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Sample records for 19-gauge spring-loaded cutting

  1. Transjugular Core Liver Biopsy with a 19-Gauge Spring-Loaded Cutting Needle

    SciTech Connect

    Choh, Jeffery; Dolmatch, Bart; Safadi, Rami; Long, Phil; Geisinger, Michael; Lammert, Gary; Dempsey, James

    1998-01-15

    One hundred and five sequential transjugular core liver biopsies (TJLBx) were performed in 101 patients with coagulopathy and/or ascites using the 19-gauge Quick-Core Biopsy (QCB) needle. Two-hundred and seventy-three cores were obtained in 295 passes (92.5%). One-hundred and two of the 105 procedures (97.1%) led to a histopathologic diagnosis. One of the three nondiagnostic biopsies was done because of severe autolysis of the liver. There was one subcapsular hematoma, one hepatic arteriovenous fistula, and one liver capsular puncture. Two minor neck hematomas occurred. One death was reported (unrelated to the procedure). QCB needle TJLBx is an effective and relatively safe way to obtain core liver samples.

  2. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, Todd A.; White, James P.

    1998-01-01

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  3. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  4. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  5. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    1995-01-01

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications.

  6. Spring-Loaded-Bolt Locking Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calco, Frank S.

    1990-01-01

    Locking device designed to clamp small objects temporarily onto object or vehicle that accelerates. Intended to be used in place of toggle clamp, which can snap out of lock during excessive shock or vibration or because of accidental contact of person or object with toggle locking handle. Device looks and operates somewhat like spring-loaded door bolt. Moderate vibrations do not cause accidental unlocking.

  7. Spring-Loaded Joule-Thomson Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. A.; Britcliffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Improved design reduces clogging and maintains constant pressure drop as flow rate varies. Spring-Loaded Joule-Thomson Valve pressure drop regulated by spring pushing stainless-steel ball against soft brass seat. Pressure drop remains nearly constant, regardless of helium flow rate and of any gas contaminants frozen on valve seat. Because springloaded J-T valve maintains constant pressure drop, upstream roomtemperature throttle valve adjusts flow rate precisely for any given upstream pressure. In addition, new valve relatively invulnerable to frozen gas contaminants, which clog fixed-orifice J-T valves.

  8. Spring loaded beaded cable makes efficient wire puller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    An efficient wire puller consists of a steel probe with a hole in one end fastened to a steel cable which is strung with metal beads compressed by spring loaded ferrules. This device allows cables to be pulled or forced around bends and elbows in pipes or tubes.

  9. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59...

  10. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59...

  11. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59...

  12. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59...

  13. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59...

  14. No change in complication rate using spring-loaded gun compared to traditional percutaneous renal allograft biopsy techniques.

    PubMed

    Kovalik, E C; Schwab, S J; Gunnells, J C; Bowie, D; Smith, S R

    1996-06-01

    The previous methods to biopsy renal allografts at our institution involved the use of the Franklin-Silverman or Tru-Cut needles. Unfortunately they had a significant rate of post biopsy bleeding secondary to deep penetration when excess force was used to penetrate a tough transplant capsule. Although spring loaded biopsy devices have been widely used for native kidney biopsies over the past three years, the complication rate for renal allograft biopsies has not been sufficiently evaluated. We describe our experience using a disposable spring loaded biopsy device on transplanted renal grafts. Fifty-four biopsies were performed with the device, all under ultrasound guidance. The ASAP automatic biopsy system by Medi-tech was used comprising of a spring loaded gun with a 15 cm long 15 GA needle echogenic tip and 17 mm specimen notch. All patients were ultrasounded immediately post biopsy to look for hematomas. Compared to 55 previous biopsies performed using Tru-Cut needles, we conclude that the ASAP automated biopsy system proved equally effective in obtaining adequate tissue for diagnosis with fewer post-biopsy hematomas compared to traditional biopsy methods.

  15. Comparison of EUS-guided tissue acquisition using two different 19-gauge core biopsy needles: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, and blinded study.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, John; Cho, Chang-Min; Lin, Jingmei; Al-Haddad, Mohammad; Canto, Marcia Irene; Salamone, Ashley; Hruban, Ralph H; Messallam, Ahmed A; Khashab, Mouen A

    2015-10-01

    The optimal core biopsy needle for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is unknown. The principle aim of this study is to compare outcomes of EUS-fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) with a new 19-gauge EUS histology needle (ProCore, Cook Medical Inc., Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States) to a conventional 19-gauge Tru-Cut biopsy (EUS-TCB) needle (19G, Quick-Core, Cook Medical Inc.). Patients referred for EUS who require possible histologic biopsy were prospectively randomized to EUS-FNB or EUS-TCB. With the initial needle, ≤ 3 biopsies were obtained until either technical failure or an adequate core was obtained. Patients with suspected inadequate biopsies were crossed over to the other needle and similarly ≤ 3 passes were obtained until adequate cores or technical failure occurred. Technical success, diagnostic histology, accuracy and complication rates were evaluated. Eighty-five patients (mean 58 years; 43 male) were randomized to FNB (n = 44) and TCB (n = 41) with seven patients excluded. Procedure indication, biopsy site, mass size, number of passes, puncture site, overall technical success and adverse events were similar between the two groups. FNB specimens had a higher prevalence of diagnostic histology (85 % vs. 57 %; P = 0.006), accuracy (88 % vs. 62 %; P = 0.02), mean total length (19.4 vs. 4.3 mm; P = 0.001), mean complete portal triads from liver biopsies (10.4 vs. 1.3; P = 0.0004) and required fewer crossover biopsies compared to those of TCB (2 % vs. 65 %; P = 0.0001). Overall technical success and complication rates were comparable. EUS-FNB using a 19-gauge FNB needle is superior to 19-gauge EUS-TCB needle.

  16. Comparison of EUS-guided tissue acquisition using two different 19-gauge core biopsy needles: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, and blinded study

    PubMed Central

    DeWitt, John; Cho, Chang-Min; Lin, Jingmei; Al-Haddad, Mohammad; Canto, Marcia Irene; Salamone, Ashley; Hruban, Ralph H.; Messallam, Ahmed A.; Khashab, Mouen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: The optimal core biopsy needle for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is unknown. The principle aim of this study is to compare outcomes of EUS-fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) with a new 19-gauge EUS histology needle (ProCore, Cook Medical Inc., Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States) to a conventional 19-gauge Tru-Cut biopsy (EUS-TCB) needle (19G, Quick-Core, Cook Medical Inc.). Patients and methods: Patients referred for EUS who require possible histologic biopsy were prospectively randomized to EUS-FNB or EUS-TCB. With the initial needle, ≤ 3 biopsies were obtained until either technical failure or an adequate core was obtained. Patients with suspected inadequate biopsies were crossed over to the other needle and similarly ≤ 3 passes were obtained until adequate cores or technical failure occurred. Technical success, diagnostic histology, accuracy and complication rates were evaluated. Results: Eighty-five patients (mean 58 years; 43 male) were randomized to FNB (n = 44) and TCB (n = 41) with seven patients excluded. Procedure indication, biopsy site, mass size, number of passes, puncture site, overall technical success and adverse events were similar between the two groups. FNB specimens had a higher prevalence of diagnostic histology (85 % vs. 57 %; P = 0.006), accuracy (88 % vs. 62 %; P = 0.02), mean total length (19.4 vs. 4.3 mm; P = 0.001), mean complete portal triads from liver biopsies (10.4 vs. 1.3; P = 0.0004) and required fewer crossover biopsies compared to those of TCB (2 % vs. 65 %; P = 0.0001). Overall technical success and complication rates were comparable. Conclusion: EUS-FNB using a 19-gauge FNB needle is superior to 19-gauge EUS-TCB needle. PMID:26528504

  17. Automatic spring-loaded biopsy gun with ultrasonic control for renal transplant biopsy.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M W; Sosnowski, J T; Mahin, E J; Willard, D A; Lamm, D L

    1993-11-01

    The automatic spring-loaded biopsy gun with 18-gauge needle was used to perform 20 renal transplant biopsies. A total of 35 needle passes were used during the 20 biopsies to obtain 31 cores of renal tissue (ratio of successful cores to passes 0.88). Nineteen of 20 biopsies (95%) resulted in renal tissue sufficient for diagnosis. One patient experienced gross hematuria that required blood transfusion and resulted in temporary ureteral clot obstruction. We believe the automatic spring-loaded biopsy gun with ultrasonic control allows rapid, accurate, and safe histologic assessment of the renal allograft, and we recommend this system for routine use.

  18. Endoscopic Ultrasound Guided Rendezvous Drainage of Biliary Obstruction Using a New Flexible 19-Gauge Fine Needle Aspiration Needle

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhouwen; Igbinomwanhia, Efehi; Elhanafi, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. A successful endoscopic ultrasound guided rendezvous (EUS-RV) biliary drainage is dependent on accurate puncture of the bile duct and precise guide wire manipulation across the ampulla of Vater. We aim to study the feasibility of using a flexible 19-gauge fine aspiration needle in the performance of EUS-RV biliary drainage. Method. This is a retrospective case series of EUS-RV biliary drainage procedures at a single center. Patients who failed ERCP during the same session for benign or malignant biliary obstruction underwent EUS-RV using a flexible, nitinol covered, 19-gauge needle for biliary access and guide wire manipulation. Result. 24 patients underwent EUS-RV biliary drainage via extrahepatic access while 1 attempt was via intrahepatic access. The technical success rate was 80%, including 83.3% of cases via extrahepatic access. There was no significant difference in success rate of inpatient and outpatient procedures, benign or malignant indications, or type of guide wire used. Adverse events included mild pancreatitis (3 patients) and cholangitis (1 patient). Conclusion. A flexible 19-gauge needle for biliary access can be safe and effective when used to perform EUS-RV biliary drainage. Direct comparison between the nitinol needle and conventional metal needles in the performance of EUS guided biliary drainage is needed. PMID:27822005

  19. Early management of skeletal open bite with spring-loaded and magnetic bite blocks.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Umal H; Bhad-Patil, Wasundhara A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of spring-loaded and magnetic bite blocks in growing individuals with skeletal open bites. The sample consisted of patients between 8 and 13 years of age randomly divided into two groups. One group was treated with spring-loaded bite blocks while the other received treatment with magnetic bite blocks. Further, a group matched for age, sex, and mandibular plane angle served as a control. The treatment effects were evaluated clinically and cephalometrically and by electromyographic (EMG) examination of the masseter and temporalis muscles after 8 months. Both appliances showed significantly (P<.05) favorable orthopedic effects. The spring-loaded bite blocks closed the existing open bite by 3.3 mm on average with a significant maxillary incisor extrusion and molar intrusion. Magnetic bite blocks produced an average of 4.9 mm of open bite closure with significant intrusion of the molars in both arches. Overall, both appliances significantly enhanced condylar growth, altered it to a more anterosuperior direction, and produced significant true forward mandibular rotation. Significant increases in masseter and temporalis muscle activity at rest and maximum clenching were noted in both groups, which could be a positive factor in retaining the achieved result. After 10 months of retention with passive bite blocks, cephalograms indicated only an insignificant relapse.

  20. Effects of spring-loaded crutches on gastrocnemius activity and upward displacement of the body during gait

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop; Yang, Sung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of spring-loaded crutches on gastrocnemius muscle activity and upper body displacement in the sagittal plane during gait. [Subjects and Methods] The study involved 12 healthy males. All subjects performed crutch gait by using spring-loaded crutches and axillary crutches. During this gait, the gastrocnemius muscle activity was measured using a wireless electromyography system, and upward displacement of the body was measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. [Results] The gastrocnemius activity was significantly lower but upward displacement of the body was significantly greater with the spring-loaded crutches than with axillary crutches. [Conclusion] Spring-loaded crutches allow efficient crutch gait and involve less effort from the gastrocnemius muscle. PMID:27630429

  1. Effects of spring-loaded crutches on gastrocnemius activity and upward displacement of the body during gait.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop; Yang, Sung-Ho

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of spring-loaded crutches on gastrocnemius muscle activity and upper body displacement in the sagittal plane during gait. [Subjects and Methods] The study involved 12 healthy males. All subjects performed crutch gait by using spring-loaded crutches and axillary crutches. During this gait, the gastrocnemius muscle activity was measured using a wireless electromyography system, and upward displacement of the body was measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. [Results] The gastrocnemius activity was significantly lower but upward displacement of the body was significantly greater with the spring-loaded crutches than with axillary crutches. [Conclusion] Spring-loaded crutches allow efficient crutch gait and involve less effort from the gastrocnemius muscle.

  2. The processes in spring-loaded injection valves of solid injection oil engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, O

    1934-01-01

    On the premise of a rectangular velocity wave arriving at the valve, the equation of motion of a spring-loaded valve stem is developed and analyzed. It is found that the stem oscillates, the oscillation frequency being consistently above the natural frequency of the nozzle stem alone, and whose amplitudes would increase in the absence of damping. The results are evaluated and verified on an example. The pressure in the valve and the spray volume are analyzed and several pertinent questions are discussed on the basis of the results.

  3. INTERNAL CUTTING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Russell, W.H. Jr.

    1959-06-30

    A device is described for removing material from the interior of a hollow workpiece so as to form a true spherical internal surface in a workpiece, or to cut radial slots of an adjustable constant depth in an already established spherical internal surface. This is accomplished by a spring loaded cutting tool adapted to move axially wherein the entire force urging the tool against the workpiece is derived from the spring. Further features of importance involve the provision of a seal between the workpiece and the cutting device and a suction device for carrying away particles of removed material.

  4. The alternative ear-piercing technique by using superpulsed carbon dioxide laser: a comparative study with spring-loaded gun.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Tuan; Wu, Jiunn-Liang; Chao, Jiung-Chih; Lin, Cheng-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Ear piercing (EP) is increasing in popularity among teenagers. Techniques for EP should be selected carefully to prevent possible complications. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical outcomes of EP techniques between CO(2) laser and spring-loaded gun. This is a prospective and comparative clinical trial. Under local anesthesia, EP was performed on left ear with CO(2) laser (20 watt/single mode) and on right ear with spring-loaded gun. With visual analog scale (VAS, 0-10) and questionnaire, post-operative pain and wound healing status were assessed immediately, 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after EP procedure. Fourteen subjects (14/17, 82.4%) completed the whole study. Immediately after the procedure, the level of post-operative pain (VAS) was 3.2 for CO(2) laser and 1.5 for spring-loaded gun (p < 0.05). In CO(2) laser group, pain severity decreased to 0.4, 0.1, 0, and 0, while in spring-loaded gun group, the decrease was only to 0.7, 0.6, 0.3 and 0 at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks, respectively. Duration of post-operative pain was 3.8 and 17.5 days for CO(2) laser and spring-loaded gun, respectively (p < 0.05). There was no major complication like infection, bleeding or hypertrophic scar. Our study suggests that CO(2) laser is a precise, simple, safe and aseptic technique for EP. It has a lower level and shorter duration of post-operative pain, when compared with spring-loaded gun. Therefore, CO(2) assisted EP is an alternative and feasible technique in our daily clinical practice. The level of evidence: 2b.

  5. Class III correction using an inter-arch spring-loaded module

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A retrospective study was conducted to determine the cephalometric changes in a group of Class III patients treated with the inter-arch spring-loaded module (CS2000®, Dynaflex, St. Ann, MO, USA). Methods Thirty Caucasian patients (15 males, 15 females) with an average pre-treatment age of 9.6 years were treated consecutively with this appliance and compared with a control group of subjects from the Bolton-Brush Study who were matched in age, gender, and craniofacial morphology to the treatment group. Lateral cephalograms were taken before treatment and after removal of the CS2000® appliance. The treatment effects of the CS2000® appliance were calculated by subtracting the changes due to growth (control group) from the treatment changes. Results All patients were improved to a Class I dental arch relationship with a positive overjet. Significant sagittal, vertical, and angular changes were found between the pre- and post-treatment radiographs. With an average treatment time of 1.3 years, the maxillary base moved forward by 0.8 mm, while the mandibular base moved backward by 2.8 mm together with improvements in the ANB and Wits measurements. The maxillary incisor moved forward by 1.3 mm and the mandibular incisor moved forward by 1.0 mm. The maxillary molar moved forward by 1.0 mm while the mandibular molar moved backward by 0.6 mm. The average overjet correction was 3.9 mm and 92% of the correction was due to skeletal contribution and 8% was due to dental contribution. The average molar correction was 5.2 mm and 69% of the correction was due to skeletal contribution and 31% was due to dental contribution. Conclusions Mild to moderate Class III malocclusion can be corrected using the inter-arch spring-loaded appliance with minimal patient compliance. The overjet correction was contributed by forward movement of the maxilla, backward and downward movement of the mandible, and proclination of the maxillary incisors. The molar relationship was

  6. Class III correction using an inter-arch spring-loaded module.

    PubMed

    Vanlaecken, Robert; Williams, Michael O; Razmus, Thomas; Gunel, Erdogan; Martin, Chris; Ngan, Peter

    2014-05-02

    A retrospective study was conducted to determine the cephalometric changes in a group of Class III patients treated with the inter-arch spring-loaded module (CS2000®, Dynaflex, St. Ann, MO, USA). Thirty Caucasian patients (15 males, 15 females) with an average pre-treatment age of 9.6 years were treated consecutively with this appliance and compared with a control group of subjects from the Bolton-Brush Study who were matched in age, gender, and craniofacial morphology to the treatment group. Lateral cephalograms were taken before treatment and after removal of the CS2000® appliance. The treatment effects of the CS2000® appliance were calculated by subtracting the changes due to growth (control group) from the treatment changes. All patients were improved to a Class I dental arch relationship with a positive overjet. Significant sagittal, vertical, and angular changes were found between the pre- and post-treatment radiographs. With an average treatment time of 1.3 years, the maxillary base moved forward by 0.8 mm, while the mandibular base moved backward by 2.8 mm together with improvements in the ANB and Wits measurements. The maxillary incisor moved forward by 1.3 mm and the mandibular incisor moved forward by 1.0 mm. The maxillary molar moved forward by 1.0 mm while the mandibular molar moved backward by 0.6 mm. The average overjet correction was 3.9 mm and 92% of the correction was due to skeletal contribution and 8% was due to dental contribution. The average molar correction was 5.2 mm and 69% of the correction was due to skeletal contribution and 31% was due to dental contribution. Mild to moderate Class III malocclusion can be corrected using the inter-arch spring-loaded appliance with minimal patient compliance. The overjet correction was contributed by forward movement of the maxilla, backward and downward movement of the mandible, and proclination of the maxillary incisors. The molar relationship was corrected by mesialization of the

  7. A Gas-Spring-Loaded X-Y-Z Stage System for X-ray Microdiffraction Sample Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Deming; Cai, Zhonghou; Lai, Barry

    2007-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a gas-spring-loaded x-y-z stage system for x-ray microdiffraction sample manipulation at the Advanced Photon Source XOR 2-ID-D station. The stage system includes three DC-motor-driven linear stages and a gas-spring-based heavy preloading structure, which provides antigravity forces to ensure that the stage system keeps high-positioning performance under variable goniometer orientation. Microdiffraction experiments with this new stage system showed significant sample manipulation performance improvement.

  8. Spring-loaded bite-blocks for early correction of skeletal open bite associated with thumb sucking.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Umal H; Bhad, Wasundhara A

    2011-07-01

    Skeletal open-bite malocclusion is frequently discussed in orthodontics. Diagnosis, treatment, and retention can be difficult because this malocclusion has numerous correlated etiologic factors. The earlier this malocclusion is corrected, the better the prognosis will be, especially when the problem is skeletal. This article presents a patient with a skeletal open bite and a thumb-sucking habit who was treated in the mixed dentition with an orthodontic appliance that included an acrylic occlusal splint along with spring-loaded blocks to guide the vertical force against the posterior teeth and the alveolar process. The usefulness of the appliance as a habit-breaking therapy is also highlighted.

  9. Development of a Spring-Loaded Impact Device to Deliver Injurious Mechanical Impacts to the Articular Cartilage Surface

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Peter G.; Song, Yingjie; Taboas, Juan M.; Chen, Faye H.; Melvin, Gary M.; Manner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Traumatic impacts on the articular joint surface in vitro are known to lead to degeneration of the cartilage. The main objective of this study was to develop a spring-loaded impact device that can be used to deliver traumatic impacts of consistent magnitude and rate and to find whether impacts cause catabolic activities in articular cartilage consistent with other previously reported impact models and correlated with the development of osteoarthritic lesions. In developing the spring-loaded impactor, the operating hypothesis is that a single supraphysiologic impact to articular cartilage in vitro can affect cartilage integrity, cell viability, sulfated glycosaminoglycan and inflammatory mediator release in a dose-dependent manner. Design: Impacts of increasing force are delivered to adult bovine articular cartilage explants in confined compression. Impact parameters are correlated with tissue damage, cell viability, matrix and inflammatory mediator release, and gene expression 24 hours postimpact. Results: Nitric oxide release is first detected after 7.7 MPa impacts, whereas cell death, glycosaminoglycan release, and prostaglandin E2 release are first detected at 17 MPa. Catabolic markers increase linearly to maximal levels after ≥36 MPa impacts. Conclusions: A single supraphysiologic impact negatively affects cartilage integrity, cell viability, and GAG release in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings showed that 7 to 17 MPa impacts can induce cell death and catabolism without compromising the articular surface, whereas a 17 MPa impact is sufficient to induce increases in most common catabolic markers of osteoarthritic degeneration. PMID:26069650

  10. A comparison of spring-loaded and vacuum-assisted techniques for stereotactic breast biopsy of impalpable microcalcification lesions: experience at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei-Ching; Cheung, Yun-Chung; Lo, Yung-Feng; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Chao, Tzu-Chieh; Ueng, Shir-Hwa; Hsueh, Swei; Chang, Mei-Hua; Ng, Shu-Hang

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of stereotactic core needle breast biopsy using spring-loaded or vacuum-assisted techniques for impalpable microcalcification lesions in Taiwanese women. We retrospectively reviewed the data of patients who received stereotactic core needle breast biopsy for impalpable mammographic microcalcification lesions from January 1999 to February 2009. The accuracy, false negative rate, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) upgrade rate and rate of concordance with biopsy procedures were determined. We also compared the diagnostic performance between the vacuum-assisted and spring-loaded techniques. A total of 335 breast stereotactic core needle biopsy procedures (218 by spring-loaded and 117 by vacuum-assisted technique) were enrolled for analysis. The overall accuracy, false negative rate, DCIS upgrade rate and concordance rate with stereotactic core needle biopsy were 88.5%, 17.3%, 23.1% and 83.8% respectively. The vacuum-assisted technique yielded better results than the spring-loaded technique in accuracy (100% vs. 84%), and the false negative (7.1% vs. 21%), DCIS upgrade (0% vs. 37.5%), and concordance rates (95% vs. 79.6%). Stereotactic core needle biopsy is a feasible technique in diagnosing impalpable microcalcification lesions of the breast in Taiwanese women. The diagnostic performance of the vacuum-assisted technique was better than that of the spring-loaded technique.

  11. Ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy methodology: retrospective comparison of the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy approach versus the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy technology represents the current standard of care for the evaluation of indeterminate and suspicious lesions seen on diagnostic breast ultrasound. Yet, there remains much debate as to which particular method of ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy provides the most accurate and optimal diagnostic information. The aim of the current study was to compare and contrast the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy approach and the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy approach. Methods A retrospective analysis was done of all ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy procedures performed by either the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy approach or the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy approach by a single surgeon from July 2001 through June 2009. Results Among 1443 ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy procedures performed, 724 (50.2%) were by the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy technique and 719 (49.8%) were by the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy technique. The total number of false negative cases (i.e., benign findings instead of invasive breast carcinoma) was significantly greater (P = 0.008) in the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy group (8/681, 1.2%) as compared to in the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy group (0/652, 0%), with an overall false negative rate of 2.1% (8/386) for the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy group as compared to 0% (0/148) for the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy group. Significantly more (P < 0.001) patients in the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy group (81/719, 11.3%) than in the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy group (18/724, 2.5%) were recommended for further diagnostic surgical removal of additional tissue from the same anatomical site of the affected breast in an immediate fashion for indeterminate/inconclusive findings seen on the original ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy procedure. Significantly more (P < 0.001) patients in the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy group (54

  12. Ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy methodology: retrospective comparison of the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy approach versus the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy approach.

    PubMed

    Povoski, Stephen P; Jimenez, Rafael E; Wang, Wenle P

    2011-08-11

    Ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy technology represents the current standard of care for the evaluation of indeterminate and suspicious lesions seen on diagnostic breast ultrasound. Yet, there remains much debate as to which particular method of ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy provides the most accurate and optimal diagnostic information. The aim of the current study was to compare and contrast the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy approach and the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy approach. A retrospective analysis was done of all ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy procedures performed by either the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy approach or the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy approach by a single surgeon from July 2001 through June 2009. Among 1443 ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy procedures performed, 724 (50.2%) were by the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy technique and 719 (49.8%) were by the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy technique. The total number of false negative cases (i.e., benign findings instead of invasive breast carcinoma) was significantly greater (P = 0.008) in the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy group (8/681, 1.2%) as compared to in the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy group (0/652, 0%), with an overall false negative rate of 2.1% (8/386) for the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy group as compared to 0% (0/148) for the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy group. Significantly more (P < 0.001) patients in the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy group (81/719, 11.3%) than in the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy group (18/724, 2.5%) were recommended for further diagnostic surgical removal of additional tissue from the same anatomical site of the affected breast in an immediate fashion for indeterminate/inconclusive findings seen on the original ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy procedure. Significantly more (P < 0.001) patients in the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy group (54/719, 7.5%) than in the 8

  13. Approximate analytical solutions to the double-stance dynamics of the lossy spring-loaded inverted pendulum.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Mohammad; Saranlı, Uluç; Babuška, Robert; Lopes, Gabriel A D

    2016-12-05

    This paper introduces approximate time-domain solutions to the otherwise non-integrable double-stance dynamics of the 'bipedal' spring-loaded inverted pendulum (B-SLIP) in the presence of non-negligible damping. We first introduce an auxiliary system whose behavior under certain conditions is approximately equivalent to the B-SLIP in double-stance. Then, we derive approximate solutions to the dynamics of the new system following two different methods: (i) updated-momentum approach that can deal with both the lossy and lossless B-SLIP models, and (ii) perturbation-based approach following which we only derive a solution to the lossless case. The prediction performance of each method is characterized via a comprehensive numerical analysis. The derived representations are computationally very efficient compared to numerical integrations, and, hence, are suitable for online planning, increasing the autonomy of walking robots. Two application examples of walking gait control are presented. The proposed solutions can serve as instrumental tools in various fields such as control in legged robotics and human motion understanding in biomechanics.

  14. Flight Measurements to Determine Effect of a Spring-Loaded Tab on Longitudinal Stability of an Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Paul A.; Reeder, John P.

    1946-01-01

    In conjunction with a program of research on the general problem of stability of airplanes in the climbing condition, tests have been made of a spring-loaded tb which. is referred to as a ?springy tab,? installed on the elevator of a low-wing scout bomber. The tab was arranged to deflect upward with decrease in speed which caused an increase in the pull force required to trim at low speeds and thereby increased the stick-free static longitudinal stability of the airplane. It was found that the springy tab would increase the stick-free stability in all flight conditions, would reduce the danger of inadvertent stalling because of the definite pull force required to stall the airplane with power on, would reduce the effect of center-of-gravity position on stick-free static stability, and would have little effect on the elevator stick forces in accelerated f11ght. Another advantage of the springy tab is that it might be used to provide almost any desired variation of elevator stick force with speed by adjusting the tab hinge-moment characteristics and the variation of spring moment with tab deflection. Unlike the bungee and the bobweight, the springy tab would provide stick-free static stability without requiring a pull force to hold the stick back while taxying. A device similar to the springy tab may be used on the rudder or ailerons to eliminate undesirable trim-force variations with speed.

  15. Spring loaded thermocouple module

    DOEpatents

    McKelvey, T.E.; Guarnieri, J.J.

    1984-03-13

    A thermocouple arrangement is provided for mounting in a blind hole of a specimen. The thermocouple arrangement includes a cup-like holder member, which receives an elongated thermal insulator, one end of which is seated at an end wall of the holder. A pair of thermocouple wires, threaded through passageways in the insulator, extend beyond the insulator member, terminating in free ends which are joined together in a spherical weld bead. A spring, held captive within the holder, applies a bias force to the weld bead, through the insulator member. The outside surface of the holder is threaded for engagement with the blind hole of the specimen. When the thermocouple is installed in the specimen, the spherical contact surface of the weld bead is held in contact with the end wall of the blind hole, with a predetermined bias force.

  16. Spring loaded thermocouple module

    DOEpatents

    McKelvey, Thomas E.; Guarnieri, Joseph J.

    1985-01-01

    A thermocouple arrangement is provided for mounting in a blind hole of a specimen. The thermocouple arrangement includes a cup-like holder member, which receives an elongated thermal insulator, one end of which is seated at an end wall of the holder. A pair of thermocouple wires, threaded through passageways in the insulator, extend beyond the insulator member, terminating in free ends which are joined together in a spherical weld bead. A spring, held captive within the holder, applies a bias force to the weld bead, through the insulator member. The outside surface of the holder is threaded for engagement with the blind hole of the specimen. When the thermocouple is installed in the specimen, the spherical contact surface of the weld bead is held in contact with the end wall of the blind hole, with a predetermined bias force.

  17. Method failures of laparoscopic tubal sterilization in a residency training program. A comparison of the tubal ring and spring-loaded clip.

    PubMed

    Stovall, T G; Ling, F W; Henry, G M; Ryan, G M

    1991-04-01

    A prospective, randomized study of 365 women undergoing interval laparoscopic tubal sterilization in a residency training program was undertaken to compare method failures. Two occlusive techniques were compared, the spring-loaded clip (Hulka-Clemens) and the tubal ring (Falope Ring). Patients were randomized to either Falope Rings or Hulka-Clemens clips as the primary method. Demographic characteristics, educational level and operator experience were similar in the two groups. Follow-up at an average of 16 months (range, 6-24) revealed eight pregnancies (4.5%) in 176 women in the clip group and five pregnancies (2.6%) in the ring group. The Hulka-Clemens clip and the Falope Ring have similar incidences of method failure when employed by inexperienced operators. We question the usefulness of chromopertubation utilizing methylene blue dye to ensure proper placement of the occlusive device.

  18. Aging and service wear of spring-loaded pressure relief valves used in safety-related systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.; Cox, D.F.

    1995-03-01

    Spring-loaded pressure relief valves (PRVS) are used in some safety-related applications at nuclear power plants. In general, they are used in systems where, during accidents, pressures may rise to levels where pressure safety relief is required for protection of personnel, system piping, and components. This report documents a study of PRV aging and considers the severity and causes of service wear and how it is discovered and corrected in various systems, valve sizes, etc. Provided in this report are results of the examination of the recorded failures and identification of trends and relationships/correlations in the failures when all failure-related parameters are considered. Components that comprise a typical PRV, how those components fail, when they fail, and the current testing frequencies and methods are also presented in detail.

  19. Quality control in oocytes by p63 is based on a spring-loaded activation mechanism on the molecular and cellular level

    PubMed Central

    Coutandin, Daniel; Osterburg, Christian; Srivastav, Ratnesh Kumar; Sumyk, Manuela; Kehrloesser, Sebastian; Gebel, Jakob; Tuppi, Marcel; Hannewald, Jens; Schäfer, Birgit; Salah, Eidarus; Mathea, Sebastian; Müller-Kuller, Uta; Doutch, James; Grez, Manuel; Knapp, Stefan; Dötsch, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes are arrested in the dictyate stage of meiotic prophase I for long periods of time, during which the high concentration of the p53 family member TAp63α sensitizes them to DNA damage-induced apoptosis. TAp63α is kept in an inactive and exclusively dimeric state but undergoes rapid phosphorylation-induced tetramerization and concomitant activation upon detection of DNA damage. Here we show that the TAp63α dimer is a kinetically trapped state. Activation follows a spring-loaded mechanism not requiring further translation of other cellular factors in oocytes and is associated with unfolding of the inhibitory structure that blocks the tetramerization interface. Using a combination of biophysical methods as well as cell and ovary culture experiments we explain how TAp63α is kept inactive in the absence of DNA damage but causes rapid oocyte elimination in response to a few DNA double strand breaks thereby acting as the key quality control factor in maternal reproduction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13909.001 PMID:27021569

  20. Laser Cutting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    lasers that are optically modified to produce high beam quality at reduced power levels for precision drilling and trepanning. * Nd:YAG lasers with...a smooth, dross-free cut face while the marking consists of a series of precisely placed shallow pits where surface finish and dross are not usually...neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) pulsed cutting data because the technique is considered vital in meeting the detailed precision cutting

  1. EUS-guided fine-needle core liver biopsy sampling using a novel 19-gauge needle with modified 1-pass, 1 actuation wet suction technique.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Jose; Khaleel, Huda; Challita, Youssef; Jimenez, Melissa; Baron, Todd H; Walters, Laura; Hathaway, Kelli; Patel, Ketul; Lankarani, Ali; Herman, Michael; Holloman, David; Saab, Sammy

    2017-05-24

    EUS-guided fine-needle core biopsy sampling is a safe and effective technique for diagnosis of focal liver lesions. However, data are limited in its role in parenchymal disease. We evaluated the utility of EUS-guided parenchymal liver biopsy sampling with a modified 1-pass wet suction technique (EUS-modified liver biopsy sampling [EUS-MLB]) in patients with unexplained increase in liver-associated tests. We retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of EUS-MLB in patients referred for EUS to evaluate for biliary obstruction and pancreatic disorders but with associated unexplained liver tests. EUS-MLB was performed during the same session after biliary obstruction was excluded. One hundred sixty-five consecutive patients underwent EUS-MLB. The median age was 52 years (interquartile range [IQR], 42-65). Sixty-eight patients (41%) were men. The median of the maximum intact core tissue length was 2.4 cm (IQR, 1.8-3.5). The median total specimen length (TSL) was 6 cm (IQR, 4.3-8). The median number of complete portal tracts (CPTs) per TSL was 18 (IQR, 13- 24). The mean number of CPTs per sample length was 7.5 cm. Adverse events were uncommon (1.8%) and included abdominal pain and self-limited hematoma. EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy sampling using a novel 19-gauge core needle with a modified 1-pass 1 actuation wet suction technique (EUS-MLB) is a safe and effective way to evaluate patients with unexplained liver tests abnormalities who are undergoing EUS for exclusion of biliary obstruction. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bone cutting.

    PubMed

    Giraud, J Y; Villemin, S; Darmana, R; Cahuzac, J P; Autefage, A; Morucci, J P

    1991-02-01

    Bone cutting has always been a problem for surgeons because bone is a hard living material, and many osteotomes are still very crude tools. Technical improvement of these surgical tools has first been their motorization. Studies of the bone cutting process have indicated better features for conventional tools. Several non-conventional osteotomes, particularly ultrasonic osteotomes are described. Some studies on the possible use of lasers for bone cutting are also reported. Use of a pressurised water jet is also briefly examined. Despite their advantages, non-conventional tools still require improvement if they are to be used by surgeons.

  3. Cutting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.; Bencloski, William A.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.

  4. Improvement Cut

    Treesearch

    J. W. Johnson

    1950-01-01

    Early, effects of partial cutting on diameter growth in bottomland hardwood forests have been measured recently near Vance, Mississippi, according to a report by J. W. Johnson of the Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.

  5. Cutting Candles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranucci, Ernest R.

    1973-01-01

    Different regular-polygon-shaped candles wound with a sheet of paper are cut through obliquely. When the papers are unwound, unique patterns are revealed. Investigation of these patterns leads to the discovery of geometric concepts. (JP)

  6. Hair cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-10

    ISS033-E-018986 (10 Nov. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Evgeny Tarelkin, Expedition 33 flight engineer, trims the hair of Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, flight engineer, in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Tarelkin used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair. NASA astronaut Kevin Ford, flight engineer, is visible in the background.

  7. Hair cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-10

    ISS033-E-018991 (10 Nov. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, Expedition 33 flight engineer, trims the hair of Russian cosmonaut Evgeny Tarelkin, flight engineer, in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Novitskiy used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  8. First Cut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Lockheed Martin and a Northrop Grumman/Boeing team expect the Crew Exploration Vehicle proposals they submitted last week to change, given the new top-down push at NASA to close the gap between space shuttle retirement and launch of the new crew carrier. Still, delivery of the proposals gives a first glimpse of at least one of the concepts for a space shuttle replacement. Instead of the ballistic capsule approach put forward in some early CEV concept work, Lockheed Martin proposed a lifting body shape with a two-stage thermal protection system, coupled with a cylindrical mission module to give crews of four to six extra room on trips to the Moon, and a trans-Earth injection module (TEIM) for the return powered-at least in the first cut-by a couple of Pratt & Whitney RL10 rocket engines.

  9. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1984-07-17

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  10. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  11. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1986-04-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  12. Cutting state identification

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M.

    1997-12-31

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting.

  13. Simulation of Laser Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Wolfgang; Nießen, Markus; Eppelt, Urs; Kowalick, Kerstin

    Laser cutting is a thermal separation process widely used in shaping and contour cutting applications. There are, however, gaps in understanding the dynamics of the process, especially issues related to cut quality. This work describes the advances in fundamental physical modelling and process monitoring of laser cutting, as well as time varying processes such as contour cutting. Diagnosis of ripple and dross formation is advanced to observe the melt flow and its separation simultaneously as well as the spatial shape of the cut kerf.

  14. Device for cutting protrusions

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M [Knoxville, TN

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  15. Laser cutting plastic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  16. Ultrasonic Cutting of Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.

  17. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  18. Starting Trees from Cuttings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a procedure for starting tree cuttings from woody plants, explaining "lag time," recommending materials, and giving step-by-step instructions for rooting and planting. Points out species which are likely candidates for cuttings and provides tips for teachers for developing a unit. (JM)

  19. When Students Cut Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikow, Max

    2006-01-01

    Masochism, the irrational self-infliction of pain, is more easily defined than understood. Once, a teacher used the word "cutting" only reference to a student skipping class. But, in recent years, it has taken on additional meaning. Cutting, or self-injury, is a deliberate self-harming behavior but without conscious suicidal ideation. To define…

  20. When Students Cut Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikow, Max

    2006-01-01

    Masochism, the irrational self-infliction of pain, is more easily defined than understood. Once, a teacher used the word "cutting" only reference to a student skipping class. But, in recent years, it has taken on additional meaning. Cutting, or self-injury, is a deliberate self-harming behavior but without conscious suicidal ideation. To define…

  1. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  2. Fundamentals of cutting

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J. G.; Patel, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The process of cutting is analysed in fracture mechanics terms with a view to quantifying the various parameters involved. The model used is that of orthogonal cutting with a wedge removing a layer of material or chip. The behaviour of the chip is governed by its thickness and for large radii of curvature the chip is elastic and smooth cutting occurs. For smaller thicknesses, there is a transition, first to plastic bending and then to plastic shear for small thicknesses and smooth chips are formed. The governing parameters are tool geometry, which is principally the wedge angle, and the material properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and fracture toughness. Friction can also be important. It is demonstrated that the cutting process may be quantified via these parameters, which could be useful in the study of cutting in biology. PMID:27274798

  3. Fundamentals of cutting.

    PubMed

    Williams, J G; Patel, Y

    2016-06-06

    The process of cutting is analysed in fracture mechanics terms with a view to quantifying the various parameters involved. The model used is that of orthogonal cutting with a wedge removing a layer of material or chip. The behaviour of the chip is governed by its thickness and for large radii of curvature the chip is elastic and smooth cutting occurs. For smaller thicknesses, there is a transition, first to plastic bending and then to plastic shear for small thicknesses and smooth chips are formed. The governing parameters are tool geometry, which is principally the wedge angle, and the material properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and fracture toughness. Friction can also be important. It is demonstrated that the cutting process may be quantified via these parameters, which could be useful in the study of cutting in biology.

  4. Testing Of Choiced Ceramics Cutting Tools At Irregular Interrupted Cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyncl, Ladislav; Malotová, Šárka; Nováček, Pavel; Nicielnik, Henryk; Šoková, Dagmar; Hemžský, Pavel; Pitela, David; Holubjak, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the test of removable ceramic cutting inserts during machining irregular interrupted cut. Tests were performed on a lathe, with the preparation which simulated us the interrupted cut. By changing the number of plates mounted in a preparation it simulate us a regular or irregular interrupted cut. When with four plates it was regular interrupted cut, the remaining three variants were already irregular cut. It was examined whether it will have the irregular interrupted cutting effect on the insert and possibly how it will change life of inserts during irregular interrupted cut (variable delay between shocks).

  5. Cuts and puncture wounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... severely, call your local emergency number such as 911. Minor cuts and puncture wounds can be treated ... arrives. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call 911 or your local emergency number if: The bleeding ...

  6. INFINITY ribbon-cutting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-11

    'Astronaut' Patrick Johnston, 8, is interviewed by Heath Allen, a reporter with WDSU-TV in New Orleans, about his experience at the INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during ribbon-cutting activities April 11, 2012.

  7. Laser cutting system

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  8. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between October 1, 2002 and December 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks. (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System. (b) New research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions''. (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) New Research project (Task 13): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (g) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (h) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  9. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Oct 1, 2001 and Dec. 31, 2001. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Collection System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  10. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  11. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-04-30

    This is the third quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Jan. 1, 2002 and Mar. 31, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop, progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); and (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  12. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-07-30

    This is the fourth quarterly progress report for Year-3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between April 1, 2002 and June 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)''; (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions''; (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''; (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  13. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  14. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira

    2000-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  15. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk, Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2002-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between July 1, 2002 and Sept. 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System, (b) New Research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings (Task 12), Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  16. A randomised study on the efficacy and safety of an automated Tru-Cut needle for percutaneous liver biopsy.

    PubMed

    de Man, R A; van Buuren, H R; Hop, W C J

    2004-12-01

    We studied whether the theoretical advantages of a spring-loaded liver biopsy needle exist in clinical practice and if so if they are dependent upon the experience of the physician performing the biopsy. In a stratified randomised study we enrolled 215 consecutive patients to compare the safety and efficacy of a new automatic biopsy gun (Acecut) with that of a standard Tru-Cut needle. A total of 464 biopsies were performed. The endpoints of the study were number of needle passes needed per patient, tissue yield of each needle pass and post-biopsy complications. The performance of the automatic needle was superior and more consistent with respect to tissue yield compared with the Tru-Cut needle (median yield 100% and 80%, respectively; p < 0.001). The difference was most marked for inexperienced physicians. There was no difference between the two needles in the number of passes needed. More post-biopsy pain and post-biopsy use of analgesics were observed in the automatic needle group (p = 0.04). The automatic Tru-Cut needle offers an advantage, particularly for physicians with no or limited experience in liver biopsies. However more post-biopsy pain and post-biopsy use of analgesics were observed in the automatic needle group.

  17. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  18. Evaluation of cut-off saw exposure control methods for respirable dust and crystalline silica in roadway construction.

    PubMed

    Middaugh, Beauregard; Hubbard, Bryan; Zimmerman, Neil; McGlothlin, James

    2012-01-01

    Dust reduction equipment adapted for single-person operation was evaluated for gas-powered, commercially available cut-off saws during concrete curb cutting. Cutting was performed without dust control and with two individual exposure control methods: wet suppression and local exhaust ventilation (LEV). The wet suppression system comprised a two-nozzle spray system and a 13.3-L hand-pressurized water supply system with an optimum mean flow rate of 0.83 L/min for 16 min of cutting. The LEV system consisted of a spring-loaded guard, an 18.9-L collection bag, and a centrifugal fan with an estimated exhaust rate of 91 ft(3)/min. Task-based, personal filter samples were obtained for four saw operators during cutting durations of 4 to 16 min on five job sites. Seventeen filter samples were collected without dust control, 14 with wet suppression, and 12 with LEV, yielding a geometric mean respirable dust concentration of 16.4 mg/m(3), 3.60 mg/m(3), and 4.40 mg/m(3), respectively. A dust reduction of 78.0% for wet suppression and 73.2% for LEV was observed vs. no dust control. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was also revealed for wet suppression and LEV when compared with no dust control; however, a significant difference (p = 0.09) was not observed between wet suppression and LEV. Despite these significant dust reductions, workers are still projected to exceed the ACGIH 8-hr time-weighted average threshold limit value for quartz (0.025 mg/m(3)) in less than 1 hr of cutting for both dust control methods. Further research is still needed to improve dust reduction and portability of both control methods, but the current LEV system offers important advantages, including a drier, less slippery work area and year-round functionality in cold weather.

  19. Radial cutting torch

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.C.

    1997-01-08

    The project`s aim is to complete development of the Radial Cutting Torch, a pyrotechnic cutter, for use in all downhole tubular cutting operations in the petroleum industry. Project objectives are to redesign and pressure test nozzle seals to increase product quality, reliability, and manufacturability; improve the mechanical anchor to increase its temperature tolerance and its ability to function in a wider variety of wellbore fluids; and redesign and pressure test the RCT nozzle for operation at pressures from 10 to 20 ksi. The proposal work statement is included in the statement of work for the grant via this reference.

  20. Cutting assembly. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Treuhaft, M.B.; Oser, M.S.

    1981-06-25

    A mining auger comprises a cutting head carried at one end of a tubular shaft and a plurality of wall segments which in a first position thereof are disposed side by side around said shaft and in a second position thereof are disposed oblique to said shaft. A vane projects outwardly from each wall segment. When the wall segments are in their first position, the vanes together form a substantially continuous helical wall. A cutter is mounted on the peripheral edge of each of the vanes. When the wall segments are in their second position, the cutters on the vanes are disposed radially outward from the perimeter of the cutting head.

  1. Cryogenic ribbon-cutting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-30

    NASA cut the ribbon on a new cryogenics control center at John C. Stennis Space Center on March 30. The new facility is part of a project to strengthen Stennis facilities to withstand the impacts of future storms like hurricane Katrina in 2005. Participants in the ribbon-cutting included (l to r): Jason Zuckerman, director of project management for The McDonnel Group; Keith Brock, director of the NASA Project Directorate at Stennis; Stennis Deputy Director Rick Gilbrech; Steve Jackson of Jacobs Technology; and Troy Frisbie, Cryo Control Center Construction project manager for NASA Center Operations at Stennis.

  2. Cryogenic ribbon-cutting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-30

    NASA cut the ribbon on a new cryogenics control center at John C. Stennis Space Center on March 30. The new facility is part of a project to strengthen Stennis facilities to withstand the impacts of future storms like hurricane Katrina in 2005. Participants in the ribbon-cutting included (l to r): Jason Zuckerman, director of project management for The McDonnel Group; Keith Brock, director of the NASA Project Directorate at Stennis; Stennis Deputy Director Rick Gilbrech; Steve Jackson, outgoing program manager of the Jacobs Technology NASA Test Operations Group; and Troy Frisbie, Cryo Control Center Construction project manager for NASA Center Operations at Stennis.

  3. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  4. Think before You Cut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettifor, Ann

    2010-01-01

    With the main political parties set on reducing public spending, one might be forgiven for supposing that "savage" cuts are the only way forward. However, the author believes there are alternatives, and that is why public education about the financial system is so important. Today, UK is trying to clear up a mess--a mess made by the…

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu; Sri Suresh Kumar Thiroveedhula

    2000-04-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with water under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic drilling fluids. Initial calibration tests have been conducted by using water. Currently, the base oil of the Petrobras synthetic drilling fluid is being tested. Foam flow experiments have been conducted. Currently, more experiments are being conducted while data are being analyzed to characterize the rheology of the foam. Cuttings transport experiments have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Preliminary results have shown that it may not be possible to avoid cuttings bed deposition under any practical combination of air and water flow rates. Foam stability analyses have been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. A software for controlling the data sampling and data storage during cuttings monitoring process have been developed.

  6. Cutting Cakes Carefully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Theodore P.; Morrison, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the fascinating mathematics of fair division, and provides a suite of examples using basic ideas from algebra, calculus, and probability which can be used to examine and test new and sometimes complex mathematical theories and claims involving fair division. Conversely, the classical cut-and-choose and moving-knife algorithms…

  7. Think before You Cut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettifor, Ann

    2010-01-01

    With the main political parties set on reducing public spending, one might be forgiven for supposing that "savage" cuts are the only way forward. However, the author believes there are alternatives, and that is why public education about the financial system is so important. Today, UK is trying to clear up a mess--a mess made by the…

  8. A Cut below

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2010-01-01

    Today, thousands of California students worry about vanishing college affordability and access, especially for historically under-represented and marginalized populations. The author reports on how students and faculty throughout California are grappling with the effects of draconian state cuts to postsecondary education that have topped more than…

  9. INFINITY ribbon-cutting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-11

    Clare Johnston, 10, and Eden Landis, 3, stare in wonder at the moon rock on display at the INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center visitor center and museum. The children toured INFINITY exhibits during ribbon-cutting activities for the facility April 11, 2012.

  10. Classroom Cut Ups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    Discovering identity can be a lifelong challenge for some people, while others seem to figure it out right away. During the middle school years, finding one's identity can be a daunting task. Most students will spend a considerable amount of time during these middle years looking for it. This lesson on cut-paper self-portraits lets students delve…

  11. Cutting Cakes Carefully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Theodore P.; Morrison, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the fascinating mathematics of fair division, and provides a suite of examples using basic ideas from algebra, calculus, and probability which can be used to examine and test new and sometimes complex mathematical theories and claims involving fair division. Conversely, the classical cut-and-choose and moving-knife algorithms…

  12. Kids Who Cut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Doris Rhea; Simpson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Regardless of whether it is cutting, burning or some other form of self-harm, self-injury is a serious problem requiring serious solutions. This article reviews the various types of self-harm, descriptions of self-mutilators, common myths about self-mutilation, and effective treatment methods. (GCP)

  13. Collaborating To Cut Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strosnider, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Private colleges across the country are collaborating to cut costs, streamline services, and increase efficiency. An ambitious Ohio project, involving 35 colleges, to redesign business operations hopes to save $20-25 million. Other efforts include joint classes using interactive television, shared library resources, cross-registration, jointly…

  14. Electron beam cutting

    DOEpatents

    Mochel, Margaret E.; Humphreys, Colin J.

    1985-04-02

    A method for the cutting of holes 20 Angstroms in diameter, or lines 20 Angstroms wide in a material having positive ionic conduction by the use of a focused electron probe is described. The holes and lines are stable under ambient conditions.

  15. Electron beam cutting

    DOEpatents

    Mochel, M.E.; Humphreys, C.J.

    1985-04-02

    A method for the cutting of holes 20 Angstroms in diameter, or lines 20 Angstroms wide in a material having positive ionic conduction by the use of a focused electron probe is described. The holes and lines are stable under ambient conditions. 2 figs.

  16. Kids Who Cut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Doris Rhea; Simpson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Regardless of whether it is cutting, burning or some other form of self-harm, self-injury is a serious problem requiring serious solutions. This article reviews the various types of self-harm, descriptions of self-mutilators, common myths about self-mutilation, and effective treatment methods. (GCP)

  17. Cutting thread at flexible endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Gong, F; Swain, P; Kadirkamanathan, S; Hepworth, C; Laufer, J; Shelton, J; Mills, T

    1996-12-01

    New thread-cutting techniques were developed for use at flexible endoscopy. A guillotine was designed to follow and cut thread at the endoscope tip. A new method was developed for guiding suture cutters. Efficacy of Nd: YAG laser cutting of threads was studied. Experimental and clinical experience with thread-cutting methods is presented. A 2.4 mm diameter flexible thread-cutting guillotine was constructed featuring two lateral holes with sharp edges through which sutures to be cut are passed. Standard suture cutters were guided by backloading thread through the cutters extracorporeally. A snare cutter was constructed to retrieve objects sewn to tissue. Efficacy and speed of Nd: YAG laser in cutting twelve different threads were studied. The guillotine cut thread faster (p < 0.05) than standard suture cutters. Backloading thread shortened time taken to cut thread (p < 0.001) compared with free-hand cutting. Nd: YAG laser was ineffective in cutting uncolored threads and slower than mechanical cutters. Results of thread cutting in clinical studies using sewing machine (n = 77 cutting episodes in 21 patients), in-vivo experiments (n = 156), and postsurgical cases (n = 15 over 15 years) are presented. New thread-cutting methods are described and their efficacy demonstrated in experimental and clinical studies.

  18. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-04-30

    Experiments on the flow loop are continuing. Improvements to the software for data acquisition are being made as additional experience with three-phase flow is gained. Modifications are being made to the Cuttings Injection System in order to improve control and the precision of cuttings injection. The design details for a drill-pipe Rotation System have been completed. A US Patent was filed on October 28, 2002 for a new design for an instrument that can generate a variety of foams under elevated pressures and temperatures and then transfer the test foam to a viscometer for measurements of viscosity. Theoretical analyses of cuttings transport phenomena based on a layered model is under development. Calibrations of two nuclear densitometers have been completed. Baseline tests have been run to determine wall roughness in the 4 different tests sections (i.e. 2-in, 3-in, 4-in pipes and 5.76-in by 3.5-in annulus) of the flow loop. Tests have also been conducted with aerated fluids at EPET conditions. Preliminary experiments on the two candidate aqueous foam formulations were conducted which included rheological tests of the base fluid and foam stability reports. These were conducted after acceptance of the proposal on the Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature Conditions. Preparation of a test matrix for cuttings-transport experiments with foam in the ACTF is also under way. A controller for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration and distribution has been designed that can control four transceivers at a time. A prototype of the control circuit board was built and tested. Tests showed that there was a problem with radiated noise. AN improved circuit board was designed and sent to an external expert to verify the new design. The new board is being fabricated and will first be tested with static water and gravel in an annulus at elevated temperatures. A series of viscometer tests to measure foam properties have

  19. Laser cutting nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Ramos, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    A laser cutting nozzle for use with a laser cutting apparatus directing a focused beam to a spot on a work piece. The nozzle has a cylindrical body with a conical tip which together have a conically shaped hollow interior with the apex at a small aperture through the tip. The conical hollow interior is shaped to match the profile of the laser beam, at full beamwidth, which passes through the nozzle to the work piece. A plurality of gas inlet holes extend through the body to the hollow interior and are oriented to produce a swirling flow of gas coaxially through the nozzle and out the aperture, aligned with the laser beam, to the work piece. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  20. Laser cutting nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Ramos, T.J.

    1982-09-30

    A laser cutting nozzle for use with a laser cutting apparatus directing a focused beam to a spot on a work piece. The nozzle has a cylindrical body with a conical tip which together have a conically shaped hollow interior with the apex at a small aperture through the tip. The conical hollow interior is shaped to match the profile of the laser beam, at full beamwidth, which passes through the nozzle to the work piece. A plurality of gas inlet holes extend through the body to the hollow interior and are oriented to produce a swirling flow of gas coaxially through the nozzle and out the aperture, aligned with the laser beam, to the work piece.

  1. Cutting Through Multiyear Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    ICESCAPE scientists watched from the deck of the Healy as it cut a path through thick multiyear ice on July 6, 2011. Cutting the path is key for getting researchers to remote research sites amid the sea ice. Credit: NASA/Kathryn Hansen The ICESCAPE mission, or "Impacts of Climate on Ecosystems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment," is a NASA shipborne investigation to study how changing conditions in the Arctic affect the ocean's chemistry and ecosystems. The bulk of the research took place in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas in summer 2010 and 2011. Credit: NASA/Kathryn Hansen NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. Rooting of carnation cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Oliveros-Valenzuela, M Rocío; Nicolás, Carlos; Sánchez-Bravo, José

    2009-01-01

    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. Among other signals, auxin polarly transported through the stem plays a key role in the formation and growth of adventitious roots. Unlike in other plant species, auxin from mature leaves plays a decisive role in the rooting of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus. L) cuttings. The gene DcAUX1, which codifies an auxin influx carrier involved in polar auxin transport, has now been cloned and characterized in carnation. The expression pattern of this gene was seen to depend on the organ, the cultivar and the time of cold storage. The variations observed in its expression could be related with the rooting ability of different carnation cultivars. PMID:19721760

  3. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  4. Manual bamboo cutting tool.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Mariana Pereira; Correia, Walter Franklin Marques; da Costa Campos, Fabio Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a cutting tool guide, specifically for the harvest of bamboo. The development was made based on precepts of eco-design and ergonomics, for prioritizing the physical health of the operator and the maintenance of the environment, as well as meet specific requirements of bamboo. The main goal is to spread the use of bamboo as construction material, handicrafts, among others, from a handy, easy assembly and material available tool.

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-07-30

    This Quarter has been divided between running experiments and the installation of the drill-pipe rotation system. In addition, valves and piping were relocated, and three viewports were installed. Detailed design work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. Design of the first prototype version of a Foam Generator has been finalized, and fabrication is underway. This will be used to determine the relationship between surface roughness and ''slip'' of foams at solid boundaries. Additional cups and rotors are being machined with different surface roughness. Some experiments on cuttings transport with aerated fluids have been conducted at EPET. Theoretical modeling of cuttings transport with aerated fluids is proceeding. The development of theoretical models to predict frictional pressure losses of flowing foam is in progress. The new board design for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration is now functioning with an acceptable noise level. The ultrasonic sensors are stable up to 190 F. Static tests with sand in an annulus indicate that the system is able to distinguish between different sand concentrations. Viscometer tests with foam, generated by the Dynamic Test Facility (DTF), are continuing.

  6. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Glatz, Andreas; Welp, Ulrich; Kwok, Wai-K.

    2015-03-01

    Unlike illusive magnetic field lines in vacuum, magnetic vortices in superconductors are real physical strings, which interact with the sample surface, crystal structure defects, and with each other. We address the complex and poorly understood process of vortex cutting via a comprehensive set of magneto-optic experiments which allow us to visualize vortex patterns at magnetization of a nearly twin-free YBCO crystal by crossing magnetic fields of different orientations. We observe a pronounced anisotropy in the flux dynamics under crossing fields and the filamentation of induced supercurrents associated with the staircase vortex structure expected in layered cuprates, flux cutting effects, and angular vortex instabilities predicted for anisotropic superconductors. At some field angles, we find formation of the vortex domains following a type-I phase transition in the vortex state accompanied by an abrupt change in the vortex orientation. To clarify the vortex cutting scenario we performed time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations, which confirmed formation of sharp vortex fronts observed in the experiment and revealed a left-handed helical instability responsible for the rotation of vortices. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  7. Reagan Administration Prepares Budget Cuts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Colin

    1981-01-01

    Describes tentative federal budget cuts affecting science education in the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Energy, National Institutes of Health, and the specific areas these budget cuts will affect. (DS)

  8. Dealing with Cuts (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cellulitis First Aid: Cuts Staph Infections Bites and Scratches ... Animal Bites Blood Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents Cellulitis Stitches Scars Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions What's a ...

  9. ALPS yield optimization cutting program

    Treesearch

    P. Klinkhachorn; J.P. Franklin; Charles W. McMillin; H.A. Huber

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports ongoing work on a series of computer programs developed to automate hardwood lumber processing in a furniture roughmill. The program computes the placement of cuttings on lumber, based on a description of each board in terms of shape and defect location, and a cutting bill. These results are suitable for use with a high-power laser to cut the parts...

  10. CUTTING AND WEDGING JACKET REMOVER

    DOEpatents

    Freedman, M.; Raynor, S.

    1959-04-01

    A tool is presented for stripping cladded jackets from fissionable fuel elements. The tool is a tube which fits closely around the jacket and which has two cutting edges at opposite sides of one end. These cutting edges are adjusted to penetrate only the jacket so that by moving the edges downward the jacket is cut into two pieces.

  11. Maximal cuts in arbitrary dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosma, Jorrit; Sogaard, Mads; Zhang, Yang

    2017-08-01

    We develop a systematic procedure for computing maximal unitarity cuts of multiloop Feynman integrals in arbitrary dimension. Our approach is based on the Baikov representation in which the structure of the cuts is particularly simple. We examine several planar and nonplanar integral topologies and demonstrate that the maximal cut inherits IBPs and dimension shift identities satisfied by the uncut integral. Furthermore, for the examples we calculated, we find that the maximal cut functions from different allowed regions, form the Wronskian matrix of the differential equations on the maximal cut.

  12. Drilling cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  13. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-07-31

    We have tested the loop elevation system. We raised the mast to approximately 25 to 30 degrees from horizontal. All went well. However, while lowering the mast, it moved laterally a couple of degrees. Upon visual inspection, severe spalling of the concrete on the face of the support pillar, and deformation of the steel support structure was observed. At this time, the facility is ready for testing in the horizontal position. A new air compressor has been received and set in place for the ACTS test loop. A new laboratory has been built near the ACTS test loop Roughened cups and rotors for the viscometer (RS300) were obtained. Rheologies of aqueous foams were measured using three different cup-rotor assemblies that have different surface roughness. The relationship between surface roughness and foam rheology was investigated. Re-calibration of nuclear densitometers has been finished. The re-calibration was also performed with 1% surfactant foam. A new cuttings injection system was installed at the bottom of the injection tower. It replaced the previous injection auger. A mechanistic model for cuttings transport with aerated mud has been developed. Cuttings transport mechanisms with aerated water at various conditions were experimentally investigated. A total of 39 tests were performed. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental measurements show a satisfactory agreement. Results from the ultrasonic monitoring system indicated that we could distinguish between different sand levels. We also have devised ways to achieve consistency of performance by securing the sensors in the caps in exactly the same manner as long as the sensors are not removed from the caps. A preliminary test was conducted on the main flow loop at 100 gpm flow rate and 20 lb/min cuttings injection rate. The measured bed thickness using the ultrasonic method showed a satisfactory agreement with nuclear densitometer readings. Thirty different data points were collected after the test

  14. INFINITY ribbon-cutting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-11

    Ceremony participants prepare to cut the ribbon on the INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility April 11, 2012. Participating in the ceremony were (l to r): Gulfport Mayor and INFINITY Science Center Inc. Chairman George Schloegel; U.S. Rep. Steven Palazzo, R-Miss.; U.S. Sen. Roger Wicker, R-Miss.; Roy S. Estess granddaughter Lauren McKay; Mississippi Gov. Phil Bryant; Leo Seal Jr. grandson Leo Seal IV; Stennis Director Patrick Scheuermann; U.S. Sen. Thad Cochran, R-Miss.; NASA Chief of Staff David Radzanowski; and Apollo 13 astronaut and INFINITY Science Center Inc. Vice Chairman Fred Haise.

  15. Photochemical cutting of fabrics

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for the cutting of garment patterns from one or more layers of fabric. A laser capable of producing laser light at an ultraviolet wavelength is utilized to shine light through a pattern, such as a holographic phase filter, and through a lens onto the one or more layers of fabric. The ultraviolet laser light causes rapid photochemical decomposition of the one or more layers of fabric, but only along the pattern. The balance of the fabric of the one or more layers of fabric is undamaged.

  16. Cutting the Cord-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the rear hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting from the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn took place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  17. Cutting the Cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the front hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting off the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn could take place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  18. Cross-Cutting Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 May 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows cross-cutting fault scarps among graben features in northern Tempe Terra. Graben form in regions where the crust of the planet has been extended; such features are common in the regions surrounding the vast 'Tharsis Bulge' on Mars.

    Location near: 43.7oN, 90.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer

  19. Cutting the Cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the front hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting off the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn could take place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  20. Cross-Cutting Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 May 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows cross-cutting fault scarps among graben features in northern Tempe Terra. Graben form in regions where the crust of the planet has been extended; such features are common in the regions surrounding the vast 'Tharsis Bulge' on Mars.

    Location near: 43.7oN, 90.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer

  1. Cutting the Cord-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the rear hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting from the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn took place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  2. Vibrator improves spark erosion cutting process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrall, L. R.

    1966-01-01

    Variable frequency mechanical vibrator improves spark erosion cutting process. The vibration of the cutting tip permits continual flushing away of residue around the cut area with nondestructive electric transformer oil during the cutting process.

  3. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2016-08-01

    Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.

  4. Cut By Troughs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    1 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an impact crater cut by troughs which formed after the crater formed. The crater and troughs have large windblown ripples on their floors. The ripples, troughs, craters, and other surfaces in this scene have all been mantled by dust. Dark streaks on slopes indicate areas where avalanches of dry dust have occurred. These features are located on Sacra Mena, a large mesa in the Kasei Valles region.

    Location near: 25.4oN, 66.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-01-31

    Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of

  6. Making the cut

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Chris

    2013-01-01

    ‘Deliberate self-harm’, ‘self-mutilation’ and ‘self-injury’ are just some of the terms used to describe one of the most prominent issues in British mental health policy in recent years. This article demonstrates that contemporary literature on ‘self-harm’ produces this phenomenon (to varying extents) around two key characteristics. First, this behaviour is predominantly performed by those identified as female. Second, this behaviour primarily involves cutting the skin. These constitutive characteristics are traced back to a corpus of literature produced in the 1960s and 1970s in North American psychiatric inpatient institutions; analysis shows how pre-1960 works were substantially different. Finally, these gendered and behavioural assertions are shown to be the result of historically specific processes of exclusion and emphasis. PMID:23741086

  7. Cutting ice: nanowire regelation.

    PubMed

    Hynninen, Teemu; Heinonen, Vili; Dias, Cristiano L; Karttunen, Mikko; Foster, Adam S; Ala-Nissila, Tapio

    2010-08-20

    Even below its normal melting temperature, ice melts when subjected to high pressure and refreezes once the pressure is lifted. A classic demonstration of this regelation phenomenon is the passing of a thin wire through a block of ice when sufficient force is exerted. Here we present a molecular-dynamics study of a nanowire cutting through ice to unravel the molecular level mechanisms responsible for regelation. In particular, we show that the transition from a stationary to a moving wire due to increased driving force changes from symmetric and continuous to asymmetric and discontinuous as a hydrophilic wire is replaced by a hydrophobic one. This is explained at the molecular level in terms of the wetting properties of the wire.

  8. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2016-08-09

    Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, in this paper, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Finally, our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.

  9. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; ...

    2016-08-09

    Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, in this paper, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details ofmore » the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Finally, our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.« less

  10. Cross-Cutting Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 25 August 2003

    The several linear cross-cutting grabens and collapse features observed in this THEMIS image illustrate the relative timing of a series of complex geologic processes as more recent events produce features that overlap and intersect older ones. Some impact craters are observed to be cut grabens, suggesting an older impact event compared to impact craters that appear fresh and unmodified.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 14.1, Longitude 236.3 East (123.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Cross-Cutting Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 25 August 2003

    The several linear cross-cutting grabens and collapse features observed in this THEMIS image illustrate the relative timing of a series of complex geologic processes as more recent events produce features that overlap and intersect older ones. Some impact craters are observed to be cut grabens, suggesting an older impact event compared to impact craters that appear fresh and unmodified.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 14.1, Longitude 236.3 East (123.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Mechanically cut mitotic spindles: clean cuts and stable microtubules.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, R B; Lee, G M; Rieder, C L; Rupp, G

    1989-11-01

    We have discovered an easy way to cut through the mitotic spindle at any desired place. Spindles of demembranated cricket or grasshopper spermatocytes were severed with a microneedle between the chromosomes and one pole, and the cut-off polar piece was swept away. Spindle structure and microtubule dynamics in cut spindles were studied by anti-tubulin immunostaining and electron microscopy. The cut is clean: all microtubules are severed and only a few extend beyond the others. This provides the basis for a clear test of whether traction fibers pull chromosomes to the pole in anaphase, because the putative traction fiber is cleanly severed. Cutting creates new plus ends on microtubules in the cut-off polar piece and new minus ends on microtubules in the main spindle body. The microtubules with new plus ends are unstable, as expected from the dynamic instability of microtubules. However, the microtubules with new minus ends are as stable as uncut microtubules in the same spindle. Our mechanical method of cutting microtubules very likely creates native, reactive ends, and therefore the surprising stability of new minus ends is genuinely interesting, not an artifact of cutting.

  13. Spring loaded compliant seal for high temperature use

    DOEpatents

    Memmen, Robert L; Fedock, John A; Downs, James P

    2013-10-15

    A flexible seal having an X-shaped cross section that forms four contact points on four contact surfaces of two opposed seal slots. The flexible seal is used for a component in which the two seal slots undergo a large deflection such that the opposed slots are not aligned and a rigid seal will not form an adequate seal. The flexible seal can be used in a component of a combustor or a turbine in a gas turbine engine where opposed seal slots undergo the large deflection during operation.

  14. Improvement Cutting in Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J. W. Johnson

    1951-01-01

    Do bottomland hardwood forests respond to improvement cuts? Do growth rate and stand quality increase enough to make up for the extra effort and, sometimes, outright expense of improvement cutting? Ten years of growth on some plots on the Delta Experimental Forest near Stoneville, Mississippi, indicates that the answer to both questions is "yes".

  15. Composite structure for cutting tools

    SciTech Connect

    Radd, F.J.; Haden, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting tool comprises a compact bundle of elongated, substantially cylindrical fibers or rods formed from a cemented metal carbide material. The bundle of fibers is shrink-fitted within a metal collar to form a long-wearing cutting tool.

  16. Corner-cutting mining assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, John A.

    1983-01-01

    A mining assembly includes a primary rotary cutter mounted on one end of a support shaft and four secondary rotary cutters carried on the same support shaft and positioned behind the primary cutters for cutting corners in the hole cut by the latter.

  17. How to Cut Publications Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Virginia L., Ed.; Alberger, Patricia A., Ed.

    This handbook on how to cut costs in college publications contains the following articles: "Stretching Your Publications Dollar: The Basics," by Kelvin J. Arden and William J. Whalen; "How to Print Cheaper," by M. Frederic Volkmann; "How Your Colleagues Cut Costs," by Robert S. Topor; "Printing Specifications: Writing Them Right," by M. Frederic…

  18. Minimum Cuts and Related Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The paper is concerned with an integer programming characterization of a cut in a network. This characterization provides a fundamental equivalence...between directed pseudosummetric networks and undirected networks. It also identifies a class of problems which can be solved as minimum cut problems on a network. (Author)

  19. Cutting Head for Ultrasonic Lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, Earl D. (Inventor); Goodfriend, Roger (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A cutting head for attachment to the end of the wire probe of an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument. The cutting head has a plurality of circumferentially arranged teeth formed at one end thereof to provide a cup-shaped receptacle for kidney stones encountered during the disintegration procedure. An integral reduced diameter collar diminishes stress points in the wire and reduces breakage thereof.

  20. Cutting and Self-Harm

    MedlinePlus

    ... sad Cutting and self-harm Cutting and self-harm Self-harm, sometimes called self-injury, is when a person ... about how one girl helps herself not self-harm. What are signs of self-injury in others? ...

  1. Dominus for cut flower production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumigation with methyl bromide was the principal method of soilborne pest control in cut flower production. Many cut flower growers in Florida have ceased production, but those that remain are restricted in the fumigants that they are able to utilize due to proximity to potable water sources and oc...

  2. How to Cut Publications Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Virginia L., Ed.; Alberger, Patricia A., Ed.

    This handbook on how to cut costs in college publications contains the following articles: "Stretching Your Publications Dollar: The Basics," by Kelvin J. Arden and William J. Whalen; "How to Print Cheaper," by M. Frederic Volkmann; "How Your Colleagues Cut Costs," by Robert S. Topor; "Printing Specifications: Writing Them Right," by M. Frederic…

  3. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  4. Cutting forces in orthogonal cutting of unidirectional GFRP composites

    SciTech Connect

    Caprino, G.; Nele, L.

    1996-07-01

    The results of orthogonal cutting tests carried out on unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic composites, using HSS tools, are presented and discussed. During the tests, performed on a milling machine at very low cutting speed to avoid thermal effects, the cutting speed was held constant and parallel to the fiber direction. Three parameters, namely the tool rake angle {alpha}, the tool relief angle {gamma}, and the depth of cut t, were varied. According to the experimental results, the horizontal force per unit width, F{sub hu}, undergoes a dramatic decrease, never verified for metals, with increasing {alpha}. Besides, F{sub hu} is only negligibly affected by the relief angle, and linearly increases with t. Similarly to metals, an effect of the depth of cut on the specific energy (size effect) is found also for composites. However, the presented results indicate that the size effect can be analytically modeled in a simple way in the case of composites. The vertical force per unit width, F{sub vu}, exhibits a marked reduction when the relief angle is increased. F{sub vu} is also very sensitive to the rake angle: the lower {alpha}, the higher is F{sub vu}. It is shown that this behavior probably reflects a strong influence of the rake angle on the forces developing at the flank. A linear dependence of the vertical force on the depth of cut is also demonstrated. Finally, the experimental data are utilized to obtain empirical formulae, allowing an approximate evaluation of cutting forces.

  5. Doubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    A O-AIIO 663 NOTO AOI.A INC SCOTTS A LEJ AZ S0V RNmF.NT ELECTRONICS DV F/S WI1 DOUBLY ROTATED CUT SAV DEVICES.(U) JAN 82 D F WIL.IANMS F T CHO DAK20...quartz substrates for the purpose of locating promising angular ranges with properties superior to the singly rotated cuts now in existence More...detailed calculations follow to refine the angular coordinates in order to specify cuts for experimental erification in Task I1. In Task II, sets of

  6. Doubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    AD-AO 545 MOTOROLA INC SCOTTSDALE AZ GOVERNMENT ELECTRONICS DIV F/O 20/2 DOUBLY ROTATED CUT SAW DEVICES.( U) APR 81 0 F WILLIAMS, F Y CHO DAAK2O 79...f we Ma. he0 _TL ft . *VM or seu3f? 6 090100 cove mis interim Report.~arch 198 ’ Doubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices .r etme 9 9. SInFY T ON 6MNY mUUUUf L...exploratory development of doubly rotated cuts of quartz possessing superior Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) properties for applications involving

  7. Doubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    A0-AI03 -728 MOTOROLA INC SCOTTSDALE AZ GOVERNMENT ELECTRONICS DIV FIG 20/2 DOUBLY ROTATED CUT SAW DEVICES. U P AUG 81 0 F WILLIAMS, F Y CHO OAAK20...79-C-0275 UNCLASSIFIED DELET-TR-79-0275-3 ML wIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII illlllllllllr: K8 MMR UNCLASSIFIED / JZ R-79-0273 Doubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices...towme. e *#* tooeeeimp md fallp p, uh9lbme The objective of this program is the exploratory development of doubly rotated cuts of quartz possessing

  8. Cutting Head for Ultrasonic Lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D.; Goodfriend, R.

    1987-01-01

    Kidney stones lodged in urinary tract disintegrated with increased safety and efficiency by cutting head attached to end of vibrated wire probe. Aligns probe with stone and enables probe to vibrate long enough to disintegrate stone. Design of cutting head reduces risk of metal-fatigue-induced breakage of probe tip leaving metal fragments in urinary tract. Teeth of cutting head both seat and fragment kidney stone, while extension of collar into catheter lessens mechanical strain in probe wire, increasing probe life and lessening danger of in situ probe breakage.

  9. Transjugular Liver Biopsy: A Review of 77 Biopsies Using a Spring-Propelled Cutting Needle (Biopsy Gun)

    SciTech Connect

    Gorriz, Elias; Reyes, Ricardo; Lobrano, Mary Beth; Pulido-Duque, Juan M.; San Roman, Jose L.; Lonjedo, Elena; Ferral, Hector; Maynar, Manuel

    1996-11-15

    Seventy-seven transjugular liver biopsies were performed with a coaxial, spring-loaded, 18-gauge cutting needle, the Biopty gun (Bard Biopsy System, Covington, GA, USA) on consecutive patients between July 1993 and February 1995. Fifty men and 27 women were included in the study; the mean age was 45 years (range 15-69 years). The average number of punctures per patient was 5.2, with a range of 2-9, yielding an average of 4.8 samples per patient (range 1-7). The length of the samples varied from 10 to 22 mm with a constant diameter of 1 mm. The mean time required to complete the procedure was 48 min (43-52 min). Histological diagnoses were obtained in 74 of 77 patients (96%), with non-diagnostic specimens attributed to excessive fragmentation (3 cases). Complications occurred in 10 patients (puncture site hematoma, carotid artery puncture, abdominal pain, vasovagal reaction, hepatic capsule perforation, and hemobilia). The latter two complications were self-limited. In our experience this transjugular hepatic biopsy method is promising for performing biopsies in patients with chronic liver disease, due to its high success rate and low morbidity rate.

  10. How Can I Stop Cutting?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Help You Express the Pain and Deep Emotion Some people cut because the emotions that ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  11. Dealing with Cuts (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cellulitis First Aid: Cuts Staph Infections Bites and Scratches ... Animal Bites Blood Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents Cellulitis How Stitches Help Kids Heal The Story on ...

  12. Laser cutting of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, T.; Muenchausen, R.; Sanchez, J.

    1998-12-01

    The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of safely and efficiently cutting and drilling metal cases containing a variety of high explosives (HE) using a Nd:YAG laser. Spectral analysis of the optical emission, occurring during the laser-induced ablation process, is used to identify the removed material. By monitoring changes in the optical emission during the cutting process, the metal-He interface can be observed in real time and the cutting parameters adjusted accordingly. For cutting the HE material itself, the authors have demonstrated that this can be safely and efficiently accomplished by means of a ultraviolet (UV) laser beam obtained from the same Nd:YAG laser using the third or fourth harmonics. They are currently applying this technology to UXO identification and ordnance demilitarization.

  13. Cutting thin sections of bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashley, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    Medical equipment for obtaining repetitive planoparallel sections of bone to study healing of bone structure under high gravity stress is described. Device consists of modified saw with diamond cutting edges. Construction of device and manner of use are explained.

  14. How Can I Stop Cutting?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Help You Express the Pain and Deep Emotion Some people cut because the emotions that ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  15. Refrigerated cutting tools improve machining of superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, G. M.

    1971-01-01

    Freon-12 applied to tool cutting edge evaporates quickly, leaves no residue, and permits higher cutting rate than with conventional coolants. This technique increases cutting rate on Rene-41 threefold and improves finish of machined surface.

  16. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOEpatents

    Lindroth, David P.; Morrell, Roger J.; Blair, James R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  17. Interactive cutting path analysis programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, J. M.; Williams, D. S.; Colley, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    The operation of numerically controlled machine tools is interactively simulated. Four programs were developed to graphically display the cutting paths for a Monarch lathe, Cintimatic mill, Strippit sheet metal punch, and the wiring path for a Standard wire wrap machine. These programs are run on a IMLAC PDS-ID graphic display system under the DOS-3 disk operating system. The cutting path analysis programs accept input via both paper tape and disk file.

  18. Underwater welding, cutting and inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.L. . Ohio Underwater Welding Center)

    1995-02-01

    Underwater welding, cutting and inspection of offshore, inland waterway and port facilities are becoming a requirement for both military and industrial communities, as maintenance and repair costs continue to escalate, and as many of the facilities are in operation well beyond their intended design life. In nuclear applications, underwater welding, cutting and inspection for repair and modification of irradiated nuclear power plant components are also a requirement. This article summarizes recent developments in this emerging underwater technology.

  19. Cutting head for ultrasonic lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anguluo, E. D.; Goodfriend, R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A cutting head for attachment to the end of the wire probe of an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is described. The cutting head has a plurality of circumferentially arranged teeth formed at one end thereof to provide a cup shaped receptacle for kidney stones encountered during the disintegration procedure. An integral reduced diameter collar diminishes stress points in the wire and reduce breakage thereof.

  20. Cut Front Geometry Characterization in Cutting Applications of Brass with Abrasive Water Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkurt, Adnan

    2010-06-01

    Abrasive water jet (AWJ) cutting is an advanced manufacturing process for machining hard to cut materials. In this study, brass-353 samples of different thicknesses were cut by AWJ using different feed rates to identify the relationships between depth of cut (material thickness), feed rate, and deflection of cutting edge geometry. The effects of material thickness on the AWJ cut surface roughness were investigated and discussed. Deflection of cutting edge geometry in AWJ cutting process was assessed. Cutting edge geometry was characterized by analyzing the surface properties of cut samples.

  1. Doubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    A D A O S G 7 3 A M T O R A I N C S C O T T S A L E A R I Z G V E R N M E N T E L C T R O N I C S I V F / B 2 0 / 2 DOUBLY ROTATED CUT SAW DEVICES...IEEEEI-/ II//E///III I jjj 5.1 -I I II II II F~ ~ 2, I UUGLASSIF1 U100TVw CLAMOGmeIawor OU I lulP&g EWhm oe ae & oubly Rotated Cut SAW Devices& . r...doubly rotated cuts of quartz possessing speri r Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) properties for applications involving environmentally hardened devices. The

  2. AK-cut Crystal Resonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    AK- cut C r y s t a l Resonators A l f r e d Kahan and Ferdinand K. Eu le r S o l i d S t a t e Sciences D i v i s i o n Rome A i r b v e l...l e s s s e n s i t i v e t o angu la r mis- o r i e n t a t i o n than comparable AT- o r BT- cuts . We have a r b i t r a r i - l y...designated these c r y s t a l s as t h e AK- cut . We r e p o r t exper- imenta l da ta f o r seven o r i e n t a t i o n s , +-angle v a r i a t i

  3. The Nichols Wing Cutting Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, James B

    1923-01-01

    Described here is wing cutting equipment for the economical production of metal wings for wind tunnel models. The machine will make any size of constant-section wing or strut up to one-sixth inch chord by 36-inch span and up to a thickness of one and one-quarter inches. It cuts a smooth, true model that is accurate to within two-thousandths of an inch on any ordinate. The holding jaws are so designed as to leave the model free of chip marks, and the only hand finishing necessary after the cutting is a rub with amunite to remove burrs. The actual change on ordinate in this finishing rub is less than .0002 inches.

  4. Stresses in ultrasonically assisted bone cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, K.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Bäker, M.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2009-08-01

    Bone cutting is a frequently used procedure in the orthopaedic surgery. Modern cutting techniques, such as ultrasonic assisted drilling, enable surgeons to perform precision operations in facial and spinal surgeries. Advanced understanding of the mechanics of bone cutting assisted by ultrasonic vibration is required to minimise bone fractures and to optimise the technique performance. The paper presents results of finite element simulations on ultrasonic and conventional bone cutting analysing the effects of ultrasonic vibration on cutting forces and stress distribution. The developed model is used to study the effects of cutting and vibration parameters (e.g. amplitude and frequency) on the stress distributions in the cutting region.

  5. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Benett, W.J.

    1999-07-27

    Devices are disclosed for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways (1) intravascularly, (2) extravascularly, (3) by vessel puncture, and (4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting. 6 figs.

  6. Female genital cutting: nursing implications.

    PubMed

    Goldenstein, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC) is a practice that affects millions of girls and women worldwide. This deeply rooted practice has cultural, religious, and psychosexual meaning to its practitioners, but it also carries long-term physical and mental complications. Decried as a human rights violation, nonetheless this practice is still carried out today. Nurses are in a unique position to contact and educate women who have been cut or are at risk for mutilation. To advocate for these women, a thorough understanding of the practice of FGC, its cultural overtones, religious implications, and psychosexual effects is needed.

  7. Document segmentation via oblique cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Jeremy; Branzan-Albu, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solution for the layout segmentation of graphical elements in Business Intelligence documents. We propose a generalization of the recursive X-Y cut algorithm, which allows for cutting along arbitrary oblique directions. An intermediate processing step consisting of line and solid region removal is also necessary due to presence of decorative elements. The output of the proposed segmentation is a hierarchical structure which allows for the identification of primitives in pie and bar charts. The algorithm was tested on a database composed of charts from business documents. Results are very promising.

  8. Hypervelocity cutting machine and method

    DOEpatents

    Powell, James R.; Reich, Morris

    1996-11-12

    A method and machine 14 are provided for cutting a workpiece 12 such as concrete. A gun barrel 16 is provided for repetitively loading projectiles 22 therein and is supplied with a pressurized propellant from a storage tank 28. A thermal storage tank 32,32A is disposed between the propellant storage tank 28 and the gun barrel 16 for repetitively receiving and heating propellant charges which are released in the gun barrel 16 for repetitively firing projectiles 22 therefrom toward the workpiece 12. In a preferred embodiment, hypervelocity of the projectiles 22 is obtained for cutting the concrete workpiece 12 by fracturing thereof.

  9. Hypervelocity cutting machine and method

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.R.; Reich, M.

    1996-11-12

    A method and machine are provided for cutting a workpiece such as concrete. A gun barrel is provided for repetitively loading projectiles therein and is supplied with a pressurized propellant from a storage tank. A thermal storage tank is disposed between the propellant storage tank and the gun barrel for repetitively receiving and heating propellant charges which are released in the gun barrel for repetitively firing projectiles therefrom toward the workpiece. In a preferred embodiment, hypervelocity of the projectiles is obtained for cutting the concrete workpiece by fracturing thereof. 10 figs.

  10. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Devices for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways 1) intravascularly, 2) extravascularly, 3) by vessel puncture, and 4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting.

  11. Wedge cutting of mild steel by CO 2 laser and cut-quality assessment in relation to normal cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Karatas, C.; Uslan, I.; Keles, O.; Usta, Y.; Yilbas, Z.; Ahsan, M.

    2008-10-01

    In some applications, laser cutting of wedge surfaces cannot be avoided in sheet metal processing and the quality of the end product defines the applicability of the laser-cutting process in such situations. In the present study, CO 2 laser cutting of the wedge surfaces as well as normal surfaces (normal to laser beam axis) is considered and the end product quality is assessed using the international standards for thermal cutting. The cut surfaces are examined by the optical microscopy and geometric features of the cut edges such as out of flatness and dross height are measured from the micrographs. A neural network is introduced to classify the striation patterns of the cut surfaces. It is found that the dross height and out of flatness are influenced significantly by the laser output power, particularly for wedge-cutting situation. Moreover, the cut quality improves at certain value of the laser power intensity.

  12. The Cutting-Edge Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Share, Joani

    2005-01-01

    In a time of educational budget cuts, the arts seem to take the major brunt of the financial ax. Fine arts programs are often pitted against one another for survival. The music industry and supporting corporations, such as American Express, campaign to have instruments donated or purchased to keep educational programs alive. The visual arts do not…

  13. Automated internal pipe cutting device

    DOEpatents

    Godlewski, William J.; Haffke, Gary S.; Purvis, Dale; Bashar, Ronald W.; Jones, Stewart D.; Moretti, Jr., Henry; Pimentel, James

    2003-01-21

    The invention is a remotely controlled internal pipe cutting device primarily used for cutting pipes where the outside of the pipe is inaccessible at the line where the cut is to be made. The device includes an axial ram within a rotational cylinder which is enclosed in a housing. The housing is adapted for attachment to an open end of the pipe and for supporting the ram and cylinder in cantilever fashion within the pipe. A radially movable cutter, preferably a plasma arc torch, is attached to the distal end of the ram. A drive mechanism, containing motors and mechanical hardware for operating the ram and cylinder, is attached to the proximal end of the housing. The ram and cylinder provide for moving the cutter axially and circumferentially, and a cable assembly attached to a remote motor provide for the movement of the cutter radially, within the pipe. The control system can be adjusted and operated remotely to control the position and movement of the cutter to obtain the desired cut. The control system can also provide automatic standoff control for a plasma arc torch.

  14. Model aids cuttings transport prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Gavignet, A.A. ); Sobey, I.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Drilling of highly deviated wells can be complicated by the formation of a thick bed of cuttings at low flow rates. The model proposed in this paper shows what mechanisms control the thickness of such a bed, and the model predictions are compared with experimental results.

  15. The Cutting-Edge Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Share, Joani

    2005-01-01

    In a time of educational budget cuts, the arts seem to take the major brunt of the financial ax. Fine arts programs are often pitted against one another for survival. The music industry and supporting corporations, such as American Express, campaign to have instruments donated or purchased to keep educational programs alive. The visual arts do not…

  16. Brazilian science faces swingeing cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanissevich, Alicia

    2017-05-01

    A number of “big-science” projects in Brazil could be hit if the government pushes through a 44% cut to the R5bn (£1.28bn) budget of the Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovations and Communications (MCTIC).

  17. CO2-Laser Cutting Fiber Reinforced Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, R.; Nuss, Rudolf; Geiger, Manfred

    1989-10-01

    Guided by experimental investigations laser cutting of glass fiber reinforced reactive injection moulded (RRIM)-polyurethanes which are used e.g. in car industry for bumpers, spoilers, and further components is described. A Comparison with other cutting techniques as there are water jet cutting, milling, punching, sawing, cutting with conventional knife and with ultrasonic excited knife is given. Parameters which mainly influence cutting results e.g. laser power, cutting speed, gas nature and pressure will be discussed. The problematic nature in characterising micro and macro geometry of laser cut edges of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) is explained. The topography of cut edges is described and several characteristic values are introduced to specify the obtained working quality. The surface roughness of laser cut edges is measured by both, an optical and a mechanical sensor and their reliabilities are compared.

  18. X-Z-Theta cutting method

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, L.F.

    1993-01-12

    A method for machining a workpiece. The method includes the use of a rotary cutting tool mounted on the end of a movable arm. The arm is adapted to move in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the cutting tool. The cutting tool has cutting teeth to cut chips of material off of the workpiece in a predetermined size and shape to facilitate better removal of the chips from the workpiece. The teeth can be of different type and length to permit the tool to both rough cut and finish cut the workpiece during machining. The total depth of cut is divided by the number of tool teeth, so that the longest tool always performs the finishing cut.

  19. Knife and impact cutting of lamb bone.

    PubMed

    King, M J

    1999-05-01

    The forces and hence fracture energies required to cut bone are presented in this paper and the merits of cutting with a high speed blade are considered. A plain knife blade was used to cut cancellous and compact lamb bone using three different methods. A microtome was used to produce a range of cut thicknesses which enabled the fracture energy to be separated into friction, surface fracture and plastic deformation energies. A tensile test machine was used to produce thicker off-cuts so that the energy required to cut through full sections of bone could be determined. A high speed rail gun was used to cut at speeds up to 130 m/s. The energy required to cut bone did not change with blade speed. However, the energies measured during the cutting varied over a wide range. In situations in which the surface of the cut bone exhibited a very uneven surface high energy was required, whereas when the resulting cut surface was planar the cutting energy was low. A light weight blade which impacts the bone at high speed will transmit a small impulse to the carcass which may be absorbed without transmitting strain to the muscle/connective tissue. This may allow the development of a high speed knife which will cut bone without excessively damaging the meat surrounding the cut.

  20. Evaluation of the hemostatic and coagulation effects of AUTO CUT and DRY CUT using a computer-controlled cutting system.

    PubMed

    Szyrach, Mara N I; Tolba, Rene H; Voigtländer, Matthias; Neugebauer, Alexander; Enderle, Markus D

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate a newly developed computer-controlled cutting system for the generation of standardized resections and to systematically compare the hemostatic properties and tissue effect of 2 cutting modes, namely, AUTO CUT and DRY CUT used in urologic procedures. An isolated perfused kidney model was used to assess blood loss and coagulation depth after resection of tissue specimens of standardized geometry, size, and cutting velocity with a resection loop. Three different effect settings (E1, E3, and E6; 200 W) of the electrosurgical modes AUTO CUT and DRY CUT were compared. Blood loss was determined semiquantitatively by weighing a swab before and after placing it onto the resection area. The coagulation depth was estimated microscopically on cross sections. The computer-controlled cutting system creates resections of standardized geometry and size with a high reproducibility. An effect level-dependent increase in hemostasis and coagulation depth could be demonstrated with the cutting modes DRY CUT and AUTO CUT using this computer-controlled cutting system. The hemostatic effect with DRY CUT is significantly more pronounced than with AUTO CUT (E1, E3: P < .0001, E6: P = .004), and the coagulation is significantly deeper (E1, E3, E6: P < .0001). The computer-controlled cutting system creating reproducible resections in combination with the isolated perfused kidney model offers the possibility to systematically investigate bleeding rate and coagulation depth. The stronger hemostatic properties of the DRY CUT mode are more favorable for urologic interventions requiring a higher hemostatic effect than the AUTO CUT mode. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of Cut Front Properties in Laser Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thombansen, Ulrich; Hermanns, Torsten; Molitor, Thomas; Pereira, Milton; Schulz, Wolfgang

    Cut-front properties are a key variable in laser-cutting and thus of major importance for self-optimization. Within the Cluster of Excellence at RWTH Aachen University, several achievements were made in setting up sensor-systems that provide information on the operating-point of this melt-based manufacturing process. These achievements contribute to a gradual increase in system-transparency which is seen as an enabler for self-optimization. Instead of searching for a single measurand to characterize the course of the process, an approach is being presented which establishesa surrogate criterion to allow determination of the current operating-point. In the depicted area, this is done by joining sources of information from process observation, determining boundary-conditions such as actual feed-rate and modeling of process-variables. Although process-variables like properties of the cutting-front are influenced through more than one process parameter, a concept for a sensor-system is reported showing the correlation between properties of the melt-front and the current feed-rate. The results are compared to a solution derived from process-simulation.

  2. Laser Cutting of Thin Nickel Bellows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    Laser cutting technique produces narrow, precise, fast, and repeatable cuts in thin nickel-allow bellows material. Laser cutting operation uses intense focused beam to melt material and assisting gas to force melted material through part thickness, creating void. When part rotated or moved longitudinally, melting and material removal continuous and creates narrow, fast, precise, and repeatable cut. Technique used to produce cuts of specified depths less than material thickness. Avoids distortion, dents, and nicks produced in delicate materials during lathe trimming operations, which require high cutting-tool pressure and holding-fixture forces.

  3. CO2 laser cutting of natural granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, A.; Mejías, A.; Soto, R.; Quintero, F.; del Val, J.; Boutinguiza, M.; Lusquiños, F.; Pardo, J.; Pou, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial black granite boards (trade name: "Zimbabwe black granite") 10 mm thick, were successfully cut by a 3.5 kW CO2 laser source. Cutting quality, in terms of kerf width and roughness of the cut wall, was assessed by means of statistically planned experiments. No chemical modification of the material in the cutting walls was detected by the laser beam action. Costs associated to the process were calculated, and the main factors affecting them were identified. Results reported here demonstrate that cutting granite boards could be a new application of CO2 laser cutting machines provided a supersonic nozzle is used.

  4. Cutting

    MedlinePlus

    ... dealing with feelings that seem too difficult to bear or bad situations they think can't change. ... rejection and helplessness she felt she couldn't bear. "I never looked at it as anything that ...

  5. Cutting

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents for Kids for Teens Search Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... to do. But you can't get your mind off feeling upset, and your body has this knot of emotional pain. Before you ...

  6. AK-cut crystal resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahan, A.; Euler, F. K.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations have predicted the existence of crystallographically doubly rotated quartz orientations with turnover temperatures which are considerably less sensitive to angular misorientation then comparable AT- or BT-cuts. These crystals are arbitrarily designated as the AK-cut. Experimental data is given for seven orientations, phi-angle variations between 30-46 deg and theta-angle variations between 21-28 deg measured on 3.3-3.4 MHz fundamental mode resonators vibrating in the thickness shear c-mode. The experimental turnover temperatures of these resonators are between 80 C and 150 C, in general agreement with calculated values. The normalized frequency change as a function of temperature has been fitted with a cubic equation.

  7. NASA budget, EOS face cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    The hefty FY 1992 increase for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration proposed by President George Bush has begun to attract Congressional budget-cutting axes, as predicted. The first cuts, however, have come from an unexpected ax-wielder—the space subcommittee of the House Committee on Space, Science, and Technology—normally a cheerleader for NASA in recent years.The subcommittee trimmed $488 million from NASA's budget request of $15.8 billion on April 11, according to a staff member of the space subcommittee. Notably, the panel did not touch the allotment for Space Station Freedom. The subcommittee has submitted the NASA authorization bill to the full committee, which is slated to act on it by the end of April, according to the Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report.

  8. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  9. Expedition 33 Crew Hair Cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-21

    Expedition 33 Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin gets his hair cut at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Sunday, October 21, 2012, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for October 23 and will send Expedition 33/34 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford of NASA, Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of ROSCOSMOS on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 33 Crew Hair Cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-21

    Expedition 33 Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy gets his hair cut at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Sunday, October 21, 2012, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for October 23 and will send Expedition 33/34 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford of NASA, Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of ROSCOSMOS on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 33 Crew Hair Cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-21

    Expedition 33 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford gets his hair cut at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Sunday, October 21, 2012, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for October 23 and will send Expedition 33/34 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford of NASA, Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of ROSCOSMOS on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  13. Quantitative laser cutting of plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schou, Juergen; Heisel, Torben; Nordskov, Arne; Christensen, Svend; Jensen, Peter S.; Thestrup, Birgitte; Toftmann, Bo

    2002-09-01

    It is possible to quantify cutting of plant stems by a laser beam in contrast to mechanical cutting. The biomass of the plants after a certain period under standard green house conditions was used to measure the effect of partial or complete cutting with a laser. Continuous laser irradiation at 10.6 micrometers of the plant stem turned out to be very efficient at values of the energy per width unit above 6 J/mm. The effect of laser irradiation at 355 nm or 1064 nm is less pronounced, but also at these wavelengths the re- growth or continuous growth are reduced. A monocotyledon- type, winter what (Triticum vulgare L), is substantially more resistant than a dicotyledon-type, charlock (Chenopodium album L.) against radiation. The exposure limits for laser light in living plants have been explored as well. The limit in terms of re-growth of the irradiated plants exceeds the MPE (maximum permissible exposure) of human skin by several orders of magnitude. The consequence is that very powerful (unfocused) lasers can be used in any environment without significant impact on living plants.

  14. Aqueous cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    DOEpatents

    Duerksen, Walter K.; Googin, John M.; Napier, Jr., Bradley

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  15. Cutting Frozen Ground with Disc Saws

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    a (actor ot 5. taking a depth widtli ratio toi the uncut nbs ol 2. Axle torces on the cutter wheel depend on the design ol the cutting teeth and on...position. If the shoulder of the cutting tool behind the cutting edge is exactly tangential, it will grind against uncut material and...AD-A012 114 CUTTING FROZEN GROUND UITH DISC SAWS Mai colm Mel lor Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Hanover, New

  16. High Pressure Waterjet Cutting Industrial Needs Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-25

    Report No. LO High Pressure Waterjet Cutting Industrial Needs Survey N Contract Number N00140-88-C-RC21 I John Klavuhn and Bruce Baker Metalworking...NO. NO ACCESSION NO. Washington, DC 20360-5100 1I TITLE (Include Security Classification) High Pressure Waterjet Cutting Industrial Needs Survey 12...block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP FIELD__ GROUP____UB-GROUP Waterjet cutting , abrasive waterjet cutting ’. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if

  17. Performance of Uncoated Carbide Cutting Tool when Machining Cast Iron in Dry Cutting Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaharah, A. G.; Che Hassan, C. H.; Ghazali, M. J.; Sulong, A. B.; Omar, M. Z.; Nuawi, M. Z.; Ismail, A. R.

    This paper presents the performance of uncoated carbide cutting tool when machining cast iron in dry cutting conditions. Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds, feed rates, and depths of cut according to Taguchi method design of experiment using a standard orthogonal array L9(34). The effects of cutting speeds (100-146 m/min), feed rates (0.20-0.35 mm/tooth) and depths of cut (1.0-2.0 mm) on the tool life, surface roughness and cutting forces were evaluated using ANOVA. Results showed that the effects of cutting speed, depth of cut and the feed rate were similar affecting the failure of the carbide cutting tools within the range of tested machining parameters. The contribution of cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut in controlling the tool life were 32.12%, 38.56% and 29.32% respectively. Whereas, the cutting speed was the main factor influencing the average surface roughness (Ra) value followed by feed rate. These factors contribute 60.53% and 35.59% respectively to the Ra value. On the other hand, cutting forces generated were greatly influenced by the depth of cut (66.52%) and the feed rate (32.6%). Cutting speed was found insignificant in controlling the generated cutting forces.

  18. Hardwood Regeneration After Seed Tree Cutting

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Johnson; R. M. Krinard

    1976-01-01

    Seed trees left at two sites did not appear to influence the establishment or development of reproduction . Seed trees were mainly sweetgum and red oaks. Most reproduction was from sprouting of the stumps and roots of cut trees or from advanced seedlings present in the understory at the time of cutting. Eighteen years after cutting, dominant trees of the reproduction...

  19. Teaching Budget Cuts to Third Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, this author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, his school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. The school's…

  20. Sensitivity of allowable cuts to intensive management.

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Fight; Dennis L. Schweitzer

    1974-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis of allowable cuts on two BLM master units shows that even-flow allowable cuts depend primarily on: (1) assumed long-term growth potential, (2) period that growth increases must be cumulated before they can be removed from the stands on which they occur, and (3) amount and age-class distribution of the initial inventory. Current allowable cut...

  1. Teaching Budget Cuts to Third Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, this author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, his school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. The school's…

  2. 27 CFR 6.92 - Newspaper cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Newspaper cuts. 6.92 Section 6.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.92 Newspaper cuts. Newspaper cuts, mats, or...

  3. 27 CFR 6.92 - Newspaper cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Newspaper cuts. 6.92 Section 6.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.92 Newspaper cuts. Newspaper cuts, mats, or...

  4. SET OF CUT SETS AND OPTIMUM FLOW,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    maintain the same terminal flow. The method presented stems from the work of Ford and Fulkerson which relates maximum terminal flow to the cut set...separating the terminals. A new set of cut sets called a ’set of M- cut sets’ is introduced from which it is possible to improve edge flows while maintaining maximum terminal flow.

  5. 27 CFR 6.92 - Newspaper cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Newspaper cuts. 6.92 Section 6.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.92 Newspaper cuts. Newspaper cuts, mats, or...

  6. 27 CFR 6.92 - Newspaper cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Newspaper cuts. 6.92 Section 6.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.92 Newspaper cuts. Newspaper cuts, mats, or...

  7. Raise cutting diameters for increased returns

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; G. R., Jr. Trimble; Paul S. DeBald

    1979-01-01

    Diameter-limit cutting is widely used to harvest logs in eastern hardwoods. Studies show that cutting limits are often set so low that they sacrifice financial returns. The value of lumber cut from logs is largely dependent on the diameter, grade, and tree species. As tree size increases so does the proportion of higher grade lumber, and this is reflected in improved...

  8. 27 CFR 6.92 - Newspaper cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Newspaper cuts. 6.92 Section 6.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.92 Newspaper cuts. Newspaper cuts, mats, or...

  9. Automated Laser Cutting In Three Dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, Lisa T.; Yvanovich, Mark A.; Angell, Terry R.; Bishop, Patricia J.; Dai, Weimin; Dobbs, Robert D.; He, Mingli; Minardi, Antonio; Shelton, Bret A.

    1995-01-01

    Computer-controlled machine-tool system uses laser beam assisted by directed flow of air to cut refractory materials into complex three-dimensional shapes. Velocity, position, and angle of cut varied. In original application, materials in question were thermally insulating thick blankets and tiles used on space shuttle. System shapes tile to concave or convex contours and cuts beveled edges on blanket, without cutting through outer layer of quartz fabric part of blanket. For safety, system entirely enclosed to prevent escape of laser energy. No dust generated during cutting operation - all material vaporized; larger solid chips dislodged from workpiece easily removed later.

  10. Cutting of bent vortex lines

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenleithner, P.

    1982-07-01

    One of the major problems in the application of type II superconductors is the appearance of resistivity in case where a current-carrying specimen is in a longitudinal magnetic field. This is explained by the onset of flux-line cutting events, followed by cross-joining of the line parts. The calculation given here shows the amount of repulsive force and energy between two curved vortex lines and examines the general stability of the vortex-vortex system. First, the actual interaction potential between curved vortices is computed. It includes all electromagnetic and core overlap terms of interactions and self-interaction, and allows computation of the system energy under all curved vortex-line configurations. A computer program is used to find the form of lowest free energy. To do this, special trial functions are established to describe the three-dimensional form of the vortex-vortex system. In these functions parameters determine the qualitative and quantitative form. The asymptotic boundary conditions are built into the nature of the trial functions. The computer program now minimizes the free energy with respect to these parameters. The resulting repulsive energy and force are more than ten times less than the known results for straight flux lines, especially for small asymptotic cutting angles. There is no sharp maximum in the plot of repulsive force versus flux-line separation. A remarkable results is the loss of general stability below a separation distance of several London penetration depths, depending on the cutting angle and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter. The explanation lies in the local attraction of central sections of the vortices as a result of configurational adaption. This explains the onset of resistance at small currents and small magnetic fields.

  11. Cutting costs without drawing blood.

    PubMed

    Copeland, T

    2000-01-01

    When looking for ways to cut costs, most managers reach for the head-count hatchet, and the markets usually roar with approval. But a company can almost always create far more sustainable value by rigorously evaluating the small-ticket capital items that often get rubber-stamped. Drawing on his experience as a consultant and providing numerous anecdotes, the author contends that those "little" requests often prove to be gold plated or unnecessary. A disciplined evaluation involves asking only eight questions and conducting postmortems--regular audits of units' capital spending. But the payoff is enormous. Because cutting the capital budget increases cash flow, the author argues that a permanent cut of just 15% in the planned level of capital spending could boost some companies' market capitalization by as much as 30%. The first three questions--Is this your investment to make? Does it really have to be new? How are our competitors meeting compliance needs?--are asked of operating managers as they assemble capital project requests. The next three are asked by senior managers of themselves and their colleagues as they examine proposals: Is the left hand duplicating investments made by the right? Are trade-offs between profit and capital spending well understood? Are there signs of budget massage? At the end of the review process, senior managers ask: Are we fully using shared assets? How fine-grained are our capacity measures? The author's suggestions for the postmortem include searching for systematic problems with whole classes of expenditures and making sure audit teams come up with specific recommendations for change.

  12. BP pledges to cut emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    British Petroleum (BP), one of the world's biggest oil companies that could become even bigger if a merger with Amoco is approved, announced on September 18 that it will cut its emissions of greenhouse gases by 10% from a 1990 baseline of 40 million tons of carbon dioxide between now and the year 2010.The target, which is double the amount of emissions reductions that industrialized nations agreed to under the Kyoto protocol on climate change, will now stand next to BP's financial targets, said John Browne, group chief executive of BP.

  13. Clinically lean; "cutting the crap".

    PubMed

    Caldwell, G

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of Lean Philosophy believe that successful businesses must reduce waste in working time and resources to a minimum, and maximise their use in productive work. The productive work of the Acute Medical Unit is to provide effective clinical management to a daily cohort of acutely ill patients. Many Clinicians are cynical about Lean. In this article, Dr Caldwell discusses how many clinicians complain of too much crap in the workplace, which gets in the way of swift, safe high quality clinical care. He argues that "Cutting the Crap" in the Acute Medical Unit is entirely consistent with Lean approaches to management of complex systems.

  14. Free-piston cutting machine

    DOEpatents

    Ciccarelli, Gaby; Subudhi, Manomohan; Hall, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    A cutting machine includes a gun barrel for receiving a projectile. A compression tube is disposed in flow communication with the barrel and includes a piston therein. A reservoir is disposed in flow communication with the tube and receives a first gas under pressure. A second gas fills the compression tube on a front face of the piston. And, the pressurized first gas is discharged into the tube on a back face of the piston to accelerate the piston through the tube for compressing the second gas, and in turn launching the projectile through the barrel to impact a workpiece.

  15. Interventional EUS Using a Flexible 19-Gauge Needle: An International Multicenter Experience in 162 Patients.

    PubMed

    Kumbhari, Vivek; Peñas, Irene; Tieu, Alan H; De la Serna-Higuera, Carlos; Juneja, Manie; Maufa, Fuad; Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; El-Zein, Mohamad H; Haddad, Nadim; Krishnan, Sandeep; Gonzalez, Susana; Renny, Peter V; Saxena, Payal; Howard, Linda; DiMaio, Christopher J; Buscaglia, Jonathan M; Perez-Miranda, Manuel; Khashab, Mouen A

    2016-12-01

    To facilitate access for interventional EUS, flexible (nitinol) 19-G needles have been introduced to permit needle puncture even when the echoendoscope is in an angulated position, such as in the second part of the duodenum. The aims of the study were to evaluate the performance of a flexible 19-G needle during interventional EUS procedures and compare outcomes when the echoendoscope was in the straight versus angulated position. A retrospective review was undertaken of 162 consecutive patients that underwent a variety of interventional EUS procedures with a flexible 19-G needle across five centers. Patients were subdivided into categories (straight or angulated) depending on the echoendoscope position used for obtaining access to the area of interest (Fig. 1). Fig. 1 Flexible 19-G needle design. a The needle is able to exit the sheath despite the rotated position. b The needle beveled needle tip RESULTS: In the entire cohort, needle-specific technical success was achieved in 93.2 %, procedural success in 85.2 %, and overall clinical success in 76.5 % of cases at a mean follow-up of 3.1 months. Needle-specific technical success was similar between the straight and angulated cohorts (94.0 vs. 91.2 %, p = 0.74). Procedural success (86.7 vs. 77.2 %, p = 0.05), and rate of clinical success was similar between the cohorts (83.3 vs. 86.4 %, p = 0.79), respectively. Overall adverse events were noted in 14.2 % of patients with no difference between the straight and angulated cohorts (p = 0.48). This study demonstrates equivalent technical success, clinical success and safety of using a flexible 19-G needle in straight and angulated endoscope positions for interventional EUS. Therefore, a flexible needle may be considered where an angulated echoendoscope position is encountered.

  16. Chemical scissors cut phosphorene nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xihong; Wei, Qun

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorene, a recently fabricated two-dimensional puckered honeycomb structure of phosphorus, showed promising properties for applications in nano-electronics. In this work, we report a chemical scissors effect on phosphorene, using first-principles method. It was found that chemical species, such as H, OH, F, and Cl, can act as scissors to cut phosphorene. Phosphorus nanochains and nanoribbons can be obtained. The scissors effect results from the strong bonding between the chemical species and phosphorus atoms. Other species such as O, S and Se fail to cut phosphorene nanostructures due to their weak bonding with phosphorus. The electronic structures of the produced P-chains reveal that the hydrogenated chain is an insulator while the pristine chain is a one-dimensional Dirac material, in which the charge carriers are massless fermions travelling at an effective speed of light ˜8 × 105 m s-1. The obtained zigzag phosphorene nanoribbons show either metallic or semiconducting behaviors, depending on the treatment of the edge phosphorus atoms.

  17. The center-cut solution.

    PubMed

    Firnstahl, T W

    1993-01-01

    Timothy Firnstahl owns five successful restaurants in Seattle, but he recently came very close to owning none. In the early 1990s, he found himself, like so many restauranteurs, facing rising costs, inefficient management, and a recession. Confronting financial annihilation, Firnstahl had to act quickly: since he had no peripherals to trim, he cut off the head of his company. Remarkably, it worked. Firnstahl's problem was his new and innovative restaurant, Sharps Fresh Roasting. The heart of the Sharps concept was a unique long-roasting technique that made lean, inexpensive meats taste as juicy and delicious as fattier, expensive cuts. The process also lent itself to faster service and lower labor costs. But it wasn't working. Sharps wasn't breaking even, and his other restaurants couldn't make up the difference. He needed a solution fast. Firnstahl got his answer from Mikhail Gorbachev: slash the centralized command and liberate the company. In doing so, he would also transfer virtually all power and responsibility to his line managers. And after five months of intensive study and planning, he accomplished what he set out to do. He fired most of his corporate staff, empowered his restaurant managers with "100% Power and Responsibility," and, finally, undertook a massive promotion campaign. A year later, Sharps Fresh Roasting is the gold mine Firnstahl always believed it could be. He's done away with bureaucracy and turned business around in a down market. All this because his managers are managing themselves.

  18. Minimum cut and shear bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Cramer, Andrew; Walker, David M.

    2013-06-01

    We explore the efficacy of network optimisation theory for minimum cut to quantify the evolution of granular fabric and its functionality as a transmission medium in deforming dense granular media. Our focus here is on force transmission in a sheared assembly of polydisperse particles, in a biaxial compression test under constant confining pressure. The granular fabric is examined with respect to the material's force-bearing contact network over that regime when the material has reached its residual strength, and is deforming under a near constant volume in the presence of a fully developed shear band. The structural evolution of the fabric is quantitatively characterized using a representative weighted-directed network that is similarly evolving as the sample deforms. The edges or links, representing the interparticle contacts, are each weighted by the capacity of the contact to transmit force: a scalar that depends solely on the relative motion of the contacting grains. In the large strain failure regime, the minimum cut which represents the bottleneck in force transmission is found to lie in the persistent shear band. This study paves the way for the future analysis of flows and force transmission through an evolving contact network and, in turn, the characterisation of the relationship between the material's contact topology and its capacity to transmit forces through its contact network.

  19. Fibre laser cutting stainless steel: Fluid dynamics and cut front morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocorni, Jetro; Powell, John; Deichsel, Eckard; Frostevarg, Jan; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the morphology of the laser cut front generated by fibre lasers was investigated by observation of the 'frozen' cut front, additionally high speed imaging (HSI) was employed to study the fluid dynamics on the cut front while cutting. During laser cutting the morphology and flow properties of the melt film on the cut front affect cut quality parameters such as cut edge roughness and dross (residual melt attached to the bottom of the cut edge). HSI observation of melt flow down a laser cutting front using standard cutting parameters is experimentally problematic because the cut front is narrow and surrounded by the kerf walls. To compensate for this, artificial parameters are usually chosen to obtain wide cut fronts which are unrepresentative of the actual industrial process. This paper presents a new experimental cutting geometry which permits HSI of the laser cut front using standard, commercial parameters. These results suggest that the cut front produced when cutting medium section (10 mm thick) stainless steel with a fibre laser and a nitrogen assist gas is covered in humps which themselves are covered by a thin layer of liquid. HSI observation and theoretical analysis reveal that under these conditions the humps move down the cut front at an average speed of approximately 0.4 m/s while the covering liquid flows at an average speed of approximately 1.1 m/s, with an average melt depth at the bottom of the cut zone of approximately 0.17 mm.

  20. Effects of heat on cut mark characteristics.

    PubMed

    Waltenberger, Lukas; Schutkowski, Holger

    2017-02-01

    Cut marks on bones provide crucial information about tools used and their mode of application, both in archaeological and forensic contexts. Despite a substantial amount of research on cut mark analysis and the influence of fire on bones (shrinkage, fracture pattern, recrystallisation), there is still a lack of knowledge in cut mark analysis on burnt remains. This study provides information about heat alteration of cut marks and whether consistent features can be observed that allow direct interpretation of the implemented tools used. In a controlled experiment, cut marks (n=25) were inflicted on pig ribs (n=7) with a kitchen knife and examined using micro-CT and digital microscopy. The methods were compared in terms of their efficacy in recording cut marks on native and heat-treated bones. Statistical analysis demonstrates that floor angles and the maximum slope height of cuts undergo significant alteration, whereas width, depth, floor radius, slope, and opening angle remain stable. Micro-CT and digital microscopy are both suitable methods for cut mark analysis. However, significant differences in measurements were detected between both methods, as micro-CT is less accurate due to the lower resolution. Moreover, stabbing led to micro-fissures surrounding the cuts, which might also influence the alteration of cut marks.

  1. Highspeed laser ablation cutting of metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullmann, F.; Loeschner, U.; Hartwig, L.; Szczepanski, D.; Schille, J.; Gronau, S.; Knebel, T.; Drechsel, J.; Ebert, R.; Exner, H.

    2013-02-01

    In laser ablation cutting, irradiation of high-intense laser beams causes ejection of molten and evaporated material out of the cutting zone as a result of high pressure gradients, induced by expanding plasma plumes. This paper investigates highspeed laser ablation cutting of industrial grade metal sheets using high-brilliant continuous wave fiber lasers with output powers up to 5 kW. The laser beam was deflected with scan speeds up to 2700 m/min utilizing both a fast galvanometer scan system and a polygon scan system. By sharp laser beam focusing using different objectives with focal lengths ranging between 160 mm and 500 mm, small laser spot diameters between 16.5 μm and 60 μm were obtained, respectively. As a result high peak intensities between 3*108 W/cm² and 2.5*109 W/cm² were irradiated on the sample surface, and cutting kerfs with a maximum depth of 1.4 mm have been produced. In this study the impact of the processing parameters laser power, laser spot diameter, cutting speed, and number of scans on both the achievable cutting depth and the cutting edge quality was investigated. The ablation depths, the heights of the cutting burr, as well as the removed material volumes were evaluated by means of optical microscope images and cross section photographs. Finally highspeed laser ablation cutting was studied using an intensified ultra highspeed camera in order to get useful insights into the cutting process.

  2. Simplifier cut core inductor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    Advantages of specifying C cores and cut toroids fabricated from grain oriented silicon steels for use in high frequency power converters and pulse width modulated switching regulators are discussed. A method for rating cores assigns to each core a number which is the product of its window and core cross section area, called 'Area Product A sub p.' A correlation between the A sub p numbers and current density for a given temperature rise was developed. Also, straight line relationships were developed for A sub p and volume, A sub p and surface area, and A sub p and weight. These relationships can be used to simplify and standardize the process of inductor design. They also make it possible to design inductors of small bulk and volume or to optimize efficiency.

  3. Cut performance levels and testing.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Bill; Moreland, Jeff

    2011-11-01

    While the ISEA performance levels and general recommendations detailed above can help tp provide guidance when selecting hand protection products, the responsibility for testing products for specific end-user applications still rests with the end user. We can indicate, for example, that a medium-weight, uncoated Kevlar glove will typically have an ISEA cut rating of 3, but we cannot say the glove will provide the level of protection needed for the range of jobs on an automobile assembly line. Another Level 3 glove might be better suited to an application the require the worker to have an oil grip. As glove manufacturers, we know gloves. We do not know the details about every workplace. We therefore, must look to our customers to provide us the properties they need for hand protection products that will sufficiently protect their workers on the job.

  4. SLSL Ribbon-cutting Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-11-19

    The Honorable Toni Jennings, lieutenant governor of the state of Florida, speaks at a dedication and ribbon-cutting ceremony for the Space Life Sciences Lab hosted by NASA-Kennedy Space Center and the state of Florida at the new lab. Completed in August, the facility encompasses more than 100,000 square feet and was formerly known as the Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory or SERPL. The state, through the Florida Space Authority, built the research lab which is host to NASA, NASA’s Life Sciences Services contractor Dynamac Corp., Bionetics Corp., and researchers from the University of Florida. Dynamac Corp. leases the facility. The Florida Space Research Institute is responsible for gaining additional tenants from outside the NASA community.

  5. Demonstration project cuts red tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Results from a demonstration project aimed at cutting red tape in federal grants for basic research at universities are "very encouraging" so far, according to Don I. Phillips, executive director of the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. The roundtable is coordinating the experimental effort, with the participation of five major federal agencies as well as the Florida state university system and the University of Miami (a private institution in Coral Gables, Fla.).Under the project, special conditions apply to grants from the participating agencies to individual researchers at the participating universities: Investigators do not have to ask the agency's permission for changes in budget allocations, purchases of permanent equipment, or foreign travel. Grant money can be spent up to a year after the grant ends without a special request. Under this plan, researchers, with agency approval, can also ask to have their entire research program covered as a single administrative entity, rather than as several individual projects.

  6. Drag blade bit with diamond cutting elements

    SciTech Connect

    Radtke, R. P.; Morris, W. V.

    1985-02-19

    A drag blade bit for connection on a drill string has a hollow body on which there are welded a plurality of cutting or drilling blades. The blades extend longitudinally and radially of the bit body and terminate in relatively flat, radially extending cutting edges. A plurality of cutters are positioned in and spaced along the cutting edges and consists of cylindrical sintered carbide inserts with polycrystalline diamond cutting elements mounted thereon. Hardfacing is provided on the cutting edges between the cutters and on the other surfaces of the blades and the bit body subject to abrasive wear. One or more nozzles are positioned in passages from the interior of the bit body for directing flow of drilling fluid for flushing cuttings from the well bore and for cooling the bit.

  7. New Modelling Strategies For Metal Cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, Pedro A. R.; Martins, Paulo A. F.; Atkins, Anthony G.

    2007-05-17

    This paper draws from the 'plasticity and friction only' view of metal cutting to the presentation of new modelling strategies based on the interaction between finite elements and modern ductile fracture mechanics. The overall presentation is supported by specially designed orthogonal metal cutting experiments that were performed on Lead test specimens under laboratory-controlled conditions. Comparisons between theoretical predictions and experimental results comprise a wide range of topics such as material flow, cutting forces and specific cutting pressure. The paper demonstrates that while material flow and chip formation can be successfully modelled by traditional 'plasticity and friction only' analyses, the contribution of the fracture work involved in the formation of new surfaces is essential for obtaining good estimates of cutting forces and of the specific cutting pressure.

  8. Cutting sound enhancement system for mining machines

    DOEpatents

    Leigh, Michael C.; Kwitowski, August J.

    1992-01-01

    A cutting sound enhancement system (10) for transmitting an audible signal from the cutting head (101) of a piece of mine machinery (100) to an operator at a remote station (200), wherein, the operator using a headphone unit (14) can monitor the difference in sounds being made solely by the cutting head (101) to determine the location of the roof, floor, and walls of a coal seam (50).

  9. Control of red alder by cutting.

    Treesearch

    Dean S. DeBell; Thomas C. Turpin

    1989-01-01

    Effects of tree age, month of cut, and height and angle of cut on sprouting of red alder stumps were evaluated in a study designed to develop an effective method for controlling red alder in Douglas-fir plantations. Ninety-five percent or more of alder stumps cut in June or July died by the end of the next growing season; mortality was 88, 70, and 22 percent for stumps...

  10. Enclosed Cutting-And-Polishing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossier, R. N.; Bicknell, B.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed apparatus cuts and polishes specimens while preventing contamination of outside environment or of subsequent specimens processed in it. Designed for use in zero gravity but also includes features useful in cutting and polishing of toxic or otherwise hazardous materials on Earth. Includes remote manipulator for handling specimens, cutting and polishing wire, inlets for gas and liquid, and outlets for waste liquid and gas. Replaceable plastic liner surrounds working space.

  11. Alternative Metal Hot Cutting Operations for Opacity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. TDS-NAVFAC-EXWC-EV-1509 October 2014 Alternative Metal Hot Cutting ...for oxy-fuel cutting of metal, to reduce opacity emissions during shipbreaking and recycling operations. When ships and submarines reach the end...vessels utilizes oxy-fuel metal cutting . However, this process generates visible particulate matter that has the potential to exceed local air

  12. Enclosed Cutting-And-Polishing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossier, R. N.; Bicknell, B.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed apparatus cuts and polishes specimens while preventing contamination of outside environment or of subsequent specimens processed in it. Designed for use in zero gravity but also includes features useful in cutting and polishing of toxic or otherwise hazardous materials on Earth. Includes remote manipulator for handling specimens, cutting and polishing wire, inlets for gas and liquid, and outlets for waste liquid and gas. Replaceable plastic liner surrounds working space.

  13. Error analysis of corner cutting algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainar, E.; Peña, J. M.

    1999-10-01

    Corner cutting algorithms are used in different fields and, in particular, play a relevant role in Computer Aided Geometric Design. Evaluation algorithms such as the de Casteljau algorithm for polynomials and the de Boor-Cox algorithm for B-splines are examples of corner cutting algorithms. Here backward and forward error analysis of corner cutting algorithms are performed. The running error is also analyzed and as a consequence the general algorithm is modified to include the computation of an error bound.

  14. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  15. Advanced cryogenics for cutting tools. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, L.J.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine if cryogenic treatment improved the life and cost effectiveness of perishable cutting tools over other treatments or coatings. Test results showed that in five of seven of the perishable cutting tools tested there was no improvement in tool life. The other two tools showed a small gain in tool life, but not as much as when switching manufacturers of the cutting tool. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) titanium nitride coatings are more effective than cryogenic treatment in increasing the life of perishable cutting tools made from all cutting tool materials, (2) cryogenic treatment may increase tool life if the cutting tool is improperly heat treated during its origination, and (3) cryogenic treatment was only effective on those tools made from less sophisticated high speed tool steels. As a part of a recent detailed investigation, four cutting tool manufacturers and two cutting tool laboratories were queried and none could supply any data to substantiate cryogenic treatment of perishable cutting tools.

  16. Laser fusion cutting using supersonic nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jun

    This research takes a systematic approach to study the flow patterns of gas jets from the conventional conical (subsonic) nozzle and the newly designed supersonic nozzle under a high-pressure gas regime by a three-dimensional mathematical model. Computer simulation was then confirmed by experimental shadowgraphic technique. The relationships between the type of nozzles, nozzle dimensions, stand-off distance, inlet stagnation pressure and the flow field distribution, incident shock and normal shock have been established. Compared with that of the subsonic nozzle, the gas jet from a supersonic nozzle possesses the desired dynamic characteristics such as uniform distribution, maximum and even momentum thrust and parallel jet boundary under the condition of the designed pressures. Then, a model calculating the three-dimensional stationary geometric shape of the cutting front obtained in the high-pressure laser fusion cutting regime was developed using numerical solution of energy balance. In this model, the energy absorbed by the workpiece includes not only the energy from the laser beam but also the energy from the multiple reflections generated by the beam impinging at the cutting front. The effects of the laser power, cutting speed, focus position, multiple reflections and inert gas pressure on the geometric shape of the cutting front have been analyzed systemically. The geometric shape of the cutting front was then used as boundary conditions in subsequent calculation of the gas flow field distribution inside a laser cut kerf. Finally, a third mathematical model was developed to calculate the distribution of the gas flow field at the entrance of the cut kerf, inside the cut kerf and at the exit of a cut kerf under the condition of a gas jet from a supersonic nozzle and the inlet stagnation pressure ≥5 bar. A two-dimensional analytical method was adopted to locate approximately the position and shape of the detached shock above the cut kerf. A method of two

  17. Laser cutting of triangular geometries in aluminum foam: Effect of cut size on thermal stress levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S. S.; Keles, O.

    2013-06-01

    Laser cutting of triangle shaped geometries in aluminum foam is carried out and the influence of triangle size on temperature and stress fields is examined. ABAQUS finite element code is used to simulate temperature and stress fields in the cut sections in line with the experimental conditions. Laser cut sections are examined incorporating optical and scanning electron microscopes, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. It is found that small size triangle cut results in relatively higher temperatures around the cut edges as compared to large size triangle cut; however, opposite is true for von Mises stress. This is attributed to the slow cooling rate in the case of the small size triangle cuts. Laser cut surfaces are free from large defects and locally scattered small dross attachment are found at the kerf exit.

  18. Effect of Cutting Angle and Depth of Cut on the Occurrence of Chipped Grain on Sycamore

    Treesearch

    Harold A. Stewart

    1970-01-01

    Sycamore specimens were planned with various combinations of depths of cut and rake angles. Depths of cut up to 1/16 inch had no significant effect on the occurrence of chipped grain in sycamore but rake angle did.

  19. The effect of cutting speed on residual stresses when orthogonal cutting TC4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chaofeng; Wang, Zengqiang; Zhang, Guang; Liu, Lei

    2015-09-01

    As one of the most important parameters in mental cutting, cutting speed has a significant influence on residual stress. Finite element method and experiment method are used to study the relationship between cutting speed and residual stress when orthogonal cutting TC4 titanium alloy. The result of simulation and experiment shows that: when the cutting speed is low, the residual stress in axial direction is compressive stress and gradually converts to tensile stress with the increase of cutting speed, but it will convert to compressive stress again if the cutting speed continues to increase; the residual stress in tangential direction is constant to compressive stress and it will decrease with the increase of cutting speed.

  20. Laser cutting of pressed explosives: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Roeske, F., Jr.; Banks, R.E.; Armstrong, J.P.; Feit, M.D.; Lee, R.S.; Perry, M.D.; Stuart, B.C.

    1998-05-04

    We have used a femtosecond laser beam to make cuts through small pressed pellets of six common explosives. The laser system, which produces 100 fs pulses of 820 nm light at a repitition rate of 1 kHz, was intitially developed for cutting metal. The advantage of using a femtosecond laser for cutting is that the cutting process transfers virtually no heat to the material that is being cut and produces almost no waste. We used LX-16 explosive (96% PETN/4% FPC 461 binder) for out intial experiments because PETN is one of the most sensitve of the secondary explosives. In some of the experiments the beam first cut through the HE pellet and then through a stainless steel substrate and in other experiments the beam first cut through the stainless steel and then through the pellet. We also cut through pellets that were not backed by a substrate. No evidence of reaction was observed in any of the LX-16 pellets. In addition to LX-16 we cut pellets of LX-14 (95.5% HMX/4.5% Estane), LX-15 (95% HNS/5% Kel-F), LX-17 (92.5% TATB/7.5% Kel-F), PBX-9407 (94% RDX/6% Exon 461), and pressed TNT with no evidence of reaction. The HE was easily cut at low power levels with one or two sweeps at 0.5 W average power sufficing to cut most of the pellets. There is obvioulsy much more work to be done before laser machining of explosives becomes a reality, but the results of these intitial experiments indicate that laser machining of explosives may be an attractive option for explosives processing.

  1. Simplified cut core inductor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    Although filter inductor designers have routinely tended to specify molypermalloy powder cores for use in high frequency power converters and pulse-width modulated switching regulators, there are sigificant advantages in specifying C cores and cut toroids fabricated from grain oriented silicon steels which should not be overlooked. Such steel cores can develop flux densities of 1.6 tesla, with useful linearity to 1.2 tesla, whereas molypermalloy cores carrying d.c. current have useful flux density capabilities only to about 0.3 tesla. The use of silicon steel cores thus makes it possible to design more compact cores, and therefore inductors of reduced volume, or conversely to provide greater load capacity in inductors of a given volume. Information is available which makes it possible to obtain quick and close approximations of significant parameters such as size, weight and temperature rise for silicon steel cores for breadboarding. Graphs, nomographs and tables are presented for this purpose, but more complete mathematical derivations of some of the important parameters are also included for a more rigorous treatment.

  2. SLSL Ribbon-cutting Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-11-19

    Representatives of the NASA-Kennedy Space Center and the state of Florida prepare to cut the ribbon officially opening the Space Life Sciences Lab at a ceremony at the new lab. In the front row, from left, are Dr. Samuel Durrance, executive director of the Florida Space Research Institute; Jim Kennedy, director of the Kennedy Space Center; Frank T. Brogan, president of the Florida Atlantic University; The Honorable Toni Jennings, lieutenant governor of the state of Florida; and Catherine and Grier Kirkpatrick, children of the late Sen. George Kirkpatrick. In the back row, from left, are Debra Holliday, director for Facilities and Construction, Florida Space Authority; Dan LeBlanc, president and chief operating officer of Delaware North Companies Parks and Resorts at KSC, Inc.; Jose Perez-Morales, NASA Project Manager for the Space Life Sciences Lab; and Capt. Winston E. Scott, executive director of the Florida Space Authority. Completed in August, the facility encompasses more than 100,000 square feet and was formerly known as the Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory or SERPL. The state, through the Florida Space Authority, built the research lab which is host to NASA, NASA’s Life Sciences Services contractor Dynamac Corp., Bionetics Corp., and researchers from the University of Florida. Dynamac Corp. leases the facility. The Florida Space Research Institute is responsible for gaining additional tenants from outside the NASA community.

  3. Corner-cutting mining assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, J.A.

    1981-07-01

    This invention resulted from a contract with the United States Department of Energy and relates to a mining tool. More particularly, the invention relates to an assembly capable of drilling a hole having a square cross-sectional shape with radiused corners. In mining operations in which conventional auger-type drills are used to form a series of parallel, cylindrical holes in a coal seam, a large amount of coal remains in place in the seam because the shape of the holes leaves thick webs between the holes. A higher percentage of coal can be mined from a seam by a means capable of drilling holes having a substantially square cross section. It is an object of this invention to provide an improved mining apparatus by means of which the amount of coal recovered from a seam deposit can be increased. Another object of the invention is to provide a drilling assembly which cuts corners in a hole having a circular cross section. These objects and other advantages are attained by a preferred embodiment of the invention.

  4. Cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, W.K.; Googin, J.M.; Napier, B. Jr.

    1982-01-28

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and a boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  5. Cut Next Winter's Heating Bill Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Presents specific steps that help make schools energy efficient and cut costs. Four basic strategies are suggested that include creating a database of energy usage that can also catch the occasional billing error, investigating less obvious ways of cutting energy use, such as applying cellulose commercial spray as an insulation choice, and…

  6. Cut Next Winter's Heating Bill Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Presents specific steps that help make schools energy efficient and cut costs. Four basic strategies are suggested that include creating a database of energy usage that can also catch the occasional billing error, investigating less obvious ways of cutting energy use, such as applying cellulose commercial spray as an insulation choice, and…

  7. Microwave interferometer controls cutting depth of plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heisman, R. M.; Iceland, W. F.

    1969-01-01

    Microwave interferometer system controls the cutting of plastic materials to a prescribed depth. The interferometer is mounted on a carriage with a spindle and cutting tool. A cross slide, mounted on the carriage, allows the interferometer and cutter to move toward or away from the plastic workpiece.

  8. Cutting Watermelon: Lessons in Instructional Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstead, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Literacy coordinator Martha Sandstead finds inspiration for her coaching work in a quote from civil rights organizer Lawrence Guyot: "Let's say you're riding past a picnic, and people are cuttin' watermelons. You don't immediately go and say, "stop the watermelon cutting" and let's talk. … You cut some watermelons, or you help…

  9. Cutting Watermelon: Lessons in Instructional Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstead, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Literacy coordinator Martha Sandstead finds inspiration for her coaching work in a quote from civil rights organizer Lawrence Guyot: "Let's say you're riding past a picnic, and people are cuttin' watermelons. You don't immediately go and say, "stop the watermelon cutting" and let's talk. … You cut some watermelons, or you help…

  10. Scissors: More than a Cut Above

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzanne, Teri

    2005-01-01

    Scissors are a unique interactive tool when successfully used, allowing teachers and students to recognize and explore each other's creative ability while nurturing mutual communication. Freehand cutting gives children freedom to create as they cut. Scissors have the power to improve fine motor skills, stimulate creative imagination, reinforce…

  11. 33 CFR 117.143 - Bishop Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bishop Cut. 117.143 Section 117.143 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.143 Bishop Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  12. 33 CFR 117.161 - Honker Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Honker Cut. 117.161 Section 117.161 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.161 Honker Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  13. 33 CFR 117.143 - Bishop Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bishop Cut. 117.143 Section 117.143 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.143 Bishop Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  14. 33 CFR 117.161 - Honker Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Honker Cut. 117.161 Section 117.161 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.161 Honker Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  15. CUTTING PLANE METHODS WITHOUT NESTED CONSTRAINT SETS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    General conditions are given for the convergence of a class of cutting -plane algorithms without requiring that the constraint sets for the... cutting -planes include that of Kelley and a generalization of that used by Zoutendisk and Veinott. For algorithms with nested constraint sets, these

  16. 33 CFR 117.143 - Bishop Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bishop Cut. 117.143 Section 117.143 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.143 Bishop Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  17. Millimeter-Wave Cut-Off Switch.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A millimeter-wave cut -off switch in a dielectric waveguide having a semi-insulating core and a semi-conducting epitaxial layer. A controller affixed...When the waveguide is properly dimensioned such that the operating frequency lies in the high-loss section near the cut -off frequency on the loss vs

  18. 33 CFR 117.143 - Bishop Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bishop Cut. 117.143 Section 117.143 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.143 Bishop Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  19. 33 CFR 117.161 - Honker Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Honker Cut. 117.161 Section 117.161 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.161 Honker Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  20. 33 CFR 117.161 - Honker Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Honker Cut. 117.161 Section 117.161 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.161 Honker Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  1. 33 CFR 117.161 - Honker Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Honker Cut. 117.161 Section 117.161 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.161 Honker Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  2. 33 CFR 117.143 - Bishop Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bishop Cut. 117.143 Section 117.143 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.143 Bishop Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin...

  3. Vegetative Propagation of Aspen by Greenwood Cuttings

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Farmer

    1963-01-01

    Greenwood stem cuttings taken from root suckers of Populus tremuloides and P. grandidentata were rooted in coarse sand under both intermittent mist and polyethylene sheeting in a greenhouse and under mist in an outdoor propagation bed. Prerooting treatment of cuttings with aqueous solutions of lBA (20-100 p.p.m. ) stimulated...

  4. Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

    1976-01-01

    Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

  5. Surface sterilization of hybrid poplar cuttings

    Treesearch

    Alma M. Waterman

    1954-01-01

    Fungus diseases of hybrid poplars may be spread by spores that lodge in the resinous coating of buds of dormant cuttings, and in the lenticels. Surface sterilization by dipping the cuttings in fungicides was tested to determine whether such treatment would prevent the germination of spores of the canker-producing fungi Septoria musiva and Dothichiza populea and the...

  6. Scissors: More than a Cut Above

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzanne, Teri

    2005-01-01

    Scissors are a unique interactive tool when successfully used, allowing teachers and students to recognize and explore each other's creative ability while nurturing mutual communication. Freehand cutting gives children freedom to create as they cut. Scissors have the power to improve fine motor skills, stimulate creative imagination, reinforce…

  7. Postharvest: Cut flowers and potted plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the past fifty years, the cut flower market has changed dramatically, from a local market with growers located on city outskirts, to a global one; flowers and cut foliage sourced from throughout the world are sold as bunches or combined into arrangements and bouquets in the major target markets. ...

  8. Vee-notch tool cuts specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spier, R. A.

    1970-01-01

    Triangular cutting tool uses carbide tips for notching heat-treated or abrasive materials, and alloys subjected to high structural stresses. The tool is rigidly mounted in a slot of mating contour to prevent deflection during cutting of tensile specimens. No other expensive machine equipment is required.

  9. Gluebond strength of laser cut wood

    Treesearch

    Charles W. McMillin; Henry A. Huber

    1985-01-01

    The degree of strength loss when gluing laser cut wood as compared to conventionally sawn wood and the amount of additional surface treatment needed to improve bond quality were assessed under normal furniture plant operating conditions. The strength of laser cut oak glued with polyvinyl acetate adhesive was reduced to 75 percent of sawn joints and gum was reduced 43...

  10. Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

    1976-01-01

    Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

  11. College Students Tell Why They Cut Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladstone, Roy; Pope, Deborah Rose

    1979-01-01

    Students were asked to indicate why they cut class. While instructors came in for their share of the blame, the students attributed a large percentage of their cuts to causes for which the teachers were not at all responsible. Many of the most frequently given reasons suggest a simple carefree attitude on the part of the student. (Author)

  12. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  13. Cutting tool form compensaton system and method

    DOEpatents

    Barkman, William E.; Babelay, Jr., Edwin F.; Klages, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A compensation system for a computer-controlled machining apparatus having a controller and including a cutting tool and a workpiece holder which are movable relative to one another along a preprogrammed path during a machining operation utilizes a camera and a vision computer for gathering information at a preselected stage of a machining operation relating to the actual shape and size of the cutting edge of the cutting tool and for altering the preprogrammed path in accordance with detected variations between the actual size and shape of the cutting edge and an assumed size and shape of the cutting edge. The camera obtains an image of the cutting tool against a background so that the cutting tool and background possess contrasting light intensities, and the vision computer utilizes the contrasting light intensities of the image to locate points therein which correspond to points along the actual cutting edge. Following a series of computations involving the determining of a tool center from the points identified along the tool edge, the results of the computations are fed to the controller where the preprogrammed path is altered as aforedescribed.

  14. Cutting tool form compensation system and method

    DOEpatents

    Barkman, W.E.; Babelay, E.F. Jr.; Klages, E.J.

    1993-10-19

    A compensation system for a computer-controlled machining apparatus having a controller and including a cutting tool and a workpiece holder which are movable relative to one another along a preprogrammed path during a machining operation utilizes a camera and a vision computer for gathering information at a preselected stage of a machining operation relating to the actual shape and size of the cutting edge of the cutting tool and for altering the preprogrammed path in accordance with detected variations between the actual size and shape of the cutting edge and an assumed size and shape of the cutting edge. The camera obtains an image of the cutting tool against a background so that the cutting tool and background possess contrasting light intensities, and the vision computer utilizes the contrasting light intensities of the image to locate points therein which correspond to points along the actual cutting edge. Following a series of computations involving the determining of a tool center from the points identified along the tool edge, the results of the computations are fed to the controller where the preprogrammed path is altered as aforedescribed. 9 figures.

  15. [Cutting and incision tools: the scalpel: handles].

    PubMed

    Illana Esteban, Emilio

    2006-10-01

    In its current version, a scalpel is the best known cutting tool. It comes with a versatile metallic handle, available in a variety of models having differentiated characteristics. With a few simple movements, all models enable you to articulate and extract multiple cutting blades.

  16. Application of high-rate cutting tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, John L., Jr.

    1989-03-01

    Widespread application of the newest high-rate cutting tools to the most appropriate jobs is slowed by the sheer magnitude of developments in tool types, materials, workpiece applications, and by the rapid pace of change. Therefore, a study of finishing and roughing sizes of coated carbide inserts having a variety of geometries for single point turning was completed. The cutting tools were tested for tool life, chip quality, and workpiece surface finish at various cutting conditions with medium alloy steel. An empirical wear-life data base was established, and a computer program was developed to facilitate technology transfer, assist selection of carbide insert grades, and provide machine operating parameters. A follow-on test program was implemented suitable for next generation coated carbides, rotary cutting tools, cutting fluids, and ceramic tool materials.

  17. Changing cultural attitudes towards female genital cutting.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Sonja; Mohmmed Zaid, Nadia Ahmed; El Fadil Ahmed, Hilal; Fehr, Ernst; Efferson, Charles

    2016-10-27

    As globalization brings people with incompatible attitudes into contact, cultural conflicts inevitably arise. Little is known about how to mitigate conflict and about how the conflicts that occur can shape the cultural evolution of the groups involved. Female genital cutting is a prominent example. Governments and international agencies have promoted the abandonment of cutting for decades, but the practice remains widespread with associated health risks for millions of girls and women. In their efforts to end cutting, international agents have often adopted the view that cutting is locally pervasive and entrenched. This implies the need to introduce values and expectations from outside the local culture. Members of the target society may view such interventions as unwelcome intrusions, and campaigns promoting abandonment have sometimes led to backlash as they struggle to reconcile cultural tolerance with the conviction that cutting violates universal human rights. Cutting, however, is not necessarily locally pervasive and entrenched. We designed experiments on cultural change that exploited the existence of conflicting attitudes within cutting societies. We produced four entertaining movies that served as experimental treatments in two experiments in Sudan, and we developed an implicit association test to unobtrusively measure attitudes about cutting. The movies depart from the view that cutting is locally pervasive by dramatizing members of an extended family as they confront each other with divergent views about whether the family should continue cutting. The movies significantly improved attitudes towards girls who remain uncut, with one in particular having a relatively persistent effect. These results show that using entertainment to dramatize locally discordant views can provide a basis for applied cultural evolution without accentuating intercultural divisions.

  18. Corn stalk orientation effect on mechanical cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Igathinathane, C.; Womac, A.R.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2010-07-01

    Research efforts that increase the efficiency of size reduction of biomass can lead to a significant energy saving. This paper deals with the determination of the effect of sample orientation with respect to cutting element and quantify the possible cutting energy reduction, utilising dry corn stalks as the test material (15%e20% wet basis). To evaluate the mechanical cutting characteristics of corn stalks, a Warnere Bratzler device was modified by replacing its blunt edged cutting element with one having a 30_ single bevel sharp knife edge. Cutting force-deformation characteristics obtained with a universal testing machine were analysed to evaluate the orientation effects at perpendicular (90o), inclined (45o), and parallel (0o) orientations on internodes and nodes for cutting force, energy, ultimate stress, and specific energy of corn stalks. The corn stalks cutting force-displacement characteristics were found to differ with orientation, and internode and node material difference. Overall, the peak failure force, and the total cutting energy of internodes and nodes varied significantly (P < 0.05) with stalk cross-sectional area. The specific energy values (total energy per unit cut area) of dry corn stalk internodes ranged from 11.3 to 23.5 kN m_1, and nodes from 8.6 to 14.0 kN m_1. The parallel orientation (along grain) compared to perpendicular (across grain) produced a significant reduction of the cutting stress and the specific energy to one tenth or better for internodes, and to about one-fifth for nodes.

  19. Laser cutting of Kevlar laminates and thermal stress formed at cutting sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S. S.

    2012-02-01

    Laser cutting of Kevlar laminates is carried out and thermal stress field developed in the cutting region is predicted using the finite element code. Temperature predictions are validated through the thermocouple data. The morphological changes in the cutting section are examined by incorporating optical and scanning electron microscopes. It is found that temperature predictions agree well with the thermocouple data. High values of von Mises stress are observed at the cutting edges and at the mid-thickness of the Kevlar laminate due to thermal compression formed in this region. The laser cut edges are free from whiskers; however, striation formation and some small sideways burning is observed at the kerf edges.

  20. Portable propellant cutting assembly, and method of cutting propellant with assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Roger A. (Inventor); Hoskins, Shawn W. (Inventor); Payne, Brett D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A propellant cutting assembly and method of using the assembly to cut samples of solid propellant in a repeatable and consistent manner is disclosed. The cutting assembly utilizes two parallel extension beams which are shorter than the diameter of a central bore of an annular solid propellant grain and can be loaded into the central bore. The assembly is equipped with retaining heads at its respective ends and an adjustment mechanism to position and wedge the assembly within the central bore. One end of the assembly is equipped with a cutting blade apparatus which can be extended beyond the end of the extension beams to cut into the solid propellant.

  1. Canada cuts export gas price to $4. 40; further cuts eyed

    SciTech Connect

    Slaff, J.

    1983-04-18

    Canada's plan to follow its April 54-cent cut in exported gas price for utilities with an additional cut to $3.30 per thousand cubic feet (mcf) will have the greatest impact on California and Pacific Northwest users. Northwest Pipeline, which currently imports 42% from Canada, assumes that the price cut is aimed at attracting a larger market share. Others question whether the second cut will occur because of internal political pressure between western energy developers who want higher prices and the Ottawa government. Both the US and Canadian governments see the first price cut as a token gesture since Canadian gas accounts for only 4% of the US market. (DCK)

  2. Characterization of metal cutting dynamics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.

    1997-11-01

    A Hardinge CNC lathe has been fitted with sensors and a data acquisition system for the measurement, processing and storage of accelerations and forces associated with orthogonal cutting. This system has been completely validated. Orthogonal cutting experiments were designed in order to study the effects of critical cutting parameters on machining dynamics. Three major experimental sets were conducted. In the first set the depth of cut was increased in a stepwise fashion, while the workpiece surface speed, the spindle speed, and the tool feedrate were maintained invariant. In the second and third sets, the spindle speed and feedrate were varied, respectively, while maintaining all the other parameters invariant. In total over two hundred orthogonal cutting experiments were performed. In each experiment, the two non-zero components of the tool acceleration and the two non-zero components of the cutting force were measured. Despite high noise levels, mutual information calculations with smoothing kernels and false nearest neighbor algorithms proved to be sufficiently robust to provide upper bounds on attractor dimension for all fifty data sets studied. These results prove that the infinite dimensional cutting process has an associated attractor of dimension {le} 4. This result is important as a guide to model construction. An analysis of the power spectral sideband structure proved that sideband spacing is identical to the turning frequency. This result was further substantiated through envelope detection techniques. A linear delay model was shown to emulate the experimental power spectrum and possess predictive capacity.

  3. Process monitoring during CO2 laser cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, Henning; Olsen, Flemming O.

    1991-05-01

    On-line process control equipment for CO2 laser cutting is not available for industrial applications today. The majority of the industrial cutting machines are regulated off-line by highly-educated staffs. The quality inspection of the samples often is visual, and referred to different quality scales. Due to this lack of automatization, potential laser users hesitate to implement the cutting method and hereby to benefit from the advantages offered by the method. The first step toward an automatization of the process is development of a process monitoring system, and the investigation described in this paper is concentrated in the area of on-line quality detection during CO2 laser cutting. The method is based on detection of the emitted light from the cut front by photo diodes. The detection is made co-axial with the laser beam to assure independence of the chosen processing direction. ZnSe mirrors have been placed in the beam path, reflecting the laser beam but transmitting the visible light emitted from the process. Cut series of 2, 6 and 8 mm mild steel have been performed. Fourier Analyses and statistical analyses of the signals have been undertaken, and from these analyses it is possible to estimate the surface roughness in the cut kerf, dross attachment at the backside of the work piece and the penetration of the laser beam.

  4. Deferment cutting in Appalachian hardwoods: the what, whys, and hows

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller

    1991-01-01

    Deferment cutting is a regeneration practice that resembles a seed-tree or shelterwood cutting. The difference is that residual trees are not cut when the reproduction becomes established. Instead, residual trees are left until new reproduction matures to sawtimber size, and another regeneration cut is the silvicultural objective. Hence, with deferment cutting specific...

  5. Making the cut: lattice kirigami rules.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Cho, Yigil; Gong, Xingting; Jung, Euiyeon; Sussman, Daniel M; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall D

    2014-12-12

    In this Letter we explore and develop a simple set of rules that apply to cutting, pasting, and folding honeycomb lattices. We consider origami-like structures that are extrinsically flat away from zero-dimensional sources of Gaussian curvature and one-dimensional sources of mean curvature, and our cutting and pasting rules maintain the intrinsic bond lengths on both the lattice and its dual lattice. We find that a small set of rules is allowed providing a framework for exploring and building kirigami—folding, cutting, and pasting the edges of paper.

  6. Making the Cut: Lattice Kirigami Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, Toen; Cho, Yigil; Gong, Xingting; Jung, Euiyeon; Sussman, Daniel M.; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall D.

    2014-12-01

    In this Letter we explore and develop a simple set of rules that apply to cutting, pasting, and folding honeycomb lattices. We consider origami-like structures that are extrinsically flat away from zero-dimensional sources of Gaussian curvature and one-dimensional sources of mean curvature, and our cutting and pasting rules maintain the intrinsic bond lengths on both the lattice and its dual lattice. We find that a small set of rules is allowed providing a framework for exploring and building kirigami—folding, cutting, and pasting the edges of paper.

  7. Imaging, cutting, and collecting instrument and method

    DOEpatents

    Tench, Robert J.; Siekhaus, Wigbert J.; Balooch, Mehdi; Balhorn, Rodney L.; Allen, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumentation and techniques to image small objects, such as but not limited to individual human chromosomes, with nanometer resolution, to cut-off identified parts of such objects, to move around and manipulate such cut-off parts on the substrate on which they are being imaged to predetermined locations on the substrate, and to remove the cut-off parts from the substrate. This is accomplished using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and by modification of the conventional cantilever stylus assembly of an AFM, such that plural cantilevers are used with either sharp-tips or knife-edges thereon. In addition, the invention can be utilized for measuring hardness of materials.

  8. Laser cutting with chemical reaction assist

    SciTech Connect

    Gettemy, D.J.

    1991-04-08

    This invention is comprised of a method for cutting with a laser beam where an oxygen-hydrocarbon reaction is used to provide auxiliary energy to a metal workpiece to supplement the energy supplied by the laser. Oxygen is supplied to the laser focus point on the workpiece by a nozzle through which the laser beam also passes. A liquid hydrocarbon is supplied by coating the workpiece along the cutting path with the hydrocarbon prior to laser irradiation or by spraying a stream of hydrocarbon through a nozzle aimed at a point on the cutting path which is just ahead of the focus point during irradiation.

  9. Laser cutting with chemical reaction assist

    DOEpatents

    Gettemy, D.J.

    1992-11-17

    A method is described for cutting with a laser beam where an oxygen-hydrocarbon reaction is used to provide auxiliary energy to a metal workpiece to supplement the energy supplied by the laser. Oxygen is supplied to the laser focus point on the workpiece by a nozzle through which the laser beam also passes. A liquid hydrocarbon is supplied by coating the workpiece along the cutting path with the hydrocarbon prior to laser irradiation or by spraying a stream of hydrocarbon through a nozzle aimed at a point on the cutting path which is just ahead of the focus point during irradiation. 1 figure.

  10. Laser cutting with chemical reaction assist

    DOEpatents

    Gettemy, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    A method for cutting with a laser beam where an oxygen-hydrocarbon reaction is used to provide auxiliary energy to a metal workpiece to supplement the energy supplied by the laser. Oxygen is supplied to the laser focus point on the workpiece by a nozzle through which the laser beam also passes. A liquid hydrocarbon is supplied by coating the workpiece along the cutting path with the hydrocarbon prior to laser irradiation or by spraying a stream of hydrocarbon through a nozzle aimed at a point on the cutting path which is just ahead of the focus point during irradiation.

  11. Reconfigurable manufacturing execution system for pipe cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Y. H.; Xie, J. Y.

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a reconfigurable manufacturing execution system (RMES) filling the gap between enterprise resource planning and resource layer for pipe-cutting production with mass customisation and rapid adaptation to dynamic market, which consists of planning and scheduling layer and executive control layer. Starting from customer's task and process requirements, the cutting trajectories are planned under generalised mathematical model able to reconfigure in accordance with various intersecting types' joint, and all tasks are scheduled by nesting algorithm to maximise the utilisation rate of rough material. This RMES for pipe cutting has been effectively implemented in more than 100 companies.

  12. Enhanced dental cutting through chemomechanical effects.

    PubMed

    von Fraunhofer, J A; Siegel, S C

    2000-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that certain surface-active agents--compounds that reduce interfacial tension--in a dental handpiece's irrigation water can enhance cutting rates, or CRs. This study evaluated these effects under test conditions simulating dental practice. The authors used a self-contained cutting system with a digitally controlled handpiece speed, torque and water flow rate to cut machinable glass ceramic (Macor, Corning Inc.) with medium-grit diamond burs and cross-cut fissure carbide burs under a load of 147.5 grams and 22 milliliters per minute coolant flow rate using water with mouthwash (Scope, Procter & Gamble) additions. They used six burs for each irrigant mixture to make three 5-millimeter edge cuts through 13 mm of Macor; CRs were quantified as the time necessary to transect the Macor cutting substrate. Additions of small amounts of mouthwash to the coolant water accelerated the CR for both carbide and diamond burs. The CRs for carbide burs in millimeters per second were distilled water, 0.21; 1:2.5 mouthwash:distilled water mixture, 0.12; 1:5 mixture, 0.64; and 1:10 mixture, 0.66. The CR differences for the 1:5 and 1:10 mixtures were significant (P < .001). The CRs for diamond burs in millimeters per second were distilled water, 0.09; 1:1 mouthwash:distilled water mixture, 0.13; 1:2.5 mixture, 0.16; 1:5 mixture, 0.21; and 1:10 mixture, 0.18. When it came to the diamond burs, the CR differences between water and the mouthwash:distilled water mixtures were significant (P < .001). The authors found that the mouthwash additions ensured higher CRs compared with those for water alone over the entire cutting regimen; that is, while the CRs for both carbide and diamond burs dropped with prolonged cutting with water irrigation, the addition of mouthwash resulted in the burs' cutting faster and for longer than with water alone. Adding small amounts of mouthwash to the coolant water significantly enhanced cutting by diamond and carbide burs and

  13. Auditing to the cutting edge

    SciTech Connect

    Good, L.; Wirdzek, P.

    1999-07-01

    Equipment? System? Building? Campus? Neighborhood? Community? Region? What is to be audited and what needs to be corrected? Can the energy management professional decide, or should the customer? Over the last few decades, energy professionals have been evaluating energy use in order to balance clients' expenditures with acceptable levels of service. Traditionally, professional expertise and creativity have been limited more by budget than any other single element. Today, energy and the environment are tightly intertwined. In the future, effective energy management may not be possible without considering the relationships between them. Conversely, environmental protection cannot be achieved without considering energy production, distribution, and use. To this end, two powerful federal organizations, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), have been engaged in defining the interrelationships of these areas and fashioning national energy policies aimed at awakening Americans to these facts. Environmental demands are becoming a factor in efficiency equations. Energy management professionals should prepare a response. They will face demands for cutting-edge audits that reach further than giving utility power just a trim in the energy barber shop. Survival in the business of energy management will require a broader perspective. One need only look to current advertisements by national and international corporations which praise the environmental benefits of their products and even their places of business as cleaner than their competitors'. For the energy management professional then, energy diversity and source versus site considerations are opportunities to be identified in the audit process, in addition to replacement of inefficient equipment. The country is rich with technology choices, with documented experience, and with the knowledge to create systems that can mine deep savings. True, some have niche applications, which

  14. Definition of fine cutting features for laser fusion cutting of stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seebach, J.; Norman, S.; Harrison, P.

    2015-07-01

    Laser fusion cutting of stainless steel is often considered in a material range from 0,3mm up to 4mm and laser powers up to 2kW. For a given material thickness, different optimum beam and process parameters can be determined empirically, leading to a dross-free cut for high tool travel speeds. Realising sharp 90-degree corners, dross formation is observed and leads to a deteriorated cutting quality. With reorientation at small radii, the speed-dependent change in the cutting process is superimposed by the existing beam to nozzle misalignment and contributes to the stability of a cut. The feature radius R on the stability of the cutting process is being determined by reducing feature radius R. In this paper, cutting of different radii for different sized conventional nozzles is considered and analysed. Based on cutting quality evaluation, fine feature cutting is defined by discussing thickness-dependent finest cutting feature for a given gas dynamic input.

  15. An FMS Dynamic Production Scheduling Algorithm Considering Cutting Tool Failure and Cutting Tool Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Martawirya, Y. Y.; Halim, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper deals with Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) production rescheduling due to unavailability of cutting tools caused either of cutting tool failure or life time limit. The FMS consists of parallel identical machines integrated with an automatic material handling system and it runs fully automatically. Each machine has a same cutting tool configuration that consists of different geometrical cutting tool types on each tool magazine. The job usually takes two stages. Each stage has sequential operations allocated to machines considering the cutting tool life. In the real situation, the cutting tool can fail before the cutting tool life is reached. The objective in this paper is to develop a dynamic scheduling algorithm when a cutting tool is broken during unmanned and a rescheduling needed. The algorithm consists of four steps. The first step is generating initial schedule, the second step is determination the cutting tool failure time, the third step is determination of system status at cutting tool failure time and the fourth step is the rescheduling for unfinished jobs. The approaches to solve the problem are complete-reactive scheduling and robust-proactive scheduling. The new schedules result differences starting time and completion time of each operations from the initial schedule.

  16. Laser Cutting of Leather: Tool for Industry or Designers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Manninen, Matti; Pärnänen, Inni; Hirvimäki, Marika; Salminen, Antti

    Currently technologies which are applied for leather cutting include slitting knifes, die press techniques and manual cutting. Use of laser technology has grown significantly during recent years due to number of advantages over conventional cutting methods; flexibility, high production speed, possibility to cut complex geometries, easier cutting of customized parts, and less leftovers of leather makes laser cutting more and more economically attractive to apply for leather cutting. Laser technology provides advantages in cutting complex geometries, stable cutting quality and possibility to utilize leather material in economically best way. Constant quality is important in industrial processes and laser technology fulfills this requirement: properly chosen laser cutting parameters provides identical cuts. Additionally, laser technology is very flexible in terms of geometries: complex geometries, individual designs, prototypes and small scale products can be manufactured by laser cutting. Variety of products, which needed to be cut in small volumes, is also the application where laser cutting can be more beneficial due to possibility to change production from one product to another only by changing geometry without a need to change cutting tool. Disadvantages of laser processing include high initial investment costs and some running costs due to maintenance and required gas supply for the laser. Higher level of operator's expertise is required due to more complicated machinery in case of laser cutting. This study investigates advantages and disadvantages of laser cutting in different areas of application and provides comparison between laser cutting and mechanical cutting of leather.

  17. Making the Cut: Lattice Kirigami Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, Toen; Cho, Yigil; Gong, Xingting; Jung, Euiyeon; Sussman, Daniel; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall

    2015-03-01

    Complex 3D structures can be built by bending and folding a flat sheet, as is done in origami. This paradigm can be extended by cutting and gluing the sheet as well as folding. The principles manifest in manipulating a piece of paper can translate across many length scales, limited only by fabrication methods. We explore and develop a simple set of rules that apply to cutting, pasting, and folding honeycomb lattices. We consider origami-like structures that are extrinsically flat away from zero-dimensional sources of Gaussian curvature and one-dimensional sources of mean curvature, and our cutting and pasting rules maintain the intrinsic bond lengths on both the lattice and its dual lattice. We find that a small set of rules is allowed, providing a framework for exploring and building kirigami - folding, cutting, and pasting the edges of paper. Support from NSF DMR12-62047.

  18. Checking Out Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions

    MedlinePlus

    ... to get rid of the infection. Luckily, most cuts, scratches, and abrasions will go away on their own, thanks to your body's amazing ability to heal ... Story on Scars Cellulitis Taking Care of Your Skin What's a Scab? ...

  19. Chevron cutting: Experiment with new runway mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyran, K. (Compiler)

    1978-01-01

    Chevron cutting is shown to occur in different forms depending on the type of tire and the rubber on the running surface. Hardest wear is shown by the main tires of the B-747. Four defects occurred, in the form of two rip separation and two breakouts of the running surface. Tires capped by Thompson are more affected than any of the other rubber-capping fabrics. For Thompson tires, Chevron Cutting is greatly reduced with a fiberglass-rubber mixture. For Goodyear tires, it is eliminated with spiral wrap rubbercapping; resistance to damages through cuts seems to be more positive for Goodyear tires. For Mader tires, the extent of Chevron Cutting is generally smaller than for Thompson cappings.

  20. 8 ways to cut health care costs

    MedlinePlus

    ... patientinstructions/000870.htm Eight ways to cut your health care costs To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The cost of health care continues to rise. That is why it helps ...

  1. School Custodial Costs Can Be Cut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed examination of work methods, procedures, and equipment, followed by preparation of written schedules for each custodian, can cut custodial costs without affecting the quality of cleanliness in the schools. (Author/MLF)

  2. Rotavirus Vaccine Cut Kids' Hospitalization, Medical Costs

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_167720.html Rotavirus Vaccine Cut Kids' Hospitalization, Medical Costs Virus a common cause of diarrhea among ... a savings of more than $1 billion in medical costs, the researchers added. Rotavirus is a common ...

  3. Cancer centers prepare for sequestration cuts.

    PubMed

    Bender, Eric

    2013-04-01

    With automatic U.S. federal budget cuts kicking in, cancer centers are readying for a significant downturn in spending, especially because the cost savings must be achieved in the remaining half of the federal fiscal year.

  4. Shingles Vaccine Cuts Chronic Pain, Hospitalizations

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164156.html Shingles Vaccine Cuts Chronic Pain, Hospitalizations Protection lasts years after ... age, researchers said. The new study showed the vaccine was 74 percent effective in preventing hospitalizations for ...

  5. Freon, T-B1 cutting fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, R. L.

    1969-01-01

    Improved cutting fluid completely controls the heat generated from machining operations, thus providing longer tool life. Fluid is especially useful in the working of plastics and replaces less efficient contaminating oils.

  6. Hydro Impact Basin Ribbon-Cutting Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    August 9, 2011 -- Ribbon-cutting ceremony for the Hydro Impact Basin at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va. The HIB expands NASA's capability to test and certify future spacecraft for wa...

  7. Ribbon cutting opens new ELV offices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Center Director Roy Bridges welcomes the audience to a ribbon- cutting ceremony at the E&O Building at KSC. Home for NASA's unmanned missions since 1964, the building has been renovated to house the Expendable Launch Vehicle Program.

  8. Automated Cell-Cutting for Cell Cloning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Takahashi, Seiya; Ohba, Kohtaro

    We develop an automated cell-cutting technique for cell cloning. Animal cells softened by the cytochalasin treatment are injected into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip contains two orthogonal channels: one microchannel is wide, used to transport cells, and generates the cutting flow; the other is thin and used for aspiration, fixing, and stretching of the cell. The injected cell is aspirated and stretched in the thin microchannel. Simultaneously, the volumes of the cell before and after aspiration are calculated; the volumes are used to calculate the fluid flow required to aspirate half the volume of the cell into the thin microchannel. Finally, we apply a high-speed flow in the orthogonal microchannel to bisect the cell. This paper reports the cutting process, the cutting system, and the results of the experiment.

  9. Ribbon cutting opens new ELV offices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Center Director Roy Bridges welcomes the audience to a ribbon- cutting ceremony at the E&O Building at KSC. Home for NASA's unmanned missions since 1964, the building has been renovated to house the Expendable Launch Vehicle Program.

  10. Climate science hit by job cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Climate researchers in Australia are bracing themselves for heavy job cuts as the country's national scientific agency - the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) - said last month it will reprioritize towards innovation.

  11. Cut Bank Municipal Airport and Army Air Force Base, Terminal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cut Bank Municipal Airport and Army Air Force Base, Terminal Building, Approximately 390 yards west of Valier Highway (Montana Route 358), three miles southwest of Cut Bank, Cut Bank, Glacier County, MT

  12. Material cutting, shaping, and forming: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Information is presented concerning cutting, shaping, and forming of materials, and the equipment and techniques required for utilizing these materials. The use of molds, electrical fields, and mechanical devices are related to forming materials. Material cutting methods by devices including borers and slicers are presented along with chemical techniques. Shaping and fabrication techniques are described for tubing, honeycomb panels, and ceramic structures. The characteristics of the materials are described. Patent information is included.

  13. Cutting Symmetrical Recesses In Soft Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesotas, Tony C.; Tyler, Brent

    1989-01-01

    Simple tool cuts hemispherical recesses in soft ceramic tiles. Designed to expose wires of thermocouples embedded in tiles without damaging leads. Creates neat, precise holes around wires. End mill includes axial hole to accommodate thermocouple wires embedded in material to be cut. Wires pass into hole without being bent or broken. Dimensions in inches. Used in place of such tools as dental picks, tweezers, spatulas, and putty knives.

  14. Cutting Symmetrical Recesses In Soft Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesotas, Tony C.; Tyler, Brent

    1989-01-01

    Simple tool cuts hemispherical recesses in soft ceramic tiles. Designed to expose wires of thermocouples embedded in tiles without damaging leads. Creates neat, precise holes around wires. End mill includes axial hole to accommodate thermocouple wires embedded in material to be cut. Wires pass into hole without being bent or broken. Dimensions in inches. Used in place of such tools as dental picks, tweezers, spatulas, and putty knives.

  15. Mechanical Cutting of Irradiated Reactor Internal Components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.G.; Fennema, J.A.

    2007-07-01

    This paper discusses the use of mechanical cutting methods to volume reduce and package irradiated reactor internal components. The recent completion of the removal of the Reactor Vessel Internals (RVI) from within the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant demonstrates that unlike previous methods used for similar projects, mechanical cutting minimizes exposure to workers, costly water cleanup, and excessive secondary waste generation. (authors)

  16. Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, K.; Perry, E.; Larson, S.; Viola, M.

    2000-02-24

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation.

  17. Quantum Max-flow/Min-cut

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Shawn X.; Freedman, Michael H.; Sattath, Or; Stong, Richard Minton, Greg

    2016-06-15

    The classical max-flow min-cut theorem describes transport through certain idealized classical networks. We consider the quantum analog for tensor networks. By associating an integral capacity to each edge and a tensor to each vertex in a flow network, we can also interpret it as a tensor network and, more specifically, as a linear map from the input space to the output space. The quantum max-flow is defined to be the maximal rank of this linear map over all choices of tensors. The quantum min-cut is defined to be the minimum product of the capacities of edges over all cuts of the tensor network. We show that unlike the classical case, the quantum max-flow=min-cut conjecture is not true in general. Under certain conditions, e.g., when the capacity on each edge is some power of a fixed integer, the quantum max-flow is proved to equal the quantum min-cut. However, concrete examples are also provided where the equality does not hold. We also found connections of quantum max-flow/min-cut with entropy of entanglement and the quantum satisfiability problem. We speculate that the phenomena revealed may be of interest both in spin systems in condensed matter and in quantum gravity.

  18. Plasma arc cutting technology: simulation and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantoro, G.; Colombo, V.; Concetti, A.; Ghedini, E.; Sanibondi, P.; Zinzani, F.; Rotundo, F.; Dallavalle, S.; Vancini, M.

    2011-01-01

    Transferred arc plasma torches are widely used in industrial processes for cutting of metallic materials because of their ability to cut a wide range of metals with very high productivity. The process is characterized by a transferred electric arc established between an electrode inside the torch (the cathode) and another electrode, the metallic workpiece to be cut (the anode). In order to obtain a high quality cut and a high productivity, the plasma jet must be as collimated as possible and must have the higher achievable power density. Plasma modelling and numerical simulation can be very useful tools for the designing and optimizing these devices, but research is still in the making for finding a link between simulation of the plasma arc and a consistent prevision of cut quality. Numerical modelling of the behaviour of different types of transferred arc dual gas plasma torches can give an insight on the physical reasons for the industrial success of various design and process solutions that have appeared over the last years. Diagnostics based on high speed imaging and Schlieren photography can play an important role for investigating piercing, dross generation, pilot arcing and anode attachment location. Also, the behaviour of hafnium cathodes at high current levels at the beginning of their service life can been experimentally investigated, with the final aim of understanding the phenomena that take place during those initial piercing and cutting phases and optimizing the initial shape of the surface of the emissive insert exposed to plasma atmosphere.

  19. Cutting injuries in an academic pathology department.

    PubMed

    Pritt, Bobbi S; Waters, Brenda L

    2005-08-01

    Cutting injuries pose an infrequent but serious threat to anatomic pathology personnel. Although cut-resistant gloves may reduce this danger, it is imperative to recognize specific behaviors that increase the chance of an injury. To examine the incidence of cutting injuries in an academic pathology department and the mechanisms by which such injuries occurred. Hospital Report of Event forms completed for laboratory incidents of cutting injury from March 1998 to September 2003 were evaluated. Further information regarding the incidents was obtained, when possible, by interviews with those personnel involved. A university-based pathology laboratory was the setting for this study. On average, 505 autopsies and 29,000 surgical specimens were processed each year during the 5.5-year time period. Pathology attending physicians, residents, dieners, and pathologists' assistants who performed autopsies and surgical specimen examinations. Eight scalpel injuries occurred during the study period. No needle-stick injuries were reported. Searching for lymph nodes and cutting firm tissue each accounted for 3 of the injuries. Only 2 of the 8 individuals were in compliance with the departmental policy regarding protective glove wear. Hospital Report of Event forms alone failed to elicit sufficient detail regarding the mechanism of injury. A laboratory-based form may be necessary to supplement the hospital form, so as to obtain full details of each injury. This information may then be disseminated to all who handle blades, with the goal of preventing future cutting injuries.

  20. Cutting meat with bone using an ultrahigh pressure abrasive waterjet.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Shanmugam, D K

    2009-04-01

    An experimental study of abrasive waterjet (AWJ) cutting of beef, pork and lamb meat with and without bone is presented. Salt particles were used as the abrasives. It has been found that an AWJ could significantly increase the depth of cut with much improved cut quality in cutting pure meat as compared to plain (or pure) waterjet cutting, while a plain waterjet was incapable of cutting bone satisfactorily. The study shows that AWJ cutting produced a very narrow kerf of less than 1mm and hence resulted in mush less meat loss than the traditional cutting processes, and meat can be cut at room temperature to eliminate the freezing or chilling costs. It is shown that a traverses speed of 20mm/s can be used to cut through 44mm thick beef rib bones with good cut quality. When slicing pure meat of 150mm thickness, the traverse speed of 66.67mm/s can yield very good cut quality. It is suggested that AWJ cutting is a viable technology for meat cutting. Plausible trends for the depth of cut, cutting rate and cut quality with respect to the process variables are discussed. Recommendations are finally made for the selection of the most appropriate process parameters for cutting meat of a given thickness.

  1. Laser cutting of various materials: Kerf width size analysis and life cycle assessment of cutting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Shaukat, Mian Mobeen; Ashraf, Farhan

    2017-08-01

    Laser cutting of various materials including Ti-6Al-4V alloy, steel 304, Inconel 625, and alumina is carried out to assess the kerf width size variation along the cut section. The life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impact of the laser cutting in terms of the material waste during the cutting process. The kerf width size is formulated and predicted using the lump parameter analysis and it is measured from the experiments. The influence of laser output power and laser cutting speed on the kerf width size variation is analyzed using the analytical tools including scanning electron and optical microscopes. In the experiments, high pressure nitrogen assisting gas is used to prevent oxidation reactions in the cutting section. It is found that the kerf width size predicted from the lump parameter analysis agrees well with the experimental data. The kerf width size variation increases with increasing laser output power. However, this behavior reverses with increasing laser cutting speed. The life cycle assessment reveals that material selection for laser cutting is critical for the environmental protection point of view. Inconel 625 contributes the most to the environmental damages; however, recycling of the waste of the laser cutting reduces this contribution.

  2. New tooling for plasma cutting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotkikh, M. T.; Shaterin, M. A.; Shterin, V. B.

    1985-03-01

    When milling the edges of sheet intermediate products made of high strength manganese and other special steels and alloys with plasma preheating, milling cutters equipped with plates of metal-ceramic hard alloys are used. With plasma heating, it is most advisable to use cylindrical milling tools. The tooth of the milling tool cuts into the soft metal which reduces the unit loads on the cutting wedge of the tool. It becomes possible to use plates with the slope angle of the cutting edge equal or near zero, which considerably simplifies the making of the tool. The milling tool design makes it technologically efficient to produce basing surfaces for setting the cutting components. The through wedge grooves of the rings may be ground which produces very flat supporting surfaces and, therefore, high rigidity of the interface between the plate and the support. The use of tetrahedral plates with a flat forward surface with a 90 deg tip angle utilizes all eight cutting edges of the plate. The use of such milling tools with plasma preheating of the intermediate product insures high machining productivity even if the tool is equipped with hard alloy plates without tungsten.

  3. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  4. Rationalizing IT Rationing: 10 Ways to Cut the IT Budget (and What Not to Cut)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Whether because of falling stock values affecting institutional endowments, cutbacks in state spending, or declines in private giving, higher education has reduced spending, and information technology (IT) organizations have participated in the budget cuts. This is the tale of one institution's quest to cut technology costs while maintaining a…

  5. Rationalizing IT Rationing: 10 Ways to Cut the IT Budget (and What Not to Cut)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Whether because of falling stock values affecting institutional endowments, cutbacks in state spending, or declines in private giving, higher education has reduced spending, and information technology (IT) organizations have participated in the budget cuts. This is the tale of one institution's quest to cut technology costs while maintaining a…

  6. Laser cutting of rectangular geometry into aluminum alloy: Effect of cut sizes on thermal stress field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, Sohail; Kardas, Omer Ozgur; Keles, Omer; Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2014-10-01

    Laser cutting of a rectangular geometry into aluminum alloy 2024 is carried out. Temperature and stress fields are predicted in the cutting section using the ABAQUS finite element code in line with the experimental conditions. Effect of the size of the rectangular geometry on the thermal stress fields is examined in the cutting section. Temperature predictions are validated through the thermocouple data. To identify the morphological changes in the cutting section, an experiment is carried out and the resulting cutting sections are examined under optical and scanning electron microscopes. It is found that temperature and stress fields are affected by the size of the rectangular cut geometry. Temperature and von Mises stress attains higher values for small size rectangular geometry as compared to its counterpart corresponding to the large size geometry. Laser cut sections are free from large size asperities including sideways burning and out-off flatness at the cut edges. Locally scattered some small dross attachments are observed at the kerf exit.

  7. Plasma Cutting and Carbon-Arc Cutting. Welding Module 8. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide is intended to assist vocational educators in teaching the two units of a module in operating plasma cutting and carbon-arc cutting equipment. The module is part of a welding curriculum that has been designed to be totally integrated with Missouri's Vocational Instruction Management System. The materials included in the module have been…

  8. Effect of Cutting Velocity / Stem Size on the Efficiency of NRCRI Cassave Stem Cutting Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikejiofor, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    The developed NRCRI (National Root Crops Research Institute) cassava stem cutting machine was evaluated. The cassava stems from the variety TME 419 were used. The sizes of the stem used were 1.8, 2.0, 2.3 and 2.6cm. Also, different cutting velocities of 1.20, 1.23 and 1.32m/s were used. The stakes produced has length of 2.5cm. Analysis of variance in RCBD was used to evaluate the effect of the cutting velocity and the stem size on the efficiency of the cutting machine. The result of the analysis showed that the cutting velocity had very highly significant effect, while the stem size had no significant effect at 5% level on the efficiency of the cutting machine. The data obtained also showed that the highest and least cutting efficiencies of 99.42 and 94.71% were obtained with the machine cutting velocities of 1.2 and 1.32m/s respectively.

  9. Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The latest development in and different aspects of modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are reviewed in the book. This book provides all readers, including fresh-cut academic researchers, fresh-cut R&D personnel, and fresh-cut processing engineers, with unique, essential...

  10. Collecting dormant hardwood cuttings for western riparian restoration projects

    Treesearch

    Tara Luna; R. Kasten Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis

    2006-01-01

    Dormant hardwood cuttings are sections of woody stems that can develop into new plants complete with stems, leaves, and roots. Cuttings differ from seedlings because all new daughter plants that arise from cuttings are genetically identical to the parent plant. Cuttings can be long or short, depending on how they are used.

  11. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis... paragraph (b) of this section, cut flowers may be moved interstate from Hawaii under limited permit, to a...

  12. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis... paragraph (b) of this section, cut flowers may be moved interstate from Hawaii under limited permit, to a...

  13. 49 CFR 213.352 - Torch cut rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.352 Section 213.352... Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used. When a rail end with a torch cut is used in emergency situations, train speed over that...

  14. 49 CFR 213.352 - Torch cut rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.352 Section 213.352... Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used. When a rail end with a torch cut is used in emergency situations, train speed over that...

  15. 49 CFR 236.52 - Relayed cut-section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relayed cut-section. 236.52 Section 236.52...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.52 Relayed cut-section. Where relayed cut-section is used in... shall be open and the track circuit shunted when the track relay at such cut-section is in deenergized...

  16. 49 CFR 213.352 - Torch cut rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.352 Section 213.352... Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used. When a rail end with a torch cut is used in emergency situations, train speed over that...

  17. 21 CFR 882.4275 - Dowel cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dowel cutting instrument. 882.4275 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4275 Dowel cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A dowel cutting instrument is a device used to cut dowels of bone for bone grafting. (b...

  18. 21 CFR 882.4275 - Dowel cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dowel cutting instrument. 882.4275 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4275 Dowel cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A dowel cutting instrument is a device used to cut dowels of bone for bone grafting. (b...

  19. 49 CFR 213.352 - Torch cut rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.352 Section 213.352... Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used. When a rail end with a torch cut is used in emergency situations, train speed over that...

  20. 49 CFR 236.52 - Relayed cut-section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relayed cut-section. 236.52 Section 236.52...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.52 Relayed cut-section. Where relayed cut-section is used in... shall be open and the track circuit shunted when the track relay at such cut-section is in deenergized...

  1. 7 CFR 58.413 - Cutting and packaging rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cutting and packaging rooms. 58.413 Section 58.413....413 Cutting and packaging rooms. When small packages of cheese are cut and wrapped, separate rooms shall be provided for the cleaning and preparation of the bulk cheese and for the cutting and wrapping...

  2. 21 CFR 882.4275 - Dowel cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dowel cutting instrument. 882.4275 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4275 Dowel cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A dowel cutting instrument is a device used to cut dowels of bone for bone grafting. (b...

  3. 7 CFR 58.413 - Cutting and packaging rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cutting and packaging rooms. 58.413 Section 58.413....413 Cutting and packaging rooms. When small packages of cheese are cut and wrapped, separate rooms shall be provided for the cleaning and preparation of the bulk cheese and for the cutting and wrapping...

  4. 21 CFR 882.4275 - Dowel cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dowel cutting instrument. 882.4275 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4275 Dowel cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A dowel cutting instrument is a device used to cut dowels of bone for bone grafting. (b...

  5. 7 CFR 58.413 - Cutting and packaging rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cutting and packaging rooms. 58.413 Section 58.413....413 Cutting and packaging rooms. When small packages of cheese are cut and wrapped, separate rooms shall be provided for the cleaning and preparation of the bulk cheese and for the cutting and wrapping...

  6. 49 CFR 236.52 - Relayed cut-section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relayed cut-section. 236.52 Section 236.52...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.52 Relayed cut-section. Where relayed cut-section is used in... shall be open and the track circuit shunted when the track relay at such cut-section is in deenergized...

  7. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Where timber may be cut. 223... General Provisions § 223.14 Where timber may be cut. (a) The cutting of trees, portions of trees or other... a grantor of land, during the life of such reservation. (2) Timber reserved from cutting under other...

  8. 49 CFR 236.52 - Relayed cut-section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relayed cut-section. 236.52 Section 236.52...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.52 Relayed cut-section. Where relayed cut-section is used in... shall be open and the track circuit shunted when the track relay at such cut-section is in deenergized...

  9. 49 CFR 236.52 - Relayed cut-section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relayed cut-section. 236.52 Section 236.52...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.52 Relayed cut-section. Where relayed cut-section is used in... shall be open and the track circuit shunted when the track relay at such cut-section is in deenergized...

  10. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Where timber may be cut. 223... General Provisions § 223.14 Where timber may be cut. (a) The cutting of trees, portions of trees or other... a grantor of land, during the life of such reservation. (2) Timber reserved from cutting under other...

  11. 21 CFR 882.4275 - Dowel cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dowel cutting instrument. 882.4275 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4275 Dowel cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A dowel cutting instrument is a device used to cut dowels of bone for bone grafting. (b...

  12. 49 CFR 213.352 - Torch cut rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.352 Section 213.352... Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used. When a rail end with a torch cut is used in emergency situations, train speed over that...

  13. A Class of Cuts and Related Algorithms in Integer Programming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A new family of intersection cuts is obtained from a class of convex polyhedra (generalized octahedra). It is shown that these cuts can also be...obtained as convex combinations of the Gomory mixed integer cuts . A constructive approach to obtain improved (i.e. deeper) cuts is then presented and discussed. (Author)

  14. 7 CFR 58.413 - Cutting and packaging rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cutting and packaging rooms. 58.413 Section 58.413....413 Cutting and packaging rooms. When small packages of cheese are cut and wrapped, separate rooms shall be provided for the cleaning and preparation of the bulk cheese and for the cutting and wrapping...

  15. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Where timber may be cut. 223... General Provisions § 223.14 Where timber may be cut. (a) The cutting of trees, portions of trees or other... a grantor of land, during the life of such reservation. (2) Timber reserved from cutting under other...

  16. Physiology of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The idea to pre-process fruits and vegetables in the fresh state started with fresh-cut salads and now has expanded to fresh-cut fruits and other vegetables. The fresh-cut portion of the fresh produce industry includes fruits, vegetables, sprouts, mushrooms and even herbs that are cut, cored, sliced...

  17. New oxygen plasma process rivals laser cutting methods

    SciTech Connect

    Fernicola, R.C. )

    1994-06-01

    For many years, oxygen plasma cutting has been looked upon as a desirable process for cutting steel but not practical in production because of very short consumable parts life. Recently, a number of technical advances in the oxygen plasma cutting process provides parts life several times that of older systems and cut quality approaching that of laser systems. This paper discusses these advances.

  18. 7 CFR 58.413 - Cutting and packaging rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cutting and packaging rooms. 58.413 Section 58.413....413 Cutting and packaging rooms. When small packages of cheese are cut and wrapped, separate rooms... outward to minimize the entrance of unfiltered air into the cutting and packaging room. The...

  19. 43 CFR 5463.1 - Time for cutting and removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time for cutting and removal. 5463.1... Cutting and Removal § 5463.1 Time for cutting and removal. Time for cutting and removal of timber or other vegetative resources sold shall not exceed a period of thirty-six months except that such time for...

  20. 43 CFR 5463.1 - Time for cutting and removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SALES ADMINISTRATION Expiration of Time for Cutting and Removal § 5463.1 Time for cutting and removal. Time for cutting and removal of timber or other... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time for cutting and removal. 5463.1...

  1. 43 CFR 5463.1 - Time for cutting and removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SALES ADMINISTRATION Expiration of Time for Cutting and Removal § 5463.1 Time for cutting and removal. Time for cutting and removal of timber or other... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time for cutting and removal. 5463.1...

  2. 43 CFR 5463.1 - Time for cutting and removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SALES ADMINISTRATION Expiration of Time for Cutting and Removal § 5463.1 Time for cutting and removal. Time for cutting and removal of timber or other... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time for cutting and removal. 5463.1...

  3. Selective hydrocracking of light naphtha cuts

    SciTech Connect

    Koslov, I.T.; Khavkin, V.A.; Nefedov, B.K.

    1986-03-01

    For the production of high-quality automotive gasolines, technology has been developed for a combined ''isoreforming'' process, in which hydrocracking of a heavy straight-run naphtha cut to give a high-octane component with an octane number of 84-86 (MM) is combined with catalytic reforming of the residual fraction from hydrocracking. The ''isoreforming'' technology can be used to produce AI-93 automotive gasolines with aromatic hydrocarbon contents of 45-49% by weight, without TEL, in yields of 78-82% by weight on the original feed. The authors also discuss a catalytic upgrading process for light straight-run naphtha distillates or raffinates from catalytic reforming. The influence of the depth of reaction in hydrocracking n-paraffins in the straight-run 62-105 degrees C cut on the yield of the C5-EP cut and its octane number is investigated.

  4. Dispersion analysis of arbitrarily cut orthorhombic crystals.

    PubMed

    Höfer, Sonja; Ivanovski, Vladimir; Uecker, Reinhard; Kwasniewski, Albert; Popp, Jürgen; Mayerhöfer, Thomas G

    2017-06-05

    We developed a measurement and evaluation scheme to perform dispersion analysis on arbitrarily cut orthorhombic crystals based on the schemes developed for triclinic and uniaxial crystals. As byproduct of dispersion analysis the orientations of the crystal axes are found. In contrast to the spectra of arbitrarily cut uniaxial crystals, where the fit routine has to separate two independent principal spectra, the spectra of arbitrarily cut orthorhombic crystals are a combination of three independent spectra and the evaluation scheme gets more complex. Dispersion analysis is exemplary performed on two different crystals, which show different spectral features and different levels of difficulties to evaluate. Neodymium gallate (NdGaO3) has broad overlapping reflections bands while topaz (Al2SiO4 [F, OH]2) has a quite high total number of infrared active bands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Introduction of cutting ceramics in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Logachev, G.A.; Privalov, V.A.; Shiryaev, M.Y.; Toporkov, A.O.

    1983-09-01

    Cutting ceramics of aluminum oxide Al203 produced in the form of types V3, VOK 60, and VOK 63 triangular, square, and rhombic, by the Dnepr Sintered Carbide Plant have wide use in plants. Tools of cutting ceramics are used in mass and large lot production. The design of ceramic inserts does not differ from that of cutters designed for holding sintered carbide inserts. Cutting ceramics are used at various specified plants for machining gray irons and calendars rolls of chilled cast iron, for drilling satellite gears, and in outside machining of pins, gate valves, shafts, and rollers. Tests conducted show that ceramic inserts reduce labor costs by 1.52 times and increases tool life 2-3 times.

  6. Flow stress model in metal cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    A model for the plastic deformation that occurs in metal cutting, based on dislocation mechanics, is presented. The model explains the fundamental deformation structure that develops during machining and is based on the well known Cottrell-Stokes Law, wherein the flow stress is partitioned into two parts; an athermal part which occurs in the shear fronts (or shear bands); and a thermal part which occurs in the lamella regions. The deformation envokes the presence of a cellular dislocation distribution which always exists in the material ahead of the shear process. This 'alien' dislocation distribution either exists in the metal prior to cutting or is produced by the compressive stress field which operates in front of the shear process. The magnitude of the flow stress and direction of the shear are shown to be correlated to the stacking fault energy of the metal being cut. The model is tested with respect to energy consumption rates and found to be consistent with observed values.

  7. Edible coatings for fresh-cut fruits.

    PubMed

    Olivas, G I; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V

    2005-01-01

    The production of fresh-cut fruits is increasingly becoming an important task as consumers are more aware of the importance of healthy eating habits, and have less time for food preparation. A fresh-cut fruit is a fruit that has been physically altered from its original state (trimmed, peeled, washed and/or cut), but remains in a fresh state. Unfortunately since fruits have living tissue, they undergo enzymatic browning, texture decay, microbial contamination, and undesirable volatile production, highly reducing their shelf life if they are in any way wounded. Edible coatings can be used to help in the preservation of minimally processed fruits, providing a partial barrier to moisture, oxygen and carbon dioxide, improving mechanical handling properties, carrying additives, avoiding volatiles loss, and even contributing to the production of aroma volatiles.

  8. Flow stress model in metal cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    A model for the plastic deformation that occurs in metal cutting, based on dislocation mechanics, is presented. The model explains the fundamental deformation structure that develops during machining and is based on the well known Cottrell-Stokes Law, wherein the flow stress is partitioned into two parts; an athermal part which occurs in the shear fronts (or shear bands); and a thermal part which occurs in the lamella regions. The deformation envokes the presence of a cellular dislocation distribution which always exists in the material ahead of the shear process. This 'alien' dislocation distribution either exists in the metal prior to cutting or is produced by the compressive stress field which operates in front of the shear process. The magnitude of the flow stress and direction of the shear are shown to be correlated to the stacking fault energy of the metal being cut. The model is tested with respect to energy consumption rates and found to be consistent with observed values.

  9. Waterjet cutting: Technology and industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    This book describes a machining technique called Waterjet cutting, also referred to as hydrodynamic machining. It is an advanced technology cutting tool that uses a stream of ultrahigh-pressure water forced through a sapphire nozzle. The waterjet removes workpiece material and produces a narrow kerf by the cutting action of a fine diameter, high velocity, high pressure stream of water or water-based fluid abrasives. The use of industrial robots to allow greater manipulation of the waterjet nozzle and the use of abrasive additives in the water stream have been the two factors which have resulted in the recent advance in waterjet system use. The system also produces less air, water and noise pollution than several more widely used machining techniques. The cost of new systems, maintenance and operating costs are also addressed.

  10. Cutting fluid study for single crystal silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Chargin, D.

    1998-05-05

    An empirical study was conducted to evaluate cutting fluids for Single Point Diamond Turning (SPDT) of single crystal silicon. The pH of distilled waster was adjusted with various additives the examine the effect of pH on cutting operations. Fluids which seemed to promote ductile cutting appeared to increase tool wear as well, an undesirable tradeoff. High Ph sodium hydroxide solutions showed promise for further research, as they yielded the best combination of reduced tool wear and good surface finish in the ductile regime. Negative rake tools were verified to improve the surface finish, but the negative rake tools used in the experiments also showed much higher wear than conventional 0{degree} rake tools. Effects of crystallographic orientation on SPDT, such as star patterns of fracture damage forming near the center of the samples, were observed to decrease with lower feedrates. Silicon chips were observed and photographed, indicative of a ductile materials removal process.

  11. Imaging, cutting, and collecting instrument and method

    DOEpatents

    Tench, R.J.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Balooch, M.; Balhorn, R.L.; Allen, M.J.

    1995-10-31

    Instrumentation and techniques are described to image small objects, such as but not limited to individual human chromosomes, with nanometer resolution. This instrument and method are also used to cut-off identified parts of objects, to move around and manipulate the cut-off parts on the substrate on which they are being imaged to predetermined locations on the substrate, and to remove the cut-off parts from the substrate. This is accomplished using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and by modification of the conventional cantilever stylus assembly of an AFM. The plural cantilevers are used with either sharp-tips or knife-edges. In addition, the invention can be utilized for measuring the hardness of materials. 10 figs.

  12. Photonic mesophases from cut rod rotators

    SciTech Connect

    Stelson, Angela C.; Liddell Watson, Chekesha M.; Avendano, Carlos

    2016-01-14

    The photonic band properties of random rotator mesophases are calculated using supercell methods applied to cut rods on a hexagonal lattice. Inspired by the thermodynamic mesophase for anisotropic building blocks, we vary the shape factor of cut fraction for the randomly oriented basis. We find large, stable bandgaps with high gap isotropy in the inverted and direct structures as a function of cut fraction, dielectric contrast, and filling fraction. Bandgap sizes up to 34.5% are maximized at high dielectric contrast for rods separated in a matrix. The bandgaps open at dielectric contrasts as low as 2.0 for the transverse magnetic polarization and 2.25 for the transverse electric polarization. Additionally, the type of scattering that promotes the bandgap is correlated with the effect of disorder on bandgap size. Slow light properties are investigated in waveguide geometry and slowdown factors up to 5 × 10{sup 4} are found.

  13. Cutting boards in Salmonella cross-contamination.

    PubMed

    Cliver, Dean O

    2006-01-01

    Cutting boards are commonly perceived as important fomites in cross-contamination of foods with agents such as Salmonella spp., despite the lack of supporting epidemiological data. A variety of woods and plastics have been used to make work surfaces for cutting. In general, wood is said to dull knives less than plastic, and plastic is seen as less porous than wood. Research to model the hypothetical cross-contamination has been done in a variety of ways and has yielded a variety of results. At least some of the work with knife-scarred plastic indicates that the surface is very difficult to clean and disinfect, although this may vary among the polymers used. High-density polyethylene, which is most used in commercial applications, has been shown to delaminate in response to knife scarring. Wood is intrinsically porous, which allows food juices and bacteria to enter the body of the wood unless a highly hydrophobic residue covers the surface. The moisture is drawn in by capillary action until there is no more free fluid on the surface, at which point immigration ceases. Bacteria in the wood pores are not killed instantly, but neither do they return to the surface. Destructive sampling reveals infectious bacteria for hours, but resurrection of these bacteria via knife edges has not been demonstrated. Small plastic cutting boards can be cleaned in a dishwasher (as can some specially treated wooden boards), but the dishwasher may distribute the bacteria onto other food-contact surfaces. Most small wooden boards (i.e., those with no metal joiners in them) can be sterilized in a microwave oven, but this should be unnecessary if accumulation of food residues is prevented. However, 2 epidemiological studies seem to show that cutting board cleaning habits have little influence on the incidence of sporadic salmonellosis. Further, one of these studies indicated that use of plastic cutting boards in home kitchens is hazardous, whereas use of wooden cutting boards is not.

  14. Controlling dust from concrete saw cutting.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Susan; Woskie, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Cutting concrete with gas-powered saws is ubiquitous in the construction industry and a source of exposure to respirable crystalline silica. Volunteers from the New England Laborers Training Center were recruited to participate in a field experiment examining dust reductions through the use of water, from a hose and from a sprayer, as a dust control. In four series of tests, reinforced concrete pipe was cut under both "dry" and "wet" control conditions. Overall, the geometric mean respirable dust concentration for "dry" cutting (14.396 mg/m³) exceeded both types of water-based controls by more than tenfold. Wet cutting reduced the respirable dust concentration by 85% compared with dry cutting when comparing tests paired by person and saw blade (n = 79 pairs). Using a respirable cyclone, a total of 178 samples were taken. Due to the high variability in dust exposure found in this and other studies of saw cutting, the data were examined for potential exposure determinants that contribute to that variability. Using mixed models, three fixed effects were statistically significant: control condition, worker experience, and location. A random effect for subject was included in the model to account for repeated measures. When each of the significant fixed effects was included with the random effect, it was apparent that inclusion of worker experience or location reduced the between-worker component of exposure variability, while inclusion of control condition (wet vs. dry) explained a large portion of the within-subject variability. Overall, the fixed effect variable for control condition explained the largest fraction of the total exposure variability.

  15. Laser cutting of thick sheet metals: Residual stress analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, A. F. M.; Yilbas, B. S.; Aleem, B. J. Abdul

    2009-04-01

    Laser cutting of tailored blanks from a thick mild steel sheet is considered. Temperature and stress field in the cutting sections are modeled using the finite element method. The residual stress developed in the cutting section is determined using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and is compared with the predictions. The structural and morphological changes in the cut section are examined using the optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that temperature and von Mises stress increase sharply in the cutting section, particularly in the direction normal to the cutting direction. The residual stress remains high in the region close to the cutting section.

  16. Modelling the laser fusion cutting process: I. Mathematical modelling of the cut kerf geometry for laser fusion cutting of thick metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, J.; Man, H. C.; Yue, T. M.

    2001-07-01

    A model for calculating the three-dimensional stationary geometric shape of the cutting front for laser fusion cutting is presented in this paper. The model relates the cut kerf geometry with the cut-through depth, various laser parameters such as power, speed, focus position and material thickness. In this model, the energy absorbed by the workpiece includes not only the direct energy from the laser beam but also the energy from the multiple reflections generated by the beam impinging on the cutting front of the cut kerf. The effects of multiple reflections are functions of the inclined angle of the cutting front and the cutting depth. The effects of various laser processing parameters, multiple reflections and inert gas pressure on the geometric shape of the cutting front have been analysed systematically and in detail. The model allows accurate prediction of the cut-through depth and cut-edge quality for a given set of process parameters. It also helps to explain the effect of focal position, cut-assist pressure and other parameters upon the cut-edge quality.

  17. Photothermal nanoblade for patterned cell membrane cutting

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Teslaa, Tara; Teitell, Michael A.; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2010-01-01

    We report a photothermal nanoblade that utilizes a metallic nanostructure to harvest short laser pulse energy and convert it into a highly localized and specifically shaped explosive vapor bubble. Rapid bubble expansion and collapse punctures a lightly-contacting cell membrane via high-speed fluidic flows and induced transient shear stress. The membrane cutting pattern is controlled by the metallic nanostructure configuration, laser pulse polarization, and energy. Highly controllable, sub-micron sized circular hole pairs to half moon-like, or cat-door shaped, membrane cuts were realized in glutaraldehyde treated HeLa cells. PMID:21164656

  18. Differential equations on unitarity cut surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Mao

    2017-06-01

    We reformulate differential equations (DEs) for Feynman integrals to avoid doubled propagators in intermediate steps. External momentum derivatives are dressed with loop momentum derivatives to form tangent vectors to unitarity cut surfaces, in a way inspired by unitarity-compatible IBP reduction. For the one-loop box, our method directly produces the final DEs without any integration-by-parts reduction. We further illustrate the method by deriving maximal-cut level differential equations for two-loop nonplanar five-point integrals, whose exact expressions are yet unknown. We speed up the computation using finite field techniques and rational function reconstruction.

  19. Stennis cuts ribbon on records retention facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-24

    NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center cut the ribbon Aug. 24 on a new, storm-resistant Records Retention Facility that consolidates and protects records storage at the nation's premier rocket engine test facility. This facility will also house history office operations. Participants in the ribbon-cutting included: (l to r) Gay Irby, Center Operations deputy director at Stennis; Linda Cureton, NASA chief information officer; Patrick Scheuermann, Stennis director; Jane Odom, NASA chief archivist; Dinna Cottrell, Stennis chief information officer; and James Cluff, Stennis records manager.

  20. Comprehensive Monitoring System for Cutting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibasaka, Toshiro; Goriki, Shin'ichi; Moriwaki, Toshimichi

    One of the problems of current monitoring systems is a lack of flexibility for managing changes in the machining environment. The purpose of this research is to construct a monitoring system that can cope flexibly with changes in the machining environment without sacrificing accuracy of detection. The monitoring system developed involves plural subsystems, and was applied to monitor the chipping at an end mill. The subsystems employ artificial neural networks based on the cutting force signals and the cutting conditions. The flexibility and reliability of the monitoring system were much improved by operating the subsystems in parallel.

  1. Underwater cutting technology of thick stainless steel with YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chida, Itaru; Okazaki, Koki; Shima, Seishi; Kurihara, Kenji; Yuguchi, Yasuhiro; Sato, Ikuko

    2003-03-01

    In nuclear power plants, irradiated materials like Control Rod (CR) should be stored underwater after service. Due to reducing the storage space, underwater cutting technology is expected. In this study, we developed underwater cutting technology of thick stainless steel with YAG laser in order to cut used CR. Preliminary tests were performed with flat plate test-pieces to optimize the cutting conditions. Due to creating a local dry area between nozzle and test-piece, high-pressure air was blown from the nozzle. Underwater laser cutting was carried out by laser irradiation power of 4 kW, changing the parameters of cutting speed, distance between the nozzle and test-piece, and thickness of the test-piece. We also investigated the wastes like dross and aerosols by laser cutting. Amount of dross was approximately 0.1 kg/m after cutting a 14 mm thick stainless steel plate, which is estimated to be less than other cutting method. Based on these results, we developed underwater cutting system of CR test-piece with YAG laser as a mock-up test. In the cutting torch, there was tracking system was introduced to keep the distance between the nozzle and the test-piece constant, and cutting monitor was also set-in to detect whether the test-piece was successfully cut or not. We have already tried to cut the CR test-piece with this facility and successfully cut in half.

  2. Operation and maintenance cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingshead, T.W.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Timothy W. Hollingshead, Technical Services Manager, Pacific Gas and Electric, is about cutting costs in the Operation and Maintenance phase of geothermal energy production. The necessity of cost control, keeping workers well-trained and avoiding OSHA fines, taking advantages of new technologies, and establishing predictive maintenance programs are some of the issues discussed in this article.

  3. Colleges Protect Workers and Cut Elsewhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2009-01-01

    Most colleges have steered through the first jolts of the recession without resorting to layoffs, cutting employee benefits, or imposing across-the-board freezes on hiring. But the economic pain is afflicting campuses in many other ways, according to the findings from a new survey of chief business officers conducted last month by "The Chronicle"…

  4. Does School District Consolidation Cut Costs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncombe, William; Yinger, John

    2007-01-01

    Consolidation has dramatically reduced the number of school districts in the United States. Using data from rural school districts in New York, this article provides the first direct estimation of consolidation's cost impacts. We find economies of size in operating spending: all else equal, doubling enrollment cuts operating costs per pupil by…

  5. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Treesearch

    V.G. Barnekov; C.W. McMillin; H.A. Huber

    1986-01-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the workpiece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist...

  6. Power cuts and EPI vaccine storage.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, M P; Perera, A S; De Silva, T U

    1997-06-01

    To study the integrity of EPI vaccine storage during interruptions to the power supply. Health centres in Colombo District. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on staff compliance with regulations of the expanded program of immunisation (EPI) and alternative facilities available for refrigeration during power failure. The refrigerator and storage conditions were inspected. The stored vaccines were tagged with thermosensitive cold chain monitors, which were read on revisiting the clinic 14 days later. During the study period, power cuts of 2 hours' duration were in force daily. A control study was carried out when there was no interruption to power supply. Diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) and measles vaccines had been exposed to temperatures outside the prescribed range during power cuts. Oral polio vaccine had adequate storage with power cuts of 2 hours' duration. Alternative facilities for vaccine storage during power cuts were not available and the potency of DPT and measles vaccines were compromised with interruptions to power of 2 hours' duration or more.

  7. How the Budget Cuts Undercut Rural Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jane

    This study describes the status of 34 million rural women and analyzes how they and their families will be directly affected by cuts in the 1983 federal budget in the areas of legal services, vocational education, domestic violence intervention, energy assistance and alternative energy development, public housing, unemployment compensation, social…

  8. SNAP Cuts Put Youth at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower-Basch, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In a typical month in 2011, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly known as the Food Stamp Program) served 4.3 million low-income young adults ages 18-24, helping them buy needed groceries. This brief report demonstrates the detrimental impact the cuts proposed to SNAP in the House-passed Farm bill (H.R. 3102)--which is now…

  9. Interpretation of drill cuttings from geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Sibbett, B.S.

    1981-06-01

    Problems in interpreting drill cuttings, as opposed to drill cores, and methods to solve these problems are outlined. The following are covered: identification of lithology; recognition of faults and fractures; interpretation of hydrothermal alteration; geochemistry; sample collection; sample preparple examination; and sample storage. (MHR)

  10. Environmental management of the stone cutting industry.

    PubMed

    Nasserdine, Khaled; Mimi, Ziad; Bevan, Blair; Elian, Belal

    2009-01-01

    Environmental Management of the stone cutting industry in Hebron is required to reduce the industry's adverse impact on the downstream agricultural land and the adverse impact on the drinking water aquifers. This situation requires the implementation of an industrial wastewater management strategic approach and technology, within the available technical and financial resources. Ten pilot projects at different locations were built at Hebron to reduce or eliminate the incompatible discharge of the liquid and solid waste to the environment and improve the stone cutting industry's effluent quality. A review of existing practices and jar test experiments were used to optimize the water recycling and treatment facilities. The factors reviewed included influent pumping rates and cycles, selection of the optimal coagulant type and addition methods, control of the sludge recycling process, control over flow rates, control locations of influent and effluent, and sludge depth. Based on the optimized doses and Turbidity results, it was determined that the use of Fokland polymer with an optimal dose of 1.5mg/L could achieve the target turbidity levels. The completion of the pilot projects resulted in the elimination of stone cutting waste discharges and an improvement in the recycled effluent quality of 44-99%. This in turn reduced the long term operating costs for each participating firm. A full-scale project that includes all the stone cutting firms in Hebron industrial area is required.

  11. The Cutting Edge, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting Edge, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The Cutting Edge is a bimonthly newsletter of the Regional Center for Applied Technology and Training at Danville Community College (DCC) (Virginia) that provides the latest information on a wide range of issues including technology, business, employment trends, and new legislation. Articles from the first five issues discuss: (1) the July 2000…

  12. Ribbon cutting opens new ELV offices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Bobby Bruckner, manager, ELV and Payload Carrier Programs, speaks at the ribbon-cutting ceremony of the E&O Building at KSC. Home for NASA's unmanned missions since 1964, the building has been renovated to house the Expendable Launch Vehicle Program.

  13. RoboSimian Cuts Hole in Wall

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-09

    Using a cordless power drill, RoboSimian cuts a hole into a panel of drywall to complete one of the tasks in the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in Pomona, California. This image was taken on June 6, 2015. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19326

  14. Automated Cutting And Drilling Of Composite Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed automated system precisely cuts and drills large, odd-shaped parts made of composite materials. System conceived for manufacturing lightweight composite parts to replace heavier parts in Space Shuttle. Also useful in making large composite parts for other applications. Includes robot locating part to be machined, positions cutter, and positions drill. Gantry-type robot best suited for task.

  15. Operational rooted cuttings in southern pines

    Treesearch

    Joe Weber; Hank Stelzer

    2002-01-01

    Use of rooted cuttings for planting of pine trees has become increasingly popular. Vegetative propagation can deliver planting stock of higher genetic quality, increasing productivity and shortening rotations. Clonal forestry can also provide stands of higher uniformity, which can reduce logging and processing cost and yield a much more uniform product. One of the...

  16. Laser cutting and drilling with zero conicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Paul-Etienne; Estival, Sébastien; Dijoux, Mathieu; Laygue, Pierre; Kupisiewicz, Axel; Braunschweig, Robert

    2017-02-01

    This paper focuses on femtosecond laser cutting and drilling using a patent pending technology for suppressing the conicity generated by the ablation saturation. We will show that a common scanning system can be used thanks to this technology with a conicity suppression on a scanning field of 20x20mm.

  17. Western mine cuts need for trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.

    1982-05-01

    At Anaconda's new Coal Creek mine in Wyoming, the 320-million-ton reserve will be mined at a rate of 12 million tpy with a dragline removing two-thirds of the overburden and with in-pit coal crushers and conveyors to cut truck haul distances.

  18. What Happens when Media Positions Are Cut?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mary Alice

    2011-01-01

    Cuts abound despite an infusion of technology, restructured media programs, and research connecting media specialists to improved student achievement. Verbal and written support about the value of a library or media specialist has not translated into monetary support at a time of universal funding problems. All grade levels and district sizes are…

  19. Breeding lettuce for fresh-cut processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lettuce is increasingly consumed in fresh-cut packaged salads. New cultivars specifically bred for this use can enhance production and processing efficiency and extend shelf life. Cultivars with novel head architectures and leaf traits are being released by private and public breeding programs with ...

  20. How the Budget Cuts Undercut Rural Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jane

    This study describes the status of 34 million rural women and analyzes how they and their families will be directly affected by cuts in the 1983 federal budget in the areas of legal services, vocational education, domestic violence intervention, energy assistance and alternative energy development, public housing, unemployment compensation, social…

  1. Staff Cuts Remake the Custodial Closet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that new cleaning and finishing materials and new equipment can help school facility departments cope with staff cuts, focusing on: chemicals and dispensers, safety training and information for custodial staff, cleaning tools and power equipment, and cleaner and more efficient schools. (SM)

  2. Budget Cuts Would Harm Research and Patients.

    PubMed

    2017-03-22

    Cancer researchers and administrators have attacked the Trump administration's proposal to cut the NIH budget by nearly 20%. Researchers say that the reduction could hamstring efforts to expand immunotherapies and other novel treatments to more patients. They also worry that the proposal could drive away biomedical scientists and shift top-notch research to other countries.

  3. Does School District Consolidation Cut Costs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncombe, William; Yinger, John

    2007-01-01

    Consolidation has dramatically reduced the number of school districts in the United States. Using data from rural school districts in New York, this article provides the first direct estimation of consolidation's cost impacts. We find economies of size in operating spending: all else equal, doubling enrollment cuts operating costs per pupil by…

  4. Dental abrasion as a cutting process

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Peter W.; Wagner, Mark; Al-Fadhalah, Khaled; Almusallam, Abdulwahab S.; Michael, Shaji; Thai, Lidia A.; Strait, David S.; Swain, Michael V.; van Casteren, Adam; Renno, Waleed M.; Shekeban, Ali; Philip, Swapna M.; Saji, Sreeja; Atkins, Anthony G.

    2016-01-01

    A mammalian tooth is abraded when a sliding contact between a particle and the tooth surface leads to an immediate loss of tooth tissue. Over time, these contacts can lead to wear serious enough to impair the oral processing of food. Both anatomical and physiological mechanisms have evolved in mammals to try to prevent wear, indicating its evolutionary importance, but it is still an established survival threat. Here we consider that many wear marks result from a cutting action whereby the contacting tip(s) of such wear particles acts akin to a tool tip. Recent theoretical developments show that it is possible to estimate the toughness of abraded materials via cutting tests. Here, we report experiments intended to establish the wear resistance of enamel in terms of its toughness and how friction varies. Imaging via atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to assess the damage involved. Damage ranged from pure plastic deformation to fracture with and without lateral microcracks. Grooves cut with a Berkovich diamond were the most consistent, suggesting that the toughness of enamel in cutting is 244 J m−2, which is very high. Friction was higher in the presence of a polyphenolic compound, indicating that this could increase wear potential. PMID:27274807

  5. Ribbon cutting opens new ELV offices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Bobby Bruckner, manager, ELV and Payload Carrier Programs, speaks at the ribbon-cutting ceremony of the E&O Building at KSC. Home for NASA's unmanned missions since 1964, the building has been renovated to house the Expendable Launch Vehicle Program.

  6. Class-Size Limits Targeted for Cuts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    At a time when policymakers are demanding budget cuts and more innovative approaches to schooling, pressure is building for loosening up constraints on class sizes. After dropping for decades, average class sizes in American schools may be growing again as schools cope with budget shortfalls. Although some educators see the rising numbers as a…

  7. CO 2 laser cutting of slate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Quintero, F.; Soto, R.; Pérez-Amor, M.; Watkins, K.; Steen, W. M.

    2002-01-01

    Slate is a natural stone which has the characteristic that shows a well-developed defoliation plane, allowing to easily split it in plates parallel to that plane which are particularly used as tiles for roof building. At present, the manufacturing of slate is mostly manual, being noisy, powdery and unsafe for the worker. Thus, there is a need to introduce new processing methods in order to improve both the working conditions and the quality of the products made of slate. Following the previous work focused on the drilling and cutting of slate tiles using a Nd : YAG laser, we present in this paper the results of the work carried out to explore the possibilities to cut slate plates by using a CO 2 laser. A 1.5 kW CO 2 laser was used to perform different experiments in which, the influence of some processing parameters (average power, assist gas pressure) on the geometry and quality of the cut was studied. The results obtained show that the CO 2 laser is a feasible tool for a successful cutting of slate.

  8. Prediction of melt geometry in laser cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Giovanni; Tomesani, Luca; Campana, Giampaolo

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, an analytical model for the evaluation of the melt film geometry in laser cutting of steels is developed. Using as basis, a previous model for kerf geometry estimation developed by the authors, with both reactive and non-reactive process gases, the film thickness and velocity were determined as a function of the kerf depth in the cutting plate. Two criteria were then adopted to predict the quality of the laser cutting operation: the first is based on a minimum acceptable value of the ejection speed of the melt from the bottom of the kerf, the second on the occlusion of the kerf itself due to an excess of molten material in the boundary layer at the kerf width. These criteria determined a feasibility region in the domain of the process and material variables, such as cutting speed, assistant gas pressure, laser beam power and material characteristics. These factors may be successfully used to build a process-planning tool for parameters optimisation and setting, in order to achieve a satisfactory process quality. The model response is in excellent agreement with the feasibility regions reported from experimental data by various authors and demonstrates a relationship between the occurrence of dross adhesion and the two different mechanisms predicted for such a phenomenon were: unsatisfactory ejection speed of the melt film from the bottom of the kerf and occlusion of the kerf.

  9. Cutting-hedge research into bacterial invasion.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Douglas A; Rose, David R

    2011-11-09

    Glycoside hydrolases are the tools that pathogenic bacteria use to cut through the defensive glycan structure on host cell surfaces. In this issue of Structure, Pluvinage et al. (2011) report how a bacterial polypeptide with more than one hydrolase module broadens the effective substrate specificity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring Contours of Coal-Seam Cuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Angle transducers measure angle between track sections as longwall shearer proceeds along coal face. Distance transducer functions in conjunction with angle transducers to obtain relative angles at known positions. When cut is complete, accumulated data are stored on cassette tape, and track profile is computed and displayed. Micro-processor-based instrument integrates small changes in angle and distance.

  11. Dental abrasion as a cutting process.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Peter W; Wagner, Mark; Al-Fadhalah, Khaled; Almusallam, Abdulwahab S; Michael, Shaji; Thai, Lidia A; Strait, David S; Swain, Michael V; van Casteren, Adam; Renno, Waleed M; Shekeban, Ali; Philip, Swapna M; Saji, Sreeja; Atkins, Anthony G

    2016-06-06

    A mammalian tooth is abraded when a sliding contact between a particle and the tooth surface leads to an immediate loss of tooth tissue. Over time, these contacts can lead to wear serious enough to impair the oral processing of food. Both anatomical and physiological mechanisms have evolved in mammals to try to prevent wear, indicating its evolutionary importance, but it is still an established survival threat. Here we consider that many wear marks result from a cutting action whereby the contacting tip(s) of such wear particles acts akin to a tool tip. Recent theoretical developments show that it is possible to estimate the toughness of abraded materials via cutting tests. Here, we report experiments intended to establish the wear resistance of enamel in terms of its toughness and how friction varies. Imaging via atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to assess the damage involved. Damage ranged from pure plastic deformation to fracture with and without lateral microcracks. Grooves cut with a Berkovich diamond were the most consistent, suggesting that the toughness of enamel in cutting is 244 J m(-2), which is very high. Friction was higher in the presence of a polyphenolic compound, indicating that this could increase wear potential.

  12. The Cutting Edge: Workplace English. Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Paso Community Coll., TX. Literacy Center.

    The instructional guide for the Cutting Edge workplace literacy program, a cooperative project of El Paso Community College (Texas) and Levi Strauss and Company, is an expanded version of one appendix the project handbook. It describes and provides an instructional model for the three-part, job-specific, video-based program of English as a Second…

  13. Researchers warn of 'worrying imprudence' over cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2012-08-01

    Italian physicists reacted with anger to proposed cuts to the country's research funding. Particularly hard hit would be the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), which has been slated to absorb nearly half of the €120m reduction in the research ministry's budget as outlined in a decree on 6 July.

  14. Mechanical cutting of irradiated reactor internal components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael G.

    2008-01-15

    Mechanical cutting methods to volume reduce and package reactor internal components are now a viable solution for stakeholders challenged with the retirement of first generation nuclear facilities. The recent completion of the removal of the Reactor Vessel Internals (RVI) from within the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant demonstrates that unlike previous methods, inclusive of plasma arc and abrasive water-jet cutting, mechanical cutting minimizes exposure to workers, costly water cleanup, and excessive secondary waste generation. Reactor internal components were segmented, packaged, and removed from the reactor building for shipment or storage, allowing the reactor cavity to be drained and follow-on reactor segmentation activities to proceed in the dry state. Area exposure rates at the work positions during the segmentation process were generally 1 mR per hr. Radiological exposure documented for the underwater segmentation processes totaled 13 person rem. The reactor internals weighing 343,000 pounds were segmented into over 200 pieces for maximum shipping package efficiency and produced 5,600 lb of stainless steel chips and shavings which were packaged in void spaces of existing disposal containers, therefore creating no additional disposal volume. Because no secondary waste was driven into suspension in the reactor cavity water, the water was free released after one pass through a charcoal bed and ion exchange filter system. Mechanical cutting techniques are capable of underwater segmentation of highly radioactive components on a large scale. This method minimized radiological exposure and costly water cleanup while creating no secondary waste.

  15. Experimental Investigation on Cutting Characteristics in Nanometric Plunge-Cutting of BK7 and Fused Silica Glasses

    PubMed Central

    An, Qinglong; Ming, Weiwei; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Ductile cutting are most widely used in fabricating high-quality optical glass components to achieve crack-free surfaces. For ultra-precision machining of brittle glass materials, critical undeformed chip thickness (CUCT) commonly plays a pivotal role in determining the transition point from ductile cutting to brittle cutting. In this research, cutting characteristics in nanometric cutting of BK7 and fused silica glasses, including machined surface morphology, surface roughness, cutting force and specific cutting energy, were investigated with nanometric plunge-cutting experiments. The same cutting speed of 300 mm/min was used in the experiments with single-crystal diamond tool. CUCT was determined according to the mentioned cutting characteristics. The results revealed that 320 nm was found as the CUCT in BK7 cutting and 50 nm was determined as the size effect of undeformed chip thickness. A high-quality machined surface could be obtained with the undeformed chip thickness between 50 and 320 nm at ductile cutting stage. Moreover, no CUCT was identified in fused silica cutting with the current cutting conditions, and brittle-fracture mechanism was confirmed as the predominant chip-separation mode throughout the nanometric cutting operation. PMID:28788010

  16. Commissioning a hobby cutting device for radiochromic film preparation.

    PubMed

    Zolfaghari, Somayeh; Francis, Kirby E; Kairn, Tanya; Crowe, Scott B

    2017-03-30

    In addition to a high spatial resolution and well characterised dose response, one of the major advantages of radiochromic film as a dosimeter is that sheets of film can be cut into pieces suitable for use as calibration films, and for in vivo and phantom measurements. The cutting of film is typically done using scissors or a guillotine, and this process can be time-consuming, limited in precision, requires extensive handling and does not allow holes to be cut from the film without cutting from an existing edge. This study investigated the use of a Brother ScanNCut hobby cutting system for EBT3 film preparation. The optimal operating parameters (blade size, pressure, speed) that resulted in precise cuts with minimal delamination at cut edges were identified using test cutting patterns. These parameters were then used to cut a large film insert for a stereotactic head phantom for comparison against an insert cut with scissors. While the hobby cutting system caused a wider region of delamination at the film edge (1.8 mm) compared to scissors (1 mm), the hobby cutting system was found to be able to produce reproducible cuts more efficiently and more accurately than scissors. The use of the hobby cutting system is recommended for complex phantom inserts (containing sharp corners or holes for alignment rods) or in situations where large numbers of film pieces need to be prepared.

  17. In vitro comparison of the cutting efficiency and temperature production of 10 different rotary cutting instruments. Part I: Turbine.

    PubMed

    Ercoli, Carlo; Rotella, Mario; Funkenbusch, Paul D; Russell, Scott; Feng, Changyong

    2009-04-01

    Standards to test the cutting efficiency of dental rotary cutting instruments are either nonexistent or inappropriate, and knowledge of the factors that affect their cutting performance is limited. Therefore, rotary cutting instruments for crown preparation are generally marketed with weak or unsupported claims of superior performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the cutting behavior of a wide selection of rotary cutting instruments under carefully controlled and reproducible conditions with an air-turbine handpiece. Ten groups of rotary cutting instruments (n=30) designed for tooth preparation were selected: 9 diamond rotary cutting instruments (7 multi-use, 2 disposable) and 1 carbide bur. One bur per group was imaged with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at different magnifications. Macor blocks (n=75) were used as a substrate, and 4 cuts were made on each specimen, using a new rotary cutting instrument each time, for a total of 300 cuts. The cuts were performed with an air-turbine handpiece (Midwest Quiet Air). A computer-controlled, custom-made testing apparatus was used to monitor all sensors and control the cutting action. The data were analyzed to compare the correlation of rotary cutting instrument type, grit, amount of pressure, cutting rate, revolutions per minute (rpm), temperature, and type of handpiece, using 1-way ANOVA and Tukey's Studentized Range test (alpha=.05). Compared to the baseline temperature, all rotary cutting instruments showed a reduction of temperature in the simulated pulp chamber. The Great White Ultra (carbide bur) showed a significantly higher rate of advancement (0.15 mm/s) and lower applied load (106.46 g) and rpm (304,375.97). Tooth preparation with an adequate water flow does not cause harmful temperature changes in the pulp chamber, regardless of rotary cutting instrument type. The tested carbide bur showed greater cutting efficiency than all diamond rotary cutting instruments.

  18. A new system for cutting brain tissue preserving vessels: water jet cutting.

    PubMed

    Terzis, A J; Nowak, G; Rentzsch, O; Arnold, H; Diebold, J; Baretton, G

    1989-01-01

    The water jet cutting system allows transaction and dissection of biological structures with little bleeding. Structures of higher tissue rigidity remain unchanged while softer tissues are mechanically dissected. In brain tissue, all vessels larger than 20 microns are left intact after the passage of the jet stream with a pressure of up to 5 bar, and therefore vessels can be isolated selectively from the surrounding tissue. Oedema is present adjacent to the cut and no increase of temperature occurs.

  19. Cutting and Shuffling of a Line Segment: Effect of Variation in Cut Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Mengqi; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2016-12-01

    We present a computational study of the impact of variation in cut location on finite-time mixing of a line segment by cutting and shuffling, which is a one-dimensional piecewise isometry (PWI), also known as an interval exchange transformation (IET). A line segment of unit length is repeatedly cut into subsegments and shuffled according to any one of a variety of permutations. To mimic practical process error, variations drawn from a normal distribution are used to perturb cut locations. Illustrative examples of the mixing behaviors and finite-time measures of mixing are used to analyze the effect of variation in cut location for different permutations of subsegment mixing order. Mixing is significantly improved under irreducible nonrotational permutations when the dynamics show a resonance-like structure without variation. Specifically, the requirement of an irrational subsegment length ratio for good mixing can be relaxed as the underlying periodic dynamics is perturbed by the stochastic variation in cut location. Thus, good mixing can occur even with only four subsegments of roughly the same length for most irreducible nonrotational permutations.

  20. iCut: an Integrative Cut Algorithm Enables Accurate Segmentation of Touching Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Yong; Gong, Hui; Xiong, Benyi; Xu, Xiaofeng; Li, Anan; Jiang, Tao; Sun, Qingtao; Wang, Simin; Luo, Qingming; Chen, Shangbin

    2015-07-14

    Individual cells play essential roles in the biological processes of the brain. The number of neurons changes during both normal development and disease progression. High-resolution imaging has made it possible to directly count cells. However, the automatic and precise segmentation of touching cells continues to be a major challenge for massive and highly complex datasets. Thus, an integrative cut (iCut) algorithm, which combines information regarding spatial location and intervening and concave contours with the established normalized cut, has been developed. iCut involves two key steps: (1) a weighting matrix is first constructed with the abovementioned information regarding the touching cells and (2) a normalized cut algorithm that uses the weighting matrix is implemented to separate the touching cells into isolated cells. This novel algorithm was evaluated using two types of data: the open SIMCEP benchmark dataset and our micro-optical imaging dataset from a Nissl-stained mouse brain. It has achieved a promising recall/precision of 91.2 ± 2.1%/94.1 ± 1.8% and 86.8 ± 4.1%/87.5 ± 5.7%, respectively, for the two datasets. As quantified using the harmonic mean of recall and precision, the accuracy of iCut is higher than that of some state-of-the-art algorithms. The better performance of this fully automated algorithm can benefit studies of brain cytoarchitecture.

  1. iCut: an Integrative Cut Algorithm Enables Accurate Segmentation of Touching Cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Gong, Hui; Xiong, Benyi; Xu, Xiaofeng; Li, Anan; Jiang, Tao; Sun, Qingtao; Wang, Simin; Luo, Qingming; Chen, Shangbin

    2015-01-01

    Individual cells play essential roles in the biological processes of the brain. The number of neurons changes during both normal development and disease progression. High-resolution imaging has made it possible to directly count cells. However, the automatic and precise segmentation of touching cells continues to be a major challenge for massive and highly complex datasets. Thus, an integrative cut (iCut) algorithm, which combines information regarding spatial location and intervening and concave contours with the established normalized cut, has been developed. iCut involves two key steps: (1) a weighting matrix is first constructed with the abovementioned information regarding the touching cells and (2) a normalized cut algorithm that uses the weighting matrix is implemented to separate the touching cells into isolated cells. This novel algorithm was evaluated using two types of data: the open SIMCEP benchmark dataset and our micro-optical imaging dataset from a Nissl-stained mouse brain. It has achieved a promising recall/precision of 91.2 ± 2.1%/94.1 ± 1.8% and 86.8 ± 4.1%/87.5 ± 5.7%, respectively, for the two datasets. As quantified using the harmonic mean of recall and precision, the accuracy of iCut is higher than that of some state-of-the-art algorithms. The better performance of this fully automated algorithm can benefit studies of brain cytoarchitecture. PMID:26168908

  2. The Deformations of Carbon Nanotubes under Cutting.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jue; Wang, Chao; Guan, Guozhen; Wu, Hao; Sun, Hong; Qiu, Longbin; Chen, Peining; Pan, Zhiyong; Sun, Hao; Zhang, Bo; Che, Renchao; Peng, Huisheng

    2017-08-22

    The determination of structural evolution at the atomic level is essential to understanding the intrinsic physics and chemistries of nanomaterials. Mechanochemistry represents a promising method to trace structural evolution, but conventional mechanical tension generates random breaking points, which makes it unavailable for effective analysis. It remains difficult to find an appropriate model to study shear deformations. Here, we synthesize high-modulus carbon nanotubes that can be cut precisely, and the structural evolution is efficiently investigated through a combination of geometry phase analysis and first-principles calculations. The lattice fluctuation depends on the anisotropy, chirality, curvature, and slicing rate. The strain distribution further reveals a plastic breaking mechanism for the conjugated carbon atoms under cutting. The resulting sliced carbon nanotubes with controllable sizes and open ends are promising for various applications, for example, as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Kerf generation during the plasma cutting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodun, Oana; Bangu, Sanda Ilii; Slǎtineanu, LaurenÅ£iu; Vasile, Merticaru; Beşliu, Irina; CoteaÅ£ǎ, Margareta

    2016-10-01

    The plasma beam cutting is a machining method applied in order to detach parts or workpieces from plate type workpiece. Essentially, a plasma jet is sent to workpiece, determining melting, vaporizing and removing of the material from the workpiece. If there is a relative movement between the plasma jet and the workpiece, a kerf gradually appears. Many factors exert influence on the kerf characteristics. A full factorial experiment with three independent variables at two levels was designed, in order to highlight the influence exerted by the cutting speed, workpiece thickness and arc current on the kerf width in the superior and inferior zones and on the kerf taper angle, respectively. Power type empirical mathematical models were determined by mathematical processing of the experimental results.

  4. The cut-closed-reconnected Roux loop.

    PubMed

    Kummer, E W; Gerritsen, J J; Brummelkamp, W H

    2000-02-01

    Motility disturbances in the Roux loop can negatively influence the outcome of reflux gastritis; the uncut Roux loop does not have these disadvantages, but is less suitable for clinical application because of staple dehiscence. The reported "cut-closed-reconnected" Roux loop has the same physiological starting points as the uncut Roux loop, but a difference is an extra closure at the site of the seromuscular level. The technique of the cut-closed-reconnected Roux loop is described. After 1 year, the clinical findings in 8 patients were as follows: 1 patient free of symptoms, 4 with gastric pain, 2 patients vomited (1 bilious), and 1 felt fullness. Dehiscence of the closure could not be demonstrated by endoscopy, barium contrast roentgenography, and HIDA scan.

  5. Female genital mutilation/cutting: an update.

    PubMed

    Rouzi, A A; Alturki, F

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice involving several types of external female genitalia cutting. FGM/C is known to occur in all parts of the world but is most prevalent in 28 countries in Africa and the Middle East and among immigrant communities in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. Studies of FGM/C suffer from many methodological problems including inadequate analysis and an unclear reporting of results. The evidence to link FGM/C to infertility is weak. The management of epidermal clitoral inclusion cysts includes expensive investigations like comprehensive endocrinology tests and MRI resulting in unnecessary anxiety due to delay in surgical treatment. Similarly, unnecessary cesarean sections or rupture of the infibulation scar continue to occur because of the inadequate use of intrapartum defibulation. A significant amount of efforts is required to improve and correct the inadequate care of FGM/C women and girls.

  6. Cut-constructible part of QCD amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Britto, Ruth; Feng Bo; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo

    2006-05-15

    Unitarity cuts are widely used in analytic computation of loop amplitudes in gauge theories such as QCD. We expand upon the technique introduced in hep-ph/0503132 to carry out any finite unitarity cut integral. This technique naturally separates the contributions of bubble, triangle and box integrals in one-loop amplitudes and is not constrained to any particular helicity configurations. Loop momentum integration is reduced to a sequence of algebraic operations. We discuss the extraction of the residues at higher-order poles. Additionally, we offer concise algebraic formulas for expressing coefficients of three-mass triangle integrals. As an application, we compute all remaining coefficients of bubble and triangle integrals for nonsupersymmetric six-gluon amplitudes.

  7. Identifying ways to cut energy costs.

    PubMed

    Wright, Bill

    2013-05-01

    Few industry sectors have energy demands quite like healthcare. By definition, many buildings involved in treating the sick and injured need to be open 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Here the Electrical Contractors' Association's (ECA's) head of Energy Solutions, Bill Wright, describes some of the building improvements and technologies that he says are a 'sure fire way to cut energy costs', both in new-build projects, and during refurbishment of hospitals and other healthcare facilities.

  8. Asymmetric-cut monochromator with adjustable asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    A variable incident angle, asymmetric cut, double crystal monochromator was tested for use on beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). For both undulator and wiggler beams the monochromator can expand area of footprint of beam on surface of the crystals to 50 times the area of incident beam; this will reduce the slope errors by a factor of 2500. The asymmetric cut allows one to increase the acceptance angle for incident radiation and obtain a better match to the opening angle of the incident beam. This can increase intensity of the diffracted beam by a factor of 2 to 5 and can make the beam more monochromatic, as well. The monochromator consists of two matched, asymmetric cut (18 degrees), silicon crystals mounted so that they can be rotated about three independent axes. Rotation around the first axis controls the Bragg angle. The second rotation axis is perpendicular to the diffraction planes and controls the increase of the area of the footprint of the beam on the crystal surface. Rotation around the third axis controls the angle between the surface of the crystal and the wider, horizontal axis for the beam and can make the footprint a rectangle with a minimum. length for this area. The asymmetric cut is 18 degrees for the matched pair of crystals, which allows one to expand the footprint area by a factor of 50 for Bragg angles up to 19.15 degrees (6 keV for Si[111] planes). This monochromator, with proper cooling, will be useful for analyzing the high intensity x-ray beams produced by both undulators and wigglers at the APS.

  9. Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.

  10. Cutting Plane Algorithms for Maximum Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Bazaraa and Shetty (1979). For variational inequalities, references on the cutting plane approach are considerably less. Zuhovickii et al. (1969) (see...and can be expressed as a convex combination of a finite number of extreme points [see, e.g., Bazaraa et al., (1990)], For VI problems, both U and X are...unique solution (see, page 234 of Bazaraa and Shetty, 1979)., 32 Figure 4: A ’Strong’ Solution to a Variational Inequality Problem The rate of

  11. Concrete Cutting Refinement for Crater Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    case scenarios for saw cutting due to their hardness. By definition, hardness is the abrasion resistance of aggregate, which is usually measured...conditions (soft, medium, or abrasive rock). Figure 25 shows a diagram and a picture of the SM04 tooth. Figure 25. Wheel saw tooth. Kennametal SM04_...between the rates was 57 percent. This is not surprising as chert is much harder and more abrasion resistant than limestone. The Vermeer CC1531 with

  12. Robotic Tool For Tightening And Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooney, Earl T.

    1989-01-01

    Robot end effector designed for tightening tube couplers and for cutting tubes. Tool operable by simple movements and thus manipulated by technician wearing heavy protective clothing. Operates on principle of worm and pinion gear. Intended for use in building structures in space, end effector also used as hand tool for assembling truss structures for terrestrial buildings, tents, and oil rigs. Also used in place of pipe wrench in plumbing work.

  13. Diagnostics of Breakdown of Cutting Tools of Axial Cutting Head of the П110-04 Type Heading Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabaev, O. E.; Bridun, I. I.; Moroz, O. K.

    2017-06-01

    The operation of a heading machine with an out-of-work cutting tool can cause essential reduction of the machine element resource. The diagnostics of the cutting tool breakdown on the longitudinal axial cutting head in the real - time mode can be implemented on the basis of the spectral decomposition of the current of the cutting engine of the cutting unit. The ratio of the coefficients of the spectral decomposition corresponding to the cutting head rotation frequency and its threefold value can be the parameter under the diagnosis.

  14. Family planning funding cuts and teen childbearing.

    PubMed

    Packham, Analisa

    2017-09-01

    Publicly funded family planning clinics provide low-cost and free contraception to nearly 1.5 million teens each year. In recent years, several states have considered legislation to defund family planning services, although little is known about how these cuts affect teen pregnancy. This paper fills this knowledge gap by exploiting a policy change in Texas that reduced funding for family planning services by 67% and resulted in over 80 clinic closures. I estimate the effects of the funding cuts on teen health outcomes using a difference-in-differences approach that compares the changes in teen birth rates in Texas counties that lost family planning funding to changes in counties outside of Texas with publicly funded clinics. I find that reducing funding for family planning services in Texas increased teen birth rates by approximately 3.4% over four years with effects concentrated 2-3 years after the initial cuts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. High pressure waterjet cutting industrial needs survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavuhn, John; Baker, Bruce

    1989-08-01

    The results are presented of a survey conducted by personnel of the National Center for Excellence in Metalworking Technology (NCEMT) to assess the industrial needs in high pressure water jet cutting (WJC) technology. Survey forms were mailed to approximately 1400 individuals obtained from three mailing lists. The respondents included approximately 200 individuals associated with a variety of industries: 12 percent were WJC equipment suppliers, 40 percent were WJC users, and 48 percent were neither suppliers nor users. The survey addressed five specific areas of WJC technology: research and development, standards, systems, new products, and training and service. Results show that the need having the highest priority is the establishment of a database on WJC that contains the cutting parameters for a wide range of materials. Associated with this objective is the expressed need for an independent demonstration and test center for testing, data generation and operator training. A further need was found for establishing organized efforts in hardware development and research in mechanisms of cutting.

  16. Ritual genital cutting of female minors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Dena S

    2010-05-01

    The traditional custom of ritual cutting and alteration of the genitalia of female infants, children, and adolescents, referred to as female genital mutilation or female genital cutting (FGC), persists primarily in Africa and among certain communities in the Middle East and Asia. Immigrants in the United States from areas in which FGC is common may have daughters who have undergone a ritual genital procedure or may request that such a procedure be performed by a physician. The American Academy of Pediatrics believes that pediatricians and pediatric surgical specialists should be aware that this practice has life-threatening health risks for children and women. The American Academy of Pediatrics opposes all types of female genital cutting that pose risks of physical or psychological harm, counsels its members not to perform such procedures, recommends that its members actively seek to dissuade families from carrying out harmful forms of FGC, and urges its members to provide patients and their parents with compassionate education about the harms of FGC while remaining sensitive to the cultural and religious reasons that motivate parents to seek this procedure for their daughters.

  17. Stabilization/solidification of petroleum drill cuttings.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Sunday A; Stegemann, Julia A

    2010-02-15

    A systematic treatability study was conducted for the treatment of drill cuttings, a waste generated during petroleum exploration and production, by stabilization/solidification with Portland cement (CEM I), with the addition of high carbon power plant fly ash (HCFA), an industrial by-product, as a novel sorbent for organic contaminants. A factorial design experiment was adopted to investigate the effects of waste-to-binder ratio, binder formulation, and curing time on response variables including unconfined compressive strength (UCS), hydraulic conductivity, porosity, leachate pH, and acid neutralization capacity (ANC) of the s/s products. Results show that all factors had significant effects on the properties of the s/s products. Drill cuttings and HCFA addition both reduced UCS, but HCFA improved hydraulic conductivity, relative to CEM I only s/s products. Drill cuttings addition had little effect on the ANC of products prepared with CEM I only, and improved that of products containing HCFA. Management options assessment based on performance criteria adapted from regulatory and other guidance suggests that the s/s products could find application as controlled low-strength materials, landfill liner, and landfill daily cover. This work demonstrates how a systematic treatability study can be used to develop a s/s operating window for the management of a particular waste type.

  18. Cutting Silica Aerogel for Particle Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Glesias, R.; Grigoropoulos, C. P.; Weschler, M.

    2005-01-01

    The detailed laboratory analyses of extraterrestrial particles have revolutionized our knowledge of planetary bodies in the last three decades. This knowledge of chemical composition, morphology, mineralogy, and isotopics of particles cannot be provided by remote sensing. In order to acquire these detail information in the laboratories, the samples need be intact, unmelted. Such intact capture of hypervelocity particles has been developed in 1996. Subsequently silica aerogel was introduced as the preferred medium for intact capturing of hypervelocity particles and later showed it to be particularly suitable for the space environment. STARDUST, the 4th NASA Discovery mission to capture samples from 81P/Wild 2 and contemporary interstellar dust, is the culmination of these new technologies. In early laboratory experiments of launching hypervelocity projectiles into aerogel, there was the need to cut aerogel to isolate or extract captured particles/tracks. This is especially challenging for space captures, since there will be many particles/tracks of wide ranging scales closely located, even collocated. It is critical to isolate and extract one particle without compromising its neighbors since the full significance of a particle is not known until it is extracted and analyzed. To date, three basic techniques have been explored: mechanical cutting, lasers cutting and ion beam milling. We report the current findings.

  19. Finite pure integer programming algorithms employing only hyperspherically deduced cuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Three algorithms are developed that may be based exclusively on hyperspherically deduced cuts. The algorithms only apply, therefore, to problems structured so that these cuts are valid. The algorithms are shown to be finite.

  20. Cutting Salt a Health Boost for Kidney Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163628.html Cutting Salt a Health Boost for Kidney Patients Blood pressure ... Encouraging people with kidney disease to reduce their salt intake may help improve blood pressure and cut ...

  1. DETAIL VIEW OF CUTTING ROOMS SHOWING CULLETT CHUTES FOR WASTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF CUTTING ROOMS SHOWING CULLETT CHUTES FOR WASTE GLASS, LOOKING EAST - Chambers Window Glass Company, Cutting Room, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  2. When you are drinking too much - tips for cutting back

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol - drinking too much; Alcohol use disorder - drinking too much; Alcohol abuse - drinking too much; Risky drinking - cutting back ... This can help you cut back on your alcohol use. Keep track of how much you drink ...

  3. "BURBANK FARM" SHOWING BANK CUT CREATED WHEN BODEGA AVENUE ROADBED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "BURBANK FARM" SHOWING BANK CUT CREATED WHEN BODEGA AVENUE ROADBED WAS LOWERED. WPA STONE RETAINING WALL AT BASE OF CUT. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Gold Ridge Farm, 7777 Bodega Avenue, Sebastopol, Sonoma County, CA

  4. Low-cost orbiting grinder for cutting ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, E. J.

    1970-01-01

    Low-cost, portable machine cuts ducts made from heat-treated alloys. An abrasive wheel, powered by a high-speed air motor mounted on an expandible plug against the inner wall of the duct, gives precise cutting.

  5. On the Stability and Performance of Remote DOE Laser Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villumsen, Sigurd Lazic; Kristiansen, Morten; Olsen, Flemming O.

    When considering remote laser cutting, the literature often discusses two methods: remote fusion cutting (RFC) and remote ablation cutting. It has previously been hypothesised that remote cutting can be conducted by modifying the intensity profile of the laser beam by means of a diffractive optical element. In this study, the effect of travel speed, focus offset and angle of incidence on the stability of remote cutting with a customized beam pattern was investigated. The study is based on a set of remote cutting experiments conducted on a 3 kW single mode fiber laser in 0.5 mm stainless steel. The study showed that remote cutting is obtainable with speeds ranging from 800 mm/min-1600 mm/min by using an average laser power of 630 W. Furthermore, the experimental results showed that the cutting stability remained high for a larger range of incident angles.

  6. Influence of cutting parameters on the depth of subsurface deformed layer in nano-cutting process of single crystal copper.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanlong; Bai, Qingshun; Chen, Jiaxuan; Su, Hao; Wang, Zhiguo; Xie, Wenkun

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulation is performed to study the nano-cutting process of single crystal copper realized by single-point diamond cutting tool in this paper. The centro-symmetry parameter is adopted to characterize the subsurface deformed layers and the distribution and evolution of the subsurface defect structures. Three-dimensional visualization and measurement technology are used to measure the depth of the subsurface deformed layers. The influence of cutting speed, cutting depth, cutting direction, and crystallographic orientation on the depth of subsurface deformed layers is systematically investigated. The results show that a lot of defect structures are formed in the subsurface of workpiece during nano-cutting process, for instance, stair-rod dislocations, stacking fault tetrahedron, atomic clusters, vacancy defects, point defects. In the process of nano-cutting, the depth of subsurface deformed layers increases with the cutting distance at the beginning, then decreases at stable cutting process, and basically remains unchanged when the cutting distance reaches up to 24 nm. The depth of subsurface deformed layers decreases with the increase in cutting speed between 50 and 300 m/s. The depth of subsurface deformed layer increases with cutting depth, proportionally, and basically remains unchanged when the cutting depth reaches over 6 nm.

  7. 50 CFR Figures 18a, 18b and 18c to... - Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts (Triangular Cuts); Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts (Triangular Cuts); Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts and Leading Edge Cut; Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Points...—Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts (Triangular Cuts); Large Frame TED...

  8. 50 CFR Figures 18a, 18b and 18c to... - Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts (Triangular Cuts); Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts (Triangular Cuts); Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts and Leading Edge Cut; Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Points...—Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts (Triangular Cuts); Large Frame TED...

  9. 50 CFR Figures 18a, 18b and 18c to... - Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts (Triangular Cuts); Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts (Triangular Cuts); Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts and Leading Edge Cut; Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Points...—Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts (Triangular Cuts); Large Frame TED...

  10. 36 CFR 910.57 - Curb-cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Curb-cut. 910.57 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.57 Curb-cut. Curb-cut means that portion of the curb and sidewalk over which vehicular access is allowed. The number of access lanes for each curb-cut shall be specified...

  11. 36 CFR 910.57 - Curb-cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Curb-cut. 910.57 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.57 Curb-cut. Curb-cut means that portion of the curb and sidewalk over which vehicular access is allowed. The number of access lanes for each curb-cut shall be specified...

  12. 36 CFR 910.57 - Curb-cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Curb-cut. 910.57 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.57 Curb-cut. Curb-cut means that portion of the curb and sidewalk over which vehicular access is allowed. The number of access lanes for each curb-cut shall be specified...

  13. Long length cuttings from no. 2 common hardwood lumber

    Treesearch

    Edwin L. Lucas; Edwin L. Lucas

    1973-01-01

    Long length cuttings (up to 60 inches) are obtainable in abundance from No. 2 Common oak lumber. Cutting for the maximum area of clear one face (ClF) parts 18 to 60 inches in length, we found that 46 percent of all the cuttings were 36 inches long or longer. The recovery of the long length cuttings did not reduce the overall yield of parts produced from the lumber....

  14. Cutting cured carbon fiber composites using electrical discharge machining

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, A.B.; Crockett, T.; Merrell, R.S.; Dredge, J.D. Jr. )

    1991-04-01

    Traditionally, composite materials are cut using mechanical (solid tool) methods (drilling, milling, grinding, etc) or one of the newer cutting methods such as water jet or laser. All of these methods have serious disadvantages, especially when cutting sharp radii and/or working within close tolerances. The electrical discharge machining (EDM) method offers new opportunities to cut conductive composite materials (such as those containing carbon fibers) with excellent accuracy and minimum damage to the composite part.

  15. 49 CFR 234.269 - Cut-out circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cut-out circuits. 234.269 Section 234.269... circuits. Each cut-out circuit shall be tested at least once every three months to determine that the circuit functions as intended. For purposes of this section, a cut-out circuit is any circuit which...

  16. 49 CFR 234.269 - Cut-out circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cut-out circuits. 234.269 Section 234.269..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.269 Cut-out circuits. Each cut-out circuit shall be tested at least once every three months to determine that the circuit functions as intended. For purposes...

  17. 49 CFR 234.269 - Cut-out circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cut-out circuits. 234.269 Section 234.269... circuits. Each cut-out circuit shall be tested at least once every three months to determine that the circuit functions as intended. For purposes of this section, a cut-out circuit is any circuit which...

  18. 49 CFR 234.269 - Cut-out circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cut-out circuits. 234.269 Section 234.269..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.269 Cut-out circuits. Each cut-out circuit shall be tested at least once every three months to determine that the circuit functions as intended. For purposes...

  19. 49 CFR 234.269 - Cut-out circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cut-out circuits. 234.269 Section 234.269... circuits. Each cut-out circuit shall be tested at least once every three months to determine that the circuit functions as intended. For purposes of this section, a cut-out circuit is any circuit which...

  20. Validation of the standardized and simplified cutting bill

    Treesearch

    Urs Buehlmann; D. Earl Kline; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; R., Jr. Noble

    2008-01-01

    This research validated the framework for the standardized and simplified cutting bill presented in an earlier paper. The cutting bill validation was carried out in two ways. First, all 20 of the cutting bill's part groups were examined to determine if significant yield influences resulted from changing specific part sizes within the boundaries of a given part...

  1. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where timber may be cut. 223... AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.14 Where timber may be cut. (a) The cutting of trees, portions of trees or other forest products may be authorized on any National...

  2. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for use...

  3. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for use...

  4. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for use...

  5. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for use...

  6. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for use...

  7. Welding And Cutting A Nickel Alloy By Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banas, C. M.

    1990-01-01

    Technique effective and energy-efficient. Report describes evaluation of laser welding and cutting of Inconel(R) 718. Notes that electron-beam welding processes developed for In-718, but difficult to use on large or complex structures. Cutting of In-718 by laser fast and produces only narrow kerf. Cut edge requires dressing, to endure fatigue.

  8. Successful natural regeneration cuttings in California true firs.

    Treesearch

    Donald T. Gordon

    1979-01-01

    In stands of mixed white and red fir in northeastern California, cuttings for natural regeneration became well stocked with seedlings within 2 to 5 years after cutting. Seed tree and shelterwood cuttings, clearcut strips not more than 3 chains (60 m) wide, and patches not exceeding 4 chains (80 m) width were studied. Incidence of damage among residual trees in or...

  9. A comparison of two rough mill cutting models

    Treesearch

    Steven Ruddell; Henry Huber; Powsiri Klinkhachorn

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of lumber yield using the Automated Lumber Processing System (ALPS) Cutting Program and the Optimal Furniture Cutting Program (OFCP) was conducted on eight cutting bills. No.1 Common grade hard maple data files were compiled using a board database collected and used by the USDA Forest Service's Forest Products Laboratory to develop standard hardwood...

  10. Inheritance of fresh-cut fruit quality attributes in Capsicum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fresh-cut fruit and vegetable industry has expanded rapidly during the past decade, due to freshness, convenience and the high nutrition that fresh-cut produce offers to consumers. The current report evaluates the inheritance of postharvest attributes that contribute to pepper fresh-cut product...

  11. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis...

  12. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis...

  13. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.351 - Arc welding and cutting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arc welding and cutting. 1926.351 Section 1926.351 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Welding and Cutting § 1926.351 Arc welding and... for arc welding and cutting, and are of a capacity capable of safely handling the maximum...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are made...

  16. 21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. 886.4150 Section 886.4150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is an electrically...

  17. 49 CFR 213.122 - Torch cut rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.122 Section 213.122..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.122 Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used in Classes 3 through 5...

  18. 49 CFR 236.737 - Cut-section, relayed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cut-section, relayed. 236.737 Section 236.737..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.737 Cut-section, relayed. A cut-section where the energy for one track circuit is supplied through front contacts...

  19. 49 CFR 213.122 - Torch cut rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.122 Section 213.122..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.122 Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used in Classes 3 through 5...

  20. 21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. 886.4150 Section 886.4150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is an electrically...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are made...

  2. 49 CFR 229.93 - Safety cut-off device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety cut-off device. 229.93 Section 229.93 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 229.93 Safety cut-off device. The fuel line shall have a safety cut-off device that— (a) Is...

  3. 2 CFR 200.30 - Cross-cutting audit finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cross-cutting audit finding. 200.30 Section... AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.30 Cross-cutting audit finding. Cross-cutting audit finding means an audit finding where the same underlying condition or issue...

  4. 21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. 886.4150 Section 886.4150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is an electrically...

  5. 21 CFR 882.4190 - Clip forming/cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clip forming/cutting instrument. 882.4190 Section 882.4190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.../cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A clip forming/cutting instrument is a device used by the...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are made...

  7. 49 CFR 229.93 - Safety cut-off device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety cut-off device. 229.93 Section 229.93 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 229.93 Safety cut-off device. The fuel line shall have a safety cut-off device that— (a) Is...

  8. 49 CFR 229.93 - Safety cut-off device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety cut-off device. 229.93 Section 229.93 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 229.93 Safety cut-off device. The fuel line shall have a safety cut-off device that— (a) Is...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are made...

  10. 21 CFR 882.4190 - Clip forming/cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Clip forming/cutting instrument. 882.4190 Section 882.4190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.../cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A clip forming/cutting instrument is a device used by the...

  11. 49 CFR 236.737 - Cut-section, relayed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cut-section, relayed. 236.737 Section 236.737..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.737 Cut-section, relayed. A cut-section where the energy for one track circuit is supplied through front contacts...

  12. 21 CFR 882.4190 - Clip forming/cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clip forming/cutting instrument. 882.4190 Section 882.4190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.../cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A clip forming/cutting instrument is a device used by the...

  13. 49 CFR 213.122 - Torch cut rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.122 Section 213.122..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.122 Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used in Classes 3 through 5...

  14. 49 CFR 236.737 - Cut-section, relayed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cut-section, relayed. 236.737 Section 236.737..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.737 Cut-section, relayed. A cut-section where the energy for one track circuit is supplied through front contacts...

  15. 49 CFR 213.122 - Torch cut rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.122 Section 213.122..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.122 Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used in Classes 3 through 5...

  16. 49 CFR 236.737 - Cut-section, relayed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cut-section, relayed. 236.737 Section 236.737..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.737 Cut-section, relayed. A cut-section where the energy for one track circuit is supplied through front contacts...

  17. 49 CFR 229.93 - Safety cut-off device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety cut-off device. 229.93 Section 229.93 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 229.93 Safety cut-off device. The fuel line shall have a safety cut-off device that— (a) Is...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are made...

  19. 21 CFR 882.4190 - Clip forming/cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clip forming/cutting instrument. 882.4190 Section 882.4190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.../cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A clip forming/cutting instrument is a device used by the...

  20. 21 CFR 882.4190 - Clip forming/cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Clip forming/cutting instrument. 882.4190 Section 882.4190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.../cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A clip forming/cutting instrument is a device used by the...