certification standards. Once the acceleration factor model is validated for the test matrix a modeling scheme is developed to predict field performance from results of accelerated testing for particular failure modes of interest. Further refinement of the model can continue as more field data becomes available. While the demonstration of the method in this work is for thin film flexible PV modules, the framework and methodology can be adapted to other PV products.

  20. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote Performance: A Reviewof Current Practice in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-10-06

    In the U.S., the increasing financial support for customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems provided through publicly-funded incentive programs has heightened concerns about the long-term performance of these systems. Given the barriers that customers face to ensuring that their PV systems perform well, and the responsibility that PV incentive programs bear to ensure that public funds are prudently spent, these programs should, and often do, play a critical role in addressing PV system performance. To provide a point of reference for assessing the current state of the art, and to inform program design efforts going forward, we examine the approaches to encouraging PV system performance used by 32 prominent PV incentive programs in the U.S. We identify eight general strategies or groups of related strategies that these programs have used to address factors that affect performance, and describe key implementation details. Based on this review, we then offer recommendations for how PV incentive programs can be effectively designed to mitigate potential performance issues.

  1. Increased Age-Dependent Risk of Death Associated With lukF-PV-Positive Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Trine A.; Skov, Robert; Petersen, Andreas; Larsen, Anders R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Panton-Valentine leucocidin is a Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor encoded by lukF-PV and lukS-PV that is infrequent in S aureus bacteremia (SAB), and, therefore, little is known about risk factors and outcome of lukF-PV/lukS-PV-positive SAB. Methods. This report is a register-based nationwide observational cohort study. lukF-PV was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Factors associated with the presence of lukF-PV were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Adjusted 30-day hazard ratios of mortality associated with lukF-PV status were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results. Of 9490 SAB cases, 129 were lukF-PV-positive (1.4%), representing 14 different clonal complexes. lukF-PV was associated with younger age, absence of comorbidity, and methicillin-resistant S aureus. In unadjusted analysis, mortality associated with lukF-PV-positive SAB was comparable to SAB. However, lukF-PV-positive SAB nonsurvivors were significantly older and had more comorbidity. Consequently, by adjusted analysis, the risk of 30-day mortality was increased by 70% for lukF-PV-positive SAB compared with SAB (hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.20–2.42; P = .003). Conclusions. lukF-PV-positive SAB is rare in Denmark but associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality. Although the risk of lukF-PV-positive SAB was highest in the younger age groups, >80% of deaths associated with lukF-PV-positive SAB occurred in individuals older than 55 years. PMID:27957504

  2. Reconciling Consumer and Utility Objectives in the Residential Solar PV Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Michael R.

    Today's energy market is facing large-scale changes that will affect all market players. Near the top of that list is the rapid deployment of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Yet that growing trend will be influenced multiple competing interests between various stakeholders, namely the utility, consumers and technology provides. This study provides a series of analyses---utility-side, consumer-side, and combined analyses---to understand and evaluate the effect of increases in residential solar PV market penetration. Three urban regions have been selected as study locations---Chicago, Phoenix, Seattle---with simulated load data and solar insolation data at each locality. Various time-of-use pricing schedules are investigated, and the effect of net metering is evaluated to determine the optimal capacity of solar PV and battery storage in a typical residential home. The net residential load profile is scaled to assess system-wide technical and economic figures of merit for the utility with an emphasis on intraday load profiles, ramp rates and electricity sales with increasing solar PV penetration. The combined analysis evaluates the least-cost solar PV system for the consumer and models the associated system-wide effects on the electric grid. Utility revenue was found to drop by 1.2% for every percent PV penetration increase, net metering on a monthly or annual basis improved the cost-effectiveness of solar PV but not battery storage, the removal of net metering policy and usage of an improved the cost-effectiveness of battery storage and increases in solar PV penetration reduced the system load factor. As expected, Phoenix had the most favorable economic scenario for residential solar PV, primarily due to high solar insolation. The study location---solar insolation and load profile---was also found to affect the time of year at which the largest net negative system load was realized.

  3. Experimental Performance Investigation of Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV-T) System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgoren, M.; Aksoy, M. H.; Bakir, C.; Dogan, S.

    2013-04-01

    Photovoltaic solar cells convert light energy from the sun into electricity. Photovoltaic cells are produced by semi-conducting materials to convert the energy into electricity and during this process heat is absorbed by the solar radiation. This heat causes a loss of electricity generation efficiencies.In this study, an experimental setup was designed and established to test two separate photovoltaic panel systems with alone PV and with water cooling system PV/T to examine the heat effect on PV systems. The absorbed heat energy behind the photovoltaic cell's surface in insulated ambient was removed by means of a water cooling system and the tests for both systems were simultaneously performed along the July 2011. It is found that without active water cooling, the temperature of the PV module was higher during day time and solar cells could only achieve around 8% conversion efficiency. On the other hand, when the PV module was operated with active water cooling condition, the temperature dropped significantly, leading to an increase in the efficiency of solarcells as much as 13.6%. Gained from absorbed solar heat and maximum thermal conversion efficiencies of the system are determined as 49% and 51% for two different mass flow rates. It is observed that water flow rate is effective on the increasing the conversion efficiency as well as absorption and transitionrates of cover glass in PV/T (PV-Thermal) collector, the insulation material and cell efficiency. As a conclusion, the conversion efficiency of the PV system with water cooling might be improved on average about 10%. Therefore, it is recommended that PV system should be designed with most efficient type cooling system to enhance the efficiency and to decrease the payback period.

  4. Solar PV water pumping system for rural development in Nepal: Problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, J.N.

    1996-12-31

    Although PV water pumping systems have high initial costs, they require virtually no maintenance, require no fuel and thus save foreign exchange. They are easy to install and operate, have no moving parts and hence are highly reliable and durable and are modular in nature for future expansion, PV systems are found to be competitive with conventional diesel generator systems. Despite the above mentioned facts policy makers are still not convinced that solar PV water pumping systems can support rural development. This paper gives reasons for the failures of some solar PV water pumping projects in Nepal. Development of solar electricity totaling about 800 KWp in Nepal is briefly highlighted. Basic preconditions are identified for the successful operation of solar PV water pumping systems. The findings of successful solar PV water pumping systems are highlighted with specific reference to socio-economic impacts in the rural society. Subsidy policy of the government on solar PV water pumping systems is analyzed. Development of a spontaneous market for community solar PV water pumping system is analyzed. Suggestions are given on how solar PV water pumping system can be made more affordable by village people. Typical Nepalese rural areas are found to be suitable and economical for SPVWPS. Site evaluation procedure is given. Finally, the paper indicates the important of training for the local people in installation, operation and routine maintenance to ensure the reliability of the SPVWPS. The paper emphasizes the involvement of end-users from the very beginning of planning stage of SPVWPS. Detail comparison between a SPVWPS and an equivalent diesel generator is also indicated in the paper.

  5. PV Standards Work: Photovoltaic System and Component Certification, Test Facility Accreditation, and Solar Photovoltaic Energy Systems International Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T. S.; Chalmers, S.; Barikmo, H. O.

    2005-11-01

    This paper discusses efforts led by two companies (PowerMark Corporation and Sunset Technologies Inc.) to support both U.S. domestic and international photovoltaic (PV) system and component certification and test facility accreditation programs and the operation of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC-82) Photovoltaic Energy Systems. International and national PV certification/accreditation programs are successfully facilitating entry of only the highest quality PV products into the marketplace. Standards also continue to be a cornerstone for assuring global PV product conformity assessment, reducing non-tariff trade barriers, and ultimately improving PV products while lowering cost.

  6. European Composite Honeycomb Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschepe, Christoph; Sauerbrey, Martin; Klebor, Maximillian; Henriksen, Torben

    2014-06-01

    A European CFRP honeycomb material for high demanding structure applications like antenna reflectors and optical benches was developed in the frame of an ESA GSTP project.The composite honeycomb was designed according to requirements defined by the European space industry. A developed manufacturing technique based on prepreg moulding enables the production of homogeneous CFRP honeycomb blocks. All characteristic material properties, including compression, tension and shear strength and CTE, were determined in a comprehensive verification test campaign. Competitiveness to comparable products was further verified by a representative breadboard.

  7. European security and France

    SciTech Connect

    deRose, A.

    1985-01-01

    A French authority on security argues for new European initiatives in the face of the ''danger represented by Soviet military power deployed in support of an imperialistic ideology.'' His proposals, including the strengthening of conventional forces without abandoning the option of the first use of nuclear weapons, are meant to give substance to President Mitterrand's declaration in 1983: ''The European nations now need to realize that their defense is also their responsibility....'' A part of the increasingly important debate in France over defense policy in Europe.

  8. Overview of Scientific Issues Involved in Selection of Polymers for PV Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M.

    2011-07-01

    Encapsulant materials used in photovoltaic (PV) modules serve multiple purposes. They physically hold components in place, provide electrical insulation, reduce moisture ingress, optically couple superstrate materials (e.g., glass) to PV cells, protect components from mechanical stress by mechanically de-coupling components via strain relief, and protect materials from corrosion. To do this, encapsulants must adhere well to all surfaces, remain compliant, and transmit light after exposure to temperature, humidity, and UV radiation histories. Here, a brief review of some of the polymeric materials under consideration for PV applications is provided, with an explanation of some of their advantages and disadvantages.

  9. Overview of Scientific Issues Involved in Selection of Polymers for PV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M.

    2011-01-01

    Encapsulant materials used in photovoltaic (PV) modules serve multiple purposes. They physically hold components in place, provide electrical insulation, reduce moisture ingress, optically couple superstrate materials (e.g., glass) to PV cells, protect components from mechanical stress by mechanically decoupling components via strain relief, and protect materials from corrosion. To do this, encapsulants must adhere well to all surfaces, remain compliant, and transmit light after exposure to temperature, humidity, and UV radiation histories. Here, a brief review of some of the polymeric materials under consideration for PV applications is provided, with an explanation of some of their advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Exploring the Economic Value of EPAct 2005's PV Tax Credits

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Ing, Edwin

    2006-03-28

    The market for grid-connected photovoltaics (PV) in the US has grown dramatically in recent years, driven in large part by PV grant or ''buy-down'' programs in California, New Jersey, and many other states. The recent announcement of a new 11-year, $3.2 billion PV program in California suggests that state policy will continue to drive even faster growth over the next decade. Federal policy has also played a role, primarily by providing commercial PV systems access to tax benefits, including accelerated depreciation (5-year MACRS schedule) and a business energy investment tax credit (ITC). With the signing of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) on August 8, the federal government is poised to play a much more significant future role in supporting both commercial and residential PV systems. Specifically, EPAct increased the federal ITC for commercial PV systems from 10% to 30% of system costs, and also created a new 30% ITC (capped at $2000) for residential solar systems. Both changes went into effect on January 1, 2006, and--absent an extension (for which the solar industry has already begun lobbying)--will last for a period of two years: the new residential ITC will expire, and the 30% commercial ITC will revert back to 10%, on January 1, 2008. How much economic value do these new and expanded federal tax credits really provide to PV system purchasers? And what implications might they hold for state/utility PV grant programs? Using a generic (i.e., non-state-specific) cash flow model, this report explores these questions. We begin with a discussion of the taxability of PV grants and their interaction with federal credits, as this issue significantly affects the analysis that follows. We then calculate the incremental value of EPAct's new and expanded credits for PV systems of different sizes, and owned by different types of entities. We conclude with a discussion of potential implications for purchasers of PV systems, as well as for administrators of state

  11. Extracellular superoxide anion production contributes to the virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Pang, Xinyue; Zhi, Dejuan; Wang, Jinsheng; Li, Minquan; Li, Hongyu

    2009-02-01

    Endogenous superoxide anion production was determined by electron spin resonance in wild-type strains and avrXa7 mutants of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The localization of superoxide anion was carried out in the intra- and extra-cellular fractions. Results showed the presence of superoxide anion in multi-locations of X. oryzae pv. oryzae cells. The extracellular fraction was the major location of superoxide anion production. Furthermore, a positive relationship was shown between the levels of endogenous superoxide anion and the virulence of strains. These indubitable results suggested that the superoxide anion contributes to the virulence of X. oryzae pv. oryzae.

  12. User's Manual for Data for Validating Models for PV Module Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, W.; Anderberg, A.; Deline, C.; Glick, S.; Muller, M.; Perrin, G.; Rodriguez, J.; Rummel, S.; Terwilliger, K.; Silverman, T. J.

    2014-04-01

    This user's manual describes performance data measured for flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) modules installed in Cocoa, Florida, Eugene, Oregon, and Golden, Colorado. The data include PV module current-voltage curves and associated meteorological data for approximately one-year periods. These publicly available data are intended to facilitate the validation of existing models for predicting the performance of PV modules, and for the development of new and improved models. For comparing different modeling approaches, using these public data will provide transparency and more meaningful comparisons of the relative benefits.

  13. Methods for Dynamic Analysis of Distribution Feeders with High Penetration of PV Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Nagarajan, Adarsh; Ayyanar, Raja

    2016-11-21

    An increase in the number of inverter-interfaced photovoltaic (PV) generators on existing distribution feeders affects the design, operation, and control of the distribution systems. Existing distribution system analysis tools are capable of supporting only snapshot and quasi-static analyses. Capturing the dynamic effects of PV generators during the variation in distribution system states is necessary when studying the effects of controller bandwidths, multiple voltage correction devices, and anti-islanding. This work explores the use of dynamic phasors and differential algebraic equations (DAE) for impact analysis of PV generators on the existing distribution feeders.

  14. Design and optimization of a self-deploying PV tent array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    A study was performed to design a self-deploying tent shaped PV (photovoltaic) array and optimize the design for maximum specific power. Each structural component of the design was analyzed to determine the size necessary to withstand the various forces it would be subjected to. Through this analysis the component weights were determined. An optimization was performed to determine the array dimensions and blanket geometry which produce the maximum specific power for a given PV blanket. This optimization was performed for both Lunar and Martian environmental conditions. The performance specifications for the array at both locations and with various PV blankets were determined.

  15. The Relationship between the p.V37I Mutation in GJB2 and Hearing Phenotypes in Chinese Individuals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shasha; Huang, Bangqing; Wang, Guojian; Yuan, Yongyi; Dai, Pu

    2015-01-01

    The most common cause of nonsyndromic autosomal recessive hearing loss is mutations in GJB2. The mutation spectrum and prevalence of mutations vary significantly among ethnic groups, and the relationship between p.V37I mutation in GJB2 and the hearing phenotype is controversial. Among the 3,864 patients in this study, 106 (2.74%) had a homozygous p.V37I variation or a compound p.V37I plus other GJB2 pathogenic mutation, a frequency that was significantly higher than that in the control group (600 individuals, 0%). The hearing loss phenotype ranged from mild to profound in all patients with the homozygous p.V37I variation or compound p.V37I plus other GJB2 pathogenic mutation. There was no difference in the distribution of the hearing level in the group with the homozygous p.V37I variation and the group with the compound p.V37I variation plus pathogenic mutation. Most patients (66.04%) with the V37I-homozygous variation or p.V37I plus other pathogenic mutation had a mild or moderate hearing level. This study found a definite relationship between p.V37I and deafness, and most patients who carried the pathogenic combination with p.V37I mutation had mild or moderate hearing loss. Therefore, otolaryngologists should consider that the milder phenotype might be caused by the GJB2 p.V37I mutation.

  16. NREL/SCE High-Penetration PV Integration Project: Report on Field Demonstration of Advanced Inverter Functionality in Fontana, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, B.

    2014-08-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Southern California Edison High-Penetration PV Integration Project is (1) researching the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration photovoltaic (PV) integration, (2) determining mitigation methods to reduce or eliminate those impacts, and (3) seeking to demonstrate these mitigation methods on actual high-penetration PV distribution circuits. This report describes a field demonstration completed during the fall of 2013 on the Fontana, California, study circuit, which includes a total of 4.5 MW of interconnected utility-scale rooftop PV systems. The demonstration included operating a 2-MW PV system at an off-unity power factor that had been determined during previously completed distribution system modeling and PV impact assessment analyses. Data on the distribution circuit and PV system operations were collected during the 2-week demonstration period. This demonstration reinforces the findings of previous laboratory testing that showed that utility-scale PV inverters are capable of operating at off-unity power factor to mitigate PV impacts; however, because of difficulties setting and retaining PV inverter power factor set points during the field demonstration, it was not possible to demonstrate the effectiveness of off-unity power factor operation to mitigate the voltage impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Lessons learned from this field demonstration are presented to inform future field demonstration efforts.

  17. Nineteenth century French rose (Rosa sp.) germplasm shows a shift over time from a European to an Asian genetic background

    PubMed Central

    Liorzou, Mathilde; Pernet, Alix; Li, Shubin; Chastellier, Annie; Thouroude, Tatiana; Michel, Gilles; Malécot, Valéry; Gaillard, Sylvain; Briée, Céline; Foucher, Fabrice; Oghina-Pavie, Cristiana; Clotault, Jérémy; Grapin, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization with introduced genetic resources is commonly practiced in ornamental plant breeding to introgress desired traits. The 19th century was a golden age for rose breeding in France. The objective here was to study the evolution of rose genetic diversity over this period, which included the introduction of Asian genotypes into Europe. A large sample of 1228 garden roses encompassing the conserved diversity cultivated during the 18th and 19th centuries was genotyped with 32 microsatellite primer pairs. Its genetic diversity and structure were clarified. Wide diversity structured in 16 genetic groups was observed. Genetic differentiation was detected between ancient European and Asian accessions, and a temporal shift from a European to an Asian genetic background was observed in cultivated European hybrids during the 19th century. Frequent crosses with Asian roses throughout the 19th century and/or selection for Asiatic traits may have induced this shift. In addition, the consistency of the results with respect to a horticultural classification is discussed. Some horticultural groups, defined according to phenotype and/or knowledge of their pedigree, seem to be genetically more consistent than others, highlighting the difficulty of classifying cultivated plants. Therefore, the horticultural classification is probably more appropriate for commercial purposes rather than genetic relatedness, especially to define preservation and breeding strategies. PMID:27406785

  18. Nineteenth century French rose (Rosa sp.) germplasm shows a shift over time from a European to an Asian genetic background.

    PubMed

    Liorzou, Mathilde; Pernet, Alix; Li, Shubin; Chastellier, Annie; Thouroude, Tatiana; Michel, Gilles; Malécot, Valéry; Gaillard, Sylvain; Briée, Céline; Foucher, Fabrice; Oghina-Pavie, Cristiana; Clotault, Jérémy; Grapin, Agnès

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization with introduced genetic resources is commonly practiced in ornamental plant breeding to introgress desired traits. The 19th century was a golden age for rose breeding in France. The objective here was to study the evolution of rose genetic diversity over this period, which included the introduction of Asian genotypes into Europe. A large sample of 1228 garden roses encompassing the conserved diversity cultivated during the 18th and 19th centuries was genotyped with 32 microsatellite primer pairs. Its genetic diversity and structure were clarified. Wide diversity structured in 16 genetic groups was observed. Genetic differentiation was detected between ancient European and Asian accessions, and a temporal shift from a European to an Asian genetic background was observed in cultivated European hybrids during the 19th century. Frequent crosses with Asian roses throughout the 19th century and/or selection for Asiatic traits may have induced this shift. In addition, the consistency of the results with respect to a horticultural classification is discussed. Some horticultural groups, defined according to phenotype and/or knowledge of their pedigree, seem to be genetically more consistent than others, highlighting the difficulty of classifying cultivated plants. Therefore, the horticultural classification is probably more appropriate for commercial purposes rather than genetic relatedness, especially to define preservation and breeding strategies.

  19. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  20. The European VLBI network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilizzi, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The capabilities of the European very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) network are summarized. The range of baseline parameters, sensitivities, and recording and other equipment available are included. Plans for upgrading the recording facilities and the use of geostationary satellites for signal transfer and clock synchronization are discussed.

  1. European Study Tour Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Vicki L.; Mitchell, Kenneth E.

    Guidelines are presented for planning and financing European study tours at the community college level. First, a rationale for incorporating study tours of Europe within the community college curriculum is presented and the benefits of such tours in providing students with experiences they could not normally have are outlined. Next, the paper…

  2. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  3. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

  4. Teaching European Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raento, Pauliina

    2008-01-01

    The political, cultural and social make-up of Europe is changing fast. A new European identity is under construction, but old contradictions and diversity challenge its contents, forms and boundaries. Migration, the changing role of the nation-state and Europe's regions, the reshaping of politico-administrative and perceptional boundaries, the…

  5. A Survey of State and Local PV Program Response to Financial Innovation and Disparate Federal Tax Treatment in the Residential PV Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Holt, Edward

    2015-06-01

    High up-front costs and a lack of financing options have historically been the primary barriers to the adoption of photovoltaics (PV) in the residential sector. State clean energy funds, which emerged in a number of states from the restructuring of the electricity industry in the mid-to-late 1990s, have for many years attempted to overcome these barriers through PV rebate and, in some cases, loan programs. While these programs (rebate programs in particular) have been popular, the residential PV market in the United States only started to achieve significant scale in the last five years – driven in large part by an initial wave of financial innovation that led to the rise of third-party ownership.

  6. Nationwide Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Breakeven Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Carolyn; Gagnon, Pieter; Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The commercial sector offers strong potential for solar photovoltaics (PV) owing to abundant available roof space suitable for PV and the opportunity to offset the sector's substantial retail electricity purchases. This report evaluated the breakeven price of PV for 15 different building types and various financing options by calculating electricity savings based on detailed rate structures for most U.S. utility territories (representing approximately two thirds of U.S. commercial customers). We find that at current capital costs, an estimated 1/3 of U.S. commercial customers break even in the cash scenario and approximately 2/3 break even in the loan scenario. Variation in retail rates is a stronger driver of breakeven prices than is variation in building load or solar generation profiles. At the building level, variation in the average breakeven price is largely driven by the ability for a PV system to reduce demand charges.

  7. Diffusion of environmentally-friendly energy technologies: buy versus lease differences in residential PV markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Varun; Sigrin, Benjamin

    2013-03-01

    Diffusion of microgeneration technologies, particularly rooftop photovoltaic (PV), represents a key option in reducing emissions in the residential sector. We use a uniquely rich dataset from the burgeoning residential PV market in Texas to study the nature of the consumer’s decision-making process in the adoption of these technologies. In particular, focusing on the financial metrics and the information decision-makers use to base their decisions upon, we study how the leasing and buying models affect individual choices and, thereby, the adoption of capital-intensive energy technologies. Overall, our findings suggest that the leasing model more effectively addresses consumers’ informational requirements and that, contrary to some other studies, buyers and lessees of PV do not necessarily differ significantly along socio-demographic variables. Instead, we find that the leasing model has opened up the residential PV market to a new, and potentially very large, consumer segment—those with a tight cash-flow situation.

  8. Multi-PV technologies method for parameters estimation of two-diode model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallem, Souhir; Marrekchi, Amal; Kammoun, Soulaymen; Ben Ali Kammoun, Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    Researches are showing that photovoltaic cell equivalent model parameters are not constant and are sensitive to climatic conditions changes. An improved algorithm for multi-photovoltaic cells manufacturing technologies to estimate those parameters is presented in this paper. The method allows a dynamic model for the PV cell according to different climatic conditions. This method shows a better performance of the model for several technologies (poly-crystalline, mono-crystalline and amorphous) of the PV module. Simulated I - V curves are compared to experimental characteristics and other estimation methods for different PV modules and different technologies. Some considerations about the impact of the variations of these resistances on the PV module performance are drawn.

  9. Small PV Systems Performance Evaluation at NREL's Outdoor Test Facility Using the PVUSA Power Rating Method

    SciTech Connect

    Adelstein, J.; Sekulic, W.

    2005-11-01

    The PV Systems Performance and Reliability R & D group currently has seven grid-tied 1-2 kilowatt PV systems deployed at NREL's Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) and two 6 kilowatt systems mounted on the roof of NREL's Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF). The systems, which employ several PV module technologies including crystalline silicon (c-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium diselenide (CIS), are being monitored to determine the long-term performance and reliability of the modules and arrays under actual field conditions. The length of observation ranges from 2 months for our newest system to 11 years for our oldest systems. The annual degradation and seasonal fluctuation of the systems' power output are calculated using the PV for Utility-Scale Applications (PVUSA) power rating regression model.

  10. Quantifying Reliability - The Next Step for a Rapidly Maturing PV Industry and China's Role

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-10-14

    PV customers wish to know how long their PV modules will last, but quantitatively predicting service life is difficult because of the large number of ways that a module can fail, the variability of the use environment, the cost of the testing, and the short product development time, especially when compared with the long desired lifetime. China should play a key role in developing international standards because China manufactures most of the world's PV modules. The presentation will describe the steps that need to be taken to create a service life prediction within the context of a defined bill of materials, process window and use environment. Worldwide standards for cost-effective approaches to service-life predictions will be beneficial to both PV customers and manufacturers since the consequences of premature module failure can be disastrous for both.

  11. Economics and performance of PV hybrid power systems: Three case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.L.; Durand, S.J.; Thomas, M.G.; Post, H.N.

    1998-07-01

    The Photovoltaic Systems Assistance Center (PVSAC) of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been supporting the development and implementation of off-grid PV hybrid power systems for many years. Technical support has included: refining hardware; understanding system design techniques; obtaining operation and maintenance data; studying use of energy produced. As part of the program, the PVSAC has provided technical expertise on hybrid systems to many federal agencies including the National Park Service, the Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Department of Defense. The goal of these partnerships has been to ensure that reliable and safe PV hybrid systems are specified and procured. At present, a critical review of performance and costs of several representative PV hybrid systems is underway. This paper presents a summary of the performance and economical analyses conducted on three PV hybrid systems.

  12. Passive thermal regulation of flat PV modules by coupling the mechanisms of evaporative and fin cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekar, M.; Senthilkumar, T.

    2016-07-01

    A passive thermal regulation technique with fins in conjunction with cotton wicks is developed in the present work for controlling the temperature of PV module during its operation. Experiments were conducted with the developed technique in the location of Tiruchirappalli (78.6°E and 10.8°N), Tamil Nadu, India with flat 25 Wp PV module and its viability was confirmed. The PV module temperature got reduced by 12 % while the electrical yield is increased by 14 % with the help of the developed cooling system. Basic energy balance equation applicable for PV module was used to evaluate the module temperatures and a fair agreement was obtained between the theoretical and experimental values for the cases of with cooling and without cooling.

  13. Cooperative Voltage Control Method by Power Factor Control of PV Systems and LRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Shoji; Kanemoto, Noriaki; Taoka, Hisao; Matsuki, Junya; Hayashi, Yasuhiro

    Recently, the number of system interconnection of the renewable energy sources (RES) such as the photovoltaic generation (PV) and wind power generation is increasing drastically, and there is in danger of changing the voltages in a distribution system by the precipitous output variation of RESs. In this study, the authors propose one voltage control method of the distribution system by the power factor control of plural PV systems in consideration of cooperation with the load ratio control transformer (LRT) of laggard control response installed beforehand in the distribution system. In the proposed method, the slow voltage variation is controlled by LRT, and the steep voltage variation uncontrollable by LRT is controlled by plural PV systems, as a result, all the node voltages are controllable within the proper limits. In order to verify the validity of the proposed method, the numerical calculations are carried out by using an analytical model of distribution system which interconnected PV systems.

  14. Evolution of integrated panel structural design and interfaces for PV power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnett, J. C.; Anderson, A. J.; Robertson, R. E.

    1983-11-01

    The evolution of integrated photovoltaic (PV) panel design at ARCO Solar is discussed. Historically, framed PV modules of about 1 x 4-ft size were individually mounted in the field on fixed support structures and interconnected electrically with cables to build higher-power arrays. When ARCO Solar saw the opportunity in 1982 to marry its PV modules with state-of-the-art heliostat trackers developed by ARCO Power Systems, it became obvious that mounting individual modules was impractical. For this project, the framed modules were factory-assembled into panels and interconnected with cables before being mounted on the trackers. Since then, ARCO Solar made considerable progress and gained substantial experience in the design and fabrication of large PV panels. Constraints and criteria considered in these design activities included static and dynamic loads; assembly and transportation equipment and logistics, structural and electrical interfaces, and safety and grounding concerns.

  15. Introduction of Break-Out Session at the International PV Module Quality Assurance Forum (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Yamamichi, M.; Sample, T.

    2011-07-01

    This presentation outlines review requirements for quality assurance (QA) rating systems, logical design of QA systems, and specific tasks for break-out session 1 of the 2011 International PV Module Quality Assurance Forum.

  16. Evolution of integrated panel structural design and interfaces for PV power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnett, J. C.; Anderson, A. J.; Robertson, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of integrated photovoltaic (PV) panel design at ARCO Solar is discussed. Historically, framed PV modules of about 1 x 4-ft size were individually mounted in the field on fixed support structures and interconnected electrically with cables to build higher-power arrays. When ARCO Solar saw the opportunity in 1982 to marry its PV modules with state-of-the-art heliostat trackers developed by ARCO Power Systems, it became obvious that mounting individual modules was impractical. For this project, the framed modules were factory-assembled into panels and interconnected with cables before being mounted on the trackers. Since then, ARCO Solar made considerable progress and gained substantial experience in the design and fabrication of large PV panels. Constraints and criteria considered in these design activities included static and dynamic loads; assembly and transportation equipment and logistics, structural and electrical interfaces, and safety and grounding concerns.

  17. Life cycle cost analysis of a stand-alone PV system in rural Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Emma

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to determine the economic feasibility of a stand-alone PV system to electrify a rural area in Kenya. The research conducted involved a comprehensive review of all the relevant literature associated with the study. Methodologies were extrapolated from this extensive literature to develop a model for the complete design and economic analysis of a stand-alone PV system. A women's center in rural Kenya was used as a worked example to demonstrate the workings of the model. The results suggest that electrifying the center using a stand-alone PV system is an economically viable option which is encouraging for the surrounding area. This model can be used as a business model to determine the economic feasibility of a stand-alone PV system in alternative sites in Kenya.

  18. Design of energy storage system to improve inertial response for large scale PV generation

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Yue, Meng

    2016-07-01

    With high-penetration levels of renewable generating sources being integrated into the existing electric power grid, conventional generators are being replaced and grid inertial response is deteriorating. This technical challenge is more severe with photovoltaic (PV) generation than with wind generation because PV generation systems cannot provide inertial response unless special countermeasures are adopted. To enhance the inertial response, this paper proposes to use battery energy storage systems (BESS) as the remediation approach to accommodate the degrading inertial response when high penetrations of PV generation are integrated into the existing power grid. A sample power system was adopted and simulated usingmore » PSS/E software. Here, impacts of different penetration levels of PV generation on the system inertial response were investigated and then BESS was incorporated to improve the frequency dynamics.« less

  19. Design of energy storage system to improve inertial response for large scale PV generation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Yue, Meng

    2016-07-01

    With high-penetration levels of renewable generating sources being integrated into the existing electric power grid, conventional generators are being replaced and grid inertial response is deteriorating. This technical challenge is more severe with photovoltaic (PV) generation than with wind generation because PV generation systems cannot provide inertial response unless special countermeasures are adopted. To enhance the inertial response, this paper proposes to use battery energy storage systems (BESS) as the remediation approach to accommodate the degrading inertial response when high penetrations of PV generation are integrated into the existing power grid. A sample power system was adopted and simulated using PSS/E software. Here, impacts of different penetration levels of PV generation on the system inertial response were investigated and then BESS was incorporated to improve the frequency dynamics.

  20. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    SciTech Connect

    Peek, Richard T.

    2014-12-15

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  1. FTIR Laboratory in Support of the PV Program

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Bhattacharya, R.; Xu, Y.; Li, X.; Wang, Q.

    2005-01-01

    The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) Laboratory supports the Solar Energy Technologies Program through the measurement and characterization of solar energy-related materials and devices. The FTIR technique is a fast, accurate, and reliable method for studying molecular structure and composition. This ability to identify atomic species and their bonding environment is a powerful combination that finds use in many research and development efforts. A brief overview of the technical approach used is contained in Section 2 of this report. Because of its versatility and accessibility, the FTIR Laboratory is a valuable contributor to the Solar Energy Technologies Program. The laboratory provides support for, and collaborates with, several in-house programs as well as our industry and university partners. By the end of FY 2004, the FTIR Laboratory performed over 1100 measurements on PV-related materials. These contributions resulted in conference and workshop presentations and several peer-reviewed publications. A brief summary of a few of these efforts is contained in Section 3 of this report.

  2. Water Impacts of High Solar PV Electricity Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Macknick, Jordan; Cohen, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    This analysis provides a detailed national and regional description of the water-related impacts and constraints of high solar electricity penetration scenarios in the U.S. in 2030 and 2050. A modified version of the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that incorporates water resource availability and costs as a constraint in each of its 134 Balancing Area (BA) regions was utilized to explore national and regional differences in water use impacts and solar deployment locations under different solar energy cost and water availability scenarios (Macknick et al. 2015). Water resource availability and cost data are from recently completed research at Sandia National Laboratories (Tidwell et al. 2013a). Scenarios analyzed include two business-as-usual solar energy cost cases, one with and one without considering available water resources, and four solar energy cost cases that meet the SunShot cost goals (i.e., $1/watt for utility-scale PV systems), with varying levels of water availability restrictions. This analysis provides insight into the role solar energy technologies have in the broader electricity sector under scenarios of water constraints.

  3. Recent advances in outdoor performance evaluation of PV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, M.A.; King, D.L.; Cannon, J.E.; Woodworth, J.R.; Boyson, W.E.; Adams, N.P.; Ellibee, D.E.

    1992-12-31

    Sandia`s Photovoltaic Technology Laboratory (PTEL) routinely performs outdoor tests of a variety of one-sun and concentrator PV modules. The authors experience is that while outdoor testing has its own set of problems, it can produce results that are more directly applicable to ``field`` conditions than testing in solar simulators. They have recently improved both the hardware and software at the PTEL to improve their accuracy and to deal with the special set of problems encountered in outdoor testing. Improvements in hardware include a computer-controlled solar tracker that allows us to test arrays up to 21 m{sup 2} in size; infrared imaging of modules; and electronic loads that allow us to test components with outputs up to 1,800 watts. Improvements in software include real-time monitoring of data collection; a relational data base that has improved the reliability of test setups, operations and analyses; and a standardized reporting process that relates module performance to a number of environmental parameters.

  4. (abstract) PV Technology for Low Intensity, Low Temperature (LILT) Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Pool, Frederick S.; Nicolet, Marc A.; Iles, Peter A.

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the recent NASA emphasis on smaller, lower cost space missions, PV is now being considered for a number of missions operating at solar distances of 3 AU or greater. In the past, many of these missions would utilize an RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator). Historically, silicon solar cell behavior at these distances has been compromised by a number of mechanisms including shunting, nonohmic back contacts, and the 'broken knee' curve shape. The former two can usually be neglected for modern silicon cells, but the latter has not been eliminated. This problem has been identified with localized diffusion at the top contact/silicon interface which leads to structural changes at the local junction. This is believed to create a resistive metal-semiconductor-like (MSL) interface in parallel with the junction which results in the characteristic forms of the LILT (low intensity, low temperature) 'broken knee'. This paper discusses a TaSiN contact barrier that will prevent the MSL structure in the junction.

  5. PV Technology for Low Intensity, Low Temperature (LILT) Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Pool, Frederick S.; Nicolet, Marc A.; Iles, Peter A.

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the recent NASA emphasis on smaller, lower cost space missions, PV is now being considered for a number of missions operating at solar distances of 3 AU or greater. In the past, many of these missions would utilize an RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator). Historically, silicon solar cell behavior at these distances has been compromised by a number of mechanisms including shunting, nonohmic back contacts, and the 'broken knee' curve shape. The former two can usually be neglected for modern silicon cells, but the latter has not been eliminated. This problem has been identified with localized diffusion at the top contact/silicon interface which leads to structural changes at the local junction. This is believed to create a resistive metal-semiconductor-like (MSL) interface in parallel with the junction which results in the characteristic forms of the LILT (low intensity, low temperature) 'broken knee'. This paper discusses a TaSiN contact barrier that will prevent the MSL structure in the junction.

  6. Deployable aerospace PV array based on amorphous silicon alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanak, Joseph J.; Walter, Lee; Dobias, David; Flaisher, Harvey

    1989-01-01

    The development of the first commercial, ultralight, flexible, deployable, PV array for aerospace applications is discussed. It is based on thin-film, amorphous silicon alloy, multijunction, solar cells deposited on a thin metal or polymer by a proprietary, roll-to-roll process. The array generates over 200 W at AM0 and is made of 20 giant cells, each 54 cm x 29 cm (1566 sq cm in area). Each cell is protected with bypass diodes. Fully encapsulated array blanket and the deployment mechanism weigh about 800 and 500 g, respectively. These data yield power per area ratio of over 60 W/sq m specific power of over 250 W/kg (4 kg/kW) for the blanket and 154 W/kg (6.5 kg/kW) for the power system. When stowed, the array is rolled up to a diameter of 7 cm and a length of 1.11 m. It is deployed quickly to its full area of 2.92 m x 1.11 m, for instant power. Potential applications include power for lightweight space vehicles, high altitude balloons, remotely piloted and tethered vehicles. These developments signal the dawning of a new age of lightweight, deployable, low-cost space arrays in the range from tens to tens of thousands of watts for near-term applications and the feasibility of multi-100 kW to MW arrays for future needs.

  7. Regional Soiling Stations for PV: Soling Loss Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    TamizhMani, G.; King, B.; Venkatesan, A.; Deline, Chris; Pavgi, A.; Tatapudi, S.; Kuitche, J.; Chokor, A.; El Asmar, M.

    2016-11-21

    The soiling loss factor (SLF) of photovoltaic (PV) modules/system is an interplay between the dust frequency and intensity of the site, rain frequency and intensity of the site, tilt angle and height of the module installation, and wind speed and humidity of the site. The integrated area of the downward peaks of the SLF time series plots for a year provides the annual soiling loss for the system at each tilt angle. Sandia National Laboratories, in collaboration with Arizona State University, installed five regional soiling stations around the country and collected soiling loss data over a year. Four of these soiling stations are located at the U.S. Department of Energy Regional Test Centers (Florida, Albuquerque, Colorado and Vermont), while the fifth station is located at the Arizona State University Photovoltaic Reliability Lab (Arizona). This paper presents an analysis on the SLF for each test site at ten different tilt angles. Based on the analysis of a yearlong data obtained in 2015, it appears to indicate that the Arizona site experienced the highest annual soiling loss with a significant dependence on the tilt angle while the other four sites experienced a negligibly small annual soiling loss with practically no dependence on the tilt angle.

  8. Bioaugmentation treatment of PV wafer manufacturing wastewater by microbial culture.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Chen, Maoxia; He, Xin; Xiao, Zili; Zhou, Houzhen; Tan, Zhouliang

    2015-01-01

    The wastewater of silicon photovoltaic (PV) battery manufacturing contained polyethylene glycol (PEG) and detergents, which possessed the characteristics of high content of organics and low bioavailability, and then resulted in high treatment costs. To address the difficulties of existing treatment facilities in stably meeting discharge standards, eight tons of microbial culture (consisting of Bacillus sp. and Rhodococcus sp.) were added into the aerobic treatment unit. Subsequently, the effectiveness of the microbial culture in small-scale biological wastewater treatment was evaluated, and the operating conditions for engineering applications were optimized. The application study showed that the average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 95.0% when the pH value was 7, the gas-water ratio was 28:1, the reflux ratio was 50%, which indicated an increase of 51.2% contrasting with the situation without bioaugmentation. The volume load of the treatment facilities after augmentation increased by 127.9% and could tolerate the COD shock load reached 2,340 mg·L(-1). At last, the effluence met the class I standard of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996).

  9. Technology and Climate Trends in PV Module Degradation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-10-01

    To sustain the commercial success of photovoltaic (PV) technology it is vital to know how power output decreases with time. Unfortunately, it can take years to accurately measure the long-term degradation of new products, but past experience on older products can provide a basis for prediction of degradation rates of new products. An extensive search resulted in more than 2000 reported degradation rates with more than 1100 reported rates that include some or all IV parameters. In this paper we discuss how the details of the degradation data give clues about the degradation mechanisms and how they depend on technology and climate zones as well as how they affect current and voltage differently. The largest contributor to maximum power decline for crystalline Si technologies is short circuit current (or maximum current) degradation and to a lesser degree loss in fill factor. Thin-film technologies are characterized by a much higher contribution from fill factor particularly for humid climates. Crystalline Si technologies in hot & humid climates also display a higher probability to show a mixture of losses (not just short circuit current losses) compared to other climates. The distribution for the module I-V parameters (electrical mismatch) was found to change with field exposure. The distributions not only widened but also developed a tail at the lower end, skewing the distribution.

  10. Technology and Climate Trends in PV Module Degradation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-10-01

    To sustain the commercial success of photovoltaic (PV) technology it is vital to know how power output decreases with time. Unfortunately, it can take years to accurately measure the long-term degradation of new products, but past experience on older products can provide a basis for prediction of degradation rates of new products. An extensive search resulted in more than 2000 reported degradation rates with more than 1100 reported rates that include some or all IV parameters. In this presentation we discuss how the details of the degradation data give clues about the degradation mechanisms and how they depend on technology and climate zones as well as how they affect current and voltage differently. The largest contributor to maximum power decline for crystalline Si technologies is short circuit current (or maximum current) degradation and to a lesser degree loss in fill factor. Thin-film technologies are characterized by a much higher contribution from fill factor particularly for humid climates. Crystalline Si technologies in hot & humid climates also display a higher probability to show a mixture of losses (not just short circuit current losses) compared to other climates. The distribution for the module I-V parameters (electrical mismatch) was found to change with field exposure. The distributions not only widened but also developed a tail at the lower end, skewing the distribution.

  11. Deployable aerospace PV array based on amorphous silicon alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanak, Joseph J.; Walter, Lee; Dobias, David; Flaisher, Harvey

    1989-04-01

    The development of the first commercial, ultralight, flexible, deployable, PV array for aerospace applications is discussed. It is based on thin-film, amorphous silicon alloy, multijunction, solar cells deposited on a thin metal or polymer by a proprietary, roll-to-roll process. The array generates over 200 W at AM0 and is made of 20 giant cells, each 54 cm x 29 cm (1566 sq cm in area). Each cell is protected with bypass diodes. Fully encapsulated array blanket and the deployment mechanism weigh about 800 and 500 g, respectively. These data yield power per area ratio of over 60 W/sq m specific power of over 250 W/kg (4 kg/kW) for the blanket and 154 W/kg (6.5 kg/kW) for the power system. When stowed, the array is rolled up to a diameter of 7 cm and a length of 1.11 m. It is deployed quickly to its full area of 2.92 m x 1.11 m, for instant power. Potential applications include power for lightweight space vehicles, high altitude balloons, remotely piloted and tethered vehicles. These developments signal the dawning of a new age of lightweight, deployable, low-cost space arrays in the range from tens to tens of thousands of watts for near-term applications and the feasibility of multi-100 kW to MW arrays for future needs.

  12. Recent advances in outdoor performance evaluation of PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, M. A.; King, D. L.; Cannon, J. E.; Woodworth, J. R.; Boyson, W. E.; Adams, N. P.; Ellibee, D. E.

    Sandia's Photovoltaic Technology Laboratory (PTEL) routinely performs outdoor tests of a variety of one-sun and concentrator PV modules. The authors' experience is that while outdoor testing has its own set of problems, it can produce results that are more directly applicable to 'field' conditions than testing in solar simulators. They have recently improved both the hardware and software at the PTEL to improve their accuracy and to deal with the special set of problems encountered in outdoor testing. Improvements in hardware include a computer-controlled solar tracker that allows us to test arrays up to 21 sq m in size, infrared imaging of modules, and electronic loads that allow us to test components with outputs up to 1,800 watts. Improvements in software include real-time monitoring of data collection; a relational data base that has improved the reliability of test setups, operations, and analyses; and a standardized reporting process that relates module performance to a number of environmental parameters.

  13. Syntheses of oligonucleotide derivatives with P(V) porphyrin and their properties.

    PubMed

    Shimidzu, T; Segawa, H; Kitamura, M; Nimura, A

    1992-01-01

    Two types of oligonucleotide derivatives which are substituted by P(V) porphyrin at the phosphorus atom of an internucleotidic linkage and at the 5'-terminal internucleotidic linkage via a spacer were synthesized (Fig. 1), and hybridization capabilities of them with complementary oligonucleotides were evaluated. A novel method for a sensing of oligonucleotide by the fluorescence quenching via photo-induced electron transfer between the P(V) porphyrin labeled oligonucleotide and pyrene-labeled one on the oligonucleotide template is reported.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. lapsa Strain ATCC 10859, Isolated from Infected Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jun; Jiang, Hongshan; Li, Baiyun; Zhao, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. lapsa is a pathovar of Pseudomonas syringae that can infect wheat. The complete genome of P. syringae pv. lapsa strain ATCC 10859 contains a 5,918,899-bp circular chromosome with 4,973 coding sequences, 16 rRNAs, 69 tRNAs, and an average GC content of 59.13%. The analysis of this genome revealed several gene clusters that are related to pathogenesis and virulence. PMID:26941133

  15. Expression profiling of virulence and pathogenicity genes of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri.

    PubMed

    Astua-Monge, Gustavo; Freitas-Astua, Juliana; Bacocina, Gisele; Roncoletta, Juliana; Carvalho, Sérgio A; Machado, Marcos A

    2005-02-01

    DNA macroarrays of 279 genes of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri potentially associated with pathogenicity and virulence were used to compare the transcriptional alterations of this bacterium in response to two synthetic media. Data analysis indicated that 31 genes were up-regulated by synthetic medium XVM2, while only 7 genes were repressed. The results suggest that XVM2 could be used as an in vitro system to identify candidate genes involved in pathogenesis of X. axonopodis pv. citri.

  16. Comparative density of CCK- and PV-GABA cells within the cortex and hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Whissell, Paul D.; Cajanding, Janine D.; Fogel, Nicole; Kim, Jun Chul

    2015-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK)- and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing neurons constitute the two major populations of perisomatic GABAergic neurons in the cortex and the hippocampus. As CCK- and PV-GABA neurons differ in an array of morphological, biochemical and electrophysiological features, it has been proposed that they form distinct inhibitory ensembles which differentially contribute to network oscillations and behavior. However, the relationship and balance between CCK- and PV-GABA neurons in the inhibitory networks of the brain is currently unclear as the distribution of these cells has never been compared on a large scale. Here, we systemically investigated the distribution of CCK- and PV-GABA cells across a wide number of discrete forebrain regions using an intersectional genetic approach. Our analysis revealed several novel trends in the distribution of these cells. While PV-GABA cells were more abundant overall, CCK-GABA cells outnumbered PV-GABA cells in several subregions of the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral temporal cortex. Interestingly, CCK-GABA cells were relatively more abundant in secondary/association areas of the cortex (V2, S2, M2, and AudD/AudV) than they were in corresponding primary areas (V1, S1, M1, and Aud1). The reverse trend was observed for PV-GABA cells. Our findings suggest that the balance between CCK- and PV-GABA cells in a given cortical region is related to the type of processing that area performs; inhibitory networks in the secondary cortex tend to favor the inclusion of CCK-GABA cells more than networks in the primary cortex. The intersectional genetic labeling approach employed in the current study expands upon the ability to study molecularly defined subsets of GABAergic neurons. This technique can be applied to the investigation of neuropathologies which involve disruptions to the GABAergic system, including schizophrenia, stress, maternal immune activation and autism. PMID:26441554

  17. Ultrastructural and sequence characterization of Penaeus vannamei nodavirus (PvNV) from Belize.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kathy F J; Pantoja, Carlos R; Redman, Rita M; Navarro, Solangel A; Lightner, Donald V

    2011-05-09

    The Penaeus vannamei nodavirus (PvNV), which causes muscle necrosis in Penaeus vannamei from Belize, was identified in 2005. Infected shrimp show clinical signs of white, opaque lesions in the tail muscle. Under transmission electron microscopy, the infected cells exhibit increases in various organelles, including mitochondria, Golgi stacks, and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Cytoplasmic inclusions containing para-crystalline arrays of virions were visualized. The viral particle is spherical in shape and 19 to 27 nm in diameter. A cDNA library was constructed from total RNA extracted from infected shrimp. Through nucleotide sequencing from the cDNA clones and northern blot hybridization, the PvNV genome was shown to consist of 2 segments: RNA1 (3111 bp) and RNA2 (1183 bp). RNA1 contains 2 overlapped open reading frames (ORF A and B), which may encode a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a B2 protein, respectively. RNA2 contains a single ORF that may encode the viral capsid protein. Sequence analyses showed the presence of 4 RdRp characteristic motifs and 2 conserved domains (RNA-binding B2 protein and viral coat protein) in the PvNV genome. Phylogenetic analysis based on the translated amino acid sequence of the RdRp reveals that PvNV is a member of the genus Alphanodavirus and closely related to Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). In a study investigating potential PvNV vectors, we monitored the presence of PvNV by RT-PCR in seabird feces and various aquatic organisms collected around a shrimp farm in Belize. PvNV was detected in mosquitofish, seabird feces, barnacles, and zooplankton, suggesting that PvNV can be spread via these carriers.

  18. Biofilm formation, epiphytic fitness, and canker development in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri.

    PubMed

    Rigano, Luciano A; Siciliano, Florencia; Enrique, Ramón; Sendín, Lorena; Filippone, Paula; Torres, Pablo S; Qüesta, Julia; Dow, J Maxwell; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Vojnov, Adrián A; Marano, María Rosa

    2007-10-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is responsible for the canker disease affecting citrus plants throughout the world. Here, we have evaluated the role of bacterial attachment and biofilm formation in leaf colonization during canker development on lemon leaves. Crystal violet staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of X. axonopodis pv. citri strains expressing the green fluorescent protein were used to evaluate attachment and biofilm formation on abiotic and biotic (leaf) surfaces. Wild-type X. axonopodis pv. citri attached to and formed a complex, structured biofilm on glass in minimal medium containing glucose. Similar attachment and structured biofilm formation also were seen on lemon leaves. An X. axonopodis pv. citri gumB mutant strain, defective in production of the extracellular polysaccharide xanthan, did not form a structured biofilm on either abiotic or biotic surfaces. In addition, the X. axonopodis pv. citri gumB showed reduced growth and survival on leaf surfaces and reduced disease symptoms. These findings suggest an important role for formation of biofilms in the epiphytic survival of X. axonopodis pv. citri prior to development of canker disease.

  19. High Penetration Solar PV Deployment Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative (SUNGRIN)

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, Rick; Steurer, Mischa; Faruque, MD Omar; Langston, James; Schoder, Karl; Ravindra, Harsha; Hariri, Ali; Moaveni, Houtan; Click, Dave; Reedy, Bob

    2015-05-31

    The report provides results from the Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative (SUNGRIN) high penetration solar PV deployment project led by Florida State University’s (FSU) Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS). FSU CAPS and industry and university partners have completed a five-year effort aimed at enabling effective integration of high penetration levels of grid-connected solar PV generation. SUNGRIN has made significant contributions in the development of simulation-assisted techniques, tools, insight and understanding associated with solar PV effects on electric power system (EPS) operation and the evaluation of mitigation options for maintaining reliable operation. An important element of the project was the partnership and participation of six major Florida utilities and the Florida Reliability Coordinating Council (FRCC). Utilities provided details and data associated with actual distribution circuits having high-penetration PV to use as case studies. The project also conducted foundational work supporting future investigations of effects at the transmission / bulk power system level. In the final phase of the project, four open-use models with built-in case studies were developed and released, along with synthetic solar PV data sets, and tools and techniques for model reduction and in-depth parametric studies of solar PV impact on distribution circuits. Along with models and data, at least 70 supporting MATLAB functions have been developed and made available, with complete documentation.

  20. Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (PV1) modulates SV40 virus infectivity in CV-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Tse, Dan; Armstrong, David A; Oppenheim, Ariella; Kuksin, Dmitry; Norkin, Leonard; Stan, Radu V

    2011-08-26

    Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (Plvap/PV1) is a structural protein required for the formation of the stomatal diaphragms of caveolae. Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations that were implicated in SV40 virus entry in primate cells. Here we show that de novo Plvap/PV1 expression in CV-1 green monkey epithelial cells significantly reduces the ability of SV40 virus to establish productive infection, when cells are incubated with low concentrations of the virus. However, in presence of high viral titers PV1 has no effect on SV40 virus infectivity. Mechanistically, PV1 expression does not reduce the cell surface expression of known SV40 receptors such as GM1 ganglioside and MHC class I proteins. Furthermore, PV1 does not reduce the binding of virus-like particles made by SV40 VP1 protein to the CV-1 cell surface and does not impact their internalization when cells are incubated with either high or low VLP concentrations. These results suggest that PV1 protein is able to block SV40 infectivity at low but not at high viral concentration either by interfering with the infective internalization pathway at the cell surface or at a post internalization step.