Science.gov

Sample records for 19-m sodium hydroxide

  1. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  3. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  4. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  5. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  6. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH....

  12. Lifetime of Sodium Beta-Alumina Membranes in Molten Sodium Hydroxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 1 April 2007 – 01 April 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lifetime of Sodium Beta-alumina Membranes in Molten Sodium ...ABSTRACT Summary: Sodium metal can be made by electrolysis of molten sodium hydroxide in sodium beta-alumina membrane electrolysis cells...However, there are some uncertainties about the lifetime of the sodium beta-alumina membranes in contact with molten sodium hydroxide. The main objective

  13. 68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) BUILDING, LOOKING AT CAUSTIC SODA MEASURING TANKS. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  14. Sodium hydroxide catalyzed monodispersed high surface area silica nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bhakta, Snehasis; Dixit, Chandra K; Bist, Itti; Jalil, Karim Abdel; Suib, Steven L; Rusling, James F

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of the synthesis kinetics and our ability to modulate medium conditions allowed us to generate nanoparticles via an ultra-fast process. The synthesis medium is kept quite simple with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor and 50% ethanol and sodium hydroxide catalyst. Synthesis is performed under gentle conditions at 20 °C for 20 min Long synthesis time and catalyst-associated drawbacks are most crucial in silica nanoparticle synthesis. We have addressed both these bottlenecks by replacing the conventional Stober catalyst, ammonium hydroxide, with sodium hydroxide. We have reduced the overall synthesis time from 20 to 1/3 h, ~60-fold decrease, and obtained highly monodispersed nanoparticles with 5-fold higher surface area than Stober particles. We have demonstrated that the developed NPs with ~3-fold higher silane can be used as efficient probes for biosensor applications. PMID:27606068

  15. Sodium hydroxide catalyzed monodispersed high surface area silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhakta, Snehasis; Dixit, Chandra K.; Bist, Itti; Abdel Jalil, Karim; Suib, Steven L.; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding of the synthesis kinetics and our ability to modulate medium conditions allowed us to generate nanoparticles via an ultra-fast process. The synthesis medium is kept quite simple with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor and 50% ethanol and sodium hydroxide catalyst. Synthesis is performed under gentle conditions at 20 °C for 20 min Long synthesis time and catalyst-associated drawbacks are most crucial in silica nanoparticle synthesis. We have addressed both these bottlenecks by replacing the conventional Stober catalyst, ammonium hydroxide, with sodium hydroxide. We have reduced the overall synthesis time from 20 to 1/3 h, ∼60-fold decrease, and obtained highly monodispersed nanoparticles with 5-fold higher surface area than Stober particles. We have demonstrated that the developed NPs with ∼3-fold higher silane can be used as efficient probes for biosensor applications.

  16. Engineering evaluation of a sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perdue, D. G.; Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    An engineering evaluation of thermal energy storage prototypes was performed in order to assess the development status of latent heat storage media. The testing and the evaluation of a prototype sodium hydroxide module is described. This module stored off-peak electrical energy as heat for later conversion to domestic hot water needs.

  17. IR manifestation of water intermediates formation with sodium hydroxide and sodium salts in KBr matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinvald, I. I.; Vorotyntsev, V. M.; Vorotyntsev, I. V.; Kalagaev, I. Yu.; Vorotyntsev, A. V.; Salkina, S. V.; Petukhov, A. N.; Spirin, I. A.; Grushevskaya, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    The association of water with sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and sodium nitrate in a KBr matrix at room temperature, exhibited by FTIR data, was established. It was found that water intermediates form due to the intermolecular hydrogen bond and can be stabilized in the solid phase. The revealed clusters can exist in several shape of hydrates shell with different geometry and number of involved water molecules.

  18. Electrochemical Recovery of Sodium Hydroxide from Alkaline Salt Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1996-10-01

    A statistically designed set of tests determined the effects of current density, temperature, and the concentrations of nitrate/nitrite, hydroxide and aluminate on the recovery of sodium as sodium hydroxide (caustic) from solutions simulating those produced from the Savannah River Site (SRS) In-Tank Precipitation process. These tests included low nitrate and nitrite concentrations which would be produced by electrolytic nitrate/nitrite destruction. The tests used a two compartment electrochemical cell with a Nafion Type 324 ion-exchange membrane. Caustic was successfully recovered from the waste solutions. Evaluation of the testing results indicated that the transport of sodium across the membrane was not significantly affected by any of the varied parameters. The observed variance in the sodium flux is attributed to experimental errors and variations in the performance characteristics of individual pieces of the organic-based Nafion membrane.Additional testing is recommended to determine the maximum current density, to evaluate the chemical durability of the organic membrane as a function of current density and to compare the durability and performance characteristics of the organic-based Nafion membrane with that of other commercially available organic membranes and the inorganic class of membranes under development by Ceramatec and PNNL.

  19. Sodium hydroxide anodization of Ti-Al-4V adherends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filbey, Jennifer A.; Wightman, J. P.; Progar, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    The use of sodium hydroxide anodization (SHA) for Ti-6Al-4V adherends is examined. The SHA surface is evaluated using SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy. The SHA procedures of Kennedy et al. (1983) were employed in this experiment. The photomicrographs of the SHA (sandblasted) and PSHA (sandblasted and pickled) oxide surface reveal that the two surfaces differ. The PSHA is patchy and similar to a chromic acid anodization surface and the porosity of the PSHA is more uniform than the SHA surface. The compositions of the surfaces are studied. It is noted that SHA is an effective pretreatment for Ti-6Al-4V adherends.

  20. Pseudo-hydroxide extraction in the separation of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solutions using alkyl phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hyun Ah; Moyer, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    Pseudo-hydroxide extraction of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solution using four alkyl phenols of nearly identical molecular weight in 1-octanol at 25 degrees C was examined to understand the effect of alkyl substituents. The order of extraction strength among the four alkyl phenols tested was 4-tert-octylphenol. 3,5-di-tertbutylphenol. 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol. A good correlation with phenol pK(a) was observed, indicating that extraction strength is determined by phenol acidity, as modified by steric effects in proximity to the phenol - OH group. The effective partition ratios (P-eff) of two phenols from 1 M NaOH solution were determined, showing that the phenols remain predominantly in the 1-octanol phase even when converted to their sodium salts. However, the hydrophobicity of the tested phenols may not be sufficient for process purposes. The equilibrium constants for the governing extraction equilibria were determined by modeling the data using the program SXLSQI, supporting the cation-exchange extraction mechanism. The proposed mechanism consists of two simple sets of equilibria for a. Ion-pair extraction to give Na+OH- ion pairs and corresponding free ions in 1-octanol the phase and b. Cation exchange by monomeric phenol molecules (HAs) to form monomeric organic-phase Na(+)A(-) ion pairs and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  1. Extended development of a sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. E.; Rowny, P. E.; Cohen, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    The post-test evaluation of a single heat exchanger sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module for use in solar electric generation is reported. Chemical analyses of the storage medium used in the experimental model are presented. The experimental verification of the module performance using an alternate heat transfer fluid, Caloria HT-43, is described. Based on these results, a design analysis of a dual heat exchanger concept within the storage module is presented. A computer model and a reference design for the dual system (storage working fluid/power cycle working fluid) were completed. The dual system is estimated to have a capital cost of approximately one half that of the single heat exchanger concept.

  2. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.60 Section 415.60 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide...

  3. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.60 Section 415.60 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide...

  4. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.60 Section 415.60 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide...

  5. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.60 Section 415.60 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide...

  6. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.60 Section 415.60 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide...

  7. Catalytic and inhibiting effects of lithium peroxide and hydroxide on sodium chlorate decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, J.C.; Zhang, Y.

    1995-09-01

    Chemical oxygen generators based on sodium chlorate and lithium perchlorate are used in airplanes, submarines, diving, and mine rescue. Catalytic decomposition of sodium chlorate in the presence of cobalt oxide, lithium peroxide, and lithium hydroxide is studied using thermal gravimetric analysis. Lithium peroxide and hydroxide are both moderately active catalysts for the decomposition of sodium chlorate when used alone, and inhibitors when used with the more active catalyst cobalt oxide.

  8. Reactions of cumene hydroperoxide mixed with sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Hou, Hung-Yi; Shu, Chi-Min; Tsai, Tung-Lin

    2008-04-15

    Decomposition of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) was undertaken in a free radical chain reaction. The peroxyl group is very active and unstable, while the remainder of the molecule is inert. CHP reacted with various concentrations of dilute sodium hydroxide as a catalyst to cleave at ambient and decomposition temperature. The products were verified by GC/MS, and were quantitatively analyzed by chromatography. CHP cleaved heterolytic with NaOH at 250 degrees C, whose major product was dimethylphenyl carbinol (DMPC); however, the main products become acetophenone and alpha-methylstyrene by cleaved homolytic pathway. The catalytic concentrations of NaOH significantly affected the branch ratios of DMPC under decomposition. Based on the experimental results, a radical cleavage mechanism was proposed. To sum up, the reaction parameters, such as temperature, Lewis base, etc., could affect the incompatibilities and decomposition pathways for proper CHP cleavage process. In addition, exothermic onset temperatures (T0) and heat of decomposition (Delta Hd) of incompatible mixtures and CHP itself were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Comparisons of T0, Delta Hd and peak power were assessed to corroborate the severity of thermal hazards. From the decay rate of CHP concentration, the reaction order was determined to be 0.5, and the Arrhenius parameters were measured as Ea=92.1 kJ/mol and frequency factor A=2.42 x 10(10)min(-1).

  9. The mechanism of thermal-gradient mass transfer in the sodium hydroxide-nickel system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Charles E

    1958-01-01

    "Thermal-gradient mass transfer" was investigated in the molten sodium hydroxide-nickel system. Possible mechanisms (physical, electrochemical, and chemical) are discussed in terms of experimental and theoretical evidence. Experimental details are included in appendixes.

  10. Detection of interstellar sodium hydroxide in self-absorption toward the galactic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Rhodes, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    A weak self-absorbed emission line, which is identified as the J = 4-3 transition of sodium hydroxide, has been detected in the direction of Sgr B2(OH). The correspondingly weak Sgr B2(QH) emission line U75406, previously reported as an unidentified spectral feature by other investigators, is consistent with the J = 3-2 transition of sodium hydroxide. This detection may represent the first evidence of a grain reaction formation mechanism for simple metal hydroxides. The detection of H62 Delta toward Orion A is also reported.

  11. Associating cooking additives with sodium hydroxide to pretreat bamboo residues for improving the enzymatic saccharification and monosaccharides production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Caoxing; He, Juan; Wang, Yan; Min, Douyong; Yong, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    Cooking additive pulping technique is used in kraft mill to increase delignification degree and pulp yield. In this work, cooking additives were firstly applied in the sodium hydroxide pretreatment for improving the bioconversion of bamboo residues to monosaccharides. Meanwhile, steam explosion and sulfuric acid pretreatments were also carried out on the sample to compare their impacts on monosaccharides production. Results indicated that associating anthraquinone with sodium hydroxide pretreatment showed the best performance in improving the original carbohydrates recovery, delignification, enzymatic saccharification, and monosaccharides production. After consecutive pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification process, 347.49 g, 307.48 g, 142.93 g, and 87.15 g of monosaccharides were released from 1000 g dry bamboo residues pretreated by sodium hydroxide associating with anthraquinone, sodium hydroxide, steam explosion and sulfuric acid, respectively. The results suggested that associating cooking additive with sodium hydroxide is an effective pretreatment for bamboo residues to enhance enzymatic saccharification for monosaccharides production.

  12. An empirical model to estimate density of sodium hydroxide solution: An activator of geopolymer concretes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamane, N. P.; Nataraja, M. C.; Jeyalakshmi, R.; Nithiyanantham, S.

    2016-02-01

    Geopolymer concrete is zero-Portland cement concrete containing alumino-silicate based inorganic polymer as binder. The polymer is obtained by chemical activation of alumina and silica bearing materials, blast furnace slag by highly alkaline solutions such as hydroxide and silicates of alkali metals. Sodium hydroxide solutions of different concentrations are commonly used in making GPC mixes. Often, it is seen that sodium hydroxide solution of very high concentration is diluted with water to obtain SHS of desired concentration. While doing so it was observed that the solute particles of NaOH in SHS tend to occupy lower volumes as the degree of dilution increases. This aspect is discussed in this paper. The observed phenomenon needs to be understood while formulating the GPC mixes since this influences considerably the relationship between concentration and density of SHS. This paper suggests an empirical formula to relate density of SHS directly to concentration expressed by w/w.

  13. Thermochemical analysis of laterite ore alkali roasting: Comparison of sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadhi, Tjokorde Walmiki

    2017-01-01

    The abundance of global nickel reserve is in fact dominated by low grade laterite ores containing only approximately 1.0-1.8 %-Ni. Indonesia is a major limonite and saprolite ores source, particularly in the Sulawesi, northern Maluku, and Papua islands. Production of nickel from laterites typically requires a pre-concentration step which breaks down the mineral crystalline structure, thereby facilitating the subsequent extraction of the valuable metals. This work discusses the thermochemical analysis of the alkali roasting of an Indonesian saprolite ore using Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH. These alkali compounds are selected due to their relatively low cost. The Factsage thermochemical computation package is used to predict thermodynamically stable gaseous, solution, pure liquid, and pure solid phases present in the roasting process at temperatures from 100 to 1200°C at ambient pressure, in inert atmosphere. The formation of a liquid solution (or slag) phase is interpreted as a major indicator of mineral structure breakdown. The computed slag formation temperatures are 373.2, 1041.4, and 792.0°C when using Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH, respectively. The masses of volatilized alkali at 1200°C with a total feed mass of 100 gram are 0.49, 3.24, and 3.25 mg for Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH, respectively. It is therefore hypothesized that Na2CO3 is the most competitive sodium-based alkali for saprolite ore roasting.

  14. Accidental contamination of a German town's drinking water with sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Lendowski, Luba; Färber, Harald; Holy, Andreas; Darius, Anke; Ehrich, Bernd; Wippermann, Christine; Küfner, Bernd; Exner, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Case report of a very serious drinking water incident putting up to 50,000 inhabitants of a town near Bonn in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany at risk. A concentrated solution of highly alkaline water by sodium hydroxide was accidentally washed into the town's drinking water at a pumping station and increased the pH-value of the water to 12. Residents who came into contact with the contaminated water immediately had a toxic reaction. The incident was detected by complaints from customers and after that was stopped within several hours. The pipes were flushed and the customers were warned not to use the water till the all clear. After this immediate management there was an investigation and the cause of the incident was detected as an accidental release of accumulated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The lack of a network alarm system and the automatic cut-off mechanisms as deficiencies in the design of the station were rectified by the water company immediately after the incident.

  15. Influence and hydrolysis kinetics in titanyl sulfate solution from the sodium hydroxide molten salt method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weijing; Chen, Desheng; Chu, Jinglong; Li, Jie; Xue, Tianyan; Wang, Lina; Wang, Dong; Qi, Tao

    2013-10-01

    Hydrated titanium dioxide (HTD) was precipitated by thermal hydrolysis in purified titanyl sulfate solution (TSS) obtained through the sodium hydroxide molten salt clean method. Various factors including the stirring speed and initial concentrations of TiOSO4, sulfuric acid, and sodium ion were studied. The main influence factors in the hydrolysis process were the initial concentrations of TiOSO4 and sulfuric acid. Contrary to the ferrous ion, the sodium ion improved the ionic activity of Ti4+, but did not decrease the crystal size. The Boltzman growth model (x=A2+(A1-A2)/{1+exp[(t-t0)/dt)]}, which focuses on two main parameters (CTiOSO4 and CH2SO4), fits the hydrolysis process well with R2>0.97. An increase in sulfuric acid concentration negatively affected the hydrolysis rates and the value of A2, while t0 increased. An increase in titanyl sulfate concentration directly reduced the hydrolysis rates and particle size of HTD, contrary to the trend for the value of t0. A simulation software called 1stopt was used to observe the relationship between Z (A1, A2, t0, dt) and a, b (CTiO2 and CH2SO4).

  16. Effects of sodium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and gaseous hydrogen peroxide on the natural properties of cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Bi, Long; Li, De-Cheng; Huang, Zhao-Song; Yuan, Zhi

    2013-07-01

    Processed xenegeneic cancellous bone represents an alternative to bone autograft. In order to observe the effects of present prion inactivation treatments on the natural properties of xenogeneic cancellous bones, we treated bovine bone granules with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and gaseous hydrogen peroxide (gH2 O2 ) respectively in this study. The microstructure, composition, and mineral content of the granules were evaluated by scanning electron micrograph, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, ash analysis, and micro-computed tomography. The biomechanical property was analyzed by a materials testing machine. The cytocompatibility was evaluated by using a mouse fibroblast cell line (3T3). The microstructure, organic content, and mechanical strength were dramatically altered at the surface of bone in both NaOH- and NaOCl-treated groups, but not in the gH2 O2 -treated group. Compared with the gH2 O2 -treated group, attachment and proliferation of 3T3 were reduced in either NaOH- or NaOCl-treated groups. As the consequence, gH2 O2 treatment may be a useful approach of disinfection for the preparation of natural cancellous bone with well-preserved structural, mechanical, and biological properties.

  17. [Conservative treatment improved corrosive esophagitis and pneumomediastinum in a patient who ingested bleaching agent containing sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Iseki, Ken; Ozawa, Akiko; Tominaga, Aya; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Otani, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    A 69-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department 3 hours after ingestion of a bleaching agent containing hypochlorous acid and sodium hydroxide in a suicide attempt. Enhanced chest computed tomography scans taken on admission indicated an edematous esophagus and air bubbles in the mediastinum. He underwent endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation until day 9 because of laryngeal edema. On day 10, his endoscopy indicated diffuse reddish mucosal hyperemia, erosions, and lacerated mucosal lesions in the esophagus that were indicative of grade 2b corrosive esophagitis. Treatment with a proton pump inhibitor was initiated, with which the condition of the esophagus improved, and on day 44, a slight stricture of the upper part of the esophagus was observed. He was discharged on day 64 without any complaints. The ingestion of sodium hypochlorite induces corrosive esophagitis and acute phase of gastritis. Ingestion of any corrosive agent is known as a risk factor for esophagus cancer in the long-term. In such cases with esophageal stricture, esophagectomy is recommended for preventing esophagus cancer. Considering the age of the patient, however, he did not undergo esophagectomy.

  18. THE KINETICS OF SAPONIFICATION OF IODOACETIC ACID BY SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND BY CERTAIN ALKALINE BUFFER SOLUTIONS.

    PubMed

    Brdicka, R

    1936-07-20

    1. The rate of the saponification of iodoacetic acid in sodium hydroxide and alkaline buffer solutions yielding glycollic acid was measured by means of Heyrovský's polarographic method. 2. From the bimolecular velocity constants, increasing with the ionic strength of the solution, the Brönsted factor, F, which characterizes the primary salt effect, was calculated. 3. In the borate buffer solutions the monomolecular constants of the saponification were determined which, at values above the pH of neutralization of boric acid, show a proportionality to the concentration of hydroxyl anions. Below the pH of neutralization of boric acid, they are proportional to the concentration of borate anions.

  19. Human skin buffering capacity against a reference base sodium hydroxide: in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Ayer, Jean; Maibach, Howard I

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses the possibility of using an in vitro model as an introduction to clinical human models for evaluating the buffering capacity of skin when an irritant is topically applied. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was utilized as a model base with a view to elucidate information on preventing and/or treating base-induced damage and better understand buffering mechanisms. NaOH was evaluated in 3 concentrations (0.1N, 0.05N, and 0.025N) to determine if the skin's ability to buffer these solutions was dependent on the concentration of the topically applied solution. De-ionized water (negative control) and unexposed skin (blank control) were also utilized. The model permitted quantitative estimates of buffering capacity and its rapid diminution.

  20. The Solubility of Microcrystalline Cellulose in Sodium Hydroxide Solution Is Inconsistent with International Specifications.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Hanayo; Tamura, Yoshinaga; Kamei, Ichiro; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is used globally as an inactive ingredient in food and nutraceutical products and is commonly used as a food additive. To confirm the conformity of MCC to the solubility requirements stipulated in international specifications, the solubilities of commercially available MCC products were tested in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. All of the samples were insoluble in NaOH solution, which is inconsistent with the descriptions provided in international specifications. We also prepared celluloses with different degree of polymerization (DP) values by acid hydrolysis. Celluloses with lower DP were prepared using a three-step process, and their solubilities were tested in NaOH solution. These celluloses were found to be insoluble, which is inconsistent with the descriptions provided in international specifications. The present study suggests that the descriptions of the solubility of the celluloses in NaOH solution found in the current international specifications should be revised.

  1. Effect of Berry Size and Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment on the Drying Characteristics of Blueberries under Infrared Radiation Heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research studied the effect on the drying characteristics of blueberries under infrared radiation (IR) heating of berry size and dipping pretreatment in hot sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Changes in the microstructure and diffusion coefficient of the berries after the NaOH pretreatment were...

  2. Sedimentation and deformation of an aqueous sodium hydroxide drop in vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Andrew; Hyacinthe, Hyaquino; Ward, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The addition of water droplets in fuels is known to provide benefits such as decreased Nitrous Oxide NOx emissions. Unfortunately the shelf life of a water-fuel emulsion is limited by the sedimentation rate of the water droplets. It is well known that adding surfactants can significantly slow the sedimentation rate due to the introduction of Marangoni stresses. In the case of a vegetable oil fuel, adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the water droplets will produce surfactants through saponification in the form of sodium-carboxylate salts. Pendant drops of aqueous NaOH solutions with pH between 11 and 13 will be suspended in several oils such as corn, olive, canola and soybean oil in order to measure the interfacial tension. The change in interfacial tension with time will be used to estimate the surfactant concentration and the saponification rate. Then individual drops will be placed in the oils to observe the settling velocity and drop deformation. NSF CBET.

  3. Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zaini, Mariana Binti Mohd; Badri, Khairiah Haji

    2014-09-03

    This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber.

  4. Optimization of isolation of cellulose from orange peel using sodium hydroxide and chelating agents.

    PubMed

    Bicu, Ioan; Mustata, Fanica

    2013-10-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize cellulose recovery from orange peel using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as isolation reagent, and to minimize its ash content using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as chelating agent. The independent variables were NaOH charge, EDTA charge and cooking time. Other two constant parameters were cooking temperature (98 °C) and liquid-to-solid ratio (7.5). The dependent variables were cellulose yield and ash content. A second-order polynomial model was used for plotting response surfaces and for determining optimum cooking conditions. The analysis of coefficient values for independent variables in the regression equation showed that NaOH and EDTA charges were major factors influencing the cellulose yield and ash content, respectively. Optimum conditions were defined by: NaOH charge 38.2%, EDTA charge 9.56%, and cooking time 317 min. The predicted cellulose yield was 24.06% and ash content 0.69%. A good agreement between the experimental values and the predicted was observed.

  5. Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaini, Mariana Binti Mohd; Badri, Khairiah Haji

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber.

  6. Electrochemical screening of organic and inorganic inhibitors for the corrosion of ASTM A-470 steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution

    SciTech Connect

    Moccari, A.; MacDonald, D.D.

    1985-05-01

    The corrosion of ASTM A-470 turbine disk steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (10 mol/kg) containing sodium silicate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium chromate, aniline and some of its derivatives, tannic acid, L-(-)-phenylalanine (aminopropionic acid) and octadecylamine as potential inhibitors has been studied using the potentiodynamic, AC impedance, and Tafel extrapolation techniques. All tests were performed at 115 + or - 2 C. The anodic and cathodic polarization data show that aniline and its derivatives, L-(-)-phenylalanine, NaH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, Na/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/, and Na/sub 2/CrO/sub 4/ inhibit the anodic process, whereas tannic acid inhibits the cathodic reaction. Octadecylamine was found to inhibit both the anodic and cathodic processes. The mechanisms of inhibition for some of these compounds have been inferred from the wide band width frequency dispersions of the interfacial impedance.

  7. Recycling dead hens by enzyme or sodium hydroxide pretreatment and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, W K; Patterson, P H

    2000-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the recycling of whole dead hens into feed ingredients by enzyme or sodium hydroxide pretreatment and fermentation. Evaluation criteria included nutrient preservation, pathogenic microorganism elimination, and assays of nutritional quality. The pH levels of enzyme- and NaOH-treated hen carcasses decreased from 6.01 and 7.66 to 4.18 and 4.24, respectively, during the 21-d fermentation. Hydrogen sulfide levels were not detected on Days 1 and 3 from the enzyme treatment; however, high levels (800 ppm) were measured from the NaOH treatments. By Day 21, H2S levels of both treatments had decreased to 78 ppm. The control, enzyme, and NaOH treatments before fermentation contained high levels of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus; however, after fermentation, these potential pathogens were eliminated in the enzyme and NaOH treatments. Levels of CP, EE, and ash of the control product were higher than either the enzyme or NaOH treatment. NaOH reduced pepsin digestibility by 11% compared to the enzyme treatment. In a bioassay, the chicks fed control autoclaved hen meal (CHM) had higher (P < 0.05) feed intake, weight gain, protein efficiency ratio (PER), and net protein ratio (NPR) than enzyme-treated, fermented, and autoclaved hen meal (EHM) or NaOH-treated, fermented, and autoclaved hen meal (NHM). However, the AMEn of the CHM and EHM were higher than the NHM (P < 0.05) when evaluated using mature cockerels. These results indicated that fermentation processing of dead hens reduced the concentration of some nutrients and depressed growth performance when hen meals were fed to young chicks.

  8. Simultaneous determination of ampicillin and sulbactam by liquid chromatography: post-column reaction with sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite using an active hollow-fibre membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Haginaka, J; Nishimura, Y

    1990-10-26

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ampicillin (ABPC) and sulbactam (SBT) in serum and urine. The method involves separation of ABPC and SBT from the background components of serum and urine on a C18 column, post-column reaction with sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite using an active hollow-fibre membrane reactor, and detection at 270 nm. At ABPC and SBT concentrations of 10 and 5 micrograms/ml in urine and serum samples, the precisions (relative standard deviations) were 0.9-2.5% (n = 8). The detection limits were 20 and 5 ng for ABPC and SBT, respectively, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3.

  9. Enhancement of In Situ Enzymatic Saccharification of Corn Stover by a Stepwise Sodium Hydroxide and Organic Acid Pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Qing, Qing; Guo, Qi; Zhou, Linlin; He, Yucai; Wang, Liqun; Zhang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    A stepwise pretreatment method that combines sodium hydroxide and organic acid pretreatments was proposed and investigated to maximize the recovery of main constituents of lignocellulose. The sodium hydroxide pretreatment was firstly optimized by a designed orthogonal experiment with the optimum pretreatment conditions determined as 1 wt% NaOH at 70 °C for 1 h, and 60.42 % of lignin was successfully removed during this stage. In the second stage, 0.5 % acetic acid was selected to pretreat the first-stage solid residue at 80 °C for 40 min in order to decompose hemicelluloses to soluble oligomers or monomers. Then, the whole slurry was subjected to in situ enzymatic saccharification by cellullase with a supplementation of xylanase to further degrade the xylooligosaccharides generated during the acetic acid pretreatment. The maximum reducing sugar and glucose yields achieved were 20.74 and 12.03 g/L, respectively. Furthermore, rapid ethanol fermentation and a yield of 80.3 % also testified this pretreatment method, and the in situ saccharification did not bring any negative impact on ethanol fermentation and has a broad application prospect.

  10. Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology—High Hydroxide Leaching: FY10 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Neiner, Doinita; Peterson, Reid A.; Rapko, Brian M.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2011-02-04

    Boehmite leaching tests were carried out at NaOH concentrations of 10 M and 12 M, temperatures of 85°C and 60°C, and a range of initial aluminate concentrations. These data, and data obtained during earlier 100°C tests using 1 M and 5 M NaOH, were used to establish the dependence of the boehmite dissolution rate on hydroxide concentration, temperature, and initial aluminate concentration. A semi-empirical kinetic model for boehmite leaching was fitted to the data and used to calculate the NaOH additions required for leaching at different hydroxide concentrations. The optimal NaOH concentration for boehmite leaching at 85°C was estimated, based on minimizing the amount of Na that had to be added in NaOH to produce a given boehmite conversion.

  11. Effects of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Aluminate on the Precipitation of Aluminum Containing Species in Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V; Hobbs, David T; Parker, Kent E; McCready, David E; Wang, Li Q

    2006-11-30

    Aluminisilicate deposit buildup experienced during the tank waste volume-reduction process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) required an evaporator to be shut down. Studies were conducted at 80°C to identify the insoluble aluminosilicate phase(s) and to determine the kinetics of their formation and transformation. These tests were carried out under conditions more similar to those that occur in HLW tanks and evaporators. Comparison of our results with those reported from the site show very similar trends. Initially, an amorphous phase precipitates followed by a zeolite phase that transforms to sodalite and which finally converts to cancrinite. Our results also show the expected trend of an increased rate of transformation into denser aluminosilicate phases (sodalite and cancrinite) with time and increasing hydroxide concentrations.

  12. Ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sodium hydroxide treated corn stover using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Gloeophyllum trabeum.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Micky; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-04-01

    Ethanol was produced via the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of dilute sodium hydroxide treated corn stover. Saccharification was achieved by cultivating either Phanerochaete chrysosporium or Gloeophyllum trabeum on the treated stover, and fermentation was then performed by using either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Escherichia coli K011. Ethanol production was highest on day 3 for the combination of G. trabeum and E. coli K011 at 6.68 g/100g stover, followed by the combination of P. chrysosporium and E. coli K011 at 5.00 g/100g stover. SSF with S. cerevisiae had lower ethanol yields, ranging between 2.88 g/100g stover at day 3 (P. chrysosporium treated stover) and 3.09 g/100g stover at day 4 (G. trabeum treated stover). The results indicated that mild alkaline pretreatment coupled with fungal saccharification offers a promising bioprocess for ethanol production from corn stover without the addition of commercial enzymes.

  13. ALUMINUM READINESS EVALUATION FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENRATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; MASSIE HL

    2011-01-27

    A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

  14. The enthalpies of solution of VOCl3 in dilute solutions of sodium hydroxide and the standard enthalpy of formation of liquid VOCl3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, N. G.; Romodanovskii, P. A.; Gridchin, S. N.; Vorob'ev, P. N.

    2010-01-01

    The enthalpies of solution of liquid vanadium oxytrichloride in dilute solutions of sodium hydroxide were determined by direct calorimetric measurements at 298.15 K and ionic strength values I = 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 (NaClO4). The experimental data were used to calculate the standard enthalpy of formation of liquid VOCl3.

  15. Enthalpy of solution of VOCl3 in dilute sodium hydroxide solutions and the standard enthalpy of formation of the HVO{4/2-} ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romodanovskii, P. A.; Vorob'ev, P. N.; Dmitrieva, N. G.; Gridchin, S. N.

    2007-12-01

    The calorimetric enthalpies of solution of liquid vanadium oxytrichloride in dilute sodium hydroxide solutions were measured at 298.15 K and ionic strengths I = 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 (NaClO4). The standard enthalpy of formation of the HVO{4/2-} ion was calculated from the measured data.

  16. Structural and surface functionality changes in reticulated vitreous carbon produced from poly(furfuryl alcohol) with sodium hydroxide additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Silvia Sizuka; Botelho, Edson Cocchieri; Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira; Ferreira, Neidenêi Gomes

    2017-02-01

    The use of sodium hydroxide to neutralize the acid catalyst increases the storage life of poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) resin avoiding its continuous polymerization. In this work, a concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) was added directly to the PFA resin in order to minimize the production of wastes generated when PFA is washed with diluted basic solution. Thus, different amounts of this concentrated basic solution were added to the resin up to reaching pH values of around 3, 5, 7, and 9. From these four types of modified PFA two sample sets of reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) were processed and heat treated at two different temperatures (1000 and 1700 °C). A correlation among cross-link density of PFA and RVC morphology, structural ordering and surface functionalities was systematically studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The PFA neutralization (pH 7) led to its higher polymerization degree, promoting a crystallinity decrease on RVC treated at 1000 °C as well as its highest percentages of carboxylic groups on surface. A NaOH excess (pH 9) substantially increased the RVC oxygen content, but its crystallinity remained similar to those for samples from pH 3 and 5 treated at 1000 °C, probably due to the reduced presence of carboxylic group and the lower polymerization degree of its cured resin. Samples with pH 3 and 5 heat treated at 1000 and 1700 °C can be considered the most ordered which indicated that small quantities of NaOH may be advantageous to minimize continuous polymerization of PFA resin increasing its storage life and improving RVC microstructure.

  17. Heat capacities of aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide and water ionization up to 300 °C at 10 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrödle, Simon; Königsberger, Erich; May, Peter M.; Hefter, Glenn

    2008-07-01

    A commercial (Setaram C80) calorimeter has been modified to measure the heat capacities of highly caustic solutions at temperatures up to 300 °C and pressures up to 20 MPa. The improvements have allowed more accurate determination of the isobaric volumetric heat capacities of chemically aggressive liquids at high temperatures. Test measurements with aqueous solutions of sodium chloride showed a reproducibility of about ±0.1%, with an accuracy of ˜0.3% or better, over the whole temperature range. Heat capacities of aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide at concentrations from 0.5 to 8 mol/kg were measured at temperatures from 50 to 300 °C and a pressure of 10 MPa. Apparent molar isobaric heat capacities of NaOH(aq) were calculated using densities determined previously for the same solutions by vibrating-tube densimetry. Standard state (infinite dilution) partial molar isobaric heat capacities of NaOH(aq) were obtained by extrapolation using an extended Redlich-Meyer equation. Values of the standard heat capacity change for the ionization of water up to 300 °C were derived by combining the present results with the literature data for HCl(aq) and NaCl(aq).

  18. Optimization of hydrolysis and volatile fatty acids production from sugarcane filter cake: Effects of urea supplementation and sodium hydroxide pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Batista, Karla; Weinrich, Sören; Sträuber, Heike; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Different methods for optimization the anaerobic digestion (AD) of sugarcane filter cake (FC) with a special focus on volatile fatty acids (VFA) production were studied. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment at different concentrations was investigated in batch experiments and the cumulative methane yields fitted to a dual-pool two-step model to provide an initial assessment on AD. The effects of nitrogen supplementation in form of urea and NaOH pretreatment for improved VFA production were evaluated in a semi-continuously operated reactor as well. The results indicated that higher NaOH concentrations during pretreatment accelerated the AD process and increased methane production in batch experiments. Nitrogen supplementation resulted in a VFA loss due to methane formation by buffering the pH value at nearly neutral conditions (∼ 6.7). However, the alkaline pretreatment with 6g NaOH/100g FCFM improved both the COD solubilization and the VFA yield by 37%, mainly consisted by n-butyric and acetic acids.

  19. ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION SUMMARY OF PRIOR LAB-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

    2011-01-27

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  20. Pseudohydroxide Extraction from Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Solutions with 3,5-di-tert-Butylphenol in Isopar® L Modified with 1-Octanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2006-06-01

    Pseudohydroxide extraction (PHE) was investigated for recovery of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) from alkaline process solutions. PHE relies on the deprotonation of a lipophilic weak acid by hydroxide ion with concomitant transfer of sodium ion into an organic phase. Contact of the sodium-loaded organic phase with water results in the reconstitution of the extractant in the organic phase and NaOH in the aqueous phase, thus leading to a process in which NaOH equivalents are transferred from an alkaline feed solution to an aqueous stripping solution. In this work, we researched PHE using a process-friendly diluent—Isopar® L. The lipophilic cation exchanger 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol (35-DTBP) was used as the extractant. The Isopar® L diluent was modified with 1-octanol to improve its solvation properties and the solubility of 35-DTBP so that practical Na+ concentrations could be achieved in the process solvent. The PHE mechanism at process-relevant conditions was explored by Raman and FTIR spectroscopic measurements. Electrospray mass spectroscopic results indicated extensive aggregation of the sodium phenolate at high Na+ loading. An equilibrium computer modeling suggested that the Na+ extraction behavior can be largely explained by the formation of 1:1 and 1:2 Na/35-DTBP species in the organic phase. Extraction isotherms obtained using caustic leaching simulant solutions indicate the potential utility of this approach for recycling NaOH from complex alkaline mixtures.

  1. Heat capacities of aqueous sodium hydroxide/aluminate mixtures and prediction of the solubility constant of boehmite up to 300 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrödle, Simon; Königsberger, Erich; May, Peter M.; Hefter, Glenn

    2010-04-01

    A modified commercial (Setaram C80) calorimeter has been used to measure the isobaric volumetric heat capacities of concentrated alkaline sodium aluminate solutions at ionic strengths from 1 to 6 mol kg -1, with up to 40 mol.% substitution of hydroxide by aluminate, at temperatures from 50 to 300 °C and a pressure of 10 MPa. Apparent molar heat capacities for the mixtures, C pϕ, derived from these data were found to depend linearly on the aluminate substitution level, i.e., they followed Young's rule. These quantities were used to estimate the apparent molar heat capacities of pure, hypothetical sodium aluminate solutions, C pϕ ('NaAl(OH) 4'(aq)). Slopes of the Young's rule plots were invariant with ionic strength at a given temperature but depended linearly on temperature. The heat capacities of ternary aqueous sodium hydroxide/aluminate mixtures could therefore be modelled using only two parameters in addition to those needed for the correlation of C pϕ (NaOH(aq)) reported previously from these laboratories. An assessment of the standard thermodynamic quantities for boehmite, gibbsite and the aluminate ion yielded a set of recommended values that, together with the present heat capacity data, accurately predicts the solubility of gibbsite and boehmite at temperatures up to 300 °C.

  2. Sodium Hydroxide Recycling System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    PLC Programmable Logic Controller PNNL Pacific Northwest National Lab VSEP Vibratory Shear Enhanced Processing WVA Watervliet Arsenal iv...mode. A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) uses data fed to it from the system to control the process. Minimal instruction is needed to operate the

  3. Effects of sodium hydroxide treatment of dried distillers' grains on digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and metabolic acidosis of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Freitas, T B; Relling, A E; Pedreira, M S; Santana Junior, H A; Felix, T L

    2016-02-01

    The objectives were to determine the optimum inclusion of NaOH necessary to buffer the acidity of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) and its effects on digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and metabolic acidosis in feedlot steers. Rumen cannulated Angus-crossed steers were blocked by BW (small: 555 ± 42 kg initial BW, = 4; large: 703 ± 85 kg initial BW, = 4) over four 21-d periods in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Steers were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) 50% untreated DDGS, 2) 50% DDGS treated with 0.5% (DM basis) sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 3) 50% DDGS treated with 1.0% (DM basis) NaOH, and 4) 50% DDGS treated with 1.5% (DM basis) NaOH. The remainder of the diets, on a DM basis, was composed of 20% corn silage, 20% dry-rolled corn, and 10% supplement. Ruminal pH was not affected by treatments ( = 0.56) or by a treatment × time interaction ( = 0.15). In situ NDF and ruminal DM disappearance did not differ ( ≥ 0.49 and ≥ 0.47, respectively) among treatments. Similar to in situ results, apparent total tract DM and NDF digestibility were not affected ( ≥ 0.33 and ≥ 0.21, respectively) by increasing NaOH inclusion in the diets. Urinary pH increased (linear, < 0.01) with increasing NaOH concentration in the diet. Blood pH was not affected ( ≥ 0.20), and blood total CO and partial pressure of CO were similar ( ≥ 0.56 and ≥ 0.17, respectively) as NaOH increased in the diet. Increasing NaOH in the diet did not affect ( ≥ 0.21) ruminal concentrations of total VFA. There were no linear ( = 0.20) or quadratic ( = 0.20) effects of treatment on ruminal acetate concentrations, nor was there a treatment × time interaction ( = 0.22) for acetate. Furthermore, there were no effects ( ≥ 0.90) of NaOH inclusion on ruminal propionate concentration. However, there was a quadratic response ( = 0.01) of ruminal butyrate concentrations as NaOH inclusion increased in the diet; ruminal butyrate concentrations were greatest with the 0.5 and 1

  4. Characterization of Chemically-Induced Bacterial Ghosts (BGs) Using Sodium Hydroxide-Induced Vibrio parahaemolyticus Ghosts (VPGs)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jung; Oh, Sung; Vinod, Nagarajan; Ji, Seongmi; Noh, Han Byul; Koo, Jung Mo; Lee, Su Hyeong; Kim, Sei Chang; Lee, Ki-Sung; Choi, Chang Won

    2016-01-01

    Acellular bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty non-living bacterial cell envelopes, commonly generated by controlled expression of the cloned lysis gene E of bacteriophage PhiX174. In this study, Vibrio parahaemolyticus ghosts (VPGs) were generated by chemically-induced lysis and the method is based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), acetic acid, boric acid, citric acid, maleic acid, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. The MIC values of the respective chemicals were 3.125, 6.25, <50.0, 25.0, 6.25, 1.56, and 0.781 mg/mL. Except for boric acid, the lysis efficiency reached more than 99.99% at 5 min after treatment of all chemicals. Among those chemicals, NaOH-induced VPGs appeared completely DNA-free, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Besides, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from the NaOH-induced VPGs showed no distinctive band on SDS-PAGE gel after silver staining. On the other hand, LPS extracted from wild-type bacterial cells, as well as the organic acids-induced VPGs showed triple major bands and LPS extracted from the inorganic acids-induced VPGs showed double bands. It suggests that some surface structures in LPS of the NaOH-induced VPGs may be lost, weakened, or modified by the MIC of NaOH. Nevertheless, Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay revealed that there is no significant difference in endotoxic activity between the NaOH-induced VPGs and wild-type bacterial cells. Macrophages exposed to the NaOH-induced VPGs at 0.5 × 106 CFU/mL showed cell viability of 97.9%, however, the MIC of NaOH did not reduce the cytotoxic effect of wild-type bacterial cells. Like Escherichia coli LPS, the NaOH-induced VPGs are an excellent activator of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and iNOS), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and dual activities (IL-6) in the stimulated macrophage cells. On the other hand, the induction of TNF-α mRNA was remarkable in the macrophages exposed with wild-type cells. Scanning electron

  5. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hymøller, L; Hellwing, A L F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2014-05-01

    Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich

  6. Simulation of carbon dioxide absorption by sodium hydroxide solution in a packed bed and studying the effect of operating parameters on absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdanbakhsh, Farzad; Soltani Goharrizi, Ata'ollah; Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Hassan

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In this study. simulation of carbon dioxide absorption by Sodium Hydroxide solution in a packed bed has been investigated. At first, mass and energy balances were applied around a differential height of the bed. So, the governing equations were obtained. Surface renewal theory by Danckwerts was used to represent the mass transfer operation Finally, by changing the operating parameters like solvent temperature, inlet gas composition pressure and height of the bed, the effect of these parameters on the absorption and the composition of carbon dioxide in exit stream have been investigated. (authors)

  7. Kinetic Study of Mass Transfer by Sodium Hydroxide in Nickel Under Free-convection Conditions /by Don R. Mosher and Robert A. Lad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, Don R; Lad, Robert A

    1954-01-01

    An investigation was conducted using static capsules fabricated from "L" nickel tubing to determine the effect of temperature level, temperature gradient, and test duration on corrosion and mass transfer by molten sodium hydroxide under free-convection conditions. A base temperature range from 1000 degrees to 1600 degrees F with temperature differences to 500 degrees was studied. The rate of mass transfer was found to be strongly dependent on both temperature level and gradient. The rate shows little tendency to decrease for test durations up to 200 hours, although the concentration of nickel in the melt approaches a limited value after 100 hours.

  8. Structural and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from alite hydration in the presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, Oscar; Giraldo, Carolina; Camargo, Sergio S.

    2015-08-15

    This research evaluates the effect of sodium and potassium hydroxide on the structure and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from the hydration of pure alite. Monoclinic (MIII) alite was synthesized and hydrated, using water-to-alite ratios of 0.5 and 0.6 and additions of 10% NaOH and KOH by weight of alite. Based on results of X-ray diffraction, isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and nanoindentation, two different effects of the alkaline hydroxides on the hydration reaction of alite, both at early and later ages, can be identified: (i) a differentiated hydration process, attributed to an enhancement in calcium hydroxide (CH) precipitation and a stimulation of the C-S-H nuclei; and (ii) an increase in the elastic modulus of the C-S-H aggregations, attributed to an electrostatic attraction between positive charges from the alkaline cations and negative charges from the C-S-H structure.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide... is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide... is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS... a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS Reg. No. 1309-42-8) occurs... addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or by hydration of reactive grades...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide... is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble...

  14. Mesoporous-activated carbon prepared from chitosan flakes via single-step sodium hydroxide activation for the adsorption of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Marrakchi, F; Ahmed, M J; Khanday, W A; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2017-05-01

    In this work, mesoporous-activated carbon (CSAC) was prepared from chitosan flakes (CS) via single-step sodium hydroxide activation for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). CSAC was prepared using different impregnation ratios of NaOH:CS (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1) at 800°C for 90min. The adsorption performance of CSAC was evaluated for MB at different adsorption variables, such MB initial concentrations (25-400mg/L), solution pH (3-11), and temperature (30-50°C). The adsorption isotherm data of CSAC-MB were well fitted to Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity 143.53mg/g at 50°C. Best representation of kinetic data was obtained by the pseudo-second order model. CSAC exhibited excellent adsorption uptake for MB and can potentially be used for other cationic dyes.

  15. Subcritical water liquefaction of oil palm fruit press fiber in the presence of sodium hydroxide: an optimisation study using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Hossein; Lee, Keat Teong; Bhatia, Subhash; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-12-01

    Thermal decomposition of oil palm fruit press fiber (FPF) into a liquid product (LP) was achieved using subcritical water treatment in the presence of sodium hydroxide in a high pressure batch reactor. This study uses experimental design and process optimisation tools to maximise the LP yield using response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The independent variables were temperature, residence time, particle size, specimen loading, and additive loading. The mathematical model that was developed fit the experimental results well for all of the response variables that were studied. The optimal conditions were found to be a temperature of 551 K, a residence time of 40 min, a particle size of 710-1000 microm, a specimen loading of 5 g, and a additive loading of 9 wt.% to achieve a LP yield of 76.16%.

  16. Interlaboratory study of free cyanide methods compared to total cyanide measurements and the effect of preservation with sodium hydroxide for secondary- and tertiary-treated waste water samples.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Brett J; Antonio, Karen

    2012-11-01

    Several methods exist for the measurement of cyanide levels in treated wastewater,typically requiring preservation of the sample with sodium hydroxide to minimize loss of hydrogen cyanide gas (HCN). Recent reports have shown that cyanide levels may increase with chlorination or preservation. In this study, three flow injection analysis methods involving colorimetric and amperometric detection were compared within one laboratory, as well as across separate laboratories and equipment. Split wastewater samples from eight facilities and three different sampling periods were tested. An interlaboratory confidence interval of 3.5 ppb was calculated compared with the intralaboratory reporting limit of 2 ppb. The results show that free cyanide measurements are not statistically different than total cyanide levels. An artificial increase in cyanide level is observed with all methods for preserved samples relative to nonpreserved samples, with an average increase of 2.3 ppb. The possible loss of cyanide without preservation is shown to be statistically insignificant if properly stored up to 48 hours. The cyanide increase with preservation is further substantiated with the method of standard additions and is not a matrix interference. The increase appears to be correlated with the amount of cyanide observed without preservation, which appears to be greater in those facilities that disinfect their wastewater with chlorine, followed by dechlorination with sodium bisulfite.

  17. Aluminum Hydroxide

    MedlinePlus

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  18. SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2011-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the

  19. Sorbents based on asbestos with a layer of an hydroxyethylcyclam derivative of PVC containing aquacomplexes of sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide with aza-crown groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsivadze, A. Yu.; Fridman, A. Ya.; Morozova, E. M.; Sokolova, N. P.; Voloshchuk, A. M.; Petukhova, G. A.; Bardyshev, I. I.; Gorbunov, A. M.; Polyakova, I. Ya.; Titova, V. N.; Yavich, A. A.; Novikov, A. K.; Petrova, N. V.

    2016-07-01

    Aquacomplexes of sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide with aza-crown groups are synthesized in cavities of a sorbent from the porous layer of a PVC cyclam-derivative grafted onto fibers of asbestos fabric. The structure of sorbents with complexes is studied and their adsorption characteristics are determined. It is shown that the affinity of the developed surface toward ethanol, benzene, and hexane depends on the nature of complexes in the pore walls, and the volume of cavities formed as a result of the pores on the developed asbestos surface being coated with networks of aza-crown groups is larger than that of cavities with walls of aza-crown groups in the layers of a PVC cyclam derivative. Indicators of H+- and OH--conductivity of sorbents with complexes as electrochemical bridges are determined. It is shown that the major part of H+- and OH--ions moves through complexes with aza-crown groups in the region of cavities formed of pores on the surface of asbestos.

  20. An evaluation of the residual toxicity and chemistry of a sodium hydroxide-based ballast water treatment system for freshwater ships.

    PubMed

    Elskus, Adria A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Kemble, Nile E; Echols, Kathy R; Brumbaugh, William G; Henquinet, Jeffrey W; Watten, Barnaby J

    2015-06-01

    Nonnative organisms in the ballast water of freshwater ships must be killed to prevent the spread of invasive species. The ideal ballast water treatment system (BWTS) would kill 100% of ballast water organisms with minimal residual toxicity to organisms in receiving waters. In the present study, the residual toxicity and chemistry of a BWTS was evaluated. Sodium hydroxide was added to elevate pH to >11.5 to kill ballast water organisms, then reduced to pH <9 by sparging with wet-scrubbed diesel exhaust (the source of CO2 ). Cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia dubia), amphipods (Hyalella azteca), and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 2 d to BWTS water under an air atmosphere (pH drifted to ≥9) or a 2.5% CO2 atmosphere (pH 7.5-8.2), then transferred to control water for 5 d to assess potential delayed toxicity. Chemical concentrations in the BWTS water met vessel discharge guidelines with the exception of concentrations of copper. There was little to no residual toxicity to cladocerans or fish, but the BWTS water was toxic to amphipods. Maintaining a neutral pH and diluting BWTS water by 50% eliminated toxicity to the amphipods. The toxicity of BWTS water would likely be minimal because of rapid dilution in the receiving water, with subsurface release likely preventing pH rise. This BWTS has the potential to become a viable method for treating ballast water released into freshwater systems.

  1. Ionic association of hydroperoxide anion HO2- in the binding mean spherical approximation. Spectroscopic study of hydrogen peroxide in concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Chlistunoff, Jerzy; Simonin, Jean-Pierre

    2006-12-28

    The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy of hydrogen peroxide in concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions was studied. The peroxide band in the UV range shifts from approximately 214 nm to approximately 236 nm as the NaOH concentration increases from 0.338 mol dm-3 to 13.1 mol dm-3. The band originates from an intramolecular electronic transition of the hydroperoxide anion HO2-, as indicated by the negligible temperature effect on the band position and confirmed by ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. It is postulated that the bathochromic shift of the peroxide band that accompanies the increase in NaOH concentration originates from the formation of the ion pair (Na+HO2-). The equilibrium constant for the ion association reaction (0.048 mol-1 dm3) and the characteristics of the individual absorption bands of the hydroperoxide anion and its associate with Na+ were determined from the numerical modeling of the absorbance data, using the binding mean spherical approximation (BIMSA).

  2. One-step enrichment and chemiluminescence detection of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate in river water using Mg-Al-carbonate layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Guan, Weijiang; Zhou, Wenjuan; Han, Dongmei; Zhang, Mengchun; Lu, Chao; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2014-03-01

    In this work, Mg-Al CO3-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were used as adsorbent materials for sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) in aqueous solutions, the enriched SDBS can be directly detected by IO4(-)-H2O2 chemiluminescence (CL) system. The commonly existing cations cannot be enriched by Mg-Al CO3-LDHs due to the structurally positively charged layers of LDHs, while other adsorbed anionic interferents had no effect on the IO4(-)-H2O2 CL reaction. The corresponding linear regression equation was established in the range of 0.1-10 μM for SDBS. The detection limit at a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 3 for SDBS was 0.08 μM. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for nine repeated measurements of 0.5 μM SDBS was 2.6%. This proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of SDBS in river water samples. To the best of our knowledge, we have first time coupled the high enrichment capacity of LDHs towards anions with CL detection for analytes.

  3. Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

    2013-05-21

    A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

  4. Solvent Extraction of Sodium Hydroxide Using Alkylphenols and Fluorinated Alcohols: Understanding the Extraction Mechanism by Equilibrium Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hyun-Ah; Engle, Nancy L.; Bonnesen Peter V.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2004-03-29

    In the present work, it has been the aim to examine extraction efficiencies of nine proton-ionizable alcohols (HAs) in 1-octanol and to identify both the controlling equilibria and predominant species involved in the extraction process within a thermochemical model. Distribution ratios for sodium (DNa) extraction were measured as a function of organic-phase HA and aqueous-phase NaOH molarity at 25 °C. Extraction efficiency follows the expected order of acidity of the HAs, 4-(tert-octyl) phenol (HA 1a) and 4-noctyl- a,a-bis-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol (HA 2a) being the most efficient extractants among the compounds tested. By use of the equilibrium-modeling program SXLSQI, a model for the extraction of NaOH has been advanced based on an ion-pair extraction by the diluent to give organic-phase Na+OH- and corresponding free ions and cation exchange by the weak acids to form monomeric organic-phase Na+A- and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  5. Laser-luminescent determination of uranium in natural waters with concentration of titanium hydroxide and using sodium polysilicate

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitina, S.A.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1987-05-01

    Two methods for determining uranium in samples with a high content of quenching agents are compared, taking as an example the analysis of waters from the Vuoksa River, Baltic Sea and Finnish Bay. The first of these methods was developed by the authors and consists in concentrating uranium on TiO/sub 2/ x nH/sub 2/O under dynamic conditions, followed by laser luminescent determination at 77/sup 0/K in 0.1 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The second method consists in direct recording of the luminescence of uranium in a 0.7% solution of sodium polysilicate at room temperature. The detection limit of the second method is estimated by the authors as 2 x 10/sup -11/ g/ml, while the detection limit of the first method is lower because concentration is used. The method is especially suitable for analysis of natural waters with a high concentration of hydrolyzable elements. Quenching rate constants of uranyl were measured for a large number of ions in a polysilicate medium.

  6. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration on the photocatalytic activity and dielectric properties of intercalated sodium dodecyl sulfate into Zn–Cd–Al layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Abdullah Ahmed Ali; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS were synthesized with different SDS concentrations. • Photocatalytic activity of samples was improved by increasing SDS concentration. • Dielectric response of LDH can be described by anomalous low frequency dispersion. • The dc conductivity values were calculated for Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS samples. • ESR spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. - Abstract: Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been successfully intercalated into Zn–Cd–Al–LDH precursor with different SDS concentrations (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 mol L{sup −1}) using the coprecipitation method at (Zn{sup 2+} + Cd{sup 2+})/Al{sup 3+} molar ratio of 13 and pH 8. The structural, morphological, texture and composition properties of the synthesized (Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS) nanostructure were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was developed by increasing the concentration of intercalated SDS. The absorbance spectra have been used to detect an anion in the LDH interlayer before and after the intercalation process, which confirmed the presence of the dodecyl sulfate (DS{sup −}) anion into LDH gallery after intercalation. The anomalous low frequency dispersion (ALFD) has been used to describe the dielectric response of Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS nanostructure using the second type of universal power law. At low frequency, the polarization effect of electrodes caused the rising in dielectric constant and loss values. An important result of the dielectric measurements is the calculated dc conductivity values, which are new in dielectric spectroscopy of LDH materials. An important result of the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. The g-factor value was affected by

  7. NICKEL HYDROXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    MCBREEN,J.

    1997-11-01

    Nickel hydroxides have been used as the active material in the positive electrodes of several alkaline batteries for over a century. These materials continue to attract a lot of attention because of the commercial importance of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This review gives a brief overview of the structure of nickel hydroxide battery electrodes and a more detailed review of the solid state chemistry and electrochemistry of the electrode materials. Emphasis is on work done since 1989.

  8. Sequential soil washing techniques using hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide for remediating arsenic-contaminated soils in abandoned iron-ore mines.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min; Hwang, Jung Sung; Choi, Sang Il

    2007-01-01

    Sequential washing techniques using single or dual agents [sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions] were applied to arsenic-contaminated soils in an abandoned iron-ore mine area. We investigated the best remediation strategies to maximize arsenic removal efficiency for both soils and arsenic-containing washing solution through conducting a series of batch experiments. Based on the results of a sequential extraction procedure, most arsenic prevails in Fe-As precipitates or coprecipitates, and iron exists mostly in the crystalline forms of iron oxide. Soil washing by use of a single agent was not effective in remediating arsenic-contaminated soils because arsenic extractions determined by the Korean standard test (KST) methods for washed soils were not lower than 6mg kg(-1) in all experimental conditions. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that iron-ore fines produced mobile colloids through coagulation and flocculation in water contacting the soils, containing dissolved arsenic and fine particles of ferric arsenate-coprecipitated silicate. The first washing step using 0.2M HCl was mostly effective in increasing the cationic hydrolysis of amorphous ferrihydrite, inducing high removal of arsenic. Thus, the removal step of arsenic-containing flocs can lower arsenic extractions (KST methods) of washed soils. Among several washing trials, alternative sequential washing using 0.2M HCl followed by 1M HCl (second step) and 1M NaOH solution (third step) showed reliable and lower values of arsenic extractions (KST methods) of washed soils. This washing method can satisfy the arsenic regulation of washed soil for reuse or safe disposal application. The kinetic data of washing tests revealed that dissolved arsenic was easily readsorbed into remaining soils at a low pH. This result might have occurred due to dominant species of positively charged crystalline iron oxides characterized through the sequential extraction procedure. However

  9. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HYDROXIDE FROM BISMUTH HYDROXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Watt, G.W.

    1958-08-19

    An tmproved method is described for separating plutonium hydroxide from bismuth hydroxide. The end product of the bismuth phosphate processes for the separation amd concentration of plutonium is a inixture of bismuth hydroxide amd plutonium hydroxide. It has been found that these compounds can be advantageously separated by treatment with a reducing agent having a potential sufficient to reduce bismuth hydroxide to metalltc bisinuth but not sufficient to reduce the plutonium present. The resulting mixture of metallic bismuth and plutonium hydroxide can then be separated by treatment with a material which will dissolve plutonium hydroxide but not metallic bismuth. Sodiunn stannite is mentioned as a preferred reducing agent, and dilute nitric acid may be used as the separatory solvent.

  10. Chemical speciation in concentrated alkaline aluminate solutions in sodium, potassium and caesium media. Interpretation of the unusual variations of the observed hydroxide activity.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Pál; Schibeci, Mark; Peintler, Gábor; May, Peter M; Hefter, Glenn

    2006-04-21

    A detailed electrochemical investigation using H2/Pt electrode potentiometry as well as Raman and NMR spectroscopy was carried out to develop a comprehensive chemical explanation for the unusual patterns of hydroxide concentrations observed in strongly alkaline, highly concentrated aluminate solutions (Bayer-liquors). For this, aluminate solutions with various alkaline metal background cations were investigated. The effect of the temperature on the observed patterns was also studied, and for comparison with solutions of similar concentrations, the chemical speciation of borate solutions was also studied. The formation of the NaOH 0 ion-pair has been proven with the formation constant (defined in terms of activities) beta 0 = 0.78 +/- 0.08. The formation of analogous KOH 0 or CsOH 0 ion-pairs under the experimental conditions applied is negligible. Assuming the formation of the NaAl(OH)4 (0) ion-pair is not necessary for modeling the experimental findings, as its formation causes only secondary effects on the potentiometric patterns. It has also been shown that all experimental data can be interpreted quantitatively if the formation of the doubly charged dimeric aluminate species is included in the calculation of the changes in the mean activity coefficients. The formation constant of the aluminate dimer could not be estimated purely from the H2/Pt potentiometric data but a lower limit for its formation constant (defined in terms of activities) has been derived. These conclusions are in full congruency with those derived from the Raman spectra of solutions with similar concentrations, so the two independent experimental methods lead to the same set of chemical species in highly concentrated alkaline aluminate solutions.

  11. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and....1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

  12. Synthesis of high capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries by morphology-tailored hydroxide co-precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dapeng; Belharouak, Ilias; Ortega, Luis H.; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Rui; Zhou, Dehua; Zhou, Guangwen; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Nickel manganese hydroxide co-precipitation inside a continuous stirred tank reactor was studied with sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide as the precipitation agents. The ammonium hydroxide concentration had an effect on the primary and secondary particle evolution. The two-step precipitation mechanism proposed earlier was experimentally confirmed. In cell tests, Li- and Mn-rich composite cathode materials based on the hydroxide precursors demonstrated good electrochemical performance in terms of cycle life over a wide range of lithium content.

  13. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement thickening products, and many ...

  14. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  15. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium... the polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  17. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  18. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium... the polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method...

  19. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS Reg. No. 7758-19-2) exists as... solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to...

  20. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient...

  1. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium... the polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method...

  2. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food and... Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium polyacrylate (CAS... polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method entitled...

  3. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food... for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium polyacrylate (CAS Reg. No. 9003-04-7) may be... aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method entitled “Determination of Weight Average...

  4. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  5. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as...

  6. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient...

  7. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 68-0904-092) is the sodium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium...

  9. 21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium oleate. 186.1770 Section 186.1770 Food and....1770 Sodium oleate. (a) Sodium oleate (C18H33O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic.... Commercially, sodium oleate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium hydroxide and oleic acid. (b)...

  10. Comparison Between Sodium Nitrite & Sodium Hydroxide Spray Accident

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIAMS, J.C.; HEY, B.E.

    2001-11-07

    The purpose of this analysis is to compare the consequences of an 8 molar NaNO2 spray leak to the Tank Farm Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) evaluation of sprays of up to 19 molar (50%) NaOH. Four conditions were evaluated. These are: a spray during transfers from a one-inch pipe, a spray resulting from a truck tank Crack, a spray resulting from a truck tank rupture, and a spray in the 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility.

  11. Rapid Method for Sodium Hydroxide/Sodium Peroxide Fusion ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Analysis Purpose: Qualitative analysis Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 in water and air filters Method Selected for: SAM lists this method as a pre-treatment technique supporting analysis of refractory radioisotopic forms of plutonium in drinking water and air filters using the following qualitative techniques: • Rapid methods for acid or fusion digestion • Rapid Radiochemical Method for Plutonium-238 and Plutonium 239/240 in Building Materials for Environmental Remediation Following Radiological Incidents. Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and....1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  13. Hydroxide-catalyzed bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of bonding substrates by hydroxide-catalyzed hydration/dehydration involves applying a bonding material to at least one surface to be bonded, and placing the at least one surface sufficiently close to another surface such that a bonding interface is formed between them. A bonding material of the invention comprises a source of hydroxide ions, and may optionally include a silicate component, a particulate filling material, and a property-modifying component. Bonding methods of the invention reliably and reproducibly provide bonds which are strong and precise, and which may be tailored according to a wide range of possible applications. Possible applications for bonding materials of the invention include: forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, assembly of precision optical components, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. Bonding materials and methods of preparing the same are also disclosed.

  14. Reactivity and applications of layered silicates and layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Thangaraj; Inayat, Alexandra; Schwieger, Wilhelm

    2014-07-21

    Layered materials, such as layered sodium silicates and layered double hydroxides (LDHs), are well-known for their remarkable adsorption, intercalation and swelling properties. Their tunable interlayers offer an interesting avenue for the fabrication of pillared nanoporous materials, organic-inorganic hybrid materials and catalysts or catalyst supports. This perspective article provides a summary of the reactivity and applications of layered materials including aluminium-free layered sodium silicates (kanemite, ilerite (RUB-18 or octosilicate) and magadiite) and layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Recent developments in the use of layered sodium silicates as precursors for the preparation of various porous, functional and catalytic materials including zeolites, mesoporous materials, pillared layered silicates, organic-inorganic nanocomposites and synthesis of highly dispersed nanoparticles supported on silica are reviewed in detail. Along this perspective, we have attempted to illustrate the reactivity and transformational potential of LDHs in order to deduce the main differences and similarities between these two types of layered materials.

  15. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS Reg. No. 7758-19-2... into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels...

  16. Intermediate-scale sodium-concrete reaction tests with basalt and limestone concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Hassberger, J.A.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Ten tests were performed to investigate the chemical reactions and rate and extent of attack between sodium and basalt and limestone concretes. Test temperatures ranged from 510 to 870/sup 0/C (950 to 1600/sup 0/F) and test times from 2 to 24 hours. Sodium hydroxide was added to some of the tests to assess the impact of a sodium hydroxide-aided reaction on the overall penetration characteristics. Data suggest that the sodium penetration of concrete surfaces is limited. Penetration of basalt concrete in the presence of sodium hydroxide is shown to be less severe than attack by the metallic sodium alone. Presence of sodium hydroxide changes the characteristics of sodium penetration of limestone concrete, but no major differences in bulk penetration were observed as compared to penetration by metallic sodium.

  17. Novel synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) from zinc hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zilin; Zhang, Yihe; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xue; Liu, Leipeng; Komarneni, Sridhar; Lv, Fengzhu

    2017-02-01

    The most common synthesis methods for layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are co-precipitation and reconstruction, which can have some limitations for application. Here, we report a novel synthesis method for LDHs. We use zinc hydroxide as the precursor to synthesize LDHs phase through a simple transformation process of zinc hydroxide phase. For this transformation process, aluminum can enter into zinc hydroxide and replace zinc quickly to transform it into LDH by creating positive charges in the zinc hydroxide solid phase. The mechanism of LDH formation was through Al3+ reaction first with zinc hydroxide followed by recrystallization of the original structure of zinc hydroxide. Thus, the new process of LDH formation involves a reaction of Al to substitute for Zn and recrystallization leading to LDH and the final pH influences the crystallization of LDHs by this process. In addition, Cr3+ was employed as a trivalent cation for LDH formation to react with zinc hydroxide, which also led to LDH structure.

  18. Standard enthalpies of formation of francium hydroxide hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Burylev, B.P.

    1995-03-01

    Available experimental data on standard enthalpies of formation of alkali metal hydroxide hydrates have been summarized. Using equations derived, the authors have calculated previously unknown enthalpies of formation of some lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium hydroxide hydrates. Taking into account the contribution of water to the enthalpies of formation of monohydrates, the authors have estimated the enthalpies of formation of francium hydroxide hydrates FrOH{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, FrOH{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O, and FrOH{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O (-745.8, -1085.8, and -1515.8 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively).

  19. Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

    2008-03-01

    Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to save the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tens of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass.

  20. Process for making a calcium/sodium ferrate adduct by the electrochemical formation of sodium ferrate

    SciTech Connect

    Deininger, J.P.; Dotson, R.L.

    1984-05-29

    Described is a process for making a calcium/sodium ferrate adduct with sodium ferrate in a divided-type electrolysis cell. The anolyte chamber of the cell is charged with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and a sodium ferrate-stabilizing proportion of at least one sodium halide salt. The anolyte chamber additionally contains ferric ions (Fe(III)). The catholyte chamber contains an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution during operation. The source of ferric ion in the anolyte may be either an iron-containing anode or at least one iron-containing compound present in the anolyte solution or both. The preferred material separating the anolyte chamber from the catholyte chamber is comprised of a gas- and hydraulic-impermeable, ionically-conductive, chemically-stable ionomeric film (e.g., a cation-exchange membrane with carboxylic, sulfonic or other inorganic exchange sites). Sodium ferrate is prepared in the anolyte chamber by passing an electric current and impressing a voltage between the anode and cathode of the cell. During electrolysis, sodium ferrate forms in the aqueous sodium hydroxide anolyte. This anolyte is reacted with a calcium compound to produce a calcium/sodium ferrate adduct. Alternatively the sodium ferrate may be first recovered in a solid form and then reacted with a calcium compound to produce said adduct.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-58-3) is also... powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the electrolysis of potassium chloride...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg... pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... Substances § 721.6183 Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow... anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... Substances § 721.6183 Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow... anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine (PMN...

  8. Spin-phonon coupling in BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} M-type hexaferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Júnior, Flávio M.; Paschoal, Carlos W. A.

    2014-12-28

    The spin-phonon coupling in magnetic materials is due to the modulation of the exchange integral by lattice vibrations. BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} M-type hexaferrite, which is the most used magnetic material as permanent magnet, transforms into ferrimagnet at high temperatures, but no spin-phonon coupling was previously observed at this transition. In this letter, we investigated the temperature-dependent Raman spectra of polycrystalline BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} M-type hexaferrite from room temperature up to 780 K to probe spin-phonon coupling at the ferrimagnetic transition. An anomaly was observed in the position of the phonon attributed to the Fe{sup (4)}O{sub 6}, Fe{sup (5)}O{sub 6}, and Fe{sup (1)}O{sub 6} octahedra, evidencing the presence of a spin-phonon coupling in BaM in the ferrimagnetic transition at 720 K. The results also confirmed the spin-phonon coupling is different for each phonon even when they couple with the same spin configuration.

  9. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. Contribution to the knowledge of nickel hydroxide electrodes. 5. Analysis and electrochemical behavior of cadmium nickel hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, H.; Dennstedt, W.

    1981-01-01

    Electrochemical experiments performed at sintered and bulk electrodes show that beta nickel hydroxide contains an electrochemically inactive proportion of cadmium hydroxide of up to 10%. The electrochemically ineffective cadmium hydroxide is homogeneously dissolved in beta nickel hydroxide.

  20. Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of azo dye (Direct Blue 15) using solvothermally synthesized copper hydroxide nitrate as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yuzhong; Zhou, Xiang; Fu, Bei; Chen, Yiliang

    2011-03-15

    Copper hydroxide nitrate (Cu(2)(OH)(3)NO(3)) was synthesized solvothermally in anhydrous ethanol and characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG-DTA and SEM. The peroxide degradation of an azo dye (Direct Blue 15) on this material was evaluated by examining catalyst loading, initial pH, hydrogen peroxide dosage, initial dye concentration and temperature. The leaching of Cu from the copper hydroxide nitrate during the reaction was also measured. The copper hydroxide nitrate synthesized solvothermally, which was of a novel spherical morphology with complex secondary structures and contained high-dispersed Cu(2)O impurity, showed good performance for oxidation degradation of the azo dye, especially high catalytic activity, high utilization of hydrogen peroxide and a wide pH range, whereas the copper hydroxide nitrate synthesized by the direct reaction of copper nitrate and sodium hydroxide showed low catalytic activity.

  1. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  2. Carbon dioxide capture capacity of sodium hydroxide aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Miran; Han, Sang-Jun; Wee, Jung-Ho

    2013-01-15

    The present paper investigates the various features of NaOH aqueous solution when applied as an absorbent to capture carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emitted with relatively high concentration in the flue gas. The overall CO(2) absorption reaction was carried out according to consecutive reaction steps that are generated in the order of Na(2)CO(3) and NaHCO(3). The reaction rate and capture efficiency were strongly dependent on the NaOH concentration in the Na(2)CO(3) production range, but were constant in the NaHCO(3) production step, irrespective of the NaOH concentration. The amount of CO(2) absorbed in the solution was slightly less than the theoretical value, which was ascribed to the low trona production during the reaction and the consequent decrease in CO(2) absorption in the NaOH solution. The mass ratio of absorbed CO(2) that participated in the Na(2)CO(3), NaHCO(3), and trona production reactions was calculated to be 20:17:1, respectively.

  3. Rapid Method for Sodium Hydroxide Fusion of Concrete and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Analysis Purpose: Qualitative analysis Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Americium-241, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, radium-226, strontium-90, uranium-234, uranium-235 and uranium-238 in concrete and brick samples Method Selected for: SAM lists this method for qualitative analysis of americium-241, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, radium-226, strontium-90, uranium-234, uranium-235 and uranium-238 in concrete or brick building materials. Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  4. Carbon dioxide capture from atmospheric air using sodium hydroxide spray.

    PubMed

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Keith, David W; Lowry, Gregory V

    2008-04-15

    In contrast to conventional carbon capture systems for power plants and other large point sources, the system described in this paper captures CO2 directly from ambient air. This has the advantages that emissions from diffuse sources and past emissions may be captured. The objective of this research is to determine the feasibility of a NaOH spray-based contactor for use in an air capture system by estimating the cost and energy requirements per unit CO2 captured. A prototype system is constructed and tested to measure CO2 absorption, energy use, and evaporative water loss and compared with theoretical predictions. A numerical model of drop collision and coalescence is used to estimate operating parameters for a full-scale system, and the cost of operating the system per unit CO2 captured is estimated. The analysis indicates that CO2 capture from air for climate change mitigation is technically feasible using off-the-shelf technology. Drop coalescence significantly decreases the CO2 absorption efficiency; however, fan and pump energy requirements are manageable. Water loss is significant (20 mol H2O/mol CO2 at 15 degrees C and 65% RH) but can be lowered by appropriately designing and operating the system. The cost of CO2 capture using NaOH spray (excluding solution recovery and CO2 sequestration, which may be comparable) in the full-scale system is 96 $/ton-CO2 in the base case, and ranges from 53 to 127 $/ton-CO2 under alternate operating parameters and assumptions regarding capital costs and mass transfer rate. The low end of the cost range is reached by a spray with 50 microm mean drop diameter, which is achievable with commercially available spray nozzles.

  5. The Performance of Geopolymers Activated by Sodium Hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyeontaek; Kang, Seunggu

    2015-08-01

    Geopolymers, a group of promising environmentally friendly materials that can work as cement substitutes, should be fabricated from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO mixtures containing large amounts of amorphous phases to ensure optimal chemical and physical properties. In this study, it was shown that geopolymers with enhanced mechanical strengths, as high as 115 MPa, could be obtained from perfectly amorphous slag from spent catalyst (SSC) discharged during automobile catalyst recycling. Geopolymer processing involved alkali-activation using a 16 M NaOH solution of pH13. The varying SSC grain size was the main experimental factor of interest, in combination with curing temperature and aging time. Variations in the mechanical strengths of the resulting geopolymers are explained by the occurrence of 10-50 nm-sized crystals and the presence of voids and pores dozens to hundreds of micrometers in size.

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with sodium sulfite to form the sulfite addition products and liberate sodium hydroxide (NaOH); however... degrees Celsius (( °deg;C) to minimize the reaction of the methanol groups. 2.1Apparatus Required....

  7. Product development of FGD recovered magnesium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Beeghly, J.H.; Babu, M.; Smith, K.J.

    1999-07-01

    in wastewater treatment is shown to produce a much smaller sludge volume than lime or sodium hydroxide.

  8. Exploring Alkaline Stable Organic Cations for Polymer Hydroxide Exchange Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    Organic Cations for Polymer Hydroxide Exchange Membranes Hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs) are important polymer electrolytes for electrochemical...Exploring Alkaline Stable Organic Cations for Polymer Hydroxide Exchange Membranes Report Title Hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs) are important polymer ...constructing HEMs. EXPLORING ALKALINE STABLE ORGANIC CATIONS FOR POLYMER HYDROXIDE EXCHANGE MEMBRANES by Bingzi Zhang

  9. Sodium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  10. Sodium Oxybate

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium oxybate is used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and ... urge to sleep during daily activities, and cataplexy). Sodium oxybate is in a class of medications called ...

  11. Sodium - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... naproxen Lower than normal sodium level is called hyponatremia. It may be due to: Use of medicines ... overview Hepatorenal syndrome Hyperaldosteronism - primary and secondary Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Ions Low sodium level Nephrotic syndrome Sweating Review ...

  12. Sodium Bicarbonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2 hours after meals, with a full glass of water. If you are using sodium bicarbonate for another reason, it may be taken with or without food. Do not take sodium bicarbonate on an overly full stomach.Dissolve sodium bicarbonate powder in at least 4 ounces (120 milliliters) of ...

  13. Detection of cytokeratin-19 mRNA-positive cells in the peripheral blood and bone marrow of patients with operable breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Daskalaki, A; Agelaki, S; Perraki, M; Apostolaki, S; Xenidis, N; Stathopoulos, E; Kontopodis, E; Hatzidaki, D; Mavroudis, D; Georgoulias, V

    2009-01-01

    Background: To compare detection rates and evaluate the clinical relevance of cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) mRNA-positive cells in the peripheral blood (circulating tumour cells, CTCs) and bone marrow (disseminated tumour cells; DTCs) of patients with early breast cancer. Methods: Paired samples of peripheral blood and bone marrow were obtained from 165 patients with stage I–II breast cancer before the initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy. In 84 patients, paired blood and bone marrow samples were also available after chemotherapy. The detection of CK-19 mRNA-positive CTCs and DTCs was assessed by real-time PCR. Results: CK-19 mRNA-positive CTCs and DTCs were detected in 55.2 and 57.6% of patients before chemotherapy, respectively. After chemotherapy, CTCs and DTCs were identified in 44 (52.4%) and 43 (51.2%) of the 84 patients, respectively. There was a 93.9% (McNemar; P=0.344) and 72.6% (McNemar; P=0.999) concordance between blood and bone marrow samples before and after chemotherapy, respectively. The detection of CK-19 mRNA-positive CTCs or DTCs before chemotherapy was associated with decreased overall survival (P=0.024 and P=0.015, respectively). In addition, their simultaneous detection was also associated with an increased incidence of disease-related death and decreased overall survival (P=0.016). Conclusions: The detection of CK-19 mRNA-positive CTCs using reverse transcription-PCR (RT–PCR) both before and after chemotherapy is correlated with the detection of CK-19 mRNA-positive DTCs in patients with early-stage breast cancer. The determination of the CTC status by RT–PCR conveys clinically relevant information that is not inferior to DTC status and, owing to the ease of sampling, warrants further evaluation as a tool for monitoring minimal residual disease. PMID:19623181

  14. Molten Hydroxide Trapping Process for Radioiodine

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    2003-01-28

    A molten hydroxide trapping process has been considered for removing radioiodine species from off-gas streams whereby iodine is reacted directly with molten hydroxides such as NaOH or KOH. The resulting product is the corresponding iodide, which can be separated by simple cooling of the molten mixture to grow the iodide primary phase once the mixture reaches 70-80 mol% in the iodide component. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that such a chemical process is highly favorable. Experimental testing of the trapping process using molecular iodine showed trapping of up to 96% of the volatile iodine. The trapping efficiency was dependent on operational parameters such as temperature and gas-melt contact efficiency, and higher efficiencies are expected as the process is further developed. While an iodide phase could be effectively isolated by slow cooling of a molten iodide-hydroxide mixture, the persistent appearance of hydroxide indicated that an appreciable solubility of hydroxide occurred in the iodide phase.

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis and formation mechanism of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Li; Sun, QiLiang; Zhao, RuiNi; He, HuiLin; Xue, JianRong; Lin, Jun

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The formation of yttrium hydroxide fluorides nanobundles can be expressed as a precipitation transformation from cubic NaYF{sub 4} to hexagonal NaYF{sub 4} and to hexagonal Y(OH){sub 2.02}F{sub 0.98} owing to ion exchange. - Highlights: • Novel Y(OH){sub 2.02}F{sub 0.98} nanobundles have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal method. • The branched nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles has been studied. • The growth mechanism is proposed to be ion exchange and precipitation transformation. - Abstract: This article presents the fabrication of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles via one-pot hydrothermal process, using yttrium nitrate, sodium hydroxide and ammonia fluoride as raw materials to react in propanetriol solvent. The X-ray diffraction pattern clearly reveals that the grown product is pure yttrium hydroxide fluoride, namely Y(OH){sub 2.02}F{sub 0.98}. The morphology and microstructure of the synthesized product is testified to be nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles as observed from the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The chemical composition was analyzed by the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), confirming the phase transformation of the products which was clearly consistent with the result of XRD analysis. It is proposed that the growth of yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles be attributed to ion exchange and precipitation transformation.

  16. Synthesis of a novel green fluorescent material Ca3Al2O6:Tb3+ based on a layered double hydroxide precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaorui; Jiang, Kangle; Hao, Yongjing; Chang, Tao; Yin, Yaobing

    2015-08-01

    A novel green light emitting material, Ca3Al2O6:Tb3+ was synthesized by calcination of a terbium doped Ca/Al layered double hydroxide precursor at 1350°C. The precursor was prepared by coprecipitation from metal nitrates with sodium hydroxide. The material shows characteristic green emission at 543 nm when excited with 266 nm UV source. The photoluminescence intensity reaches its maximum at Tb3+ concentration of 0.5 mol %.

  17. Properties of oxide-hydroxide sintered ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levkov, R. V.; Kulkov, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper the study of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite modification is presented. It was shown that aluminum hydroxide may be used for pore formation and pore volume in the sintered ceramics can be controlled by varying the aluminum hydroxide concentration and sintering temperature. It was shown that compressive strength of alumina ceramics increases by 40 times with decreasing the pore volume from 65 to 15%. Based on these results one can conclude that the obtained structure is very close to inorganic bone matrix and can be used as promising material for bone implants production.

  18. Sodium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...

  19. Aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles show a stronger vaccine adjuvant activity than traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinran; Aldayel, Abdulaziz M; Cui, Zhengrong

    2014-01-10

    Aluminum hydroxide is used as a vaccine adjuvant in various human vaccines. Unfortunately, despite its favorable safety profile, aluminum hydroxide can only weakly or moderately potentiate antigen-specific antibody responses. When dispersed in an aqueous solution, aluminum hydroxide forms particulates of 1-20μm. There is increasing evidence that nanoparticles around or less than 200nm as vaccine or antigen carriers have a more potent adjuvant activity than large microparticles. In the present study, we synthesized aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles of 112nm. Using ovalbumin and Bacillus anthracis protective antigen protein as model antigens, we showed that protein antigens adsorbed on the aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles induced a stronger antigen-specific antibody response than the same protein antigens adsorbed on the traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles of around 9.3μm. The potent adjuvant activity of the aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles was likely related to their ability to more effectively facilitate the uptake of the antigens adsorbed on them by antigen-presenting cells. Finally, the local inflammation induced by aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles in the injection sites was milder than that induced by microparticles. Simply reducing the particle size of the traditional aluminum hydroxide adjuvant into nanometers represents a novel and effective approach to improve its adjuvanticity.

  20. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, D.M.; Lytle, J.M.; Hackley, K.C.; Strickland, R.; Berger, R.; Schanche, G.

    1992-12-31

    In this project, the ISGS is investigating the pelletization of fine coal with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur-capturing sorbent. The objective is to produce a readily-transportable fuel which will burn in compliance with the recently passed Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA). To improve the economics of pelletizing, carbonation, or, the reaction of carbon dioxide with calcium hydroxide, which produces a binding matrix of calcium carbonate, is being investigated as a method of hardening pelletized coal fines. This year, pellets were produced from 28 {times} 0 coal fines collected from an Illinois preparation plant using a laboratory version of a California Pellet Mill (CPM), a commercially available pellet machine. The CPM effectively pelletized coal fines at the moisture content they were dewatered to at the plant. Carbonation nearly doubled the strength of pellets containing 10 wt % calcium hydroxide. Other results from this year`s work indicate that inclusion of calcium hydroxide into pellets resulted in chlorine capture of approximately 20 wt % for combustion tests conducted at both 850 and 1100{degrees}C. Arsenic emissions were reduced from near 38 wt% at 850 C to essentially nil with inclusion of 10 wt % calcium hydroxide into the pellets. At 110{degrees}C, arsenic emissions were reduced from about 90 wt % to about 15 wt %. Sodium emissions, however, increased with the addition of calcium hydroxide. At 850{degrees}C, sodium capture dropped from about 98 wt % to 73 wt % for pellets containing 10 wt % calcium hydroxide; at 1100{degrees}C, capture dropped from about 92 wt % to about 20 wt %.

  1. Solar-thermal Water Splitting Using the Sodium Manganese Oxide Process & Preliminary H2A Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, Todd M; Lichty, Paul R; Perkins, Christopher; Tucker, Melinda; Kreider, Peter B; Funke, Hans H; Lewandowski, A; Weimer, Alan W

    2012-10-24

    There are three primary reactions in the sodium manganese oxide high temperature water splitting cycle. In the first reaction, Mn2O3 is decomposed to MnO at 1,500°C and 50 psig. This reaction occurs in a high temperature solar reactor and has a heat of reaction of 173,212 J/mol. Hydrogen is produced in the next step of this cycle. This step occurs at 700°C and 1 atm in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Finally, water is added in the hydrolysis step, which removes NaOH and regenerates the original reactant, Mn2O3. The high temperature solar-driven step for decomposing Mn2O3 to MnO can be carried out to high conversion without major complication in an inert environment. The second step to produce H2 in the presence of sodium hydroxide is also straightforward and can be completed. The third step, the low temperature step to recover the sodium hydroxide is the most difficult. The amount of energy required to essentially distill water to recover sodium hydroxide is prohibitive and too costly. Methods must be found for lower cost recovery. This report provides information on the use of ZnO as an additive to improve the recovery of sodium hydroxide.

  2. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  3. Sodium MRI.

    PubMed

    Ouwerkerk, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Sodium ((23)Na) imaging has a place somewhere between (1)H-MRI and MR spectroscopy (MRS). Like MRS it potentially provides information on metabolic processes, but only one single resonance of ionic (23)Na is observed. Therefore pulse sequences do not need to code for a chemical shift dimension, allowing (23)Na images to be obtained at high resolutions as compared to MRS. In this chapter the biological significance of sodium in the brain will be discussed, as well as methods for observing it with (23)Na-MRI. Many vital cellular processes and interactions in excitable tissues depend on the maintenance of a low intracellular and high extracellular sodium concentration. Healthy cells maintain this concentration gradient at the cost of energy. Leaky cell membranes or an impaired energy metabolism immediately leads to an increase in cytosolic total tissue sodium. This makes sodium a biomarker for ischemia, cancer, excessive tissue activation, or tissue damage as might be caused by ablation therapy. Special techniques allow quantification of tissue sodium for the monitoring of disease or therapy in longitudinal studies or preferential observation of the intracellular component of the tissue sodium. New methods and high-field magnet technology provide new opportunities for (23)Na-MRI in clinical and biomedical research.

  4. Dalteparin sodium.

    PubMed

    Pineo, G F; Hull, R D

    2001-08-01

    Dalteparin sodium (Fragmin, Pharmacia Corporation) is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) with a mean molecular weight of approximately 5000 Da. As with the other LMWHs, dalteparin sodium has certain advantages over unfractionated heparin (UFH), most important of which are improved bio-availability by sc. injection, a prolonged antithrombotic activity which is highly correlated with body weight permitting the o.d. administration of the drug. Dalteparin sodium has been subjected to a large number of well-designed randomised clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders. Based on data from the randomised clinical trials, dalteparin sodium has been approved internationally for a wide spectrum of clinical indications (e.g., prevention of thromboembolic events after surgery). Dalteparin sodium has also been studied in randomised controlled trials in the maintenance of graft patentcy following peripheral vascular surgery, in place of warfarin for the long-term treatment of patients presenting with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), in the prevention of upper extremity thrombosis in patients with indwelling portacath devices and in pregnant patients with a history of previous venous thromboembolism with or without thrombophilia. Dalteparin sodium has been compared with heparin for the prevention of thrombotic complications during haemodyalisis and haemofiltration. These studies have shown promising results but further work is required before dalteparin sodium can be recommended for these indications.

  5. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Studies at PNNL are directed toward new solvent formulation for the practical sodium pseudohydroxide extraction systems.

  6. Method of manufacturing positive nickel hydroxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Gutjahr, M.A.; Schmid, R.; Beccu, K.D.

    1975-12-16

    A method of manufacturing a positive nickel hydroxide electrode is discussed. A highly porous core structure of organic material having a fibrous or reticular texture is uniformly coated with nickel powder and then subjected to a thermal treatment which provides sintering of the powder coating and removal of the organic core material. A consolidated, porous nickel support structure is thus produced which has substantially the same texture and porosity as the initial core structure. To provide the positive electrode including the active mass, nickel hydroxide is deposited in the pores of the nickel support structure.

  7. Correlation of Cyfra 21-1 levels in saliva and serum with CK19 mRNA expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Rewa; Urs, Aadithya B; Chakravarti, Anita; Kumar, Suman; Gupta, V K; Mahajan, Bhawna

    2016-07-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for 90 % of malignant lesions of oral cavity. The study assessed the potential of Cyfra 21-1 as a tumor marker in OSCC. The study included 50 patients of OSCC to evaluate levels of Cyfra 21-1 in serum and saliva by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA) and CK19 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in tissue by florescent quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) along with healthy individuals as control. The salivary and serum Cyfra 21-1 levels in patients of OSCC were significantly higher compared to controls (p value < 0.01). There was a 2.75-fold increase in CK19 mRNA expression in OSCC cases compared to controls. A significant positive correlation was found between serum and salivary Cyfra 21-1, serum Cyfra 21-1, and CK19 mRNA expression and between salivary Cyfra 21-1 and CK19 mRNA expression. Among these, correlation between serum and salivary Cyfra 21-1 was highly significant. Salivary and serum Cyfra 21-1 showed significantly elevated levels in grade II OSCC compared to grade I histopathologically. Elevated levels of salivary Cyfra 21-1 were associated with recurrence in OSCC patients. Reverse operating curve constructed using 3 ng/ml as a cutoff for serum Cyfra 21-1 revealed the sensitivity and specificity to be 88 and 78.2 %, respectively. Using a cutoff value of 8.5 ng/ml for salivary Cyfra 21-1, the sensitivity was found to be 93.8 % and specificity 84.3 %. We advocate salivary Cyfra 21-1 as a better diagnostic marker over serum Cyfra 21-1 as well as a potential marker in the prognosis of OSCC.

  8. Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

    2008-08-31

    Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) of treating the tank wastes by hundreds of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass. An electrochemical salt-splitting process, based on sodium-ion selective ceramic membranes, is being developed to recover and recycle sodium hydroxide from high-salt radioactive tank wastes in DOE’s complex. The ceramic membranes are from a family of materials known as sodium (Na)—super-ionic conductors (NaSICON)—and the diffusion of sodium ions (Na+) is allowed, while blocking other positively charged ions. A cost/benefit evaluation was based on a strategy that involves a separate caustic-recycle facility based on the NaSICON technology, which would be located adjacent to the WTP facility. A Monte Carlo approach was taken, and several thousand scenarios were analyzed to determine likely economic results. The cost/benefit evaluation indicates that 10,000–50,000 metric tons (MT) of sodium could be recycled, and would allow for the reduction of glass production by 60,000–300,000 MT. The cost of the facility construction and operation was scaled to the low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification facility, showing cost would be

  9. [Calcium hydroxide in the treatment of traumatized teeth].

    PubMed

    Cvek, M

    1989-09-01

    Calcium hydroxide is used in the treatment of different traumatized teeth. New concepts about the effects of calcium hydroxide on vital pulps and immature non vital teeth are developed. Some clinical techniques and their results are described.

  10. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  12. Recycling Lithium Carbonate/Lithium Hydroxide Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, J.; Flowers, J.

    1983-01-01

    Hazardous waste disposal problem eliminated by regeneration. Li2CO3/ LiOH recycling process relies on low solubility of alkali carbonates in corresponding hydroxides. Li2CO3 precipitate calcined to LI2O, then rehydrated LiOH. Regeneration eliminates need to dispose caustic waste and uses less energy than simple calcination of entire waste mass.

  13. Study of nickel hydroxide electrodes. 2: Oxidation products of nickel (2) hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, H.; Demelt, K.; White, J.

    1986-01-01

    Pure phases of some oxidized Ni oxides were prepared galvanimetrically with the Ni(2) hydroxide electrode of an alkaline battery. The crystallographic data of these phases, their chemical behavior, and conditions of transition were studied.

  14. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  15. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  16. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  17. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  18. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  19. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  20. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  1. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  2. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  3. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  6. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  7. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  8. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  9. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  10. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  16. Sodium azide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  17. Acifluorfen, sodium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  18. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  19. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  20. Sodium fluoroacetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  1. Enhanced osteoconductivity of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite by system instability.

    PubMed

    Sang Cho, Jung; Um, Seung-Hoon; Su Yoo, Dong; Chung, Yong-Chae; Hye Chung, Shin; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The effect of substituting sodium for calcium on enhanced osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite was newly investigated. Sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by reacting calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid with sodium nitrate followed by sintering. As a control, pure hydroxyapatite was prepared under identical conditions, but without the addition of sodium nitrate. Substitution of calcium with sodium in hydroxyapatite produced the structural vacancies for carbonate ion from phosphate site and hydrogen ion from hydroxide site of hydroxyapatite after sintering. The total system energy of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects calculated by ab initio methods based on quantum mechanics was much higher than that of hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was energetically less stable compared with hydroxyapatite. Indeed, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited higher dissolution behavior of constituent elements of hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-buffered deionized water compared with hydroxyapatite, which directly affected low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity by increasing the degree of apatite supersaturation in SBF. Actually, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited markedly improved low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity in SBF and noticeably higher osteoconductivity 4 weeks after implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits compared with hydroxyapatite. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between hydroxyapatite and sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite on cytotoxicity as determined by BCA assay. Taken together, these results indicate that sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects has promising potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its enhanced osteoconductivity compared with hydroxyapatite.

  2. Structure and thermal decomposition of sulfated β-cyclodextrin intercalated in a layered double hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji; Wei, Min; Rao, Guoying; Evans, David G.; Duan, Xue

    2004-01-01

    The sodium salt of hexasulfated β-cyclodextrin has been synthesized and intercalated into a magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide by ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal decomposition behavior of the intercalated material have been studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a model for the structure has been proposed. The thermal stability of the intercalated sulfated β-cyclodextrin is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation.

  3. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  4. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  5. A comparative study on the magnetic and electrical properties of MFe12O19 (M=Ba and Sr)/BiFeO3 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. A.; Mansour, S. F.; Ismael, H.

    2015-03-01

    M-type hexaferrite (MFe12O19), M=Ba or Sr nanoparticles with hexagonal crystal structure have been successfully synthesized by a citrate auto-combustion method. BiFeO3 (BFO) was prepared by the flash auto-combustion technique. Different nanocomposites were prepared according to the formula [(1-X) MFe12O19+XBiFeO3; M=Ba or Sr, X=0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6]. The structure and morphology of the obtained nanocomposites have been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). From the results, it is observed that the value of saturation magnetization decreases with increasing BFO content, which was mainly due to the contribution of the volume of the weak-magnetic BFO to the total sample volume.

  6. Site-related near-infrared luminescence in MAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (M = Ca, Sr, Ba):Fe{sup 3+} phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.J.; Ma, Y.Y.; Ye, S.; Hu, G.P.; Zhang, Q.Y.

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Intense 700–850 nm NIR emissions in MAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (M = Ca, Sr, Ba):1%Fe{sup 3+} has been obtained. • The NIR emissions can be ascribed to the octahedral Fe{sup 3+} sites. • The site symmetry of Fe{sup 3+} in CA{sub 6} and SA{sub 6} may be lower than that in BA{sub 6}. • The phosphors may be potentially applied in the high-resolution bioimaging. - Abstract: Intense and broad near-infrared (NIR) photoluminescence (PL) peaks locating at 777, 808 and 810 nm is observed for BaAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (BA{sub 6}):1%Fe{sup 3+}, CaAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (CA{sub 6}):1%Fe{sup 3+} and SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (SA{sub 6}):1%Fe{sup 3+}, respectively. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra show that Fe{sup 3+} ions substitute for the different types of Al{sup 3+} sites simultaneously. Meanwhile, the luminescence of Fe{sup 3+} in MAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (M = Ca, Sr and Ba) are ascribed to octahedral Fe{sup 3+}. In addition, the site symmetry of Fe{sup 3+} in CA{sub 6}/SA{sub 6} is lower compared with BA{sub 6}, deduced from the photoluminescence excitation (PLE), EPR and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. These phosphors can be considered as good candidates for the applications in the field of high-resolution bioimaging.

  7. Evaluation of sodium nitrite addition with tank 241-AY-102 waste

    SciTech Connect

    LECHELT, J.A.

    2001-10-30

    Analyses of waste samples taken from tank 241-AY-102 indicate the tank interstitial liquid is deficient in nitrite in accordance with corrosion prevention chemistry. The supernatant was within specifications. Corrosion control is a Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) level control implemented in HNF-IP-I266 (CHG 2001 b), Administrative Control (AC) 5. IS, ''Chemistry Control Program.'' Sodium hydroxide (caustic) solution was added to the tank in early 2001 to bring it into specification for hydroxide. Sodium nitrite solution will be added to the tank to bring the interstitial liquid into specification for nitrite.

  8. Heavy metal leaching from hydroxide, sulphide and silicate stabilized/solidified wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheeseman, C.R.; Butcher, E.J.; Sollars, C.J.; Perry, R. . Centre for Environmental Control and Waste Management)

    1993-01-01

    A synthetic, mixed-metal solution has been stabilized by treatment with sodium hydroxide, sodium sulphide, and sodium silicate, respectively. The three stabilized filter cakes have subsequently been solidified using additions of ordinary Portland cement and pulverized fuel ash (PFA) which are typically used in UK solidification operations. Both the stabilized filter cakes and the solidified wastes have been subjected to an equilibrium extraction test, a modified TCLP test, and a series of single-extraction, batch leach tests using an increasingly acidic leachant. Metal release was found to be primarily dependent on the pH of the leachate. Under mildly acidic conditions, the percentages leached from the stabilized and the stabilized/solidified wastes were comparable for most metals. A high-volume fraction of these solidified wastes is occupied by the stabilized filter cake. When they are broken up and tested in single-extraction leach tests, the primary effect of the cementitious additives is to increase the pH of the leachate so that most heavy metals remain insoluble. When tested under acidic leachate conditions, copper, lead, and mercury were found to be particularly well retained within sodium sulphide stabilized wastes. Under similar tests conditions, cadmium was leached at very low levels from the sodium silicate stabilized waste.

  9. Pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Gurlo, Aleksander; Dzivenko, Dmytro; Andrade, Miria; Riedel, Ralf; Lauterbach, Stefan; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim

    2010-09-15

    A static pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium that takes place at ambient temperature is reported. The lattice parameter of c-In(OH)(3) decreased upon compression from 7.977(2) to approximately 7.45 A at 34 GPa, corresponding to a decrease in specific volume of approximately 18%. Fitting the second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to the obtained compression data gave a bulk modulus of 99 +/- 3 GPa for c-In(OH)(3). The c-In(OH)(3) crystals with a size of approximately 100 nm are comminuted upon compression, as indicated by the grain-size reduction reflected in broadening of the diffraction reflections and the appearance of smaller (approximately 5 nm) incoherently oriented domains in TEM. The rapid decompression of compressed c-In(OH)(3) leads to partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium, mainly as a result of localized stress gradients caused by relaxation of the highly disordered indium sublattice in indium hydroxide. This partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium is irreversible, as confirmed by angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy imaging, Raman scattering, and FTIR spectroscopy. Recovered c-In(OH)(3) samples become completely black and nontransparent and show typical features of metals, i.e., a falling absorption in the 100-250 cm(-1) region accompanied by a featureless spectrum in the 250-2500 cm(-1) region in the Raman spectrum and Drude-like absorption of free electrons in the region of 4000-8000 cm(-1) in the FTIR spectrum. These features were not observed in the initial c-In(OH)(3), which is a typical white wide-band-gap semiconductor.

  10. Particle size and shape of calcium hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Komabayashi, Takashi; D’souza, Rena N; Dechow, Paul C; Safavi, Kamran E.; Spångberg, Larz S.W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the particle length, width, perimeter, and aspect ratio of calcium hydroxide powder using a flow particle image analyzer (FPIA). Five sample groups each with 10mg calcium hydroxide were mixed with 15mL of alcohol and sonicated. Digital images of the particle samples were taken using the FPIA and analyzed with a one-way ANOVA. The overall averages±S.D. among the five groups for particle length (μm), width (μm), perimeter (μm), and aspect ratio were 2.255±1.994, 1.620±1.464, 6.699±5.598, and 0.737±0.149, respectively. No statistical significance was observed among the groups for all parameters. When the total of 46,818 particles from all five groups were classified into the five length categories of 0.5μm increments, there were significant differences in width, perimeter, and aspect ratio (all p-values<0.0001). In conclusion, calcium hydroxide particles have a size and shape that may allow direct penetration into open dentin tubules. PMID:19166791

  11. Hydroxide catalysis bonding for astronomical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Veggel, Anna-Maria A.; Killow, Christian J.

    2014-06-01

    Hydroxide catalysis bonding (HCB) as a jointing technique has been under development for astronomical applications since ˜1998 (patented by D.-H. Gwo). It uses an aqueous hydroxide solution to form a chemical bond between oxide or oxidisable materials (e.g., SiO2, sapphire, silicon and SiC). It forms strong, extremely thin bonds, and is suitable for room temperature bonding, precision alignment, operation in ultra-low vacuum and down to temperatures of 2.5 K. It has been applied in the NASA satellite mission Gravity Probe B and in the ground-based gravitational wave (GW) detector GEO600. It will soon fly again on the ESA LISA Pathfinder mission and is currently being implemented in the Advanced LIGO and Virgo ground-based GW detectors. This technique is also of considerable interest for use in other astronomical fields and indeed more broadly, due to its desirable, and adjustable, combination of properties. This paper gives an overview of how HCB has been and can be applied in astronomical instruments, including an overview of the current literature on the properties of hydroxide catalysis bonds.

  12. [Sorption of nitrobenzene to anionic surfactant modified layered double hydroxides].

    PubMed

    Xia, Yan; Zhu, Run-Liang; Tao, Qi; Liu, Han-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) modified MgAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized at different surfactant concentrations (0.5-2.0 TAEC) by the co-precipitation method. The LDH-DS samples obtained were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. The results showed that SDS was successfully intercalated into the interlayer of the LDH, and the basal spacing was expanded from 0.80 nm to 3.98 nm. The intercalated SDS was considered consistent with a paraffin bilayers arrangement. The sorption of nitrobenzene on LDH-DS was examined, and the results showed that linear model could fit the sorption isotherms well (R2 > 0.99), which implied a partitioning sorption process. The sorption coefficient of nitrobenzene (K(d)) on LDH-DS was positively related to the DS - loading amount, but the organic carbon content normalized sorption coefficient of nitrobenzene (K(oc)) was shown to remain relatively constant. The sorption thermodynamics results showed that the sorption of nitrobenzene on LDH-DS was an endothermic process, and the increase of entropy was the driving force for the sorption process.

  13. Influence of calcium hydroxide intracanal medication on the sealing ability of warm gutta-percha.

    PubMed

    Naaman, Alfred; Kaloustian, Hrant; Abboud, Nada Naaman-Bou; Ounsi, Hani Fouad; Ricci, Catherine; Medioni, Etienne

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate the influence of calcium hydroxide on the sealing ability of vertically condensed warm gutta-percha filling. Sixty single-rooted teeth were instrumented with a rotary system and divided randomly into two groups of 26 teeth each; the remaining eight teeth were divided into two groups of four to serve as negative and positive controls. The canals in the first group were filled with calcium hydroxide paste while the canals in the second group received no medication. Seven days after incubation, root canal dressings were removed by irrigation, using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite associated with ultrasonics and 50% citric acid. All specimens were filled using the warm gutta-percha vertical compaction technique, placed in test tubes containing India ink, and centrifuged at 30 G for five minutes; at that point, the dye penetration level was scored. Under the conditions of this study, the calcium hydroxide group showed significantly greater dye penetration than the non-medicated group.

  14. Scalable exfoliation process for highly soluble boron nitride nanoplatelets by hydroxide-assisted ball milling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongju; Lee, Bin; Park, Kwang Hyun; Ryu, Ho Jin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2015-02-11

    The scalable preparation of two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is essential for practical applications. Despite intense research in this area, high-yield production of two-dimensional h-BN with large-size and high solubility remains a key challenge. In the present work, we propose a scalable exfoliation process for hydroxyl-functionalized BN nanoplatelets (OH-BNNPs) by a simple ball milling of BN powders in the presence of sodium hydroxide via the synergetic effect of chemical peeling and mechanical shear forces. The hydroxide-assisted ball milling process results in relatively large flakes with an average size of 1.5 μm with little damage to the in-plane structure of the OH-BNNP and high yields of 18%. The resultant OH-BNNP samples can be redispersed in various solvents and form stable dispersions that can be used for multiple purposes. The incorporation of the BNNPs into the polyethylene matrix effectively enhanced the barrier properties of the polyethylene due to increased tortuosity of the diffusion path of the gas molecules. Hydroxide-assisted ball milling process can thus provide simple and efficient approaches to scalable preparation of large-size and highly soluble BNNPs. Moreover, this exfoliation process is not only easily scalable but also applicable to other layered materials.

  15. Layered double hydroxide stability. 1. Relative stabilities of layered double hydroxides and their simple counterparts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.

    1999-01-01

    Solutions containing di- and trivalent metal chlorides [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+; M(III) = Al3+, Fe3+] were titrated with NaOH to yield hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDH), [[M(II)]1-x[M(III)]x(OH)2][Cl]x yH2O, by way of M(III) hydroxide/hydrous oxide intermediates. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields nominal solubility constants for the LDH. The corresponding LDH stabilities are in the order Mg < Mn < Co approximately Ni < Zn for M(II) and Al < Fe for M(III). The stability of LDH relative to the separate metal hydroxides/hydrous oxides is discussed.

  16. Application of the SCC-DFTB method to hydroxide water clusters and aqueous hydroxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tae Hoon; Liang, Ruibin; Maupin, C Mark; Voth, Gregory A

    2013-05-02

    The self-consistent charge density functional tight binding (SCC-DFTB) method has been applied to hydroxide water clusters and a hydroxide ion in bulk water. To determine the impact of various implementations of SCC-DFTB on the energetics and dynamics of a hydroxide ion in gas phase and condensed phase, the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus, and DFTB3-3OB implementations have been tested. Energetic stabilities for small hydroxide clusters, OH(-)(H2O)n, where n = 4-7, are inconsistent with the results calculated with the B3LYP and second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) levels of ab initio theory. The condensed phase simulations, OH(-)(H2O)127, using the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus and DFTB3-3OB methods are compared to Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations using the BLYP functional. The SCC-DFTB method including a modified O-H repulsive potential and the third order correction (DFTB3-diag/Full+gaus) is shown to poorly reproduce the CPMD computational results, while the DFTB2 and DFTB2-γ(h) method somewhat more closely describe the structural and dynamical nature of the hydroxide ion in condensed phase. The DFTB3-3OB outperforms the MIO parameter set but is no more accurate than DFTB2. It is also shown that the overcoordinated water molecules lead to an incorrect bulk water density and result in unphysical water void formation. The results presented in this paper point to serious drawbacks for various DFTB extensions and corrections for a hydroxide ion in aqueous environments.

  17. The effects of potassium and rubidium hydroxide on the alkali-silica reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Shomglin, K.; Turanli, L.; Wenk, H.-R.; Monteiro, P.J.M.; Sposito, G

    2003-11-01

    Expansion of mortar specimens prepared with an aggregate of mylonite from the Santa Rosa mylonite zone in southern California was studied to investigate the effect of different alkali ions on the alkali-silica reaction in concrete. The expansion tests indicate that mortar has a greater expansion when subjected to a sodium hydroxide bath than in a sodium-potassium-rubidium hydroxide bath. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of mortar bars at early ages show that rubidium ions, used as tracer, were present throughout the sample by the third day of exposure. The analysis also shows a high concentration of rubidium in silica gel from mortar bars exposed to bath solutions containing rubidium. The results suggest that expansion of mortar bars using ASTM C 1260 does not depend on the diffusion of alkali ions. The results indicate that the expansion of alkali-silica gel depends on the type of alkali ions present. Alkali-silica gel containing rubidium shows a lower concentration of calcium, suggesting competition for the same sites.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shalavi, S; Yazdizadeh, M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve the patient's natural teeth without compromising the patient's local or systemic health. Calcium hydroxide has been included in several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in several treatment modalities in endodontics, such as inter-appointment intracanal medicaments. The purpose of this article was to review the antimicrobial properties of calcium hydroxide in endodontics. Calcium hydroxide has a high pH (approximately 12.5-12.8) and is classified chemically as a strong base. The lethal effects of calcium hydroxide on bacterial cells are probably due to protein denaturation and damage to DNA and cytoplasmic membranes. Calcium hydroxide has a wide range of antimicrobial activity against common endodontic pathogens but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Calcium hydroxide is also a valuable anti-endotoxin agent. However, its effect on microbial biofilms is controversial. PMID:23323217

  19. Hydroxide stabilization as a new tool for ballast disinfection: Efficacy of treatment on zooplankton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moffitt, Christine M.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Barenburg, Amber; Henquinet, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Effective and economical tools are needed for treating ship ballast to meet new regulatory requirements designed to reduce the introduction of invasive aquatic species from ship traffic. We tested the efficacy of hydroxide stabilization as a ballast disinfection tool in replicated, sequential field trials on board the M/V Ranger III in waters of Lake Superior. Ballast water was introduced into each of four identical 1,320 L stainless steel tanks during a simulated ballasting operation. Two tanks were treated with NaOH to elevate the pH to 11.7 and the remaining two tanks were held as controls without pH alteration. After retention on board for 14–18 h, CO2-rich gas recovered from one of two diesel propulsion engines was sparged into tanks treated with NaOH for 2 h to force conversion of NaOH ultimately to sodium bicarbonate, thereby lowering pH to about 7.1. Prior to gas sparging, the engine exhaust was treated by a unique catalytic converter/wet scrubber process train to remove unwanted combustion byproducts and to provide cooling. The contents of each tank were then drained and filtered through 35-µm mesh plankton nets to collect all zooplankton. The composition and relative survival of zooplankton in each tank were evaluated by microscopy. Zooplankton populations were dominated by rotifers, but copepods and cladocerans were also observed. Hydroxide stabilization was 100% effective in killing all zooplankton present at the start of the tests. Our results suggest hydroxide stabilization has potential to be an effective and practical tool to disinfect ship ballast. Further, using CO2 released from the ship engine reduces emissions and the neutralized by product, sodium bicarbonate, can have beneficial impacts on the aquatic environment.

  20. The alpha-form of the hydroxides of bivalent metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feitknecht, W.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray analyses were made of the hydroxides of the bivalent metals. The freshly pptd. hydroxide is usually in the alpha-form, which on standing is converted to another form or other forms. The alpha and c grating dimensions of the alpha-form and the C6-type of Co, Zn, C, Co-Zn and Ni-Zn hydroxides are tabulated. Ni hydroxide does not exhibit an alpha-form. The alpha-Co(OH)2, the blue form, is stabilized by sugar or by the higher alcohols: these compounds do not stabilize alpha-Zn(OH)2.

  1. Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Herrmann, S.D.

    1997-10-14

    A method is described for converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO{sub 2} are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO{sub 2} present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and Tl can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention. 3 figs.

  2. Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Herrmann, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A method of converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO.sub.2 are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO.sub.2 present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and T1 can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention.

  3. Formation and character of an ancient 19-m ice cover and underlying trapped brine in an “ice-sealed” east Antarctic lake

    PubMed Central

    Doran, Peter T.; Fritsen, Christian H.; McKay, Christopher P.; Priscu, John C.; Adams, Edward E.

    2003-01-01

    Lake Vida, one of the largest lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, was previously believed to be shallow (<10 m) and frozen to its bed year-round. New ice-core analysis and temperature data show that beneath 19 m of ice is a water column composed of a NaCl brine with a salinity seven times that of seawater that remains liquid below −10°C. The ice cover thickens at both its base and surface, sealing concentrated brine beneath. The ice cover is stabilized by a negative feedback between ice growth and the freezing-point depression of the brine. The ice cover contains frozen microbial mats throughout that are viable after thawing and has a history that extends to at least 2,800 14C years B.P., suggesting that the brine has been isolated from the atmosphere for as long. To our knowledge, Lake Vida has the thickest subaerial lake ice cover recorded and may represent a previously undiscovered end-member lacustrine ecosystem on Earth. PMID:12518052

  4. Formation and character of an ancient 19-m ice cover and underlying trapped brine in an "ice-sealed" east Antarctic lake.

    PubMed

    Doran, Peter T; Fritsen, Christian H; McKay, Christopher P; Priscu, John C; Adams, Edward E

    2003-01-07

    Lake Vida, one of the largest lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, was previously believed to be shallow (<10 m) and frozen to its bed year-round. New ice-core analysis and temperature data show that beneath 19 m of ice is a water column composed of a NaCl brine with a salinity seven times that of seawater that remains liquid below -10 degrees C. The ice cover thickens at both its base and surface, sealing concentrated brine beneath. The ice cover is stabilized by a negative feedback between ice growth and the freezing-point depression of the brine. The ice cover contains frozen microbial mats throughout that are viable after thawing and has a history that extends to at least 2,800 (14)C years B.P., suggesting that the brine has been isolated from the atmosphere for as long. To our knowledge, Lake Vida has the thickest subaerial lake ice cover recorded and may represent a previously undiscovered end-member lacustrine ecosystem on Earth.

  5. REDUCTION OF PLUTONIUM TO Pu$sup +3$ BY SODIUM DITHIONITE IN POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.R.; Hoekstra, H.R.

    1958-12-16

    Plutonium values are reduced in an alkaline aqueous medlum to the trlvalent state by means of sodium dlthionite. Plutonlum values are also separated from normally assoclated contaminants by metathesizing a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate containing plutonium with a hydroxide solution, performing the metathesis in the presence of about 0.2 M sodium dithionite at a temperature of between 40 and 90 icient laborato C.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide poisoning: an antidotal role for sodium nitrite?

    PubMed

    Hall, A H; Rumack, B H

    1997-06-01

    In 2 separate incidents, 6 patients were poisoned with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in sewer gas. In the first incident, mixing acid- and sodium hydroxide-based drain cleaners in a confined space resulted in 4 poisonings and 2 deaths. Three would-be rescuers were seriously poisoned and 1 died. Two survivors had neurological sequelae. Sodium nitrite appeared to have some clinical efficacy in 1 case. The second incident involved 2 patients working on a pump in a sewage pond. A patient lying on a raft close to the pond surface was seriously poisoned; sodium nitrite was clinically efficacious and this patient survived without developing neurological sequelae. Sodium nitrite deserves further clinical study as a potential H2S antidote.

  7. Retail display evaluation of steaks from select beef strip loins injected with a brine containing 1% ammonium hydroxide. Part 2: Cook yield, tenderness, and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Parsons, A N; VanOverbeke, D L; Goad, C L; Mireles DeWitt, C A

    2011-01-01

    The impact of 2 different brines on the palatability and tenderness of select beef strip loin steaks was evaluated. Brines were differentiated by the type of alkaline agent, 4.5% sodium-based phosphate (control brine; CON) or 1% ammonium hydroxide (ammonium hydroxide treatment; AHT), incorporated into the formula. Injected steaks were placed in high oxygen (80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) MAP, stored 4 d at 4 °C in dark storage to simulate transportation, and then placed in retail display. Steaks were selected randomly on day 0, 7, and 14 retail display to measure pH, cook loss, shear force, and sensory characteristics. The pH for AHT steaks (pH 5.96) was slightly higher than CON steaks (pH 5.86; P < 0.05). Cook loss was lower (21%) for CON than AHT steaks (23%). There was neither a treatment nor day effect on tenderness as measured by Warner-Braztler shear force (P > 0.05). Sensory evaluation indicated that on day 0, retail display the initial juiciness, sustained juiciness, tenderness 1st impression, tenderness overall impression, and connective tissue in AHT steaks was not different from CON steaks (P > 0.05). A day effect (decrease) for those sensory parameters was observed only for sustained juiciness (P < 0.05). AHT steaks were rated higher in cooked beef flavor while CON steaks were higher in peppery and salty flavor. There was no difference in soapy and ammonia intensity between treatments. Results indicated that despite lower performance in cook loss the replacement of 4.5% sodium-based phosphate in a meat injection brine with 1% ammonium hydroxide produced a beef loin steak with comparable tenderness and palatability. Practical Application: The research in this study compares steaks that have been injected with a commercial brine formulated with sodium phosphates to steaks that have been injected with a brine where the sodium phosphate in the formulation was replaced with 1% ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium hydroxide is an USDA-FSIS approved ingredient in brines

  8. Sodium and Food Sources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Cholesterol High Blood Pressure Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Sodium and Food Sources Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: More ...

  9. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-09-26

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  10. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on...

  11. Modelling sodium inhibition on the anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Hierholtzer, A; Akunna, J C

    2012-01-01

    Sodium is a known process inhibitor in anaerobic systems and impacts on methanogens through an increase of osmotic pressure or complete dehydration of microorganisms. In this study, a combination of experimental and modelling approaches has been employed to determine and simulate sodium inhibition on the anaerobic digestion process. The ADM1, which has been successfully used in modelling anaerobic processes, has been modified to include an extra inhibition function that considers the effect of sodium on acetoclastic methanogens and the impact on biogas production and composition. A non-competitive inhibition function was added to the rate of acetate uptake for the model to take into account sodium toxicity. Experimental studies consisted of both batch and reactor tests to obtain parameters for model calibration and validation. The calibrated model was used to predict the effect of ammonia nitrogen on sodium toxicity. It was found that relatively low sodium levels can bring about significant levels of process inhibition in the presence of high levels of ammonia. On the other hand, where the concentration of ammonia is relatively low, the tolerance threshold for sodium ions increases. Hence, care must be taken in the use of sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment during anaerobic digestion of protein-rich substrates.

  12. Hydroxide Solvation and Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Tse, Ying-Lung Steve; Lindberg, Gerrick E; Knight, Chris; Voth, Gregory A

    2016-01-27

    Understanding hydroxide solvation and transport in anion exchange membranes (AEMs) can provide important insight into the design principles of these new membranes. To accurately model hydroxide solvation and transport, we developed a new multiscale reactive molecular dynamics model for hydroxide in aqueous solution, which was then subsequently modified for an AEM material. With this model, we investigated the hydroxide solvation structure and transport mechanism in the membrane. We found that a relatively even separation of the rigid side chains produces a continuous overlapping region for hydroxide transport that is made up of the first hydration shell of the tethered cationic groups. Our results show that hydroxide has a significant preference for this overlapping region, transporting through it and between the AEM side chains with substantial contributions from both vehicular (standard diffusion) and Grotthuss (proton hopping) mechanisms. Comparison of the AEM with common proton exchange membranes (PEMs) showed that the excess charge is less delocalized in the AEM than the PEMs, which is correlated with a higher free energy barrier for proton transfer reactions. The vehicular mechanism also contributes considerably more than the Grotthuss mechanism for hydroxide transport in the AEM, while our previous studies of PEM systems showed a larger contribution from the Grotthuss mechanism than the vehicular mechanism for proton transport. The activation energy barrier for hydroxide diffusion in the AEM is greater than that for proton diffusion in PEMs, implying a more significant enhancement of ion transport in the AEM at elevated temperatures.

  13. Hydroxide Solvation and Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chen; Tse, Ying-Lung Steve; Lindberg, Gerrick E.; Knight, Chris; Voth, Gregory A.

    2016-01-27

    Understanding hydroxide solvation and transport in anion exchange membranes (AEMs) can provide important insight into the design principles of these new membranes. To accurately model hydroxide solvation and transport, we developed a new multiscale reactive molecular dynamics model for hydroxide in aqueous solution, which was then subsequently modified for an AEM material. With this model, we investigated the hydroxide solvation structure and transport mechanism in the membrane. We found that a relatively even separation of the rigid side chains produces a continuous overlapping region for hydroxide transport that is made up of the first hydration shell of the tethered cationic groups. Our results show that hydroxide has a significant preference for this overlapping region, transporting through it and between the AEM side chains with substantial contributions from both vehicular (standard diffusion) and Grotthuss (proton hopping) mechanisms. Comparison of the AEM with common proton exchange membranes (PEMs) showed that the excess charge is less delocalized in the AEM than the PEMs, which is correlated with a higher free energy barrier for proton transfer reactions. The vehicular mechanism also contributes considerably more than the Grotthuss mechanism for hydroxide transport in the AEM, while our previous studies of PEM systems showed a larger contribution from the Grotthuss mechanism than the vehicular mechanism for proton transport. The activation energy barrier for hydroxide diffusion in the AEM is greater than that for proton diffusion in PEMs, implying a more significant enhancement of ion transport in the AEM at elevated temperatures.

  14. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of a prepared cavity before insertion of restorative material, such as amalgam, to protect the pulp of a...

  15. Magnetic cellulose ionomer/layered double hydroxide: An efficient anion exchange platform with enhanced diclofenac adsorption property.

    PubMed

    Hossein Beyki, Mostafa; Mohammadirad, Mosleh; Shemirani, Farzaneh; Saboury, Ali Akbar

    2017-02-10

    Polymeric ionomers with anion exchange capability are considered to be classes of environmentally friendly compounds as combination of them with anionic layered hydroxides constitute emerging advance materials. Biosorption by polymeric ionomer - layered double hydroxide (LDH) hybrid material exhibits an attractive green, low cost and low toxic - clean way. As a result, a novel anion exchange platform has been developed by the reaction of CaAl - LDH with Fe(2+), cellulose solution, epichlorohydrin and pyridine. Magnetite cellulose - LDH (MCL) and the ionomer were used for efficient biosorption of diclofenac sodium (DF). Results showed that ionomer has more efficiency for DF adsorption relative to MCL. Magnetite ionomer showed fast equilibrium time (2min) with maximum uptake of 268mgg(-1). Isotherm and Kinetic models were also studied. Regeneration of the sorbent was performed with a mixture of methanol -NaOH (2.0molL(-1)) solution.

  16. Chemical kinetic studies on dry sorbents. Final report. [Sodium bicarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.T.; Keener, T.C.

    1982-02-15

    The scope of this research investigation has included a review of potential additives suitable for dry flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) and a bench scale laboratory study to determine the chemical kinetics for the reaction of five different sorbents with sulfur dioxide. The sorbents chosen included sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO/sub 3/), soda ash (Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/), trona, lime (CaO) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)/sub 2/). This study has shown that: (1) The reaction rate increases with temperature for soda ash and calcium oxide. The reaction temperature has an inverse effect on sodium bicarbonate and trona due, primarily, to the simultaneous thermal activation reaction. The calcium hydroxide-SO/sub 2/ reaction increased up to 550/sup 0/F, and then decreased, due to uneven gas flow distribution. (2) The reaction rates for soda ash, calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide were increased by decreasing their particle size. This effect was not confirmed for sodium bicarbonate and trona where reaction temperature was the most important reaction parameter. (3) Reaction with soda ash was found to be limited by the presence of an impervious ash layer which prevented interparticle gaseous diffusion. Calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide were found to be limited by a slow chemical reaction rate. Results on the rate-limiting steps for sodium bicarbonate and trona were inconclusive because of the simultaneous thermal activation reaction. (4) The effect of thermal activation was to increase the reaction rate for sodium bicarbonate and trona at lower temperatures. This effect was less pronounced at higher temperatures. (5) Results obtained for nitric oxide show limited adsorption for the five sorbents tested as compared to the finding for sulfur dioxide.

  17. Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal

    2012-01-15

    Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 Degree-Sign C and in the LDH at 276 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: The zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O was tested as intercalation matrix. In comparison with the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) and layered double hydroxides (LDH), ZHC was the best matrix for thermal protection of Asp combustion, presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C, while the highest exothermic event in ZHN was at 366 Degree-Sign C, and in the LDH it was at 276 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZHC has higher chemical and thermal stability than zinc hydroxide nitrate and LDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NH{sub 3} molecules can be intercalated into ZHC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amino group of amino acids limits the intercalation by ion-exchange.

  18. In situ synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate)/MgAl layered double hydroxide nanocomposite with high transparency and enhanced thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Feng, Li; Qu, Baojun

    2004-04-01

    A novel poly(methyl methacrylate)/MgAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposite (PMMA-MgAl NC) with high transparency and enhanced thermal properties was synthesized in situ by adding sodium hydroxide aqueous solution to an emulsion consisting of metal ion aqueous solution, sodium dodecyl sulfate, methyl methacrylate, and benzoyl peroxide, then followed by the thermal initiation polymerization. The basal spacing of PMMA-MgAl NC was 2.72 nm determined by X-ray diffraction measurement. The intercalated MgAl LDH particles of 60-120 nm width and 25-40 nm thickness were well dispersed at molecular level in the PMMA matrix. When the 50% weight loss was selected as a comparison point, the decomposition temperature of PMMA-MgAl NC sample with 30 wt% MgAl LDH (including dodecyl sulfate) was ca. 45 °C higher than that of pure PMMA.

  19. Doped with Sodium Acetate and Metallic Sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Satoki; Isoda, Yukihiro; Udono, Haruhiko; Fujiu, Hirofumi; Kumagai, Shunji; Shinohara, Yoshikazu

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of p-type Na-doped Mg2 Si0.25Sn0.75 solid solutions prepared by liquid-solid reaction and hot-pressing methods. Na was introduced into Mg2Si0.25Sn0.75 by using either sodium acetate (CH3COONa) or metallic sodium (2 N). The samples doped with sodium acetate consisted of phases with antifluorite structure and a small amount of MgO as revealed by x-ray diffraction, whereas the sample doped with metallic sodium contained the Sn, MgO, and Mg2SiSn phases. The hole concentrations of Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 doped by sodium acetate and metallic sodium were 1.84 × 1025 m-3 and 1.22 × 1025 m-3, respectively, resulting in resistivities of 4.96 × 10-5 Ω m (sodium acetate) and 1.09 × 10-5 Ω m (metallic sodium). The Seebeck coefficients were 198 μV K-1 (sodium acetate) and 241 μV K-1 (metallic sodium). The figures of merit for Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 were 0.40 × 10-3 K-1 (sodium acetate) and 0.25 × 10-3 K-1 (metallic sodium) at 400 K. Thus, sodium acetate is a suitable Na dopant for Mg2Si1- x Sn x .

  20. Cu sbnd Al sbnd Fe layered double hydroxides with CO32- and anionic surfactants with different alkyl chains in the interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillano, Raquel; Holgado, María Jesús; González, José Luis; Rives, Vicente

    2005-08-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), with the hydrotalcite-like structure containing Cu(II), Al(III) and Fe(III) in the layers, and different alkyl sulfonates in the interlayer, have been prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Pure crystalline phases have been obtained in all cases. Upon heating, combustion of the organic chain takes place at lower temperature than the corresponding sodium salts.

  1. Nickel hydroxide/cobalt-ferrite magnetic nanocatalyst for alcohol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Pooja B; Inam, Fawad; Bhat, Badekai Ramachandra

    2014-08-11

    A magnetically separable, active nickel hydroxide (Brønsted base) coated nanocobalt ferrite catalyst has been developed for oxidation of alcohols. High surface area was achieved by tuning the particle size with surfactant. The surface area of 120.94 m2 g(-1) has been achieved for the coated nanocobalt ferrite. Improved catalytic activity and selectivity were obtained by synergistic effect of transition metal hydroxide (basic hydroxide) on nanocobalt ferrite. The nanocatalyst oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols efficiently (87%) to corresponding carbonyls in good yields.

  2. Adsorption of phosphonate antiscalant from reverse osmosis membrane concentrate onto granular ferric hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Boels, Luciaan; Keesman, Karel J; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

    2012-09-04

    Adsorptive removal of antiscalants offers a promising way to improve current reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate treatment processes and enables the reuse of the antiscalant in the RO desalination process. This work investigates the adsorption and desorption of the phosphonate antiscalant nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (NTMP) from RO membrane concentrate onto granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), a material that consists predominantly of akaganéite. The kinetics of the adsorption of NTMP onto GFH was predicted fairly well with two models that consider either combined film-pore or combined film-surface diffusion as the main mechanism for mass transport. It is also demonstrated that NTMP is preferentially adsorbed over sulfate by GFH at pH 7.85. The presence of calcium causes a transformation in the equilibrium adsorption isotherm from a Langmuir type to a Freundlich type with much higher adsorption capacities. Furthermore, calcium also increases the rate of adsorption substantially. GFH is reusable after regeneration with sodium hydroxide solution, indicating that NTMP can be potentially recovered from the RO concentrate. This work shows that GFH is a promising adsorbent for the removal and recovery of NTMP antiscalant from RO membrane concentrates.

  3. Homogeneous Precipitation of Nickel Hydroxide Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Mavis, Bora

    2003-01-01

    Precipitation and characterization of nickel hydroxide powders were investigated. A comprehensive precipitation model incorporating the metal ion hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions was developed for the production of the powders with urea precipitation method. Model predictions on Ni2+ precipitation rate were confirmed with precipitation experiments carried out at 90 C. Experimental data and model predictions were in remarkable agreement. Uncertainty in the solubility product data of nickel hydroxides was found to be the large contributor to the error. There were demonstrable compositional variations across the particle cross-sections and the growth mechanism was determined to be the aggregation of primary crystallites. This implied that there is a change in the intercalate chemistry of the primary crystallites with digestion time. Predicted changes in the concentrations of simple and complex ions in the solution support the proposed mechanism. The comprehensive set of hydrolysis reactions used in the model described above allows the investigation of other systems provided that accurate reaction constants are available. the fact that transition metal ions like Ni2+ form strong complexes with ammonia presents a challenge in the full recovery of the Ni2+. On the other hand, presence of Al3+ facilitates the complete precipitation of Ni2+ in about 3 hours of digestion. A challenge in their predictive modeling studies had been the fact that simultaneous incorporation of more than one metal ion necessitates a different approach than just using the equilibrium constants of hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions. Another limitation of using equilibrium constants is that the nucleation stage of digestion, which is controlled mainly by kinetics, is not fully justified. A new program released by IBM Almaden Research Center (Chemical Kinetics Simulator™, Version 1.01) lets the user change

  4. Modeling the Sodium Recovery Resulting from Using Concentrated Caustic for Boehmite Dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2011-10-19

    Boehmite dissolution experiments were conducted at NaOH concentrations of 10 M and 12 M to determine whether the increased aluminum solubility at high hydroxide concentration would offset the increase in added sodium, leading to an overall decrease in the amount of sodium added during the boehmite dissolution process. A shrinking-core dissolution rate model that assumed reversible reaction was used to fit the test data. The resulting model accounted for the effects of temperature, hydroxide concentration, and dissolved aluminum concentration. The rate was found to be dependent on the {approx}1.5 power of hydroxide molarity. When the dissolution rate model was used in simulations of batch boehmite dissolution, a concentration range of 7 to 9 M NaOH was found to minimize the mass of sodium needed to dissolve a given mass of aluminum, potentially reducing it by as much as two-thirds. The time required to dissolve the boehmite was also found to be decreased by using hydroxide concentrations greater than {approx}10 M.

  5. Histological comparison of alendronate, calcium hydroxide and formocresol in amputated rat molar.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, S Burcak; Batirbaygil, Yildiz; Onur, Mehmet Ali; Atilla, Pergin; Asan, Esin; Altay, Nil; Cehreli, Zafer C

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of alendronate sodium (ALN), a biphosohonate to stimulate hard tissue formation in pulpotomized (amputated) rat molars. Two commonly used pulpotomy materials, calcium hydroxide (CH) and formocresol (FC) were utilized for comparisons. Histological evaluations were performed by observers blinded to treatment allocation on days 7, 15, 30 and 60, followed by statistical analysis of selected histological criteria. In all evaluation periods, hard tissue deposition was evident along the radicular dentin in ALN and CH groups. In days 30 and 60, the latter two groups showed no differences in inflammatory cell response and hard tissue deposition scores (P > 0.05). ALN appears to be capable of maintaining pulpal vitality, while promoting hard tissue formation, similar to CH.

  6. Form and stability of aluminum hydroxide complexes in dilute solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hem, John David; Roberson, Charles Elmer

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory studies of solutions 4.53 x 10 -4 to 4.5 x 10 -5 molal (12.2-1.2 ppm) in aluminum, in 0.01 molal sodium perchlorate, were conducted to obtain information as to the probable behavior of aluminum in natural water. When the solutions were brought to pH 7.5-9.5 and allowed to stand for 24 hours, a precipitate was obtained which was virtually amorphous as shown by X-rays, and which had a solubility equivalent to that of boehmite. This precipitate had a hydrolysis constant (*Ks4) of 1.93 x 10 -13a. When solutions were allowed to stead at this pH range for 10 days, their precipitates gave the X-ray pattern of bayerite (*Ks4 = 1.11 > (10- 4). These hydrolysis constants were obtained at 25?C. and corrected to zero ionic strength and are in close agreement with other published values. The predominant dissolved form in this pH range is Al(OH) -4. Below neutral pH (7.0) the dissolved aluminum species consist of octahedral units in which each aluminum ion is surrounded by six water molecules or hydroxide ions. Single units such as Al(OH2)6 + 3 and AlOH(OH2)5+2 are most abundant below pH 5.0, and where the molar ratio (r) of combined hydroxide to total dissolved aluminum is low. When r is greater than 1.0, polymerization of the octahedral units occurs. When r is between 2.0 and 3.0, solutions aged for 10 days or more contained colloidal particles between 0.10 and 0.45 ? in diameter. Particles whose diameters were greater than 0.10 ? were identified by X-ray diffraction as gibbsite. Particles smaller than 0.10 ? were also present and were shown by means of the electron microscope to have a hexagonal crystal pattern. Structured material consisting of sheets of coalesced six-membered rings of aluminum ions held together by double OH bridges has a distinctive kinetic behavior. This property was used to determine amounts of polymerized material in solutions having r between 1.0 and 3.0 after aging times ranging from a few hours to more than 4 months. Aging increased the

  7. Hydroxide-Assisted Bonding of Ultra-Low-Expansion Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramovici, Alexander; White, Victor

    2008-01-01

    A process for hydroxide-assisted bonding has been developed as a means of joining optical components made of ultra-low-expansion (ULE) glass, while maintaining sufficiently precise alignment between. The process is intended mainly for use in applications in which (1) bonding of glass optical components by use of epoxy does not enable attainment of the required accuracy and dimensional stability and (2) conventional optical contacting (which affords the required accuracy and stability) does not afford adequate bond strength. The basic concept of hydroxide-assisted bonding is not new. The development of the present process was prompted by two considerations: (1) The expertise in hydroxide-assisted bonding has resided in very few places and the experts have not been willing to reveal the details of their processes and (2) data on the reliability and strength attainable by hydroxide-assisted bonding have been scarce.

  8. Conversion coatings prepared or treated with calcium hydroxide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minevski, Zoran (Inventor); Clarke, Eric (Inventor); Maxey, Jason (Inventor); Nelson, Carl (Inventor); Eylem, Cahit (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A conversion coating process that forms a stable and corrosion-resistant oxide layer on metal or metal oxide substrates or layers. Particularly, the conversion coating process involves contacting the metal or metal oxide substrate or layer with the aqueous calcium hydroxide solutions in order to convert the surface of the substrate to a stable metal oxide layer or coating. According to the present invention, the calcium hydroxide solution is prepared by removing carbon dioxide from water or an aqueous solution before introducing the calcium hydroxide. In this manner, formation of calcium carbonate particles is avoided and the porosity of the conversion coating produced by the calcium hydroxide solution is reduced to below about 1%.

  9. Exfoliation of layered double hydroxides for enhanced oxygen evolution catalysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Fang; Hu, Xile

    2014-07-17

    The oxygen evolution reaction is a key reaction in water splitting. The common approach in the development of oxygen evolution catalysts is to search for catalytic materials with new and optimized chemical compositions and structures. Here we report an orthogonal approach to improve the activity of catalysts without alternating their compositions or structures. Specifically, liquid phase exfoliation is applied to enhance the oxygen evolution activity of layered double hydroxides. The exfoliated single-layer nanosheets exhibit significantly higher oxygen evolution activity than the corresponding bulk layered double hydroxides in alkaline conditions. The nanosheets from nickel iron and nickel cobalt layered double hydroxides outperform a commercial iridium dioxide catalyst in both activity and stability. The exfoliation creates more active sites and improves the electronic conductivity. This work demonstrates the promising catalytic activity of single-layered double hydroxides for the oxygen evolution reaction.

  10. Solvent and process for recovery of hydroxide from aqueous mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Keever, Tamara J.

    2001-01-01

    Hydroxide values and associated alkali metal may be recovered from alkaline aqueous solutions using classes of fluorinated alcohols in a water immiscible solvent. The alcohols are characterized by fluorine substituents which are proximal to the acidic alcohol protons and are located to adjust the acidity of the extractant and the solubility of the extractant in the solvent. A method for stripping the extractant and solvent to regenerate the extractant and purified aqueous hydroxide solution is described.

  11. Fractional excretion of sodium

    MedlinePlus

    FE sodium; FENa ... to a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... your normal foods with a normal amount of salt, unless otherwise instructed by your health care provider. ...

  12. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  13. Naproxen sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  14. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  15. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  16. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  17. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... osmolality Urine sodium Treatment The cause of low sodium must be diagnosed and treated. If cancer is the cause of the condition, then radiation, chemotherapy , or surgery to remove the tumor may correct the sodium imbalance. Other treatments depend on the specific type ...

  18. Chemical modification of zinc hydroxide nitrate and Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide with dicarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal; Mangrich, Antonio Salvio; da Costa Gardolinski, José Eduardo Ferreira; Wypych, Fernando

    2008-04-01

    A zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN), Zn5(OH)8(NO3)2.2H2O, and a layered double hydroxide (LDH), Zn/Al-NO3 were doped with 0.2 mol% of Cu2+ during alkaline chemical precipitation. Both compounds were intercalated with adipate ((-)OOC(CH2)4COO(-)), azelate ((-)OOC(CH2)7COO(-)), and benzoate (C6H5COO(-)) ions through ion exchange reactions. Solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed only one signal of carboxylic carbon for adipate and azelate intercalated into LDH, indicating that the carboxylic ends of both acids were equivalent, whereas the signal split when the intercalation was into the ZHN matrix. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of copper in octahedral cation sites of LDH layers showed a Hamiltonian parameter ratio g ||/A ||=170 cm and, after intercalation of adipate, the change was not significant: g ||/A ||=174 cm. This result indicates that the carboxylate ions did not coordinate with copper centers. Nonetheless, the intercalation of azelate increased the ratio to g ||/A ||=194 cm, similar to the spectra of ZHN modified with adipate, g ||/A ||=199 cm, and azelate, g ||/A ||=183 and 190 cm, which are associated with the coordination of copper by weak carboxylate anion ligands. Copper occupies octahedral or tetrahedral sites in ZHN layers, and the EPR spectra indicate that the dicarboxylate anions reacted preferentially with octahedral sites, whereas benzoate reacted with both sites.

  19. Maximizing biomass productivity and CO2 biofixation of microalga, Scenedesmus sp. by using sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Manoranjan; Rath, Swagat S; Thirunavoukkarasu, Manikkannan; Panda, Prasanna K; Mishra, Barada K; Mohanty, Rama C

    2013-09-28

    A series of experiments were carried out with three native strains of microalgae to measure growth rates, biomass, and lipid productivities. Scenedesmus sp. IMMTCC-6 had better biomass growth rate and higher lipid production. The growth, lipid accumulation, and carbon dioxide (CO2) consumption rate of Scenedesmus sp. IMMTCC-6 were tested under different NaOH concentrations in modified BBM. The algal strain showed the maximum specific growth rate (0.474/day), biomass productivity (110.9 mg l(-1) d(-1)), and CO2 consumption rate (208.4 mg l(-1) d(-1)) with an NaOH concentration of 0.005 M on the 8(th) day of cultivation. These values were 2.03-, 6.89-, and 6.88-fold more than the algal cultures grown in control conditions (having no NaOH and CO2). The CO2 fixing efficiency of the microalga with other alternative carbon sources like Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 was also investigated and compared. The optimized experimental parameters at shake-flask scale were implemented for scaling up the process in a self-engineered photobioreactor. A significant increase in lipid accumulation (14.23% to 31.74%) by the algal strain from the logarithmic to stationary phases was obtained. The algal lipids were mainly composed of C16/C18 fatty acids, and are desirable for biodiesel production. The study suggests that microalga Scenedesmus sp. IMMTCC-6 is an efficient strain for biodiesel production and CO2 biofixation using stripping solution of NaOH in a cyclic process.

  20. Friction and wear of iron and nickel in sodium hydroxide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengstorff, G. W. P.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    A loaded spherical aluminum oxider rider was made to slide, while in various solutions, on a flat iron or nickel surface reciprocate a distance of 1 cm. Time of experiments was 1 hr during which the rider passed over the rider passed over the center section of the track 540 times. Coefficients of friction were measured throughout the experiments. Wear was measured by scanning the track with a profilometer. Analysis of some of the wear tracks included use of the SEM (scanning electron microscrope) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). Investigated were the effect of various concentractions of NaOH and of water. On iron, increasing NaOH concentration above 0.01 N caused the friction and wear to decrease. This decrease is accompanied by a decrease in surface concentration of ferric oxide (Fe2O3) while more complex iron-oxygen compounds, not clearly identified, also form. At low concentrations of NaOH, such as 0.01 N, where the friction is high, the wear track is badely torn up and the surface is broken. At high concentration, such as 10 N, where the friction is low, the wear track is smooth. The general conclusion is that NaOH forms a protective, low friction film on iron which is destroyed by wear at low concentrations but remains intact at high concentrations of NaOH. Nickel behaves differently than iron in that only a little NaOH gives a low coefficient of friction and a surface which, although roughened in the wear track, remains intact.

  1. TEST PROGRAM FOR ALUMINA REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; GEINESSE D

    2011-01-28

    This test program sets a multi-phased development path to support the development of the Lithium Hydrotalcite process, in order to raise its Technology Readiness Level from 3 to 6, based on tasks ranging from laboratory scale scientific research to integrated pilot facilities.

  2. EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND SUPERCRITICAL FLUID TREATMENTS ON UNRETTED KENAF FIBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Laddha, Sachin; Chen, Feng; Wright, Katherine M.

    2010-05-17

    Kenaf fibers have been gaining great interest for use in the fabrication of both thermoset and thermoplastic composites. However, the inherent fiber surface properties limit their application. In response to the uneconomical, energy inefficient and environmentally unfavorable issues of the standard fiber retting process, we applied chemical modifications of kenaf fibers as alternative retting treatments and investigated the overall performance of the modified fibers. Alkaline solution and super critical alcohol were used as fiber treatments and their effects on the fiber properties were compared. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the thermal properties of fibers. The change of in chemical composition of the fibers with treatment is discussed in the context of the thermal decomposition behavior. The cellulose crystal structure and total crystallinity of the kenaf fibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to examine the morphological changes of fiber surface and fiber cross-section after both alkaline and super critical alcohol treatments. The mechanical behavior of fibers before and after treatment was explored by tenacity testing and the fracture mechanism was evidenced by observing the fracture surfaces. The effect of chemical treatment duration on the fiber performance was also discussed. It was found that the alkaline treated kenaf fibers showed higher thermal stability than untreated fibers, while TGA results indicated that supercritical alcohol was more efficient in removing the non-cellulosic portions. XRD data confirmed the removal of amorphous structural components such as pectin, hemicellulose and lignin as well as amorphous cellulose for the treated kenaf fibers. SEM images showed that both treatments were effective in removing impurities and coating materials on the fiber surface. The rough fracture morphology observed by SEM indicates that ultimate fibril pull-out occurred.

  3. Waste activated sludge hydrolysis and acidification: A comparison between sodium hydroxide and steel slag addition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Chaojie; Zhang, Xuan; Feng, Leiyu; Li, Yongmei; Zhou, Qi

    2016-10-01

    Alkaline treatment with steel slag and NaOH addition were investigated under different pH conditions for the fermentation of waste activated sludge. Better performance was achieved in steel slag addition scenarios for both sludge hydrolysis and acidification. More solubilization of organic matters and much production of higher VFA (volatile fatty acid) in a shorter time can be achieved at pH10 when adjusted by steel slag. Higher enzyme activities were also observed in steel slag addition scenarios under the same pH conditions. Phosphorus concentration in the supernatant increased with fermentation time and pH in NaOH addition scenarios, while in contrast most phosphorus was released and captured by steel slag simultaneously in steel slag addition scenarios. These results suggest that steel slag can be used as a substitute for NaOH in sludge alkaline treatment.

  4. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of genetically modified switchgrass for improved enzymatic release of sugars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overcoming biomass recalcitrance to biological conversion has been the focus of enormous research efforts in the cellulosic biofuel area in the past decades. In this study, Alamo switchgrass was genetically transformed to suppress the expression of 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL). The transgenic plants...

  5. Development of a thermal storage module using modified anhydrous sodium hydroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. E.; Rowny, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    The laboratory scale testing of a modified anhydrous NaOH latent heat storage concept for small solar thermal power systems such as total energy systems utilizing organic Rankine systems is discussed. A diagnostic test on the thermal energy storage module and an investigation of alternative heat transfer fluids and heat exchange concepts are specifically addressed. A previously developed computer simulation model is modified to predict the performance of the module in a solar total energy system environment. In addition, the computer model is expanded to investigate parametrically the incorporation of a second heat exchange inside the module which will vaporize and superheat the Rankine cycle power fluid.

  6. Large-scale thermal energy storage using sodium hydroxide /NaOH/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. H.; Truscello, V. C.

    1977-01-01

    A technique employing NaOH phase change material for large-scale thermal energy storage to 900 F (482 C) is described; the concept consists of 12-foot diameter by 60-foot long cylindrical steel shell with closely spaced internal tubes similar to a shell and tube heat exchanger. The NaOH heat storage medium fills the space between the tubes and outer shell. To charge the system, superheated steam flowing through the tubes melts and raises the temperature of NaOH; for discharge, pressurized water flows through the same tube bundle. A technique for system design and cost estimation is shown. General technical and economic properties of the storage unit integrated into a solar power plant are discussed.

  7. Biomethane production and physicochemical characterization of anaerobically digested teff (Eragrostis tef) straw pretreated by sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Chufo, Akiber; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Pang, Yunzhi; Li, Xiujin

    2015-04-01

    The biogas production potential and biomethane content of teff straw through pretreatment by NaOH was investigated. Different NaOH concentrations (1%, 2%, 4% and 6%) were used for each four solid loadings (50, 65, 80 and 95 g/L). The effects of NaOH as pretreatment factor on the biodegradability of teff straw, changes in main compositions and enhancement of anaerobic digestion were analyzed. The result showed that, using 4% NaOH for pretreatment in 80 g/L solid loading produced 40.0% higher total biogas production and 48.1% higher biomethane content than the untreated sample of teff straw. Investigation of changes in chemical compositions and physical microstructure indicated that there was 4.3-22.1% total lignocellulosic compositions removal after three days pretreatment with NaOH. The results further revealed that NaOH pretreatment changed the structural compositions and lignin network, and improved biogas production from teff straw.

  8. DNA from oral bacteria by sodium hydroxide-paper method suitable for polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Lefimil, Claudia; Lozano, Carla; Morales-Bozo, Irene; Plaza, Anita; Maturana, Cristian; Urzúa, Blanca

    2013-02-15

    In the oral cavity, we can find a complex mixture of microorganisms, commensals, and pathogens. The studies of normal oral microbiota, as well as the studies of much oral pathology (e.g., caries, periodontitis), involve the isolation and cultivation of these microorganisms and their molecular analysis. The aim of this study was to validate a quick, easy, efficient, and inexpensive DNA extraction method for the recovery of genomic DNA from gram-positive and gram-negative oral bacteria to be used in polymerase chain reaction amplification. This method worked great with all samples analyzed, providing an approach to extract DNA for different microorganisms.

  9. Safe and Effective Deactivation of Metallic Sodium Filled Scrap and Cold Traps From Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor D and D - 12176

    SciTech Connect

    Nester, Dean; Crocker, Ben; Smart, Bill

    2012-07-01

    As part of the Plateau Remediation Project at US Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with IMPACT Services, LLC to receive and deactivate approximately 28 cubic meters of sodium metal contaminated debris from two sodium-cooled research reactors (Enrico Fermi Unit 1 and the Fast Flux Test Facility) which had been stored at Hanford for over 25 years. CHPRC found an off-site team composed of IMPACT Services and Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., with the facilities and technological capabilities to safely and effectively perform deactivation of this sodium metal contaminated debris. IMPACT Services provided the licensed fixed facility and the logistical support required to receive, store, and manage the waste materials before treatment, and the characterization, manifesting, and return shipping of the cleaned material after treatment. They also provided a recycle outlet for the liquid sodium hydroxide byproduct resulting from removal of the sodium from reactor parts. Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc. mobilized their patented AMANDA unit to the IMPACT Services site and operated the unit to perform the sodium removal process. Approximately 816 Kg of metallic sodium were removed and converted to sodium hydroxide, and the project was accomplished in 107 days, from receipt of the first shipment at the IMPACT Services facility to the last outgoing shipment of deactivated scrap metal. There were no safety incidents of any kind during the performance of this project. The AMANDA process has been demonstrated in this project to be both safe and effective for deactivation of sodium and NaK. It has also been used in other venues to treat other highly reactive alkali metals, such as lithium (Li), potassium (K), NaK and Cesium (Cs). (authors)

  10. Sodium in feline nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P; Reynolds, B; Zentek, J; Paßlack, N; Leray, V

    2016-08-23

    High sodium levels in cat food have been controversial for a long time. Nonetheless, high sodium levels are used to enhance water intake and urine volume, with the main objective of reducing the risk of urolithiasis. This article is a review of current evidence of the putative risks and benefits of high dietary sodium levels. Its secondary aim is to report a possible safe upper limit (SUL) for sodium intake. The first part of the manuscript is dedicated to sodium physiology, with a focus on the mechanisms of sodium homeostasis. In this respect, there is only few information regarding possible interactions with other minerals. Next, the authors address how sodium intake affects sodium balance; knowledge of these effects is critical to establish recommendations for sodium feed content. The authors then review the consequences of changes in sodium intake on feline health, including urolithiasis, blood pressure changes, cardiovascular alterations and kidney disease. According to recent, long-term studies, there is no evidence of any deleterious effect of dietary sodium levels as high as 740 mg/MJ metabolizable energy, which can therefore be considered the SUL based on current knowledge.

  11. Growth of PbTe nanorods controlled by polymerized tellurium anions and metal(II) amides via composite-hydroxide-mediated approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Buyong; Hu Chenguo; Liu Hong; Xiong Yufeng; Li Feiyun; Xi Yi; He Xiaoshan

    2009-09-15

    The pure face-centered-cubic PbTe nanorods have been synthesized by the composite-hydroxide-mediated approach using hydrazine as a reducing agent. The method is based on reaction among reactants in the melts of potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide eutectic at 170-220 deg. C and normal atmosphere without using any organic dispersant or surface-capping agent. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the samples. The diameters of nanorods are almost fixed, while the lengths can be tunable under different growth time and temperatures. The growth mechanism of PbTe nanorods is investigated via UV-vis absorption, demonstrating that polymerized tellurium anions and metal(II) amides in the hydrazine hydroxide melts could control the crystallization and growth process of PbTe nanostructures. The band gap of as-synthesized PbTe nanorods has been calculated based on UV-vis-NIR optical diffuse reflectance spectra data.

  12. Multi-stage absorption of rendering plant odours using sodium hypochlorite and other reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, D.; Davis, B. J.; Moss, R. L.

    Conditions for using sodium hypochlorite solution as the main component of a multi-stage absorption system for the treatment of malodorous process emissions were studied, together with the additional reagents needed for effective odour control. In laboratory experiments, mixtures containing vpm levels in air of trimethylamine, hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulphide, n-butanal and sometimes ammonia were passed through three bubble-plate columns containing some of the following: water, dilute sulphuric acid, sodium hypochlorite solutions (varying in pH and available chlorine content) sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen sulphite. Odour removal was monitored by Chromatographic and sensory methods. Conclusions from laboratory experiments were supported by field-tests at four rendering plants in the U.K., treating both ventilation and process gases. Alkaline hypochlorite with considerable excess available chlorine removes many sulphur-compounds and aldehydes but effective odour control requires an acid pre-wash to prevent the generation of odorous chlorinated compounds from ammonia and amines. Acidic hypochlorite solution followed by sodium hydrogen sulphite (to remove aldehyde) and sodium hydroxide was a most effective combination in both laboratory and field tests. Odour generated in chlorination reactions involving acidic hypochlorite solution was analysed by GC-MS and GC-MPD-odour-port and the odour key compounds identified.

  13. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  14. Biocompatibility of Intracanal Medications Based on Calcium Hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Andolfatto, Carolina; da Silva, Guilherme Ferreira; Cornélio, Ana Livia Gomes; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario; Faria, Gisele; Bonetti-Filho, Idomeo; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rat subcutaneous tissue reaction to calcium hydroxide-based intracanal medicaments, UltraCal XS (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, aqueous matrix), Hydropast (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, and propyleneglycol), and Calen (Calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, colophony, and polyethyleneglycol), used as a control. Methods. Forty-eight rats (Rattus Norvegicus Holtzman) were distributed in three groups: Calen, UltraCal XS, and Hydropast. Polyethylene tubes filled with one of the medicaments were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous. After 7 and 30 days, the implants were removed and the specimens were fixed and embedded in paraffin. Morphological and quantitative analyses were carried out in the HE-stained sections. The numerical density of inflammatory cells in the capsule was evaluated and statistical analyses were performed (P ≤ 0.05). Results. At 7 days, all materials induced an inflammatory reaction in the subcutaneous tissue adjacent to the implants. In all groups, a significant reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and giant cells was verified in the period of 30 days. Conclusion. These results indicate that the calcium hydroxide-based medicaments evaluated present biocompatibility similar to Calen. PMID:23320187

  15. Quaternized graphene oxide nanocomposites as fast hydroxide conductors.

    PubMed

    Zarrin, Hadis; Fu, Jing; Jiang, Gaopeng; Yoo, Skylar; Lenos, Jared; Fowler, Michael; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-02-24

    Nanocomposites play a key role in performance improvements of hydroxide conductors employed in a wide range of alkaline-electrochemical systems such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets are considered to be outstanding nanofillers for polymeric nanocomposites on account of their excellent physicochemical strength and electrochemical properties. In this work, a fast hydroxide conductor was developed on the basis of a chemically modified GO nanocomposite membrane. The high surface area of GO was functionalized with highly stable hydroxide-conductive groups using a dimethyloctadecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride (DMAOP) precursor, named QAFGO, and then composed with porous polybenzimidazole PBI (pPBI) as a well-suited polymeric backbone. The nanocomposite exhibited outstanding hydroxide conductivity of 0.085 S cm(-1), high physicochemical strength, and electrochemical stability for 21 days. An alkaline fuel cell (AFC) setup was fabricated to determine the functionality of QAFGO/pPBI nanocomposite in an alkaline-based system. The high AFC performance with peak power density of 86.68 mW cm(-2) demonstrated that QAFGO/pPBI nanocomposite membrane has promising potential to be employed as a reliable hydroxide conductor for electrochemical systems working in alkaline conditions.

  16. A Study of the Sodium-Hydrogen-Oxygen System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-06-01

    SIGET CO, SCEL Attn: SCEL Liaison Office 3 Div. of Public Documen.s, GPO Att -1n: Librar a I A’o f-ic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, Tenn. 30 A ta...possible re- actions a: r equilibria is afforded by the pressure of cvolved hyc:ogen in a calibrated volume, subsequent analysis of total reaction...heating the hydroxide to its usion C.nt under vacuum. in some ceses the water was removed iy addin. me -allic sodium af 125 0 C and pumping away the

  17. Analysis of adeno-associated virus (AAV) wild-type and mutant Rep proteins for their abilities to negatively regulate AAV p5 and p19 mRNA levels.

    PubMed Central

    Kyöstiö, S R; Owens, R A; Weitzman, M D; Antoni, B A; Chejanovsky, N; Carter, B J

    1994-01-01

    The rep gene of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) encodes four overlapping Rep proteins that are involved in gene regulation and replication of the virus. We studied here the regulation of mRNA transcribed from the AAV p5 and p19 promoters, using transient expression in human 293 cells followed by Northern (RNA) blot analysis of the mRNA. The p5 transcript encodes the larger Rep proteins, Rep78 and Rep68, while the p19 transcript encodes the smaller proteins, Rep52 and Rep40. A plasmid (pNTC3) containing the entire AAV genome with an amber mutation in the rep gene accumulated higher levels of p5 and p19 mRNA than a plasmid containing the wild-type AAV genome. Addition of increasing amounts of the wild-type rep gene in trans from a heterologous promoter inhibited p5 and p19 mRNA accumulation from pNTC3, indicating that the levels of both transcripts were decreased by the Rep proteins. Cotransfections with plasmids producing individual wild-type Rep proteins in trans showed that p5 and p19 mRNA accumulation was inhibited 5- to 10-fold by Rep78 and Rep68 and 2- to 3-fold by Rep52 and Rep40. Analysis of carboxyl-terminal truncation mutants of Rep78 showed that the ability of Rep78 to decrease p5 and p19 mRNA levels was lost when 159 or more amino acids were deleted. Rep78 and Rep68 mutants deleted for the methionine at residue 225 showed decreased abilities to down-regulate both p5 and p19 transcript levels, while mutants containing a substitution of glycine for the methionine resembled the wild-type Rep78. A Rep78 protein with a mutation in the putative nucleoside triphosphate binding site inhibited expression from p5 but not from p19, suggesting that the regulation of p5 transcript levels by Rep78 and Rep68 differs from that of p19. A deletion analysis of AAV cis sequences revealed that an intact terminal repeat was not required for negative regulation of p5 and p19 transcript levels and that the regulation of p19 mRNA levels by Rep78 did not require the presence

  18. Structure and properties of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levkov, R.; Kulkov, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the study of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite modification is presented. The dependence of porosity and mechanical characteristics of the material sintered at different temperatures was studied. It was shown that compressive strength of alumina ceramics increases by 40 times with decreasing the pore volume from 65 to 15%. It was shown that aluminum hydroxide may be used for pore formation and pore volume in the sintered ceramics can be controlled by varying the aluminum hydroxide concentration and sintering temperature. Based on these results one can conclude that the obtained structure is very close to inorganic bone matrix and can be used as promising material for bone implants production.

  19. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    PubMed

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  20. Chronoamperometric study of mild steel pitting in sodium sulfide aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Otero, T.F.; Achucarro, C. . Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros)

    1994-08-01

    Mild steel samples were studied by chronoamperometry in sodium sulfide (Na[sub 2]S) aqueous solution. Pit nucleation and growth also were monitored by optical microscopy. The influence of variables such as temperature, polarization potential, surface roughness, the presence of electrochemically generated oxide layers, and the simultaneous presence of potassium hydroxide (KOH) was studied. The influence of each parameter on pit shape and growth was reviewed. Different reactions and competitive processes were proposed based on the experimental results.

  1. Adsorption of phosphate ions from an aqueous solution by calcined nickel-cobalt binary hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Ueta, Erimi; Toda, Megumu; Otani, Masashi; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2017-01-01

    Different molar ratios of a Ni/Co binary hydroxide (NiCo82, NiCo91, and Ni100) were prepared and calcined at 270 °C (NiCo82-270, NiCo91-270, and Ni100-270). The properties of the adsorbents and the amount of adsorbed phosphate ions were evaluated. The adsorbents calcined at 270 °C had a nickel oxide structure. The amount of adsorbed phosphate ions, the amount of hydroxyl groups, and the specific surface area of the calcined adsorbents at 270 °C were greater than those of the uncalcined adsorbents. The amount of adsorbed phosphate ions was related to the amount of hydroxyl groups and the specific surface area; the correlation coefficients were 0.966 and 0.953, respectively. The adsorption isotherm data for NiCo91 and NiCo91-270 were fit to both the Freundlich and Langmuir equations. The amount of adsorbed phosphate ions increased with increasing temperature. The experimental data fit the pseudo-second-order model better than the pseudo-first-order model. A neutral pH was optimal for phosphate ion adsorption. In addition, the phosphate ions that were adsorbed onto NiCo91-270 could be recovered using sodium hydroxide, and the adsorbent was useful for the repetitive adsorption/desorption of phosphate ions. Collectively, these results suggest that NiCo91-270 is prospectively useful for the adsorption of phosphate ions from aqueous solutions.

  2. Caustic Recycling Pilot Unit to Separate Sodium from LLW at Hanford Site - 12279

    SciTech Connect

    Pendleton, Justin; Bhavaraju, Sai; Priday, George; Desai, Aditya; Duffey, Kean; Balagopal, Shekar

    2012-07-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Remediation Technologies initiative, a scheme was developed to combine Continuous Sludge Leaching (CSL), Near-Tank Cesium Removal (NTCR), and Caustic Recycling Unit (CRU) using Ceramatec technology, into a single system known as the Pilot Near-Tank Treatment System (PNTTS). The Cesium (Cs) decontaminated effluent from the NTCR process will be sent to the caustic recycle process for recovery of the caustic which will be reused in another cycle of caustic leaching in the CSL process. Such an integrated mobile technology demonstration will give DOE the option to insert this process for sodium management at various sites in Hanford, and will minimize the addition of further sodium into the waste tanks. This allows for recycling of the caustic used to remove aluminum during sludge washing as a pretreatment step in the vitrification of radioactive waste which will decrease the Low Level Waste (LLW) volume by as much as 39%. The CRU pilot process was designed to recycle sodium in the form of pure sodium hydroxide. The basis for the design of the 1/4 scale pilot caustic recycling unit was to demonstrate the efficient operation of a larger scale system to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent stream from the Parsons process. The CRU was designed to process 0.28 liter/minute of NTCR effluent, and generate 10 M concentration of 'usable' sodium hydroxide. The proposed process operates at 40 deg. C to provide additional aluminum solubility and then recover the sodium hydroxide to the point where the aluminum is saturated at 40 deg. C. A system was developed to safely separate and vent the gases generated during operation of the CRU with the production of 10 M sodium hydroxide. Caustic was produced at a rate between 1.9 to 9.3 kg/hr. The CRU was located inside an ISO container to allow for moving of the unit close to tank locations to process the LLW stream. Actual tests were conducted with the NTCR effluent simulant

  3. A high performance non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on nickel hydroxide modified nitrogen-incorporated nanodiamonds.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Yu; Huang, Jin-Hua; Raina, Supil; Kang, Weng P

    2013-06-07

    A highly selective, sensitive, and stable non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on Ni hydroxide modified nitrogen-incorporated nanodiamonds (Ni(OH)2-NND) was developed. The sensor was fabricated by e-beam evaporation of a thin Ni film on NND followed by the growth of Ni(OH)2 using an electrochemical process. It was found that the Ni film thickness greatly affects the morphology and electro-catalytic activity of the as-synthesized electrode for non-enzymatic glucose oxidation. Owing to its nanostructure characteristics, the best sensor fabricated by 150 nm Ni deposition showed two wide response ranges, namely, 0.02-1 mM and 1-9 mM, with sensitivities of 3.20 and 1.41 mA mM(-1) cm(-2), respectively, and a detection limit of 1.2 μM (S/N = 3). The sensor also showed good long-term stability as well as high selectivity in the presence of interferences such as ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, and uric acid. This finding reveals the possibility of exploiting the NND as an electrochemical biosensor platform where high performance addressable sensor arrays could be built.

  4. Praseodymium(III) sulfate hydroxide, Pr(SO(4))(OH).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Cheng, Jian-Wen

    2011-01-15

    The title compound, Pr(SO(4))(OH), obtained under hydro-thermal conditions, consists of Pr(III) ions coordinated by nine O atoms from six sulfate groups and three hydroxide anions. The bridging mode of the O atoms results in the formation of a three-dimensional framework, stabilized by two O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions.

  5. Sintering of corundum ceramics based on aluminum hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Afoninia, G.A.; Leonov, V.G.

    1995-09-01

    The possibility of using aluminum hydroxide obtained by the precipitation method for synthesis of corundum ceramics with additives forming a liquid phase during firing and without additives, is investigated. The optimum parameters of the manufacturing process and the main properties of the material recommended for testing in the production of glass ceramic substrates for integrated circuits are investigated.

  6. Calcium hydroxide paste in the maxillary sinus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fava, L R

    1993-09-01

    A case is reported in which a perforation of the sinus floor of the maxillary sinus occurred with extrusion of a calcium hydroxide paste during routine root canal treatment of a maxillary premolar. All clinical manifestations are described as well as the results of a follow-up evaluation.

  7. Aqueous alkali metal hydroxide insoluble cellulose ether membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    A membrane that is insoluble in an aqueous alkali metal hydroxide medium is described. The membrane is a resin which is a water-soluble C2-C4 hydroxyalkyl cellulose ether polymer and an insolubilizing agent for controlled water sorption, a dialytic and electrodialytic membrane. It is particularly useful as a separator between electrodes or plates in an alkaline storage battery.

  8. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section 872.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... prepared cavity before insertion of restorative material, such as amalgam, to protect the pulp of a...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section 872.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... prepared cavity before insertion of restorative material, such as amalgam, to protect the pulp of a...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section 872.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... prepared cavity before insertion of restorative material, such as amalgam, to protect the pulp of a...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section 872.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... prepared cavity before insertion of restorative material, such as amalgam, to protect the pulp of a...

  12. INFLUENCE OF IODOFORM ON ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

    PubMed Central

    Estrela, Carlos; Estrela, Cyntia Rodrigues de Araújo; Hollanda, Augusto César Braz; Decurcio, Daniel de Almeida; Pécora, Jesus Djalma

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to verify the influence of Iodoform on antimicrobial potential of calcium hydroxide. S. aureus, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, C. albicans were the biological indicators. The substances tested were: calcium hydroxide + saline; calcium hydroxide + Iodoform + saline; Iodoform + saline. For the agar diffusion test, 18 Petri plates with 20 ml of BHI agar were inoculated with the microbial suspensions. Fifty-four cavities were made and filled with the substances tested. The diameters of microbial inhibition were then measured. In direct exposure test, 162 #50 sterile absorbent paper points were immersed in the experimental suspensions for 5 min, and covered with the pastes. At intervals of 24, 48 and 72 hours, the paper points were immersed in 10 ml of Letheen Broth, followed by incubation at 37°°C for 48h. Microbial growth was evaluated by turbidity of the culture medium. A 0.1 ml inoculum obtained from the Letheen Broth was transferred to 7 ml of BHI, and incubated at 37°°C for 48h. Bacterial growth was again evaluated by turbidity of the culture medium. The calcium hydroxide associated with the saline or the iodoform plus saline showed antimicrobial effectiveness in both experimental methods. The iodoform paste presented antimicrobial ineffectiveness for the agar diffusion test on all biological microorganisms and for the direct exposure test on B. subtilis and on the mixture. PMID:19089027

  13. 40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide...

  15. DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) HYDROXIDE DEPLETION MODEL FOR CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    OGDEN DM; KIRCH NW

    2007-10-31

    This document generates a supernatant hydroxide ion depletion model based on mechanistic principles. The carbon dioxide absorption mechanistic model is developed in this report. The report also benchmarks the model against historical tank supernatant hydroxide data and vapor space carbon dioxide data. A comparison of the newly generated mechanistic model with previously applied empirical hydroxide depletion equations is also performed.

  16. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  17. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to surface trapping of neutrals and ions and depletion of the sodium available for ejection from the surfaces of grains. The change in the sodium exosphere is calculated during one Mercury year taking into account the variations in the solar radiation pressure, the photo-ionization frequency, the solar wind density, the photon and meteoroid flux intensities, and the surface temperature. Line-of-sight column densities at different phase angles, the supply rate of new sodium, average neutral and ion losses over a Mercury year, surface density distribution and the importance of the different processes of ejection are discussed in this paper. The sodium surface density distribution is found to become significantly nonuniform from day to night sides, from low to high latitudes and from morning to afternoon because of rapid depletion of sodium atoms in the surfaces of grains mainly driven by thermal depletion. The shape of the exosphere, as it would be seen from the Earth, changes drastically with respect to Mercury's heliocentric position. High latitude column density maxima are related to maxima in the sodium surface concentration at high latitudes in Mercury's surface and are not necessarily due to solar wind sputtering. The ratio between the sodium column density on the morning side of Mercury's exosphere and the sodium column density on the afternoon side is consistent with the conclusions of Sprague et al. (1997, Icarus 129, 506-527). The model, which has no fitting parameters, shows surprisingly good agreement with recent observations of Potter et

  18. METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

    1957-12-01

    A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

  19. Ions Release and pH of Calcium Hydroxide-, Chlorhexidine- and Bioactive Glass-Based Endodontic Medicaments.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Freire, Laila Gonzales; Carvalho, Alexandre Pinheiro Lima de; Duarte, Marco Antonio Húngaro; Bauer, José; Gavini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated pH and release of calcium, sodium and phosphate ions from different medications in human dentin. Fifty premolars were prepared and randomly divided into groups: (CHX) - 2% chlorhexidine gel; (CHX + CH) - CHX + calcium hydroxide PA; (CH) - CH + propylene glycol 600; (NPBG) - experimental niobium phosphate bioactive glass + distilled water; (BG) - bioactive glass (Bio-Gran) + distilled water. The specimens were immersed in deionized water and the pH variations were measured. The quantification of ions in the solutions was made by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES) at 10 min, 24 h, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey`s test, with a significance level of 5%. CH had the highest level of calcium ions release at 30 days, while CHX and BG released more sodium ions. BG, NPBG and CHX released a higher amount of phosphate ions. The pH of CH was significantly higher compared with the other groups. CH favored the greatest increase of pH and calcium ions release. The bioactive glasses released more sodium and phosphate ions and presented an alkaline pH immediately and after 30 days.

  20. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  1. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Lopez, John T.; Olich, Eugene E.; West, Calvin W.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

  2. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  3. Combustion process and nitrogen oxides emission of Shenmu coal added with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Weijuan; Zhou Junhu; Liu Maosheng; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2007-09-15

    Shenmu bituminous coal with 4% sodium acetate added was used to investigate the characteristics of combustion and nitrogen oxide (NOx) release in a fixed bed reactor heated by a tube furnace. The composition of the flue gas was analyzed to investigate the effects of sodium acetate on the combustion process and NOx emission. The experiments were carried out in a partial reductive atmosphere and a strong oxidative atmosphere. The O{sub 2} valley value in the partial reductive atmosphere was reduced by the added sodium acetate. Sodium acetate accelerated the combustion and shortened the combustion process. The experimental results showed that the emissions of NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were affected by the reacting atmosphere and the combustion temperature. In the strong oxidative atmosphere, sodium acetate resulted in a slight NOx reduction. In the partial reductive atmosphere, sodium acetate reduced both the peak value of NO concentration and the total NO emission significantly. An over 30% NOx reduction efficiency was achieved at 900{sup o}C in the partial reductive atmosphere, which decreased with the increase in temperature. Sodium acetate was decomposed into hydrocarbon radicals and sodium hydroxide, which can both reduce NOx emissions due to their special reactions with the nitrogen component. 17 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Effect of Calcium Hydroxide, Chlorhexidine Digluconate and Camphorated Monochlorophenol on the Sealing Ability of Biodentine Apical Plug

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Harshit; Prasad, Ashwini B; Raisingani, Deepak; Soni, Dileep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Teeth with immature apex are managed by establishing an apical plug using various materials and techniques. However, the use of previously placed intracanal medicament may affect the sealing ability of permanent filling material used as an apical plug. Aim To evaluate the effect of removal of previously placed Calcium Hydroxide, Chlorhexidine Digluconate and Camphorated Monochlorophenol as an intracanal medicament on the sealing ability of the Biodentine as an apical plug. Materials and Methods A total of 72 recently extracted human permanent teeth with single root were selected and stored in saline at room temperature. The crown portion of each tooth was removed at the level of cemento enamel junction; 14mm root length was taken as standard length. All the roots were submerged in 20% sulphuric acid up to 3 mm from the apex, for four days for root resorption. One sample was cut longitudinally to look for root resorption under stereo microscope. The canal preparation was done; the roots were kept in moist gauze after instrumentation. A total of 71 roots were randomly divided into three groups. GROUP 1:Calcium hydroxide paste, GROUP 2: Chlorhexidine digluconate, GROUP 3: Camphorated Monochlorophenol (CMCP). The medicaments were removed with stainless steel hand files and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation. After removal of medicament Biodentine was placed in apical third of resorbed roots and the remaining portion of the canals was filled with gutta-percha. All the 71 roots were analysed with fluid filtration method for evaluating microleakage. Results Comparing all the three groups statistically there was no significant difference. The mean values were found more for group 1 followed by group 2 & 3. Conclusion All the groups showed microleakage. Calcium hydroxide showed the maximum microleakage followed by Chlorhexidine digluconate and least with CMCP. PMID:27504409

  5. Laboratory-scale sodium-carbonate aggregate concrete interactions. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Westrich, H.R.; Stockman, H.W.; Suo-Anttila, A.

    1983-09-01

    A series of laboratory-scale experiments was made at 600/sup 0/C to identify the important heat-producing chemical reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate concretes. Reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate were found to be responsible for the bulk of heat production in sodium-concrete tests. Exothermic reactions were initiated at 580+-30/sup 0/C for limestone and dolostone aggregates as well as for hydrated limestone concrete, and at 540+-10/sup 0/C for dehydrated limestone concrete, but were ill-defined for dolostone concrete. Major reaction products included CaO, MgO, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/O, NaOH, and elemental carbon. Sodium hydroxide, which forms when water is released from cement phases, causes slow erosion of the concrete with little heat production. The time-temperature profiles of these experiments have been modeled with a simplified version of the SLAM computer code, which has allowed derivation of chemical reaction rate coefficients.

  6. Surface modification of magnesium aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles with poly(methyl methacrylate) via one-pot in situ polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojun; Zhao, Leihua; Zhang, Li; Li, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Hydrophobic magnesium aluminum hydroxide composite particles (PMMA-MAH) were obtained by means of grafting poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) onto the surface of magnesium aluminum hydroxide(MAH) nanoparticles after a novel type of phosphate coupling agent (DN-27) modification. The introduction of functional double bonds was firstly conducted on the surface of nanoparticles by DN-27 modification, followed by one-pot in situ polymerization on the particles surface using methyl methacrylate (MMA) as monomer, azoisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as stabilizer to graft PMMA on the surface of DN-27-modified MAH particles. The obtained composite particles were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The results show that the organic macromolecule PMMA could be successfully grafted on the surface of DN-27-modified MAH nanoparticles and the thermal stability of the PMMA-MAH composite particles had been improved. Compared with unmodified blank MAH sample, the product obtained with this method possesses better hydrophobic properties such as a higher water contact angle of 108° and a well dispersion.

  7. Hydroxide flux synthesis and crystal structure of the ordered palladate, LuNaPd{sub 6}O{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect

    Mugavero III, Samuel J.; Smith, Mark D.; Loye, Hans-Conrad zur . E-mail: ZurLoye@mail.chem.sc.edu

    2006-11-15

    We report the single crystal structure of LuNaPd{sub 6}O{sub 8} grown from a sodium hydroxide flux. The utilization of a hydroxide flux has led to the preparation of the first ordered substitution of a lanthanide metal and an alkali metal on the A-site in a platinum group oxide and the first palladate to contain both a lanthanide metal and an alkali metal. The 1:1 ordered substitution of Lu{sup 3+} and Na{sup +} in place of the commonly observed divalent cation leads to slabs of LuO{sub 8} and NaO{sub 8} cubes bridged together by PdO{sub 4} square planes. The compound crystallizes in the cubic space group Pm-3 (no. 200) with a=5.72500(10) A and is structurally related to other cubic palladium oxides. - Graphical abstract: Unit cell of the ordered palladate, LuNaPd{sub 6}O{sub 8} viewed along the z-direction. The Pd{sup 2+} cations (grey) reside in a square planar coordination environment and bridge together the LuO{sub 8} (blue) and NaO{sub 8} (yellow) cubes.

  8. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This article is for information only. Do NOT ... hypochlorite, which may cause severe injury. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

  9. Sodium hypochlorite dental accidents.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Mridula; Chhabra, Nidhi; Kumar, Gyanendra; Verma, Mahesh; Chhabra, Anuj

    2014-02-01

    Sodium hypochlorite is widely used in dentistry as an intra-canal irrigant, for debridement and to disinfect root canals. Although it is considered to be safe, serious mishap can result from its inappropriate use, and this has been reported infrequently in the literature. Two unusual cases of sodium hypochlorite toxicity and their successful non-surgical management are described in a 14-year-old girl and a 13-year-old boy.

  10. Comparisons of kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide adsorption in aqueous solution with graphene oxide, zeolite and activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shenteng; Lu, Chungsying; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO), sodium Y-type zeolite (NaY) and granular activated carbon (GAC) are selected as adsorbents to study their kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) adsorption from water. The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order rate law while the adsorption thermodynamics shows an exothermic reaction with GO and GAC but displays an endothermic reaction with NaY. The adsorbed TMAH can be readily desorbed from the surface of GO and NaY by 0.05 M NaCl solution. A comparative study on the cyclic TMAH adsorption with GO, NaY and GAC is also conducted and the results reveal that GO exhibits the greatest TMAH adsorption capacity as well as superior reversibility of TMAH adsorption over 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. These features indicate that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment.

  11. [Disorders of sodium metabolism].

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Torres, D

    1991-08-01

    We do not know why sodium was chosen to fill the extracellular space while potassium occupies the intracellular area. The sodium/potassium pump was placed in charge of maintaining this separation. The usual sodium blood concentration, in vertebrates, and in all ages, ranges from 135 to 145 mmol/L, although it may decrease with age. The maintenance of its concentration within these limits, as well as the total amount locally deposited are regulated by an intertwined net of sensors and effectors found in the Central Nervous System, in the cardiovascular apparatus including the right auricle, in the kidneys and adrenal glands, or indirectly due to a number of factors which act on the sodium/potassium pump--for examples the thyroid hormone, the digestive system and the skin. The changes in the metabolism and regulation of water and sodium may cause an excess (hypernatremia) or a deficit (hyponatremia) in the concentration of sodium in plasma--either extreme can be fatal. The prompt correction of these changes should include treating the causes while taking into consideration the time they took to occur. The most frequent cause of these changes in children is diarrheal disease and its inadequate treatment. The correct administration of the oral rehydrating solution recommended by the World Health Organization can prevent fatal endings.

  12. Preparation and photoluminescence study of mesoporous indium hydroxide nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changyu; Lian, Suoyuan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Shouxin; Kang, Zhenhui

    2010-02-15

    Mesoporous indium hydroxide nanorods were successfully synthesized by a mild one-step one-pot method. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption, ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that there were some pores in the samples, which were mainly composed of rod-like shapes with length of 300 nm and diameter of 90 nm. N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption measurements confirmed that the prepared powder was mesoporous with average pore diameter of 3.1 nm. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the band gap energy of the samples was 5.15 eV. Photoluminescence spectrum showed that there were two strong emissions under ultraviolet light irradiation. The growth mechanism of indium hydroxide nanorods and the role of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide were also discussed.

  13. Electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide in porous electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Jorne, Jacob

    1987-01-01

    The electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide in porous electrode was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The loading level and plaque expansion were the most important parameters to be considered. The effects of applied current density, stirring, ratio of solution to electrode volume and pH were identified. A novel flow through electrochemical impregnation is proposed in which the electrolyte is forced through the porous nickel plaque. The thickening of the plaque can be reduced while maintaining high loading capacity. A mathematical model is presented which describes the transport of the nitrate, nickel and hydroxyl ions and the consecutive heterogeneous electrochemical reduction of nitrate and the homogeneous precipitation reaction of nickel hydroxide. The distributions of precipitation rate and active material within the porous electrode are obtained. A semiempirical model is also proposed which takes into account the plugging of the pores.

  14. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    PubMed Central

    Cakıroglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  15. Synthesis and characterization of α-cobalt hydroxide nanobelts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, L.; Zhu, J. L.; Chen, L.; An, B.; Liu, Q. Q.; Huang, K. L.

    2011-08-01

    α-Cobalt hydroxide was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process from Co(Ac)2 and NH3·H2O in the presence of 1,3-propanediol. The large-scale-prepared cobalt hydroxide has a uniform nanobelt morphology with a considerably high aspect-ratio more than 20 which may be advantageous for exploration of their physicochemical properties. This synthetic method is convenient, economical, and controllable. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, CHN element analysis, thermogravimetric and differential-thermogravimetric analysis, which revealed the compound is lamellar structural cobalt organic-inorganic hybrid with the chemical formula of Co(OH)1.49(NH3)0.01(CO3 2-)0.22(Ac-)0.07(H2O)0.11 and single-crystalline.

  16. Advanced treatment of sodium acetate in water by ozone oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yang, De-Min; Yuan, Jian-Mei

    2014-02-01

    Ozone oxidation is an advanced oxidation process for treatment of organic and inorganic wastewater. In this paper, sodium acetate (according to chemical oxygen demand [COD]) was selected as the model pollutant in water, and the degradation efficiencies and mechanism of sodium acetate in water by ozone oxidation were investigated. The results showed that the ozone oxidation was an effective treatment technology for advanced treatment of sodium acetate in water; the COD removal rate obtained the maximum value of 45.89% from sodium acetate solution when the pH value was 10.82, ozone concentration was 100 mg/L, reaction time was 30 minutes, and reaction temperature was 25 degrees C. The COD removal rate increased first and decreased subsequently with the bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentration from 0 to 200 mg/L, the largest decline being 20.35%. The COD removal rate declined by 25.38% with the carbonate (CO3(2-)) concentration from 0 to 200 mg/L; CO3(2-) has a more obvious scavenging effect to inhibit the formation of hydroxyl free radicals than HCO3-. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) could enhance the COD removal rate greatly; they could reach 77.35 and 96.53%, respectively, after a reaction time of 30 minutes, which was increased by 31.46 and 50.64%, respectively, compared with only ozone oxidation. It was proved that the main ozone oxidation product of sodium acetate was carbon dioxide (CO2), and the degradation of sodium acetate in the ozone oxidation process followed the mechanism of hydroxyl free radicals.

  17. A chlorate candle/lithium hydroxide personal breathing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    A portable coal mine rescue and survival equipment is reported that consists of a chlorate candle with a lithium hydroxide carbon-dioxide absorbent for oxygen generation, a breathing bag and tubing to conduct breathing to and from the man. A plastic hood incorporating a mouth piece for communication provides also eye protection and prevents inhalation through the nose. Manned testing of a prototype system demonstrated the feasibility of this closed circuit no-maintenance breathing apparatus that provides for good voice communication.

  18. Why does hydronium diffuse faster than hydroxide in liquid water?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lixin; Santra, Biswajit; Distasio, Robert; Klein, Michael; Car, Roberto; Wu, Xifan

    Experiments show that the hydronium ion (H3O+) diffuses much faster than the hydroxide ion (OH-) in liquid water. ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations correctly associated the diffusion mechanism to proton transfer (PT) but have been unable so far to clearly identify the reason for the faster diffusion of hydronium compared to hydroxide, as the diffusion rate was found to depend sensitively on the adopted functional approximation. We carried out AIMD simulations of the solvated water ions using a van der Waals (vdW) inclusive PBE0 hybrid density functional. It is found that not only hydronium diffuses faster than hydroxide but also the absolute rates agree with experiment. The fast diffusion of H3O+ occurs via concerted PT that enables the ion to jump across several H-bonded molecules in successful transfer events; in contrast, such concerted motion is significantly hindered in OH- where the ion is easily trapped in a hyper-coordination configuration (a local solvation structure that forbids PT). As a result multiple PT events are rare and the diffusion of OH- is significantly slowed down. Such a clear difference between the two ions results from the combined effect of vdW interactions and self-interaction correction. Doe SciDac: DE-SC0008626 and DE-SC0008726.

  19. Reduction in dentin permeability using a slurry containing dicalcium phosphate and calcium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Cherng, Aishuan Maria; Takagi, Shozo; Chow, Laurence

    2006-08-01

    Treatments that obdurate dentin tubules have been used for reducing dentin hypersensitivity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a treatment with a slurry of micron sized calcium phosphate on the hydraulic conductance (L(p)) of etched dentin discs in vitro. The treatment slurry was prepared by mixing a powder mixture of dicalcium phosphate anhydrous and calcium hydroxide with a solution that contained sodium fluoride and carboxymethyl cellulose. The mean baseline L(p) (in mL cm(-2) s(-1) H(2)O cm(-1)) was 2.07 +/- 1.45 (mean +/- SD; n = 13)). After one treatment and 2, 4, and 7 days of incubation in a protein-free saliva-like solution (SLS), the mean relative L(p), presented as % of baseline, were 65 +/- 16, 42 +/- 27, 36 +/- 26, and 33 +/- 27 (n = 13), respectively. The L(p) values of the baseline and treatment after incubation in the SLS were significantly (p < 0.05) different. Scanning electron microscopic examination showed partial obturation of dentin tubules in the treated dentin. X-ray diffraction and chemical analyses indicated the major product formed from the slurry was a fluoride-containing hydroxyapatite. Treatment appeared effective in further reducing L(p) of dentin discs after incubation in the SLS.

  20. Equilibrium and kinetics of color removal from dye solutions with bentonite and polyaluminum hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Kacha, S; Derriche, Z; Elmaleh, S

    2003-01-01

    Wastewater from the textile industry contains soluble dyes that are toxic and particularly difficult to remove. A promising low-cost treatment, however, is use of polyaluminum hydroxide associated with bentonite. At suitable conditions, this process is able to efficiently remove color from solutions containing mixtures of soluble acid azo dyes and produce easily settleable sludge. The removal mechanism, which is believed to involve adsorption or precipitation and weak pH variations, is not well understood. With the overall reaction being second order, two elementary first-order reactions could be assumed. The equilibrium removal is a decreasing function of the temperature. However, this effect is weak and decreases when the dye concentration increases. At usual values of concentration in textile wastewater, this effect can be neglected. The resulting solid compound is particularly resistant to mechanical stress. Moreover, color was significantly released at pH greater than 8. Sodium ions have no influence on the compound stability, which reinforces the assumption of the involvement of an adsorption process.

  1. Zn-Al-NO(3)-layered double hydroxides with intercalated diclofenac for ocular delivery.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feng; Wang, Yanjun; Ping, Qineng; Liao, Zhenggen

    2011-02-14

    This study was aimed to evaluate the potential use of a drug delivery system, drug-layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites for ocular delivery. Diclofenac was successfully intercalated into Zn-Al-NO(3)-LDH by coprecipitation method. The nanocomposites were characterized by particle size, elemental chemical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, etc. A tilt bilayer of diclofenac molecules formed in the interlayer with the gallery height of 1.868 nm. In vivo precorneal retention studies were conducted with diclofenac sodium (DS) saline, diclofenac-LDH nanocomposite dispersion, 2% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K30-diclofenac-LDH nanohybrid dispersion and 10% PVP K30-diclofenac-LDH nanohybrid dispersion, separately. Compared with DS saline, all the dispersions have extended the detectable time of DS from 3h to 6h; C(max) and AUC(0-t) of diclofenac-LDH nanocomposite dispersion showed 3.1-fold and 4.0-fold increase, respectively; C(max) and AUC(0-t) of 2% PVP K30-LDH nanohybrid dispersion were about 5.3-fold and 6.0-fold enhancement, respectively. Results of the Draize test showed that no eye irritation was demonstrated in rabbits after single and repeated administration. These results suggest that this novel ocular drug delivery system appears to offer promise as a means to improving the bioavailability of drugs after ophthalmic applications.

  2. Immobilization of lipase from Candida rugosa on layered double hydroxides for esterification reaction.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohd Basyaruddin A; Basri, Mahiran; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Rahman, Raja Nor Zaliha A; Zainol, Dara Hatira; Salleh, Abu Bakar

    2004-01-01

    Synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) of Zn/Al-NO3- hydrotalcite (HIZAN) and Zn/Al-diocytyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DSS) nanocomposite (NAZAD) with a molar ratio of Zn/Al of 4:1 were carried out by coprecipitation through continuous agitation. Their structures were determined using X-ray diffractometer spectra, which showed that basal spacing for LDH synthesized by both methods was about 8.89 A. An expansion of layered structure of about 27.9 A was observed to accommodate the surfactant anion between the interlayer. This phenomenon showed that the intercalation process took place between the LDH interlayer. Lipase from Candida rugosa was immobilized onto these materials by physical adsorption method. It was found that the protein loading onto NAZAD is higher than HIZAN. The activity of immobilized lipase was investigated through esterification of oleic acid and 1-butanol in hexane. The effects of pore size, surface area, reaction temperature, thermostability of the immobilized lipases, storage stability in organic solvent, and leaching studies were investigated. Stability was found to be the highest in the nanocomposite NAZAD.

  3. Ultrathin nanofibrous films prepared from cadmium hydroxide nanostrands and anionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xinsheng; Karan, Santanu; Ichinose, Izumi

    2009-08-04

    We developed a simple fabrication method of ultrathin nanofibrous films from the dispersion of cadmium hydroxide nanostrands and anionic surfactants. The nanostrands were prepared in a dilute aqueous solution of cadmium chloride by using 2-aminoethanol. They were highly positively charged and gave bundlelike fibers upon mixing an aqueous solution of anionic surfactant. The nanostrand/surfactant composite fibers were filtered on an inorganic membrane filter. The resultant nanofibrous film was very uniform in the area of a few centimeters square when the thickness was not less than 60 nm. The films obtained with sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) had a composition close to the electroneutral complex, [Cd37(OH)68(H2O)n] x 6(STS), as confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. They were water-repellent with a contact angle of 117 degrees, and the value slightly decreased with the alkyl chain length of anionic surfactants. Ultrathin nanofibrous films were stable enough to be used for ultrafiltration at pressure difference of 90 kPa. We could effectively separate Au nanoparticles of 40 nm at an extremely high filtration rate of 14000 L/(h m2 bar).

  4. Polarographic determination of lead hydroxide formation constants at low ionic strength

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind, Carol J.

    1978-01-01

    Values of formation constants for lead hydroxide at 25 ??C were calculated from normal pulse polarographic measurements of 10-6 M lead in 0.01 M sodium perchlorate. The low concentrations simulate those found in many freshwaters, permitting direct application of the values when considering distributions of lead species. The precise evaluation of species distribution in waters at other ionic strengths requires activity coefficient corrections. As opposed to much of the previously published work done at high ionic strength, the values reported here were obtained at low ionic strength, permitting use of smaller and better defined activity coefficient corrections. These values were further confirmed by differential-pulse polarography and differential-pulse anodic stripping voltammetry data. The logs of the values for ??1??? ??2???, and ??3??? were calculated to be 6.59, 10.80, and 13.63, respectively. When corrected to zero ionic strength these values were calculated to be 6.77, 11.07, and 13.89, respectively.

  5. Complex formation with layered double hydroxides for the remediation of hygroscopicity.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Aki; Kubota, Mai; Okamura, Miki; Nakayama, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been used commercially as antacids, to stabilize drugs, to allow the controlled release of incorporated drugs, and to act as drug carriers to reduce drug accumulation within the body. Several types of LDH were investigated: nitrate type (LDH-NO3); chloride type (LDH-Cl); and carbonate type (LDH-CO3). Each type was added to an aqueous or methanol (MeOH) solution containing a drug (pravastatin or nateglinide). With pravastatin sodium, the interlayer distance expanded after reaction with LDH-NO3 and LDH-Cl in aqueous solution. In contrast, the interlayer distance of LDH-CO3 increased in methanol with nateglinide. Each drug was intercalated into the interlayer space of LDH by ion exchange. The hygroscopicity of the drug substances, complexes, and physical mixtures were determined at 70% relative humidity. Increases in weight (%) of the complexes were less than those of the physical mixtures, which demonstrates that hygroscopicity was reduced upon complexation with LDH due to the layer of LDH over the drugs.

  6. From cobalt nitrate carbonate hydroxide hydrate nanowires to porous Co(3)O(4) nanorods for high performance lithium-ion battery electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wu, Jianbo; Zhai, Chuanxin; Ma, Xiangyang; Du, Ning; Tu, Jiangping; Yang, Deren

    2008-01-23

    We have developed a simple approach for the large-scale synthesis of cobalt nitrate carbonate hydroxide hydrate (Co(CO(3))(0.35)(NO(3))(0.2)(OH)(1.1)·1.74H(2)O) nanowires via the hydrothermal process using sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde as mineralizers at 120 °C. The porous Co(3)O(4) nanorods 10-30 nm in diameter and hundreds of nanometres in length have been fabricated from the above-mentioned multicomponent nanowires by calcination at 400 °C. The morphology and structure of cobalt nitrate carbonate hydroxide hydrate nanowires and Co(3)O(4) nanorods have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Moreover, the porous Co(3)O(4) nanorods have been applied in the negative electrode materials for lithium ion batteries, which exhibit high electrochemical performance.

  7. Temperature-mediated phase transformation, pore geometry and pore hysteresis transformation of borohydride derived in-born porous zirconium hydroxide nanopowders

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nadiya B.; Nayak, Bibhuti B.

    2016-01-01

    Development of in-born porous nature of zirconium hydroxide nanopowders through a facile hydrogen (H2) gas-bubbles assisted borohydride synthesis route using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and novel information on the temperature-mediated phase transformation, pore geometry as well as pore hysteresis transformation of in-born porous zirconium hydroxide nanopowders with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) isotherm and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images are the main theme of this research work. Without any surfactants or pore forming agents, the borohydride derived amorphous nature of porous powders was stable up to 500 °C and then the seed crystals start to develop within the loose amorphous matrix and trapping the inter-particulate voids, which led to develop the porous nature of tetragonal zirconium oxide at 600 °C and further sustain this porous nature as well as tetragonal phase of zirconium oxide up to 800 °C. The novel hydrogen (H2) gas-bubbles assisted borohydride synthesis route led to develop thermally stable porous zirconium hydroxide/oxide nanopowders with an adequate pore size, pore volume, and surface area and thus these porous materials are further suggested for promising use in different areas of applications. PMID:27198738

  8. Alternatives for sodium-potassium alloy treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, T.J.; Johnson, M.E.

    1993-04-08

    Sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) is currently treated at the Y-12 Plant by open burning. Due to uncertainties with future permits for this process alternative treatment methods were investigated, revealing that two treatment processes are feasible. One process reacts the NaK with water in a highly concentrated molten caustic solution (sodium and potassium hydroxide). The final waste is a caustic that may be used elsewhere in the plant. This process has two safety concerns: Hot corrosive materials used throughout the process present handling difficulties and the process must be carefully controlled (temperature and water content) to avoid explosive NaK reactions. To avoid these problems a second process was developed that dissolves NaK in a mixture of propylene glycol and water at room temperature. While this process is safer, it generates more waste than the caustic process. The waste may possibly be used as a carbon food source in biological waste treatment operations at the Y-12 Plant. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate both processes, and they showed that both processes are feasible alternatives for NaK treatment. Process flow sheets with mass balances were generated for both processes and compared. While the caustic process generates less waste, the propylene glycol process is safer in several ways (temperature, material handling, and reaction control). The authors recommend that the propylene glycol alternative be pursued further as an alternative for NaK treatment. To optimize this process for a larger scale several experiments should be conducted. The amount of NaK dissolved in propylene glycol and subsequent waste generated should be optimized. The offgas processes should be optimized. The viability of using this waste as a carbon food source at one of the Y-12 Plant treatment facilities should be investigated. If the state accepts this process as an alternative, design and construction of a pilot-scale treatment system should begin.

  9. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  10. Controllable synthesis of layered Co-Ni hydroxide hierarchical structures for high-performance hybrid supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Peng; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Dan; Liu, Tao; Chen, Limiao; Ma, Renzhi; Qiu, Guanzhou; Liu, Xiaohe

    2016-01-01

    A facile solvothermal method is developed for synthesizing layered Co-Ni hydroxide hierarchical structures by using hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) as alkaline reagent. The electrochemical measurements reveal that the specific capacitances of layered bimetallic (Co-Ni) hydroxides are generally superior to those of layered monometallic (Co, Ni) hydroxides. The as-prepared Co0.5Ni0.5 hydroxide hierarchical structures possesses the highest specific capacitance of 1767 F g-1 at a galvanic current density of 1 A g-1 and an outstanding specific capacitance retention of 87% after 1000 cycles. In comparison with the dispersed nanosheets of Co-Ni hydroxide, layered hydroxide hierarchical structures show much superior electrochemical performance. This study provides a promising method to construct hierarchical structures with controllable transition-metal compositions for enhancing the electrochemical performance in hybrid supercapacitors.

  11. Chemical acceleration of a neutral granulated blast-furnace slag activated by sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Kovtun, Maxim Kearsley, Elsabe P. Shekhovtsova, Julia

    2015-06-15

    This paper presents results of a study on chemical acceleration of a neutral granulated blast-furnace slag activated using sodium carbonate. As strength development of alkali-activated slag cements containing neutral GBFS and sodium carbonate as activator at room temperature is known to be slow, three accelerators were investigated: sodium hydroxide, ordinary Portland cement and a combination of silica fume and slaked lime. In all cements, the main hydration product is C–(A)–S–H, but its structure varies between tobermorite and riversideite depending on the accelerator used. Calcite and gaylussite are present in all systems and they were formed due to either cation exchange reaction between the slag and the activator, or carbonation. With accelerators, compressive strength up to 15 MPa can be achieved within 24 h in comparison to 2.5 MPa after 48 h for a mix without an accelerator.

  12. Sodium aluminate leaching and desilication in lime-soda sinter process for alumina from coal wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, R.; Sohn, H. Y.

    1985-12-01

    Sodium aluminate in the sinter produced from coal wastes using the lime-soda sinter process can be leached with dilute alkaline solutions. The extraction of alumina by leaching with water and sodium hydroxide solutions was comparable to extraction by leaching with Na2CO3 solutions. However, leaching with water dissolved the least amount of silica. The optimal conditions for water leaching were determined to be temperatures of 60 to 70 °C and times of 30 to 40 minutes. The sodium aluminate solution obtained under these conditions readily responded to desilication with Ca(OH)2 suspensions at atmospheric pressure, reducing the silica-to-alumina ratio to less than 10-3, which is lower than the specification for reduction-grade alumina.

  13. Sodium storage and injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, A. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A sodium storage and injection system for delivering atomized liquid sodium to a chemical reactor employed in the production of solar grade silicon is disclosed. The system is adapted to accommodate start-up, shut-down, normal and emergency operations, and is characterized by (1) a jacketed injection nozzle adapted to atomize liquefied sodium and (2) a supply circuit connected to the nozzle for delivering the liquefied sodium. The supply circuit is comprised of a plurality of replaceable sodium containment vessels, a pump interposed between the vessels and the nozzle, and a pressurizing circuit including a source of inert gas connected with the vessels for maintaining the sodium under pressure.

  14. Experimental study of the tritium distribution in the effluents resulting from the sodium hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chassery, A.; Lorcet, H.; Godlewski, J; Liger, K.; Latge, C.; Joulia, X.

    2015-03-15

    Within the framework of the dismantling of fast breeder reactors in France several processes are under investigation regarding sodium disposal. One of them, called ELA (radioactive sodium waste treatment process), is based on the implementation of the sodium-water reaction, in a controlled and progressive way, to remove residual sodium. This sodium contains impurities such as sodium hydride, sodium oxide and tritiated sodium hydride. The hydrolysis of these various chemical species leads to the production of a liquid effluent, mainly composed of an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, and a gaseous effluent, mainly composed of nitrogen (inert gas), hydrogen and steam. The tritium is distributed between these effluents, and, within the gaseous effluent, according to its forms HT and HTO (tritiated water). HTO being 10,000 times more radio-toxic than HT, a precise knowledge of the mechanisms governing the phase distribution of tritium is necessary. This paper presents the first experimental results from a parametric study on the tritium distribution between the various effluents generated during hydrolysis operations. A series of experiments have been performed in order to study the influence of water flow rate, argon flow rate, initial mass and specific activity of the hydrolyzed sodium sample. An important influence of the total tritium concentration in the hydrolyzed sample has been highlighted. As for the phenomena suspected to be responsible for the phase change of tritiated water, in the studied range of parameters, vaporization induced by the heat of reactions seems to be dominant over the evaporation induced by the inert gas flow rate.

  15. Selected-control synthesis of dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods by adjusting hydrothermal temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Song Xuchun Zheng Yifan; Wang Yun

    2008-05-06

    Dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods were prepared directly from commercial bulk Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals by facile hydrothermal process at 130 and 210 deg. C, respectively. The as-synthesized dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods were investigated by various techniques of XRD, TEM, SEM, and EDS. In the process, the temperature was found to play important roles in determining produce dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods.

  16. Method of treating inflammatory diseases using a radiolabeled ferric hydroxide calloid

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1992-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  17. Advances in aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant research and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    He, Peng; Zou, Yening; Hu, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, hundreds of materials have been tried as adjuvant; however, only aluminum-based adjuvants continue to be used widely in the world. Aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate and alum constitute the main forms of aluminum used as adjuvants. Among these, aluminum hydroxide is the most commonly used chemical as adjuvant. In spite of its wide spread use, surprisingly, the mechanism of how aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants exert their beneficial effects is still not fully understood. Current explanations for the mode of action of aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants include, among others, the repository effect, pro-phagocytic effect, and activation of the pro-inflammatory NLRP3 pathway. These collectively galvanize innate as well as acquired immune responses and activate the complement system. Factors that have a profound influence on responses evoked by aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant applications include adsorption rate, strength of the adsorption, size and uniformity of aluminum hydroxide particles, dosage of adjuvant, and the nature of antigens. Although vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants are beneficial, sometimes they cause adverse reactions. Further, these vaccines cannot be stored frozen. Until recently, aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants were known to preferentially prime Th2-type immune responses. However, results of more recent studies show that depending on the vaccination route, aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants can enhance both Th1 as well as Th2 cellular responses. Advances in systems biology have opened up new avenues for studying mechanisms of aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants. These will assist in scaling new frontiers in aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant research that include improvement of formulations, use of nanoparticles of aluminum hydroxide and development of composite adjuvants.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of lawsone-lntercalated Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Yamin; Ismail, Nur Mushirah; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Aminudin, Norhaniza

    2011-06-01

    A drug-inorganic nanostructured material involving pharmaceutically active compound lawsone intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (Law-LDHs) with Zn/AI = 4 has been assembled by co-precipitation and ion exchange methods. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) analysis indicate a successful intercalation of lawsone between the layers of layered double hydroxides. It suggests that layered double hydroxides may have application as the basis of a drug delivery system.

  19. Cu2+ ions as a paramagnetic probe to study the surface chemical modification process of layered double hydroxides and hydroxide salts with nitrate and carboxylate anions.

    PubMed

    Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal; Mangrich, Antonio Salvio; Wypych, Fernando

    2008-04-01

    A layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (Zn5(OH)8(NO3)2.2H2O) and a layered double hydroxide (Zn/Al-NO3) were synthesized by coprecipitation and doped with different amounts of Cu2+ (0.2, 1, and 10 mol%), as paramagnetic probe. Although the literature reports that the nitrate ion is free (with D3h symmetry) between the layers of these two structures, the FTIR spectra of two zinc hydroxide nitrate samples show the C2v symmetry for the nitrate ion, whereas the g ||/A || value in the EPR spectra of Cu2+ is high. This fact suggests bonding of some nitrate ions to the layers of the zinc hydroxide nitrate. The zinc hydroxide nitrate was used as matrix in the intercalation reaction with benzoate, o-chlorobenzoate, and o-iodobenzoate ions. FTIR spectra confirm the ionic exchange reaction and the EPR spectroscopy reveals bonding of the organic ions to the inorganic layers of the zinc hydroxide nitrate, while the layered double hydroxides show only exchange reactions.

  20. Understanding Nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) reactions with ferric hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Rodrigo Javier; Farrell, James

    2017-05-01

    Phosphonate compounds are used in a wide variety of industrial and agricultural applications, and are commonly found in surface and ground waters. Adsorption to ferric hydroxide can have a significant effect on the transport and fate of phosphonate compounds in the environment. This research used density functional theory modeling to investigate the adsorption mechanisms of nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (NTMP) on ferric hydroxide. Standard Gibbs free energies of reaction (ΔGr(o)) and reaction activation barriers (Ea) were calculated for different possible adsorption mechanisms. Physical adsorption of NTMP to ferric hydroxide was promoted by negative charge assisted hydrogen bonding, and had ΔGr(o) ranging from -2.7 to -7.4 kcal/mol. NTMP was found to form three different types of inner sphere complexes, monodentate, bidentate mononuclear and bidentate binuclear. For the monodentate complexes, ΔGr(o) ranged from -8.0 to -13.7 kcal/mol, for the bidentate complexes ΔGr(o) ranged from -15.3 to -28.9 kcal/mol. Complexation with Ca(2+) decreased the energy for physical adsorption but increased the binding energies for mono- and bidentate complexes. Complexation with Ca(2+) also allowed formation of a tridentate ternary surface complex, whereby the Ca(2+) ion formed a bridge between three FeO(-) and three PO(-) groups. Physical adsorption had Ea = 0, but mono- and bidentate complex formation had Ea values ranging from 36 to 53 kcal/mol. Formation of tridentate ternary surface complexes involving Ca(2+) had the lowest activation barriers of 8 and 10 kcal/mol. The different activation barriers for different modes of adsorption may explain previous experimental observations of unusual kinetic behavior for adsorption and desorption of NTMP.

  1. Syntheses and Properties of Cobalt and Nickel Hydroxide Nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashina, Masashi; Eguchi, Akio; Kanezaki, Eiji; Shiga, Takuya; Oshio, Hiroki

    Nanosheets of cobalt and nickel hydroxides nanosheets were prepared by delamination of layered compounds, CoII(OH)1.73(DBS)0.27·0.87H2O (Co-DBS, DBS = dodecylbenzene sulfonate) and NiII(OH)1.63(DBS)0.37·1.24H2O (Ni-DBS), respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction analyses of the layered compounds revealed lattice parameters of a0 = 3.07 Å and c0 = 30 Å (Co-DBS) and a0 = 3.09 Å and c0 = 30 Å (Ni-DBS) in the hexagonal system. Dispersions of Co-DBS and Ni-DBS in 1-butanol produced colloidal solutions of nanosheets, [Co-DBS]delam and [Ni-DBS]delam, respectively. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was dissolved in [Co-DBS]delam and [Ni-DBS]delam and the mixtures were dried to yield Co-PVP and Ni-PVP, respectively. These nanosheets measured 150-500 nm for [Co-DBS]delam and 135-400 nm for [Ni-DBS]delam by means of dynamic light scattering. Atomic force microscopy images showed lateral dimensions of 100-500 nm for [Co-DBS]delam and 50-100 nm for [Ni-DBS]delam. In the former image, the cobalt hydroxide nanosheets had a fairly flat terrace structure with thickness of 3.1-3.6 nm and with aspect ratios of 30-150, whereas in the latter image dome-like nanosheets of nickel hydroxide with height of 2.2-2.3 nm were confirmed. These nanosheets were regarded as monolayer. Magnetization experiments at 1.8 K showed hysteresis loops for Co-DBS, Co-PVP, Ni-DBS, and Ni-PVP.

  2. Effects of salinity and humic acid on the sorption of Hg on Fe and Mn hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Li, Yi-Chun; Zhang, Chan; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Cui, Hao-Jie; Yu, Shen; Wong, Ming H

    2013-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of humic acid (HA) and salinity on adsorption of Hg on the amorphous and crystalline of iron and manganese hydroxides. The results show that the adsorption of Hg(2+) on Fe and Mn hydroxides was inhibited in marine system due to the formation of stable, nonsorbing aqueous HgCl(2) complexes in solution. Moreover, Cl(-) inhibited the Hg(2+) adsorption more severely on amorphous than crystalline hydroxides. The addition of HA inhibited Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides in freshwater system might be attributed to the competition between Hg(2+) and HA on adsorption to Fe and Mn hydroxides. In contrast, the addition of HA promoted Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides in the marine system, which might be due to the addition of humic acid resulted in the reaction between Cl(-) and HA, and therefore the reducing of Cl(-) promoted more Hg(2+) on Fe and Mn hydroxides. In addition, the influence of HA on Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides are more visible for crystalline than amorphous hydroxides.

  3. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-11-20

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability.

  4. Dalapon, sodium salt

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dalapon , sodium salt ; CASRN 75 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  5. Chlorite (sodium salt)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorite ( sodium salt ) ; CASRN 7758 - 19 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  6. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  7. The sodium zenocorona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.; Combi, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    A recent narrow-band-filtered CCD image by Mendillo et al. (1990) has shown that a sodium corona, produced near Io, extends at least 400 Jupiter radii in the planet's equatorial plane. Isophotes indicate that the polar to equatorial extents are in about 1 to 3 proportions. The image can be reproduced by a model which includes both a high- and an intermediate-speed distribution, with source rates of 2.2 and 1.1 x 10 exp 26 atoms/s, respectively. The high-speed distribution was ejected from Io with a velocity tangential to the satellite orbit of 57 km/s (about 74 km/s relative to Jupiter) plus an isotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of about 25 km/s. This distribution likely corresponds to a charge exchange source of plasma torus sodium ions which are neutralized in the near-Io atmosphere and are ejected relative to Jupiter with a corotational velocity (74 km/s) plus a thermal ion (25 km/s) Maxwellian distribution. The intermediate speed distribution was ejected from Io with a tangential speed near 20 km/s (37 km/s relative to Jupiter) plus an isotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of about 12 km/s. This distribution corresponds to the same nonthermal sodium atoms earlier identified near Io in the sodium directional features (Pilcher et al., 1984).

  8. A cut-off of 2150 cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number in sentinel lymph node may be a powerful predictor of non-sentinel lymph node status in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Terrenato, Irene; D’Alicandro, Valerio; Casini, Beatrice; Perracchio, Letizia; Rollo, Francesca; De Salvo, Laura; Di Filippo, Simona; Di Filippo, Franco; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Mottolese, Marcella

    2017-01-01

    Since 2007, one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) has been used as a diagnostic system for sentinel lymph node (SLN) examination in patients with breast cancer. This study aimed to define a new clinical cut-off of CK19 mRNA copy number based on the calculation of the risk that an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) will be positive. We analyzed 1529 SLNs from 1140 patients with the OSNA assay and 318 patients with positive SLNs for micrometastasis (250 copies) and macrometastasis (5000 copies) underwent ALND. Axillary non–SLNs were routinely examined. ROC curves and Youden’s index were performed in order to identify a new cut-off value. Logistic regression models were performed in order to compare OSNA categorical variables created on the basis of our and traditional cut-off to better identify patients who really need an axillary dissection. 69% and 31% of OSNA positive patients had a negative and positive ALND, respectively. ROC analysis identified a cut-off of 2150 CK19 mRNA copies with 95% sensitivity and 51% specificity. Positive and negative predictive values of this new cut-off were 47% and 96%, respectively. Logistic regression models indicated that the cut-off of 2150 copies better discriminates patients with node negative or positive in comparison with the conventional OSNA cut-off (p<0.0001). This cut-off identifies false positive and false negative cases and true-positive and true negative cases very efficiently, and therefore better identifies which patients really need an ALND and which patients can avoid one. This is why we suggest that the negative cut-off should be raised from 250 to 2150. Furthermore, we propose that for patients with a copy number that ranges between 2150 and 5000, there should be a multidisciplinary discussion concerning the clinical and bio-morphological features of primary breast cancer before any decision is taken on whether to perform an ALND or not. PMID:28187209

  9. Bonding by Hydroxide-Catalyzed Hydration and Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung

    2008-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive method for bonding solid objects exploits hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration to form silicate-like networks in thin surface and interfacial layers between the objects. The method can be practiced at room temperature or over a wide range of temperatures. The method was developed especially to enable the formation of precise, reliable bonds between precise optical components. The bonds thus formed exhibit the precision and transparency of bonds formed by the conventional optical-contact method and the strength and reliability of high-temperature frit bonds. The method also lends itself to numerous non-optical applications in which there are requirements for precise bonds and/or requirements for bonds, whether precise or imprecise, that can reliably withstand severe environmental conditions. Categories of such non-optical applications include forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. The method is applicable to materials that either (1) can form silicate-like networks in the sense that they have silicate-like molecular structures that are extensible into silicate-like networks or (2) can be chemically linked to silicate-like networks by means of hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration. When hydrated, a material of either type features surface hydroxyl (-OH) groups. In this method, a silicate-like network that bonds two substrates can be formed either by a bonding material alone or by the bonding material together with material from either or both of the substrates. Typically, an aqueous hydroxide bonding solution is dispensed and allowed to flow between the mating surfaces by capillary action. If the surface figures of the substrates do not match precisely, bonding could be improved by including a filling material in the bonding solution. Preferably, the filling material should include at least one ingredient that can be hydrated to

  10. Iron oxide hydroxide nanoflower assisted removal of arsenic from water

    SciTech Connect

    Raul, Prasanta Kumar; Devi, Rashmi Rekha; Umlong, Iohborlang M.; Thakur, Ashim Jyoti; Banerjee, Saumen; Veer, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Non-magnetic polycrystalline iron oxide hydroxide nanoparticle with flower like morphology is found to play as an effective adsorbent media to remove As(III) from 300 μg L{sup −1} to less than 10 μg L{sup −1} from drinking water over wide range of pH. TEM image clearly reveals that the nanoparticle looks flower like morphology with average particle size less than 20 nm. The maximum sorption capacity of the sorbent is found to be 475 μg g{sup −1} for arsenic at room temperature and the data fitted to different isotherm models indicate the heterogeneity of the adsorbent surface. The material can be regenerated up to 70% using dilute hydrochloric acid and it would be utilized for de-arsenification purposes. - Highlights: • The work includes synthesis of iron oxide hydroxide nanoflower and its applicability for the removal of arsenic from water. • The nanoparticle was characterized using modern instrumental methods like FESEM, TEM, BET, XRD, etc. • The maximum sorption capacity of the sorbent is found to be 475 μg g{sup −1} for arsenic at room temperature. • The sorption is multilayered on the heterogeneous surface of the nano adsorbent. • The mechanism of arsenic removal of IOH nanoflower follows both adsorption and ion-exchange. - Abstract: Non-magnetic polycrystalline iron oxide hydroxide nanoparticle with flower like morphology is found to play as an effective adsorbent media to remove As(III) from 300 μg L{sup −1} to less than 10 μg L{sup −1} from drinking water over wide range of pH. The nanoparticle was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), BET surface area, FTIR, FESEM and TEM images. TEM image clearly reveals flower like morphology with average particle size less than 20 nm. The nanoflower morphology is also supported by FESEM images. The maximum sorption capacity of the sorbent is found to be 475 μg g{sup −1} for arsenic and the data fitted to different isotherm models indicate the

  11. Sorption of Np (V) by U (VI) hydroxide solids

    SciTech Connect

    Wruck, D A; Brachmann, A; Sylwester, E; Allen, C E A

    1999-09-20

    The distribution of {sup 237}Np(V) between aqueous NaHCO{sub 3} solutions and U(VI) hydroxide solids was investigated. Experiments were initiated by addition of U solids to Np solutions and by coprecipitation of U and Np. Analysis by U L{sub III} extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and infrared absorption spectroscopy indicated the solid phase was synthetic schoepite. Equilibrium Np distribution coefficients were 5-44 mL/g in the pH range 6-8. The results are consistent with adsorption of Np by the solids and provide no evidence of Np incorporation in the bulk solid.

  12. Final report on the amended safety assessment of sodium polynaphthalenesulfonate and sodium naphthalenesulfonate.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Sodium Polynaphthalenesulfonate (SPNS) and Sodium Naphthalenesulfonate (SNS) are sodium salts of naphthalene sulfonic acid. SPNS was used as an emulsion stabilizer, surfactant--hydrotrope, and/or surfactant--suspending agent at concentrations between 0.1% and 0.4%, in a wide range of products, including one lipstick. SNS is described as a surfactant--hydrotrope; no current uses were reported, but information was provided indicating that use concentrations would be typically below 2%. SNS is manufactured by reacting naphthalene with sulfuric acid to produce a sulfonic acid, which is then reacted with sodium hydroxide to produce the final product. The polymer form uses the sulfonic acid intermediate in a reaction with formaldehyde and water under conditions of heat and pressure to form the polymer sulfonic acid form, to which sodium hydroxide is added to make the final SPNS. The residue level of formaldehyde was 0.09%. Only around 1% of SNS in a 1-mg/ml solution applied to porcine skin penetrated the skin after 24 h, a similar amount was found noncovalently bound to the skin, and the concentration of material applied to the surface of the skin was largely unchanged. Both chemicals were not toxic in acute oral or dermal studies. In a subchronic oral toxicity study in rats, the effects noted were increases in urinary sugar in females and urine protein concentrations in males. Although undiluted SPNS was not a significant eye irritant in rabbits, undiluted SNS was a moderate eye irritant in rabbits. At 2%, SNS was a minimal eye irritant in rabbits. Undiluted SNS was at most a mild irritant in Guinea pigs, and was nonirritating at 20% and 2%. In a delayed contact hypersensitivity test in Guinea pigs, 30% SNS used in the induction phase and in the challenge phase produced no reactions. In a Guinea pig maximization test, 1% SNS used with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) injected in the initial sensitization, 50% SNS applied topically in the second sensitization, and up to

  13. Inhaled sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction: inhibition by nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, C M; Ind, P W

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate on bronchoconstriction induced by inhaled sodium metabisulphite have been studied in eight atopic subjects, three of whom had mild asthma. 2. Nedocromil sodium (4 mg, 7.8 X 10(-6) M), sodium cromoglycate (10 mg, 24.1 X 10(-6) M) and matched placebo were administered by identical metered dose inhalers 30 min before a dose-response to sodium metabisulphite (5-100 mg ml-1) was performed. 3. Maximum fall in sGaw after placebo pre-treatment was -43.9 +/- 3.3% baseline (mean +/- s.e. mean). At the same metabisulphite concentration maximum fall in sGaw after sodium cromoglycate was -13.0 +/- 3.6% and after nedocromil sodium was +4.3 +/- 6.8%. Nedocromil sodium prevented any significant fall in sGaw even after higher concentrations of metabisulphite. 4. Both nedocromil sodium, 4 mg, and sodium cromoglycate, 10 mg, inhibited sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction but nedocromil sodium was significantly more effective. Relative in vivo potency of the two drugs is broadly in line with other in vivo and in vitro studies. PMID:2171616

  14. The influence of sodium carbonate on sodium aluminosilicate crystallisation and solubility in sodium aluminate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Kali; Gerson, Andrea R.; Addai-Mensah, Jonas; Smart, Roger St. C.

    1997-01-01

    Isothermal batch precipitation experiments have been carried out in synthetic Bayer liquors to investigate the effects of sodium carbonate concentration on both silica solubility and the crystallisation of sodium aluminosilicates. At both 90 and 160°C cancrinite (generically defined as a sodium aluminosilicate of space group P6 3) is the stable solid phase. Sodalite (generically defined as a sodium aluminosilicate with space group P4¯3n seed transforms to cancrinite at both these temperatures. A high concentration of sodium carbonate in the synthetic liquor causes a decrease in the rate of conversion of sodalite to cancrinite. The solubility of both cancrinite and sodalite decreases as the concentration of sodium carbonate in the synthetic liquor is increased. For instance at 90°C and with 40.0 g dm -3 sodium carbonate in the synthetic liquor after 13 days the sodium aluminosilicate concentration is 0.52 g dm -3 compared to 0.85 g dm -3 with 4.6 g dm -3 of sodium carbonate in solution. At 160°C the sodium aluminosilicate concentration is 0.47 g dm -3 with 40.0 g dm -3 sodium carbonate in solution after 13 days and 0.79 g dm -3 with 4.6 g dm -3 sodium carbonate in solution. Throughout all these experiments a progressive loss of carbonate from the sodium aluminosilicate crystallisation products was observed as a function of time.

  15. Hanford site sodium management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenberg, S.

    1995-09-25

    The Hanford Site Sodium Management Plan, Revision 1, provides changes to the major elements and management strategy to ensure an integrated and coordinated approach for disposition of the more than 350,000 gallons of sodium and related sodium facilities located at the DOE`s Hanford Site

  16. Hydroxide Degradation Pathways for Imidazolium Cations. A DFT Study

    SciTech Connect

    Long, H.; Pivovar, B.

    2014-05-15

    Imidazolium cations are promising candidates as covalently tetherable cations for application in anion exchange membranes. They have generated specific interest in alkaline membrane fuel cell applications where ammonium-based cations have been the most commonly applied but have been found to be susceptible to hydroxide attack. In the search for high stability cations, a detailed understanding of the degradation pathways and reaction barriers is required. In this work, we investigate imidazolium and benzimidazolium cations in the presence of hydroxide using density functional theory calculations for their potential in alkaline membrane fuel cells. Moreover, the dominant degradation pathway for these cations is predicted to be the nucleophilic addition–elimination pathway at the C-2 atom position on the imidazolium ring. Steric interferences, introduced by substitutions at the C-2, C-4, and C-5 atom positions, were investigated and found to have a significant, positive impact on calculated degradation energy barriers. Benzimidazolium cations, with their larger conjugated systems, are predicted to degrade much faster than their imidazolium counterparts. Our results provide important insight into designing stable cations for anion exchange membranes. Some of the molecules studied have significantly increased degradation energy barriers suggesting that they could possess significantly improved (several orders of magnitude) durability compared to traditional cations and potentially enable new applications.

  17. Sulfur dioxide removal process with gypsum and magnesium hydroxide production

    SciTech Connect

    College, J.W.; Benson, L.B.

    1992-01-28

    This patent describes improvement in a method for removing sulfur dioxide from flue gases wherein the flue gases are contacted in a wet scrubbing unit, in the absence of any substantial amount of calcium components, with an aqueous solution of magnesium components and magnesium sulfite produced, with aqueous solution, following the contact, collected and recycled to the wet scrubber for further contact with flue gases, and subjecting a portion of the aqueous discharge from the scrubbing unit, containing magnesium sulfite, to oxidation in an oxidation unit. The improvement comprises: adding calcium sulfate to the portion of aqueous discharge containing magnesium sulfite prior to oxidation in the oxidation unit to form an oxidized aqueous effluent containing calcium sulfate solids and dissolved magnesium sulfate; passing the oxidized aqueous effluent to a regeneration tank; adding lime to the regeneration tank to precipitate gypsum from and form an aqueous magnesium hydroxide suspension in the oxidized aqueous effluent; separating the precipitated gypsum from the aqueous magnesium hydroxide suspension; and returning at least a portion of the separated precipitated gypsum to the oxidizing unit as the added calcium sulfate.

  18. Lithium hydroxide, LiOH, at elevated densities

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, Andreas; Ashcroft, N. W.; Hoffmann, Roald

    2014-07-14

    We discuss the high-pressure phases of crystalline lithium hydroxide, LiOH. Using first-principles calculations, and assisted by evolutionary structure searches, we reproduce the experimentally known phase transition under pressure, but we suggest that the high-pressure phase LiOH-III be assigned to a new hydrogen-bonded tetragonal structure type that is unique amongst alkali hydroxides. LiOH is at the intersection of both ionic and hydrogen bonding, and we examine the various ensuing structural features and their energetic driving mechanisms. At P = 17 GPa, we predict another phase transition to a new phase, Pbcm-LiOH-IV, which we find to be stable over a wide pressure range. Eventually, at extremely high pressures of 1100 GPa, the ground state of LiOH is predicted to become a polymeric structure with an unusual graphitic oxygen-hydrogen net. However, because of its ionic character, the anticipated metallization of LiOH is much delayed; in fact, its electronic band gap increases monotonically into the TPa pressure range.

  19. Biodiesel synthesis using calcined layered double hydroxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Schumaker, J. Link; Crofcheck, Czarena; TAckett, S. Adam; Santillan-Jimenez, Eduardo; Morgan, Tonya; Ji, Yaying; Crocker, Mark; Toops, Todd J

    2008-01-01

    The catalytic properties of calcined Li-Al, Mg-Al and Mg-Fe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were examined in two transesterification reactions, namely, the reaction of glyceryl tributyrate with methanol, and the reaction of soybean oil with methanol. While the Li-Al catalysts showed high activity in these reactions at the reflux temperature of methanol, the Mg-Fe and Mg-Al catalysts exhibited much lower methyl ester yields. CO2 TPD measurements revealed the presence of sites of weak, medium and strong basicity on both Mg-Al and Li-Al catalysts, the latter showing higher concentrations of medium and strong base sites; by implication, these are the main sites active in transesterification catalyzed by calcined Li-Al LDHs. Maximum activity was observed for the Li-Al catalysts when a calcination temperature of 450-500 aC was applied, corresponding to decomposition of the layered double hydroxide to the mixed oxide without formation of crystalline lithium aluminate phases.

  20. Cation ordering and superstructures in natural layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Krivovichev, Sergey V; Yakovenchuk, Victor N; Zolotarev, Andrey A; Ivanyuk, Gregory N; Pakhomovsky, Yakov A

    2010-01-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) constitute an important group of materials with many applications ranging from catalysis and absorption to carriers for drug delivery, DNA intercalation and carbon dioxide sequestration. The structures of LDHs are based upon double brucite-like hydroxide layers [M(2+)(n)M(3+)(m)(OH)(2(m+n)](m+), where M(2+) = Mg(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), etc.; M(3+) = Al(3+), Fe(3+), Cr(3+), Mn(3+), etc. Structural features of LDHs such as cation ordering, charge distribution and polytypism have an immediate influence upon their properties. However, all the structural studies on synthetic LDHs deal with powder samples that prevent elucidation of such fine details of structure architecture as formation of superstructures due to cation ordering. In contrast to synthetic materials, natural LDHs are known to form single crystals accessible to single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, which provides a unique possibility to investigate 3D cation ordering in LDHs that results in formation of complex superstructures, where 2D cation order is combined with a specific order of layer stacking (polytypism). Therefore LDH minerals provide an indispensable source of structural information for modeling of structures and processes happening in LDHs at the molecular and nanoscale levels.

  1. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Volatile Metal Hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Dwight L.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Modern superalloys used in the construction of turbomachinery contain a wide range of metals in trace quantities. In addition, metal oxides and silicon dioxide are used to form Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) to protect the underlying metal in turbine blades. Formation of volatile hydroxides at elevated temperatures is an important mechanism for corrosion of metal alloys or oxides in combustion environments (N. Jacobson, D. Myers, E. Opila, and E. Copland, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 66, 471-478, 2005). Thermodynamic data is essential to proper design of components of modern gas turbines. It is necessary to first establish the identity of volatile hydroxides formed from the reaction of a given system with high temperature water vapor, and then to determine the equilibrium pressures of the species under operating conditions. Theoretical calculations of reaction energies are an important check of experimental results. This presentation reports results for several important systems: Si-O-H, Cr-O-H, Al-O-H, Ti-O-H, and ongoing studies of Ta-O-H.

  2. The prototype fast reactor at Dounreay, Scotland. Process and engineering development for sodium removal

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, A.; Herrick, R.; Gunn, J.; Husband, W.; Smith, M.; Fletcher, B.

    2007-07-01

    Dounreay was home to commercial fast reactor development in the UK. Following the construction and operation of the Dounreay Fast Reactor, a sodium-cooled Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), was constructed. PFR started operating in 1974, closed in 1994 and is presently being decommissioned. To date the bulk of the sodium has been removed and treated. Due to the design of the existing extraction system however, a sodium pool will remain in the heel of the reactor. To remove this sodium, a pump/camera system was developed, tested and deployed. The Water Vapour Nitrogen (WVN) process has been selected to allow removal of the final sodium residues from the reactor. Due to the design of the reactor and potential for structural damage should Normal WVN (which produces hydrated sodium hydroxide) be used, Low Concentration WVN (LC WVN) has been developed. Pilot scale testing has shown that it is possible treat the reactor within 18 months at a WVN concentration of up to 4% v/v and temperature of 120 deg. C. At present the equipment that will be used to apply LC WVN to the reactor is being developed at the detail design stage. and is expected to be deployed within the next few years. (authors)

  3. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  8. BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES CONTROLLING ARSENIC SPECIATION AND BIOTRANSFORMATION IN GRANULAR FERRIC HYDROXIDE COATED SAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic mobilization from solid phase Fe (III) hydroxides is an issue of concern, as water-borne arsenic can migrate into pristine environments, endangering aquatic and human life. In general, metal oxide (hydroxides) exerts a dominating effect on the fate and transport of arseni...

  9. Preparation of plate-shape nano-magnesium hydroxide from asbestos tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao-xiang, Du; Shui-lin, Zheng

    2009-09-01

    To prepare magnesium hydroxide is one of the effective methods to the comprehensive utilization of asbestos tailings. Nano-scale magnesium hydroxide was prepared and mechanisms of in-situ surface modification were characterized in the paper. Process conditions of preparation of magnesium hydroxide from purified hydrochloric acid leachate of asbestos tailings were optimized and in-situ surface modification of the product was carried out. Results showed that optimum process conditions for preparing nano-scale magnesium hydroxide were as follows: initial concentration of Mg2+ in the leachate was 22.75g/L, precipitant was NaOH solution (mass concentration 20%), reaction temperature was 50°C, and reaction time was 5min. The diameter and thickness of the plate nano-scale magnesium hydroxide powder prepared under optimal conditions were about 100 nm and 10 nm, respectively. However, particle agglomeration was obvious, the particle size increased to micron-grade. Dispersity of the magnesium hydroxide powder could be elevated by in-situ modification by silane FR-693, titanate YB-502 and polyethylene glycol and optimum dosages were 1.5%, 1.5% and 0.75% of the mass of magnesium hydroxide, respectively. All of the modifiers adsorbed chemically on surfaces of magnesium hydroxide particles, among which Si-O-Mg bonds formed among silane FR-693 and the particle surfaces and Ti-O-Mg among titanate YB-502 and the surfaces.

  10. Dissolution of fine and intermediate sized galena particles and their interactions with iron hydroxide colloids.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yongjun; Grano, Stephen

    2010-07-01

    Dissolution of fine (-10 microm) and intermediate (+10-53 microm) galena particles was studied in the presence and absence of iron hydroxide colloids at pH 9 with nitrogen and oxygen purging. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements and ethylene diamine-tetra acid (EDTA) extraction of the galena particles after dissolution indicate that galena dissolution is strongly dependent on particle size. Fine galena particles produced a much higher amount of lead hydroxide species per surface area than intermediate galena particles. Gas purging only affected galena dissolution slightly. More iron hydroxide colloids adsorbed on fine particles. Zeta potential measurements indicate that galena dissolution enhances the adsorption of iron hydroxide colloids due to the electrostatic attraction between lead hydroxide products and iron hydroxide colloids at pH 9. This explains the stronger affinity of iron hydroxide colloids to fine galena particles than intermediate galena particles. This study has an important implication in sulfide flotation where iron hydroxide colloids play a dominant role in mineral depression.

  11. Layered double hydroxide stability. 2. Formation of Cr(III)-containing layered double hydroxides directly from solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.; Jiang, J.; Lou, S.; Yarberry, F.

    1999-01-01

    Solutions containing divalent metal [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+] chlorides and CrCl3 6H2O were titrated with NaOH to yield, for M(II) = Zn, Co, and Ni, hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDHs), [[M(II)]1-z[Cr(III)]z(OH)2][Cl]z yH2O, in a single step, without intermediate formation of chromium hydroxide. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields solubility constants for these compounds. These are in the order Zn < Ni approximately Co, with a clear preference for formation of the phase with z = 1/3. With Mg2+ as chloride, titration gives a mixture of Cr(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2, but the metal sulfates give Mg2Cr(OH)6 1/2(SO4) by a two-step process. Titrimetric and spectroscopic evidence suggests short-range cation order in the one-step LDH systems.

  12. A thermochromic thin film based on host-guest interactions in a layered double hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinrui; Lu, Jun; Shi, Wenying; Li, Feng; Wei, Min; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2010-01-19

    Optically transparent thin films with thermochromic properties have been fabricated by means of cointercalation of different molar ratios of 4-(4-anilinophenylazo)benzenesulfonate (AO5) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDS) into the galleries of a ZnAl layered double hydroxide (LDH). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of these thin films show that they are assembled in a highly c-oriented manner, and the basal spacing ranges from 2.95 to 2.63 nm with varying AO5/SDS molar ratio. The preferential orientation of AO5 in the galleries of 10% AO5-LDH (AO5/SDS = 10:90, molar percentage) was evaluated by the fluorescence polarization technique; the results show that AO5 anions are accommodated between sheets of ZnAl-LDH as monomeric units with a tilt angle Psi (defined as the angle between the transition dipole moment of the AO5 anion with respect to the normal to the LDH layer) of 74 degrees. It was found that the composite film exhibits marked thermochromic behavior (light yellow <==> reddish-orange) in the temperature range of 35-65 degrees C, which is reversible over a number of heating-cooling cycles. It has been demonstrated that the thermochromic behavior results from tautomerism of interlayer AO5 and furthermore that both the host-guest and guest-guest interactions are key factors, since pristine AO5 shows no thermochromic performance. The 10% AO5-LDH film shows the highest thermochromic efficiency of all the films examined. Furthermore, a reversible contraction and expansion of the LDH basal spacing was also observed for this thin film over the same temperature range.

  13. Layered double hydroxide catalyst for the conversion of crude vegetable oils to a sustainable biofuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollaeian, Keyvan

    Over the last two decades, the U.S. has developed the production of biodiesel, a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, using chiefly vegetable oils as feedstocks. However, there is much concern about the availability of high-quality vegetable oils for longterm biodiesel production. Problems have also risen due to the production of glycerol, an unwanted byproduct, as well as the need for process wash water. Therefore, this study was initiated to produce not only fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) but also fatty acid glycerol carbonates (FAGCs) by replacing methanol with dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The process would have no unnecessary byproducts and would be a simplified process compared to traditional biodiesel. In addition, this altering of the methylating agent could convert triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids to a sustainable biofuel. In this project, Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) was optimized by calcination in different temperature varied from 250°C to 450°C. The gallery between layers was increased by intercalating sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). During catalyst preparation, the pH was controlled ~10. In our experiment, triazabicyclodecene (TBD) was attached with trimethoxysilane (3GPS) as a coupling agent, and N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was added to remove SDS from the catalyst. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of the heterogeneous catalyst on the conversion of canola oil, corn oil, and free fatty acids was investigated. To analyze the conversion of lipid oils to biofuel an in situ Raman spectroscopic method was developed. Catalyst synthesis methods and a proposed mechanism for converting triglycerides and free fatty acids to biofuel will be presented.

  14. Stimuli-responsive hybrid materials: breathing in magnetic layered double hydroxides induced by a thermoresponsive molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Abellán, Gonzalo; Jordá, Jose Luis; Atienzar, Pedro; Varela, María; Jaafar, Miriam; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Zamora, Félix; Ribera, Antonio; García, Hermenegildo; Coronado, Eugenio

    2014-12-04

    In this study, a hybrid magnetic multilayer material of micrometric size, with highly crystalline hexagonal crystals consisting of CoAl–LDH ferromagnetic layers intercalated with thermoresponsive 4-(4 anilinophenylazo)benzenesulfonate (AO5) molecules diluted (ratio 9 : 1) with a flexible sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) surfactant has been obtained. The resulting material exhibits thermochromism attributable to the isomerization between the azo (prevalent at room temperature) and the hydrazone (favoured at higher temperatures) tautomers, leading to a thermomechanical response. In fact, these crystals exhibited thermally induced motion triggering remarkable changes in the crystal morphology and volume. In situ variable temperature XRD of these thin hybrids shows that the reversible change into the two tautomers is reflected in a shift of the position of the diffraction peaks at high temperatures towards lower interlayer spacing for the hydrazone form, as well as a broadening of the peaks reflecting lower crystallinity and ordering due to non-uniform spacing between the layers. These structural variations between room temperature (basal spacing (BS) = 25.91 Å) and 100 °C (BS = 25.05 Å) are also reflected in the magnetic properties of the layered double hydroxide (LDH) due to the variation of the magnetic coupling between the layers. Finally and in conclusion, our study constitutes one of the few examples showing fully reversible thermo-responsive breathing in a 2D hybrid material. In addition, the magnetic response of the hybrid can be modulated due to the thermotropism of the organic component that, by influencing the distance and in-plane correlation of the inorganic LDH, modulates the magnetism of the CoAl–LDH sheets in a certain range.

  15. Stimuli-responsive hybrid materials: breathing in magnetic layered double hydroxides induced by a thermoresponsive molecule

    DOE PAGES

    Abellán, Gonzalo; Jordá, Jose Luis; Atienzar, Pedro; ...

    2014-12-04

    In this study, a hybrid magnetic multilayer material of micrometric size, with highly crystalline hexagonal crystals consisting of CoAl–LDH ferromagnetic layers intercalated with thermoresponsive 4-(4 anilinophenylazo)benzenesulfonate (AO5) molecules diluted (ratio 9 : 1) with a flexible sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) surfactant has been obtained. The resulting material exhibits thermochromism attributable to the isomerization between the azo (prevalent at room temperature) and the hydrazone (favoured at higher temperatures) tautomers, leading to a thermomechanical response. In fact, these crystals exhibited thermally induced motion triggering remarkable changes in the crystal morphology and volume. In situ variable temperature XRD of these thin hybrids shows thatmore » the reversible change into the two tautomers is reflected in a shift of the position of the diffraction peaks at high temperatures towards lower interlayer spacing for the hydrazone form, as well as a broadening of the peaks reflecting lower crystallinity and ordering due to non-uniform spacing between the layers. These structural variations between room temperature (basal spacing (BS) = 25.91 Å) and 100 °C (BS = 25.05 Å) are also reflected in the magnetic properties of the layered double hydroxide (LDH) due to the variation of the magnetic coupling between the layers. Finally and in conclusion, our study constitutes one of the few examples showing fully reversible thermo-responsive breathing in a 2D hybrid material. In addition, the magnetic response of the hybrid can be modulated due to the thermotropism of the organic component that, by influencing the distance and in-plane correlation of the inorganic LDH, modulates the magnetism of the CoAl–LDH sheets in a certain range.« less

  16. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension.

  17. Assessment of the Potential of CFC (Calcium hydroxide Flagyl Ciprofloxacin) for the Rapid Disinfection of Resilon and Gutta-Percha

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Mariam Omer Bin; Gufran, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obturating materials exposed to the dental operating environment has been shown to be contaminated, making rapid chair side disinfection mandatory to ensure the sterility of the root canals. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of CFC (combination of Calcium hydroxide, Flagyl and Ciprofloxacin) for the rapid disinfection of Gutta-percha and Resilon cones. Materials and Methods Seventy new Gutta-percha and Resilon cones were randomly selected, contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis and divided into 4 group according to the irrigant used for disinfection {Group I: 5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl), Group II: MTAD, Group III: 2% Chlorhexidine (CHX), Group IV: CFC (a combination of Calcium hydroxide, Flagyl and Ciprofloxacin)}. All the samples were placed in a centrifuge tube with BHI broth after being washed with sterile water. The samples were then incubated for 7 days at 37oC. Samples were randomly plated on Mac Conkey agar plate and the colony count was recorded and the observations were drawn. Results A 5.25% NaOCl required 1 minute exposure for effective disinfection of all the samples. MTAD could eliminate E.faecalis from gutta-percha samples in 30 seconds whereas it required 1 minute of exposure for Resilon cones. Both 2% CHX and CFC could not disinfect the samples with 1 minute exposure and a minimum of 5 minute exposure was required. Conclusion A 5.25% NaOCl and Biopure MTAD required less chair side time to disinfect all the samples effectively when compared with 2% CHX and CFC. PMID:26557614

  18. The effects of lithium hydroxide solution on alkali silica reaction gels created with opal

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lyndon D.; Beaudoin, James J.; Grattan-Bellew, Patrick

    2004-04-01

    The reaction of Nevada opal with calcium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and lithium hydroxide solutions was investigated. In addition, opal was exposed to a combined solution of these three hydroxides. The progress of the three reactions was followed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD results indicated the presence of a low-angle peak exclusive to the lithium-based reactions. The NMR results suggested a change in the silicate structure in the presence of lithium. These techniques indicated that the reaction of the alkali with the opal starting material is inhibited and perhaps stopped in the presence of lithium hydroxide. SEM revealed that the morphology of the reaction products on the surface of the reacted opal grains is markedly different invariably. It was concluded that evidence to support the theory of a protective layer exists and that the nature of the layer varies with ion type.

  19. Mg/Al double-metal hydroxide regeneration of anion exchange resin by electric field intensification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Li, Zhun; Li, Yansheng; Liu, Zhigang

    2017-03-01

    Fouled anion exchange resins were regenerated by electric field intensification of Mg/Al double-metal hydroxides. Regenerative experiments were performed with varying voltages (10-30 V) and dosages of Mg/Al hydroxides (0.045-0.135 mol and 0.015-0.045 mol, respectively) for 1-5 h. Optimal results were obtained under the following regenerative conditions: 20 V, 4 h, and 0.09/0.03 mol of Mg/Al hydroxides. The maximum regenerative capacity of resins was increased to 41.07%. The regenerative mechanism was presented by Fourier-transform infrared spectrum of resins and Mg/Al hydroxides, and the regenerative degree was analyzed with respect to conductivity, pH value, and electric current. Mg/Al hydroxides were also recycled after the regeneration. This method was proven to be cost-effective and environmentally friendly.

  20. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Iranian Propolis and Calcium Hydroxide on Dental Pulp Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zare Jahromi, Maryam; Ranjbarian, Parisa; Shiravi, Samaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Since intracanal medicaments can affect the cell viability in periapical tissues, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide and propolis on pulp fibroblasts. Materials and methods. Two healthy third molars were used as a source to obtain fibroblasts. The fibroblasts were cultured and subjected to 1 mg/mL of propolis and calcium hydroxide. This experiment was performed in six replicates and cell viability was evaluated with MTT assay. Statistical analysis was performed by t-test. Results. Comparison of cell viability with the use of 1 mg/mL of calcium hydroxide and propolis showed that cells subjected to propolis were more viable when compared to calcium hydroxide (P < 0.05). Conclusion. In this study, calcium hydroxide reduced fibroblast viability, significantly more than Iranian propolis. Other properties should be evaluated before Iranian propolis could be indicated for use as intracanal medicament. PMID:25346830

  1. Synthesis of 4-chlorophenoxyacetate-zinc-aluminium-layered double hydroxide nanocomposite: physico-chemical and controlled release properties.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Mohd Zobir Bin; Sarijo, Siti Halimah; Yahaya, Asmah Hj; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2007-08-01

    Layered organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite material was synthesised using 4-chlorophenoxyacetate (4CPA) as guest anion intercalated into the Zn-Al layered double hydroxide inorganic host by direct co-precipitation method at pH = 7.5 and Zn to Al molar ratio of 4. Both PXRD and FTIR results confirmed that the 4CPA was successfully intercalated into the Zn-AI-LDH interlayer. As a result, a well-ordered nanolayered organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite, with the expansion of the basal spacing from 8.9 angstroms in the layered double hydroxide to 20.1 angstroms in the resulting nanocomposite was observed. The FTIR spectrum of the nanocomposite (ZAC) showed that it composed spectral features of Zn-AI-LDH (ZAL) and 4CPA. The nanocomposites synthesized in this work are of mesoporous-type containing 39.8% (w/w) of 4CPA with mole fraction of Al3+ in the inorganic brucite-like layers (xAI) of 0.224. The release studies showed a rapid release of the 4CPA for the first 600 min, and more sustained thereafter. The total amount of 4CPA released from the nanocomposite interlayer into the aqueous solution were 21%, 66%, and 72% in 0.0001, 0.00025, and 0.0005 M sodium carbonate, respectively. In distilled water, about 75, 35, and 57% of 4CPA could be released in 1000 min, when the pH of the release media was set at 3, 6.25, and 12, respectively. In comparison with a structurally similar organic moiety with one more chlorine atom at the 2-position of the aromatic ring, namely 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (24D), the 4CPA showed a slower release rate. The slightly bulkier organic moiety of 24D together with the presence of chlorine atom at the 2-position presumably had contributed to its higher release rate, and it seems that these factors may be exploited for tuning the release rate of intercalated guest anions with similar properties. This study suggests that layered double hydroxide can be used as a carrier for an active agent and the chemical structure of the intercalated moiety

  2. Predicting anion breakthrough in granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) adsorption filters.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Alexander; Schimmelpfennig, Sebastian; Baumgarten, Benno; Genz, Arne; Amy, Gary; Worch, Eckhard; Jekel, Martin

    2008-04-01

    Adsorption of arsenate, phosphate, salicylic acid, and groundwater DOC onto granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) was studied in batch and column experiments. Breakthrough curves were experimentally determined and modelled using the homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM) and two of its derivatives, the constant pattern homogeneous surface diffusion model (CPHSDM) and the linear driving force model (LDF). Input parameters, the Freundlich isotherm constants, and mass transfer coefficients for liquid- and solid-phase diffusion were determined and analysed for their influence on the shape of the breakthrough curve. HSDM simulation results predict the breakthrough of all investigated substances satisfactorily, but LDF and CPHSDM could not describe arsenate breakthrough correctly. This is due to a very slow intraparticle diffusion and hence higher Biot numbers. Based on this observation, limits of applicability were defined for LDF and CPHSDM. When designing fixed-bed adsorbers, model selection based on known or estimated Biot and Stanton numbers is possible.

  3. Biological evaluation of layered double hydroxides as efficient drug vehicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Liu, Dan; Ai, Hanhua; Chang, Qing; Liu, Dandan; Xia, Ying; Liu, Shuwen; Peng, Nanfang; Xi, Zhuge; Yang, Xu

    2010-03-12

    Recently there has been a rapid expansion of the development of bioinorganic hybrid systems for safe drug delivery. Layered double hydroxides (LDH), a variety of available inorganic matrix, possess great promise for this purpose. In this study, an oxidative stress biomarker system, including measurement of reactive oxygen species, glutathione content, endogenous nitric oxide, carbonyl content in proteins, DNA strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks, was designed to evaluate the biocompatibility of different concentrations of nano-Zn/Al-LDH with a Hela cell line. The drug delivery activity of the LDH-folic-acid complex was also assessed. The resulting data clearly demonstrated that nano-LDH could be applied as a relatively safe drug vehicle with good delivery activity, but with the caveat that the effects of high dosages observed here should not be ignored when attempting to maximize therapeutic activity by increasing LDH concentration.

  4. Layered double hydroxides: an attractive material for electrochemical biosensor design.

    PubMed

    Shan, Dan; Cosnier, Serge; Mousty, Christine

    2003-08-01

    Electrochemical biosensors for phenol determination were developed based on the immobilization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) within two different clay matrixes, one anionic (layered double hydroxide, LDH) and the other cationic (Laponite). The biosensor based on the enzyme immobilized in [Zn-Al-Cl] LDH shows greater sensitivity (7807 mA M(-1) cm(-2)) and maximum current (492 microA cm(-2)). Biosensor characteristics, such as Michaelis-Menten constant, recycling constant, activation energy, and permeability highlight the advantages of LDH matrixes to immobilize PPO. It appears that LDH provides a favorable environment to PPO activity. The best PPO/[Zn-Al-Cl] configuration was used to determine five different phenol derivatives reaching extremely sensitive detection limits (< or = 1 nM).

  5. Critical operating parameters for microwave solidification of hydroxide sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, G.S.; Eschen, V.G.

    1993-08-01

    Engineers at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed an innovative technology for the treatment of homogeneous wet or dry solids which are contaminated with hazardous and/or radioactive materials. The process uses microwave energy to heat and melt the waste into a vitreous final form that is suitable for land disposal. The advantages include a high density, leach resistant, robust waste form; volume and toxicity reduction; favorable economics; in-container treatment; favorable public acceptance; isolated equipment; and instantaneous energy control. Regulatory certification of the final form is accomplished by meeting the limitation specified in EPA`s Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP). This paper presents the results from a series of TCLP tests performed on a surrogate hydroxide coprecipitation sludge spiked with heavy metals at elevated concentrations. The results are very encouraging and support RFP`s commitment to the use of microwave technology for treatment of various mixed waste streams.

  6. Hydroxide as general base in the saponification of ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Mata-Segreda, Julio F

    2002-03-13

    The second-order rate constant for the saponification of ethyl acetate at 30.0 degrees C in H(2)O/D(2)O mixtures of deuterium atom fraction n (a proton inventory experiment) obeys the relation k(2)(n) = 0.122 s(-1) M(-1) (1 - n + 1.2n) (1 - n + 0.48n)/(1 - n + 1.4n) (1 - n + 0.68n)(3). This result is interpreted as a process where formation of the tetrahedral intermediate is the rate-determining step and the transition-state complex is formed via nucleophilic interaction of a water molecule with general-base assistance from hydroxide ion, opposite to the direct nucleophilic collision commonly accepted. This mechanistic picture agrees with previous heavy-atom kinetic isotope effect data of Marlier on the alkaline hydrolysis of methyl formate.

  7. Hybrid and biohybrid layered double hydroxides for electrochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Mousty, Christine; Prévot, Vanessa

    2013-04-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are lamellar materials that have been extensively used as electrode modifiers. Nanostructured organic-inorganic materials can be designed by intercalation of organic or metallic complexes within the interlayer space of these materials or by the formation of composite materials based on biopolymers (alginate or chitosan) or biomolecules, such as enzymes. These hybrid or biohybrid materials have interesting properties applicable in electroanalytical devices. From an exhaustive review of the literature, the relevance of these hybrid and biohybrid LDH materials as electrode materials for electrochemical detection of species with an environmental or health impact is evaluated. The analytical characteristics (sensitivity and detection limit) of LDH-based amperometric sensors or biosensors are scrutinized.

  8. Mixed metal hydroxide drilling fluid minimizes well bore washouts

    SciTech Connect

    Lavoix, F. ); Lewis, M. )

    1992-09-28

    This paper reports that the use of a mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) drilling fluid, instead of a conventional polymer-based fluid, improved well bore stability in troublesome formations in West Africa. The unique flow and suspension characteristics of the MMH fluid improved cuttings removal and decreased well bore washouts. With fewer hole problems and better cleaning in the well, the operator reduced drilling time and cost of the well. MMH compounds were developed and introduced to the drilling industry a few years ago. Initially their utility was limited by an inability to achieve reliable filtration control without destroying the unique fluid rheology. A fully functional drilling fluid system, based on this unusual line of chemistry, has been developed and used with great success in dozens of wells around the world.

  9. Hydroxide decomposition of dimethylsulfoniopropionate to form dimethylsulfide. [in sea water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacey, John W. H.; Blough, Neil V.

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of DMS production resulting from reaction of OH(-) with DMSP were investigated as a function of hydroxide concentration and temperature. The reaction was first-order with respect to DMSP and OH(-). The second order rate constant at 20+/-1 C is 0.0044/M/sec. The activation energy for this reaction is 14.4 kcal/mode. The investigation indicates that the rate of reaction of DMSP with OH(-) is very slow at the pH of seawater, suggesting that DMSP, which may be a major precursor of DMS in seawater, decomposes in the ocean by other mechanisms. A bacterium which produces DMS from DMSP quantitatively at rates many orders of magnitude higher than indicated by OH(-1) decomposition has been cultured, suggesting that enzymatic processes accelerate the production of DMS from DMSP in seawater.

  10. Layered Double Hydroxide-Based Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Xue; Zhang, Hui; Dou, Liguang

    2014-01-01

    Biocompatible clay materials have attracted particular attention as the efficient drug delivery systems (DDS). In this article, we review developments in the use of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) for controlled drug release and delivery. We show how advances in the ability to synthesize intercalated structures have a significant influence on the development of new applications of these materials. We also show how modification and/or functionalization can lead to new biotechnological and biomedical applications. This review highlights the most recent progresses in research on LDH-based controlled drug delivery systems, focusing mainly on: (i) DDS with cardiovascular drugs as guests; (ii) DDS with anti-inflammatory drugs as guests; and (iii) DDS with anti-cancer drugs as guests. Finally, future prospects for LDH-based drug carriers are also discussed. PMID:24940733

  11. Structural characterisation of a layered double hydroxide nanosheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funnell, Nicholas P.; Wang, Qiang; Connor, Leigh; Tucker, Matthew G.; O'Hare, Dermot; Goodwin, Andrew L.

    2014-06-01

    We report the atomic-scale structure of a Zn2Al-borate layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheet, as determined by reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling of X-ray total scattering data. This study involves the extension of the RMC method to enable structural refinement of two-dimensional nanomaterials. The refined LDH models show the intra-layer geometry in this highly-exfoliated phase to be consistent with that observed in crystalline analogues, with the reciprocal-space scattering data suggesting a disordered arrangement of the Zn2+ and Al3+ cations within the nanosheet. The approach we develop is generalisable and so offers a method of characterising the structures of arbitrary nanosheet phases, including systems that support complex forms of disorder within the nanosheets themselves.We report the atomic-scale structure of a Zn2Al-borate layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheet, as determined by reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling of X-ray total scattering data. This study involves the extension of the RMC method to enable structural refinement of two-dimensional nanomaterials. The refined LDH models show the intra-layer geometry in this highly-exfoliated phase to be consistent with that observed in crystalline analogues, with the reciprocal-space scattering data suggesting a disordered arrangement of the Zn2+ and Al3+ cations within the nanosheet. The approach we develop is generalisable and so offers a method of characterising the structures of arbitrary nanosheet phases, including systems that support complex forms of disorder within the nanosheets themselves. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01265h

  12. An Aluminum Magnesium Hydroxide Stearate-based Skin Barrier Protection Cream Used for the Management of Eczematous Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhambri, Sanjay; Michaels, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Eczematous dermatoses can often be very difficult to treat. An aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream has recently become available for clinical use. Aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream provides an alternative option in treating these dermatoses while providing barrier protection against external allergens and irritants. This article reviews various studies evaluating aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream. PMID:21212843

  13. High Sodium Simulant Testing To Support SB8 Sludge Preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, J. D.

    2012-09-19

    Scoping studies were completed for high sodium simulant SRAT/SME cycles to determine any impact to CPC processing. Two SRAT/SME cycles were performed with simulant having sodium supernate concentration of 1.9M at 130% and 100% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Both of these failed to meet DWPF processing objectives related to nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Another set of SRAT/SME cycles were performed with simulant having a sodium supernate concentration of 1.6M at 130%, 125%, 110%, and 100% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Only the run at 110% met DWPF processing objectives. Neither simulant had a stoichiometric factor window of 30% between nitrite destruction and excessive hydrogen generation. Based on the 2M-110 results it was anticipated that the 2.5M stoichiometric window for processing would likely be smaller than from 110-130%, since it appeared that it would be necessary to increase the KMA factor by at least 10% above the minimum calculated requirement to achieve nitrite destruction due to the high oxalate content. The 2.5M-130 run exceeded the DWPF hydrogen limits in both the SRAT and SME cycle. Therefore, testing of this wash endpoint was halted. This wash endpoint with this minimum acid requirement and mercury-noble metal concentration profile appears to be something DWPF should not process due to an overly narrow window of stoichiometry. The 2M case was potentially processable in DWPF, but modifications would likely be needed in DWPF such as occasionally accepting SRAT batches with undestroyed nitrite for further acid addition and reprocessing, running near the bottom of the as yet ill-defined window of allowable stoichiometric factors, potentially extending the SRAT cycle to burn off unreacted formic acid before transferring to the SME cycle, and eliminating formic acid additions in the frit slurry.

  14. Cold Trap Dismantling and Sodium Removal at a Fast Breeder Reactor - 12327

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, A.; Petrick, H.; Stutz, U.; Hosking, P.

    2012-07-01

    The first German prototype Fast Breeder Nuclear Reactor (KNK) is currently being dismantled after being the only operating Fast Breeder-type reactor in Germany. As this reactor type used sodium as a coolant in its primary and secondary circuit, seven cold traps containing various amounts of partially activated sodium needed to be disposed of as part of the dismantling. The resulting combined difficulties of radioactive contamination and high chemical reactivity were handled by treating the cold traps differently depending on their size and the amount of sodium contained inside. Six small cold traps were processed onsite by cutting them up into small parts using a band saw under a protective atmosphere. The sodium was then converted to sodium hydroxide by using water. The remaining large cold trap could not be handled in the same way due to its dimensions (2.9 m x 1.1 m) and the declared amount of sodium inside (1,700 kg). It was therefore manually dismantled inside a large box filled with a protective atmosphere, while the resulting pieces were packaged for later burning in a special facility. The experiences gained by KNK during this process may be advantageous for future dismantling projects in similar sodium-cooled reactors worldwide. The dismantling of a prototype fast breeder reactor provides the challenge not only to dismantle radioactive materials but also to handle sodium-contaminated or sodium-containing components. The treatment of sodium requires additional equipment and installations to ensure a safe handling. Since it is not permitted to bring sodium into a repository, all sodium has to be neutralized either through a controlled reaction with water or by incinerating. The resulting components can be disposed of as normal radioactive waste with no further conditions. The handling of sodium needs skilled and experienced workers to minimize the inherent risks. And the example of the disposal of the large KNK cold trap shows the interaction with others and

  15. Retail display evaluation of steaks from select beef strip loins injected with a brine containing 1% ammonium hydroxide. Part 1: Fluid loss, oxidation, color, and microbial plate counts.

    PubMed

    Parsons, A N; VanOverbeke, D L; Goad, C L; Mireles Dewitt, C A

    2011-01-01

    Select beef loin pairs (n = 10) were injected (10% pump) with brine containing either 4.5% sodium-based phosphates, (CON), or 1% ammonium hydroxide treatment (AHT). Both brines also contained 3.6% NaCl and 1% Rosemary Herbalox. Steaks cut from loins were high oxygen (80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) modified atmosphere packaged, stored 4 d at 4 °C in the dark to simulate transportation, and then placed in retail display for 14 d (4 °C). On day 0, 7, and 14 of retail display steak properties were measured. Purge from AHT steaks was higher than CON (P < 0.05). Panelists were not able to visually discriminate between AHT and CON steaks through the first 6 d of retail display. After day 6, panelists rated AHT steaks higher for muscle color, percent discoloration, and overall color. Steaks from both treatments started at day 0 retail display with similar total plate counts (P > 0.05). Microbial counts increased more rapidly for AHT steaks than CON steaks (P < 0.05). AHT and CON steaks were not different in terms of lipid oxidation through day 7 retail display. By day 14 retail display CON steaks were above the threshold for consumer perception of oxidized flavors in fresh meat. However, results also indicated the AHT and CON steaks were no longer acceptable by day 14 in terms of color, were questionable in terms of microbial load, and likely were beyond their reasonable shelf life. Based on retail display properties, results indicated 1% AHT could successfully replace 4.5% SP in a meat injection brine. Practical Application: The research in this report compares steaks that have been injected with a commercial brine formulated with SP to steaks that have been injected with a brine, where the SP in the formulation are replaced with 1% AHT. Ammonium hydroxide is an USDA-FSIS approved ingredient in brines injected into fresh meats. Successful replacement of sodium phosphate with ammonium hydroxide would allow processors to significantly reduce the sodium content of injected fresh meat.

  16. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium

    PubMed Central

    Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  17. Astronomy and Sodium Lighting,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    o-... 0 -23- rincreased Oxygen Atoms , Soodum Oxygen Atoms Peckg trom LPS Ligh t Level Limit Motel Br-ue Green...Yellow Orcrge Red Fig. 5 - San Jose 1979 with bPS street lights New Sodium Peaks frome Oxyge.n Atom’s HPS Oxygen Atoms Full Growth Light Level- 1990...Light LevelI 1979 Light Level I L Light Level - 0 Lmt Broad Specr ,,m Excess Li;hl SVoel Blue Gpen Yelloo Oro-’e Red Fig. 6 -- Sarn Jose with 11PS street

  18. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. ASSOCIATION OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE AND METRONIDAZOLE IN THE TREATMENT OF DOG'S TEETH WITH CHRONIC PERIAPICAL LESION

    PubMed Central

    Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Souza, Valdir; Holland, Roberto; Dezan, Eloi

    2006-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of endodontic treatment of teeth with pulp necrosis is the elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system, as effectively as possible, especially in cases with chronic periapical lesions. AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the response of the periapical tissue of dogs' teeth with chronic periapical lesions to endodontic treatment performed with utilization of metronidazole, calcium hydroxide, and an association of both as root canal dressings. METHODOLOGY: Forty root canals were submitted to pulpectomy and the root canals were kept exposed to the oral environment for 6 months. Then, they were submitted to biomechanical preparation and divided into 4 study groups with 10 specimens: group I – no root canal dressing; group II – calcium hydroxide; group III – metronidazole; group IV – calcium hydroxide associated to metronidazole. After 15 days, the root canals were filled with Fill Canal sealer. After 90 days, the animals were killed and the especimens processed for histological analysis. RESULTS: Calcium hydroxide dressing provided a significantly better outcome compared to other experimental groups (α = 0.01). Also, the results of the association of metronidazole and calcium hydroxide were similar to those observed for the metronidazole group. The worst results were obtained by the no root canal dressing group. CONCLUSION: The use of metronidazole alone or associated with Calcium hydroxide, did not improve periapical healing when compared to Calcium hydroxide dressing. PMID:19089054

  20. Sodium channel auxiliary subunits.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Tsai-Tien; McMahon, Allison M; Johnson, Victoria T; Mangubat, Erwin Z; Zahm, Robert J; Pacold, Mary E; Jakobsson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are well known for their functional roles in excitable tissues. Excitable tissues rely on voltage-gated ion channels and their auxiliary subunits to achieve concerted electrical activity in living cells. Auxiliary subunits are also known to provide functional diversity towards the transport and biogenesis properties of the principal subunits. Recent interests in pharmacological properties of these auxiliary subunits have prompted significant amounts of efforts in understanding their physiological roles. Some auxiliary subunits can potentially serve as drug targets for novel analgesics. Three families of sodium channel auxiliary subunits are described here: beta1 and beta3, beta2 and beta4, and temperature-induced paralytic E (TipE). While sodium channel beta-subunits are encoded in many animal genomes, TipE has only been found exclusively in insects. In this review, we present phylogenetic analyses, discuss potential evolutionary origins and functional data available for each of these subunits. For each family, we also correlate the functional specificity with the history of evolution for the individual auxiliary subunits.

  1. High conversion of sugarcane bagasse into monosaccharides based on sodium hydroxide pretreatment at low water consumption and wastewater generation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Wang, Qiong; Tan, Xuesong; Qi, Wei; Yu, Qiang; Zhou, Guixiong; Zhuang, Xinshu; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-10-01

    The generation of a great quantity of black liquor (BL) and waste wash water (WWW) has been key problems of the alkaline pretreatment. This work tried to build a sustainable way to recycle the BL for pretreating sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and the WWW for washing the residual solid (RS) of alkali-treated SCB which would be subsequently hydrolysed and fermented. The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of the washed RS decreased with the recycling times of BL and WWW increasing. Tween80 at the loading of 0.25% (V/V) could notably improve the enzymatic hydrolysis and had no negative impact on the downstream fermentation. Compared with the non-recycling and BL recycling ways based on alkaline pretreatment, the BL-WWW recycling way could not only maintain high conversion of carbohydrate into monosaccharides and save alkali amount of 45.5%, but also save more than 80% water and generate less than 15% waste water.

  2. Comparison of bamboo green, timber and yellow in sulfite, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide pretreatments for enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Zehui; Fei, Benhua; Cai, Zhiyong; Pan, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    The response and behavior of bamboo green, timber, and yellow of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) to three pretreatments, sulfite (SPORL), dilute acid (DA), and alkali (NaOH), were investigated and compared with varied chemical loadings at 180°C for 30 min with a 6.25:1 (v/w) liquor-to-bamboo ratio. All the pretreatments improved the enzymatic digestibility of bamboo substrates. Under the investigated conditions, the DA pretreatment achieved better enzymatic digestibility, but had lower sugar recovery yield, and formed more fermentation inhibitors. The results suggested that the SPORL pretreatment be able to generate more readily digestible bamboo substrate with higher sugar yield and fewer fermentation inhibitors than the corresponding DA pretreatment if hemicelluloses are sufficiently removed by adding more acid to bring down the pretreatment pH. Bamboo timber had higher sugar content and better enzymatic digestibility and therefore was a better feedstock for bioconversion than bamboo green and yellow.

  3. Development of a phase-change thermal storage system using modified anhydrous sodium hydroxide for solar electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. M.; Rice, R. E.; Rowny, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    A thermal storage system for use in solar power electricity generation was investigated analytically and experimentally. The thermal storage medium is principally anhydrous NaOH with 8% NaNO3 and 0.2% MnO2. Heat is charged into storage at 584 K and discharged from storage at 582 K by Therminol-66. Physical and thermophysical properties of the storage medium were measured. A mathematical simulation and computer program describing the operation of the system were developed. A 1/10 scale model of a system capable of storing and delivering 3.1 x 10 to the 6th power kJ of heat was designed, built, and tested. Tests included steady state charging, discharging, idling, and charge-discharge conditions simulating a solar daily cycle. Experimental data and computer-predicted results are correlated. A reference design including cost estimates of the full-size system was developed.

  4. Structure of aqueous solutions of microcrystalline cellulose/sodium hydroxide below 0 degrees C and the limit of cellulose dissolution.

    PubMed

    Egal, Magali; Budtova, Tatiana; Navard, Patrick

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the structure of solutions of microcrystalline cellulose in NaOH/water mixtures and to determine the limit of cellulose solubility. The binary NaOH/water and the ternary cellulose/NaOH/water phase diagrams in the area of cellulose dissolution (7-10% NaOH below 0 degrees C) are studied by DSC. The NaOH/water binary phase diagram has a simple eutectic behavior. Because of the existence of this eutectic structure, it is possible to measure the influence of the addition of pure low molar mass microcrystalline cellulose. This shows that a minimum of four NaOH molecules should be linked to one anhydroglucose unit to allow for the dissolution of microcrystalline cellulose. The proportions between bound Avicel, NaOH, and water molecules as a function of cellulose concentrations are calculated. A tentative explanation about the origin of the dissolving power of NaOH/water is given.

  5. Efficient production of bioethanol from corn stover by pretreatment with a combination of sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Nishimura, Hiroto; Takei, Shouta; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Corn stover is the most abundant agricultural residue in China and a valuable reservoir for bioethanol production. In this study, we proposed a process for producing bioethanol from corn stover; the pretreatment prior to presaccharification, followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by using a flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, was optimized. Pretreatment with acid-alkali combination (1% H2SO4, 150 °C, 10 min, followed by 1% NaOH, 80°C, 60 min) resulted in efficient lignin removal and excellent recovery of xylose and glucose. A glucose recovery efficiency of 92.3% was obtained by enzymatic saccharification, when the pretreated solid load was 15%. SSF was carried out at 35 °C for 36 hr after presaccharification at 50 °C for 24 hr, and an ethanol yield of 88.2% was achieved at a solid load of 15% and an enzyme dosage of 15 FPU/g pretreated corn stover.

  6. TECHNOLOGY MATURATION PLAN FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

    2011-01-27

    This Technology Maturation Plan schedules the development process that will bring the Lithium Hydrotalcite waste pretreatment process from its current estimated Technology Readiness Level of 3, to a level of 6. This maturation approach involves chemical and engineering research and development work, from laboratory scale to pilot scale testing, to incrementally make the process progress towards its integration in a fully qualified industrial system.

  7. Dynamic control of gold nanoparticle morphology in a microchannel flow reactor by glucose reduction in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution.

    PubMed

    Ishizaka, Takayuki; Ishigaki, Atsushi; Kawanami, Hajime; Suzuki, Akira; Suzuki, Toshishige M

    2012-02-01

    Continuous flow synthesis of gold nanoparticles was demonstrated using a microchannel reactor with glucose reduction in aqueous alkaline medium. Particle size, morphology, and visual/optical properties of the dispersion liquid were controlled dynamically by tuning of the rate of NaOH addition. Characteristic star-like nanoparticles formed spontaneously as a quasi-stable state, but they changed the morphology to round shape and showed spectral change over time.

  8. Ion-Selective Deposition of Manganese Sulphate Solution from Trenggalek Manganese Ore by Active Carbon and Sodium Hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriyah, L.; Sulistiyono, E.

    2017-02-01

    One of the step in manganese dioxide manufacturing process for battery industry is a purification process of lithium manganese sulphate solution. The elimination of impurities such as iron removal is important in hydrometallurgical processes. Therefore, this paper present the purification results of manganese sulphate solution by removing impurities using a selective deposition method, namely activated carbon adsorption and NaOH. The experimental results showed that the optimum condition of adsorption process occurs on the addition of 5 g adsorbent and the addition of 10 ml NaOH 1 N, processing time of 30 minutes and the best is the activated carbon adsorption of Japan. Because the absolute requirement of the cathode material of lithium ion manganese are free of titanium then of local wood charcoal is good enough in terms of eliminating ions Ti is equal to 70.88%.

  9. Using Riverine Natural Organic Matter to Test the Hypothesis that Soil Organic Matter is Modified by Contact with Sodium Hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdue, E. Michael; Driver, Shamus; Hertkorn, Norbert; Harir, Mourad; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    It has been postulated by some scientists that soil humic acids and fulvic acids are an artifact of alkaline extractions of soil. Riverine natural organic matter (NOM) is obtained in part by dissolution and transport of organic matter from soils by meteoric waters at acidic to circumneutral pH. The NOM may be fractionated into humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and hydrophilic NOM by adsorption of HA and FA onto XAD-8 resin at pH < 2, followed by their desorption with NaOH at pH 13. Alternatively, riverine NOM may be concentrated using reverse osmosis (RO) and desalted by cation exchange. Several properties of Suwannee River NOM prior to its isolation, after concentration by RO, and after the XAD-8 process are compared to detect modifications that might have resulted from exposure of the sample to low and high pH.

  10. HEAT OF DILUTION CALCULATION FOR 19 MOLAR SODIUM HYDROXIDE WITH WATER FOR USE IN 241-S-112

    SciTech Connect

    BARTON, W.B.

    2007-02-20

    High concentration caustic solutions are known to cause stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel at elevated temperature. This calculation establishes the conditions where heat of dilution will not cause the solution temperature--concentration to exceed the boundary for stress corrosion cracking as established by NACE International.

  11. Sodium hydroxide as pretreatment and fluorosurfactant-capped gold nanoparticles as sensor for the highly selective detection of cysteine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Pin; Huang, Chia-Chi; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2008-07-15

    A sensor for detecting cysteine (Cys) in a solution of fluorosurfactant (FSN)-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been developed. Under acidic conditions, FSN-capped AuNPs are aggregated in the presence of homocysteine (HCys) and Cys but not in the presence of cysteinylglycine, glutathione, and gamma-glutamycysteine. When adding NaOH to a solution of HCys, the five-membered ring transition state is formed through intramolecular hydrogen abstraction. By contrast, it is difficult for Cys to form a four-membered ring transition state after Cys has been pretreated with NaOH. As a result, the HCys-induced aggregation of the FSN-capped AuNPs is suppressed because the five-membered ring transition state exhibits relatively larger steric hindrance and has stronger interaction with the FSN molecules. Thus, we can discriminate between Cys and HCys on the basis of different aggregation kinetics. Under the optimum condition, the selectivity of the probe for Cys in aqueous solutions is remarkably high over the other aminthiols. Note that HCys and Cys have very similar structure and pK(a) value. We have validated the applicability of our method through the analyses of Cys in urine samples. It is believed that this approach has great potential for the detection of Cys in biological samples.

  12. Sorption of phosphate and Cr(VI) by Fe(III) and Cr(III) hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Tzou, Y M; Wang, M K; Loeppert, R H

    2003-05-01

    Understanding the chemical behavior and interactions of Cr(VI) ( e.g., HCrO(4)(-)) and other anions, such as orthophosphate (P) with insoluble metal hydroxides ( i.e., Cr[III] and Fe[III]) in disposal landfills or in chromite ore processing residue (CORP)-enriched soil is very important in predicting the movement and the fate of Cr(VI). This study evaluates the sorption behavior of P and Cr(VI) by Fe(III) ( i.e., ferrihydrite), Cr(III) ( i.e., Cr[OH](3)), and coprecipitated Fe(III)/Cr(III) hydroxides. These metal hydroxide sorbents were synthesized, and sorption of P and Cr(VI) were conducted at different pH using a batch technology. Our results show that P and Cr(VI) sorption by metal hydroxides decreased with increasing suspension pH. Greater decrease in P sorption was observed when Cr(III) was present in the structures of hydroxides. Following the sorption of low concentration of P ( i.e., 0.5 mM), the sorption of subsequently added Cr(VI) by hydroxides was less influenced. However, Cr(VI) sorption was greatly inhibited when high concentration of P ( i.e., 10 mM) prereacted with hydroxides, particularly in Fe(III) hydroxide system. Results also indicated that high concentration of Cr(VI) (10 mM) could dissolve Cr(III) hydroxide at pH 3 and reprecipitate as an amorphous form of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) compound at pH about 6.5. Although coprecipitation of Cr(VI) with Cr(III) can inhibit Cr(VI) movement through soil profiles, the inhibition seems to be low due to the gradual release of Cr(VI) with increasing pH.

  13. Synthesis of uniform rare earth fluoride (NaMF4) nanotubes by in situ ion exchange from their hydroxide [M(OH)3] parents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2009-01-27

    In this article, we demonstrate the production of uniform hexagonal sodium rare earth fluoride (beta-NaMF(4)) nanotubes through a hydrothermal in situ ion-exchange reaction by using rare earth hydroxides [M(OH)(3)] as a parent. The trivalent rare earth hydroxides were hydrothermally prepared at 120 degrees C and possessed a quasi-layered structure, which could be formed to be nanotubal morphology through a rolling up process from 2-D sheets. Moreover, the hexagonal structure of rare earth hydroxides [M(OH)(3)] displays a noticeable similarity with beta-NaMF(4). This similarity makes the formation of beta-NaMF(4) with nonlayered structure possible through in situ chemical transformation from M(OH)(3) with a layered structure. The single-crystal beta-NaMF(4) nanotubes were synthesized with well-controlled diameter (80-500 nm), aspect ratio (6-30), wall thickness (25-80 nm), and contents (such as M = Pr, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, as well as lanthanide-doped rare earth NaMF(4)). The multicolor upconversion fluorescence has also been successfully realized in the Yb(3+)/Er(3+) (green) and Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) (blue) co-doped beta-NaMF(4) nanotubes by UC excitation in the NIR region. The various UC emission ratios of the samples were investigated as a function of hydrothermal reaction time to research the UC properties of the products and to further demonstrate the hydrothermal in situ ion-exchange process.

  14. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  15. GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF SODIUM DICHLOROACETATE AND SODIUM TRICHLOROACETATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genotoxic properties of sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) and sodium trichloroacetate (TCA)were evaluated in several short-term in vitro and in vivo assays. Neither compound was mutagenic in tester strain TA102 in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Both DCA and TCA were weak induc...

  16. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Current coal mining and processing procedures produce a significant quanity of fine coal that is difficult to handle and transport. The objective of this work is to determine if these fines can be economically pelletized with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur capturing sorbent, to produce a clean-burning fuel for fluidized-bed combustors or stoker boilers. To harden these pellets, carbonation, which is the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide to produce a cementitious matrix of calcium carbonate, is being investigated. Previous research indicated that carbonation significantly improved compressive strength, impact and attrition resistance and weatherproofed'' pellets formed with sufficient calcium hydroxide (5 to 10% for minus 28 mesh coal fines).

  17. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM BY REPEATED PRECIPITATION WITH AMPHOTERIC HYDROXIDE CARRIERS

    DOEpatents

    Faris, B.F.

    1960-04-01

    A multiple carrier precipitation method is described for separating and recovering plutonium from an aqueous solution. The hydroxide of an amphoteric metal is precipitated in an aqueous plutonium-containing solution. This precipitate, which carries plutonium, is then separated from the supernatant liquid and dissolved in an aqueous hydroxide solution, forming a second plutonium- containing solution. lons of an amphoteric metal which forms an insoluble hydroxide under the conditions existing in this second solution are added to the second solution. The precipitate which forms and which carries plutonium is separated from the supernatant liquid. Amphoteric metals which may be employed are aluminum, bibmuth, copper, cobalt, iron, lanthanum, nickel, and zirconium.

  18. Reactive transport modeling at uranium in situ recovery sites: uncertainties in uranium sorption on iron hydroxides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Tutu, Hlanganani; Brown, Adrian; Figueroa, Linda; Wolkersdorfer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Geochemical changes that can occur down gradient from uranium in situ recovery (ISR) sites are important for various stakeholders to understand when evaluating potential effects on surrounding groundwater quality. If down gradient solid-phase material consists of sandstone with iron hydroxide coatings (no pyrite or organic carbon), sorption of uranium on iron hydroxides can control uranium mobility. Using one-dimensional reactive transport models with PHREEQC, two different geochemical databases, and various geochemical parameters, the uncertainties in uranium sorption on iron hydroxides are evaluated, because these oxidized zones create a greater risk for future uranium transport than fully reduced zones where uranium generally precipitates.

  19. Aqueous sodium borohydride induced thermally stable porous zirconium oxide for quick removal of lead ions

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nadiya B.; Nayak, Bibhuti B.

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is well known for its reducing property and well-established for the development of metal nanoparticles through reduction method. In contrary, this research paper discloses the importance of aqueous NaBH4 as a precipitating agent towards development of porous zirconium oxide. The boron species present in aqueous NaBH4 play an active role during gelation as well as phase separated out in the form of boron complex during precipitation, which helps to form boron free zirconium hydroxide [Zr(OH)4] in the as-synthesized condition. Evolved in-situ hydrogen (H2) gas-bubbles also play an important role to develop as-synthesized loose zirconium hydroxide and the presence of intra-particle voids in the loose zirconium hydroxide help to develop porous zirconium oxide during calcination process. Without any surface modification, this porous zirconium oxide quickly adsorbs almost hundred percentages of toxic lead ions from water solution within 15 minutes at normal pH condition. Adsorption kinetic models suggest that the adsorption process was surface reaction controlled chemisorption. Quick adsorption was governed by surface diffusion process and the adsorption kinetic was limited by pore diffusion. Five cycles of adsorption-desorption result suggests that the porous zirconium oxide can be reused efficiently for removal of Pb (II) ions from aqueous solution. PMID:26980545

  20. Aqueous sodium borohydride induced thermally stable porous zirconium oxide for quick removal of lead ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Nadiya B.; Nayak, Bibhuti B.

    2016-03-01

    Aqueous sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is well known for its reducing property and well-established for the development of metal nanoparticles through reduction method. In contrary, this research paper discloses the importance of aqueous NaBH4 as a precipitating agent towards development of porous zirconium oxide. The boron species present in aqueous NaBH4 play an active role during gelation as well as phase separated out in the form of boron complex during precipitation, which helps to form boron free zirconium hydroxide [Zr(OH)4] in the as-synthesized condition. Evolved in-situ hydrogen (H2) gas-bubbles also play an important role to develop as-synthesized loose zirconium hydroxide and the presence of intra-particle voids in the loose zirconium hydroxide help to develop porous zirconium oxide during calcination process. Without any surface modification, this porous zirconium oxide quickly adsorbs almost hundred percentages of toxic lead ions from water solution within 15 minutes at normal pH condition. Adsorption kinetic models suggest that the adsorption process was surface reaction controlled chemisorption. Quick adsorption was governed by surface diffusion process and the adsorption kinetic was limited by pore diffusion. Five cycles of adsorption-desorption result suggests that the porous zirconium oxide can be reused efficiently for removal of Pb (II) ions from aqueous solution.

  1. Evaluation of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate and zinc/nickel double hydroxide salts in the removal of chromate ions from solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Henrique Bortolaz; Wypych, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZnHN) and Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts were synthesized and used to remove chromate ions from solutions at pH 8.0. The materials were characterized by many instrumental techniques before and after chromate ion removal. ZnHN decomposed after contact with the chromate solution, whereas the layered structure of Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate (Zn/NiHN) and Zn/Ni hydroxide acetate (Zn/NiHA) remained their layers intact after the topotactic anionic exchange reaction, only changing the basal distances. ZnHN, Zn/NiHN, and Zn/NiHA removed 210.1, 144.8, and 170.1 mg of CrO42-/g of material, respectively. Although the removal values obtained for Zn/NiHN and Zn/NiHA were smaller than the values predicted for the ideal formulas of the solids (194.3 and 192.4 mg of CrO42-/g of material, respectively), the measured capacities were higher than the values achieved with many materials reported in the literature. Kinetic experiments showed the removal reaction was fast. To facilitate the solid/liquid separation process after chromium removal, Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts with magnetic supports were also synthesized, and their ability to remove chromate was evaluated.

  2. Bacterial sodium channels: models for eukaryotic sodium and calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Scheuer, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic sodium and calcium channels are made up of four linked homologous but different transmembrane domains. Bacteria express sodium channels comprised of four identical subunits, each being analogous to a single homologous domain of their eukaryotic counterparts. Key elements of primary structure are conserved between bacterial and eukaryotic sodium and calcium channels. The simple protein structure of the bacterial channels has allowed extensive structure-function probes of key regions as well as allowing determination of several X-ray crystallographic structures of these channels. The structures have revealed novel features of sodium and calcium channel pores and elucidated the structural importance of many of the conserved features of primary sequence. The structural information has also formed the basis for computational studies probing the basis for sodium and calcium selectivity and gating.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate,...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food... GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate is prepared by...

  7. Stability of aztreonam and ampicillin sodium-sulbactam sodium in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

    PubMed

    Belliveau, P P; Nightingale, C H; Quintiliani, R

    1994-04-01

    The stability of aztreonam, ampicillin sodium, and sulbactam sodium admixed in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at room temperature and under refrigeration was studied. Each of the following admixtures was prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride injection: (1) aztreonam 10 mg/mL; (2) ampicillin 20 mg/mL (as the sodium salt) and sulbactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salt); and (3) aztreonam 10 mg/mL, ampicillin 20 mg/mL, and sulbactam 10 mg/mL. Three minibags of each admixture were stored at room temperature and three were refrigerated. Every 12 hours, up to 96 hours, the admixtures were visually inspected and 5-mL samples were withdrawn for high-performance liquid chromatography and pH testing. No color change or precipitation was observed in any sample. In admixtures containing ampicillin, ampicillin was the first or only drug to lose more than 10% of initial concentration. In the ampicillin-sulbactam admixture, ampicillin was stable for 32 hours at room temperature and 68 hours refrigerated. In the aztreonam-ampicillin-sulbactam admixture, ampicillin was stable for 30 hours at room temperature and 94 hours refrigerated. Aztreonam 10 mg/mL, ampicillin 20 mg/mL (as the sodium salt), and sulbactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salt) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable in combination for up to 30 hours at room temperature and 94 hours under refrigeration.

  8. Sodium fluoroacetate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Alex T; Bradberry, Sally M; Vale, J Allister

    2006-01-01

    Sodium fluoroacetate was introduced as a rodenticide in the US in 1946. However, its considerable efficacy against target species is offset by comparable toxicity to other mammals and, to a lesser extent, birds and its use as a general rodenticide was therefore severely curtailed by 1990. Currently, sodium fluoroacetate is licensed in the US for use against coyotes, which prey on sheep and goats, and in Australia and New Zealand to kill unwanted introduced species. The extreme toxicity of fluoroacetate to mammals and insects stems from its similarity to acetate, which has a pivotal role in cellular metabolism. Fluoroacetate combines with coenzyme A (CoA-SH) to form fluoroacetyl CoA, which can substitute for acetyl CoA in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and reacts with citrate synthase to produce fluorocitrate, a metabolite of which then binds very tightly to aconitase, thereby halting the cycle. Many of the features of fluoroacetate poisoning are, therefore, largely direct and indirect consequences of impaired oxidative metabolism. Energy production is reduced and intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle subsequent to citrate are depleted. Among these is oxoglutarate, a precursor of glutamate, which is not only an excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS but is also required for efficient removal of ammonia via the urea cycle. Increased ammonia concentrations may contribute to the incidence of seizures. Glutamate is also required for glutamine synthesis and glutamine depletion has been observed in the brain of fluoroacetate-poisoned rodents. Reduced cellular oxidative metabolism contributes to a lactic acidosis. Inability to oxidise fatty acids via the tricarboxylic acid cycle leads to ketone body accumulation and worsening acidosis. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion results in inhibition of high energy-consuming reactions such as gluconeogenesis. Fluoroacetate poisoning is associated with citrate accumulation in several tissues, including the brain. Fluoride

  9. Water soluble sodium sulfate nanorods as a versatile template for the designing of copper sulfide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Das, Gautam; Kakati, Nitul; Lee, Seok Hee; Karak, Niranjan; Yoon, Young Soo

    2014-06-01

    The present study reports the use of water soluble sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) nanorods as a versatile template for generation of tubular copper sulfide (CuS) nanostructures. The Na2SO4 nanorods were synthesized from ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), under refluxing condition. The shape and morphology control of the Na2SO4 nanorods were studied with respect to nature of surfactant used and reactant mole ratio. While, PVP mole ratio was important to obtain homogeneous nanorods. Uniform and stable nanotubes of CuS were than obtained by the dissolution of the nanorods in water. The use of simple chemicals for synthesis of such nanotube templates opens the prospect for wide scale downstream applications.

  10. Cellulose derivatives modified by sodium tellurate and a chromium(III) tellurate complex.

    PubMed

    Butler, Ian S; El-Sherbeny, Heba Allah M; Kenawy, Ibrahim; Mostafa, Sahar I

    2016-07-01

    A novel cellulose (Cell) derivative, sodium-tellurato (Cell-TeO(OH)4(ONa)/Cell-Cl), has been synthesized from the reaction of 6-chloro-6-deoxycellulose (Cell-Cl) with telluric acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The subsequent reaction of this polymeric material with chromium(III) in aqueous solution yields the [Cr(Cell-TeO3(OH)3/Cell-Cl)(Cell-TeO2(OH)4/Cell-Cl)(H2O)3] complex. The molecular structures and morphology of the new polymer and the Cr(III) complex have been examined using elemental analysis, solid-state (13)C NMR, UV-vis, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy, and SEM-EDX, TGA and magnetic measurements. The results are considered to be consistent with the formulations proposed. The deprotonation constants of the modified cellulose and the stability constant of the Cr(III) complex have been determined by pH-metric measurements.

  11. Morphology-controlled nonaqueous synthesis of anisotropic lanthanum hydroxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Djerdj, Igor; Garnweitner, Georg; Sheng Su, Dang; Niederberger, Markus

    2007-07-15

    The preparation of lanthanum hydroxide and manganese oxide nanoparticles is presented, based on a nonaqueous sol-gel process involving the reaction of La(OiPr){sub 3} and KMnO{sub 4} with organic solvents such as benzyl alcohol, 2-butanone and a 1:1 vol. mixture thereof. The lanthanum manganese oxide system is highly complex and surprising results with respect to product composition and morphology were obtained. In dependence of the reaction parameters, the La(OH){sub 3} nanoparticles undergo a shape transformation from short nanorods with an average aspect ratio of 2.1 to micron-sized nanofibers (average aspect ratio is more than 59.5). Although not directly involved, KMnO{sub 4} plays a crucial role in determining the particle morphology of La(OH){sub 3}. The reason lies in the fact that KMnO{sub 4} is able to oxidize the benzyl alcohol to benzoic acid, which presumably induces the anisotropic particle growth in [0 0 1] direction upon preferential coordination to the {+-}(1 0 0), {+-}(0 1 0) and {+-}(-110) crystal facets. By adjusting the molar La(OiPr){sub 3}-to-KMnO{sub 4} ratio as well as by using the appropriate solvent mixture it is possible to tailor the morphology, phase purity and microstructure of the La(OH){sub 3} nanoparticles. Postsynthetic thermal treatment of the sample containing La(OH){sub 3} nanofibers and {beta}-MnOOH nanoparticles at the temperature of 800 deg. C for 8 h yielded polyhedral LaMnO{sub 3} and worm-like La{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles as final products. - Graphical abstract: Lanthanum hydroxide nanoparticles are synthesized based on a nonaqueous sol-gel process involving the reaction of La(OiPr){sub 3} and KMnO{sub 4} with organic solvents such as benzyl alcohol, 2-butanone and a 1:1 vol. mixture thereof. In dependence of the reaction parameters, the La(OH){sub 3} nanoparticles undergo a shape transformation from short nanorods to micron-sized nanofibers.

  12. Sodium heat transfer system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. F.; Fewell, M. E.

    1983-11-01

    The sodium heat transfer system of the international energy agency (IEA) small solar power systems (SSPS) central receiver system (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator was modeled. The computer code SOLTES (simulator of large thermal energy systems), was used to model this system. The results from SOLTES are compared to measured data.

  13. The non-aqueous titrimetric assay of the selected anti-inflammatory agents using tetra-n-butylammonium hydroxide as titrant.

    PubMed

    Cakirer, O; Kiliç, E; Atakol, O; Kenar, A

    1999-06-01

    A potentiometric titration method in non-aqueous media is proposed for the determination of some commonly used anti-inflammatory agents. The direct potentiometric titration of three anti-inflammatory agents, namely mefenamic acid, fenbufen and ibuprofen; and the indirect potentiometric titration of diclofenac sodium was carried out in acetonitrile solvent using tetra-n-butylammonium hydroxide as titrant, at 25 degrees C and under a nitrogen atmosphere. The method was found to be highly accurate and precise, having a relative standard deviation of <1.0% for all anti-inflammatory agents studied. Also, it was shown that the method could be successfully applied to the assay of commercial pharmaceuticals containing the above-mentioned anti-inflammatory agents. The validity of the method was tested by the recovery studies of standard addition to pharmaceuticals and the results were found to be satisfactory. The proposed method is simple, rapid and sufficiently precise for quality control purposes.

  14. Synthesis and characterisation of a new stable organo-mineral hybrid nanomaterial: 4-Chlorobenzenesulfonate in the zinc-aluminium layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lakraimi, Mohamed; Legrouri, Ahmed . E-mail: legrouri@aui.ma; Barroug, Allal; De Roy, Andre; Besse, Jean Pierre

    2006-09-14

    4-Chlorobenzenesulfonate (4-CBS) was intercalated between layers of Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Two methods of incorporation were applied: (1) direct synthesis by coprecipitation of metal nitrates and sodium 4-CBS and (2) ion exchange of the LDH nitrate with the organic ion. The solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The direct method, effected at different pH values, led to a hybrid material with good degree of intercalation. In order to optimise the exchange conditions, particular attention was given to the effect of solution pH, 4-CBS/NO{sub 3} ratio and exchange temperature. The total exchange was successful and a new stable hybrid nanostructured material was obtained at pH 8 and with a 4-CBS concentration of 0.0028 M. This solid was further characterised by chemical and thermal analyses.

  15. Sodium-glucose cotransport

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Fenton, Robert A.; Rieg, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) are important mediators of glucose uptake across apical cell membranes. SGLT1 mediates almost all sodium-dependent glucose uptake in the small intestine, while in the kidney SGLT2, and to a lesser extent SGLT1, account for more than 90% and nearly 3%, respectively, of glucose reabsorption from the glomerular ultrafiltrate. Although the recent availability of SGLT2 inhibitors for the treatment of diabetes mellitus has increased the number of clinical studies, this review has a focus on mechanisms contributing to the cellular regulation of SGLTs. Recent findings Studies have focused on the regulation of SGLT expression under different physiological/pathophysiological conditions, for example diet, age or diabetes mellitus. Several studies provide evidence of SGLT regulation via cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A, protein kinase C, glucagon-like peptide 2, insulin, leptin, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), with-no-K[Lys] kinases/STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (Wnk/SPAK) and regulatory solute carrier protein 1 (RS1) pathways. Summary SGLT inhibitors are important drugs for glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Although the contribution of SGLT1 for absorption of glucose from the intestine as well as SGLT2/SGLT1 for renal glucose reabsorption has been comprehensively defined, this review provides an up-to-date outline for the mechanistic regulation of SGLT1/SGLT2. PMID:26125647

  16. METHOD FOR RECOVERING PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM SOLUTION USING A BISMUTH HYDROXIDE CARRIER PRECIPITATE

    DOEpatents

    Faris, B.F.

    1961-04-25

    Carrier precipitation processes for separating plutonium values from aqueous solutions are described. In accordance with the invention a bismuth hydroxide precipitate is formed in the plutonium-containing solution, thereby carrying plutonium values from the solution.

  17. Neutralization of Hydroxide Ion in Melt-Grown NaCl Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterson, Dumas A.

    1961-01-01

    Many recent studies of solid-state phenomena, particularly in the area of crystal imperfections, have involved the use of melt-grown NaCl single crystals. Quite often trace impurities in these materials have had a prominent effect on these phenomena. Trace amounts of hydroxide ion have been found in melt-grown NaCl crystals. This paper describes a nondestructive method of neutralizing the hydroxide ion in such crystals. Crystals of similar hydroxide content are maintained at an elevated temperature below the melting point of NaCl in a flowing atmosphere containing. dry hydrogen chloride. Heat treatment is continued until an analysis of the test specimens shows no excess hydroxide ion. A colorimetric method previously described4 is used for this analysis.

  18. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Galperin, Michael Y; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2008-01-01

    Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts) and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles) ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section. PMID:18380897

  19. Waste metal hydroxide sludge as adsorbent for a reactive dye.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Vílar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-05-30

    An industrial waste sludge mainly composed by metal hydroxides was used as a low-cost adsorbent for removing a reactive textile dye (Remazol Brilliant Blue) in solution. Characterization of this waste material included chemical composition, pH(ZPC) determination, particle size distribution, physical textural properties and metals mobility under different pH conditions. Dye adsorption equilibrium isotherms were determined at 25 and 35 degrees C and pH of 4, 7 and 10 revealing reasonably fits to Langmuir and Freundlich models. At 25 degrees C and pH 7, Langmuir fit indicates a maximum adsorption capacity of 91.0mg/g. An adsorptive ion-exchange mechanism was identified from desorption studies. Batch kinetic experiments were also conducted at different initial dye concentration, temperature, adsorbent dosage and pH. A pseudo-second-order model showed good agreement with experimental data. LDF approximation model was used to estimate homogeneous solid diffusion coefficients and the effective pore diffusivities. Additionally, a simulated real effluent containing the selected dye, salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals, was also used in equilibrium and kinetic experiments and the adsorption performance was compared with aqueous dye solutions.

  20. Mixed metal hydroxide mud improves drilling in unstable shales

    SciTech Connect

    Sparling, D.P. ); Williamson, D. )

    1991-06-10

    A mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) mud reduced some of the hole problems common to offset wells in the Arkoma basin. By specially engineering the MMH rheology, cuttings removal efficiency increased, and well bore problems were minimized. Wells drilled in the Arkoma basin frequently have experienced problems associated with hole instability: excessive reaming, stuck pipe, packing off, and difficulty in obtaining open hole logs. These problems often occur in the massive shale intervals of Atokan age. The causes of such problems are generally thought to be related to the dissolution of the reactive shales and clays in the Atoka interval, particularly along microfractures created by the tectonic stresses associated with overthrust environment. There exist insufficient data regarding the borehole stress states, primarily the minimum and maximum horizontal stresses. It is also possible that shear failure at the borehole wall is a result of the stress imbalances. In this area, wells are frequently air-drilled to 5,000-8,000 ft, resulting in significant borehole enlargement, which compounds the problems. Operators typically approach the problem in two ways. Oil muds are used worldwide to reduce the trouble time associated with shales. They have been particularly successful in the Arkoma basin for over 25 years.

  1. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    PubMed

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp.

  2. Toxicity of Calcium Hydroxide Nanoparticles on Murine Fibroblast Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Dianat, Omid; Azadnia, Sina; Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the major contributing factors, which may cause failure of endodontic treatment, is the presence of residual microorganisms in the root canal system. For years, most dentists have been using calcium hydroxide (CH) as the intracanal medicament between treatment sessions to eliminate remnant microorganisms. Reducing the size of CH particles into nanoparticles enhances the penetration of this medicament into dentinal tubules and increases their antimicrobial efficacy. This in vitro study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles and conventional CH on fibroblast cell line using the Mosmann’s Tetrazolium Toxicity (MTT) assay. Methods and Materials: This study was conducted on L929 murine fibroblast cell line by cell culture and evaluation of the direct effect of materials on the cultured cells. Materials were evaluated in two groups of 10 samples each at 24, 48 and 72 h. At each time point, 10 samples along with 5 positive and 5 negative controls were evaluated. The samples were transferred into tubes and exposed to fibroblast cells. The viability of cells was then evaluated. The Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Cytotoxicity of both materials decreased over time and for conventional CH was lower than that of nanoparticles. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles was similar to that of conventional CH. PMID:25598810

  3. Lack of teratogenicity of aluminum hydroxide in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo, J.S.; Mercedes Gomez, M.A.B.; Corbella, J.

    1989-01-01

    The embryotoxic and teratogenic potential of aluminum hydroxide, a therapeutic drug used as an antacid and phosphate binder, was investigated in Swiss mice. Mated female mice were given by gavage daily doses of 0, 66.5, 133 or 266 mg/kg of A1(OH)/sub 3/ on gestation days 6 through 15 and killed on gestation day 18. Females were evaluated for body weight gain, food consumption appearance and behavior, survival rates, and reproduction data. No significant effects attributable to A1(OH)/sub 3/ were noted in comparisons of maternal body weight and food consumption values, appearance and behavior. No treatment-related changes were recorded in the number of total implants, resorptions, the number of live and dead fetuses, fetal size parameters or fetal sex distribution data. Gross external, soft tissue and skeletal examination of the A1-treated fetuses did not reveal differences at any dose in comparison with the controls. Thus, no evidence of maternal toxicity, embryo/fetal toxicity or teratogenicity was observed with A1(OH)/sub 3/ in mice.

  4. Surface modification of magnesium hydroxide using vinyltriethoxysilane by dry process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Shengjie; Li, Lijuan; Xu, Defang; Zhu, Donghai; Liu, Zhiqi; Nie, Feng

    2016-09-01

    In order to improve the compatibility between magnesium hydroxide (MH) and polymer matrix, the surface of MH was modified using vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) by dry process and the interfacial interaction between MH and VTES was also studied. Zeta potential measurements implied that the MH particles had better dispersion and less aggregation after modification. Sedimentation tests showed that the surface of MH was transformed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, and the dispersibility and the compatibility of MH particles significantly improved in the organic phase. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that a thin layer had formed on the surface of the modified MH, but did not alter the material's crystalline phase. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the VTES molecules bound strongly to the surface of MH after modification. Chemical bonds (Sisbnd Osbnd Mg) formed by the reaction between Si-OC2H5 and hydroxyl group of MH, also there have physical adsorption effect in the interface simultaneously. A modification mechanism of VTES on the MH surface by dry process was proposed, which different from the modification mechanism by wet process.

  5. Microwave Spectroscopy and Molecular Structure of Isonitrosyl Hydroxide (hoon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; Talipov, Marat R.; O'Connor, Gerard; Martinez, Oscar, Jr.; Khursan, Sergey L.; McCarthy, Michael C.

    2014-06-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important member of the atmospheric nitrogen cycle whose chemistry involves a variety of gas-phase, photochemical, and heterogeneous processes. Among its formation pathways in the atmosphere is the ternary association of hydroxyl (OH) with nitric oxide (NO), but the formation of the isonitrosyl hydroxide (HOON) isomer has largely been ignored owing to early theoretical studies that questioned its stability. Guided by new high-level ab initio calculations, we have detected the rotational spectrum of trans-HOON in an electrical discharge of a dilute mixture of NO and water vapor by a combination of Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and double resonance methods. No evidence for the cis isomer was found in any of our spectroscopic surveys between 15.4--17.0 GHz. A semi-experimental equilibrium structure for trans-HOON has been derived to high precision from isotopic substitution (DOON, H18OON, HO18ON, HOO15N) along with zero-point vibrational corrections calculated at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. Most notably, the central O--O bond in trans-HOON is found to be 1.9149 ± 0.0005 Å in length, which is the longest known O--O bond in a molecule (nearly 20% longer than the analogous bond in the HOOO radical).

  6. In vivo toxicity studies of europium hydroxide nanorods in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Patra, Chitta Ranjan Abdel Moneim, Soha S.; Wang, Enfeng; Dutta, Shamit; Patra, Sujata; Eshed, Michal; Mukherjee, Priyabrata; Gedanken, Aharon; Shah, Vijay H.; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-10-01

    Lanthanide nanoparticles and nanorods have been widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in biomedical nanotechnology due to their fluorescence and pro-angiogenic properties to endothelial cells, respectively. Recently, we have demonstrated that europium (III) hydroxide [Eu{sup III}(OH){sub 3}] nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique and characterized by several physico-chemical techniques, can be used as pro-angiogenic agents which introduce future therapeutic treatment strategies for severe ischemic heart/limb disease, and peripheral ischemic disease. The toxicity of these inorganic nanorods to endothelial cells was supported by several in vitro assays. To determine the in vivo toxicity, these nanorods were administered to mice through intraperitoneal injection (IP) everyday over a period of seven days in a dose dependent (1.25 to 125 mg kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}) and time dependent manner (8-60 days). Bio-distribution of europium elements in different organs was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Short-term (S-T) and long-term (L-T) toxicity studies (mice euthanized on days 8 and 60 for S-T and L-T, respectively) show normal blood hematology and serum clinical chemistry with the exception of a slight elevation of liver enzymes. Histological examination of nanorod-treated vital organs (liver, kidney, spleen and lungs) showed no or only mild histological changes that indicate mild toxicity at the higher dose of nanorods.

  7. Methotrexate intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Manjusha; Dasgupta, Sudip; Soundrapandian, Chidambaram; Chakraborty, Jui; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Mitra, Manoj K.; Basu, Debabrata

    2011-09-01

    The anticancerous drug methotrexate (MTX) has been intercalated into an ZnAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) using an anion exchange technique to produce LDH-MTX hybrids having particle sizes in the range of 100-300 nm. X-ray diffraction studies revealed increases in the basal spacings of ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrid on MTX intercalation. This was corroborated by the transmission electron micrographs, which showed an increase in average interlayer spacing from 8.9 Å in pristine LDH to 21.3 Å in LDH-MTX hybrid. Thermogravimetric analyses showed an increase in the decomposition temperature for the MTX molecule in the LDH-MTX hybrid indicating enhanced thermal stability of the drug molecule in the LDH nanovehicle. The cumulative release profile of MTX from ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrids in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 was successfully sustained for 48 h following Rigter-Peppas model release kinetics via diffusion.

  8. Bionanocomposites based on layered double hydroxides as drug delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranda, Pilar; Alcântara, Ana C. S.; Ribeiro, Ligia N. M.; Darder, Margarita; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    The present work introduces new biohybrid materials involving layered double hydroxides (LDH) and biopolymers to produce bionanocomposites, able to act as effective drug delivery systems (DDS). Ibuprofen (IBU) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) have been chosen as model drugs, being intercalated in a Mg-Al LDH matrix. On the one side, the LDHIBU intercalation compound prepared by ion-exchange reaction was blended with the biopolymers zein, a highly hydrophobic protein, and alginate, a polysaccharide widely applied for encapsulating drugs. On the other side, the LDH- 5-ASA intercalation compound prepared by co-precipitation was assembled to the polysaccharides chitosan and pectin, which show mucoadhesive properties and resistance to acid pH values, respectively. Characterization of the intercalation compounds and the resulting bionanocomposites was carried out by means of different experimental techniques: X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, chemical and thermal analysis, as well as optical and scanning electron microscopies. Data on the swelling behavior and drug release under different pH conditions are also reported.

  9. Atomistic simulations of uranium incorporation into iron (hydr)oxides.

    PubMed

    Kerisit, Sebastien; Felmy, Andrew R; Ilton, Eugene S

    2011-04-01

    Atomistic simulations were carried out to characterize the coordination environments of U incorporated in three Fe-(hydr)oxide minerals: goethite, magnetite, and hematite. The simulations provided information on U-O and U-Fe distances, coordination numbers, and lattice distortion for U incorporated in different sites (e.g., unoccupied versus occupied sites, octahedral versus tetrahedral) as a function of the oxidation state of U and charge compensation mechanisms (i.e., deprotonation, vacancy formation, or reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II)). For goethite, deprotonation of first shell hydroxyls enables substitution of U for Fe(III) with a minimal amount of lattice distortion, whereas substitution in unoccupied octahedral sites induced appreciable distortion to 7-fold coordination regardless of U oxidation states and charge compensation mechanisms. Importantly, U-Fe distances of ∼3.6 Å were associated with structural incorporation of U and cannot be considered diagnostic of simple adsorption to goethite surfaces. For magnetite, the octahedral site accommodates U(V) or U(VI) with little lattice distortion. U substituted for Fe(III) in hematite maintained octahedral coordination in most cases. In general, comparison of the simulations with available experimental data provides further evidence for the structural incorporation of U in iron (hydr)oxide minerals.

  10. The reactivity of nano silica with calcium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qing; Xu, Zhongzi; Lan, Xianghui; Ni, Yaru; Lu, Chunhua

    2011-11-01

    The reactivity of nano silica (SiO₂) with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)₂) was evaluated and characterized in this study. Ca(OH)₂ activated nano SiO₂ takes place through an exothermic process, which is mainly attributed to the breakdown of Si-O-Si bonds. Ca(2+) offsets the charge imbalance and bonds to Si-OH and Si-O(-) giving rise to calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel. Care has to be taken that the reactivity of nano SiO₂ with Ca(OH) ₂significantly depends on the Q³ percentage in nano SiO ₂. Q³ percentages significantly influence the reaction kinetic of nano SiO₂ . The higher Q³ percentage results in a higher reaction degree of nano SiO₂ with Ca(OH)₂ and shorter setting times of the pastes. The higher Q³ percentage results in a lower total reaction heat of nano SiO₂ with Ca(OH)₂. It is suggested that the Q³ percentages of nano SiO₂ should be in excess of 30% to keep the satisfactory setting properties of the pastes for the application requirements of bone cement.

  11. Atomistic Simulations of Uranium Incorporation into Iron (Hydr)Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Ilton, Eugene S.

    2011-04-29

    Atomistic simulations were carried out to characterize the coordination environments of U incorporated in three Fe-(hydr)oxide minerals: goethite, magnetite, and hematite. The simulations provided information on U-O and U-Fe distances, coordination numbers, and lattice distortion for U incorporated in different sites (e.g., unoccupied versus occupied sites, octahedral versus tetrahedral) as a function of the oxidation state of U and charge compensation mechanisms (i.e., deprotonation, vacancy formation, or reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II)). For goethite, deprotonation of first shell hydroxyls enables substitution of U for Fe(III) with a minimal amount of lattice distortion, whereas substitution in unoccupied octahedral sites induced appreciable distortion to 7-fold coordination regardless of U oxidation states and charge compensation mechanisms. Importantly, U-Fe distances of ~3.6 Å were associated with structural incorporation of U and cannot be considered diagnostic of simple adsorption to goethite surfaces. For magnetite, the octahedral site accommodates U(V) or U(VI) with little lattice distortion. U substituted for Fe(III) in hematite maintained octahedral coordination in most cases. In general, comparison of the simulations with available experimental data provides further evidence for the structural incorporation of U in iron (hydr)oxide minerals.

  12. Hydrogen production via photolytic oxidation of aqueous sodium sulfite solutions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cunping; Linkous, Clovis A; Adebiyi, Olawale; T-Raissi, Ali

    2010-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emission from coal-burning power plants and refinery operations has been implicated as a cause of acid rain and other air pollution related problems. The conventional treatment of SO(2)-contaminated air consists of two steps: SO(2) absorption using an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, forming aqueous sodium sulfite (Na(2)SO(3)), and Na(2)SO(3) oxidation via air purging to produce sodium sulfate (Na(2)SO(4)). In this process, the potential energy of SO(2) is lost. This paper presents a novel ultraviolet (UV) photolytic process for production of hydrogen from aqueous Na(2)SO(3) solutions. The results show that the quantum efficiency of hydrogen production can reach 14.4% under illumination from a low pressure mercury lamp. The mechanism occurs via two competing reaction pathways that involve oxidation of SO(3)(2-) to SO(4)(2-) directly and through the dithionate (S(2)O(6)(2-)) ion intermediate. The first route becomes dominant once a photostationary state for S(2)O(6)(2-) is established. The initial pH of Na(2)SO(3) solution plays an important role in determining both the hydrogen production rate and the final products of the photolytic oxidation. At initial solution pH of 9.80 Na(2)SO(3) photo-oxidation generates Na(2)SO(4) as the final reaction product, while Na(2)S(2)O(6) is merely a reaction intermediate. The highest hydrogen production rate occurs when the initial solution pH is 7.55. Reduction in the initial solution pH to 5.93 results in disproportionation of HSO(3)(-) to elemental sulfur and SO(4)(2-) but no hydrogen production.

  13. Precipitation of sodium acid urate from electrolyte solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füredi-Milhofer, Helga; Babić-Ivaniĉić, Vesna; Milat, Ognjen; Brown, Walter E.; Gregory, Thomas M.

    1987-07-01

    The precipitation of soduim urate from solutions containing uric acid, soduim hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and water was investigated at constant pH (7.5±0.1) and temperature (308 K). Precipitates were observed by lights and electron microscopy and characterized by electron and X-ray diffraction. The results are presented in the form of "precipitation" and "chemical potential" diagrams, the latter giving the soduim-to-urate molar ratios of the precipitates. Two types of precipitation boundaries were observed, both of which had indicated soduim-to-urate moral ratios of 1:1. The ion activity product, (Na +)(HU -), associated with boundary I was AP I=(4.8±1.1)×10 -5 and with boundary II was with boundary II was AP II=(6.5±0.4)×10 -4. The supersaturation, S, at boundary II was S=AP II/ Ksp=12.3, in which Ksp is the solubility product of soduim acid urate monohydrate. The latter precipitated as well-formed crystals at supersaturations of 12.3 and above. The ion activity product associated with boundary I is approximately equal to the solubility product of soduim acid urate monohydrate. Small amounts of several morphologically different sodium urate crystals formed in the range of supersaturations (1≤ S≤12.3). Crystals formed in this range may include the monohydrate of sodium acid urate and possibly a higher hydrate. The findings have relevance to pathological renal stone formation and gouty arthritis.

  14. Effect of Rare Earth Ions on the Properties of Composites Composed of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer and Layered Double Hydroxides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Li, Bin; Zhao, Xiaohong; Chen, Chunxia; Cao, Jingjing

    2012-01-01

    Background The study on the rare earth (RE)-doped layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has received considerable attention due to their potential applications in catalysts. However, the use of RE-doped LDHs as polymer halogen-free flame retardants was seldom investigated. Furthermore, the effect of rare earth elements on the hydrophobicity of LDHs materials and the compatibility of LDHs/polymer composite has seldom been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings The stearate sodium surface modified Ni-containing LDHs and RE-doped Ni-containing LDHs were rapidly synthesized by a coprecipitation method coupled with the microwave hydrothermal treatment. The influences of trace amounts of rare earth ions La, Ce and Nd on the amount of water molecules, the crystallinity, the morphology, the hydrophobicity of modified Ni-containing LDHs and the adsorption of modifier in the surface of LDHs were investigated by TGA, XRD, TEM, contact angle and IR, respectively. Moreover, the effects of the rare earth ions on the interfacial compatibility, the flame retardancy and the mechanical properties of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA)/LDHs composites were also explored in detail. Conclusions/Significance S-Ni0.1MgAl-La displayed more uniform dispersion and better interfacial compatibility in EVA matrix compared with other LDHs. Furthermore, the S-Ni0.1MgAl-La/EVA composite showed the best fire retardancy and mechanical properties in all composites. PMID:22693627

  15. Antibacterial Efficacy of Calcium Hydroxide and Chlorhexidine Mixture for Treatment of Teeth with Primary Endodontic Lesions: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Donyavi, Zakiyeh; Ghahari, Parastoo; Esmaeilzadeh, Mohammad; Kharazifard, Mohammadjavad; Yousefi-Mashouf, Rasoul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study compared the root canal microbial count of necrotic teeth after irrigation with 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (single session treatment) and two-session root canal treatment with two-week application of calcium hydroxide (CH) mixed with 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) as intracanal medicament. Methods and Materials: In this randomized clinical trial, single-rooted necrotic teeth were divided into two groups. Root canal was irrigated with 2 mL of 6% NaOCl in one group, and a mixture of 0.2% CHX and CH powder as an intracanal medicament for two weeks, in the other group. Root canal samples were obtained before and after the intervention and number of colony forming units (CFUs) was counted in each phase. Results: The reduction of Enterococcus faecalis CFU was not significantly different between the two groups (P=0.233) but the CFU of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was significantly lower in CH+CHX group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Two-week application of CH+CHX caused significant reduced the aerobic, anaerobic and E. faecalis colony counts. Thus, it may be beneficial to carry out primary root canal treatment of necrotic teeth with endodontic lesions in two sessions with intracanal medicaments to achieve predictable results. PMID:27790252

  16. Urea biosensors based on immobilization of urease into two oppositely charged clays (laponite and Zn-Al layered double hydroxides).

    PubMed

    de Melo, J V; Cosnier, S; Mousty, C; Martelet, C; Jaffrezic-Renault, N

    2002-08-15

    Enzyme-based field effect transistors (ENFETs) for urea determination were developed based on the immobilization of urease within two different clay matrixes, one cationic (Laponite) and the other anionic (layered double hydroxide (LDH)), cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. The biosensor based on the enzyme immobilized in Laponite shows a greater sensitivity and smaller dynamic linear range, because the enzymatic reaction is protected from the effect of the buffer capacity of the outer medium. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, Km(app), is quite similar for both biosensors. Inhibition of the enzyme by sodium tetraborate was investigated. Tetraborate acts as a competitive inhibitor for urease in the two different types of clay, the inhibitor effect being stronger for the LDH/urease biosensor. In particular, the maximum limit of the dynamic linear range extends from 1.4 mM in the absence of the inhibitor to 12 mM in the presence of 0.5 mM tetraborate. The Km(app) values in the presence of 0.5 mM tetraborate for Laponite and LDH biomembranes were 10 and 62 mM, respectively. Comparison of the inhibition constant values, Ki 0.16 and 0.05 mM for Laponite and LDH biosensors, respectively, clearly indicates a stronger enzyme-inhibitor interaction in the LDH/urease biomembrane.

  17. Illustrating the processability of magnetic layered double hydroxides: layer-by-layer assembly of magnetic ultrathin films.

    PubMed

    Coronado, E; Martí-Gastaldo, C; Navarro-Moratalla, E; Ribera, A; Tatay, S

    2013-05-20

    We report the preparation of single-layer layered double hydroxide (LDH) two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets by exfoliation of highly crystalline NiAl-NO3 LDH. Next, these unilamellar moieties have been incorporated layer-by-layer (LbL) into a poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)/LDH nanosheet multilayer ultrathin film (UTF). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles have been used to follow the uniform growth of the UTF. The use of a magnetic LDH as the cationic component of the multilayered architecture enables study of the resulting magnetic properties of the UTFs. Our magnetic data show the appearance of spontaneous magnetization at ∼5 K, thus confirming the effective transfer of the magnetic properties of the bulk LDH to the self-assembled film that displays glassy-like ferromagnetic behavior. The high number of bilayers accessible-more than 80-opens the door for the preparation of more-complex hybrid multifunctional materials that combine magnetism with the physical properties provided by other exfoliable layered inorganic hosts.

  18. Aluminium hydroxide tetra-3-phenylthiophthalocyanine as new photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy and fluorescent diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerovich, I. G.; Smirnova, Z. S.; Oborotova, N. A.; Lukyanets, E. A.; Meerovich, G. A.; Derkacheva, V. M.; Polozkova, A. P.; Kubasova, I. Y.; Baryshnikov, A. Y.

    2005-08-01

    This work is devoted to investigation of possibility to use the liposomal form of aluminium hydroxide tetra-3-phenylthiophthalocyanine as photosensitizer of near-infrared range. Aluminium hydroxide tetra-3-phenylthiophthalocyanine has shown high selectivity of accumulation in tumor comparing to normal tissue of mice as well as high photodynamic efficiency on mice bearing Erlich tumor (ELD) and lympholeucosis P-388. This compozition can be used to develop new effective photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy and fluorescent diagnostics.

  19. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

  20. One-dimensional copper hydroxide nitrate nanorods and nanobelts for radiochemical applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin

    2012-11-21

    I report a facile wet-chemical method for the synthesis of one-dimensional copper hydroxide nitrate nanostructures in 2-propanol under solvothermal conditions. Single-crystalline nearly monodispersed copper hydroxide nitrate nanorods and nanobelts with selected breadths in the range of 100 nm to 1 μm have been successfully prepared by a solvothermal method through controlling the experimental parameters, including initial concentrations of reagents, reaction temperature, solvent and reaction time. The resultant nanorods and nanobelts were characterized using FESEM, TEM, XRD, FTIR and TGA techniques. Upon thermal calcination, the copper hydroxide nitrate nanorods and nanobelts self-assemble into one-dimensional arrays (rods, belts or tubes) of copper oxide nanoparticles. The as-prepared copper hydroxide nitrate nanorods and nanobelts were tested as ion exchangers for removal of long-lived radioactive anions such as (129)I(-) and (99)TcO(4)(-). The copper hydroxide nitrate nanorods or nanobelts were over two times more active in the removal of anion species than copper hydroxide nitrate nanoplatelets.

  1. Nickel hydroxide ageing time influence on its solubility in water acidified with sulphuric acid.

    PubMed

    Osińska, Małgorzata; Stefanowicz, Tadeusz; Paukszta, Dominik

    2004-08-30

    Nickel hydroxide samples freshly settled as well as stored over 1 month, 2 months and 6.5 years were examined for their solubility rate in diluted H2SO4 solutions of pH 1.9 and 2.8 as a function of time. Samples with a longer ageing history dissolved less readily than freshly settled ones. It was determined that the resistance to dissolving rose with sample ageing time and the solubility of the 6.5 years stored sample was particularly low. X-ray examination evidenced that during storage the crystallinity of Ni(OH)2 subsequently rose. The parallelity of both time-dependent phenomena allows the conclusion that with nickel hydroxide ageing the transformation of disordered nickel hydroxide species into crystalline Ni(OH)2 (without phase changes) is responsible for increasing nickel hydroxide resistance to dissolving in acidic solutions. Such decrease of nickel hydroxide solubility with ageing in case of waste nickel hydroxide, is worth to notice in a view of environment protection against pollution with electroplating waste.

  2. Effect of ammonium hydroxide on ultrastructure and tenderness of buffalo meat.

    PubMed

    Naveena, B M; Kiran, M; Reddy, K Sudhakar; Ramakrishna, C; Vaithiyanathan, S; Devatkal, Suresh K

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted with an objective to improve the tenderness of tough buffalo meat using ammonium hydroxide. Buffalo meat chunks from Biceps femoris muscle were marinated with distilled water (control), 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% solution of ammonium hydroxide for 48 h at 4±1 °C and subjected to various physico-chemical analysis and ultrastructural studies. Ammonium hydroxide increased (P<0.05) the pH, water holding capacity (WHC), collagen solubility, total and salt soluble protein extractability and cooking yield. Reduction (P<0.05) in Warner-Bratzler shear force values were observed in all ammonium hydroxide treated samples compared to non-treated control. Electrophoretic pattern of muscle proteins exhibited reduction in the intensity and number of certain protein bands for 0.1% and 0.5% ammonium hydroxide treated samples compared to control. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy also revealed breakdown of endothelium layers surrounding muscle fibers and weakening of Z-discs respectively, in treated samples compared to controls. These results suggest that ammonium hydroxide might be used to tenderize tough buffalo meat.

  3. Adsorption of hydrated hydroxide and hydronium ions on Ag(1 1 1). A quantum mechanical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrito, E. M.; Paredes-Olivera, P.

    2003-03-01

    In this paper we have studied comparatively the adsorption of hydroxide and hydronium ions, extending our previous study on hydronium adsorption [J. Phys. Chem. B. 105 (2001) 7227] and emphasizing the adsorption of hydroxide. The calculations were performed on the 111 surface of silver using ab initio quantum mechanical methods (Hartree-Fock+Moller-Plesset second order perturbation theory). The adsorption was investigated for the bare and the hydrated ions (up to three water molecules). Binding energies, equilibrium structures and charge transfer processes were investigated. While the successive hydration of hydronium detaches the ion from the surface, the hydrated hydroxide anion remains specifically adsorbed. Charge transfer processes between the adsorbates and the surface were studied using electron density difference plots and effective charges obtained from Mulliken populations and from surface-dipole moment curves. The energetics of the surface reactions leading to the formation of the hydrated hydronium and hydroxide ions from the bare adsorbed ions and water molecules was also investigated. Both reactions are exothermic mainly due to the formation of strong hydrogen bonds. The effect of an external homogeneous electric field perpendicular to the surface on different adsorbate properties was investigated for the bare and hydrated hydroxide ion in order to model the environment of the electrical double layer. The electric field affects the orientation of the water molecules on the surface and the hydroxide surface distance.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of sodium bismuth titanate and titanate nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Animesh

    A hydrothermal processing method was developed for the synthesis of sodium bismuth titanate powders and thin films from suitable precursors at 150°C. Oxide precursors were best suited for preparing pure phase materials. The sodium bismuth titanate powders consisted of cube shaped crystals. A modified solution-reprecitation model involving partial dissolution of the precursors was proposed to explain the growth of these particles. The thin films were prepared on strontium titanate (100) substrate. A sample holder was specially designed and fabricated to secure the substrates in the reaction vessel. The result was a relatively smooth film of thickness ≤550 nm. The films were essentially single crystalline and had strong epitaxial relationship with the substrate. Titanate nanofibers (NaxH yTinO2n+1° zH2O) were known to form under similar hydrothermal conditions as sodium bismuth titanate powders. Detail research revealed that the pure hydroxide and oxide precursors tend to form sodium bismuth titanate powders or thin films. Titanate nanofibers were the predominant product when any other ions or organics were present in the precursor. Much faster reaction kinetics for the formation of nanofibers was observed when certain organic compounds were added deliberately with the precursors. Accordingly, a hydrothermal process was developed for converting the precursors to titanate nanofibers in a significantly shorter time than reported in the literature. A thin film consisting of vertically aligned nanofibers was prepared on titanium substrate at 150°C in as little as 30 minutes. Complete conversion of starting precursors to free standing nanofibers was achieved in ˜8 hours at 150°C. The as-prepared nanofibers were some form of sodium titanate. They were converted to hydrogen titanate by ion exchange. Differential Scanning calorimetric experiments were performed to understand the thermal evolution of the fibers. The hydrogen titanate fibers underwent structural

  5. Sodium MRI: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-01-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges and limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  6. Sodium management in dialysis by conductivity.

    PubMed

    Bosetto, A; Bene, B; Petitclerc, T

    1999-07-01

    The determination of dialysate sodium concentration is one of the challenges of dialysis prescription, because no accurate information on the predialytic sodium overload is available. Too low dialysate sodium is responsible for intradialytic intolerance symptoms, whereas too high sodium may lead to long-term water sodium overload with cardiovascular hazards (hypertension, left heart failure). We propose here a biofeedback system based on noninvasive repeated measures of ionic dialysance and plasma water conductivity used here as a surrogate of plasma water sodium. This system achieves a stable postdialytic sodium pool and subsequently a dialysate sodium concentration adapted to the inter dialytic sodium load. This new tool in dialysate sodium prescription aims at reducing the morbidity related to patient sodium balance impairment.

  7. Siderophore-promoted dissolution of chromium from hydroxide minerals.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Owen W; Akafia, Martin M; Andrews, Megan Y; Bargar, John R

    2014-05-01

    Biomolecules have significant impacts on the fate and transport of contaminant metals in soils and natural waters. Siderophores, Fe(iii)-binding agents that are exuded by microbes and plants, may form strong complexes with and promote the dissolution of contaminant metal ions, such as Co(iii), U(iv), or Pu(iv). Although aqueous Cr(iii)-siderophore complexes have been recognized in the laboratory setting for almost 40 years, few studies have explored interactions of siderophores with Cr-bearing minerals or considered their impacts on environmental chemistry. To better understand the possible effects of siderophores on chromium mobility, we conducted a series of dissolution experiments to quantify the dissolution rates of Cr(iii)(OH)3 in the presence of hydroxamate, catecholate, and α-hydroxycarboxylate siderophores over a range of environmentally relevant pH values. At pH = 5, dissolution rates in the presence of siderophores are similar to control experiments, suggesting a predominantly proton-promoted dissolution mechanism. At pH = 8, the sorption of the siderophores desferrioxamine B and rhizoferrin can be modeled by using Langmuir isotherms. The dissolution rates for these siderophores are proportional to the surface concentrations of sorbed siderophore, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra of dissolution products indicates the formation of Cr(iii)HDFOB(+) and Cr(iii)rhizoferrin(3-) complexes, suggesting a ligand-promoted dissolution mechanism at alkaline pH. Because siderophores promote Cr(iii)(OH)3 dissolution at rates similar in magnitude to those of iron hydroxides and the resulting Cr(iii)-siderophore complexes may be persistent in solution, siderophores could potentially contribute to the mobilization of Cr in soils and sediments where it is abundant due to geological or anthropogenic sources.

  8. Physical properties of fixed-charge layer double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, D. R.; Solin, S. A.; Costantino, Umberto; Nocchetti, Morena

    2000-05-01

    The physical properties of a series of layer double hydroxides (LDH) of the form [(CO3)0.195(1-x)Cl0.39x(H2O)y]:[Zn0.61Al0.39(OH)2], 0<=x<=1, 0<=y<=(0.4+0.2x) have been studied. The hydration dynamics of these materials indicate that the guest layer water molecules form a hydration ring which defines the height of the solvated, nested Cl anion. The water molecules can tilt around their C2v axis such that the height of the solvated Cl ion is a function of the number of molecules forming the hydration ring. The composition dependence of the basal spacing, determined from x-ray-diffraction powder patterns measured as a function of humidity and temperature for these materials, is a function of both the Cl concentration (x) and the number of guest layer water molecules (y). Distinct basal spacing curves are observed for fully hydrated, partially hydrated, and dehydrated materials. At x=1 the Cl end-member material exhibits a change in stacking sequence from a 3R polytype to a 2H polytype upon dehydration. The dehydrated form of this material also exhibits a (3×3)R30° superlattice ordering of the Cl ions. Due to the nesting of the Cl ion and the active nature of the water molecules, the basal spacing vs x curve for the dehydrated materials is the only curve that can be fit by the discrete finite layer rigidity model. The interlayer rigidity parameter for LDH materials has been determined to be p=4.84+/-0.06 indicating that these materials are stiffer than class-II layered solids but not as stiff as class-III layered solids.

  9. Effective Construction of High-quality Iron Oxy-hydroxides and Co-doped Iron Oxy-hydroxides Nanostructures: Towards the Promising Oxygen Evolution Reaction Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinyu; An, Li; Yin, Jie; Xi, Pinxian; Zheng, Zhiping; Du, Yaping

    2017-03-01

    Rational design of high efficient and low cost electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays an important role in water splitting. Herein, a general gelatin-assisted wet chemistry method is employed to fabricate well-defined iron oxy-hydroxides and transitional metal doped iron oxy-hydroxides nanomaterials, which show good catalytic performances for OER. Specifically, the Co-doped iron oxy-hydroxides (Co0.54Fe0.46OOH) show the excellent electrocatalytic performance for OER with an onset potential of 1.52 V, tafel slope of 47 mV/dec and outstanding stability. The ultrahigh oxygen evolution activity and strong durability, with superior performance in comparison to the pure iron oxy-hydroxide (FeOOH) catalysts, originate from the branch structure of Co0.54Fe0.46OOH on its surface so as to provide many active edge sites, enhanced mass/charge transport capability, easy release oxygen gas bubbles, and strong structural stability, which are advantageous for OER. Meanwhile, Co-doping in FeOOH nanostructures constitutes a desirable four-electron pathway for reversible oxygen evolution and reduction, which is potentially useful for rechargeable metal‑air batteries, regenerative fuel cells, and other important clean energy devices. This work may provide a new insight into constructing the promising water oxidation catalysts for practical clean energy application.

  10. Effective Construction of High-quality Iron Oxy-hydroxides and Co-doped Iron Oxy-hydroxides Nanostructures: Towards the Promising Oxygen Evolution Reaction Application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; An, Li; Yin, Jie; Xi, Pinxian; Zheng, Zhiping; Du, Yaping

    2017-03-08

    Rational design of high efficient and low cost electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays an important role in water splitting. Herein, a general gelatin-assisted wet chemistry method is employed to fabricate well-defined iron oxy-hydroxides and transitional metal doped iron oxy-hydroxides nanomaterials, which show good catalytic performances for OER. Specifically, the Co-doped iron oxy-hydroxides (Co0.54Fe0.46OOH) show the excellent electrocatalytic performance for OER with an onset potential of 1.52 V, tafel slope of 47 mV/dec and outstanding stability. The ultrahigh oxygen evolution activity and strong durability, with superior performance in comparison to the pure iron oxy-hydroxide (FeOOH) catalysts, originate from the branch structure of Co0.54Fe0.46OOH on its surface so as to provide many active edge sites, enhanced mass/charge transport capability, easy release oxygen gas bubbles, and strong structural stability, which are advantageous for OER. Meanwhile, Co-doping in FeOOH nanostructures constitutes a desirable four-electron pathway for reversible oxygen evolution and reduction, which is potentially useful for rechargeable metal-air batteries, regenerative fuel cells, and other important clean energy devices. This work may provide a new insight into constructing the promising water oxidation catalysts for practical clean energy application.

  11. Effective Construction of High-quality Iron Oxy-hydroxides and Co-doped Iron Oxy-hydroxides Nanostructures: Towards the Promising Oxygen Evolution Reaction Application

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyu; An, Li; Yin, Jie; Xi, Pinxian; Zheng, Zhiping; Du, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Rational design of high efficient and low cost electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays an important role in water splitting. Herein, a general gelatin-assisted wet chemistry method is employed to fabricate well-defined iron oxy-hydroxides and transitional metal doped iron oxy-hydroxides nanomaterials, which show good catalytic performances for OER. Specifically, the Co-doped iron oxy-hydroxides (Co0.54Fe0.46OOH) show the excellent electrocatalytic performance for OER with an onset potential of 1.52 V, tafel slope of 47 mV/dec and outstanding stability. The ultrahigh oxygen evolution activity and strong durability, with superior performance in comparison to the pure iron oxy-hydroxide (FeOOH) catalysts, originate from the branch structure of Co0.54Fe0.46OOH on its surface so as to provide many active edge sites, enhanced mass/charge transport capability, easy release oxygen gas bubbles, and strong structural stability, which are advantageous for OER. Meanwhile, Co-doping in FeOOH nanostructures constitutes a desirable four-electron pathway for reversible oxygen evolution and reduction, which is potentially useful for rechargeable metal−air batteries, regenerative fuel cells, and other important clean energy devices. This work may provide a new insight into constructing the promising water oxidation catalysts for practical clean energy application. PMID:28272443

  12. HIGH TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES OF SODIUM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    turboelectric systems utilizing sodium ass the working fluid to 2500F. This report covers the status of the measurement program and presents thermoelectric stability data for several noble metal thermocouples at 2500F.

  13. CALANDRIA TYPE SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, R.M.; Mahlmeister, J.E.; Vaughn, N.E.; Sanders, W.J.; Williams, A.C.

    1964-02-11

    A sodium graphite power reactor in which the unclad graphite moderator and fuel elements are contained within a core tank is described. The core tank is submersed in sodium within the reactor vessel. Extending longitudinally through the core thnk are process tubes with fuel elements positioned therein. A bellows sealing means allows axial expansion and construction of the tubes. Within the core tank, a leakage plenum is located below the graphite, and above the graphite is a gas space. A vent line regulates the gas pressure in the space, and another line removes sodium from the plenum. The sodium coolant flows from the lower reactor vessel through the annular space between the fuel elements and process tubes and out into the reactor vessel space above the core tank. From there, the heated coolant is drawn off through an outlet line and sent to the heat exchange. (AEC)

  14. Catalyst for sodium chlorate decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    Production of oxygen by rapid decomposition of cobalt oxide and sodium chlorate mixture is discussed. Cobalt oxide serves as catalyst to accelerate reaction. Temperature conditions and chemical processes involved are described.

  15. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Lubeigt, E.; Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S.; Gobillot, G.

    2015-07-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  16. Effect of Operating Parameters and Chemical Additives on Crystal Habit and Specific Cake Resistance of Zinc Hydroxide Precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise

    1999-08-01

    The effect of process parameters and chemical additives on the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates was investigated. The ability of a slurry to be filtered is dependent upon the particle habit of the solid and the particle habit is influenced by certain process variables. The process variables studied include neutralization temperature, agitation type, and alkalinity source used for neutralization. Several commercially available chemical additives advertised to aid in solid/liquid separation were also examined in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation. A statistical analysis revealed that the neutralization temperature and the source of alkalinity were statistically significant in influencing the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates in this study. The type of agitation did not significantly effect the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates. The use of chemical additives in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation had a favorable effect on the filterability. The morphology of the hydroxide precipitates was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy.

  17. A Comparative Study of Ion Diffusion from Calcium Hydroxide with Various Herbal Pastes through Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Dhirawani, Rajesh B; Marya, Jayant; Dhirawani, Vrinda; Kumar, Vijayendra

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the diffusion ability of ions through dentinal tubules of different nonalcoholic calcium hydroxide-containing herbal pastes and compare it with the calcium hydroxide paste prepared with saline. Materials and methods A total of 36 single-rooted premolar teeth were used in this study. The tooth crowns were removed and the root canals were prepared. Depending on the vehicle to be used for preparing calcium hydroxide pastes, six groups were made: Group I: Ca(OH)2 saline paste (control group), group II: Ca(OH)2 papaya latex paste, group III: Ca(OH)2 coconut water paste, group IV: Ca(OH)2 Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) paste, group V: Ca(OH)2 Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) paste, and group VI: Ca(OH)2 garlic (Allium sativum) paste. After biomechanical preparation, calcium hydroxide herbal paste dressings were applied and sealed with resin-based cement. The teeth were placed in containers with deionized water, and the pH of the water was measured at regular intervals over 3, 24, 72, and 168 hours. Results We observed that all herbal pastes allowed the diffusion of ions, but pastes prepared with Ashwagandha and papaya latex showed more ion diffusion after 168 hours and marked increase in pH, depicting better support for calcium hydroxide action. Conclusion We conclude that Ashwagandha and papaya latex allow better diffusion of calcium hydroxide through den-tinal tubules, thus enhancing its action, and advise its use as a vehicle for placing intracanal medicament. How to cite this article Dausage P, Dhirawani RB, Marya J, Dhirawani V, Kumar V. A Comparative Study of Ion Diffusion from Calcium Hydroxide with Various Herbal Pastes through Dentin. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):41-44. PMID:28377654

  18. Dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-06-01

    Although an essential nutrient, higher sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure (BP), forming the basis for current population-wide sodium restriction guidelines. While short-term clinical trials have achieved low intake (<2.0 g/day), this has not been reproduced in long-term trials (>6 months). Guidelines assume that low sodium intake will reduce BP and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to moderate intake. However, current observational evidence suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and CVD; the lowest risks observed with 3-5 g/day but higher risk with <3 g/day. Importantly, these observational data also confirm the association between higher intake (>5 g/day) and increased risk of CVD. Although lower intake may reduce BP, this may be offset by marked increases in neurohormones and other adverse effects which may paradoxically be adverse. Large randomised clinical trials with sufficient follow-up are required to provide robust data on the long-term effects of sodium reduction on CVD incidence. Until such trials are completed, current evidence suggests that moderate sodium intake for the general population (3-5 g/day) is likely the optimum range for CVD prevention.

  19. Engineering the van der Waals interaction in cross-linking-free hydroxide exchange membranes for low swelling and high conductivity.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuang; Skovgard, Jason; Yan, Yushan S

    2012-05-01

    What a swell for hydroxides: The typical trade-off between swelling control and ion conductivity in ion-conducting polymer membranes is overcome by enhancement of van der Waals interactions among polymer chains. Using a quaternary phosphonium-functionalized polymer, the simple combination of high electron density of the polymer and large dipole moment of the functional group leads to low membrane swelling, high hydroxide conductivity, and excellent hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell performance.

  20. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate,...

  2. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and... Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food containing meat and... byproducts so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 20 parts per million. (b) To assure safe...

  3. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  6. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  7. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2727 Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized...

  8. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  9. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  10. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  11. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  13. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and... Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food containing meat and... byproducts so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 20 parts per million. (b) To assure safe...

  14. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and... Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food containing meat and... byproducts so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 20 parts per million. (b) To assure safe...

  15. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 172.175 Section 172.175 Food and... Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a color fixative in smoked cured tunafish products so that the level of sodium...

  16. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  17. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  18. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  19. 21 CFR 522.460 - Cloprostenol sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cloprostenol sodium. 522.460 Section 522.460 Food... Cloprostenol sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of the aqueous solution contains 263 micrograms of cloprostenol sodium (equivalent to 250 micrograms of cloprostenol) in a sodium citrate, anhydrous citric...

  20. 21 CFR 522.460 - Cloprostenol sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cloprostenol sodium. 522.460 Section 522.460 Food... Cloprostenol sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of the aqueous solution contains 263 micrograms of cloprostenol sodium (equivalent to 250 micrograms of cloprostenol) in a sodium citrate, anhydrous citric...