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Sample records for 19-m sodium hydroxide

  1. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium... manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH control agent as defined in §...

  11. Pretreatment of rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyeong Eop; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2012-06-01

    Pretreatment method for rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide was investigated for production of bioethanol and biobutanol. Various pretreatment parameters, including temperature, time, and sodium hydroxide concentration were optimized using a statistical method which is a central composite design of response surface methodology. In the case of sodium hydroxide pretreatment, optimal pretreatment conditions were found to be 7.9% sodium hydroxide concentration, 5.5 h of reaction time, and 68.4 °C of reaction temperature. The maximum glucose yield which can be recovered by enzymatic hydrolysis at the optimum conditions was 95.7% and the experimental result was 94.0 ± 4.8%. This experimental result was in agreement with the model prediction. An increase of surface area and pore size in pretreated rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide pretreatment was observed by scanning electron microscope.

  12. Sodium hydroxide permethylation of heparin disaccharides.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Christian; Wang, Zhirui; Azadi, Parastoo

    2011-03-30

    Permethylation is a valuable and widely used tool for the mass spectrometry of carbohydrates, improving sensitivity and fragmentation and increasing the amount of information that can be obtained from tandem mass spectrometric experiments. Permethylation of most glycans is easily performed with sodium hydroxide and iodomethane in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). However, permethylation has not been widely used in the mass spectrometry of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) oligosaccharides, partly because it has required the use of the difficult Hakomori method employing the methylsulfinylmethanide ('dimsyl') base, which has to be made in a tedious process. Additionally, the Hakomori method is not as effective as the sodium hydroxide method in making fully methylated derivatives. A further problem in the permethylation of highly sulfated oligosaccharides is their limited solubility in DMSO. This paper describes the use of the triethylammonium counterion to overcome this problem, as well as the application of the sodium hydroxide method to make permethylated heparin disaccharides and their workup to yield fully methylated disaccharides for electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The ease, speed, and effectiveness of the described methodology should open up permethylation of GAG oligosaccharides to a wider circle of mass spectrometrists and enable them to develop further derivatization schemes in the effort to rapidly elucidate the structure of these important molecules. Permethylation may also provide new ways of separating GAG oligosaccharides in LC/MS, their increased hydrophobicity making them amenable for reversed-phase chromatography without the need for ion pairing reagents.

  13. Complications of sodium hydroxide chemical matrixectomy: nail dystrophy, allodynia, hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Bostancı, Seher; Koçyiğit, Pelin; Güngör, Hilayda Karakök; Parlak, Nehir

    2014-11-01

    Ingrown toenails are seen most commonly in young adults, and they can seriously affect daily life. Partial nail avulsion with chemical matrixectomy, generally by using either sodium hydroxide or phenol, is one of the most effective treatment methods. Known complications of phenol matrixectomy are unpredictable tissue damage, prolonged postoperative drainage, increased secondary infection rates, periostitis, and poor cosmetic results. To our knowledge, there have been no reports about the complications related to sodium hydroxide matrixectomy. Herein, we describe three patients who developed nail dystrophy, allodynia, and hyperalgesia after sodium hydroxide matrixectomy.

  14. 68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) BUILDING, LOOKING AT CAUSTIC SODA MEASURING TANKS. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  15. Sodium-hydroxide solution treatment on sandstone cores

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    This research was performed to study the effect of sodium hydroxide solution on the sandstone core samples and to develop a method whereby the permeability of the samples could be increased by the injection of sodium hydroxide solution. This work should provide the first step in developing a technique that can be used in the stimulation of oil and gas wells. A series of tests was conducted in which sodium hydroxide solution with concentrations ranging from 0.25 N to 2.00 N was injected into a number of Berea sandstone cores. The tests were conducted at room temperature and at 180{degree}F. In some cases the core sample were damaged by the injection of fresh water which resulted in a marked reduction in the permeability of the cores prior to the injection of sodium hydroxide solution. Based on laboratory testing with measurements of uniaxial compressive strength, SEM examination and X-ray analysis, it was found that sodium hydroxide interacted with sandstone to promote (1) partial dissolution of the sandstone minerals; (2) sandstone weight loss; (3) increased porosity; (4) weakening of the sandstone cores; and (5) changes in permeability. The interaction increased with increasing temperature and increasing sodium hydroxide concentration. However, at concentrations higher than 1.00 N, the degree of increase in permeability was not as large even though the sandstone weight loss and the increase in porosity did increase.

  16. The Density of Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide-Sodium Aluminate Solutions: Data Review and Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J. G.; Bernards, J. K.

    2006-07-01

    The density of Hanford tank waste supernatants affects the design and performance of waste treatment processes. The density of aluminate ion [Al(OH){sub 4}{sup -}] bearing sodium hydroxide solutions is important for describing the caustic leaching processes in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Flowsheet. The dissolved aluminate has a particularly large impact on the density of supernatants, but this ion is absent from most density estimation algorithms because of its rarity in most industrial processes. Fortunately, there is a large amount of published data on the density of aqueous sodium-hydroxide-sodium aluminate solutions, which can be used to develop density models. This study reviewed the available data and determined the partial molar volume of sodium hydroxide and sodium aluminate for mixtures of these salts in water by regression. This study determined that much of the published data suffered from a strong correlation between the sodium hydroxide and sodium aluminate concentrations in solution. Nonetheless, there was sufficient un-correlated data to identify and quantify the affect of both hydroxide and aluminate concentration on solution density. The density was found to increase linearly with both hydroxide and aluminate concentrations over a wide composition range. The effect of temperature on the density of aqueous sodium hydroxide-sodium aluminate solutions was found to be statistically significant but small in magnitude. (authors)

  17. [Transient UV absorption spectra of artemisinin reacting with sodium hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan-Jun; Ping, Li; Yang, Li-Jun; Wang, Qi-Ming; Xue, Jun-Peng; Wu, Da-Cheng; Li, Rui-Xia

    2009-03-01

    UV absorption spectrum of artemisinin and transient absorption spectra of various concentrations of artemisinin reacting with sodium hydroxide were measured by using an intensified spectroscopic detector ICCD. The exposure time of each spectrum was 0.1 ms. Results indicate that artemisinin has an obvious UV absorption band centered at 212.52 nm and can react with sodium hydroxide easily. All absorption spectra of different concentrations of artemisinin reacting with sodium hydroxide have the similar changes, but the moment at which the changes happened is different. After adding sodium hydroxide into artemisinin in ethanol solution, there was a new absorption band centered at 288 nm appearing firstly. As reaction went on, the intensity of another absorption band centered at 260 nm increased gradually. At the end of the reaction, a continuous absorption band from 200 to 350 nm with the peak at 245 nm formed finally. No other transient absorption spectral data are available on the reaction of artemisinin with sodium hydroxide currently. The new spectral information obtained in this experiment provides very important experimental basis for understanding the properties of artemisinin reacting with alkaline medium and is useful for correctly using of artemisinin as a potential anticancer drug.

  18. Sodium hydroxide catalyzed monodispersed high surface area silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhakta, Snehasis; Dixit, Chandra K.; Bist, Itti; Abdel Jalil, Karim; Suib, Steven L.; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding of the synthesis kinetics and our ability to modulate medium conditions allowed us to generate nanoparticles via an ultra-fast process. The synthesis medium is kept quite simple with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor and 50% ethanol and sodium hydroxide catalyst. Synthesis is performed under gentle conditions at 20 °C for 20 min Long synthesis time and catalyst-associated drawbacks are most crucial in silica nanoparticle synthesis. We have addressed both these bottlenecks by replacing the conventional Stober catalyst, ammonium hydroxide, with sodium hydroxide. We have reduced the overall synthesis time from 20 to 1/3 h, ∼60-fold decrease, and obtained highly monodispersed nanoparticles with 5-fold higher surface area than Stober particles. We have demonstrated that the developed NPs with ∼3-fold higher silane can be used as efficient probes for biosensor applications.

  19. Engineering evaluation of a sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perdue, D. G.; Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    An engineering evaluation of thermal energy storage prototypes was performed in order to assess the development status of latent heat storage media. The testing and the evaluation of a prototype sodium hydroxide module is described. This module stored off-peak electrical energy as heat for later conversion to domestic hot water needs.

  20. Electrochemical Recovery of Sodium Hydroxide from Alkaline Salt Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1996-10-01

    A statistically designed set of tests determined the effects of current density, temperature, and the concentrations of nitrate/nitrite, hydroxide and aluminate on the recovery of sodium as sodium hydroxide (caustic) from solutions simulating those produced from the Savannah River Site (SRS) In-Tank Precipitation process. These tests included low nitrate and nitrite concentrations which would be produced by electrolytic nitrate/nitrite destruction. The tests used a two compartment electrochemical cell with a Nafion Type 324 ion-exchange membrane. Caustic was successfully recovered from the waste solutions. Evaluation of the testing results indicated that the transport of sodium across the membrane was not significantly affected by any of the varied parameters. The observed variance in the sodium flux is attributed to experimental errors and variations in the performance characteristics of individual pieces of the organic-based Nafion membrane.Additional testing is recommended to determine the maximum current density, to evaluate the chemical durability of the organic membrane as a function of current density and to compare the durability and performance characteristics of the organic-based Nafion membrane with that of other commercially available organic membranes and the inorganic class of membranes under development by Ceramatec and PNNL.

  1. Sodium hydroxide anodization of Ti-Al-4V adherends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filbey, Jennifer A.; Wightman, J. P.; Progar, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    The use of sodium hydroxide anodization (SHA) for Ti-6Al-4V adherends is examined. The SHA surface is evaluated using SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy. The SHA procedures of Kennedy et al. (1983) were employed in this experiment. The photomicrographs of the SHA (sandblasted) and PSHA (sandblasted and pickled) oxide surface reveal that the two surfaces differ. The PSHA is patchy and similar to a chromic acid anodization surface and the porosity of the PSHA is more uniform than the SHA surface. The compositions of the surfaces are studied. It is noted that SHA is an effective pretreatment for Ti-6Al-4V adherends.

  2. Titration of Monoprotic Acids with Sodium Hydroxide Contaminated by Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalowski, Tadeusz

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the effects of using carbon dioxide contaminated sodium hydroxide solution as a titrant for a solution of a weak monoprotic acid and the resulting distortion of the titration curve in comparison to one obtained when an uncontaminated titrant is used. (CW)

  3. Pseudo-hydroxide extraction in the separation of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solutions using alkyl phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hyun Ah; Moyer, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    Pseudo-hydroxide extraction of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solution using four alkyl phenols of nearly identical molecular weight in 1-octanol at 25 degrees C was examined to understand the effect of alkyl substituents. The order of extraction strength among the four alkyl phenols tested was 4-tert-octylphenol. 3,5-di-tertbutylphenol. 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol. A good correlation with phenol pK(a) was observed, indicating that extraction strength is determined by phenol acidity, as modified by steric effects in proximity to the phenol - OH group. The effective partition ratios (P-eff) of two phenols from 1 M NaOH solution were determined, showing that the phenols remain predominantly in the 1-octanol phase even when converted to their sodium salts. However, the hydrophobicity of the tested phenols may not be sufficient for process purposes. The equilibrium constants for the governing extraction equilibria were determined by modeling the data using the program SXLSQI, supporting the cation-exchange extraction mechanism. The proposed mechanism consists of two simple sets of equilibria for a. Ion-pair extraction to give Na+OH- ion pairs and corresponding free ions in 1-octanol the phase and b. Cation exchange by monomeric phenol molecules (HAs) to form monomeric organic-phase Na(+)A(-) ion pairs and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  4. Rapeseed-straw enzymatic digestibility enhancement by sodium hydroxide treatment under ultrasound irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyeong Eop; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we carried out sodium hydroxide and sonication pretreatments of rapeseed straw (Brassica napus) to obtain monosugar suitable for production of biofuels. To optimize the pretreatment conditions, we applied a statistical response-surface methodology. The optimal pretreatment conditions using sodium hydroxide under sonication irradiation were determined to be 75.0 °C, 7.0 % sodium hydroxide, and 6.8 h. For these conditions, we predicted 97.3 % enzymatic digestibility. In repeated experiments to validate the predicted value, 98.9 ± 0.3 % enzymatic digestibility was obtained, which was well within the range of the predicted model. Moreover, sonication irradiation was found to have a good effect on pretreatment in the lower temperature range and at all concentrations of sodium hydroxide. According to scanning electron microscopy images, the surface area and pore size of the pretreated rapeseed straw were modified by the sodium hydroxide pretreatment under sonication irradiation. PMID:23124436

  5. Rapeseed-straw enzymatic digestibility enhancement by sodium hydroxide treatment under ultrasound irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyeong Eop; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we carried out sodium hydroxide and sonication pretreatments of rapeseed straw (Brassica napus) to obtain monosugar suitable for production of biofuels. To optimize the pretreatment conditions, we applied a statistical response-surface methodology. The optimal pretreatment conditions using sodium hydroxide under sonication irradiation were determined to be 75.0 °C, 7.0 % sodium hydroxide, and 6.8 h. For these conditions, we predicted 97.3 % enzymatic digestibility. In repeated experiments to validate the predicted value, 98.9 ± 0.3 % enzymatic digestibility was obtained, which was well within the range of the predicted model. Moreover, sonication irradiation was found to have a good effect on pretreatment in the lower temperature range and at all concentrations of sodium hydroxide. According to scanning electron microscopy images, the surface area and pore size of the pretreated rapeseed straw were modified by the sodium hydroxide pretreatment under sonication irradiation.

  6. Obstructive airway disease associated with occupational sodium hydroxide inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, A E; Bentur, L; Bentur, Y

    1992-01-01

    Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is well known for its corrosive properties and its ability to generate heat on contact with water. The respiratory effects of industrial exposure to NaOH have, however, never been reported. A 63 year old man worked daily for 20 years cleaning large industrial jam containers by boiling lye (NaOH) solution without using respiratory protective equipment. Physical examination, chest x ray film, pulmonary function tests, and arterial blood gases were all compatible with severe obstructive airway disease with significant air trapping. It is probable that this massive and prolonged occupational exposure to the corrosive effect of NaOH mists induced irritation and burns to the respiratory system, eventually leading to severe obstructive airway disease. PMID:1554619

  7. Extended development of a sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. E.; Rowny, P. E.; Cohen, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    The post-test evaluation of a single heat exchanger sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module for use in solar electric generation is reported. Chemical analyses of the storage medium used in the experimental model are presented. The experimental verification of the module performance using an alternate heat transfer fluid, Caloria HT-43, is described. Based on these results, a design analysis of a dual heat exchanger concept within the storage module is presented. A computer model and a reference design for the dual system (storage working fluid/power cycle working fluid) were completed. The dual system is estimated to have a capital cost of approximately one half that of the single heat exchanger concept.

  8. Altering surface characteristics of polypropylene mesh via sodium hydroxide treatment.

    PubMed

    Regis, Shawn; Jassal, Manisha; Mukherjee, Nilay; Bayon, Yves; Scarborough, Nelson; Bhowmick, Sankha

    2012-05-01

    Incisional hernias represent a serious and common complication following laparotomy. The use of synthetic (e.g. polypropylene) meshes to aid repair of these hernias has considerably reduced recurrence rates. While polypropylene is biocompatible and has a long successful clinical history in treating hernias and preventing reherniation, this material may suffer some limitations, particularly in challenging patients at risk of wound failure due to, for example, an exaggerated inflammation reaction, delayed wound healing, and infection. Surface modification of the polypropylene mesh without sacrificing its mechanical properties, critical for hernia repair, represents one way to begin to address these clinical complications. Our hypothesis is treatment of a proprietary polypropylene mesh with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) will increase in vitro NIH/3T3 cell attachment, predictive of earlier and improved cell colonization and tissue integration of polypropylene materials. Our goal is to achieve this altered surface functionality via enhanced removal of chemicals/oils used during material synthesis without compromising the mechanical properties of the mesh. We found that NaOH treatment does not appear to compromise the mechanical strength of the material, despite roughly a 10% decrease in fiber diameter. The treatment increases in vitro NIH/3T3 cell attachment within the first 72 h and this effect is sustained up to 7 days in vitro. This research demonstrates that sodium hydroxide treatment is an efficient way to modify the surface of polypropylene hernia meshes without losing the mechanical integrity of the material. This simple procedure could also allow the attachment of a variety of biomolecules to the polypropylene mesh that may aid in reducing the complications associated with polypropylene meshes today.

  9. Hydrogen embrittlement of type 410 stainless steel in sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide environments at 90 C

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M.; Martinez-Villafane, A.

    1997-06-01

    Susceptibility of martensitic type 410 (UNS S41000) stainless steel (SS) to environmental cracking was evaluated at 90 C in concentrated sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, all of which are environments related to steam turbine conditions, using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. In NaCl, the effects of solution pH, concentration, and anodic and cathodic polarization were investigated. Tests were supplemented by detailed electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A clear correlation was found between the degree of embrittlement and the amount of hydrogen permeating the steel, suggesting a hydrogen-induced cracking mechanism.

  10. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.60 Section 415.60 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide...

  11. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.60 Section 415.60 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide...

  12. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.60 Section 415.60 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide...

  13. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.60 Section 415.60 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide...

  14. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.60 Section 415.60 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide...

  15. Catalytic and inhibiting effects of lithium peroxide and hydroxide on sodium chlorate decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, J.C.; Zhang, Y.

    1995-09-01

    Chemical oxygen generators based on sodium chlorate and lithium perchlorate are used in airplanes, submarines, diving, and mine rescue. Catalytic decomposition of sodium chlorate in the presence of cobalt oxide, lithium peroxide, and lithium hydroxide is studied using thermal gravimetric analysis. Lithium peroxide and hydroxide are both moderately active catalysts for the decomposition of sodium chlorate when used alone, and inhibitors when used with the more active catalyst cobalt oxide.

  16. Thermal desorption of PCB-contaminated soil with sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Qi, Zhifu; Zhao, Zhonghua; Li, Xiaodong; Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Jianhua; Ni, Mingjiang

    2015-12-01

    The thermal desorption was combined with sodium hydroxide to remediate polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soil. The experiments were conducted at different temperatures ranging from 300 to 600 °C with three NaOH contents of 0.1, 0.5, and 1 %. The results showed that thermal desorption was effective for PCB removal, destruction, and detoxication, and the presence of NaOH enhanced the process by significant dechlorination. After treatment with 0.1 % NaOH, the removal efficiency (RE) increased from 84.8 % at 300 °C to 98.0 % at 600 °C, corresponding to 72.7 and 91.7 % of destruction efficiency (DE). With 1 % NaOH content treated at 600 °C, the RE and DE were 99.0 and 93.6 %, respectively. The effect of NaOH content on PCB removal was significant, especially at lower temperature, yet it weakened under higher temperature. The interaction between NaOH content and temperature influenced the PCB composition. The higher temperature with the help of NaOH effectively increased the RE and DE of 12 dioxin-like PCBs (based on WHO-TEQ).

  17. The mechanism of thermal-gradient mass transfer in the sodium hydroxide-nickel system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Charles E

    1958-01-01

    "Thermal-gradient mass transfer" was investigated in the molten sodium hydroxide-nickel system. Possible mechanisms (physical, electrochemical, and chemical) are discussed in terms of experimental and theoretical evidence. Experimental details are included in appendixes.

  18. Synergism of Co(II) napthenate and sodium hydroxide in catalytic decomposition of cyclohexylhydroperoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarenko, T.G.; Chichagov, V.N.; Fedoseenko, V.I.; Solyanikov, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    Sodium hydroxide and bivalent cobalt naphthenate are catalysts in the decomposition of cyclohexyl hydroperoxide in cyclohexane and in mixtures have marked synergistic action (decomposition rate constant 0.32 sec/sup -1/).

  19. Chemical injury to the tongue following contact with sodium hydroxide drain cleaner.

    PubMed

    Yanturali, Sedat; Yaka, Elif; Ersoy, Gurkan

    2004-12-01

    Solid sodium hydroxide compounds are used to unclog drains. In Turkey, these agents are easily available and commonly used by housewives. They are sold in weak bags and usually stored within these bags. We present the case of an elderly woman with dementia who developed severe alkaline tongue burn and edema after unintentional short contact with solid sodium hydroxide drain cleaner. Official legislation for safety packing in Turkey will lead to reduction in the incidence of accidental caustic injuries.

  20. Sodium Hydroxide Activated Nanoporous Carbons Based on Lapsi Seed Stone.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sahira; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Kamachi, Yuichiro; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Pradhananga, Mandira Adhikari; Pokhrel, Bhadra Prasad; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Pradhananga, Raja Ram

    2015-02-01

    Nanoporous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Lapsi (Choerospondias axillaris) seed powder by chemical activation with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at different NaOH impregnation ratios. The prepared ACs were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Semi-quantitative information on the surface properties was obtained by estimating iodine number. FTIR spectra showed the presence of oxygenated functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl, and carboxyl in the prepared ACs. Raman scattering showed clear D and G bands in the spectra. The intensity ratio of G and D band peak intensity was ca. 1.39 at lowest NaOH and Lapsi seed powder ratio 0.25:1 showing high graphitic degree. This ratio decreased with increase in the NaOH impregnation ratio and reached minimum ca. 0.94 (comparable with commercial AC) at NaOH and Lapsi seed powder ratio 1:1 demonstrating that higher NaOH impregnation reduces the graphitic structure of the carbon. XRD patterns showed two broad peaks at diffraction angles of approximately 25 and 43 degrees indicating the amorphous structure. Surface properties of the ACs (BET surface area, pore volume, and pore size distributions) were evaluated by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm. Our ACs showed strong methylene blue adsorption property (maximum methylene blue is ca. 200 mg/g). Judging from the iodine number and methylene blue values, structure, and surface areas, it can be concluded that NaOH impregnation ratio is one of the key parameters to tune the surface properties of Lapsi seed stone-based activated carbons.

  1. Kinetics of de-N-acetylation of the chitin disaccharide in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution.

    PubMed

    Khong, Thang Trung; Aachmann, Finn L; Vårum, Kjell M

    2012-05-01

    Chitosan is prepared from chitin, a process which is carried out at highly alkaline conditions, and that can be performed either on chitin in solution (homogeneous deacetylation) or heterogeneously with the chitin as a solid throughout the reaction. We report here a study of the de-N-acetylation reaction of the chitin dimer (GlcNAc-GlcNAc) in solution. The reaction was followed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy in deuterated aqueous sodium hydroxide solution as a function of time, sodium-hydroxide concentration and temperature. The (1)H NMR spectrum of GlcNAc-GlcNAc in 2.77 M deuterated aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was assigned. The interpretation of the (1)H NMR spectra allowed us to determine the rates of de-N-acetylation of the reducing and non-reducing ends, showing that the reaction rate at the reducing end is twice the rate at the non-reducing end. The total deacetylation reaction rate was determined as a function of the hydroxide ion concentration, showing for the first time that this de-N-acetylation reaction is second order with respect to hydroxide ion concentration. No significant difference in the deacetylation rates in deuterated water compared to water was observed. The activation energy for the reaction (26-54 °C) was determined to 114.4 and 98.6 kJ/mol at 2.77 and 5.5 M in deuterated aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, respectively.

  2. Sulfur removal from Gediz lignite using aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions under mild oxidative conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.

    1999-11-01

    Sulfur removal from a high-sulfur Turkish lignite (Gediz) using aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions having dissolved oxygen was investigated under mild oxidative conditions. Effects of the parameters such as sodium hydroxide/lignite weight ratio, temperature, and partial pressure of oxygen were investigated within the ranges of 0.05--0.8, 423--498 K, and 1--2 MPa, respectively. Optimum values of these parameters were determined regarding sulfur removal and coal recovery. Influences of dry oxidation of the lignite sample as a pretreatment at 573 K and subsequent washing of some treated lignite samples with 1 N HCl were investigated.

  3. The kinetics of cellulose dissolution in sodium hydroxide solution at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Deng, Yulin

    2009-04-01

    The dissolution kinetics of cellulose in sodium hydroxide in the presence and absence of urea at low temperature was studied. High molecular weight cotton linter with degree of polymerization of 850 was used for dissolution study. The cotton linter was separated from the dissolution slurry at different dissolution times, and the change of the crystal structure of cotton linter was characterized by Powder X-Ray Diffraction. The rate of decrystallization of cellulose was obtained and the activation energy for cellulose decrystallization in sodium hydroxide solution was derived using Eyring equation. The effect of urea additive was discussed.

  4. Associating cooking additives with sodium hydroxide to pretreat bamboo residues for improving the enzymatic saccharification and monosaccharides production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Caoxing; He, Juan; Wang, Yan; Min, Douyong; Yong, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    Cooking additive pulping technique is used in kraft mill to increase delignification degree and pulp yield. In this work, cooking additives were firstly applied in the sodium hydroxide pretreatment for improving the bioconversion of bamboo residues to monosaccharides. Meanwhile, steam explosion and sulfuric acid pretreatments were also carried out on the sample to compare their impacts on monosaccharides production. Results indicated that associating anthraquinone with sodium hydroxide pretreatment showed the best performance in improving the original carbohydrates recovery, delignification, enzymatic saccharification, and monosaccharides production. After consecutive pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification process, 347.49 g, 307.48 g, 142.93 g, and 87.15 g of monosaccharides were released from 1000 g dry bamboo residues pretreated by sodium hydroxide associating with anthraquinone, sodium hydroxide, steam explosion and sulfuric acid, respectively. The results suggested that associating cooking additive with sodium hydroxide is an effective pretreatment for bamboo residues to enhance enzymatic saccharification for monosaccharides production.

  5. A critique of the U.S. standard for industrial exposure to sodium hydroxide aerosols.

    PubMed

    Cooper, D W; Underhill, D W; Ellenbecker, M J

    1979-05-01

    Published studies of the toxicity of sodium hydroxide aerosols are few. These studies were generally marred by inadequate characterization of particle size and chemical compositon and of the ambient humidity. Because NaOH aerosols can readily undergo reaction with carbon dioxide to form sodium carbonate, a much less alkaline (and less hygroscopic) compound, these shortcomings may warrant a reconsideration of the NaOH standard and the consideration of a Na2CO3 standard.

  6. An empirical model to estimate density of sodium hydroxide solution: An activator of geopolymer concretes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamane, N. P.; Nataraja, M. C.; Jeyalakshmi, R.; Nithiyanantham, S.

    2016-02-01

    Geopolymer concrete is zero-Portland cement concrete containing alumino-silicate based inorganic polymer as binder. The polymer is obtained by chemical activation of alumina and silica bearing materials, blast furnace slag by highly alkaline solutions such as hydroxide and silicates of alkali metals. Sodium hydroxide solutions of different concentrations are commonly used in making GPC mixes. Often, it is seen that sodium hydroxide solution of very high concentration is diluted with water to obtain SHS of desired concentration. While doing so it was observed that the solute particles of NaOH in SHS tend to occupy lower volumes as the degree of dilution increases. This aspect is discussed in this paper. The observed phenomenon needs to be understood while formulating the GPC mixes since this influences considerably the relationship between concentration and density of SHS. This paper suggests an empirical formula to relate density of SHS directly to concentration expressed by w/w.

  7. Forced-convection Heat-transfer Characteristics of Molten Sodium Hydroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grele, Milton D; Gedeon, Louis

    1953-01-01

    The forced-convection heat-transfer characteristics of sodium hydroxide were experimentally investigated. The heat-transfer data for heating fall slightly above the McAdams correlation line, and the heat-transfer data for cooling are fairly well represented by the McAdams correlation line.

  8. Autopsy results of a case of ingestion of sodium hydroxide solution.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo; Nagasaki, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Sodium hydroxide is a strongly corrosive alkali. We describe herein a case of suicide by ingestion of sodium hydroxide. A man in his 80s was found dead with a mug and a bottle of caustic soda. Macroscopically, liquefaction and/or disappearance of esophagus, trachea and lung tissue and a grayish discoloration of the mucosa of the stomach were seen along with blackish brown coloration of the skin, mouth, and oral cavity. The contents of the gastrointestinal tract showed a pH level of 7-8 on pH indicator strips. Histopathologically, liquefactive necrosis of remnant lung tissue and the stomach were seen. As biological reactions such as vasodilatation and inflammation were not detected in these organs, only a short number of hours must have passed between ingestion and death. This human case provides valuable information concerning the direct irritation induced by systemic exposure to corrosive substances. PMID:26989301

  9. Autopsy results of a case of ingestion of sodium hydroxide solution

    PubMed Central

    Emoto, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo; Nagasaki, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    Sodium hydroxide is a strongly corrosive alkali. We describe herein a case of suicide by ingestion of sodium hydroxide. A man in his 80s was found dead with a mug and a bottle of caustic soda. Macroscopically, liquefaction and/or disappearance of esophagus, trachea and lung tissue and a grayish discoloration of the mucosa of the stomach were seen along with blackish brown coloration of the skin, mouth, and oral cavity. The contents of the gastrointestinal tract showed a pH level of 7–8 on pH indicator strips. Histopathologically, liquefactive necrosis of remnant lung tissue and the stomach were seen. As biological reactions such as vasodilatation and inflammation were not detected in these organs, only a short number of hours must have passed between ingestion and death. This human case provides valuable information concerning the direct irritation induced by systemic exposure to corrosive substances. PMID:26989301

  10. Autopsy results of a case of ingestion of sodium hydroxide solution.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo; Nagasaki, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Sodium hydroxide is a strongly corrosive alkali. We describe herein a case of suicide by ingestion of sodium hydroxide. A man in his 80s was found dead with a mug and a bottle of caustic soda. Macroscopically, liquefaction and/or disappearance of esophagus, trachea and lung tissue and a grayish discoloration of the mucosa of the stomach were seen along with blackish brown coloration of the skin, mouth, and oral cavity. The contents of the gastrointestinal tract showed a pH level of 7-8 on pH indicator strips. Histopathologically, liquefactive necrosis of remnant lung tissue and the stomach were seen. As biological reactions such as vasodilatation and inflammation were not detected in these organs, only a short number of hours must have passed between ingestion and death. This human case provides valuable information concerning the direct irritation induced by systemic exposure to corrosive substances.

  11. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyanka; Tejinder, S

    2014-12-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4-5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4-2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1-5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01-0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) for 15-60 min. The starch and grain fractions were isolated by screening and centrifugation. Increases in the time of treatment significantly affected the fiber, centrifugation and non-starch residue losses. Concentration of papain and sodium hydroxide had negligible effect on extraction losses. The enzyme-assisted extraction efficiency of starch was higher (80.7-84.6 %) than the alkaline method (70.9-83.7 %). The hulled barley showed higher extraction efficiency than the hull-less barley. The slurry treated with 0.4 g papain/kg barley for 5 h and 0.03 M sodium hydroxide for 60 min produced maximal yield of starch. Barley starch showed desirably high pasting temperature, water binding capacity and hold viscosity; and low final and setback viscosity compared with the commercial corn starch. The alkaline extracted hull-less barley starch showed exceptionally high peak and hold viscosities.

  12. [Time resolved UV-Vis absorption spectra of quercetin reacting with various concentrations of sodium hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Jun; Li, Ping; Gao, Yan-Jun; Li, Hui-Feng; Wu, Da-Cheng; Li, Rui-Xia

    2009-06-01

    A real time investigation of chemical reaction process of quercetin with various concentrations of sodium hydroxide was performed by using an intensified spectroscopic detector ICCD. The time resolved UV-Vis absorption spectra of 5 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1) quercetin respectively reacting with sodium hydroxide at concentrations of 2, 0.2, 0.1, 0.04 and 0.02 mol x L(-1) were acquired. A total of 200 spectra with the same exposure time of 0.1 ms for each spectrum but different time interval between two consecutive spectra were recorded for each reaction. The first 50 spectra have the time interval of 20 ms, the next 50 have 1 s, and the last 100 have 2 s. Results indicate that quercetin reacted with sodium hydroxide easily and there was an intermediate product formed during the reaction, with different concentrations of reactants, the changes of absorption bands were the same, but the moments at which the changes happened were different and the total reaction time was various from 1 s to 100 s. Spectra recorded showed the disappearing process of the typical bands centered at 254 and 374 nm of pure quercetin, the growing and disappearing processes of a new band centered at 427 nm of the intermediate product, and the growing process of the new band centered at 314 nm of the final product obviously. No other transient spectroscopic data are currently available on the reaction of quercrtin with sodium hydroxide, the results obtained in the present work provide useful experimental data for the study of the microscopic process of the reaction.

  13. Curcumin/turmeric solubilized in sodium hydroxide inhibits HNE protein modification--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2007-03-21

    Free radical mediated lipid peroxidation has been implicated in multiple diseases. A major oxidation by-product of this deleterious process is 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). HNE is cytotoxic, mutagenic and genotoxic and is involved in disease pathogenesis. Curcumin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (occurring as the yellow pigment found in the rhizomes of the perennial herb Curcuma longa known as turmeric), has emerged as the newest "nutraceutical" agent that has been shown to be efficacious against colon cancer and other disorders, including correcting cystic fibrosis defects. Since curcumin has been reported to have anti-oxidant properties we hypothesized that it will inhibit HNE-modification of a protein substrate. Using an ELISA that employed HNE-modification of solid phase antigen following immobilization, we found that the curcumin solubilized in dilute alkali (5mM sodium hydroxide, pH 11) inhibited HNE-protein modification by 65%. Turmeric also inhibited HNE-protein modification similarly (65%) but at a much lower alkali level (130muM sodium hydroxide, pH 7.6). Alkali by itself (5mM sodium hydroxide, pH 11) was found to enhance HNE modification by as much as 267%. Curcumin/turmeric has to inhibit this alkali enhanced HNE-modification prior to inhibiting the normal HNE protein modification induced by HNE. Thus, inhibition of HNE-modification could be a mechanism by which curcumin exerts its antioxidant effects. The pH at which the inhibition of HNE modification of substrate was observed was close to the physiological pH, making this formulation of curcumin potentially useful practically.

  14. Desalination and hydrogen, chlorine, and sodium hydroxide production via electrophoretic ion exchange and precipitation.

    PubMed

    Shkolnikov, Viktor; Bahga, Supreet S; Santiago, Juan G

    2012-08-28

    We demonstrate and analyze a novel desalination method which works by electrophoretically replacing sodium and chloride in feed salt water with a pair of ions, calcium and carbonate, that react and precipitate out. The resulting calcium carbonate precipitate is benign to health, and can be filtered or settled out, yielding low ionic strength product water. The ion exchange and precipitation employs self-sharpening interfaces induced by movement of multiple ions in an electric field to prevent contamination of the product water. Simultaneously, the electrolysis associated with the electromigration produces hydrogen gas, chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide. We conducted an experimental study of this method's basic efficacy to desalinate salt water from 100 to 600 mol m(-3) sodium chloride. We also present physicochemical models of the process, and analyze replacement reagents consumption, permeate recovery ratio, and energy consumption. We hypothesize that the precipitate can be recycled back to replacement reagents using the well-known, commercially implemented Solvay process. We show that the method's permeate recovery ratio is 58% to 46%, which is on par with that of reverse osmosis. We show that the method's energy consumption requirement over and above that necessary to generate electrolysis is 3 to 10 W h l(-1), which is on par with the energy consumed by state-of-the-art desalination methods. Furthermore, the method operates at ambient temperature and pressure, and uses no specialized membranes. The process may be feasible as a part of a desalination-co-generation facility: generating fresh water, hydrogen and chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide. PMID:22806549

  15. Desalination and hydrogen, chlorine, and sodium hydroxide production via electrophoretic ion exchange and precipitation.

    PubMed

    Shkolnikov, Viktor; Bahga, Supreet S; Santiago, Juan G

    2012-08-28

    We demonstrate and analyze a novel desalination method which works by electrophoretically replacing sodium and chloride in feed salt water with a pair of ions, calcium and carbonate, that react and precipitate out. The resulting calcium carbonate precipitate is benign to health, and can be filtered or settled out, yielding low ionic strength product water. The ion exchange and precipitation employs self-sharpening interfaces induced by movement of multiple ions in an electric field to prevent contamination of the product water. Simultaneously, the electrolysis associated with the electromigration produces hydrogen gas, chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide. We conducted an experimental study of this method's basic efficacy to desalinate salt water from 100 to 600 mol m(-3) sodium chloride. We also present physicochemical models of the process, and analyze replacement reagents consumption, permeate recovery ratio, and energy consumption. We hypothesize that the precipitate can be recycled back to replacement reagents using the well-known, commercially implemented Solvay process. We show that the method's permeate recovery ratio is 58% to 46%, which is on par with that of reverse osmosis. We show that the method's energy consumption requirement over and above that necessary to generate electrolysis is 3 to 10 W h l(-1), which is on par with the energy consumed by state-of-the-art desalination methods. Furthermore, the method operates at ambient temperature and pressure, and uses no specialized membranes. The process may be feasible as a part of a desalination-co-generation facility: generating fresh water, hydrogen and chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide.

  16. Accidental contamination of a German town's drinking water with sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Lendowski, Luba; Färber, Harald; Holy, Andreas; Darius, Anke; Ehrich, Bernd; Wippermann, Christine; Küfner, Bernd; Exner, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Case report of a very serious drinking water incident putting up to 50,000 inhabitants of a town near Bonn in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany at risk. A concentrated solution of highly alkaline water by sodium hydroxide was accidentally washed into the town's drinking water at a pumping station and increased the pH-value of the water to 12. Residents who came into contact with the contaminated water immediately had a toxic reaction. The incident was detected by complaints from customers and after that was stopped within several hours. The pipes were flushed and the customers were warned not to use the water till the all clear. After this immediate management there was an investigation and the cause of the incident was detected as an accidental release of accumulated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The lack of a network alarm system and the automatic cut-off mechanisms as deficiencies in the design of the station were rectified by the water company immediately after the incident.

  17. Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layered double hydroxide (LDH) - Green rust sodium sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Balic-Zunic, T.; Petit, P.-O.; Frandsen, C.; Mørup, S.; Geckeis, H.; Katerinopoulou, A.; Stipp, S. L. Svane

    2009-06-01

    Mixed-valent Fe(II),Fe(III)-layered hydroxide, known as green rust, was synthesized from slightly basic, sodium sulphate solutions in an oxygen-free glove box. Solution conditions were monitored with pH and Eh electrodes and optimized to ensure a pure sulphate green-rust phase. The solid was characterised using Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The composition of the solution from which the green rust precipitated was established by mass and absorption spectroscopy. The sulphate form of green rust is composed of brucite-like layers with Fe(II) and Fe(III) in an ordered distribution. The interlayers contain sulphate, water and sodium in an arrangement characteristic for the nikischerite group. The crystal structure is highly disordered by stacking faults. The composition, formula and crystallographic parameters are: NaFe(II) 6Fe(III) 3(SO 4) 2(OH) 18·12H 2O, space group P-3, a = 9.528(6) Å, c = 10.968(8) Å and Z = 1. Green rust sodium sulphate, GR, crystallizes in thin, hexagonal plates. Particles range from less than 50 nm to 2 μm in diameter and are 40 nm thick or less. The material is redox active and reaction rates are fast. Extremely small particle size and high surface area contribute to rapid oxidation, transforming green rust to an Fe(III)-phase within minutes.

  18. [Conservative treatment improved corrosive esophagitis and pneumomediastinum in a patient who ingested bleaching agent containing sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Iseki, Ken; Ozawa, Akiko; Tominaga, Aya; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Otani, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    A 69-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department 3 hours after ingestion of a bleaching agent containing hypochlorous acid and sodium hydroxide in a suicide attempt. Enhanced chest computed tomography scans taken on admission indicated an edematous esophagus and air bubbles in the mediastinum. He underwent endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation until day 9 because of laryngeal edema. On day 10, his endoscopy indicated diffuse reddish mucosal hyperemia, erosions, and lacerated mucosal lesions in the esophagus that were indicative of grade 2b corrosive esophagitis. Treatment with a proton pump inhibitor was initiated, with which the condition of the esophagus improved, and on day 44, a slight stricture of the upper part of the esophagus was observed. He was discharged on day 64 without any complaints. The ingestion of sodium hypochlorite induces corrosive esophagitis and acute phase of gastritis. Ingestion of any corrosive agent is known as a risk factor for esophagus cancer in the long-term. In such cases with esophageal stricture, esophagectomy is recommended for preventing esophagus cancer. Considering the age of the patient, however, he did not undergo esophagectomy.

  19. Effects of sodium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and gaseous hydrogen peroxide on the natural properties of cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Bi, Long; Li, De-Cheng; Huang, Zhao-Song; Yuan, Zhi

    2013-07-01

    Processed xenegeneic cancellous bone represents an alternative to bone autograft. In order to observe the effects of present prion inactivation treatments on the natural properties of xenogeneic cancellous bones, we treated bovine bone granules with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and gaseous hydrogen peroxide (gH2 O2 ) respectively in this study. The microstructure, composition, and mineral content of the granules were evaluated by scanning electron micrograph, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, ash analysis, and micro-computed tomography. The biomechanical property was analyzed by a materials testing machine. The cytocompatibility was evaluated by using a mouse fibroblast cell line (3T3). The microstructure, organic content, and mechanical strength were dramatically altered at the surface of bone in both NaOH- and NaOCl-treated groups, but not in the gH2 O2 -treated group. Compared with the gH2 O2 -treated group, attachment and proliferation of 3T3 were reduced in either NaOH- or NaOCl-treated groups. As the consequence, gH2 O2 treatment may be a useful approach of disinfection for the preparation of natural cancellous bone with well-preserved structural, mechanical, and biological properties.

  20. THE KINETICS OF SAPONIFICATION OF IODOACETIC ACID BY SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND BY CERTAIN ALKALINE BUFFER SOLUTIONS.

    PubMed

    Brdicka, R

    1936-07-20

    1. The rate of the saponification of iodoacetic acid in sodium hydroxide and alkaline buffer solutions yielding glycollic acid was measured by means of Heyrovský's polarographic method. 2. From the bimolecular velocity constants, increasing with the ionic strength of the solution, the Brönsted factor, F, which characterizes the primary salt effect, was calculated. 3. In the borate buffer solutions the monomolecular constants of the saponification were determined which, at values above the pH of neutralization of boric acid, show a proportionality to the concentration of hydroxyl anions. Below the pH of neutralization of boric acid, they are proportional to the concentration of borate anions.

  1. Decontamination of sputum for longer time in sodium hydroxide for isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Satapathy, P; Das, D; Murmu, B N; Kar, S K

    2014-12-01

    Decontamination by modified Petroff's method is being practiced in many laboratories carrying out Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture and drug susceptibility testing. The method exposes mycobacteria to 4% sodium hydroxide for 30min. However, laboratories in developing countries with limited resources might be using a type of centrifuge that does not open during power failures and exposes the mycobacteria to alkali for longer periods. Out of 28 smear-positive specimens processed, 85.7%, 85.7% and 60.7% of specimens showed a positive culture after exposure to alkali for 0.5, 1.0 and 72h. Laboratories compelled to expose the mycobacteria for a longer duration of time can still attempt isolation for culture as only a small amount of bacteria are needed for culture positivity. PMID:26786630

  2. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide on Activated Carbons Impregnated with Sodium Hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Viviane; Baskova, Svetlana; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    Two activated carbons of different origin were impregnated with the solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of various concentrations up to 10 wt %, and the effect of impregnation on the catalytic performance of the carbons was evaluated. The catalytic activity was analyzed in terms of the capacity of carbons for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) conversion and removal from hydrogen-rich fuel streams and the emission times of H2S and the products of its oxidation [e.g., sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbonyl sulfide (COS)]. The results of impregnation showed a significant improvement in the catalytic activity of both carbons proportional to the amount of NaOH introduced. NaOH introduces hydroxyl groups (OH-) on the surface of the activated carbon that increase its surface reactivity and its interaction with sulfur-containing compounds.

  3. Sodium Hydroxide Enhances Extractability and Analysis of Proanthocyanidins in Ensiled Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia).

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Aina; Drake, Chris; Grosse Brinkhaus, Anja; Girard, Marion; Copani, Giuseppe; Dohme-Meier, Frigga; Bee, Giuseppe; Niderkorn, Vincent; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2015-11-01

    Little information exists on the effects of ensiling on condensed tannins or proanthocyanidins. The acetone-butanol-HCl assay is suitable for measuring proanthocyanidin contents in a wide range of samples, silages included, but provides limited information on proanthocyanidin composition, which is of interest for deciphering the relationships between tannins and their bioactivities in terms of animal nutrition or health. Degradation with benzyl mercaptan (thiolysis) provides information on proanthocyanidin composition, but proanthocyanidins in several sainfoin silages have proved resistant to thiolysis. We now report that a pretreatment step with sodium hydroxide prior to thiolysis was needed to enable their analysis. This alkaline treatment increased their extractability from ensiled sainfoin and facilitated especially the release of larger proanthocyanidins. Ensiling reduced assayable proanthocyanidins by 29%, but the composition of the remaining proanthocyanidins in silage resembled that of the fresh plants.

  4. Sodium hydroxide-mediated hydrogel of citrus pectin for preparation of fluorescent carbon dots for bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi Juan; Zhang, Wen Lin; Zhou, Zhi Qin

    2014-11-01

    The citrus process industry produces annually a huge amount of pomace, which is a rich source of citrus pectin. Here, we report the hydrogel of citrus pectin mediated by sodium hydroxide can be used to prepare fluorescent carbon dots (CDs). The introduction of hydrogel can not only make the temperature of the hydrothermal reaction down to 100 °C, but also avoid visually carbonized precipitates in the synthesis process even up to 180 °C. The as-synthesized CDs are well dispersed in water with an average size of 2.7 nm and show cyan fluorescence with high photostability, good biocompatibility. Furthermore, the CDs can act as a potential fluorescent probe for cell imaging. Citrus pectin as a non-toxic carbonaceous precursor for preparation of fluorescent CDs provides a new approach for the efficient utilization of citrus germplasm in future.

  5. Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn-Al layered double hydroxide morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Ceren; Unal, Ugur; Yagci Acar, Havva

    2012-03-01

    In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed.

  6. Effect of Berry Size and Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment on the Drying Characteristics of Blueberries under Infrared Radiation Heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research studied the effect on the drying characteristics of blueberries under infrared radiation (IR) heating of berry size and dipping pretreatment in hot sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Changes in the microstructure and diffusion coefficient of the berries after the NaOH pretreatment were...

  7. Sedimentation and deformation of an aqueous sodium hydroxide drop in vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Andrew; Hyacinthe, Hyaquino; Ward, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The addition of water droplets in fuels is known to provide benefits such as decreased Nitrous Oxide NOx emissions. Unfortunately the shelf life of a water-fuel emulsion is limited by the sedimentation rate of the water droplets. It is well known that adding surfactants can significantly slow the sedimentation rate due to the introduction of Marangoni stresses. In the case of a vegetable oil fuel, adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the water droplets will produce surfactants through saponification in the form of sodium-carboxylate salts. Pendant drops of aqueous NaOH solutions with pH between 11 and 13 will be suspended in several oils such as corn, olive, canola and soybean oil in order to measure the interfacial tension. The change in interfacial tension with time will be used to estimate the surfactant concentration and the saponification rate. Then individual drops will be placed in the oils to observe the settling velocity and drop deformation. NSF CBET.

  8. Cytotoxicity of endodontic irrigants containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from mouse L929 cell line.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Sérgio Valmor; Barroso, Cristiane Maria Sodré; Ruiz, Patrícia Alvarez

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of root canal irrigating solutions containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from L929 cell line. Saturated calcium hydroxide aqueous solution (CH), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and SLS associated with calcium hydroxide (HCT20) were diluted with sterile distilled water at 50%, 20%, 10% and 5% concentrations. Minimum essential medium (MEM) served as the control group. The cytotoxicity of the solutions was evaluated on L929 mouse fibroblast cell line, at 4 and 24 h of contact time by the 51Cr radiotracer method. Data were compared and statistical inferences were made with the chi-square test. In all analysis, significance level was set at 5%. CH and HCT20 showed toxicity at 50% concentration, while at concentrations lower than 50% these solutions showed cell tolerance. SLS was cytotoxic at all concentrations. In conclusion, the association of calcium hydroxide and SLS (HCT20) combines the beneficial properties of these solutions and was not harmful to the fibroblast cell line, seeming to be a suitable endodontic irrigating solution.

  9. Hg/HgO electrode and hydrogen evolution potentials in aqueous sodium hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickell, Ryan A.; Zhu, Wenhua H.; Payne, Robert U.; Cahela, Donald R.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    The Hg/HgO electrode is usually utilized as a reference electrode in alkaline solution such as for development of an alkaline hydrogen electrode. The reference electrode provides a suitable reference point but is available from few commercial vendors and suffers from inadequate documentation on potential in varying electrolytes. A new numerical method uses activity, activity coefficients, and a few correlated empirical equations to determine the potential values in both dilute and concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at temperatures of 0-90 °C and at concentrations of 0.100-12.8 mol k gH2O-1 . The computed potentials of the Hg/HgO electrodes versus a normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) at 25 °C and 1 atm are 0.1634 V for 0.100m, 0.1077 V for 1.00m, and 0.0976 V for 1.45m NaOH solutions. The Hg/HgO reduction potential further changes to -0.0751 V versus NHE and hydrogen evolution potential changes to -0.9916 V versus NHE in a solution of 30.0 wt.% NaOH at 80 °C. The calculated values are compared with the measured data at 25 and 75 °C. The experimental data agree well with the numerical values computed from the theoretical and empirical equations.

  10. Step enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium hydroxide-pretreated Chinese liquor distillers' grains for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue-Hong; Wu, Zheng-Yun; Yang, Jian; Yuan, Yu-Ju; Zhang, Wen-Xue

    2014-01-01

    Distillers' grains are a co-product of ethanol production. In China, only a small portion of distillers' grains have been used to feed the livestock because the amount was so huge. Nowadays, it has been reported that the distillers' grains have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they are composed of lignocelluloses and residual starch. In order to effectively convert distillers' grains to fuel ethanol and other valuable production, sodium hydroxide pretreatment, step-by-step enzymatic hydrolysis, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were investigated. The residual starch was first recycled from wet distillers' grains (WDG) with glucoamylase to obtain glucose-rich liquid. The total sugar concentration was 21.3 g/L, and 111.9% theoretical starch was hydrolyzed. Then the removed-starch dry distillers' grains (RDDG) were pretreated with NaOH under optimal conditions and the pretreated dry distillers' grains (PDDG) were used for xylanase hydrolysis. The xylose concentration was 19.4 g/L and 68.6% theoretical xylose was hydrolyzed. The cellulose-enriched dry distillers' grains (CDDG) obtained from xylanase hydrolysis were used in SSF for ethanol production. The ethanol concentration was 42.1 g/L and the ethanol productivity was 28.7 g/100 g CDDG. After the experiment, approximately 80.6% of the fermentable sugars in WDG was converted to ethanol.

  11. Step enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium hydroxide-pretreated Chinese liquor distillers' grains for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue-Hong; Wu, Zheng-Yun; Yang, Jian; Yuan, Yu-Ju; Zhang, Wen-Xue

    2014-01-01

    Distillers' grains are a co-product of ethanol production. In China, only a small portion of distillers' grains have been used to feed the livestock because the amount was so huge. Nowadays, it has been reported that the distillers' grains have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they are composed of lignocelluloses and residual starch. In order to effectively convert distillers' grains to fuel ethanol and other valuable production, sodium hydroxide pretreatment, step-by-step enzymatic hydrolysis, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were investigated. The residual starch was first recycled from wet distillers' grains (WDG) with glucoamylase to obtain glucose-rich liquid. The total sugar concentration was 21.3 g/L, and 111.9% theoretical starch was hydrolyzed. Then the removed-starch dry distillers' grains (RDDG) were pretreated with NaOH under optimal conditions and the pretreated dry distillers' grains (PDDG) were used for xylanase hydrolysis. The xylose concentration was 19.4 g/L and 68.6% theoretical xylose was hydrolyzed. The cellulose-enriched dry distillers' grains (CDDG) obtained from xylanase hydrolysis were used in SSF for ethanol production. The ethanol concentration was 42.1 g/L and the ethanol productivity was 28.7 g/100 g CDDG. After the experiment, approximately 80.6% of the fermentable sugars in WDG was converted to ethanol. PMID:24397718

  12. Effects of phosphorus on corrosion resistance of electroless nickel in 50% sodium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zeller, R.L. III ); Salvati, L. )

    1994-06-01

    Nickel (Ni) and electroless nickel (EN) coatings are used extensively in caustic soda (NaOH) service. The corrosion resistance of an EN coating is dependent upon phosphorus (P) content, but not in the trend expected. High-phosphorus EN (HPEN) coatings have poorer corrosion resistance in hot, concentrated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) than low-phosphorus (LPEN) and medium-phosphorus (MPEN) coatings, which have a corrosion resistance comparable to Ni. The purpose of this work was to quantify the effect of P in EN coatings on their corrosion resistance in 50% NaOH at room temperature (RT). Electrochemical techniques were used to investigate the corrosion processes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize coating surfaces. Very low corrosion rates ([<=] [mu]m/y) were measured for all coatings. It was proposed that the detrimental effect of P in EN coatings exposed to a concentrated NaOH environment was a result of the higher solubility of nickel phosphate (Ni[sub 3][PO[sub 4

  13. Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaini, Mariana Binti Mohd; Badri, Khairiah Haji

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber.

  14. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of ensiled sorghum forage and wheat straw to increase methane production.

    PubMed

    Sambusiti, C; Ficara, E; Rollini, M; Manzoni, M; Malpei, F

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sodium hydroxide pretreatment on the chemical composition and the methane production of ensiled sorghum forage and wheat straw. NaOH pretreatment was conducted in closed bottles, at 40 °C for 24 h. Samples were soaked in a NaOH solution at different dosages (expressed in terms of total solids (TS) content) of 1 and 10% gNaOH/gTS, with a TS concentration of 160 gTS/L. At the highest NaOH dosage the reduction of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was 31, 66 and 44%, and 13, 45 and 3% for sorghum and wheat straw, respectively. The concentration of soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) in the liquid phase after the pretreatment was also improved both for wheat straw and sorghum (up to 24 and 33%, respectively). Total sugars content increased up to five times at 10% gNaOH/gTS with respect to control samples, suggesting that NaOH pretreatment improves the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses. The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests showed that the NaOH pretreatment favoured the anaerobic degradability of both substrates. At 1 and 10% NaOH dosages, the methane production increased from 14 to 31% for ensiled sorghum forage and from 17 to 47% for wheat straw. The first order kinetic constant increased up to 65% for sorghum and up to 163% for wheat straw.

  15. Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn-Al layered double hydroxide morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, Ceren; Unal, Ugur; Yagci Acar, Havva

    2012-03-15

    In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Dependence of ZnAl LDH Morphology on SDS concentration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-situ intercalation of SDS in ZnAl LDH was achieved via urea hydrolysis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology of ZnAl LDH intercalated with SDS depended on the SDS concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ring like morphology for SDS intercalated ZnAl LDH was obtained for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth mechanism was discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Template assisted growth of ZnAl LDH was proposed.

  16. Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zaini, Mariana Binti Mohd; Badri, Khairiah Haji

    2014-09-03

    This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber.

  17. Optimization of isolation of cellulose from orange peel using sodium hydroxide and chelating agents.

    PubMed

    Bicu, Ioan; Mustata, Fanica

    2013-10-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize cellulose recovery from orange peel using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as isolation reagent, and to minimize its ash content using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as chelating agent. The independent variables were NaOH charge, EDTA charge and cooking time. Other two constant parameters were cooking temperature (98 °C) and liquid-to-solid ratio (7.5). The dependent variables were cellulose yield and ash content. A second-order polynomial model was used for plotting response surfaces and for determining optimum cooking conditions. The analysis of coefficient values for independent variables in the regression equation showed that NaOH and EDTA charges were major factors influencing the cellulose yield and ash content, respectively. Optimum conditions were defined by: NaOH charge 38.2%, EDTA charge 9.56%, and cooking time 317 min. The predicted cellulose yield was 24.06% and ash content 0.69%. A good agreement between the experimental values and the predicted was observed.

  18. Antigen retrieval using sodium hydroxide for prion immunohistochemistry in bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie.

    PubMed

    Okada, H; Sato, Y; Sata, T; Sakurai, M; Endo, J; Yokoyama, T; Mohri, S

    2011-05-01

    Formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections are usually used for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses in prion diseases in animals and man. However, formalin fixation cross-links proteins, reducing disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) immunolabelling. To detect PrP(Sc) in animals naturally affected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie, we applied minimal pretreatment with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). This simple pretreatment, combined with enzymatic digestion using proteinase K (PK), was equally effective in the detection of PrP(Sc) in FFPE tissue, and superior in terms of speed, compared with the usual autoclaving method. The most effective results, without any section loss, were obtained with 10 μg/ml PK in phosphate buffered saline containing 0.1% Triton-X at room temperature for 10 min and 150 mM NaOH at 60 °C for 10 min. By this simple procedure, PrP(Sc) was visualized in the brain of animals with BSE and scrapie using a range of anti-PrP primary antibodies.

  19. Pretreatment of switchgrass for sugar production with the combination of sodium hydroxide and lime.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiele; Cheng, Jay J

    2011-02-01

    Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and lime (Ca(OH)(2)) were innovatively used together in this study to improve the cost-effectiveness of alkaline pretreatment of switchgrass at ambient temperature. Based on the sugar production in enzymatic hydrolysis, the best pretreatment conditions were determined as: residence time of 6h, NaOH loading of 0.10 g/g raw biomass, NaOH addition at the beginning, Ca(OH)(2) loading of 0.02 g/g raw biomass, and biomass wash intensity of 100ml water/g raw biomass, at which the glucose and xylose yields were respectively 59.4% and 57.3% of the theoretical yields. The sugar yield of the biomass pretreated using the combination of 0.10 g NaOH/g raw biomass and 0.02 g Ca(OH)(2)/g raw biomass was found comparable with that of the biomass pretreated using 0.20 g NaOH/g raw biomass at the same conditions, while the chemical expense was remarkably reduced due to the low cost of lime and the reduced loading of NaOH.

  20. Process Flow Chart for Immobilizing of Radioactive High Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Product from the Sodium Processing Facility at the BN-350 Nuclear power plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect

    Burkitbayev, M.; Omarova, K.; Tolebayev, T.; Galkin, A.; Bachilova, N.; Blynskiy, A.; Maev, V.; Wells, D.; Herrick, A.; Michelbacher, J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the results of a joint research investigations carried out by the group of Kazakhstan, British and American specialists in development of a new material for immobilization of radioactive 35% sodium hydroxide solutions from the sodium coolant processing facility of the BN-350 nuclear power plant. The resulting solid matrix product, termed geo-cement stone, is capable of isolating long lived radionuclides from the environment. The physico-mechanical properties of geo-cement stone have been investigated and the flow chart for its production verified in a full scale experiments. (author)

  1. Production of L-lactic acid by a thermophilic Bacillus mutant using sodium hydroxide as neutralizing agent.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Xiuwen; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ma, Cuiqing; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2010-10-01

    A sodium lactate tolerant mutant strain named Bacillus sp. Na-2 was obtained and applied to sodium hydroxide-based L-lactic acid (LA) production process. The influences of aeration and pH were investigated to further improve the resistance of strain Na-2 against sodium lactate stress and to obtain the most efficient L-LA production process. Although mild aeration was favorable for cell growth and L-LA production, vigorous aeration resulted in a metabolic shift from homolactic to mixed-acid/acetoin fermentation. Therefore, a two-stage aeration control strategy was employed. Optimum pH was found to be 6.0. A total of 106.0 g/l L-LA was produced in 30 h by Bacillus sp. Na-2 using sodium hydroxide as neutralizing agent. Productivity, conversion rate and optical purity were 3.53 g/l/h, 94% and 99.5%, respectively. The remarkable fermentation traits of Bacillus sp. Na-2 and the environment-friendly characteristics of NaOH-based process represent new insight for industrial scale production of L-LA.

  2. Sodium Hydroxide Pinpoint Pressing Permeation Method for the Animal Modeling of Sick Sinus Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geng, Naizhi; Jiang, Ning; Peng, Cailiang; Wang, Huaiping; Zhang, Shuoxin; Chen, Tianyu; Liu, Lixia; Wu, Yaping; Liu, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    Sodium hydroxide pinpoint pressing permeation (SHPPP) was investigated in order to build a rat model of sick sinus syndrome (SSS), which is easy to operate and control the degree of damage, with fewer complications and applicable for large and small animals.Thirty healthy Wistar rats (15 males and 15 females, weighing 250-350 g) were randomly divided into 3 groups, namely a formaldehyde thoracotomy wet compressing group (FTWC), formaldehyde pinpoint pressing permeation group (FPPP) group, and SHPPP group. The number of surviving rats, heart rate (HR), sinoatrial node recovery time (SNRT), corrected SNRT (CSNRT), and sinoatrial conduction time (SACT) were recorded 3 days, one week, and two weeks after modeling.The achievement ratio of modeling was 10% in the FTWC group, 40% in the FPPP group, and 70% in the SHPPP group, and the differences were statistically significant (χ(2) = 7.250, P = 0.007). Meanwhile, the HR was reduced by about 37% in these 3 groups 3 days after modeling, while the reduction was maintained only in SHPPP (P > 0.05) and the HR was re-elevated in the FTWC and FPPP groups 2 weeks after modeling (P < 0.05). Additionally, the SNRT, cS-NRT, and SACT were significantly prolonged compared with pre-modeling in all 3 groups (P < 0.01).SHPPP was the best method with which to build an SSS model with stable and lasting low HR and high success rate of modeling, which might be helpful for further studies on the SSS mechanisms and drugs.

  3. Microscopic changes with acetic acid and sodium hydroxide in the rabbit low-volume eye test.

    PubMed

    Maurer, J K; Parker, R D

    2000-01-01

    Differences in ocular irritancy have been hypothesized to reflect differences in the extent of initial injury. Although differences in the processes leading to tissue damage may exist, extent of injury is believed to be the principal factor determining final outcome of ocular irritation. Previous studies characterizing the pathology of surfactant-induced ocular irritation support this premise. The purpose of this study was to begin to determine the applicability of this premise in terms of nonsurfactants; we planned to accomplish this by assessing the ocular irritancy of different concentrations of an acid and an alkali. Ten microliters of 3 or 10% acetic acid (C2H4O2) or 2 or 8% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were directly applied to the cornea of the right eye of each test rabbit. Untreated left eyes served as the controls. Eyes and eyelids were macroscopically examined for signs of irritation beginning 3 hours after dosing and periodically until recovery or day 35. Eyes and eyelids from animals in each group were collected for microscopic examination after 3 hours and on days 1, 3, and 35. The macroscopic and microscopic changes were consistent with slight (3% C2H4O2), mild (2% NaOH, 10% C2H4O2), and severe (8% NaOH) irritancy. The spectra of changes were similar to those previously reported for surfactants of differing types and irritancies. As with surfactants, as the extent of initial injury increased, the intensity and duration of the subsequent responses increased. These results indicate that our hypothesis also applies to nonsurfactants. The results also support our belief that the initial extent of injury associated with ocular irritation may be used to predict the subsequent responses and final outcome. Finally, our results further indicate that such an approach may be applicable to the development of alternative assays that are based on either injury to ex vivo eyes or injury to an in vitro corneal equivalent system.

  4. Control of the surface charge density of colloidal silica by sodium hydroxide in salt-freeand low-salt dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Junpei; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Ise, Norio; Yamaguchi, Takuji

    1997-03-01

    Electrical conductivity measurements and conductometric titrations were performed on dilute salt-free aqueous dispersion of a colloidal silica (diameter: 0.11+/-0.01×10-6nm) whose charge number can be varied with the quantity of coexisting sodium hydroxide. In the absence of sodium hydroxide, the silica particle had an effective (net) surface charge density σe of 8×10-8nC cm-2. Titrations by hydrochloric acid were performed in the presence of sodium hydroxide. When the NaOH concentration was sufficiently high, the titration curve could be divided into three regions with regard to slope values. These regions could be ascribed to titrations of excess sodium hydroxide, ionizable surface groups having Na ions as counterions, and excess hydrochloric acid. The analytical surface charge density σa, estimated from the titration curves, increased with increasing [NaOH]. It was found that the concentrations of Na and OH ions in excess were negligible when the [NaOH] was smaller than 2.5×10-4nM and the volume fraction of the silica, φ, was larger than 2.6×10-3. The value of σa at this threshold was 1.8×10-5nC cm-2. Under these conditions we could control the σa value by varying [NaOH]. The present system provides larger possibilities in studying the influence of charge density on the physico-chemical properties of ionic colloidal systems. Viscosity measurements were performed for salt-free and low-salt dispersions at [NaOH]'s where its excess concentration was found to be negligible. The σa dependence of the viscosity was in good agreement with previous results obtained from ionic latices having various σa's. A relationship between the effective charge density at an infinite dilution, σe\\|φ=0, and σa was examined for latex systems. An empirical relation, ln σe\\|φ=0=0.49 ln σa-1.0, was obtained by using σe\\|φ=0 values determined by the conductivity for latices with various σa's from 0.21×10-6 to 5.6×10-6nC cm-2. By assuming that this relation holds

  5. The structure of aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions: a combined solution x-ray diffraction and simulation study.

    PubMed

    Megyes, Tünde; Bálint, Szabolcs; Grósz, Tamás; Radnai, Tamás; Bakó, Imre; Sipos, Pál

    2008-01-28

    To determine the structure of aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions, results obtained from x-ray diffraction and computer simulation (molecular dynamics and Car-Parrinello) have been compared. The capabilities and limitations of the methods in describing the solution structure are discussed. For the solutions studied, diffraction methods were found to perform very well in describing the hydration spheres of the sodium ion and yield structural information on the anion's hydration structure. Classical molecular dynamics simulations were not able to correctly describe the bulk structure of these solutions. However, Car-Parrinello simulation proved to be a suitable tool in the detailed interpretation of the hydration sphere of ions and bulk structure of solutions. The results of Car-Parrinello simulations were compared with the findings of diffraction experiments.

  6. Benchmarking polarizable molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous sodium hydroxide by diffraction measurements.

    PubMed

    Vácha, Robert; Megyes, Tunde; Bakó, Imre; Pusztai, László; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2009-04-23

    Results from molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous hydroxide of varying concentrations have been compared with experimental structural data. First, the polarizable POL3 model was verified against neutron scattering using a reverse Monte Carlo fitting procedure. It was found to be competitive with other simple water models and well suited for combining with hydroxide ions. Second, a set of four polarizable models of OH- were developed by fitting against accurate ab initio calculations for small hydroxide-water clusters. All of these models were found to provide similar results that robustly agree with structural data from X-ray scattering. The present force field thus represents a significant improvement over previously tested nonpolarizable potentials. Although it cannot in principle capture proton hopping and can only approximately describe the charge delocalization within the immediate solvent shell around OH-, it provides structural data that are almost entirely consistent with data obtained from scattering experiments.

  7. Inhibition of bacterial adhesion on PVC endotracheal tubes by RF-oxygen glow discharge, sodium hydroxide and silver nitrate treatments.

    PubMed

    Balazs, D J; Triandafillu, K; Wood, P; Chevolot, Y; van Delden, C; Harms, H; Hollenstein, C; Mathieu, H J

    2004-05-01

    Medical-grade poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was chemically modified to study how the incorporation of monovalent silver influences Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion and colonization. The modification investigated consisted of a radio frequency-oxygen (RF-O(2)) glow discharge pre-functionalization, followed by a two-step wet-treatment in sodium hydroxide and silver nitrate solutions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis and contact angle measurements were used to investigate the chemical nature and surface wettability of the films following each step of the modification. XPS analysis proved that the RF-O(2) plasma pre-functionalization of native PVC reproducibly increased the amount of functional groups representative of PVC additives, including ether/alcohol, esters and carboxyl groups. More specifically, we demonstrated that the O-C=O groups representative of the phthalic ester and zinc carboxylate additives identified for native PVC increased by two-fold following the RF-O(2) plasma pre-functionalization step. Although RF-O(2) pre-functionalization did not have an effect on the silver content of the NaOH/AgNO(3) treated substrates, such a modification was necessary for biomaterial products that did not have reproducible surfaces amongst production lots. XPS analysis also demonstrated that saponification with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of esters, like those of the phthalic ester additives of PVC is a simple, irreversible method of hydrolysis, which produced sodium carboxylate and sodium phthalate salts. Exposure of native PVC to NaOH resulted in an increased surface hydrophilicity (from ca 90 degrees to ca 60 degrees ) due to dechlorination. XPS analysis following further incubation in silver nitrate demonstrated that silver ions can be trapped when the sodium of sodium carboxylate is replaced by silver after performing a second treatment with a monovalent silver-containing solution. The creation of silver salt on native PVC resulted in an ultra

  8. Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology—High Hydroxide Leaching: FY10 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Neiner, Doinita; Peterson, Reid A.; Rapko, Brian M.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2011-02-04

    Boehmite leaching tests were carried out at NaOH concentrations of 10 M and 12 M, temperatures of 85°C and 60°C, and a range of initial aluminate concentrations. These data, and data obtained during earlier 100°C tests using 1 M and 5 M NaOH, were used to establish the dependence of the boehmite dissolution rate on hydroxide concentration, temperature, and initial aluminate concentration. A semi-empirical kinetic model for boehmite leaching was fitted to the data and used to calculate the NaOH additions required for leaching at different hydroxide concentrations. The optimal NaOH concentration for boehmite leaching at 85°C was estimated, based on minimizing the amount of Na that had to be added in NaOH to produce a given boehmite conversion.

  9. Difluoromethyltrialkylammonium salts--their expeditious synthesis from chlorodifluoromethane and tertiary amines in the presence of concentrated aqueous sodium hydroxide. The catalytic process.

    PubMed

    Nawrot, Ewelina; Joñczyk, Andrzej

    2007-12-21

    We found that difluorocarbene generated from chlorodifluoromethane with 50% aqueous sodium hydroxide reacts with lipophilic tertiary amines 1a-g giving difluoromethyltrialkylammonium chlorides 2a-g in high yields. Similarly, difluoromethyltrialkylammonium iodides 3h-l, nitrates 4h-k, or isothiocyanates 5i,j were synthesized from hydrophilic tertiary amines 1h-l and the corresponding sodium or potassium salts. The process is catalytic with respect to the base used.

  10. Effects of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Aluminate on the Precipitation of Aluminum Containing Species in Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V; Hobbs, David T; Parker, Kent E; McCready, David E; Wang, Li Q

    2006-11-30

    Aluminisilicate deposit buildup experienced during the tank waste volume-reduction process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) required an evaporator to be shut down. Studies were conducted at 80°C to identify the insoluble aluminosilicate phase(s) and to determine the kinetics of their formation and transformation. These tests were carried out under conditions more similar to those that occur in HLW tanks and evaporators. Comparison of our results with those reported from the site show very similar trends. Initially, an amorphous phase precipitates followed by a zeolite phase that transforms to sodalite and which finally converts to cancrinite. Our results also show the expected trend of an increased rate of transformation into denser aluminosilicate phases (sodalite and cancrinite) with time and increasing hydroxide concentrations.

  11. Ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sodium hydroxide treated corn stover using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Gloeophyllum trabeum.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Micky; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-04-01

    Ethanol was produced via the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of dilute sodium hydroxide treated corn stover. Saccharification was achieved by cultivating either Phanerochaete chrysosporium or Gloeophyllum trabeum on the treated stover, and fermentation was then performed by using either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Escherichia coli K011. Ethanol production was highest on day 3 for the combination of G. trabeum and E. coli K011 at 6.68 g/100g stover, followed by the combination of P. chrysosporium and E. coli K011 at 5.00 g/100g stover. SSF with S. cerevisiae had lower ethanol yields, ranging between 2.88 g/100g stover at day 3 (P. chrysosporium treated stover) and 3.09 g/100g stover at day 4 (G. trabeum treated stover). The results indicated that mild alkaline pretreatment coupled with fungal saccharification offers a promising bioprocess for ethanol production from corn stover without the addition of commercial enzymes.

  12. ALUMINUM READINESS EVALUATION FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENRATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; MASSIE HL

    2011-01-27

    A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

  13. Optimization of alkaline sulfite pretreatment and comparative study with sodium hydroxide pretreatment for improving enzymatic digestibility of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Pang, Bo; Wang, Haisong; Li, Haiming; Lu, Jie; Niu, Meihong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, alkaline sulfite pretreatment of corn stover was optimized. The influences of pretreatments on solid yield, delignification, and carbohydrate recovery under different pretreatment conditions and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. The effect of pretreatment was evaluated by enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and the total sugar yield. The optimum pretreatment conditions were obtained, as follows: the total titratable alkali (TTA) of 12%, liquid/solid ratio of 6:1, temperature of 140 °C, and holding time of 20 min. Under those conditions, the solid yield was 55.24%, and the removal of lignin was 82.68%. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan for pretreated corn stover were 85.38% and 70.36%, and the total sugar yield was 74.73% at cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g and β-glucosidase loading of 10 IU/g for 48 h. Compared with sodium hydroxide pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 10.43%. Additionally, the corn stover pretreated under the optimum pretreatment conditions was beaten by PFI at 1500 revolutions. After beating, enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan were 89.74% and 74.06%, and the total sugar yield was 78.58% at the same enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Compared with 1500 rpm of PFI beating after sodium pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 14.05%. PMID:25773993

  14. Optimization of alkaline sulfite pretreatment and comparative study with sodium hydroxide pretreatment for improving enzymatic digestibility of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Pang, Bo; Wang, Haisong; Li, Haiming; Lu, Jie; Niu, Meihong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, alkaline sulfite pretreatment of corn stover was optimized. The influences of pretreatments on solid yield, delignification, and carbohydrate recovery under different pretreatment conditions and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. The effect of pretreatment was evaluated by enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and the total sugar yield. The optimum pretreatment conditions were obtained, as follows: the total titratable alkali (TTA) of 12%, liquid/solid ratio of 6:1, temperature of 140 °C, and holding time of 20 min. Under those conditions, the solid yield was 55.24%, and the removal of lignin was 82.68%. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan for pretreated corn stover were 85.38% and 70.36%, and the total sugar yield was 74.73% at cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g and β-glucosidase loading of 10 IU/g for 48 h. Compared with sodium hydroxide pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 10.43%. Additionally, the corn stover pretreated under the optimum pretreatment conditions was beaten by PFI at 1500 revolutions. After beating, enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan were 89.74% and 74.06%, and the total sugar yield was 78.58% at the same enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Compared with 1500 rpm of PFI beating after sodium pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 14.05%.

  15. Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate and nitrite at Nafion-coated electrodes in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H. |; Chambers, J.Q.; Hobbs, D.T.

    1988-12-31

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrate ions in alkaline solution has been studied using various cathode materials and is the basis for a patent describing the conversion of nitrate into hydroxide ion in carbonate solutions. Recently, Taniguchi et al. have reported that certain well studied transition metal cyclic amine complexes, namely Co(III)-cyclam and Ni(II)-cyclam where cyclam is 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane, efficiently electrocatalyze the reduction of nitrate and nitrite to hydroxylamine at mercury electrodes. Here the authors report that the metal cyclam catalyst can be incorporated into a Nafion film electrode, and that the reduction of nitrate and nitrite proceeds efficiently at these electrodes in concentrated NaOH solution. Nafion is a perfluoroalkanesulfonated cation exchange material that has been widely used to immobilize redox couples at electrode surfaces, including electrocatalysis species.

  16. Comparison of sodium carbonate-oxygen and sodium hydroxide-oxygen pretreatments on the chemical composition and enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Geng, Wenhui; Huang, Ting; Jin, Yongcan; Song, Junlong; Chang, Hou-Min; Jameel, Hasan

    2014-06-01

    Pretreatment of wheat straw with a combination of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with oxygen (O2) 0.5MPa was evaluated for its delignification ability at relatively low temperature 110°C and for its effect on enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. In the pretreatment, the increase of alkali charge (as Na2O) up to 12% for Na2CO3 and 6% for NaOH, respectively, resulted in enhancement of lignin removal, but did not significantly degrade cellulose and hemicellulose. When the pretreated solid was hydrolyzed with a mixture of cellulases and hemicellulases, the sugar yield increased rapidly with the lignin removal during the pretreatment. A total sugar yield based on dry matter of raw material, 63.8% for Na2CO3-O2 and 71.9% for NaOH-O2 was achieved under a cellulase loading of 20FPU/g-cellulose. The delignification efficiency and total sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis were comparable to the previously reported results at much higher temperature without oxygen.

  17. Phase Stability of Chromium(III) Oxide Hydroxide in Alkaline Sodium Phosphate Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Ziemniak; E.P. Opalka

    2003-07-08

    Grimaldiite ({alpha}-CrOOH) is shown to transform to a sodium-chromium(III)-hydroxyphosphate compound (SCHP) in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via CrOOH(s) + 4Na{sup +} + 2HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} = Na{sub 4}Cr(OH)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s) + H{sub 2}O. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that SCHP possesses an orthorhombic lattice having the same space group symmetry (Ibam, No.72) as sodium ferric hydroxyphosphate. A structurally-consistent designation for SCHP is Na{sub 3}Cr(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} NaOH; the molar volume of SCHP is estimated to be 1552 cm{sup 3}. The thermodynamic equilibrium for the above reaction was defined in the system Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O for Na/P molar ratios between 2.0 and 2.4. On the basis of observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the standard molar entropy (S{sup o}), heat capacity (C{sub p}{sup o}) and free energy of formation ({Delta}G{sub f}{sup o}) for SCHP were calculated to be 690 J/(mol-K), 622 J/(mol-K) and -3509.97 kJ/mol, respectively.

  18. Doping magnesium hydroxide with sodium nitrate: a new approach to tune the dehydration reactivity of heat-storage materials.

    PubMed

    Shkatulov, Alexandr; Krieger, Tamara; Zaikovskii, Vladimir; Chesalov, Yurii; Aristov, Yuri

    2014-11-26

    Thermochemical energy storage (TES) provides a challenging approach for improving the efficiency of various energy systems. Magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2, is known as a suitable material for TES at temperature T>300 °C. In this work, the thermal decomposition of Mg(OH)2 in the absence and presence of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) is investigated to adapt this material for TES at T<300 °C. The most notable observations described for the doped Mg(OH)2 are (1) a significant reduction of the decomposition temperature Td that allows tuning the dehydration reactivity by varying the NaNO3 content. The Td decrease by 25 °C is revealed at a salt content Y≤2.0 wt %. The maximum Td depression of some 50 °C is observed at Y=15-20 wt %; (2) the NaNO3-doped Mg(OH)2 decomposes considerably faster under conditions typical for closed TES cycles (at T>300 °C in vapor atmosphere) than a pure Mg(OH)2; (3) the morphology of the dehydration product (MgO) dramatically changes. Differential scanning calorimetry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrational spectroscopy (IR and Raman) are used to study the observed effects and to elucidate possible ways the NaNO3 influences the Mg(OH)2 dehydration and morphology of the dehydration product. The mechanism involving a chemical interaction between the salt and the hydroxide accompanied by nitrate embedding into brucite layers is discussed.

  19. Sodium hydroxide-induced subclinical irritation. A test for evaluating stratum corneum barrier function.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, K P; Pasche, F; Surber, C; Maibach, H I

    1990-01-01

    This report concerns the development of a short, simple, non-invasive test for assessing sensitivity to irritant dermatitis. Application of NaOH (0.005-2.0 mol/l) to human skin resulted in significantly greater skin surface water loss directly after exposure (1-15 min) than of control (water). The increase in skin surface water loss after NaOH application was dose-dependent (0.005-0.1 mol/l) and application time-dependent (1-10 min). Application times exceeding 10 min did not further increase skin surface water loss and doses higher than 0.1 mol/l reversed the effect on skin surface water loss. 15 min after removal of the alkali, skin surface water loss baseline values were almost regained. This procedure did not cause visible reactions or discomfort for the volunteers. In a subsequent experiment, volunteers were exposed to 0.2 mol/l NaOH for 5 min on one forearm and to 1% sodium lauryl sulfate for 24 h contralaterally. Skin surface water loss after 5 min of NaOH application was significantly correlated with transepidermal water loss measurements after 24 h of sodium lauryl sulfate patch application. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of a procedure for quantifying interindividual differences in stratum corneum barrier function without inducing visible changes or causing volunteers discomfort. Use of this model should help to further investigate skin barrier function as well as to test protective devices and barrier creams.

  20. Production of cellulosic ethanol from cotton processing residues after pretreatment with dilute sodium hydroxide and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Fockink, Douglas Henrique; Maceno, Marcelo Adriano Corrêa; Ramos, Luiz Pereira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, production of cellulosic ethanol from two cotton processing residues was investigated after pretreatment with dilute sodium hydroxide. Pretreatment performance was investigated using a 2(2) factorial design and the highest glucan conversion was achieved at the most severe alkaline conditions (0.4g NaOH g(-1) of dry biomass and 120°C), reaching 51.6% and 38.8% for cotton gin waste (CGW) and cotton gin dust (CGD), respectively. The susceptibility of pretreated substrates to enzymatic hydrolysis was also investigated and the best condition was achieved at the lowest total solids (5wt%) and the highest enzyme loading (85mg of Cellic CTec2 g(-1) of dry substrate). However, the highest concentration of fermentable sugars - 47.8 and 42.5gL(-1) for CGD and CGW, respectively - was obtained at 15wt% total solids using this same enzyme loading. Substrate hydrolysates had no inhibitory effects on the fermenting microorganism.

  1. Optimization of hydrolysis and volatile fatty acids production from sugarcane filter cake: Effects of urea supplementation and sodium hydroxide pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Batista, Karla; Weinrich, Sören; Sträuber, Heike; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Different methods for optimization the anaerobic digestion (AD) of sugarcane filter cake (FC) with a special focus on volatile fatty acids (VFA) production were studied. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment at different concentrations was investigated in batch experiments and the cumulative methane yields fitted to a dual-pool two-step model to provide an initial assessment on AD. The effects of nitrogen supplementation in form of urea and NaOH pretreatment for improved VFA production were evaluated in a semi-continuously operated reactor as well. The results indicated that higher NaOH concentrations during pretreatment accelerated the AD process and increased methane production in batch experiments. Nitrogen supplementation resulted in a VFA loss due to methane formation by buffering the pH value at nearly neutral conditions (∼ 6.7). However, the alkaline pretreatment with 6g NaOH/100g FCFM improved both the COD solubilization and the VFA yield by 37%, mainly consisted by n-butyric and acetic acids.

  2. [Determination of total mass and morphology analysis of heavy metal in soil with potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide by ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Qu, Jiao; Yuan, Xing; Cong, Qiao; Wang, Shuang

    2008-11-01

    Blank soil was used as quality controlling samples, soil sample dealt by potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution was used as check sample, mixed acid HNO3-HF-HClO4 was chosen to nitrify soil samples, and plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) was used as detecting method. The authors determined the total metal mass of Mo, Pb, As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni in the extracted and dealt soil samples, and determined the mass of Mo, Pb, As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni in the three chemical morphologies, including acid extractable morphology, oxide associated morphology, and organics associated modality. The experimental results indicated that the different pH of potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution had obvious influence on the total mass of heavy metal and morphology transformation. Except for metal element Pb and Zn, the addition of different pH potassium dihydrogen phosphate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution could accelerate the soil samples nitrification and the total mass determination of heavy metal in the soil samples. The potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution could facilitate the acid extractable morphology of Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb, oxidation associated morphology of As, Hg, Pb and Zn and the organic associated morphology transforming of As and Hg. At pH 5.8, the maximum acid extractable morphology contents of Cu and Hg were 2.180 and 0.632 mg x kg(-1), respectively; at pH 6.2, the maximal oxidation associated morphology content of Pb could achieve 27.792 mg x kg(-1); at pH 6.0, the maximum organic associated morphology content of heavy metal Hg was 4.715 mg x kg(-1).

  3. ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION SUMMARY OF PRIOR LAB-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

    2011-01-27

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  4. Pseudohydroxide Extraction from Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Solutions with 3,5-di-tert-Butylphenol in Isopar® L Modified with 1-Octanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2006-06-01

    Pseudohydroxide extraction (PHE) was investigated for recovery of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) from alkaline process solutions. PHE relies on the deprotonation of a lipophilic weak acid by hydroxide ion with concomitant transfer of sodium ion into an organic phase. Contact of the sodium-loaded organic phase with water results in the reconstitution of the extractant in the organic phase and NaOH in the aqueous phase, thus leading to a process in which NaOH equivalents are transferred from an alkaline feed solution to an aqueous stripping solution. In this work, we researched PHE using a process-friendly diluent—Isopar® L. The lipophilic cation exchanger 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol (35-DTBP) was used as the extractant. The Isopar® L diluent was modified with 1-octanol to improve its solvation properties and the solubility of 35-DTBP so that practical Na+ concentrations could be achieved in the process solvent. The PHE mechanism at process-relevant conditions was explored by Raman and FTIR spectroscopic measurements. Electrospray mass spectroscopic results indicated extensive aggregation of the sodium phenolate at high Na+ loading. An equilibrium computer modeling suggested that the Na+ extraction behavior can be largely explained by the formation of 1:1 and 1:2 Na/35-DTBP species in the organic phase. Extraction isotherms obtained using caustic leaching simulant solutions indicate the potential utility of this approach for recycling NaOH from complex alkaline mixtures.

  5. Effect of berry size and sodium hydroxide pretreatment on the drying characteristics of blueberries under infrared radiation heating.

    PubMed

    Shi, J; Pan, Z; McHugh, T H; Wood, D; Zhu, Y; Avena-Bustillos, R J; Hirschberg, E

    2008-08-01

    This research studied the effect of berry size and dipping pretreatment in hot sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution on the drying characteristics of blueberries under infrared radiation (IR) heating. Changes in the microstructure and diffusion coefficient of the berries after the NaOH pretreatment were also determined using scanning electronic microscopy and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), respectively. To quantify the effect of berry size, non-pretreated bulk blueberries were sorted into 6 groups based on their diameters and dried at 70 degrees C. To determine the effectiveness of NaOH pretreatment in improving drying characteristics, bulk blueberries of different sizes, both nonpretreated and NaOH pretreated, were dried at constant temperatures of 80 and 90 degrees C, and variable temperatures of 70 degrees C for 50 min followed by 90 degrees C for 50 min. The NaOH pretreatment dipped blueberries in 0.1% NaOH solution with fruit to solution ratio 1:1 (w/v) at initial temperature of 93 degrees C for 5 s. Results showed that the drying rate increased with decreased berry size. Average moisture diffusivity was in the range of 5.89 to 8.13 m2/s at 70 degrees C. The NaOH pretreatment increased drying rate and moisture diffusivity and reduced the number of broken berries, especially at high drying temperatures. Results from SEM observation and DVS showed that the increase in diffusivity coefficients of berry coat and loss of intact microstructure in coat and tissue cells might contribute to the effect of NaOH pretreatment on the IR drying of blueberries.

  6. Induction of intestinal metaplasia in rats by N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine but not by sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Kojima, N; Matsukura, N; Shimizu, Y; Yoshiyuki, T; Nishi, K; Wada, M; Tokunaga, A; Tanaka, N; Onda, M; Asano, G

    1987-02-01

    Intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the glandular stomach of male Wistar rats induced by oral administration of N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (ENNG) and/or intubation of 0.1N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was studied as follows. Experiment I, sequential study: Rats in group I were given 100 micrograms/ml ENNG in drinking water for 12 weeks. Rats in group II were given 5 ml of 0.1N NaOH by gastric intubation once a week for 12 weeks. Group III control rats were given tap water. Rats were killed from week 1 until week 69 sequentially. IM was first found at week 26 in group I and at week 58 in groups II and III, its incidence being significantly higher in group I than in the other two groups (P less than 0.01), but without any difference between group II and group III. Experiment II, two-stage carcinogenesis: Rats in groups I and II were treated in the same way as in experiment I, while rats in group III were given 100 micrograms/ml ENNG for 12 weeks, followed by 0.1N NaOH once a week for 12 weeks intragastrically. All rats were killed at week 56. The numbers of metaplastic glands in groups I and III were higher than in group II. Gastric carcinomas were induced in all groups of rats treated with ENNG. The results of these two experiments show that IM is effectively induced by a carcinogen but is not enhanced by regeneration induced by alkaline treatment.

  7. Novel hypertonic saline-sodium hydroxide (HS-SH) method for decontamination and concentration of sputum samples for Mycobacterium tuberculosis microscopy and culture.

    PubMed

    Ganoza, Christian A; Ricaldi, Jessica N; Chauca, José; Rojas, Gabriel; Munayco, César; Agapito, Juan; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Guerra, Humberto

    2008-09-01

    This study evaluated a new decontamination and concentration (DC) method for sputum microscopy and culture. Sputum samples from patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) (n=106) were tested using the proposed hypertonic saline-sodium hydroxide (HS-SH) DC method, the recommended N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium citrate-sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH) DC method and unconcentrated direct smear (Ziehl-Neelsen) techniques for the presence of mycobacteria using Löwenstein-Jensen culture and light microscopy. Of 94 valid specimens, 21 (22.3%) were positive in culture and were further characterized as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The sensitivity for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears was increased from 28.6% using the direct method to 71.4% (HS-SH) and 66.7% (NALC-NaOH) using DC methods. Both concentration techniques were highly comparable for culture (kappa=0.794) and smear (kappa=0.631) for AFB. Thus the proposed HS-SH DC method improved the sensitivity of AFB microscopy compared with a routine unconcentrated direct smear; its performance was comparable to that of the NALC-NaOH DC method for AFB smears and culture, but it was methodologically simpler and less expensive, making it a promising candidate for evaluation by national TB control programmes in developing countries.

  8. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... ESOPHAGUS, INTESTINES, AND STOMACH Blood in the stool Burns of the esophagus (food pipe) and stomach Diarrhea ... too little acid in the blood) Shock SKIN Burns Hives Irritation Holes in the skin or tissue ...

  9. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    MedlinePlus

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  10. Controlling the pH of acid cheese whey in a two-stage anaerobic digester with sodium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E.; Ramkumar, D.R.

    1999-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey offers a two-fold benefit: pollution potential reduction and biogas production. The biogas, as an energy source, could be used to reduce the consumption of traditional fuels in the cheese plant. However, as a result of little or no buffering capacity of whey, the pH of the anaerobic digester drops drastically and the process is inhibited. In this study, the effect of controlling the pH of the second chamber of a two-stage, 150 L anaerobic digester operating on cheese whey on the quality and quantity of biogas and the pollution potential reduction, was investigated using sodium hydroxide. The digester was operated at a temperature of 35 C and a hydraulic retention time of 15 days for three runs (no pH control, pH control with no reseeding, and ph control with reseeding) each lasting 50 days. The results indicated that operating the digester without pH control resulted in a low pH (3.3) which inhibited the methanogenic bacteria. The inhibition was irreversible and the digester did not recover (no methane production) when the pH was restored to 7.0 without reseeding, as the observed increased gas production was a false indication of recovery because the gas was mainly carbon dioxide. The addition of base resulted in a total alkalinity of 12,000 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}. When the system was reseeded and the pH controlled, the total volatile acid concentration was 15,100 mg/L (as acetic acid), with acetic (28%), propionic (21%), butyric (25%), valeric (8%), and caproic (15%) acids as the major constituents. The biogas production was 62.6 L/d (0.84 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d) and the methane content was 60.7%. Reductions of 27.3, 30.4 and 23.3% in the total solids, chemical oxygen demand and total kjeldahl nitrogen were obtained, respectively. The ammonium nitrogen content increased significantly (140%).

  11. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hymøller, L; Hellwing, A L F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2014-05-01

    Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich

  12. Effects of sodium hydroxide treatment of dried distillers' grains on digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and metabolic acidosis of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Freitas, T B; Relling, A E; Pedreira, M S; Santana Junior, H A; Felix, T L

    2016-02-01

    The objectives were to determine the optimum inclusion of NaOH necessary to buffer the acidity of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) and its effects on digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and metabolic acidosis in feedlot steers. Rumen cannulated Angus-crossed steers were blocked by BW (small: 555 ± 42 kg initial BW, = 4; large: 703 ± 85 kg initial BW, = 4) over four 21-d periods in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Steers were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) 50% untreated DDGS, 2) 50% DDGS treated with 0.5% (DM basis) sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 3) 50% DDGS treated with 1.0% (DM basis) NaOH, and 4) 50% DDGS treated with 1.5% (DM basis) NaOH. The remainder of the diets, on a DM basis, was composed of 20% corn silage, 20% dry-rolled corn, and 10% supplement. Ruminal pH was not affected by treatments ( = 0.56) or by a treatment × time interaction ( = 0.15). In situ NDF and ruminal DM disappearance did not differ ( ≥ 0.49 and ≥ 0.47, respectively) among treatments. Similar to in situ results, apparent total tract DM and NDF digestibility were not affected ( ≥ 0.33 and ≥ 0.21, respectively) by increasing NaOH inclusion in the diets. Urinary pH increased (linear, < 0.01) with increasing NaOH concentration in the diet. Blood pH was not affected ( ≥ 0.20), and blood total CO and partial pressure of CO were similar ( ≥ 0.56 and ≥ 0.17, respectively) as NaOH increased in the diet. Increasing NaOH in the diet did not affect ( ≥ 0.21) ruminal concentrations of total VFA. There were no linear ( = 0.20) or quadratic ( = 0.20) effects of treatment on ruminal acetate concentrations, nor was there a treatment × time interaction ( = 0.22) for acetate. Furthermore, there were no effects ( ≥ 0.90) of NaOH inclusion on ruminal propionate concentration. However, there was a quadratic response ( = 0.01) of ruminal butyrate concentrations as NaOH inclusion increased in the diet; ruminal butyrate concentrations were greatest with the 0.5 and 1

  13. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hymøller, L; Hellwing, A L F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2014-05-01

    Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich

  14. Kinetic Study of Mass Transfer by Sodium Hydroxide in Nickel Under Free-convection Conditions /by Don R. Mosher and Robert A. Lad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, Don R; Lad, Robert A

    1954-01-01

    An investigation was conducted using static capsules fabricated from "L" nickel tubing to determine the effect of temperature level, temperature gradient, and test duration on corrosion and mass transfer by molten sodium hydroxide under free-convection conditions. A base temperature range from 1000 degrees to 1600 degrees F with temperature differences to 500 degrees was studied. The rate of mass transfer was found to be strongly dependent on both temperature level and gradient. The rate shows little tendency to decrease for test durations up to 200 hours, although the concentration of nickel in the melt approaches a limited value after 100 hours.

  15. Structural and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from alite hydration in the presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, Oscar; Giraldo, Carolina; Camargo, Sergio S.

    2015-08-15

    This research evaluates the effect of sodium and potassium hydroxide on the structure and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from the hydration of pure alite. Monoclinic (MIII) alite was synthesized and hydrated, using water-to-alite ratios of 0.5 and 0.6 and additions of 10% NaOH and KOH by weight of alite. Based on results of X-ray diffraction, isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and nanoindentation, two different effects of the alkaline hydroxides on the hydration reaction of alite, both at early and later ages, can be identified: (i) a differentiated hydration process, attributed to an enhancement in calcium hydroxide (CH) precipitation and a stimulation of the C-S-H nuclei; and (ii) an increase in the elastic modulus of the C-S-H aggregations, attributed to an electrostatic attraction between positive charges from the alkaline cations and negative charges from the C-S-H structure.

  16. Flowsheet Modeling and Testing of Pseudohydroxide Extraction from Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Solutions with 3,5-di-tert-Butylphenol in Isopar® L Modified with Exxal® 8

    SciTech Connect

    Arm, Stuart T.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2007-09-01

    A conceptual counter-current process flowsheet was developed for sodium hydroxide recovery from alkaline solutions via pseudohydroxide extraction (PHE). PHE relies on a simple sodium ion/proton exchange mechanism at elevated pH using a weak organic acid extractant. Contact of the sodium-loaded organic phase with water results in the reconstitution of the extractant in the organic phase and sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase. In this work, the 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol (35-DTBP) cation exchanger was used in the Isopar® L diluent modified with isooctyl alcohol Exxal® 8. Equilibrium isotherms determined for PHE from pure sodium hydroxide solutions and simulated radioactive waste leachate were used to develop a semi-empirical model that could be used for designing PHE process flowsheets. Using this model, a conceptual PHE flowsheet was developed for recovering NaOH from solutions generated by caustic leaching of radioactive tank sludges. The flowsheet consists of extraction, scrub, and strip processes, each employing four equilibrium stages. Modeling of this flowsheet indicates 97% recovery of the sodium hydroxide from the waste leachate feed solution. An experimental demonstration, performed with a simulated radioactive waste leachate using batch contacts in a co-current analog of the counter-current flowsheet, confirmed the potential for practical application of PHE technology.

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of the protolytic dissociation constants of the new chromogenic reagent "palladiazo"-I Investigations with sodium hydroxide, perchloric acid and different aqueous buffer solutions.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Butsamante, J A; Burriel-Martí, F

    1971-02-01

    The "palladiazo" reagent has been subjected to a detailed spectrophotometric investigation in concentrated perchloric acid, different aqueous buffers and concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions. K(1)-K(10) and (1)-(10) values corresponding to the instability constants of the protolytic equilibria involved and to the molar absorptivities at 540 and 630 run of the different proton complex species of the system have been calculated by a number of analytical and graphical spectrophotometric methods. Special attention has been paid to the study of the complicated phenomena implied by the interaction of the reagent with perchloric acid, which has been shown to give rise to alteration of the initial isomeric composition of the reagent and to the formation of addition and/or oxidation products derived from side-reactions undergone by the reagent with the medium. All the instability constants and molar absorptivities, which have been determined by several methods, are tabulated for comparison.

  18. Subcritical water liquefaction of oil palm fruit press fiber in the presence of sodium hydroxide: an optimisation study using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Hossein; Lee, Keat Teong; Bhatia, Subhash; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-12-01

    Thermal decomposition of oil palm fruit press fiber (FPF) into a liquid product (LP) was achieved using subcritical water treatment in the presence of sodium hydroxide in a high pressure batch reactor. This study uses experimental design and process optimisation tools to maximise the LP yield using response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The independent variables were temperature, residence time, particle size, specimen loading, and additive loading. The mathematical model that was developed fit the experimental results well for all of the response variables that were studied. The optimal conditions were found to be a temperature of 551 K, a residence time of 40 min, a particle size of 710-1000 microm, a specimen loading of 5 g, and a additive loading of 9 wt.% to achieve a LP yield of 76.16%.

  19. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, citric acid and phosphoric acid in calcium hydroxide removal from the root canal: a microscopic cleanliness evaluation.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana Melo; Silveira, Amanda; Santos, Elizandra; Prado, Laiìs; Pessoa, Oscar F

    2011-12-01

    Rooted molars were subjected to standardized canal instrumentation to a master apical file (MAF). The samples were dressed with Ca(OH)(2), and after 7 days, teeth were reopened and Ca(OH)(2) medication was removed by 1 of 4 different experimental procedures: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (n = 10); 17% EDTA-T (n = 10); 10% citric acid (n = 10); or 37% phosphoric acid (n = 10). This was followed by reinstrumentation with MAF plus 15 mL saline solution. The roots were prepared for scanning electron microscopic analysis of the cervical, middle, and apical thirds. Statistical analysis was performed with the Kruskal-Wallis test. EDTA-T and phosphoric acid gave the best results in the apical third, with significant statistical differences compared with other groups. NaOCl gave the worst results. Irrigation with 17% EDTA-T and 37% phosphoric acid is more effective than sodium hypochlorite and citric acid in the removal of calcium hydroxide from the apical third.

  20. Interlaboratory study of free cyanide methods compared to total cyanide measurements and the effect of preservation with sodium hydroxide for secondary- and tertiary-treated waste water samples.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Brett J; Antonio, Karen

    2012-11-01

    Several methods exist for the measurement of cyanide levels in treated wastewater,typically requiring preservation of the sample with sodium hydroxide to minimize loss of hydrogen cyanide gas (HCN). Recent reports have shown that cyanide levels may increase with chlorination or preservation. In this study, three flow injection analysis methods involving colorimetric and amperometric detection were compared within one laboratory, as well as across separate laboratories and equipment. Split wastewater samples from eight facilities and three different sampling periods were tested. An interlaboratory confidence interval of 3.5 ppb was calculated compared with the intralaboratory reporting limit of 2 ppb. The results show that free cyanide measurements are not statistically different than total cyanide levels. An artificial increase in cyanide level is observed with all methods for preserved samples relative to nonpreserved samples, with an average increase of 2.3 ppb. The possible loss of cyanide without preservation is shown to be statistically insignificant if properly stored up to 48 hours. The cyanide increase with preservation is further substantiated with the method of standard additions and is not a matrix interference. The increase appears to be correlated with the amount of cyanide observed without preservation, which appears to be greater in those facilities that disinfect their wastewater with chlorine, followed by dechlorination with sodium bisulfite.

  1. Understanding the formation mechanism of graphene frameworks synthesized by solvothermal and rapid pyrolytic processes based on an alcohol-sodium hydroxide system.

    PubMed

    Cui, Huijuan; Zheng, Jianfeng; Yang, Pengju; Zhu, Yanyan; Wang, Zhijian; Zhu, Zhenping

    2015-06-01

    The determination of ways to facilitate the 2D-oriented assembly of carbons into graphene instead of other carbon structures while restraining the π-π stacking interaction is a challenge for the controllable bulk synthesis of graphene, which is vital both scientifically and technically. In this study, graphene frameworks (GFs) are synthesized by solvothermal and rapid pyrolytic processes based on an alcohol-sodium hydroxide system. The evolution mechanism of GFs is investigated systematically. Under sodium catalysis, the abundant carbon atoms produced by the fast decomposition of solvothermal intermediate self-assembled to graphene. The existence of abundant ether bonds may be favorable for 3D graphene formation. More importantly, GFs were successfully obtained using acetic acid as the carbon source in the synthetic process, suggesting the reasonability of analyzing the formation mechanism. It is quite possible to determine more favorable routes to synthesize graphene under this cognition. The electrochemical energy storage capacity of GFs was also studied, which revealed a high supercapacitor performance with a specific capacitance of 310.7 F/g at the current density of 0.2 A/g.

  2. Aluminum Hydroxide

    MedlinePlus

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  3. Magnesium Hydroxide

    MedlinePlus

    Magnesium hydroxide is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Magnesium hydroxide come as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It usually is taken as ...

  4. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of a new layered sodium nickel hydroxide phosphate, Na2Ni3(OH)2(PO4)2.

    PubMed

    Yakubovich, Olga; Kiriukhina, Galina; Dimitrova, Olga; Volkov, Anatoly; Golovanov, Alexey; Volkova, Olga; Zvereva, Elena; Baidya, Santu; Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri; Vasiliev, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Mixed sodium nickel hydroxide phosphate, Na2Ni3(OH)2(PO4)2, has been synthesized hydrothermally from the system NiCO3-Na4P2O7-NaCl-H2O. Its monoclinic crystal structure has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction: a = 14.259(5), b = 5.695(2), c = 4.933(1) Å, β = 104.28(3)°, space group C2/m, Z = 2, ρc = 3.816 g cm(-3), R = 0.026. The underlying spin model has been characterized in terms of first-principles electronic structure calculations. The compound is formed by alternating layers of [NiO6] octahedra and [NaO7] polyhedra, combined in the [100] direction with tetrahedral [PO4] oxocomplexes and hydrogen bonds. The novel phase is treated as an isostructural variant of the two-dimensional potassium manganese hydroxide vanadate, K2Mn3(OH)2(VO4)2, which can be formally obtained by morphotropic substitutions of all positions in the cationic sublattice. The stripe arrangement of Ni(2+) ions (S = 1) within [NiO4(OH)2] layers of Na2Ni3(OH)2(PO4)2 is unique in the sense that its magnetic topology places it in between widely discussed honeycomb and kagomé lattices. The Na2Ni3(OH)2(PO4)2 is a low-dimensional magnet, which reaches the short-range correlation regime at Tmax = 38.4 K and orders antiferromagnetically at TN = 33.4 K.

  5. SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2011-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the

  6. Effect of culture complex of BMSCs and sodium hydroxide- and GRGDSPC-treated PET on the reconstruction of injured anterior cruciate ligament in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jianming; Chen, Fengrong; Jian, Guojian; Ye, Zhiyang; Wang, Zimin; Liu, Haoyuan; Kang, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Ligament reconstruction is an effective therapy for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligaments have recently gained popularity in clinical ACL reconstruction for its advantage in the improvement of keen function. However, the application of PET in clinical treatment is limited by its poor bioactivity and biocompatibility. Recently, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been widely studied in regenerative medical therapy due to their multi-lineage differentiation. Previous study also indicated that BMSCs may promote the healing of tendon-bone interface of injured ligament. We speculate that BMSCs may enhance the curative effect of PET artificial ligament on the tendon-bone-healing in ligament reconstruction. In this study, the PET materials were first modified with sodium hydroxide hydrolysis and GRGDSPC peptide which was able to improve its bioactivity and biocompatibility. Then, the effects of modified PET materials on the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs were examined. The in vitro co-culture of BMSCs and modified PET showed the modified PET promoted the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs. Further, the effect of culture complex of BMSCs and modified PET artificial ligament co-culture system on the injured ligament reconstruction was investigated in vivo. Results showed not only better growth and differentiation of BMSCs but also satisfactory healing of the injured ligament was observed after implantation of this culture complex into the injured ligament of rabbits. Our study provides a brand-new solution for ACL reconstruction. PMID:26221227

  7. An evaluation of the residual toxicity and chemistry of a sodium hydroxide-based ballast water treatment system for freshwater ships.

    PubMed

    Elskus, Adria A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Kemble, Nile E; Echols, Kathy R; Brumbaugh, William G; Henquinet, Jeffrey W; Watten, Barnaby J

    2015-06-01

    Nonnative organisms in the ballast water of freshwater ships must be killed to prevent the spread of invasive species. The ideal ballast water treatment system (BWTS) would kill 100% of ballast water organisms with minimal residual toxicity to organisms in receiving waters. In the present study, the residual toxicity and chemistry of a BWTS was evaluated. Sodium hydroxide was added to elevate pH to >11.5 to kill ballast water organisms, then reduced to pH <9 by sparging with wet-scrubbed diesel exhaust (the source of CO2 ). Cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia dubia), amphipods (Hyalella azteca), and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 2 d to BWTS water under an air atmosphere (pH drifted to ≥9) or a 2.5% CO2 atmosphere (pH 7.5-8.2), then transferred to control water for 5 d to assess potential delayed toxicity. Chemical concentrations in the BWTS water met vessel discharge guidelines with the exception of concentrations of copper. There was little to no residual toxicity to cladocerans or fish, but the BWTS water was toxic to amphipods. Maintaining a neutral pH and diluting BWTS water by 50% eliminated toxicity to the amphipods. The toxicity of BWTS water would likely be minimal because of rapid dilution in the receiving water, with subsurface release likely preventing pH rise. This BWTS has the potential to become a viable method for treating ballast water released into freshwater systems. PMID:25693486

  8. Ionic association of hydroperoxide anion HO2- in the binding mean spherical approximation. Spectroscopic study of hydrogen peroxide in concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Chlistunoff, Jerzy; Simonin, Jean-Pierre

    2006-12-28

    The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy of hydrogen peroxide in concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions was studied. The peroxide band in the UV range shifts from approximately 214 nm to approximately 236 nm as the NaOH concentration increases from 0.338 mol dm-3 to 13.1 mol dm-3. The band originates from an intramolecular electronic transition of the hydroperoxide anion HO2-, as indicated by the negligible temperature effect on the band position and confirmed by ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. It is postulated that the bathochromic shift of the peroxide band that accompanies the increase in NaOH concentration originates from the formation of the ion pair (Na+HO2-). The equilibrium constant for the ion association reaction (0.048 mol-1 dm3) and the characteristics of the individual absorption bands of the hydroperoxide anion and its associate with Na+ were determined from the numerical modeling of the absorbance data, using the binding mean spherical approximation (BIMSA).

  9. Sorbents based on asbestos with a layer of an hydroxyethylcyclam derivative of PVC containing aquacomplexes of sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide with aza-crown groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsivadze, A. Yu.; Fridman, A. Ya.; Morozova, E. M.; Sokolova, N. P.; Voloshchuk, A. M.; Petukhova, G. A.; Bardyshev, I. I.; Gorbunov, A. M.; Polyakova, I. Ya.; Titova, V. N.; Yavich, A. A.; Novikov, A. K.; Petrova, N. V.

    2016-07-01

    Aquacomplexes of sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide with aza-crown groups are synthesized in cavities of a sorbent from the porous layer of a PVC cyclam-derivative grafted onto fibers of asbestos fabric. The structure of sorbents with complexes is studied and their adsorption characteristics are determined. It is shown that the affinity of the developed surface toward ethanol, benzene, and hexane depends on the nature of complexes in the pore walls, and the volume of cavities formed as a result of the pores on the developed asbestos surface being coated with networks of aza-crown groups is larger than that of cavities with walls of aza-crown groups in the layers of a PVC cyclam derivative. Indicators of H+- and OH--conductivity of sorbents with complexes as electrochemical bridges are determined. It is shown that the major part of H+- and OH--ions moves through complexes with aza-crown groups in the region of cavities formed of pores on the surface of asbestos.

  10. An evaluation of the residual toxicity and chemistry of a sodium hydroxide-based ballast water treatment system for freshwater ships.

    PubMed

    Elskus, Adria A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Kemble, Nile E; Echols, Kathy R; Brumbaugh, William G; Henquinet, Jeffrey W; Watten, Barnaby J

    2015-06-01

    Nonnative organisms in the ballast water of freshwater ships must be killed to prevent the spread of invasive species. The ideal ballast water treatment system (BWTS) would kill 100% of ballast water organisms with minimal residual toxicity to organisms in receiving waters. In the present study, the residual toxicity and chemistry of a BWTS was evaluated. Sodium hydroxide was added to elevate pH to >11.5 to kill ballast water organisms, then reduced to pH <9 by sparging with wet-scrubbed diesel exhaust (the source of CO2 ). Cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia dubia), amphipods (Hyalella azteca), and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 2 d to BWTS water under an air atmosphere (pH drifted to ≥9) or a 2.5% CO2 atmosphere (pH 7.5-8.2), then transferred to control water for 5 d to assess potential delayed toxicity. Chemical concentrations in the BWTS water met vessel discharge guidelines with the exception of concentrations of copper. There was little to no residual toxicity to cladocerans or fish, but the BWTS water was toxic to amphipods. Maintaining a neutral pH and diluting BWTS water by 50% eliminated toxicity to the amphipods. The toxicity of BWTS water would likely be minimal because of rapid dilution in the receiving water, with subsurface release likely preventing pH rise. This BWTS has the potential to become a viable method for treating ballast water released into freshwater systems.

  11. Effect of culture complex of BMSCs and sodium hydroxide- and GRGDSPC-treated PET on the reconstruction of injured anterior cruciate ligament in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianming; Chen, Fengrong; Jian, Guojian; Ye, Zhiyang; Wang, Zimin; Liu, Haoyuan; Kang, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Ligament reconstruction is an effective therapy for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligaments have recently gained popularity in clinical ACL reconstruction for its advantage in the improvement of keen function. However, the application of PET in clinical treatment is limited by its poor bioactivity and biocompatibility. Recently, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been widely studied in regenerative medical therapy due to their multi-lineage differentiation. Previous study also indicated that BMSCs may promote the healing of tendon-bone interface of injured ligament. We speculate that BMSCs may enhance the curative effect of PET artificial ligament on the tendon-bone-healing in ligament reconstruction. In this study, the PET materials were first modified with sodium hydroxide hydrolysis and GRGDSPC peptide which was able to improve its bioactivity and biocompatibility. Then, the effects of modified PET materials on the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs were examined. The in vitro co-culture of BMSCs and modified PET showed the modified PET promoted the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs. Further, the effect of culture complex of BMSCs and modified PET artificial ligament co-culture system on the injured ligament reconstruction was investigated in vivo. Results showed not only better growth and differentiation of BMSCs but also satisfactory healing of the injured ligament was observed after implantation of this culture complex into the injured ligament of rabbits. Our study provides a brand-new solution for ACL reconstruction.

  12. Hydrothermal treatment of naturally contaminated maize in the presence of sodium metabisulfite, methylamine and calcium hydroxide; effects on the concentration of zearalenone and deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Rempe, Inga; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-08-01

    Fusarium toxin-contaminated ground maize was hydrothermally treated in the presence of different combinations of chemicals in order to simultaneously reduce zearalenone (ZEA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) concentrations. Treatments were carried out in a laboratory conditioner at 80 °C and 17 % moisture. Six different treatments were performed, consisting of 3 doses of methylamine (MMA; 2.5, 5 and 10 g/kg maize) at a constant dose of 5 g sodium metabisulfite (SBS)/kg, either with or without the addition of 20 g calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)/kg. The used maize was contaminated with approximately 45.99 mg DON/kg and 3.46 mg ZEA/kg. Without the addition of Ca(OH)2, DON reductions reached approximately 82% after 1-min treatment and the toxin disappeared nearly completely after 10 min when 2.5 or 5 g MMA were applied. ZEA concentrations were only marginally affected. In the presence of Ca(OH)2, reductions in DON concentrations were lower, but were enhanced by increasing doses of MMA. ZEA concentrations were reduced by 72, 85 and 95% within the first 5 min of the treatment at MMA dosages of 2.5, 5 and 10 g/kg maize, respectively. The application of SBS in combination with a strong alkaline during hydrothermal treatment seems to be a promising approach to simultaneously decontaminate even high amounts of DON and ZEA in ground maize and may contribute to reduce the toxin load of diets.

  13. Effect of culture complex of BMSCs and sodium hydroxide- and GRGDSPC-treated PET on the reconstruction of injured anterior cruciate ligament in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianming; Chen, Fengrong; Jian, Guojian; Ye, Zhiyang; Wang, Zimin; Liu, Haoyuan; Kang, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Ligament reconstruction is an effective therapy for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligaments have recently gained popularity in clinical ACL reconstruction for its advantage in the improvement of keen function. However, the application of PET in clinical treatment is limited by its poor bioactivity and biocompatibility. Recently, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been widely studied in regenerative medical therapy due to their multi-lineage differentiation. Previous study also indicated that BMSCs may promote the healing of tendon-bone interface of injured ligament. We speculate that BMSCs may enhance the curative effect of PET artificial ligament on the tendon-bone-healing in ligament reconstruction. In this study, the PET materials were first modified with sodium hydroxide hydrolysis and GRGDSPC peptide which was able to improve its bioactivity and biocompatibility. Then, the effects of modified PET materials on the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs were examined. The in vitro co-culture of BMSCs and modified PET showed the modified PET promoted the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs. Further, the effect of culture complex of BMSCs and modified PET artificial ligament co-culture system on the injured ligament reconstruction was investigated in vivo. Results showed not only better growth and differentiation of BMSCs but also satisfactory healing of the injured ligament was observed after implantation of this culture complex into the injured ligament of rabbits. Our study provides a brand-new solution for ACL reconstruction. PMID:26221227

  14. Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

    2013-05-21

    A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

  15. Solvent Extraction of Sodium Hydroxide Using Alkylphenols and Fluorinated Alcohols: Understanding the Extraction Mechanism by Equilibrium Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hyun-Ah; Engle, Nancy L.; Bonnesen Peter V.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2004-03-29

    In the present work, it has been the aim to examine extraction efficiencies of nine proton-ionizable alcohols (HAs) in 1-octanol and to identify both the controlling equilibria and predominant species involved in the extraction process within a thermochemical model. Distribution ratios for sodium (DNa) extraction were measured as a function of organic-phase HA and aqueous-phase NaOH molarity at 25 °C. Extraction efficiency follows the expected order of acidity of the HAs, 4-(tert-octyl) phenol (HA 1a) and 4-noctyl- a,a-bis-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol (HA 2a) being the most efficient extractants among the compounds tested. By use of the equilibrium-modeling program SXLSQI, a model for the extraction of NaOH has been advanced based on an ion-pair extraction by the diluent to give organic-phase Na+OH- and corresponding free ions and cation exchange by the weak acids to form monomeric organic-phase Na+A- and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  16. Laser-luminescent determination of uranium in natural waters with concentration of titanium hydroxide and using sodium polysilicate

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitina, S.A.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1987-05-01

    Two methods for determining uranium in samples with a high content of quenching agents are compared, taking as an example the analysis of waters from the Vuoksa River, Baltic Sea and Finnish Bay. The first of these methods was developed by the authors and consists in concentrating uranium on TiO/sub 2/ x nH/sub 2/O under dynamic conditions, followed by laser luminescent determination at 77/sup 0/K in 0.1 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The second method consists in direct recording of the luminescence of uranium in a 0.7% solution of sodium polysilicate at room temperature. The detection limit of the second method is estimated by the authors as 2 x 10/sup -11/ g/ml, while the detection limit of the first method is lower because concentration is used. The method is especially suitable for analysis of natural waters with a high concentration of hydrolyzable elements. Quenching rate constants of uranyl were measured for a large number of ions in a polysilicate medium.

  17. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration on the photocatalytic activity and dielectric properties of intercalated sodium dodecyl sulfate into Zn–Cd–Al layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Abdullah Ahmed Ali; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS were synthesized with different SDS concentrations. • Photocatalytic activity of samples was improved by increasing SDS concentration. • Dielectric response of LDH can be described by anomalous low frequency dispersion. • The dc conductivity values were calculated for Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS samples. • ESR spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. - Abstract: Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been successfully intercalated into Zn–Cd–Al–LDH precursor with different SDS concentrations (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 mol L{sup −1}) using the coprecipitation method at (Zn{sup 2+} + Cd{sup 2+})/Al{sup 3+} molar ratio of 13 and pH 8. The structural, morphological, texture and composition properties of the synthesized (Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS) nanostructure were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was developed by increasing the concentration of intercalated SDS. The absorbance spectra have been used to detect an anion in the LDH interlayer before and after the intercalation process, which confirmed the presence of the dodecyl sulfate (DS{sup −}) anion into LDH gallery after intercalation. The anomalous low frequency dispersion (ALFD) has been used to describe the dielectric response of Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS nanostructure using the second type of universal power law. At low frequency, the polarization effect of electrodes caused the rising in dielectric constant and loss values. An important result of the dielectric measurements is the calculated dc conductivity values, which are new in dielectric spectroscopy of LDH materials. An important result of the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. The g-factor value was affected by

  18. Chemical decontamination with N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide improves recovery of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms from cultured milk.

    PubMed

    Bradner, L; Robbe-Austerman, S; Beitz, D C; Stabel, J R

    2013-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is shed into the milk and feces of cows with advanced Johne's disease, allowing the transmission of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis between animals. The objective of this study was to formulate an optimized protocol for the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk. The parameters investigated included chemical decontamination with N-acetyl-l-cysteine-sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH), alone and in combination with antibiotics (vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid), and the efficacy of solid (Herrold's egg yolk medium [HEY]) and liquid (Bactec 12B and para-JEM) culture media. For each experiment, raw milk samples from a known noninfected cow were inoculated with 10(2) to 10(8) CFU/ml of live M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms. The results indicate that an increased length of exposure to NALC-NaOH from 5 to 30 min and an increased concentration of NaOH from 0.5 to 2.0% did not affect the viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additional treatment of milk samples with the antibiotics following NALC-NaOH treatment decreased the recovery of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells more than treatment with NALC-NaOH alone. The Bactec 12B medium was the superior medium of the three evaluated for the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk, as it achieved the lowest threshold of detection. The optimal conditions for NALC-NaOH decontamination were determined to be exposure to 1.50% NaOH for 15 min followed by culture in Bactec 12B medium. This study demonstrates that chemical decontamination with NALC-NaOH resulted in a greater recovery of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells from milk than from samples treated with hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC). Therefore, it is important to optimize milk decontamination protocols to ensure that low concentrations of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be detected.

  19. Effects of a Fusarium toxin-contaminated maize treated with sodium metabisulphite, methylamine and calcium hydroxide in diets for female piglets.

    PubMed

    Rempe, Inga; Brezina, Ulrike; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-08-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) contaminated maize was hydrothermally treated in the presence of sodium metabisulphite (SBS), methylamine and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and included into diets for female piglets to evaluate effects on performance, organ weights, development of hyperestrogenism, serum biochemical parameters, stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and toxin residues in serum. For this purpose, both uncontaminated maize (CON) and Fusarium toxin-contaminated maize (FUS) were included into diets either untreated (-) or treated (+) according to a 2 by 2-factorial design. One-hundred female weaned piglets were assigned to one of the four treatment groups (n = 25) CON-, CON+, FUS- and FUS+ with DON/ZEN concentrations of 0.43/0.03, 0.04/0.0, 3.67/0.32 and 0.36/0.08 mg per kg diet, respectively. After a feeding period of 27 days, 20 piglets (n = 5) were slaughtered. Performance parameters such as feed intake, live weight gain and feed-to-gain ratio remained unaffected by the treatments. Uterus weights were significantly reduced in group FUS+ compared to FUS- (p = 0.028), while visceral organ weights were not influenced. Vulva width in relation to body weight was highest in group FUS- at the end of the trial, while hydrothermal treatment significantly reduced the parameter (p < 0.01). The highest toxin and toxin metabolite concentrations in serum were detected in group FUS-, whereas ingestion of diet FUS+ reduced the concentrations to the level of the control groups. Serum biochemical and haematological parameters were mainly within the given reference ranges and showed no treatment-related alterations. Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not affected. An effective detoxification of maize by hydrothermal treatment in the presence of SBS, methylamine and Ca(OH)2 could be demonstrated by means of serum toxin analyses. No undesired side effects of the treated-feed stuff or the chemicals themselves on the health of piglets

  20. Chemical Decontamination with N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine–Sodium Hydroxide Improves Recovery of Viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Organisms from Cultured Milk

    PubMed Central

    Bradner, L.; Robbe-Austerman, S.; Beitz, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is shed into the milk and feces of cows with advanced Johne's disease, allowing the transmission of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis between animals. The objective of this study was to formulate an optimized protocol for the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk. The parameters investigated included chemical decontamination with N-acetyl-l-cysteine–sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH), alone and in combination with antibiotics (vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid), and the efficacy of solid (Herrold's egg yolk medium [HEY]) and liquid (Bactec 12B and para-JEM) culture media. For each experiment, raw milk samples from a known noninfected cow were inoculated with 102 to 108 CFU/ml of live M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms. The results indicate that an increased length of exposure to NALC-NaOH from 5 to 30 min and an increased concentration of NaOH from 0.5 to 2.0% did not affect the viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additional treatment of milk samples with the antibiotics following NALC-NaOH treatment decreased the recovery of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells more than treatment with NALC-NaOH alone. The Bactec 12B medium was the superior medium of the three evaluated for the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk, as it achieved the lowest threshold of detection. The optimal conditions for NALC-NaOH decontamination were determined to be exposure to 1.50% NaOH for 15 min followed by culture in Bactec 12B medium. This study demonstrates that chemical decontamination with NALC-NaOH resulted in a greater recovery of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells from milk than from samples treated with hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC). Therefore, it is important to optimize milk decontamination protocols to ensure that low concentrations of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be detected. PMID:23637290

  1. Sodium

    MedlinePlus

    ... sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than 2.4 grams per day. That equals about 1 teaspoon of table salt a day. Reading food labels can help you see how much sodium is in prepared foods. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  2. NICKEL HYDROXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    MCBREEN,J.

    1997-11-01

    Nickel hydroxides have been used as the active material in the positive electrodes of several alkaline batteries for over a century. These materials continue to attract a lot of attention because of the commercial importance of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This review gives a brief overview of the structure of nickel hydroxide battery electrodes and a more detailed review of the solid state chemistry and electrochemistry of the electrode materials. Emphasis is on work done since 1989.

  3. Potassium hydroxide: an alternative reagent to perform the modified apt test.

    PubMed

    Chicaiza, Henry; Hellstrand, Karl; Lerer, Trudy; Smith, Sharon; Sylvester, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    We tested the performance of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in the modified Apt test under different experimental conditions using sodium hydroxide as a positive control. Like sodium hydroxide, KOH differentiated fresh fetal and adult blood stains on a cloth but not dried blood. KOH may be used to perform the Apt test at the bedside.

  4. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HYDROXIDE FROM BISMUTH HYDROXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Watt, G.W.

    1958-08-19

    An tmproved method is described for separating plutonium hydroxide from bismuth hydroxide. The end product of the bismuth phosphate processes for the separation amd concentration of plutonium is a inixture of bismuth hydroxide amd plutonium hydroxide. It has been found that these compounds can be advantageously separated by treatment with a reducing agent having a potential sufficient to reduce bismuth hydroxide to metalltc bisinuth but not sufficient to reduce the plutonium present. The resulting mixture of metallic bismuth and plutonium hydroxide can then be separated by treatment with a material which will dissolve plutonium hydroxide but not metallic bismuth. Sodiunn stannite is mentioned as a preferred reducing agent, and dilute nitric acid may be used as the separatory solvent.

  5. On the entangled growth of NaTaO3 cubes and Na2Ti3O7 wires in sodium hydroxide solution.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Stefan O; Liu, Chang; Elser, Michael J; Sternig, Andreas; Siedl, Nicolas; Berger, Thomas; Diwald, Oliver

    2013-07-29

    The entangled growth of sodium titanate Na2Ti3O7 nanowires and sodium tantalate NaTaO3 cubes was investigated with electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Depending on the composition of the Ta2O5- and TiO2-particle-based powder mixtures, which served as educts, we observed different types of hybridization effects. These include the titanium-induced contraction of the NaTaO3 perovskite-type unit cell and the generation of electronic defect states in NaTaO3 that give rise to optical subbandgap transitions and tantalum-induced limitations of the Na2Ti3O7 nanowire growth. The transformation from Ta2O5 to NaTaO3 occurs through a dissolution-recrystallization process. A systematic analysis of the impact of different titanium sources on NaTaO3 dispersion and, thus, on the properties of the entangled nanostructures revealed that a perfect intermixture of cubes and nanowires can only be achieved when titanate nanosheets emerge during transformation as reaction intermediates and shield nucleation and growth of isolated NaTaO3 cubes. The here demonstrated approach can be highly instrumental for understanding the nucleation and growth of composite and entangled nanostructures in solution and--at the same time--provides an interesting new class of photoactive composite materials.

  6. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  7. An electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric study of p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene complexation with ammonium hydroxide, and ammonium and sodium ions.

    PubMed

    Sassine, André; Martins-Júnior, Helio A; Lebre, Daniel T; Valli, Felipe; Pires, Maria A F; Vega, Oscar; Felinto, Maria C F C

    2008-01-01

    The formation of complexes involving p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene with neutral and charged species has been investigated by tandem mass spectrometry combined with electrospray ionization. Complexes of p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene with NH4+ ions were observed in the ratios 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1, together with the complexes of p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene with NH4OH and Na+ ions in the ratios 1:1:1, 2:1:1, and 3:1:1. A single 1:1 complex of p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene with Na+ ions was observed. In addition, a doubly charged complex of p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene with NH4OH, Na+, and NH4+ ions in the ratio 6:1:1:1 was observed. The identity of each complex was determined by mass analysis of product ions formed by the application of a declustering potential over the range 20-220 V and by observation of product ion mass spectra wherein the collision energy was varied from 5 to 50 eV. Fragmentation of the complexes is characterized by the facile loss of the ammonia molecule, sodium and ammonium ions, loss of neutral p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene, and successive neutral losses of C4H8 from the six tert-butyl groups in each p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene molecule.

  8. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food...

  9. Synthesis of high capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries by morphology-tailored hydroxide co-precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dapeng; Belharouak, Ilias; Ortega, Luis H.; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Rui; Zhou, Dehua; Zhou, Guangwen; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Nickel manganese hydroxide co-precipitation inside a continuous stirred tank reactor was studied with sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide as the precipitation agents. The ammonium hydroxide concentration had an effect on the primary and secondary particle evolution. The two-step precipitation mechanism proposed earlier was experimentally confirmed. In cell tests, Li- and Mn-rich composite cathode materials based on the hydroxide precursors demonstrated good electrochemical performance in terms of cycle life over a wide range of lithium content.

  10. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  11. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... It is prepared by neutralizing propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredients meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... It is prepared by neutralizing propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredients meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS...

  14. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2,...

  15. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS Reg. No....

  16. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to 250... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS Reg. No. 7758-19-2) exists...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... It is prepared by neutralizing propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredients meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS...

  18. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2,...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... It is prepared by neutralizing propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredients meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS...

  20. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2,...

  1. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  2. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  3. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's...

  4. Potassium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or touching potassium hydroxide or products that contain this chemical. This article is for information only. Do NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If ...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food...

  6. 21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium oleate. 186.1770 Section 186.1770 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD.... Commercially, sodium oleate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium hydroxide and oleic acid. (b)...

  7. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method entitled... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate....

  8. Simple Method for Simultaneous Determination of Carbonate, Sulfite and Hydroxide in Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Itawi, Hossam I.; Al-Ebaisat, Hamdan; Al-Garaleh, Mazen

    A method is proposed for the simultaneous determination of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide in a complex matrices. The method involves salvation of the tow gases in Sodium Hydroxide solution followed by simultaneous determination of the three species (carbonate, sulfite and hydroxide) using conductometric and potentiometric titration. What set this method apart from other determination methods it`s simplicity.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals or a white crystalline powder....

  10. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals or a white crystalline powder....

  11. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c) In accordance... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3)...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals or a white crystalline powder. It... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c) In accordance... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3)...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c) In accordance... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3)...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c) In accordance... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3)...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... neutralizing propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredients meets the specifications of the Food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS Reg. No. 137-40-6) is...

  17. Hydroxide-catalyzed bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of bonding substrates by hydroxide-catalyzed hydration/dehydration involves applying a bonding material to at least one surface to be bonded, and placing the at least one surface sufficiently close to another surface such that a bonding interface is formed between them. A bonding material of the invention comprises a source of hydroxide ions, and may optionally include a silicate component, a particulate filling material, and a property-modifying component. Bonding methods of the invention reliably and reproducibly provide bonds which are strong and precise, and which may be tailored according to a wide range of possible applications. Possible applications for bonding materials of the invention include: forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, assembly of precision optical components, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. Bonding materials and methods of preparing the same are also disclosed.

  18. Nickel hydroxide electrode. 3: Thermogravimetric investigations of nickel (II) hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennstedt, W.; Loeser, W.

    1982-01-01

    Water contained in Ni hydroxide influences its electrochemical reactivity. The water content of alpha and beta Ni hydroxides is different with respect to the amount and bond strength. Thermogravimetric experiments show that the water of the beta Ni hydroxides exceeding the stoichiometric composition is completely removed at 160 deg. The water contained in the interlayers of the beta hydroxide, however, is removed only at higher temperatures, together with the water originating from the decomposition of the hydroxide. These differences are attributed to the formation of II bonds within the interlayers and between interlayers and adjacent main layers. An attempt is made to explain the relations between water content and the oxidizability of the Ni hydroxides.

  19. Synthesis and structure of [Na11(OtBu)10(OH)]: 1H NMR shift of a hydroxide ion encapsulated in a 21-vertex alcoholate cage.

    PubMed

    Geier, Jens; Grützmacher, Hansjörg

    2003-12-01

    [Na11(OtBu)10(OH)], a hydroxide enclosing 21-vertex cage compound, was found to crystallize from mixtures of sodium tert.butanolate with sodium hydroxide. Its structure can be derived from the known (NaOtBu)6-hexaprismane by replacing one butanolate unit with OH- and capping the latter with five additional units of NaOtBu. The hydroxide shows a signal at -3.21 ppm in the 1H NMR spectrum.

  20. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... Substances § 721.6183 Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated...

  1. Layered double hydroxide formation in Bayer liquor and its promotional effect on oxalate precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Perrotta, A.J.; Williams, F.

    1996-10-01

    Enhancing the precipitation of sodium oxalate from Bayer process liquor to improve the quality of alumina product remains an important objective for Bayer refining. The formation of layered double hydroxides by the reaction of alkaline earth oxides, such as lime and magnesia, with Bayer liquor gives a crystal structure which is capable of intercalating anions, both inorganic and organic, within its structure. Both lime and magnesia, with long contact times in Bayer liquor, show layered double hydroxide formation. This layered double hydroxide formation is accompanied with a decrease in the sodium oxalate content in the liquor from about 3 g/L to below 1 g/L. Short contact times lead to a destabilization of the liquor which facilitates sodium oxalate precipitation. Additional work on magnesium hydroxide shows, in comparison to lime and magnesia, much less layered double hydroxide formation with equivalent residence time in the liquor. Destabilization of the liquor also occurs, giving enhanced oxalate precipitation with less alumina being consumed in agreement with lower layered double hydroxide formation. Thermal regeneration of these structures, followed by in-situ recrystallization in Bayer liquor, also gives enhanced oxalate precipitation, suggesting that there is an opportunity for a regenerable oxalate reduction system. The implementation of these experiments and other related technology into the plant has resulted in the Purox Process for enhancing the precipitation of sodium oxalate from Bayer liquor.

  2. Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

    2008-03-01

    Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to save the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tens of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass.

  3. Standard enthalpies of formation of francium hydroxide hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Burylev, B.P.

    1995-03-01

    Available experimental data on standard enthalpies of formation of alkali metal hydroxide hydrates have been summarized. Using equations derived, the authors have calculated previously unknown enthalpies of formation of some lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium hydroxide hydrates. Taking into account the contribution of water to the enthalpies of formation of monohydrates, the authors have estimated the enthalpies of formation of francium hydroxide hydrates FrOH{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, FrOH{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O, and FrOH{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O (-745.8, -1085.8, and -1515.8 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively).

  4. Process for making a calcium/sodium ferrate adduct by the electrochemical formation of sodium ferrate

    SciTech Connect

    Deininger, J.P.; Dotson, R.L.

    1984-05-29

    Described is a process for making a calcium/sodium ferrate adduct with sodium ferrate in a divided-type electrolysis cell. The anolyte chamber of the cell is charged with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and a sodium ferrate-stabilizing proportion of at least one sodium halide salt. The anolyte chamber additionally contains ferric ions (Fe(III)). The catholyte chamber contains an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution during operation. The source of ferric ion in the anolyte may be either an iron-containing anode or at least one iron-containing compound present in the anolyte solution or both. The preferred material separating the anolyte chamber from the catholyte chamber is comprised of a gas- and hydraulic-impermeable, ionically-conductive, chemically-stable ionomeric film (e.g., a cation-exchange membrane with carboxylic, sulfonic or other inorganic exchange sites). Sodium ferrate is prepared in the anolyte chamber by passing an electric current and impressing a voltage between the anode and cathode of the cell. During electrolysis, sodium ferrate forms in the aqueous sodium hydroxide anolyte. This anolyte is reacted with a calcium compound to produce a calcium/sodium ferrate adduct. Alternatively the sodium ferrate may be first recovered in a solid form and then reacted with a calcium compound to produce said adduct.

  5. CD19 mRNA quantification improves rituximab treatment-to-target approach: a proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Marnetto, Fabiana; Granieri, Letizia; Valentino, Paola; Capobianco, Marco; Pautasso, Marisa; Bertolotto, Antonio

    2014-12-15

    We compared pre-amplification (PA) RT-PCR blood CD19 mRNA quantification with flow cytometry (FC), to personalize rituximab re-treatment in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) patients. 47 blood samples from 3 NMOSDs patients were studied. PA-RT-PCR quantified CD19 in all samples, and a positivity threshold was defined, whereas CD19+ B cells were under threshold in 31/47 samples by FC. In all samples where CD19+ B cells were above FC threshold, they resulted above the PA-RT-PCR threshold. CD19 mRNA was above threshold in 8 other samples, resulted negative by FC, and preceded the FC positivity in 7/8 samples by 1-3 months, showing major sensitivity.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg... pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfite to form the sulfite addition products and liberate sodium hydroxide (NaOH); however, at room temperature, the methanol groups present will also react to liberate NaOH. Titrate at 0 degrees Celsius ( °C... g methanol). 2.2.5Sodium chloride (NaCl) (reagent grade). 2.2.6Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)....

  11. Sodium carbonate facility at Argonne National Laboratory - West

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, M.D.; Henslee, S.P.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

    1997-09-01

    The Sodium Carbonate Facility, located at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) in Idaho, was designed and built as an addition to the existing Sodium Processing Facility. The Sodium Process and Sodium Carbonate Facilities will convert radioactive sodium into a product that is acceptable for land disposal in Idaho. The first part of the process occurs in the Sodium Process Facility where radioactive sodium is converted into sodium hydroxide (caustic). The second part of the process occurs in the Sodium Carbonate Facility where the caustic solution produced in the Sodium Process Facility is converted into a dry sodium carbonate waste suitable for land disposal. Due to the radioactivity in the sodium, shielding, containment, and HEPA filtered off-gas systems are required throughout both processes.

  12. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... Substances § 721.6183 Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow... anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... Substances § 721.6183 Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow... anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine (PMN...

  14. Sodium Bicarbonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking sodium bicarbonate, call your doctor. ... your body. If you are on a sodium-restricted diet, check with your doctor before taking sodium bicarbonate.

  15. 21 CFR 582.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1139 Ammonium hydroxide. (a) Product. Ammonium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1139 Ammonium hydroxide. (a) Product. Ammonium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, CAS Reg... lime. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p....

  18. 21 CFR 184.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, CAS Reg... lime. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p....

  19. 21 CFR 184.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, CAS Reg. No. 1305-62-0) is also... meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 52, which is incorporated...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, CAS Reg... lime. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p....

  1. 21 CFR 184.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, CAS Reg... lime. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p....

  2. Chemical gardens without silica: the formation of pure metal hydroxide tubes.

    PubMed

    Batista, Bruno C; Steinbock, Oliver

    2015-08-21

    Contrary to common belief, hollow precipitation tubes form in the absence of silicate if sodium hydroxide solution is injected into solutions of various metal ions. In many cases, the growth speed has a power law dependence on the flow rate. For vanadyl, we observe damped oscillations in the tube height. PMID:26172246

  3. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  4. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 582.1205 Section 582.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Product. Calcium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 582.1205 Section 582.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Product. Calcium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 582.1205 Section 582.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Product. Calcium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 582.1205 Section 582.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Product. Calcium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 582.1205 Section 582.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Product. Calcium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 582.1139 Section 582.1139 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1139 Ammonium hydroxide. (a) Product. Ammonium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. The Performance of Geopolymers Activated by Sodium Hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyeontaek; Kang, Seunggu

    2015-08-01

    Geopolymers, a group of promising environmentally friendly materials that can work as cement substitutes, should be fabricated from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO mixtures containing large amounts of amorphous phases to ensure optimal chemical and physical properties. In this study, it was shown that geopolymers with enhanced mechanical strengths, as high as 115 MPa, could be obtained from perfectly amorphous slag from spent catalyst (SSC) discharged during automobile catalyst recycling. Geopolymer processing involved alkali-activation using a 16 M NaOH solution of pH13. The varying SSC grain size was the main experimental factor of interest, in combination with curing temperature and aging time. Variations in the mechanical strengths of the resulting geopolymers are explained by the occurrence of 10-50 nm-sized crystals and the presence of voids and pores dozens to hundreds of micrometers in size.

  1. Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment of Switchgrass for Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulose-to-ethanol conversion is a promising technology to supplement corn-based ethanol production. However, the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulosic material is a major obstacle to the efficient conversion. To improve the enzymatic digestibility of switchgrass for the fermentable sugar...

  2. Carbon dioxide capture from atmospheric air using sodium hydroxide spray.

    PubMed

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Keith, David W; Lowry, Gregory V

    2008-04-15

    In contrast to conventional carbon capture systems for power plants and other large point sources, the system described in this paper captures CO2 directly from ambient air. This has the advantages that emissions from diffuse sources and past emissions may be captured. The objective of this research is to determine the feasibility of a NaOH spray-based contactor for use in an air capture system by estimating the cost and energy requirements per unit CO2 captured. A prototype system is constructed and tested to measure CO2 absorption, energy use, and evaporative water loss and compared with theoretical predictions. A numerical model of drop collision and coalescence is used to estimate operating parameters for a full-scale system, and the cost of operating the system per unit CO2 captured is estimated. The analysis indicates that CO2 capture from air for climate change mitigation is technically feasible using off-the-shelf technology. Drop coalescence significantly decreases the CO2 absorption efficiency; however, fan and pump energy requirements are manageable. Water loss is significant (20 mol H2O/mol CO2 at 15 degrees C and 65% RH) but can be lowered by appropriately designing and operating the system. The cost of CO2 capture using NaOH spray (excluding solution recovery and CO2 sequestration, which may be comparable) in the full-scale system is 96 $/ton-CO2 in the base case, and ranges from 53 to 127 $/ton-CO2 under alternate operating parameters and assumptions regarding capital costs and mass transfer rate. The low end of the cost range is reached by a spray with 50 microm mean drop diameter, which is achievable with commercially available spray nozzles.

  3. Alzheimer's amyloid-beta rescues yeast from hydroxide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Ashok K; Bharadwaj, Prashant R; Varghese, Joseph N; Macreadie, Ian G

    2009-01-01

    Amyloid-beta(Abeta42), which is known to be toxic to neuronal cells, protects yeast cells from severe sodium hydroxide toxicity. More than 85% cell death was caused by treatment with 1 mM NaOH and approximately 95% was observed at a 2 mM concentration. However, greater than 55% cells survived the treatment in the presence of Abeta42. A strong protective effect of the peptide was also evident from the differential staining of the treated culture with propidium iodide.

  4. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, K.D.; Hart, R.P.; Schumacher, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The removal of CO/sub 2/ from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)/sub 2/) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)/sub 2/). Such a process would be applied to scrub /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH)/sub 2/ slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH)/sub 2/. Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated.

  5. Synthesis of the high temperature superconductor YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ by the hydroxide co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildermans, I.; Van Bael, M.; Knaepen, E.; Yperman, J.; Mullens, J.; Van Poucke, L. C.

    1997-02-01

    A new synthetic route is developed to prepare a hydroxide precursor for the superconductor YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ. In an inert atmosphere and at low temperature the yttrium, barium and copper hydroxides are co-precipitated by adding the metal perchlorates and sodium hydroxide together. The analysis of the precursor proved the absence of ClO 4- and Na + ions. The thermal treatment (12 h calcinating at 950°C, 36 h sintering at 950°C and 6 h annealing at 400°C) gives a superconductor YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ with a transition temperature of 90.2 K.

  6. Atmospheric Dispersion of Sodium Aerosol due to a Sodium Leak in a Fast Breeder Reactor Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punitha, G.; Sudha, A. Jasmin; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M.

    Liquid sodium at high temperatures (470 K to 825 K) is used as the primary and secondary coolant in Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). In the event of a postulated sodium leak in the Steam Generator Building (SGB) of a LMFBR, sodium readily combusts in the ambient air, especially at temperatures above 523 K. Intense sodium fire results and sodium oxide fumes are released as sodium aerosols. Sodium oxides are readily converted to sodium hydroxide in air due to the presence of moisture in it. Hence, sodium aerosols are invariably in the form of particulate sodium hydroxide. These aerosols damage not only the equipment and instruments due to their corrosive nature but also pose health hazard to humans. Hence, it is essential to estimate the concentration of sodium aerosols within the plant boundary for a sodium leak event. The Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model can obtain the atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosols in an open terrain. However, this model does not give accurate results for dispersion in spaces close to the point of release and with buildings in between. The velocity field due to the wind is altered to a large extent by the intervening buildings and structures. Therefore, a detailed 3-D estimation of the velocity field and concentration has to be obtained through rigorous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. PHOENICS code has been employed to determine concentration of sodium aerosols at various distances from the point of release. The dispersion studies have been carried out for the release of sodium aerosols at different elevations from the ground and for different wind directions.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with sodium sulfite to form the sulfite addition products and liberate sodium hydroxide (NaOH); however, at room temperature, the methanol groups present will also react to liberate NaOH. Titrate at 0... hydroxide (NaOH). 2.3Procedure. 2.3.1Prepare sufficient quantity of crushed ice for three...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with sodium sulfite to form the sulfite addition products and liberate sodium hydroxide (NaOH); however, at room temperature, the methanol groups present will also react to liberate NaOH. Titrate at 0... hydroxide (NaOH). 2.3Procedure. 2.3.1Prepare sufficient quantity of crushed ice for three...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with sodium sulfite to form the sulfite addition products and liberate sodium hydroxide (NaOH); however, at room temperature, the methanol groups present will also react to liberate NaOH. Titrate at 0... hydroxide (NaOH). 2.3Procedure. 2.3.1Prepare sufficient quantity of crushed ice for three...

  10. Sodium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS Reg. No. 1309-42-8) occurs... magnesium oxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p...: (1) The ingredient is used as a nutrient supplement as defined in § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter; a...

  12. Molten Hydroxide Trapping Process for Radioiodine

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    2003-01-28

    A molten hydroxide trapping process has been considered for removing radioiodine species from off-gas streams whereby iodine is reacted directly with molten hydroxides such as NaOH or KOH. The resulting product is the corresponding iodide, which can be separated by simple cooling of the molten mixture to grow the iodide primary phase once the mixture reaches 70-80 mol% in the iodide component. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that such a chemical process is highly favorable. Experimental testing of the trapping process using molecular iodine showed trapping of up to 96% of the volatile iodine. The trapping efficiency was dependent on operational parameters such as temperature and gas-melt contact efficiency, and higher efficiencies are expected as the process is further developed. While an iodide phase could be effectively isolated by slow cooling of a molten iodide-hydroxide mixture, the persistent appearance of hydroxide indicated that an appreciable solubility of hydroxide occurred in the iodide phase.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis and formation mechanism of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Li; Sun, QiLiang; Zhao, RuiNi; He, HuiLin; Xue, JianRong; Lin, Jun

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The formation of yttrium hydroxide fluorides nanobundles can be expressed as a precipitation transformation from cubic NaYF{sub 4} to hexagonal NaYF{sub 4} and to hexagonal Y(OH){sub 2.02}F{sub 0.98} owing to ion exchange. - Highlights: • Novel Y(OH){sub 2.02}F{sub 0.98} nanobundles have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal method. • The branched nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles has been studied. • The growth mechanism is proposed to be ion exchange and precipitation transformation. - Abstract: This article presents the fabrication of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles via one-pot hydrothermal process, using yttrium nitrate, sodium hydroxide and ammonia fluoride as raw materials to react in propanetriol solvent. The X-ray diffraction pattern clearly reveals that the grown product is pure yttrium hydroxide fluoride, namely Y(OH){sub 2.02}F{sub 0.98}. The morphology and microstructure of the synthesized product is testified to be nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles as observed from the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The chemical composition was analyzed by the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), confirming the phase transformation of the products which was clearly consistent with the result of XRD analysis. It is proposed that the growth of yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles be attributed to ion exchange and precipitation transformation.

  14. Synthesis of a novel green fluorescent material Ca3Al2O6:Tb3+ based on a layered double hydroxide precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaorui; Jiang, Kangle; Hao, Yongjing; Chang, Tao; Yin, Yaobing

    2015-08-01

    A novel green light emitting material, Ca3Al2O6:Tb3+ was synthesized by calcination of a terbium doped Ca/Al layered double hydroxide precursor at 1350°C. The precursor was prepared by coprecipitation from metal nitrates with sodium hydroxide. The material shows characteristic green emission at 543 nm when excited with 266 nm UV source. The photoluminescence intensity reaches its maximum at Tb3+ concentration of 0.5 mol %.

  15. Copper, silver, gold and zinc, cadmium, mercury oxides and hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkse, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a compilation of solubility data published up to 1984, including evaluations of the data. Data are presented on the following: copper (I) oxide; copper (II) oxide and hydroxide; silver (I) oxide; silver (II) oxide; gold (III) hydroxide; zinc oxide and hydroxide; cadmium oxide and hydroxide; and mercury (II) oxide.

  16. Solar-thermal Water Splitting Using the Sodium Manganese Oxide Process & Preliminary H2A Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, Todd M; Lichty, Paul R; Perkins, Christopher; Tucker, Melinda; Kreider, Peter B; Funke, Hans H; Lewandowski, A; Weimer, Alan W

    2012-10-24

    There are three primary reactions in the sodium manganese oxide high temperature water splitting cycle. In the first reaction, Mn2O3 is decomposed to MnO at 1,500°C and 50 psig. This reaction occurs in a high temperature solar reactor and has a heat of reaction of 173,212 J/mol. Hydrogen is produced in the next step of this cycle. This step occurs at 700°C and 1 atm in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Finally, water is added in the hydrolysis step, which removes NaOH and regenerates the original reactant, Mn2O3. The high temperature solar-driven step for decomposing Mn2O3 to MnO can be carried out to high conversion without major complication in an inert environment. The second step to produce H2 in the presence of sodium hydroxide is also straightforward and can be completed. The third step, the low temperature step to recover the sodium hydroxide is the most difficult. The amount of energy required to essentially distill water to recover sodium hydroxide is prohibitive and too costly. Methods must be found for lower cost recovery. This report provides information on the use of ZnO as an additive to improve the recovery of sodium hydroxide.

  17. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  18. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS... Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 178, which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available from the... § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter; a pH control agent as defined in § 170.3(o)(23) of this chapter; and...

  19. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, D.M.; Lytle, J.M.; Hackley, K.C.; Strickland, R.; Berger, R.; Schanche, G.

    1992-12-31

    In this project, the ISGS is investigating the pelletization of fine coal with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur-capturing sorbent. The objective is to produce a readily-transportable fuel which will burn in compliance with the recently passed Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA). To improve the economics of pelletizing, carbonation, or, the reaction of carbon dioxide with calcium hydroxide, which produces a binding matrix of calcium carbonate, is being investigated as a method of hardening pelletized coal fines. This year, pellets were produced from 28 {times} 0 coal fines collected from an Illinois preparation plant using a laboratory version of a California Pellet Mill (CPM), a commercially available pellet machine. The CPM effectively pelletized coal fines at the moisture content they were dewatered to at the plant. Carbonation nearly doubled the strength of pellets containing 10 wt % calcium hydroxide. Other results from this year`s work indicate that inclusion of calcium hydroxide into pellets resulted in chlorine capture of approximately 20 wt % for combustion tests conducted at both 850 and 1100{degrees}C. Arsenic emissions were reduced from near 38 wt% at 850 C to essentially nil with inclusion of 10 wt % calcium hydroxide into the pellets. At 110{degrees}C, arsenic emissions were reduced from about 90 wt % to about 15 wt %. Sodium emissions, however, increased with the addition of calcium hydroxide. At 850{degrees}C, sodium capture dropped from about 98 wt % to 73 wt % for pellets containing 10 wt % calcium hydroxide; at 1100{degrees}C, capture dropped from about 92 wt % to about 20 wt %.

  20. Sodium Oxybate

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and last for a ... of your body that you cannot control, sweating, muscle cramps, and fast heartbeat.Sodium oxybate may help ...

  1. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Studies at PNNL are directed toward new solvent formulation for the practical sodium pseudohydroxide extraction systems.

  2. Hydroxide ion-mediated synthesis of monodisperse dopamine-melanin nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soojeong; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2015-11-15

    Dopamine-melanin nanospheres are promising materials for photoprotection, structural coloration, and thermoregulation due to their unusual optical and chemical properties. Here, we report the experimental parameters which influence size of dopamine-melanin nanospheres and uniformity. Dopamine precursors are oxidatively polymerized in basic aqueous medium. Therefore, concentration of hydroxide ions significantly influences reaction rate and size of nanospheres. To investigate the effect of hydroxide ions, we adjust three different parameters which affect pH of medium: concentration of sodium hydroxide and dopamine hydrochloride, and reaction temperature. At constant temperature, concentration of hydroxide ions is linearly proportional to initial reaction rates which determine the number of nuclei for nanosphere growth. Temperature alters not only initial reaction rate but also diffusivity of molecules, leading to deviation from the relation between the reaction rate and the number of nuclei. The diameter of dopamine-melanin nanospheres can be readily controlled in a range of 80-490nm through adjusting concentration of dopamine precursor, while maintaining uniform-size distribution and dispersion stability. The synthesized nanospheres are analyzed to confirm the chemical structure, which is composed of approximately 6 indole units. Moreover, surface and chemical properties of the nanospheres are characterized to provide valuable information for surface modification and application. PMID:26210098

  3. Hydroxide ion-mediated synthesis of monodisperse dopamine-melanin nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soojeong; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2015-11-15

    Dopamine-melanin nanospheres are promising materials for photoprotection, structural coloration, and thermoregulation due to their unusual optical and chemical properties. Here, we report the experimental parameters which influence size of dopamine-melanin nanospheres and uniformity. Dopamine precursors are oxidatively polymerized in basic aqueous medium. Therefore, concentration of hydroxide ions significantly influences reaction rate and size of nanospheres. To investigate the effect of hydroxide ions, we adjust three different parameters which affect pH of medium: concentration of sodium hydroxide and dopamine hydrochloride, and reaction temperature. At constant temperature, concentration of hydroxide ions is linearly proportional to initial reaction rates which determine the number of nuclei for nanosphere growth. Temperature alters not only initial reaction rate but also diffusivity of molecules, leading to deviation from the relation between the reaction rate and the number of nuclei. The diameter of dopamine-melanin nanospheres can be readily controlled in a range of 80-490nm through adjusting concentration of dopamine precursor, while maintaining uniform-size distribution and dispersion stability. The synthesized nanospheres are analyzed to confirm the chemical structure, which is composed of approximately 6 indole units. Moreover, surface and chemical properties of the nanospheres are characterized to provide valuable information for surface modification and application.

  4. Part I. Layered Double Hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimotakis, Emmanuel Dimitrios

    A new general method for the preparation of well -ordered layered double hydroxides (LDHs), (Mg_ {rm 1-x}Al_{ rm x} (OH)_2) (X^{rm n-}) _{rm n/x}{cdot}yH _2O, interlayered by organic anions has been developed. It is based on the reaction of meixnerite, (Mg_3Al(OH)_8) (OH) cdot2H_2O, with the free acid form of the desired anion--using glycerol as a swelling agent--to yield single crystalline products that are not readily available by conventional synthetic methods. The (Mg_3Al(OH) _8) -adipate and -p-toluenesulfonate derivatives undergo facile ion exchange reactions with Keggin-type (XM_{12}O_ {40}) ^{rm n -} or lacunary (XM_{11 }O_{39}) ^{rm m-} polyoxometalates (POMs) to form well-ordered, microporous pillared derivatives with the highest N_2 BET surface areas reported to date, namely 107 and 155 m^2 /g, respectively. Meixnerite, (Mg_3Al(OH) _8) (OH) cdot2H _2O, has unexpectedly been found to undergo similar ion exchange reactions, in a topotactic way, with retention of the structure of the intercalated POMs. The meixnerite was conveniently prepared for the first time from calcination of (Mg_3Al(OH) _8) (CO_3) _{0.5}{cdot}2H _2O and aqueous hydrolysis of the resulting NaCl-type solid solution. Metal carbonyl clusters have also been examined for ion-exchange (i.e., { (Pt _3(CO)_6) _{rm n}}^ {2-}) in these LDH-precursors. This chemistry is compared with the surface chemistry of (Mg_3 Al(OH)_8) (X^ {rm n-}) _{ rm 1/n}{cdot}2H _2O (X = CO_3^{2 -} or OH^{-}). It has been shown that the surface hydrolysis reaction: CO _3^{2-} + H _2O longrightarrow HCO_3^{-} + OH ^-, causes reductive condensation reactions of neutral carbonyl clusters with the LDH. The reactions were as efficient as with Na metal in solution. In part II of this work, Li-fluorohectorite, has been pillared with titanium polyoxocations derived from the acidic hydrolysis of TiCl_4 or Ti(i-OC_3H_7) _4. Raman spectroscopy of the product indicates that the pillars have a structure analogous to TiO_2(B) phase

  5. Zinc regulates expression of IL-23 p19 mRNA via activation of eIF2α/ATF4 axis in HAPI cells.

    PubMed

    Doi, Takuya; Hara, Hirokazu; Kajita, Miho; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2015-10-01

    Zinc (Zn(2+)) is considered to be one of the factors aggravating brain damage after cerebral ischemia. Since Zn(2+) activates microglia, immune cells in the brain, this metal is proposed to modulate neuroinflammatory responses in the post-ischemic brain. Interleukin (IL)-23 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of the p19 subunit unique to IL-23 and the p40 subunit common to IL-12. IL-23 has been shown to play a critical role in the progression of ischemic brain injury. However, whether Zn(2+) participates in the expression of IL-23 in microglia remains unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of Zn(2+) on IL-23 p19 mRNA expression using rat immortalized microglia HAPI cells. Exposure to Zn(2+) dose- and time-dependently induced the expression of IL-23 p19 mRNA in HAPI cells. Inhibitors of MAPK and NF-κB pathways failed to suppress this induction. Interestingly, we found that Zn(2+) stimulated the phosphorylation of eIF2α and promoted the nuclear accumulation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Treatment with salubrinal, an eIF2α dephosphorylation inhibitor, enhanced Zn(2+)-induced ATF4 accumulation and IL-23 p19 mRNA expression. In addition, reporter assay using the IL-23 p19 promoter region revealed that ATF4 directly transactivated IL-23 p19 promoter and that dominant-negative ATF4 suppressed Zn(2+)-induced activation of IL-23 p19 promoter. Taken together, these findings suggest that Zn(2+) up-regulates expression of the IL-23 p19 gene via the eIF2α/ATF4 axis in HAPI cells. PMID:26174742

  6. Correlation of Cyfra 21-1 levels in saliva and serum with CK19 mRNA expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Rewa; Urs, Aadithya B; Chakravarti, Anita; Kumar, Suman; Gupta, V K; Mahajan, Bhawna

    2016-07-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for 90 % of malignant lesions of oral cavity. The study assessed the potential of Cyfra 21-1 as a tumor marker in OSCC. The study included 50 patients of OSCC to evaluate levels of Cyfra 21-1 in serum and saliva by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA) and CK19 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in tissue by florescent quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) along with healthy individuals as control. The salivary and serum Cyfra 21-1 levels in patients of OSCC were significantly higher compared to controls (p value < 0.01). There was a 2.75-fold increase in CK19 mRNA expression in OSCC cases compared to controls. A significant positive correlation was found between serum and salivary Cyfra 21-1, serum Cyfra 21-1, and CK19 mRNA expression and between salivary Cyfra 21-1 and CK19 mRNA expression. Among these, correlation between serum and salivary Cyfra 21-1 was highly significant. Salivary and serum Cyfra 21-1 showed significantly elevated levels in grade II OSCC compared to grade I histopathologically. Elevated levels of salivary Cyfra 21-1 were associated with recurrence in OSCC patients. Reverse operating curve constructed using 3 ng/ml as a cutoff for serum Cyfra 21-1 revealed the sensitivity and specificity to be 88 and 78.2 %, respectively. Using a cutoff value of 8.5 ng/ml for salivary Cyfra 21-1, the sensitivity was found to be 93.8 % and specificity 84.3 %. We advocate salivary Cyfra 21-1 as a better diagnostic marker over serum Cyfra 21-1 as well as a potential marker in the prognosis of OSCC. PMID:26779624

  7. Correlation of Cyfra 21-1 levels in saliva and serum with CK19 mRNA expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Rewa; Urs, Aadithya B; Chakravarti, Anita; Kumar, Suman; Gupta, V K; Mahajan, Bhawna

    2016-07-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for 90 % of malignant lesions of oral cavity. The study assessed the potential of Cyfra 21-1 as a tumor marker in OSCC. The study included 50 patients of OSCC to evaluate levels of Cyfra 21-1 in serum and saliva by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA) and CK19 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in tissue by florescent quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) along with healthy individuals as control. The salivary and serum Cyfra 21-1 levels in patients of OSCC were significantly higher compared to controls (p value < 0.01). There was a 2.75-fold increase in CK19 mRNA expression in OSCC cases compared to controls. A significant positive correlation was found between serum and salivary Cyfra 21-1, serum Cyfra 21-1, and CK19 mRNA expression and between salivary Cyfra 21-1 and CK19 mRNA expression. Among these, correlation between serum and salivary Cyfra 21-1 was highly significant. Salivary and serum Cyfra 21-1 showed significantly elevated levels in grade II OSCC compared to grade I histopathologically. Elevated levels of salivary Cyfra 21-1 were associated with recurrence in OSCC patients. Reverse operating curve constructed using 3 ng/ml as a cutoff for serum Cyfra 21-1 revealed the sensitivity and specificity to be 88 and 78.2 %, respectively. Using a cutoff value of 8.5 ng/ml for salivary Cyfra 21-1, the sensitivity was found to be 93.8 % and specificity 84.3 %. We advocate salivary Cyfra 21-1 as a better diagnostic marker over serum Cyfra 21-1 as well as a potential marker in the prognosis of OSCC.

  8. Combined Utilization of Cation Exchanger and Neutral Receptor to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2004-03-29

    In this report, novel approaches to the selective liquid-liquid extraction separation of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from high-level alkaline tank waste will be discussed. Sodium hydroxide can be successfully separated from alkaline tank-waste supernatants by weakly acidic lipophilic hydroxy compounds via a cation-exchange mechanism referred to as pseudo hydroxide extraction. In a multi-cycle process, as sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase becomes depleted, it is helpful to have a neutral sodium receptor in the extraction system to exploit the high nitrate concentration in the waste solution to promote sodium removal by an ion-pair extraction process. Simultaneous utilization of an ionizable organic hydroxy compound and a neutral extractant (crown ether) in an organic phase results in the synergistic enhancement of ion exchange and improved separation selectivity due to the receptor's strong and selective sodium binding. Moreover, combination of the hydroxy compound and the crown ether provides for mutually increased solubility, even in a non-polar organic solvent. Accordingly, application of Isopar{reg_sign} L, a kerosene-like alkane solvent, becomes feasible. This investigation involves examination of such dual-mechanism extraction phases for sodium extraction from simulated and actual salt cake waste solutions. Sodium salts can be regenerated upon the contact of the loaded extraction phases with water. Finally, conditions of potential extraction/strip cycling will be discussed.

  9. Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

    2008-08-31

    Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) of treating the tank wastes by hundreds of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass. An electrochemical salt-splitting process, based on sodium-ion selective ceramic membranes, is being developed to recover and recycle sodium hydroxide from high-salt radioactive tank wastes in DOE’s complex. The ceramic membranes are from a family of materials known as sodium (Na)—super-ionic conductors (NaSICON)—and the diffusion of sodium ions (Na+) is allowed, while blocking other positively charged ions. A cost/benefit evaluation was based on a strategy that involves a separate caustic-recycle facility based on the NaSICON technology, which would be located adjacent to the WTP facility. A Monte Carlo approach was taken, and several thousand scenarios were analyzed to determine likely economic results. The cost/benefit evaluation indicates that 10,000–50,000 metric tons (MT) of sodium could be recycled, and would allow for the reduction of glass production by 60,000–300,000 MT. The cost of the facility construction and operation was scaled to the low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification facility, showing cost would be

  10. Iodine Sequestration Using Delafossites and Layered Hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Pless; J.B. Chwirka; J.L. Krumhansl

    2006-03-28

    The objective of this document is to report on early success for sequestering {sup 129}I. Sorption coefficients (K{sub d}) for I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -} onto delafossites, spinels and layered metal hydroxides were measured in order to compare their applicability for sequestering {sup 129}I. The studies were performed using a dilute fluid composition representative of groundwater indigenous to the Yucca mountain area. Delafossites generally exhibited relatively poor sorption coefficients (< 10{sup 1.7} mL/g). In contrast, the composition of the layered hydroxides significantly affects their ability to sorb I. Cu/Al and Cu/Cr layered hydroxide samples exhibit K{sub d}'s greater than 10{sup 3} mL/g for both I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -}.

  11. Method using lime slurry for regenerating sodium sulfite in double alkali flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Dabbs, J.C.; Dauerman, L.; Delaney, B.; Rao, K.K.

    1981-05-12

    In the process of desulfurizing flue gases in which an alkaline solution of sodium, such as sodium sulfite or sodium hydroxide, is contacted with gases in a scrubber to produce a sodium bisulfite solution, an improved method is provided for substantially reducing the time and equipment required to regenerate the sodium solution. In the method, a lime slurry stream and a sodium bisulfite stream are conflowed into a bifurcated mixing nozzle having a pair of converging inlets and a common outlet. The confluence of the streams in the nozzle creates turbulence which causes the lime slurry to react substantially instantaneously with the sodium bisulfite solution to regenerate the sodium solution which is recycled to the scrubber and a calcium sulfite precipitate which is filtered from the sodium solution and discarded.

  12. Method of manufacturing positive nickel hydroxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Gutjahr, M.A.; Schmid, R.; Beccu, K.D.

    1975-12-16

    A method of manufacturing a positive nickel hydroxide electrode is discussed. A highly porous core structure of organic material having a fibrous or reticular texture is uniformly coated with nickel powder and then subjected to a thermal treatment which provides sintering of the powder coating and removal of the organic core material. A consolidated, porous nickel support structure is thus produced which has substantially the same texture and porosity as the initial core structure. To provide the positive electrode including the active mass, nickel hydroxide is deposited in the pores of the nickel support structure.

  13. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  14. Sodium fluoroacetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  15. Sodium azide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  16. Acifluorfen, sodium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  17. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  18. Enhanced osteoconductivity of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite by system instability.

    PubMed

    Sang Cho, Jung; Um, Seung-Hoon; Su Yoo, Dong; Chung, Yong-Chae; Hye Chung, Shin; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The effect of substituting sodium for calcium on enhanced osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite was newly investigated. Sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by reacting calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid with sodium nitrate followed by sintering. As a control, pure hydroxyapatite was prepared under identical conditions, but without the addition of sodium nitrate. Substitution of calcium with sodium in hydroxyapatite produced the structural vacancies for carbonate ion from phosphate site and hydrogen ion from hydroxide site of hydroxyapatite after sintering. The total system energy of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects calculated by ab initio methods based on quantum mechanics was much higher than that of hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was energetically less stable compared with hydroxyapatite. Indeed, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited higher dissolution behavior of constituent elements of hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-buffered deionized water compared with hydroxyapatite, which directly affected low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity by increasing the degree of apatite supersaturation in SBF. Actually, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited markedly improved low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity in SBF and noticeably higher osteoconductivity 4 weeks after implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits compared with hydroxyapatite. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between hydroxyapatite and sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite on cytotoxicity as determined by BCA assay. Taken together, these results indicate that sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects has promising potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its enhanced osteoconductivity compared with hydroxyapatite.

  19. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  20. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  1. Recycling Lithium Carbonate/Lithium Hydroxide Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, J.; Flowers, J.

    1983-01-01

    Hazardous waste disposal problem eliminated by regeneration. Li2CO3/ LiOH recycling process relies on low solubility of alkali carbonates in corresponding hydroxides. Li2CO3 precipitate calcined to LI2O, then rehydrated LiOH. Regeneration eliminates need to dispose caustic waste and uses less energy than simple calcination of entire waste mass.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... water additive complying with § 173.310 of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... water additive complying with § 173.310 of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... water additive complying with § 173.310 of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... water additive complying with § 173.310 of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  6. Study of nickel hydroxide electrodes. 2: Oxidation products of nickel (2) hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, H.; Demelt, K.; White, J.

    1986-01-01

    Pure phases of some oxidized Ni oxides were prepared galvanimetrically with the Ni(2) hydroxide electrode of an alkaline battery. The crystallographic data of these phases, their chemical behavior, and conditions of transition were studied.

  7. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  8. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  9. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  10. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  11. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  2. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  3. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  4. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  5. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  6. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  7. Generation of 0.19-mJ THz pulses in LiNbO3 driven by 800-nm femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Sen-Cheng; Li, Jun; Zhai, Zhao-Hui; Zhu, Li-Guo; Li, Jiang; Zhou, Ping-Wei; Zhao, Jian-Heng; Li, Ze-Ren

    2016-06-27

    A cylindrical lens telescope tilted-pulse-front pumping scheme was proposed for high energy terahertz (THz) pulse generation. This scheme allows higher pump energy to be used with lower saturation effects under high pump fluence, and higher THz generation efficiency was achieved within large range of pump energy. The optimum pump pulse duration and crystal cooling temperature for THz generation in LiNbO3 (LN) crystal were also researched systematically. Excited by 800-nm laser, up to 0.19 mJ THz pulse energy and 0.27% conversion efficiency was demonstrated under 800-nm 400-fs laser excitation with ~100-mJ pulse energy and 150-K LN cooling temperature. PMID:27410634

  8. Evolution of the magnetic properties during the thermal treatment of nanosize BaMFe 11O 19 (M=Fe, Co, Ni and Al) obtained through aerosol route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Sonal; Garg, A. N.; Chandra, Kailash

    2005-01-01

    Nanosize pure and metal substituted barium hexaferrites BaMFe11O19 (M=Fe, Co, Ni and Al) were prepared through aerosol route. The particle size of as-obtained samples were found to be ∼15 nm through TEM, which increases up to 100-130 nm after annealing at 1000 °C. The saturation magnetization for all the samples after annealing at 1000 °C lies in the range 45.7-59.8 emu/g. In case of Co substituted barium hexaferrite, the saturation magnetization is maximum and coercivity is minimum. Room temperature Mössbauer spectra of BaFe12O19 exhibited a doublet suggesting super paramagnetic nature, however, after annealing at 1000 °C this doublet gets converted into four magnetic sextets, which are typical of bulk barium hexaferrite.

  9. Understanding Arsenate Reaction Kinetics with Ferric Hydroxides

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, James; Chaudhary, Binod K.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding arsenic reactions with ferric hydroxides is important in understanding arsenic transport in the environment and in designing systems for removing arsenic from potable water. Many experimental studies have shown that the kinetics of arsenic adsorption on ferric hydroxides is biphasic, where a fraction of the arsenic adsorption occurs on a time scale of seconds while full equilibrium may require weeks to attain. This research employed density functional theory modeling in order to understand the mechanisms contributing to biphasic arsenic adsorption kinetics. The reaction energies and activation barriers for three modes of arsenate adsorption to ferric hydroxides were calculated. Gibbs free energies of reaction depended on the net charge of the complexes, which is a function of the system pH value. Physical adsorption of arsenate to ferric hydroxide proceeded with no activation barrier, with Gibbs free energies of reaction ranging from −21 to −58 kJ/mol. The highest Gibbs free energies of reaction for physical adsorption resulted from negative charge assisted hydrogen bonding between H atoms on the ferric hydroxide and O atoms in arsenate. The conversion of physically adsorbed arsenate into monodentate surface complexes had Gibbs free energies of activation ranging from 62 to 73 kJ/mol, and Gibbs free energies of reaction ranging from −23 to −38 kJ/mol. The conversion of monodentate surface complexes to bidentate, binuclear complexes had Gibbs free energies of activation ranging from 79 to 112 kJ/mol, and Gibbs free energies of reaction ranging from −11 to −55 kJ/mol. For release of arsenate from uncharged bidentate complexes, energies of activation as high as 167 kJ/mol were encountered. Increasingly negative charges on the complexes lowered the activation barriers for desorption of arsenate, and in complexes with −2 charges, the highest activation barrier was 65 kJ/mol. This study shows that the slow kinetics associated with arsenic

  10. Heavy metal leaching from hydroxide, sulphide and silicate stabilized/solidified wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheeseman, C.R.; Butcher, E.J.; Sollars, C.J.; Perry, R. . Centre for Environmental Control and Waste Management)

    1993-01-01

    A synthetic, mixed-metal solution has been stabilized by treatment with sodium hydroxide, sodium sulphide, and sodium silicate, respectively. The three stabilized filter cakes have subsequently been solidified using additions of ordinary Portland cement and pulverized fuel ash (PFA) which are typically used in UK solidification operations. Both the stabilized filter cakes and the solidified wastes have been subjected to an equilibrium extraction test, a modified TCLP test, and a series of single-extraction, batch leach tests using an increasingly acidic leachant. Metal release was found to be primarily dependent on the pH of the leachate. Under mildly acidic conditions, the percentages leached from the stabilized and the stabilized/solidified wastes were comparable for most metals. A high-volume fraction of these solidified wastes is occupied by the stabilized filter cake. When they are broken up and tested in single-extraction leach tests, the primary effect of the cementitious additives is to increase the pH of the leachate so that most heavy metals remain insoluble. When tested under acidic leachate conditions, copper, lead, and mercury were found to be particularly well retained within sodium sulphide stabilized wastes. Under similar tests conditions, cadmium was leached at very low levels from the sodium silicate stabilized waste.

  11. Predicting As removal during metal hydroxide precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    McNeill, L.S.; Edwards, M.

    1997-01-01

    A simplified isotherm is described that can predict the extent of arsenate removal at drinking water utilities practicing coagulation or iron-manganese (Fe-Mn) removal. If all possible sources of particulate iron and aluminum hydroxide present in the system are accounted for, the model predicts arsenic (As) removal to within {+-}13 percent (90 percent confidence) for Fe coagulation at pH 6.5--8 and alum coagulation at pH < 7.6. Analysis of full-scale treatment data suggests that colloidal aluminum (Al) flocs with sorbed arsenate [As(V)] may pass through filters, thereby decreasing overall As removal efficiency. Thus, Al solubility and particle stability must be minimized to improve As removal. If stability and solubility of aluminum hydroxide flocs are not a problem, alum and Fe coagulants have nearly equal capacity for sorbing As(V). Survey results also demonstrate the importance of particulate As.

  12. Pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Gurlo, Aleksander; Dzivenko, Dmytro; Andrade, Miria; Riedel, Ralf; Lauterbach, Stefan; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim

    2010-09-15

    A static pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium that takes place at ambient temperature is reported. The lattice parameter of c-In(OH)(3) decreased upon compression from 7.977(2) to approximately 7.45 A at 34 GPa, corresponding to a decrease in specific volume of approximately 18%. Fitting the second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to the obtained compression data gave a bulk modulus of 99 +/- 3 GPa for c-In(OH)(3). The c-In(OH)(3) crystals with a size of approximately 100 nm are comminuted upon compression, as indicated by the grain-size reduction reflected in broadening of the diffraction reflections and the appearance of smaller (approximately 5 nm) incoherently oriented domains in TEM. The rapid decompression of compressed c-In(OH)(3) leads to partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium, mainly as a result of localized stress gradients caused by relaxation of the highly disordered indium sublattice in indium hydroxide. This partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium is irreversible, as confirmed by angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy imaging, Raman scattering, and FTIR spectroscopy. Recovered c-In(OH)(3) samples become completely black and nontransparent and show typical features of metals, i.e., a falling absorption in the 100-250 cm(-1) region accompanied by a featureless spectrum in the 250-2500 cm(-1) region in the Raman spectrum and Drude-like absorption of free electrons in the region of 4000-8000 cm(-1) in the FTIR spectrum. These features were not observed in the initial c-In(OH)(3), which is a typical white wide-band-gap semiconductor.

  13. Layered double hydroxide stability. 1. Relative stabilities of layered double hydroxides and their simple counterparts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.

    1999-01-01

    Solutions containing di- and trivalent metal chlorides [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+; M(III) = Al3+, Fe3+] were titrated with NaOH to yield hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDH), [[M(II)]1-x[M(III)]x(OH)2][Cl]x yH2O, by way of M(III) hydroxide/hydrous oxide intermediates. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields nominal solubility constants for the LDH. The corresponding LDH stabilities are in the order Mg < Mn < Co approximately Ni < Zn for M(II) and Al < Fe for M(III). The stability of LDH relative to the separate metal hydroxides/hydrous oxides is discussed.

  14. Application of the SCC-DFTB method to hydroxide water clusters and aqueous hydroxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tae Hoon; Liang, Ruibin; Maupin, C Mark; Voth, Gregory A

    2013-05-01

    The self-consistent charge density functional tight binding (SCC-DFTB) method has been applied to hydroxide water clusters and a hydroxide ion in bulk water. To determine the impact of various implementations of SCC-DFTB on the energetics and dynamics of a hydroxide ion in gas phase and condensed phase, the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus, and DFTB3-3OB implementations have been tested. Energetic stabilities for small hydroxide clusters, OH(-)(H2O)n, where n = 4-7, are inconsistent with the results calculated with the B3LYP and second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) levels of ab initio theory. The condensed phase simulations, OH(-)(H2O)127, using the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus and DFTB3-3OB methods are compared to Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations using the BLYP functional. The SCC-DFTB method including a modified O-H repulsive potential and the third order correction (DFTB3-diag/Full+gaus) is shown to poorly reproduce the CPMD computational results, while the DFTB2 and DFTB2-γ(h) method somewhat more closely describe the structural and dynamical nature of the hydroxide ion in condensed phase. The DFTB3-3OB outperforms the MIO parameter set but is no more accurate than DFTB2. It is also shown that the overcoordinated water molecules lead to an incorrect bulk water density and result in unphysical water void formation. The results presented in this paper point to serious drawbacks for various DFTB extensions and corrections for a hydroxide ion in aqueous environments. PMID:23566052

  15. Orthophosphate and metaphosphate ion removal from aqueous solution using alum and aluminum hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Georgantas, D A; Grigoropoulou, H P

    2007-11-01

    The removal of orthophosphates (10(-2) kg P m(-3)), condensed phosphates (10(-2) kg P m(-3)), and mixtures of both (5 x 10(-3) kg P m(-3) as orthophosphate and 5 x 10(-3) kg P m(-3) as metaphosphate) in aqueous solution is studied using alum and aluminum hydroxide. The effects of coagulant dose, pH, temperature, aging of aluminum hydroxide, and presence of different ions are investigated. On the basis of the experimental results, alum is much more efficient in phosphorus removal than aluminum hydroxide even if, in both cases, at the conditions studied, the active coagulant form is Al(OH)(3). The differences then could be due to the higher activity of the in situ formed hydroxide. Orthophosphates and metaphosphates seem to have similar behavior vs pH variation: maximum removal is achieved at pH values 5-6 in all cases. On the other hand, in the simultaneous presence of both P forms, orthophosphate and metaphosphate ions have different affinities for the surface sites of aluminum hydroxide, since for both alum and aluminum hydroxide, orthophosphates are preferentially removed compared to metaphosphates, due probably to orientation effects and the charge per P atom. The presence of sodium, potassium, magnesium, sulfate, chloride, and magnesium, at the concentrations studied and for a pH value of 6, does not influence P removal. Temperature variation, between 25 and 60 degrees C, does not affect alum efficiency but both P forms are increasingly removed with increasing temperature, probably due to polymer Al(OH)(3) breaking, producing new surfaces for adsorption. Aging decreases sorption capacity of Al(OH)(3), while crystallites of increasing size are formed. Finally adsorption of both P forms is best described by the Freundlich isotherm [[K(F)=(49.1-69.1) x 10(-3) (m(3)kg(-1))(1/N), 1/N: 0.14-0.19 for T=25-60 degrees C] and [ K(F)=(1.58-2.79) x 10(-3) (m(3)kg(-1))(1/N), 1/N: 2.17-2.47 for T=25-60 degrees C] for orthophosphate and metaphosphate, respectively.

  16. Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Herrmann, S.D.

    1997-10-14

    A method is described for converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO{sub 2} are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO{sub 2} present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and Tl can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention. 3 figs.

  17. Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Herrmann, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A method of converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO.sub.2 are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO.sub.2 present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and T1 can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention.

  18. A Digital Low Dispersion Spectral Library Covering the 3500-7500 Å Region Using the SAAO Radcliffe 1.9 m Telescope's Cassegrain Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, David J.

    2013-09-01

    We have created a digital spectral library, using low resolution optical spectra, of photometric and spectral standard stars. The data were acquired using the Cassegrain spectrograph installed on the 1.9 m Radcliffe telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. The library consists of optical wavelength (sime3500-7500 Å) spectra for main sequence and giant stars encompassing those most commonly observed in the Galaxy, namely the late-B, A, F, G, K, and early- to mid-M stars. We intend that our standard star spectra will be especially useful for spectral classification of stars in the field and Galactic clusters alike and will have high pedagogic value when included into representative "Introductory Astronomy" or "Stellar Astronomy" curricula for undergraduate astronomy major and minor programs. We exploit the spectral library in order to derive spectral types for 76 optically and X-ray selected members of the young open cluster NGC 6475. Comparison of spectral type, optical and infrared photometric data to theoretical colors derived from spectral type show that the reddening of the cluster is EBV = 0.068 ± 0.012 (1σ = 0.058), a vector consistent with earlier surveys. Our analysis also highlights the utility of such spectra in rejecting cluster nonmembers, thereby allowing the creation of a clean sample of bona fide cluster members for follow-up science observations.

  19. Formation and character of an ancient 19-m ice cover and underlying trapped brine in an “ice-sealed” east Antarctic lake

    PubMed Central

    Doran, Peter T.; Fritsen, Christian H.; McKay, Christopher P.; Priscu, John C.; Adams, Edward E.

    2003-01-01

    Lake Vida, one of the largest lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, was previously believed to be shallow (<10 m) and frozen to its bed year-round. New ice-core analysis and temperature data show that beneath 19 m of ice is a water column composed of a NaCl brine with a salinity seven times that of seawater that remains liquid below −10°C. The ice cover thickens at both its base and surface, sealing concentrated brine beneath. The ice cover is stabilized by a negative feedback between ice growth and the freezing-point depression of the brine. The ice cover contains frozen microbial mats throughout that are viable after thawing and has a history that extends to at least 2,800 14C years B.P., suggesting that the brine has been isolated from the atmosphere for as long. To our knowledge, Lake Vida has the thickest subaerial lake ice cover recorded and may represent a previously undiscovered end-member lacustrine ecosystem on Earth. PMID:12518052

  20. Formation and character of an ancient 19-m ice cover and underlying trapped brine in an "ice-sealed" east Antarctic lake.

    PubMed

    Doran, Peter T; Fritsen, Christian H; McKay, Christopher P; Priscu, John C; Adams, Edward E

    2003-01-01

    Lake Vida, one of the largest lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, was previously believed to be shallow (<10 m) and frozen to its bed year-round. New ice-core analysis and temperature data show that beneath 19 m of ice is a water column composed of a NaCl brine with a salinity seven times that of seawater that remains liquid below -10 degrees C. The ice cover thickens at both its base and surface, sealing concentrated brine beneath. The ice cover is stabilized by a negative feedback between ice growth and the freezing-point depression of the brine. The ice cover contains frozen microbial mats throughout that are viable after thawing and has a history that extends to at least 2,800 (14)C years B.P., suggesting that the brine has been isolated from the atmosphere for as long. To our knowledge, Lake Vida has the thickest subaerial lake ice cover recorded and may represent a previously undiscovered end-member lacustrine ecosystem on Earth.

  1. Effects of salt and ammonium hydroxide on the quality of ground buffalo meat.

    PubMed

    Naveena, B M; Sen, A R; Muthukumar, M; Babji, Y; Kondaiah, N

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ammonium hydroxide (AH) and sodium chloride on the quality of ground buffalo meat patties. Ground buffalo meat was treated with distilled water (control), 0.5% v/w AH, 1.0% v/w AH, 2.0% v/w AH and 1.0% w/w sodium chloride was added for all the samples. Treatment with AH increased (P<0.05) the pH and water holding capacity (WHC) of ground buffalo meat patties during storage relative to their controls. Hunterlab a* (redness) and chroma values increased (P<0.05) and hue decreased (P<0.05) in all AH treated samples in comparison to controls during storage. Ammonium hydroxide significantly (P<0.05) inhibited metmyoglobin formation compared to control after 3rd day of storage. There was a significant (P<0.05) reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in all AH treated samples compared to control throughout storage. These results indicate the potential antioxidant and myoglobin redox stabilizing effect of AH in ground buffalo meat patties.

  2. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. The ... Sodium is found mostly in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining ...

  3. Hydroxide stabilization as a new tool for ballast disinfection: Efficacy of treatment on zooplankton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moffitt, Christine M.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Barenburg, Amber; Henquinet, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Effective and economical tools are needed for treating ship ballast to meet new regulatory requirements designed to reduce the introduction of invasive aquatic species from ship traffic. We tested the efficacy of hydroxide stabilization as a ballast disinfection tool in replicated, sequential field trials on board the M/V Ranger III in waters of Lake Superior. Ballast water was introduced into each of four identical 1,320 L stainless steel tanks during a simulated ballasting operation. Two tanks were treated with NaOH to elevate the pH to 11.7 and the remaining two tanks were held as controls without pH alteration. After retention on board for 14–18 h, CO2-rich gas recovered from one of two diesel propulsion engines was sparged into tanks treated with NaOH for 2 h to force conversion of NaOH ultimately to sodium bicarbonate, thereby lowering pH to about 7.1. Prior to gas sparging, the engine exhaust was treated by a unique catalytic converter/wet scrubber process train to remove unwanted combustion byproducts and to provide cooling. The contents of each tank were then drained and filtered through 35-µm mesh plankton nets to collect all zooplankton. The composition and relative survival of zooplankton in each tank were evaluated by microscopy. Zooplankton populations were dominated by rotifers, but copepods and cladocerans were also observed. Hydroxide stabilization was 100% effective in killing all zooplankton present at the start of the tests. Our results suggest hydroxide stabilization has potential to be an effective and practical tool to disinfect ship ballast. Further, using CO2 released from the ship engine reduces emissions and the neutralized by product, sodium bicarbonate, can have beneficial impacts on the aquatic environment.

  4. REDUCTION OF PLUTONIUM TO Pu$sup +3$ BY SODIUM DITHIONITE IN POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.R.; Hoekstra, H.R.

    1958-12-16

    Plutonium values are reduced in an alkaline aqueous medlum to the trlvalent state by means of sodium dlthionite. Plutonlum values are also separated from normally assoclated contaminants by metathesizing a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate containing plutonium with a hydroxide solution, performing the metathesis in the presence of about 0.2 M sodium dithionite at a temperature of between 40 and 90 icient laborato C.

  5. Infrared band intensities in ammonium hydroxide and ammonium salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sethna, P. P.; Downing, H. D.; Pinkley, L. W.; Williams, D.

    1978-01-01

    We have applied Kramers-Kronig analysis to reflection spectra to determine the optical constants of ammonium hydroxide and of aqueous solutions of ammonium chloride and bromide. From considerations of the absorption indices k(nu) we conclude that ammonium hydroxide consists of a solution of NH3 in water, in which NH3 molecules are hydrogen bonded to neighboring water molecules. The spectrum of ammonium hydroxide differs from the spectra of ammonium salts, in which bands characteristic of NH4(+) ions are prominent. The existence of ammonium hydroxide as an aerosol in planetary atmospheres is briefly discussed

  6. The alpha-form of the hydroxides of bivalent metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feitknecht, W.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray analyses were made of the hydroxides of the bivalent metals. The freshly pptd. hydroxide is usually in the alpha-form, which on standing is converted to another form or other forms. The alpha and c grating dimensions of the alpha-form and the C6-type of Co, Zn, C, Co-Zn and Ni-Zn hydroxides are tabulated. Ni hydroxide does not exhibit an alpha-form. The alpha-Co(OH)2, the blue form, is stabilized by sugar or by the higher alcohols: these compounds do not stabilize alpha-Zn(OH)2.

  7. Photoactive oriented films of layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Lang, Kamil; Kubát, Pavel; Mosinger, Jirí; Bujdák, Juraj; Hof, Martin; Janda, Pavel; Sýkora, Jan; Iyi, Nobuo

    2008-08-14

    The treatment of nano-ordered oriented films of layered double hydroxide (LDH) with dodecyl sulfate increased the interlayer distance from 0.4 to 1.96 nm, which allowed the intercalation of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS). The re-stacking of separated layers and the rebuilding of crystals oriented parallel to the surface of quartz slides was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The hybrid films contained homogeneously distributed porphyrin molecules with preserved photophysical properties such as fluorescence, triplet state formation, and energy transfer, thus forming singlet oxygen.

  8. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-09-26

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  9. Retail display evaluation of steaks from select beef strip loins injected with a brine containing 1% ammonium hydroxide. Part 2: Cook yield, tenderness, and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Parsons, A N; VanOverbeke, D L; Goad, C L; Mireles DeWitt, C A

    2011-01-01

    The impact of 2 different brines on the palatability and tenderness of select beef strip loin steaks was evaluated. Brines were differentiated by the type of alkaline agent, 4.5% sodium-based phosphate (control brine; CON) or 1% ammonium hydroxide (ammonium hydroxide treatment; AHT), incorporated into the formula. Injected steaks were placed in high oxygen (80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) MAP, stored 4 d at 4 °C in dark storage to simulate transportation, and then placed in retail display. Steaks were selected randomly on day 0, 7, and 14 retail display to measure pH, cook loss, shear force, and sensory characteristics. The pH for AHT steaks (pH 5.96) was slightly higher than CON steaks (pH 5.86; P < 0.05). Cook loss was lower (21%) for CON than AHT steaks (23%). There was neither a treatment nor day effect on tenderness as measured by Warner-Braztler shear force (P > 0.05). Sensory evaluation indicated that on day 0, retail display the initial juiciness, sustained juiciness, tenderness 1st impression, tenderness overall impression, and connective tissue in AHT steaks was not different from CON steaks (P > 0.05). A day effect (decrease) for those sensory parameters was observed only for sustained juiciness (P < 0.05). AHT steaks were rated higher in cooked beef flavor while CON steaks were higher in peppery and salty flavor. There was no difference in soapy and ammonia intensity between treatments. Results indicated that despite lower performance in cook loss the replacement of 4.5% sodium-based phosphate in a meat injection brine with 1% ammonium hydroxide produced a beef loin steak with comparable tenderness and palatability. Practical Application: The research in this study compares steaks that have been injected with a commercial brine formulated with sodium phosphates to steaks that have been injected with a brine where the sodium phosphate in the formulation was replaced with 1% ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium hydroxide is an USDA-FSIS approved ingredient in brines

  10. Modelling sodium inhibition on the anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Hierholtzer, A; Akunna, J C

    2012-01-01

    Sodium is a known process inhibitor in anaerobic systems and impacts on methanogens through an increase of osmotic pressure or complete dehydration of microorganisms. In this study, a combination of experimental and modelling approaches has been employed to determine and simulate sodium inhibition on the anaerobic digestion process. The ADM1, which has been successfully used in modelling anaerobic processes, has been modified to include an extra inhibition function that considers the effect of sodium on acetoclastic methanogens and the impact on biogas production and composition. A non-competitive inhibition function was added to the rate of acetate uptake for the model to take into account sodium toxicity. Experimental studies consisted of both batch and reactor tests to obtain parameters for model calibration and validation. The calibrated model was used to predict the effect of ammonia nitrogen on sodium toxicity. It was found that relatively low sodium levels can bring about significant levels of process inhibition in the presence of high levels of ammonia. On the other hand, where the concentration of ammonia is relatively low, the tolerance threshold for sodium ions increases. Hence, care must be taken in the use of sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment during anaerobic digestion of protein-rich substrates.

  11. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on...

  12. Protons and Hydroxide Ions in Aqueous Systems.

    PubMed

    Agmon, Noam; Bakker, Huib J; Campen, R Kramer; Henchman, Richard H; Pohl, Peter; Roke, Sylvie; Thämer, Martin; Hassanali, Ali

    2016-07-13

    Understanding the structure and dynamics of water's constituent ions, proton and hydroxide, has been a subject of numerous experimental and theoretical studies over the last century. Besides their obvious importance in acid-base chemistry, these ions play an important role in numerous applications ranging from enzyme catalysis to environmental chemistry. Despite a long history of research, many fundamental issues regarding their properties continue to be an active area of research. Here, we provide a review of the experimental and theoretical advances made in the last several decades in understanding the structure, dynamics, and transport of the proton and hydroxide ions in different aqueous environments, ranging from water clusters to the bulk liquid and its interfaces with hydrophobic surfaces. The propensity of these ions to accumulate at hydrophobic surfaces has been a subject of intense debate, and we highlight the open issues and challenges in this area. Biological applications reviewed include proton transport along the hydration layer of various membranes and through channel proteins, problems that are at the core of cellular bioenergetics. PMID:27314430

  13. Protons and Hydroxide Ions in Aqueous Systems.

    PubMed

    Agmon, Noam; Bakker, Huib J; Campen, R Kramer; Henchman, Richard H; Pohl, Peter; Roke, Sylvie; Thämer, Martin; Hassanali, Ali

    2016-07-13

    Understanding the structure and dynamics of water's constituent ions, proton and hydroxide, has been a subject of numerous experimental and theoretical studies over the last century. Besides their obvious importance in acid-base chemistry, these ions play an important role in numerous applications ranging from enzyme catalysis to environmental chemistry. Despite a long history of research, many fundamental issues regarding their properties continue to be an active area of research. Here, we provide a review of the experimental and theoretical advances made in the last several decades in understanding the structure, dynamics, and transport of the proton and hydroxide ions in different aqueous environments, ranging from water clusters to the bulk liquid and its interfaces with hydrophobic surfaces. The propensity of these ions to accumulate at hydrophobic surfaces has been a subject of intense debate, and we highlight the open issues and challenges in this area. Biological applications reviewed include proton transport along the hydration layer of various membranes and through channel proteins, problems that are at the core of cellular bioenergetics.

  14. Danaparoid sodium.

    PubMed

    Acostamadiedo, J M; Iyer, U G; Owen, J

    2000-05-01

    Danaparoid sodium (Orgaran, Organon) is a heparinoid glycosamino-glycuronan antithrombotic agent approved for the prophylaxis of post-operative deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients undergoing elective hip replacement surgery. Danaparoid is a low molecular weight heparinoid consisting of a mixture of heparan sulphate (84%), dermatan sulphate (12%) and small amounts of chondroitin sulphate (4%), whose antithrombotic activity has been well established. Its pharmacological effect is exerted primarily by inhibiting Factors Xa (FXa) and IIa (FIIa) at a ratio greater than heparin, with a minimal effect on platelet function. Danaparoid exhibits low cross-reactivity with heparin-induced antibodies when compared with heparin or low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), thereby making it an excellent choice for the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). It has excellent bioavailability following s.c. injection. Danaparoid has little effect on routine coagulation tests (activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], prothrombin time [PT], and thrombin time [TT]). Patients with elevated serum creatinine should be monitored carefully. For its FDA approved indication (DVT prophylaxis during hip replacement surgery), its cost per day is approximately eight times more than LMWH. Even though monitoring is not routinely necessary according to the manufacturer for its approved indication, monitoring is frequently necessary when it is used in other clinical scenarios. Its higher cost than comparable therapies for DVT prophylaxis and the low availability of the FXa assay in most non-tertiary care hospitals has limited the widespread use of danaparoid. Danaparoid has been found to be effective in the treatment of HIT although this is an off label use, despite being the most frequent reason why danaparoid is used. PMID:11249517

  15. Nedocromil sodium (Tilade).

    PubMed

    Bartels, L A; Farrington, E

    1994-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium is a well-tolerated antiasthmatic agent for initial therapy in patients with mild or moderate asthma not well controlled with inhaled beta-2 agonists and/or where methylxanthines are indicated. Like cromolyn sodium, nedocromil sodium offers a potential alternative to inhaled corticosteroids as maintenance therapy in patients with mild or moderate asthma not adequately controlled by bronchodilators. Furthermore, cromolyn sodium and nedocromil sodium may also reduce the usage of corticosteroids and provide some additional symptom control in patients whose asthma is not suitably controlled by optimal doses of inhaled corticosteroids. Both nedocromil sodium and cromolyn sodium are more efficacious than placebo for controlling of asthma, however, few studies have compared the effectiveness of cromolyn versus nedocromil at this time. Further experience and comparison studies of nedocromil sodium with cromolyn sodium in children are required before the role of nedocromil sodium as maintenance treatment in young asthmatic patients can be defined.

  16. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... area of the eye. (d) Labeling requirements. The label of the color additive and of any mixtures... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  17. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... area of the eye. (d) Labeling requirements. The label of the color additive and of any mixtures... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  18. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... area of the eye. (d) Labeling requirements. The label of the color additive and of any mixtures... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section 872.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner....

  20. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section 872.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner....

  1. 40 CFR 721.4467 - Quaternary ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. 721... Substances § 721.4467 Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a quaternary ammonium...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4467 - Quaternary ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. 721... Substances § 721.4467 Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a quaternary ammonium...

  3. Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal

    2012-01-15

    Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 Degree-Sign C and in the LDH at 276 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: The zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O was tested as intercalation matrix. In comparison with the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) and layered double hydroxides (LDH), ZHC was the best matrix for thermal protection of Asp combustion, presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C, while the highest exothermic event in ZHN was at 366 Degree-Sign C, and in the LDH it was at 276 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZHC has higher chemical and thermal stability than zinc hydroxide nitrate and LDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NH{sub 3} molecules can be intercalated into ZHC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amino group of amino acids limits the intercalation by ion-exchange.

  4. High pseudocapacitive cobalt carbonate hydroxide films derived from CoAl layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhiyi; Zhu, Wei; Lei, Xiaodong; Williams, Gareth R.; O'Hare, Dermot; Chang, Zheng; Sun, Xiaoming; Duan, Xue

    2012-05-01

    A thin nanosheet of mesoporous cobalt carbonate hydroxide (MPCCH) has been fabricated from a CoAl-LDH nanosheet following removal of the Al cations by alkali etching. The basic etched electrode exhibits enhanced specific capacitance (1075 F g-1 at 5 mA cm-2) and higher rate capability and cycling stability (92% maintained after 2000 cycles).A thin nanosheet of mesoporous cobalt carbonate hydroxide (MPCCH) has been fabricated from a CoAl-LDH nanosheet following removal of the Al cations by alkali etching. The basic etched electrode exhibits enhanced specific capacitance (1075 F g-1 at 5 mA cm-2) and higher rate capability and cycling stability (92% maintained after 2000 cycles). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental procedure, specific capacitance calculation, EDS and FTIR results, electrochemical results of CoAl-LDH and SEM image. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30617d

  5. Complex Microfiltration Behavior of Metal Hydroxide Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-02-28

    Crossflow filtration is to be a key process in the treatment and disposal of approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is assessing filter performance against waste simulant materials that mimic the chemical and physical properties of Hanford tank waste. Prior simulant studies indicate that waste filtration performance may be limited by pore and cake fouling. To limit the shutdown of waste treatment operations, the pre-treatment facility plans to recover filter flux loses from cake formation and filter fouling by frequently backpulsing the filter elements. The objective of the current research is to develop an understanding of the roles of cake and pore fouling and potential flux recovery through backpulsing of the filters for Hanford waste filtration operations. Metal hydroxide wastes were tested to examine the role of particle-filter interaction on filter performance.

  6. Asymmetric Transport Mechanisms of Hydronium and Hydroxide Ions in Amorphous Solid Water: Hydroxide Goes Brownian while Hydronium Hops.

    PubMed

    Lee, Du Hyeong; Choi, Cheol Ho; Choi, Tae Hoon; Sung, Bong June; Kang, Heon

    2014-08-01

    The diffusion of hydronium (H3O(+)) and hydroxide (OH(-)) ions is one of the most intriguing topics in aqueous chemistry. It is considered that these ions in aqueous solutions move via sequential proton transfer events, known as the Grotthuss mechanisms. Here, we present an experimental study of the diffusion and H/D exchange of hydronium and hydroxide ions in amorphous solid water (ASW) at 140-180 K by using low-energy sputtering (LES) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) measurements. The study shows that the two species transport in ASW via fundamentally different molecular mechanisms. Whereas hydronium ions migrate via efficient proton transfer, hydroxide ions move via Brownian molecular diffusion without proton transfer. The molecular hydroxide diffusion in ASW is in stark contrast to the current view of the hydroxide diffusion mechanism in aqueous solution, which involves proton transfer.

  7. Cu sbnd Al sbnd Fe layered double hydroxides with CO32- and anionic surfactants with different alkyl chains in the interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillano, Raquel; Holgado, María Jesús; González, José Luis; Rives, Vicente

    2005-08-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), with the hydrotalcite-like structure containing Cu(II), Al(III) and Fe(III) in the layers, and different alkyl sulfonates in the interlayer, have been prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Pure crystalline phases have been obtained in all cases. Upon heating, combustion of the organic chain takes place at lower temperature than the corresponding sodium salts.

  8. Modeling the Sodium Recovery Resulting from Using Concentrated Caustic for Boehmite Dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2011-10-19

    Boehmite dissolution experiments were conducted at NaOH concentrations of 10 M and 12 M to determine whether the increased aluminum solubility at high hydroxide concentration would offset the increase in added sodium, leading to an overall decrease in the amount of sodium added during the boehmite dissolution process. A shrinking-core dissolution rate model that assumed reversible reaction was used to fit the test data. The resulting model accounted for the effects of temperature, hydroxide concentration, and dissolved aluminum concentration. The rate was found to be dependent on the {approx}1.5 power of hydroxide molarity. When the dissolution rate model was used in simulations of batch boehmite dissolution, a concentration range of 7 to 9 M NaOH was found to minimize the mass of sodium needed to dissolve a given mass of aluminum, potentially reducing it by as much as two-thirds. The time required to dissolve the boehmite was also found to be decreased by using hydroxide concentrations greater than {approx}10 M.

  9. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  10. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  11. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  12. Fractional excretion of sodium

    MedlinePlus

    FE sodium; FENa ... to a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... your normal foods with a normal amount of salt, unless otherwise instructed by your health care provider. ...

  13. Adsorption of phosphonate antiscalant from reverse osmosis membrane concentrate onto granular ferric hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Boels, Luciaan; Keesman, Karel J; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

    2012-09-01

    Adsorptive removal of antiscalants offers a promising way to improve current reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate treatment processes and enables the reuse of the antiscalant in the RO desalination process. This work investigates the adsorption and desorption of the phosphonate antiscalant nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (NTMP) from RO membrane concentrate onto granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), a material that consists predominantly of akaganéite. The kinetics of the adsorption of NTMP onto GFH was predicted fairly well with two models that consider either combined film-pore or combined film-surface diffusion as the main mechanism for mass transport. It is also demonstrated that NTMP is preferentially adsorbed over sulfate by GFH at pH 7.85. The presence of calcium causes a transformation in the equilibrium adsorption isotherm from a Langmuir type to a Freundlich type with much higher adsorption capacities. Furthermore, calcium also increases the rate of adsorption substantially. GFH is reusable after regeneration with sodium hydroxide solution, indicating that NTMP can be potentially recovered from the RO concentrate. This work shows that GFH is a promising adsorbent for the removal and recovery of NTMP antiscalant from RO membrane concentrates.

  14. Adsorption of phosphonate antiscalant from reverse osmosis membrane concentrate onto granular ferric hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Boels, Luciaan; Keesman, Karel J; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

    2012-09-01

    Adsorptive removal of antiscalants offers a promising way to improve current reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate treatment processes and enables the reuse of the antiscalant in the RO desalination process. This work investigates the adsorption and desorption of the phosphonate antiscalant nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (NTMP) from RO membrane concentrate onto granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), a material that consists predominantly of akaganéite. The kinetics of the adsorption of NTMP onto GFH was predicted fairly well with two models that consider either combined film-pore or combined film-surface diffusion as the main mechanism for mass transport. It is also demonstrated that NTMP is preferentially adsorbed over sulfate by GFH at pH 7.85. The presence of calcium causes a transformation in the equilibrium adsorption isotherm from a Langmuir type to a Freundlich type with much higher adsorption capacities. Furthermore, calcium also increases the rate of adsorption substantially. GFH is reusable after regeneration with sodium hydroxide solution, indicating that NTMP can be potentially recovered from the RO concentrate. This work shows that GFH is a promising adsorbent for the removal and recovery of NTMP antiscalant from RO membrane concentrates. PMID:22873428

  15. Homogeneous Precipitation of Nickel Hydroxide Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Bora Mavis

    2003-12-12

    Precipitation and characterization of nickel hydroxide powders were investigated. A comprehensive precipitation model incorporating the metal ion hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions was developed for the production of the powders with urea precipitation method. Model predictions on Ni{sup 2+} precipitation rate were confirmed with precipitation experiments carried out at 90 C. Experimental data and model predictions were in remarkable agreement. Uncertainty in the solubility product data of nickel hydroxides was found to be the large contributor to the error. There were demonstrable compositional variations across the particle cross-sections and the growth mechanism was determined to be the aggregation of primary crystallites. This implied that there is a change in the intercalate chemistry of the primary crystallites with digestion time. Predicted changes in the concentrations of simple and complex ions in the solution support the proposed mechanism. The comprehensive set of hydrolysis reactions used in the model described above allows the investigation of other systems provided that accurate reaction constants are available. the fact that transition metal ions like Ni{sup 2+} form strong complexes with ammonia presents a challenge in the full recovery of the Ni{sup 2+}. On the other hand, presence of Al{sup 3+} facilitates the complete precipitation of Ni{sup 2+} in about 3 hours of digestion. A challenge in their predictive modeling studies had been the fact that simultaneous incorporation of more than one metal ion necessitates a different approach than just using the equilibrium constants of hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions. Another limitation of using equilibrium constants is that the nucleation stage of digestion, which is controlled mainly by kinetics, is not fully justified. A new program released by IBM Almaden Research Center (Chemical Kinetics Simulator{trademark}, Version 1.01) lets the user change the order of

  16. Form and stability of aluminum hydroxide complexes in dilute solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hem, John David; Roberson, Charles Elmer

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory studies of solutions 4.53 x 10 -4 to 4.5 x 10 -5 molal (12.2-1.2 ppm) in aluminum, in 0.01 molal sodium perchlorate, were conducted to obtain information as to the probable behavior of aluminum in natural water. When the solutions were brought to pH 7.5-9.5 and allowed to stand for 24 hours, a precipitate was obtained which was virtually amorphous as shown by X-rays, and which had a solubility equivalent to that of boehmite. This precipitate had a hydrolysis constant (*Ks4) of 1.93 x 10 -13a. When solutions were allowed to stead at this pH range for 10 days, their precipitates gave the X-ray pattern of bayerite (*Ks4 = 1.11 > (10- 4). These hydrolysis constants were obtained at 25?C. and corrected to zero ionic strength and are in close agreement with other published values. The predominant dissolved form in this pH range is Al(OH) -4. Below neutral pH (7.0) the dissolved aluminum species consist of octahedral units in which each aluminum ion is surrounded by six water molecules or hydroxide ions. Single units such as Al(OH2)6 + 3 and AlOH(OH2)5+2 are most abundant below pH 5.0, and where the molar ratio (r) of combined hydroxide to total dissolved aluminum is low. When r is greater than 1.0, polymerization of the octahedral units occurs. When r is between 2.0 and 3.0, solutions aged for 10 days or more contained colloidal particles between 0.10 and 0.45 ? in diameter. Particles whose diameters were greater than 0.10 ? were identified by X-ray diffraction as gibbsite. Particles smaller than 0.10 ? were also present and were shown by means of the electron microscope to have a hexagonal crystal pattern. Structured material consisting of sheets of coalesced six-membered rings of aluminum ions held together by double OH bridges has a distinctive kinetic behavior. This property was used to determine amounts of polymerized material in solutions having r between 1.0 and 3.0 after aging times ranging from a few hours to more than 4 months. Aging increased the

  17. Hydroxide-Assisted Bonding of Ultra-Low-Expansion Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramovici, Alexander; White, Victor

    2008-01-01

    A process for hydroxide-assisted bonding has been developed as a means of joining optical components made of ultra-low-expansion (ULE) glass, while maintaining sufficiently precise alignment between. The process is intended mainly for use in applications in which (1) bonding of glass optical components by use of epoxy does not enable attainment of the required accuracy and dimensional stability and (2) conventional optical contacting (which affords the required accuracy and stability) does not afford adequate bond strength. The basic concept of hydroxide-assisted bonding is not new. The development of the present process was prompted by two considerations: (1) The expertise in hydroxide-assisted bonding has resided in very few places and the experts have not been willing to reveal the details of their processes and (2) data on the reliability and strength attainable by hydroxide-assisted bonding have been scarce.

  18. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and... in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including those intended for use in the area of the eye,...

  19. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and... in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including those intended for use in the area of the eye,...

  20. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and... in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including those intended for use in the area of the eye,...

  1. Conversion coatings prepared or treated with calcium hydroxide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minevski, Zoran (Inventor); Clarke, Eric (Inventor); Maxey, Jason (Inventor); Nelson, Carl (Inventor); Eylem, Cahit (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A conversion coating process that forms a stable and corrosion-resistant oxide layer on metal or metal oxide substrates or layers. Particularly, the conversion coating process involves contacting the metal or metal oxide substrate or layer with the aqueous calcium hydroxide solutions in order to convert the surface of the substrate to a stable metal oxide layer or coating. According to the present invention, the calcium hydroxide solution is prepared by removing carbon dioxide from water or an aqueous solution before introducing the calcium hydroxide. In this manner, formation of calcium carbonate particles is avoided and the porosity of the conversion coating produced by the calcium hydroxide solution is reduced to below about 1%.

  2. Solvent and process for recovery of hydroxide from aqueous mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Keever, Tamara J.

    2001-01-01

    Hydroxide values and associated alkali metal may be recovered from alkaline aqueous solutions using classes of fluorinated alcohols in a water immiscible solvent. The alcohols are characterized by fluorine substituents which are proximal to the acidic alcohol protons and are located to adjust the acidity of the extractant and the solubility of the extractant in the solvent. A method for stripping the extractant and solvent to regenerate the extractant and purified aqueous hydroxide solution is described.

  3. Ion chromatographic determination of hydroxide ion on monolithic reversed-phase silica gel columns coated with nonionic and cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qun; Mori, Masanobu; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Ikedo, Mikaru; Hu, Wenzhi; Haddad, Paul R

    2004-07-01

    The determination of hydroxide by ion chromatography (IC) is demonstrated using a monolithic octadecylsilyl (ODS)-silica gel column coated first with a nonionic surfactant (polyoxyethylene (POE)) and then with a cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)). This stationary phase, when used in conjunction with a 10 mmol/l sodium sulfate eluent at pH 8.2, was found to be suitable for the rapid and efficient separation of hydroxide from some other anions, based on a conventional ion-exchange mechanism. The peak directions and detection responses for these ions were in agreement with their known limiting equivalent ionic conductance values. Under these conditions, a linear calibration plot was obtained for hydroxide ion over the range 16 micromol/l to 15 mmol/l, and the detection limit determined at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 6.4 micromol/l. The double-coated stationary phase described above was shown to be superior to a single coating of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide alone, in terms of separation efficiency and stability of the stationary phase. A range of samples comprising solutions of some strong and weak bases was analyzed by the proposed method and the results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained by conventional potentiometric pH measurement.

  4. The role of calcium hydroxide in the formation of thaumasite

    SciTech Connect

    Bellmann, F. Stark, J.

    2008-10-15

    It has recently been derived by thermodynamic calculation that the presence or absence of calcium hydroxide plays a vital role in the resistance of cement paste or concrete against the formation of thaumasite. To obtain experimental data on this matter, special binders have been mixed and used for the preparation of mortar bars. These specimens were exposed to moderate sulphate attack for a period of 18 months at a temperature of 8 deg. C. Mortar bars containing calcium hydroxide showed visual signs of attack a few months after exposure, leading to expansion, mass loss and complete failure. In contrast to this, no signs of attack were observed when no calcium hydroxide was present in the microstructure. These results confirm the conclusions of earlier thermodynamic calculations that the presence of calcium hydroxide has an important impact on the formation of thaumasite. Calcium-rich C-S-H formed in the presence of calcium hydroxide is vulnerable against sulphate attack and the formation of thaumasite. In the absence of calcium hydroxide, C-S-H has a much lower calcium/silicon ratio and a higher resistance against the formation of thaumasite.

  5. Safe and Effective Deactivation of Metallic Sodium Filled Scrap and Cold Traps From Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor D and D - 12176

    SciTech Connect

    Nester, Dean; Crocker, Ben; Smart, Bill

    2012-07-01

    As part of the Plateau Remediation Project at US Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with IMPACT Services, LLC to receive and deactivate approximately 28 cubic meters of sodium metal contaminated debris from two sodium-cooled research reactors (Enrico Fermi Unit 1 and the Fast Flux Test Facility) which had been stored at Hanford for over 25 years. CHPRC found an off-site team composed of IMPACT Services and Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., with the facilities and technological capabilities to safely and effectively perform deactivation of this sodium metal contaminated debris. IMPACT Services provided the licensed fixed facility and the logistical support required to receive, store, and manage the waste materials before treatment, and the characterization, manifesting, and return shipping of the cleaned material after treatment. They also provided a recycle outlet for the liquid sodium hydroxide byproduct resulting from removal of the sodium from reactor parts. Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc. mobilized their patented AMANDA unit to the IMPACT Services site and operated the unit to perform the sodium removal process. Approximately 816 Kg of metallic sodium were removed and converted to sodium hydroxide, and the project was accomplished in 107 days, from receipt of the first shipment at the IMPACT Services facility to the last outgoing shipment of deactivated scrap metal. There were no safety incidents of any kind during the performance of this project. The AMANDA process has been demonstrated in this project to be both safe and effective for deactivation of sodium and NaK. It has also been used in other venues to treat other highly reactive alkali metals, such as lithium (Li), potassium (K), NaK and Cesium (Cs). (authors)

  6. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of genetically modified switchgrass for improved enzymatic release of sugars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overcoming biomass recalcitrance to biological conversion has been the focus of enormous research efforts in the cellulosic biofuel area in the past decades. In this study, Alamo switchgrass was genetically transformed to suppress the expression of 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL). The transgenic plants...

  7. Electrochemical reduction of nitrate and nitrite in concentrated sodium hydroxide at platinum and nickel electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Lin Li; Robertson, D.H.; Chambers, J.Q.; Hobbs, D.T.

    1996-10-01

    This work describes the electrochemical reduction of nitrate in alkaline solutions. Conditions which maximize the current efficiency for the production of dinitrogen and/or ammonia gases could be very important for the treatment of radioactive waste solutions.

  8. TEST PROGRAM FOR ALUMINA REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; GEINESSE D

    2011-01-28

    This test program sets a multi-phased development path to support the development of the Lithium Hydrotalcite process, in order to raise its Technology Readiness Level from 3 to 6, based on tasks ranging from laboratory scale scientific research to integrated pilot facilities.

  9. Properties of extruded vital wheat gluten sheets with sodium hydroxide and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Ullsten, N Henrik; Cho, Sung-Woo; Spencer, Gwen; Gällstedt, Mikael; Johansson, Eva; Hedenqvist, Mikael S

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to improve the barrier and mechanical properties of extruded glycerol-plasticized vital wheat gluten sheets. The sheets were extruded with a single screw extruder at alkaline conditions using 3-5 wt % NaOH. Salicylic acid (SA), known to improve the extrudability of wheat gluten, was also added alone or in combination with NaOH. Oxygen transmission rate and volatile mass measurements, tensile tests, protein solubility, glycerol migration, infrared spectroscopy, and electrophoresis were used to assess the properties of the extrudate. Electrophoresis showed that the gluten/glycerol sheet and the sheet with 3 wt % NaOH and 1 wt % SA contained the same building blocks in terms of proteins and protein subunits, although the protein solubility in these samples was different. The oxygen barrier, at dry conditions, was improved significantly with the addition of NaOH. On the other hand, the addition of salicylic acid yielded poorer barrier properties. The extrudate was placed on a blotting paper and its aging properties were investigated during the first 120 days. It was observed that the extrudate with 3 wt % NaOH had the most suitable combination of properties (low oxygen permeability, large strain at break, and relatively small aging-induced changes in mechanical properties); the reason is probably due to low plasticizer migration and an optimal protein aggregation/polymerization.

  10. EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND SUPERCRITICAL FLUID TREATMENTS ON UNRETTED KENAF FIBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Laddha, Sachin; Chen, Feng; Wright, Katherine M.

    2010-05-17

    Kenaf fibers have been gaining great interest for use in the fabrication of both thermoset and thermoplastic composites. However, the inherent fiber surface properties limit their application. In response to the uneconomical, energy inefficient and environmentally unfavorable issues of the standard fiber retting process, we applied chemical modifications of kenaf fibers as alternative retting treatments and investigated the overall performance of the modified fibers. Alkaline solution and super critical alcohol were used as fiber treatments and their effects on the fiber properties were compared. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the thermal properties of fibers. The change of in chemical composition of the fibers with treatment is discussed in the context of the thermal decomposition behavior. The cellulose crystal structure and total crystallinity of the kenaf fibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to examine the morphological changes of fiber surface and fiber cross-section after both alkaline and super critical alcohol treatments. The mechanical behavior of fibers before and after treatment was explored by tenacity testing and the fracture mechanism was evidenced by observing the fracture surfaces. The effect of chemical treatment duration on the fiber performance was also discussed. It was found that the alkaline treated kenaf fibers showed higher thermal stability than untreated fibers, while TGA results indicated that supercritical alcohol was more efficient in removing the non-cellulosic portions. XRD data confirmed the removal of amorphous structural components such as pectin, hemicellulose and lignin as well as amorphous cellulose for the treated kenaf fibers. SEM images showed that both treatments were effective in removing impurities and coating materials on the fiber surface. The rough fracture morphology observed by SEM indicates that ultimate fibril pull-out occurred.

  11. Development of a thermal storage module using modified anhydrous sodium hydroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. E.; Rowny, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    The laboratory scale testing of a modified anhydrous NaOH latent heat storage concept for small solar thermal power systems such as total energy systems utilizing organic Rankine systems is discussed. A diagnostic test on the thermal energy storage module and an investigation of alternative heat transfer fluids and heat exchange concepts are specifically addressed. A previously developed computer simulation model is modified to predict the performance of the module in a solar total energy system environment. In addition, the computer model is expanded to investigate parametrically the incorporation of a second heat exchange inside the module which will vaporize and superheat the Rankine cycle power fluid.

  12. Biomethane production and physicochemical characterization of anaerobically digested teff (Eragrostis tef) straw pretreated by sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Chufo, Akiber; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Pang, Yunzhi; Li, Xiujin

    2015-04-01

    The biogas production potential and biomethane content of teff straw through pretreatment by NaOH was investigated. Different NaOH concentrations (1%, 2%, 4% and 6%) were used for each four solid loadings (50, 65, 80 and 95 g/L). The effects of NaOH as pretreatment factor on the biodegradability of teff straw, changes in main compositions and enhancement of anaerobic digestion were analyzed. The result showed that, using 4% NaOH for pretreatment in 80 g/L solid loading produced 40.0% higher total biogas production and 48.1% higher biomethane content than the untreated sample of teff straw. Investigation of changes in chemical compositions and physical microstructure indicated that there was 4.3-22.1% total lignocellulosic compositions removal after three days pretreatment with NaOH. The results further revealed that NaOH pretreatment changed the structural compositions and lignin network, and improved biogas production from teff straw.

  13. Maximizing biomass productivity and CO2 biofixation of microalga, Scenedesmus sp. by using sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Manoranjan; Rath, Swagat S; Thirunavoukkarasu, Manikkannan; Panda, Prasanna K; Mishra, Barada K; Mohanty, Rama C

    2013-09-28

    A series of experiments were carried out with three native strains of microalgae to measure growth rates, biomass, and lipid productivities. Scenedesmus sp. IMMTCC-6 had better biomass growth rate and higher lipid production. The growth, lipid accumulation, and carbon dioxide (CO2) consumption rate of Scenedesmus sp. IMMTCC-6 were tested under different NaOH concentrations in modified BBM. The algal strain showed the maximum specific growth rate (0.474/day), biomass productivity (110.9 mg l(-1) d(-1)), and CO2 consumption rate (208.4 mg l(-1) d(-1)) with an NaOH concentration of 0.005 M on the 8(th) day of cultivation. These values were 2.03-, 6.89-, and 6.88-fold more than the algal cultures grown in control conditions (having no NaOH and CO2). The CO2 fixing efficiency of the microalga with other alternative carbon sources like Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 was also investigated and compared. The optimized experimental parameters at shake-flask scale were implemented for scaling up the process in a self-engineered photobioreactor. A significant increase in lipid accumulation (14.23% to 31.74%) by the algal strain from the logarithmic to stationary phases was obtained. The algal lipids were mainly composed of C16/C18 fatty acids, and are desirable for biodiesel production. The study suggests that microalga Scenedesmus sp. IMMTCC-6 is an efficient strain for biodiesel production and CO2 biofixation using stripping solution of NaOH in a cyclic process.

  14. Butyric acid fermentation of sodium hydroxide pretreated rice straw with undefined mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Ai, Binling; Li, Jianzheng; Chi, Xue; Meng, Jia; Liu, Chong; Shi, En

    2014-05-01

    This study describes an alternative mixed culture fermentation technology to anaerobically convert lignocellulosic biomass into butyric acid, a valuable product with wide application, without supplementary cellulolytic enzymes. Rice straw was soaked in 1% NaOH solution to increase digestibility. Among the tested pretreatment conditions, soaking rice straw at 50°C for 72 h removed ~66% of the lignin, but retained ~84% of the cellulose and ~71% of the hemicellulose. By using an undefined cellulose-degrading butyrate-producing microbial community as butyric acid producer in batch fermentation, about 6 g/l of butyric acid was produced from the pretreated rice straw, which accounted for ~76% of the total volatile fatty acids. In the repeated-batch operation, the butyric acid production declined batch by batch, which was most possibly caused by the shift of microbial community structure monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. In this study, batch operation was observed to be more suitable for butyric acid production.

  15. DNA from oral bacteria by sodium hydroxide-paper method suitable for polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Lefimil, Claudia; Lozano, Carla; Morales-Bozo, Irene; Plaza, Anita; Maturana, Cristian; Urzúa, Blanca

    2013-02-15

    In the oral cavity, we can find a complex mixture of microorganisms, commensals, and pathogens. The studies of normal oral microbiota, as well as the studies of much oral pathology (e.g., caries, periodontitis), involve the isolation and cultivation of these microorganisms and their molecular analysis. The aim of this study was to validate a quick, easy, efficient, and inexpensive DNA extraction method for the recovery of genomic DNA from gram-positive and gram-negative oral bacteria to be used in polymerase chain reaction amplification. This method worked great with all samples analyzed, providing an approach to extract DNA for different microorganisms.

  16. Nutritional value of enzyme- or sodium hydroxide-treated feathers from dead hens.

    PubMed

    Kim, W K; Patterson, P H

    2000-04-01

    Two feather digestion processes to remove the feathers from the carcasses of dead hens were evaluated for their impact on the nutritional quality of the resulting feather meal. There were three treatments: control (untreated feathers), a feather-digesting enzyme, and NaOH treatment. Both enzyme- and NaOH-treated feathers were easily separated from the hen carcasses. The CP level of enzyme-treated feathers after autoclaving (49.90%) was significantly less than the control and NaOH-treated feathers (94.48 and 87.31%, respectively) because of elevated ether extract levels resulting from skin and abdominal fat release during the 12-h enzyme incubation. Before autoclaving, pepsin digestibilities of enzyme- and NaOH-treated feathers were significantly higher than the control. However, after autoclaving, no significant difference was found in pepsin digestibility between the control and enzyme treatments or control and NaOH treatments. The typical limiting amino acids, methionine, lysine, and histidine, in feathers were present at greater levels in the resulting enzyme-feather meal (E-FM) compared with the NaOH-feather meal (N-FM) or control-feather meal (C-FM) on a percentage of CP basis. Cystine levels, however, were significantly lower in the E-FM and N-FM compared with that of the C-FM. In chick bioassays, no significant differences were found in protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein ratio (NPR) among C-FM, E-FM, and N-FM. The AMEn of E-FM (4.52 kcal/g) was significantly higher than the C-FM (3.58) or N-FM (2.79). These findings indicated that although enzyme treatment could improve the nutritional quality of feathers from dead hens, NaOH treatment was a more rapid means of separating feathers from the carcass.

  17. Corrosive oesophagitis in children following ingestion of sodium hydroxide granules--a case report.

    PubMed

    Janousek, Petr; Jurovcík, Michal; Grabec, Pavel; Kabelka, Zdenek

    2005-10-01

    Over the past few years, the ENT clinic in Motol has noticed an alarming increase in the number of cases of severe upper GIT injury in children, in the majority of cases caused by accidental ingestion of corrosives. Suicidal and homicidal cases in the paediatric population are rare. The following case study describes an interesting episode involving ingestion of granules of the lye NaOH in 13 children of school age. We furthermore stress the importance of early endoscopic investigation in every patient with possible corrosive injury of the oesophagus. We include a brief description of the diagnostico-therapeutic algorithm applied to each such patient that was developed through interdepartmental research in Motol Faculty Hospital.

  18. Friction and wear of iron and nickel in sodium hydroxide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengstorff, G. P.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    A loaded spherical aluminum oxider rider was made to slide, while in various solutions, on a flat iron or nickel surface reciprocate a distance of 1 cm. Time of experiments was 1 hr during which the rider passed over the center section of the track 540 times. Coeficients of friction were measured throughout the experiments. Wear was measured by scanning the track with a profilometer. Analysis of some of the wear tracks included use of the SEM (scanning electron microscope) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). Investigated were the effect of various concentrations of NaOH and of water. On iron, increasing NaOH concentration above 0.01 N caused the friction and wear to decrease. This decrease is accompanied by a decrease in surface concentration of ferric oxide (Fe2O3) while more complex iron-oxygen compounds, not clearly identified, also form. At low concentrations of NaOH, such as 0.01 N, where the friction is high, the wear track is badly torn up and the surface is broken. At high concentration, such as 10 N, where the friction is low, the wear track is smooth. The general conclusion is that NaOH forms a protective, low friction film on iron which is destroyed by wear at low concentrations but remains intact at high conentrations of NaOH. Nickel behaves differently than iron in that only a little NaOH gives a low coefficient of friction and a surface which, although roughened in the wear track, remains intact. Previously announced in STAR as N83-10171

  19. Friction and wear of iron and nickel in sodium hydroxide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengstorff, G. W. P.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    A loaded spherical aluminum oxider rider was made to slide, while in various solutions, on a flat iron or nickel surface reciprocate a distance of 1 cm. Time of experiments was 1 hr during which the rider passed over the rider passed over the center section of the track 540 times. Coefficients of friction were measured throughout the experiments. Wear was measured by scanning the track with a profilometer. Analysis of some of the wear tracks included use of the SEM (scanning electron microscrope) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). Investigated were the effect of various concentractions of NaOH and of water. On iron, increasing NaOH concentration above 0.01 N caused the friction and wear to decrease. This decrease is accompanied by a decrease in surface concentration of ferric oxide (Fe2O3) while more complex iron-oxygen compounds, not clearly identified, also form. At low concentrations of NaOH, such as 0.01 N, where the friction is high, the wear track is badely torn up and the surface is broken. At high concentration, such as 10 N, where the friction is low, the wear track is smooth. The general conclusion is that NaOH forms a protective, low friction film on iron which is destroyed by wear at low concentrations but remains intact at high concentrations of NaOH. Nickel behaves differently than iron in that only a little NaOH gives a low coefficient of friction and a surface which, although roughened in the wear track, remains intact.

  20. Formation of Cr(III) hydroxides from chrome alum solutions. 1: Precipitation of active chromium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Avena, M.J.; Giacomelli, C.E.; De Pauli, C.P.

    1996-06-25

    The hydrolysis of Cr(III) and precipitation of colloidal chromium hydroxides are important processes occurring in soils and natural waters. The formation of active chromium hydroxide, Cr(OH){sub 3}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O, was studied through potentiometric titrations and turbidimetric measurements. UV-Vis and IR spectroscopies were also employed to characterize the synthesized solid. The rapid addition of NaOH solution to aqueous chrome alum (KCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}12H{sub 2}O) solutions caused the immediate precipitation of the active material. Only monomeric Cr(III) species seemed to be participating in the precipitation process; neither chromium polymers nor complexes with anions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, Cl{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, ClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) influenced the fast formation of Cr(OH){sub 3}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O. Titration studies allowed the determination of several hydrolysis and precipitation constants for Cr(III). Nevertheless, they cannot be used for the estimate of Cr(OH){sub 3}{sup 0} formation constant.

  1. Detection of occult carcinomatous diffusion in lymph nodes from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma using real-time RT–PCR detection of cytokeratin 19 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Tao, L; Lefèvre, M; Ricci, S; Saintigny, P; Callard, P; Périé, S; Lacave, R; Bernaudin, J-F; Lacau St Guily, J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occult lymph node carcinomatous diffusion in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A total of 1328 lymph nodes from 31 patients treated between 2004 and 2005 were prospectively evaluated by routine haematoxylin–eosin–safran (HES) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time Taqman reverse–transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT–PCR) assay. Amplification of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA transcripts using real-time RT–PCR was used to quantify cervical micrometastatic burden. The cervical lymph node metastatic rates determined by routine HES staining and real-time RT–PCR assay were 16.3 and 36.0%, respectively (P<0.0001). A potential change in the nodal status was observed in 13 (42.0%) of the 31 patients and an atypical pattern of lymphatic spread was identified in four patients (12.9%). Moreover, CK19 mRNA expression values in histologically positive lymph nodes were significantly higher than those observed in histologically negative lymph nodes (P<0.0001). These results indicate that real-time RT–PCR assay for the detection of CK19 mRNA is a sensitive and reliable method for the detection of carcinomatous cells in lymph nodes. This type of method could be used to reassess lymph node status according to occult lymphatic spread in patients with HNSCC. PMID:16622440

  2. Detection of occult carcinomatous diffusion in lymph nodes from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma using real-time RT-PCR detection of cytokeratin 19 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Tao, L; Lefèvre, M; Ricci, S; Saintigny, P; Callard, P; Périé, S; Lacave, R; Bernaudin, J-F; Lacau St Guily, J

    2006-04-24

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occult lymph node carcinomatous diffusion in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A total of 1328 lymph nodes from 31 patients treated between 2004 and 2005 were prospectively evaluated by routine haematoxylin-eosin-safran (HES) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time Taqman reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) assay. Amplification of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA transcripts using real-time RT-PCR was used to quantify cervical micrometastatic burden. The cervical lymph node metastatic rates determined by routine HES staining and real-time RT-PCR assay were 16.3 and 36.0%, respectively (P<0.0001). A potential change in the nodal status was observed in 13 (42.0%) of the 31 patients and an atypical pattern of lymphatic spread was identified in four patients (12.9%). Moreover, CK19 mRNA expression values in histologically positive lymph nodes were significantly higher than those observed in histologically negative lymph nodes (P<0.0001). These results indicate that real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of CK19 mRNA is a sensitive and reliable method for the detection of carcinomatous cells in lymph nodes. This type of method could be used to reassess lymph node status according to occult lymphatic spread in patients with HNSCC.

  3. Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

  4. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  5. Analysis of adeno-associated virus (AAV) wild-type and mutant Rep proteins for their abilities to negatively regulate AAV p5 and p19 mRNA levels.

    PubMed Central

    Kyöstiö, S R; Owens, R A; Weitzman, M D; Antoni, B A; Chejanovsky, N; Carter, B J

    1994-01-01

    The rep gene of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) encodes four overlapping Rep proteins that are involved in gene regulation and replication of the virus. We studied here the regulation of mRNA transcribed from the AAV p5 and p19 promoters, using transient expression in human 293 cells followed by Northern (RNA) blot analysis of the mRNA. The p5 transcript encodes the larger Rep proteins, Rep78 and Rep68, while the p19 transcript encodes the smaller proteins, Rep52 and Rep40. A plasmid (pNTC3) containing the entire AAV genome with an amber mutation in the rep gene accumulated higher levels of p5 and p19 mRNA than a plasmid containing the wild-type AAV genome. Addition of increasing amounts of the wild-type rep gene in trans from a heterologous promoter inhibited p5 and p19 mRNA accumulation from pNTC3, indicating that the levels of both transcripts were decreased by the Rep proteins. Cotransfections with plasmids producing individual wild-type Rep proteins in trans showed that p5 and p19 mRNA accumulation was inhibited 5- to 10-fold by Rep78 and Rep68 and 2- to 3-fold by Rep52 and Rep40. Analysis of carboxyl-terminal truncation mutants of Rep78 showed that the ability of Rep78 to decrease p5 and p19 mRNA levels was lost when 159 or more amino acids were deleted. Rep78 and Rep68 mutants deleted for the methionine at residue 225 showed decreased abilities to down-regulate both p5 and p19 transcript levels, while mutants containing a substitution of glycine for the methionine resembled the wild-type Rep78. A Rep78 protein with a mutation in the putative nucleoside triphosphate binding site inhibited expression from p5 but not from p19, suggesting that the regulation of p5 transcript levels by Rep78 and Rep68 differs from that of p19. A deletion analysis of AAV cis sequences revealed that an intact terminal repeat was not required for negative regulation of p5 and p19 transcript levels and that the regulation of p19 mRNA levels by Rep78 did not require the presence

  6. Sodium remote from Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. A.; Schneider, N. M.

    1981-12-01

    Measurements of sodium emission lines originating in the middle Jupiter magnetosphere are measured, confirming the wide dispersal of neutral sodium in the Jovian system in at least two distinct manifestations. Candidate neutral transport processes in the context of the observed kinematical signatures are discussed. It is argued that the normal emission feature is produced by sodium atoms on bound elliptical orbits originating in the Io sodium cloud but with apojove in the field of view. Observations of the fast sodium feature indicate that atoms episodically acquire a broad range of line-of-sight velocities above the Jupiter gravitational escape speed and far above the speeds characteristic of surface-sputtered atoms. Three suggested reactions are distinguished according to (1) production rates based on estimated plasmaspheric properties, (2) kinematical signature, and (3) the timing of occurrences of the fast sodium feature.

  7. Patterned electrical activity modulates sodium channel expression in sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Klein, Joshua P; Tendi, Elisabetta A; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Fields, R Douglas; Waxman, Stephen G

    2003-10-15

    Peripheral nerve injury induces changes in the level of gene expression for sodium channels Nav1.3, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 within dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which may contribute to the development of hyperexcitability, ectopic neuronal discharge, and neuropathic pain. The mechanism of this change in sodium channel expression is unclear. Decreased availability of neurotrophic factors following axotomy contributes to these changes in gene transcription, but the question of whether changes in intrinsic neuronal activity levels alone can trigger changes in the expression of these sodium channels has not been addressed. We examined the effect of electrical stimulation on the expression of Nav1.3, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 by using cultured embryonic mouse sensory neurons under conditions in which nerve growth factor (NGF) was not limiting. Expression of Nav1.3 was not significantly changed following stimulation. In contrast, we observed activity-dependent down-regulation of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 mRNA and protein levels after stimulation, as demonstrated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. These results show that a change in neuronal activity can alter the expression of sodium channel genes in a subtype-specific manner, via a mechanism independent of NGF withdrawal. PMID:14515348

  8. Growth of PbTe nanorods controlled by polymerized tellurium anions and metal(II) amides via composite-hydroxide-mediated approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Buyong; Hu Chenguo; Liu Hong; Xiong Yufeng; Li Feiyun; Xi Yi; He Xiaoshan

    2009-09-15

    The pure face-centered-cubic PbTe nanorods have been synthesized by the composite-hydroxide-mediated approach using hydrazine as a reducing agent. The method is based on reaction among reactants in the melts of potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide eutectic at 170-220 deg. C and normal atmosphere without using any organic dispersant or surface-capping agent. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the samples. The diameters of nanorods are almost fixed, while the lengths can be tunable under different growth time and temperatures. The growth mechanism of PbTe nanorods is investigated via UV-vis absorption, demonstrating that polymerized tellurium anions and metal(II) amides in the hydrazine hydroxide melts could control the crystallization and growth process of PbTe nanostructures. The band gap of as-synthesized PbTe nanorods has been calculated based on UV-vis-NIR optical diffuse reflectance spectra data.

  9. Toxicity of triphenyltin hydroxide to fish.

    PubMed

    Antes, Fabiane G; Becker, Alexssandro G; Parodi, Thaylise V; Clasen, Barbara; Lópes, Thais; Loro, Vania L; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Flores, Erico M M; Dressler, Valderi L

    2013-11-01

    Triphenyltin (TPhT) is used worldwide in pesticide formulas for agriculture. Toxic effects of this compound to aquatic life have been reported; however, the biochemical response of fish exposed to different concentrations of TPhT hydroxide (TPhTH) was investigated for the first time in this study. The lethal concentration (LC50) of TPhTH to silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, was calculated from an acute-exposure experiment (96 h). In addition, acethylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain and muscle-as well as glucose, glycogen, lactate, total protein, ammonia, and free amino acids in liver and muscle-were evaluated in a chronic-exposure experiment (15-day exposure). Speciation analysis of tin (Sn) was performed in fish tissues at the end of both experiments using gas chromatography coupled to a pulsed-flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD). Concentrations of TPhT, diphenyltin, and monophenyltin (reported as Sn) were lower than limits of quantification (10σ criteria). Waterborne TPhTH concentration used through the experiment was also evaluated by GC-PFPD, and no degradation of this species was observed. The LC50 value for silver catfish juveniles was 9.73 μg L(-1) (as Sn). Decreased brain and muscle AChE activities were observed in fish exposed to TPhTH in relation to unexposed fish (control). Liver glycogen and lactate levels were significantly higher in fish kept at the highest waterborne TPhTH concentration compared with the control. Liver and muscle glucose levels of fish exposed to all TPhTH concentrations were significantly lower than those of control fish. Silver catfish exposed to all TPhTH concentrations showed lower total protein values and higher total free amino acids levels in liver and muscle compared with controls. Total ammonia levels in liver and muscle were significantly higher for the highest TPhTH concentration compared with controls. In conclusion, TPhTH caused metabolic alterations in silver catfish juveniles, and the analyzed parameters can

  10. Quaternized graphene oxide nanocomposites as fast hydroxide conductors.

    PubMed

    Zarrin, Hadis; Fu, Jing; Jiang, Gaopeng; Yoo, Skylar; Lenos, Jared; Fowler, Michael; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-02-24

    Nanocomposites play a key role in performance improvements of hydroxide conductors employed in a wide range of alkaline-electrochemical systems such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets are considered to be outstanding nanofillers for polymeric nanocomposites on account of their excellent physicochemical strength and electrochemical properties. In this work, a fast hydroxide conductor was developed on the basis of a chemically modified GO nanocomposite membrane. The high surface area of GO was functionalized with highly stable hydroxide-conductive groups using a dimethyloctadecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride (DMAOP) precursor, named QAFGO, and then composed with porous polybenzimidazole PBI (pPBI) as a well-suited polymeric backbone. The nanocomposite exhibited outstanding hydroxide conductivity of 0.085 S cm(-1), high physicochemical strength, and electrochemical stability for 21 days. An alkaline fuel cell (AFC) setup was fabricated to determine the functionality of QAFGO/pPBI nanocomposite in an alkaline-based system. The high AFC performance with peak power density of 86.68 mW cm(-2) demonstrated that QAFGO/pPBI nanocomposite membrane has promising potential to be employed as a reliable hydroxide conductor for electrochemical systems working in alkaline conditions. PMID:25644712

  11. Biocompatibility of Intracanal Medications Based on Calcium Hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Andolfatto, Carolina; da Silva, Guilherme Ferreira; Cornélio, Ana Livia Gomes; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario; Faria, Gisele; Bonetti-Filho, Idomeo; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rat subcutaneous tissue reaction to calcium hydroxide-based intracanal medicaments, UltraCal XS (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, aqueous matrix), Hydropast (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, and propyleneglycol), and Calen (Calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, colophony, and polyethyleneglycol), used as a control. Methods. Forty-eight rats (Rattus Norvegicus Holtzman) were distributed in three groups: Calen, UltraCal XS, and Hydropast. Polyethylene tubes filled with one of the medicaments were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous. After 7 and 30 days, the implants were removed and the specimens were fixed and embedded in paraffin. Morphological and quantitative analyses were carried out in the HE-stained sections. The numerical density of inflammatory cells in the capsule was evaluated and statistical analyses were performed (P ≤ 0.05). Results. At 7 days, all materials induced an inflammatory reaction in the subcutaneous tissue adjacent to the implants. In all groups, a significant reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and giant cells was verified in the period of 30 days. Conclusion. These results indicate that the calcium hydroxide-based medicaments evaluated present biocompatibility similar to Calen. PMID:23320187

  12. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    PubMed

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  13. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process. PMID:27030646

  14. Zinc hydroxide sulphate and its transformation to crystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael B; McDonagh, Andrew M

    2013-10-28

    The thermal transformation of zinc hydroxide sulphate hydrate to zinc oxide has been examined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and surface area measurements. By collecting X-ray diffraction data in situ, we found that the dehydration of zinc hydroxide sulphate pentahydrate proceeded in discrete steps to form anhydrous zinc hydroxide sulphate. This compound then decomposed to a mixture of zinc oxide and a compound tentatively identified as Zn3(OH)2(SO4)2 at ~235 °C. At ~360 °C, the final dehydroxylation occurred with the formation of zinc oxy-sulphate, Zn3O(SO4)2, which then decomposed to ZnO at about ~800 °C. Interruption of the dehydration process can be used to synthesize the intermediate compounds.

  15. Structure and properties of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levkov, R.; Kulkov, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the study of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite modification is presented. The dependence of porosity and mechanical characteristics of the material sintered at different temperatures was studied. It was shown that compressive strength of alumina ceramics increases by 40 times with decreasing the pore volume from 65 to 15%. It was shown that aluminum hydroxide may be used for pore formation and pore volume in the sintered ceramics can be controlled by varying the aluminum hydroxide concentration and sintering temperature. Based on these results one can conclude that the obtained structure is very close to inorganic bone matrix and can be used as promising material for bone implants production.

  16. Effect of oxide formation mechanisms on lead adsorption by biogenic manganese (hydr)oxides, iron (hydr)oxides, and their mixtures.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Yarrow M; Lion, Leonard W; Shuler, Michael L; Ghiorse, William C

    2002-02-01

    The effects of iron and manganese (hydr)oxide formation processes on the trace metal adsorption properties of these metal (hydr)oxides and their mixtures was investigated by measuring lead adsorption by iron and manganese (hydr)oxides prepared by a variety of methods. Amorphous iron (hydr)oxide formed by fast precipitation at pH 7.5 exhibited greater Pb adsorption (gamma(max) = 50 mmol of Pb/mol of Fe at pH 6.0) than iron (hydr)oxide formed by slow, diffusion-controlled oxidation of Fe(II) at pH 4.5-7.0 or goethite. Biogenic manganese(III/IV) (hydr)oxide prepared by enzymatic oxidation of Mn(II) by the bacterium Leptothrix discophora SS-1 adsorbed five times more Pb (per mole of Mn) than an abiotic manganese (hydr)oxide prepared by oxidation of Mn(II) with permanganate, and 500-5000 times more Pb than pyrolusite oxides (betaMnO2). X-ray crystallography indicated that biogenic manganese (hydr)oxide and iron (hydr)oxide were predominantly amorphous or poorly crystalline and their X-ray diffraction patterns were not significantly affected by the presence of the other (hydr)oxide during formation. When iron and manganese (hydr)oxides were mixed after formation, or for Mn biologically oxidized with iron(III) (hydr)oxide present, observed Pb adsorption was similar to that expected for the mixture based on Langmuir parameters for the individual (hydr)oxides. These results indicate that interactions in iron/manganese (hydr)oxide mixtures related to the formation process and sequence of formation such as site masking, alterations in specific surface area, or changes in crystalline structure either did not occur or had a negligible effect on Pb adsorption by the mixtures. PMID:11871557

  17. Effect of oxide formation mechanisms on lead adsorption by biogenic manganese (hydr)oxides, iron (hydr)oxides, and their mixtures.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Yarrow M; Lion, Leonard W; Shuler, Michael L; Ghiorse, William C

    2002-02-01

    The effects of iron and manganese (hydr)oxide formation processes on the trace metal adsorption properties of these metal (hydr)oxides and their mixtures was investigated by measuring lead adsorption by iron and manganese (hydr)oxides prepared by a variety of methods. Amorphous iron (hydr)oxide formed by fast precipitation at pH 7.5 exhibited greater Pb adsorption (gamma(max) = 50 mmol of Pb/mol of Fe at pH 6.0) than iron (hydr)oxide formed by slow, diffusion-controlled oxidation of Fe(II) at pH 4.5-7.0 or goethite. Biogenic manganese(III/IV) (hydr)oxide prepared by enzymatic oxidation of Mn(II) by the bacterium Leptothrix discophora SS-1 adsorbed five times more Pb (per mole of Mn) than an abiotic manganese (hydr)oxide prepared by oxidation of Mn(II) with permanganate, and 500-5000 times more Pb than pyrolusite oxides (betaMnO2). X-ray crystallography indicated that biogenic manganese (hydr)oxide and iron (hydr)oxide were predominantly amorphous or poorly crystalline and their X-ray diffraction patterns were not significantly affected by the presence of the other (hydr)oxide during formation. When iron and manganese (hydr)oxides were mixed after formation, or for Mn biologically oxidized with iron(III) (hydr)oxide present, observed Pb adsorption was similar to that expected for the mixture based on Langmuir parameters for the individual (hydr)oxides. These results indicate that interactions in iron/manganese (hydr)oxide mixtures related to the formation process and sequence of formation such as site masking, alterations in specific surface area, or changes in crystalline structure either did not occur or had a negligible effect on Pb adsorption by the mixtures.

  18. Caustic Recycling Pilot Unit to Separate Sodium from LLW at Hanford Site - 12279

    SciTech Connect

    Pendleton, Justin; Bhavaraju, Sai; Priday, George; Desai, Aditya; Duffey, Kean; Balagopal, Shekar

    2012-07-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Remediation Technologies initiative, a scheme was developed to combine Continuous Sludge Leaching (CSL), Near-Tank Cesium Removal (NTCR), and Caustic Recycling Unit (CRU) using Ceramatec technology, into a single system known as the Pilot Near-Tank Treatment System (PNTTS). The Cesium (Cs) decontaminated effluent from the NTCR process will be sent to the caustic recycle process for recovery of the caustic which will be reused in another cycle of caustic leaching in the CSL process. Such an integrated mobile technology demonstration will give DOE the option to insert this process for sodium management at various sites in Hanford, and will minimize the addition of further sodium into the waste tanks. This allows for recycling of the caustic used to remove aluminum during sludge washing as a pretreatment step in the vitrification of radioactive waste which will decrease the Low Level Waste (LLW) volume by as much as 39%. The CRU pilot process was designed to recycle sodium in the form of pure sodium hydroxide. The basis for the design of the 1/4 scale pilot caustic recycling unit was to demonstrate the efficient operation of a larger scale system to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent stream from the Parsons process. The CRU was designed to process 0.28 liter/minute of NTCR effluent, and generate 10 M concentration of 'usable' sodium hydroxide. The proposed process operates at 40 deg. C to provide additional aluminum solubility and then recover the sodium hydroxide to the point where the aluminum is saturated at 40 deg. C. A system was developed to safely separate and vent the gases generated during operation of the CRU with the production of 10 M sodium hydroxide. Caustic was produced at a rate between 1.9 to 9.3 kg/hr. The CRU was located inside an ISO container to allow for moving of the unit close to tank locations to process the LLW stream. Actual tests were conducted with the NTCR effluent simulant

  19. Chronoamperometric study of mild steel pitting in sodium sulfide aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Otero, T.F.; Achucarro, C. . Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros)

    1994-08-01

    Mild steel samples were studied by chronoamperometry in sodium sulfide (Na[sub 2]S) aqueous solution. Pit nucleation and growth also were monitored by optical microscopy. The influence of variables such as temperature, polarization potential, surface roughness, the presence of electrochemically generated oxide layers, and the simultaneous presence of potassium hydroxide (KOH) was studied. The influence of each parameter on pit shape and growth was reviewed. Different reactions and competitive processes were proposed based on the experimental results.

  20. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  1. [Rapid determination of saccharin sodium in ice cream by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Zhang, W; Dai, J

    1999-07-01

    This is a method for the rapid determination of saccharin sodium in ice cream by HPLC. A radial compression C18 cohumn, 100 mm x 8 mm i.d., and ultraviolet detector at 220 nm were applied to the determination without extraction. The solution of samples would be determined after they were treated with the solution of copper sulfate and sodium hydroxide in water. The detectable amount was 0.38 mg/kg, the coefficient of variation CV was 1.72%, and the recovery was 96.25%-101.75%.

  2. Elevated urinary excretion of orotic acid in sheep caused by intraruminal infusion of sodium propionate.

    PubMed

    Bödeker, D; Martens, H

    1992-06-01

    1. The effect of sodium propionate on urinary excretion of orotic acid was investigated. 2. Solutions containing sodium propionate or NaCl, 750 mM/day each, were continuously infused into the rumen for 10 days. 3. During NaCl infusion, an urinary orotic acid excretion of 290 +/- 80 micrograms/day was noted. The intraruminal infusion of sodium propionate raised the concentration of propionic acid in the rumen fluid from 14.0 +/- 0.9 to 26.9 +/- 1.9 mM. 4. During this experimental period the excretion of orotic acid via urine significantly increased to 492 +/- 30 micrograms/day. Parameters of nitrogen balance were not altered by propionate. 5. It is suggested that the site of propionate action in intact sheep is in the pyrimidine synthesis pathway.

  3. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to surface trapping of neutrals and ions and depletion of the sodium available for ejection from the surfaces of grains. The change in the sodium exosphere is calculated during one Mercury year taking into account the variations in the solar radiation pressure, the photo-ionization frequency, the solar wind density, the photon and meteoroid flux intensities, and the surface temperature. Line-of-sight column densities at different phase angles, the supply rate of new sodium, average neutral and ion losses over a Mercury year, surface density distribution and the importance of the different processes of ejection are discussed in this paper. The sodium surface density distribution is found to become significantly nonuniform from day to night sides, from low to high latitudes and from morning to afternoon because of rapid depletion of sodium atoms in the surfaces of grains mainly driven by thermal depletion. The shape of the exosphere, as it would be seen from the Earth, changes drastically with respect to Mercury's heliocentric position. High latitude column density maxima are related to maxima in the sodium surface concentration at high latitudes in Mercury's surface and are not necessarily due to solar wind sputtering. The ratio between the sodium column density on the morning side of Mercury's exosphere and the sodium column density on the afternoon side is consistent with the conclusions of Sprague et al. (1997, Icarus 129, 506-527). The model, which has no fitting parameters, shows surprisingly good agreement with recent observations of Potter et

  4. METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

    1957-12-01

    A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

  5. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  6. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  7. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Lopez, John T.; Olich, Eugene E.; West, Calvin W.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

  8. Dewatering of alumino-humic sludge: impacts of hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Bache, D H; Papavasilopoulos, E N

    2003-08-01

    The paper draws together information on factors which influence the conditioning and dewatering behaviour of an alum sludge gained from the coagulation of a low-turbidity coloured water. A principal focus is the potential impact of aluminium hydroxide on the sludge character. Background information is provided on the composition of the source floc for the domain pH 6.0-6.5 and Al>2.0mg/l. From this, there were many pointers to the presence of Al(OH)(3)(s) within the floc. A series of comparisons were made between an alum sludge and a hydroxide suspension at a concentration equivalent to the coagulant fraction within the sludge. The parameters studied included floc size, floc density, polymer adsorption and dewatering behaviour at different time-scales. In all cases, there were strong similarities in the behaviour of the two suspensions-indicating the potential impact of the hydroxide. There was also evidence of common features being displayed by both the organic fractions and the hydroxide. It was suggested that some of the behavioural features might emanate from a common fractal structure within the source floc, the fractal dimension (approximately 1) being insensitive to composition.

  9. Sintering of corundum ceramics based on aluminum hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Afoninia, G.A.; Leonov, V.G.

    1995-09-01

    The possibility of using aluminum hydroxide obtained by the precipitation method for synthesis of corundum ceramics with additives forming a liquid phase during firing and without additives, is investigated. The optimum parameters of the manufacturing process and the main properties of the material recommended for testing in the production of glass ceramic substrates for integrated circuits are investigated.

  10. Aqueous alkali metal hydroxide insoluble cellulose ether membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    A membrane that is insoluble in an aqueous alkali metal hydroxide medium is described. The membrane is a resin which is a water-soluble C2-C4 hydroxyalkyl cellulose ether polymer and an insolubilizing agent for controlled water sorption, a dialytic and electrodialytic membrane. It is particularly useful as a separator between electrodes or plates in an alkaline storage battery.

  11. INFLUENCE OF IODOFORM ON ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

    PubMed Central

    Estrela, Carlos; Estrela, Cyntia Rodrigues de Araújo; Hollanda, Augusto César Braz; Decurcio, Daniel de Almeida; Pécora, Jesus Djalma

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to verify the influence of Iodoform on antimicrobial potential of calcium hydroxide. S. aureus, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, C. albicans were the biological indicators. The substances tested were: calcium hydroxide + saline; calcium hydroxide + Iodoform + saline; Iodoform + saline. For the agar diffusion test, 18 Petri plates with 20 ml of BHI agar were inoculated with the microbial suspensions. Fifty-four cavities were made and filled with the substances tested. The diameters of microbial inhibition were then measured. In direct exposure test, 162 #50 sterile absorbent paper points were immersed in the experimental suspensions for 5 min, and covered with the pastes. At intervals of 24, 48 and 72 hours, the paper points were immersed in 10 ml of Letheen Broth, followed by incubation at 37°°C for 48h. Microbial growth was evaluated by turbidity of the culture medium. A 0.1 ml inoculum obtained from the Letheen Broth was transferred to 7 ml of BHI, and incubated at 37°°C for 48h. Bacterial growth was again evaluated by turbidity of the culture medium. The calcium hydroxide associated with the saline or the iodoform plus saline showed antimicrobial effectiveness in both experimental methods. The iodoform paste presented antimicrobial ineffectiveness for the agar diffusion test on all biological microorganisms and for the direct exposure test on B. subtilis and on the mixture. PMID:19089027

  12. Praseodymium(III) sulfate hydroxide, Pr(SO(4))(OH).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Cheng, Jian-Wen

    2011-01-15

    The title compound, Pr(SO(4))(OH), obtained under hydro-thermal conditions, consists of Pr(III) ions coordinated by nine O atoms from six sulfate groups and three hydroxide anions. The bridging mode of the O atoms results in the formation of a three-dimensional framework, stabilized by two O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions.

  13. Nickel immobilization in ceramic matrix admixed with waste nickel hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Osińska, Malgorzata; Stefanowicz, Tadeusz; Paukszta, Dominik

    2003-01-01

    WAXS examinations performed with nickel hydroxide samples heated to various temperatures showed that freshly settled wet nickel hydroxide sample contains some amount of crystalline beta-Ni(OH)(2) structure and its share increased when sample was dried during 3 weeks at ambient temperature. However, the share significantly decreased when the sample was dried at 110 degrees C and more so at 250 degrees C. Crystalline phase traces of Ni(OH)(2) disappeared after sample burning at 980 degrees C and instead the distinct presence of crystalline NiO was determined. The above samples were examined for solubility in stoichiometric amount of sulphuric acid diluted with water to pH 1.9 and 2.8. Solubility was determined by measuring nickel ion concentration in leachate by the AAS method. The dissolving rate was found to decrease with the rise of temperature to which the nickel hydroxide samples were heated. The solubility of Ni(OH)(2) sample burnt at 980 degrees C was undetectable during 90 h solubility-testing time likely due to its transformation into sparingly soluble crystalline NiO. The latter is considered to be the reason for effective immobilization of waste nickel hydroxide in ceramic prepared by blending with clay and sintering at 980 degrees C. PMID:14583250

  14. Combustion process and nitrogen oxides emission of Shenmu coal added with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Weijuan; Zhou Junhu; Liu Maosheng; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2007-09-15

    Shenmu bituminous coal with 4% sodium acetate added was used to investigate the characteristics of combustion and nitrogen oxide (NOx) release in a fixed bed reactor heated by a tube furnace. The composition of the flue gas was analyzed to investigate the effects of sodium acetate on the combustion process and NOx emission. The experiments were carried out in a partial reductive atmosphere and a strong oxidative atmosphere. The O{sub 2} valley value in the partial reductive atmosphere was reduced by the added sodium acetate. Sodium acetate accelerated the combustion and shortened the combustion process. The experimental results showed that the emissions of NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were affected by the reacting atmosphere and the combustion temperature. In the strong oxidative atmosphere, sodium acetate resulted in a slight NOx reduction. In the partial reductive atmosphere, sodium acetate reduced both the peak value of NO concentration and the total NO emission significantly. An over 30% NOx reduction efficiency was achieved at 900{sup o}C in the partial reductive atmosphere, which decreased with the increase in temperature. Sodium acetate was decomposed into hydrocarbon radicals and sodium hydroxide, which can both reduce NOx emissions due to their special reactions with the nitrogen component. 17 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide...

  17. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.310 Section 415.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  18. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.310 Section 415.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  19. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.310 Section 415.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  20. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.310 Section 415.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  1. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.310 Section 415.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  2. DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) HYDROXIDE DEPLETION MODEL FOR CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    OGDEN DM; KIRCH NW

    2007-10-31

    This document generates a supernatant hydroxide ion depletion model based on mechanistic principles. The carbon dioxide absorption mechanistic model is developed in this report. The report also benchmarks the model against historical tank supernatant hydroxide data and vapor space carbon dioxide data. A comparison of the newly generated mechanistic model with previously applied empirical hydroxide depletion equations is also performed.

  3. Sodium bisulfate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in large amounts. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing sodium bisulfate. This article is for information only. ... Symptoms from swallowing more than a tablespoon of this acid may include: Burning pain in the mouth Chest pain from burns ...

  4. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat hyperkalemia (increased amounts of potassium in the body). Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is in a class of medications called potassium-removing agents. It works by removing excess potassium ...

  5. Laboratory-scale sodium-carbonate aggregate concrete interactions. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Westrich, H.R.; Stockman, H.W.; Suo-Anttila, A.

    1983-09-01

    A series of laboratory-scale experiments was made at 600/sup 0/C to identify the important heat-producing chemical reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate concretes. Reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate were found to be responsible for the bulk of heat production in sodium-concrete tests. Exothermic reactions were initiated at 580+-30/sup 0/C for limestone and dolostone aggregates as well as for hydrated limestone concrete, and at 540+-10/sup 0/C for dehydrated limestone concrete, but were ill-defined for dolostone concrete. Major reaction products included CaO, MgO, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/O, NaOH, and elemental carbon. Sodium hydroxide, which forms when water is released from cement phases, causes slow erosion of the concrete with little heat production. The time-temperature profiles of these experiments have been modeled with a simplified version of the SLAM computer code, which has allowed derivation of chemical reaction rate coefficients.

  6. Reaction of tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(III) with hydroxide and its application in a solar energy storage system.

    PubMed

    Creutz, C; Sutin, N

    1975-08-01

    Irradiation of Ru(bipy)(3) (2+) (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) with light below 560 nm results in the formation of a charge-transfer excited state potentially capable of reducing water to dihydrogen with concomitant production of Ru(bipy)(3) (3+). The latter may be reduced by hydroxide [Formula: see text] to form dioxygen and regenerate the starting complex. The use of these reactions in a cell designed to bring about the photochemical decomposition of water is proposed.The stoichiometry, kinetics, and mechanism of the Ru(bipy)(3) (3+)-hydroxide reaction have been investigated by conventional and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The dioxygen yield is a sharp function of pH, attaining its maximum value (about 80%) at pH 9. At low pH (3 and 4.8) the production of ruthenium(II) is first order with k(obsd) = (1.41 +/- 0.04) x 10(-4) sec(-1) (25 degrees , ionic strength mu = 1.00 M with sodium sulfate). In the intermediate pH range (7.9-10.0) complex kinetics are observed. In the hydroxide range 0.01-0.50 M, ruthenium(II) production is predominantly first order with k(obsd) = k(a)[OH(-)] + k(b)[OH(-)](2) sec(-1); k(a) = 148 M(-1) sec(-1) and k(b) = 138 M(-2) sec(-1) (25 degrees , mu = 1.00 M, sodium sulfate). For the k(a) term, the activation parameters are DeltaH(double dagger) = 15.3 +/- 1.0 kcal mol(-1) and DeltaS(double dagger) = 7 +/- 3 cal deg(-1) mol(-1) (1 cal = 4.184 J). An intermediate species (lambda(max) 800 nm) forms at the same rate as ruthenium(II) in this hydroxide range. It disappears with k(obsd) = 1.2 + 1.1 x 10(2) [OH(-)] sec(-1) at 25 degrees . Similarly absorbing (lambda(max) 750 to 800 nm) species are generated by the addition of hydroxyl radical to M(bipy)(3) (2+/3+) [M = Fe(II), Os(II), Ru(II), Cr(III), Ru(III)] in pulse radiolysis experiments. The kinetics above pH 7 are described in terms of rate-determining nucleophilic attack by hydroxide on the bound bipyridine ring. The hydroxide adduct so generated is tentatively identified with that observed in

  7. Ions Release and pH of Calcium Hydroxide-, Chlorhexidine- and Bioactive Glass-Based Endodontic Medicaments.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Freire, Laila Gonzales; Carvalho, Alexandre Pinheiro Lima de; Duarte, Marco Antonio Húngaro; Bauer, José; Gavini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated pH and release of calcium, sodium and phosphate ions from different medications in human dentin. Fifty premolars were prepared and randomly divided into groups: (CHX) - 2% chlorhexidine gel; (CHX + CH) - CHX + calcium hydroxide PA; (CH) - CH + propylene glycol 600; (NPBG) - experimental niobium phosphate bioactive glass + distilled water; (BG) - bioactive glass (Bio-Gran) + distilled water. The specimens were immersed in deionized water and the pH variations were measured. The quantification of ions in the solutions was made by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES) at 10 min, 24 h, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey`s test, with a significance level of 5%. CH had the highest level of calcium ions release at 30 days, while CHX and BG released more sodium ions. BG, NPBG and CHX released a higher amount of phosphate ions. The pH of CH was significantly higher compared with the other groups. CH favored the greatest increase of pH and calcium ions release. The bioactive glasses released more sodium and phosphate ions and presented an alkaline pH immediately and after 30 days.

  8. Ions Release and pH of Calcium Hydroxide-, Chlorhexidine- and Bioactive Glass-Based Endodontic Medicaments.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Freire, Laila Gonzales; Carvalho, Alexandre Pinheiro Lima de; Duarte, Marco Antonio Húngaro; Bauer, José; Gavini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated pH and release of calcium, sodium and phosphate ions from different medications in human dentin. Fifty premolars were prepared and randomly divided into groups: (CHX) - 2% chlorhexidine gel; (CHX + CH) - CHX + calcium hydroxide PA; (CH) - CH + propylene glycol 600; (NPBG) - experimental niobium phosphate bioactive glass + distilled water; (BG) - bioactive glass (Bio-Gran) + distilled water. The specimens were immersed in deionized water and the pH variations were measured. The quantification of ions in the solutions was made by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES) at 10 min, 24 h, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey`s test, with a significance level of 5%. CH had the highest level of calcium ions release at 30 days, while CHX and BG released more sodium ions. BG, NPBG and CHX released a higher amount of phosphate ions. The pH of CH was significantly higher compared with the other groups. CH favored the greatest increase of pH and calcium ions release. The bioactive glasses released more sodium and phosphate ions and presented an alkaline pH immediately and after 30 days. PMID:27224568

  9. Effect of Calcium Hydroxide, Chlorhexidine Digluconate and Camphorated Monochlorophenol on the Sealing Ability of Biodentine Apical Plug

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Harshit; Prasad, Ashwini B; Raisingani, Deepak; Soni, Dileep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Teeth with immature apex are managed by establishing an apical plug using various materials and techniques. However, the use of previously placed intracanal medicament may affect the sealing ability of permanent filling material used as an apical plug. Aim To evaluate the effect of removal of previously placed Calcium Hydroxide, Chlorhexidine Digluconate and Camphorated Monochlorophenol as an intracanal medicament on the sealing ability of the Biodentine as an apical plug. Materials and Methods A total of 72 recently extracted human permanent teeth with single root were selected and stored in saline at room temperature. The crown portion of each tooth was removed at the level of cemento enamel junction; 14mm root length was taken as standard length. All the roots were submerged in 20% sulphuric acid up to 3 mm from the apex, for four days for root resorption. One sample was cut longitudinally to look for root resorption under stereo microscope. The canal preparation was done; the roots were kept in moist gauze after instrumentation. A total of 71 roots were randomly divided into three groups. GROUP 1:Calcium hydroxide paste, GROUP 2: Chlorhexidine digluconate, GROUP 3: Camphorated Monochlorophenol (CMCP). The medicaments were removed with stainless steel hand files and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation. After removal of medicament Biodentine was placed in apical third of resorbed roots and the remaining portion of the canals was filled with gutta-percha. All the 71 roots were analysed with fluid filtration method for evaluating microleakage. Results Comparing all the three groups statistically there was no significant difference. The mean values were found more for group 1 followed by group 2 & 3. Conclusion All the groups showed microleakage. Calcium hydroxide showed the maximum microleakage followed by Chlorhexidine digluconate and least with CMCP. PMID:27504409

  10. Comparisons of kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide adsorption in aqueous solution with graphene oxide, zeolite and activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shenteng; Lu, Chungsying; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO), sodium Y-type zeolite (NaY) and granular activated carbon (GAC) are selected as adsorbents to study their kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) adsorption from water. The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order rate law while the adsorption thermodynamics shows an exothermic reaction with GO and GAC but displays an endothermic reaction with NaY. The adsorbed TMAH can be readily desorbed from the surface of GO and NaY by 0.05 M NaCl solution. A comparative study on the cyclic TMAH adsorption with GO, NaY and GAC is also conducted and the results reveal that GO exhibits the greatest TMAH adsorption capacity as well as superior reversibility of TMAH adsorption over 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. These features indicate that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment.

  11. Scalable preparation of alginate templated-layered double hydroxide mesoporous composites with enhanced surface areas and surface acidities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Xu, Ting; Lei, Xiaodong; Xu, Sailong; Zhang, Fazhi

    2011-04-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also known as hydrotalcite-like layered clays, have previously been investigated as a potential solid alkaline catalyst. A necessary calcinations/rehydration procedure, however, is utilized to enhance surface area and catalytic activity of LDHs involved. Here we report on a scalable preparation of sodium alginate-templated MgAI-LDH (LDH/SA) mesoporous composites with high surface area and surface acidity. The powdery LDH/SA mesoporous composites are prepared using alginate as template by a scalable method of separate nucleation and aging steps (SNAS). Comparison with the pristine MgAl-LDH shows that the obtained LDH/SA composites exhibit the greatly enhanced surface area and surface activity of surface acid sites at the elevated high temperatures which have scarcely been reported previously. Our results may allow designing a variety of mesoporous LDH-containing composites with potential applications in specific catalysis and purification processes.

  12. Dietary sodium intake, airway responsiveness, and cellular sodium transport.

    PubMed

    Tribe, R M; Barton, J R; Poston, L; Burney, P G

    1994-06-01

    Both epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggest that a high dietary sodium intake may increase airway responsiveness, but no adequate explanation exists of how changes in sodium intake might lead to increased responsiveness. This investigation was carried out to study dietary sodium intake and airway response to methacholine in relation to cellular sodium transport in 52 young men. Airway response to methacholine was associated with urinary sodium excretion when subjects were on normal sodium intake. Airway responsiveness in patients with mild asthma correlated with the furosemide-insensitive influx of sodium into peripheral leukocytes stimulated by autologous serum, but there was no relation between this influx and 24-h urinary sodium excretion. In a separate investigation, serum from subjects with increased airway responsiveness caused an increase in the sodium influx and sodium content of leukocytes from nonatopic subjects. The magnitude of the furosemide-insensitive, serum stimulated influx was related to the degree of airway responsiveness of the serum donor, as was the increase in intracellular sodium content. Neither was related to the 24-h urinary sodium excretion of the donor. Patients with airway hyperresponsiveness have an increased sodium influx into cells stimulated by a serum-borne factor. This is independent of the effect of added dietary sodium on airway responsiveness.

  13. Electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide in porous electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Jorne, Jacob

    1987-01-01

    The electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide in porous electrode was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The loading level and plaque expansion were the most important parameters to be considered. The effects of applied current density, stirring, ratio of solution to electrode volume and pH were identified. A novel flow through electrochemical impregnation is proposed in which the electrolyte is forced through the porous nickel plaque. The thickening of the plaque can be reduced while maintaining high loading capacity. A mathematical model is presented which describes the transport of the nitrate, nickel and hydroxyl ions and the consecutive heterogeneous electrochemical reduction of nitrate and the homogeneous precipitation reaction of nickel hydroxide. The distributions of precipitation rate and active material within the porous electrode are obtained. A semiempirical model is also proposed which takes into account the plugging of the pores.

  14. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    PubMed Central

    Cakıroglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  15. Microbial susceptibility to calcium hydroxide pastes and their vehicles.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi; Garrido, Fabio Devora; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Zaia, Alexandre Augusto; Teixeira, Fabricio Batista; de Souza-Filho, Francisco José

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of some microorganisms commonly isolated from root canals to calcium hydroxide in combination with several vehicles by the agar diffusion method. Stainless-steel cylinders were placed on each inoculated agar medium. The test medications and their controls were placed inside the cylinders. The zones of growth inhibition were measured and recorded after the incubation period for each plate, and the results were analyzed statistically. Enterococcus faecalis was most resistant, whereas the anaerobic Porphyromonas endodontalis was more susceptible to all medications, followed by P. gingivalis and Prevotella intermedial intermedia. Ca(OH)2 + CMCP + glycerin showed significantly larger mean zones of inhibition when compared with the other medications. We conclude that anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria are more susceptible to calcium hydroxide pastes than facultative Gram-positive microorganisms. PMID:12470019

  16. Hierarchical cobalt-based hydroxide microspheres for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Cui, Bai; Derr, Olivia; Yao, Zhibo; Qin, Zhaotong; Deng, Xiangyun; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Hong

    2014-03-21

    3D hierarchical cobalt hydroxide carbonate hydrate (Co(CO3)0.5(OH)·0.11H2O) has been synthesized featuring a hollow urchin-like structure by a one-step hydrothermal method at modest temperature on FTO glass substrates. The functionalities of precursor surfactants were isolated and analyzed. A plausible formation mechanism of the spherical urchin-like microclusters has been furnished through time-dependent investigations. Introduction of other transitional metal doping (Cu, Ni) would give rise to a substantial morphological change associated with a surface area drop. The directly grown cobalt-based hydroxide composite electrodes were found to be capable of catalyzing oxygen evolution reaction (OER) under both neutral pH and alkaline conditions. The favorable 3D dendritic morphology and porous structure provide large surface areas and possible defect sites that are likely responsible for their robust electrochemical activity.

  17. Preparation and photoluminescence study of mesoporous indium hydroxide nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changyu; Lian, Suoyuan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Shouxin; Kang, Zhenhui

    2010-02-15

    Mesoporous indium hydroxide nanorods were successfully synthesized by a mild one-step one-pot method. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption, ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that there were some pores in the samples, which were mainly composed of rod-like shapes with length of 300 nm and diameter of 90 nm. N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption measurements confirmed that the prepared powder was mesoporous with average pore diameter of 3.1 nm. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the band gap energy of the samples was 5.15 eV. Photoluminescence spectrum showed that there were two strong emissions under ultraviolet light irradiation. The growth mechanism of indium hydroxide nanorods and the role of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide were also discussed.

  18. A chlorate candle/lithium hydroxide personal breathing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    A portable coal mine rescue and survival equipment is reported that consists of a chlorate candle with a lithium hydroxide carbon-dioxide absorbent for oxygen generation, a breathing bag and tubing to conduct breathing to and from the man. A plastic hood incorporating a mouth piece for communication provides also eye protection and prevents inhalation through the nose. Manned testing of a prototype system demonstrated the feasibility of this closed circuit no-maintenance breathing apparatus that provides for good voice communication.

  19. Efficient extraction of vaccines formulated in aluminum hydroxide gel by including surfactants in the extraction buffer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Daming; Huang, Shuhui; McClellan, Holly; Dai, Weili; Syed, Najam R; Gebregeorgis, Elizabeth; Mullen, Gregory E. D.; Long, Carole; Martin, Laura B.; Narum, David; Duffy, Patrick; Miller, Louis H.; Saul, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Efficient antigen extraction from vaccines formulated on aluminum hydroxide gels is a critical step for the evaluation of the quality of vaccines following formulation. It has been shown in our laboratory that the efficiency of antigen extraction from vaccines formulated on Alhydrogel decreased significantly with increased storage time. To increase antigen extraction efficiency, the present study determined the effect of surfactants on antigen recovery from vaccine formulations. The Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) formulated on Alhydrogel and stored at 2-8 °C for three years was used as a model in this study. The AMA1 on Alhydrogel was extracted in the presence or absence of 30 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or 20 mM cetylpyridinium chloride in the extraction buffer (0.60 M citrate, 0.55 M phosphate, pH 8.5) using our standard antigen extraction protocols. Extracted AMA1 antigen was analyzed by 4-20% Tris-glycine SDS-PAGE followed by silver staining or western blotting. The results showed that inclusion of SDS or cetylpyridinium chloride in extraction buffer increased the antigen recovery dramatically and can be used for efficient characterization of Alhydrogel vaccines. PMID:22107848

  20. Effects of anionic surfactants on ligand-promoted dissolution of iron and aluminum hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Naraya; Kretzschmar, Ruben; Pesch, Marie-Laure; Kraemer, Stephan M

    2008-05-15

    We investigated the influence of the surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and rhamnolipid (RhL) on ligand-promoted dissolution of goethite (alpha-FeOOH) and boehmite (gamma-AlOOH) at pH 6. The siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB), its derivate desferrioxamine D (DFOD), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQS) were used as ligands. The rates of ligand-promoted dissolution of goethite were significantly increased in the presence of low concentrations of anionic surfactants (<80 microM SDS; <6 mg/L RhL). At higher surfactant concentrations, however, the effects of surfactants were negligible. The dissolution rates in the presence of surfactants were not correlated with adsorbed amounts of ligands. Three possible factors contributing to these observations were further investigated and discussed: (i) adsorbed surfactants may influence ligand adsorption by changes in the ligand's surface speciation, (ii) re-adsorption of Fe-DFOB or Fe-DFOD complexes may lead to an underestimation of siderophore-promoted dissolution rates at high surfactant concentrations, and (iii) co-adsorption of protons to goethite with SDS may influence the dissolution rates. However, our results show that none of these three factors can satisfactorily explain the observed effects of anionic surfactants on ligand-promoted dissolution rates of iron and aluminum hydroxides.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of [4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyrate)-zinc layered hydroxide] nanohybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Hashim, Norhayati; Yahaya, Asmah Hj.; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2010-05-01

    A new layered organic-inorganic nanohybrid material in which an agrochemical, 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butyrate (DPBA) is intercalated into inorganic interlayers of zinc layered hydroxide (ZLH) was synthesized by direct reaction of aqueous DPBA solution with zinc oxide. The resulting nanohybrid is composed of the organic moieties, DPBA sandwiched between ZLH inorganic interlayers. The nanohybrid afforded well ordered crystalline layered structure, a basal spacing of 29.6 Å, 23.5% carbon (w/w) and 47.9% (w/w) loading of DPBA. FTIR study shows that the absorption bands of the resulting nanohybrid composed the FTIR characteristics of both the DPBA and ZLH which further confirmed the intercalation episode. The intercalated organic moiety in the form of nanohybrid is thermally more stable than its sodium salt. Scanning electron micrograph shows the ZnO precursor has very fine granular structure and transformed into a flake-like when the nanohybrid is formed. This work shows that the nanohybrid of DPBA-ZLH can be synthesized using simple, direct reaction of ZnO and DPBA under aqueous environment for the formation of a new generation of agrochemical.

  2. Polarographic determination of lead hydroxide formation constants at low ionic strength

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind, Carol J.

    1978-01-01

    Values of formation constants for lead hydroxide at 25 ??C were calculated from normal pulse polarographic measurements of 10-6 M lead in 0.01 M sodium perchlorate. The low concentrations simulate those found in many freshwaters, permitting direct application of the values when considering distributions of lead species. The precise evaluation of species distribution in waters at other ionic strengths requires activity coefficient corrections. As opposed to much of the previously published work done at high ionic strength, the values reported here were obtained at low ionic strength, permitting use of smaller and better defined activity coefficient corrections. These values were further confirmed by differential-pulse polarography and differential-pulse anodic stripping voltammetry data. The logs of the values for ??1??? ??2???, and ??3??? were calculated to be 6.59, 10.80, and 13.63, respectively. When corrected to zero ionic strength these values were calculated to be 6.77, 11.07, and 13.89, respectively.

  3. Zn-Al-NO(3)-layered double hydroxides with intercalated diclofenac for ocular delivery.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feng; Wang, Yanjun; Ping, Qineng; Liao, Zhenggen

    2011-02-14

    This study was aimed to evaluate the potential use of a drug delivery system, drug-layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites for ocular delivery. Diclofenac was successfully intercalated into Zn-Al-NO(3)-LDH by coprecipitation method. The nanocomposites were characterized by particle size, elemental chemical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, etc. A tilt bilayer of diclofenac molecules formed in the interlayer with the gallery height of 1.868 nm. In vivo precorneal retention studies were conducted with diclofenac sodium (DS) saline, diclofenac-LDH nanocomposite dispersion, 2% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K30-diclofenac-LDH nanohybrid dispersion and 10% PVP K30-diclofenac-LDH nanohybrid dispersion, separately. Compared with DS saline, all the dispersions have extended the detectable time of DS from 3h to 6h; C(max) and AUC(0-t) of diclofenac-LDH nanocomposite dispersion showed 3.1-fold and 4.0-fold increase, respectively; C(max) and AUC(0-t) of 2% PVP K30-LDH nanohybrid dispersion were about 5.3-fold and 6.0-fold enhancement, respectively. Results of the Draize test showed that no eye irritation was demonstrated in rabbits after single and repeated administration. These results suggest that this novel ocular drug delivery system appears to offer promise as a means to improving the bioavailability of drugs after ophthalmic applications.

  4. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  5. From cobalt nitrate carbonate hydroxide hydrate nanowires to porous Co(3)O(4) nanorods for high performance lithium-ion battery electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wu, Jianbo; Zhai, Chuanxin; Ma, Xiangyang; Du, Ning; Tu, Jiangping; Yang, Deren

    2008-01-23

    We have developed a simple approach for the large-scale synthesis of cobalt nitrate carbonate hydroxide hydrate (Co(CO(3))(0.35)(NO(3))(0.2)(OH)(1.1)·1.74H(2)O) nanowires via the hydrothermal process using sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde as mineralizers at 120 °C. The porous Co(3)O(4) nanorods 10-30 nm in diameter and hundreds of nanometres in length have been fabricated from the above-mentioned multicomponent nanowires by calcination at 400 °C. The morphology and structure of cobalt nitrate carbonate hydroxide hydrate nanowires and Co(3)O(4) nanorods have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Moreover, the porous Co(3)O(4) nanorods have been applied in the negative electrode materials for lithium ion batteries, which exhibit high electrochemical performance.

  6. Temperature-mediated phase transformation, pore geometry and pore hysteresis transformation of borohydride derived in-born porous zirconium hydroxide nanopowders

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nadiya B.; Nayak, Bibhuti B.

    2016-01-01

    Development of in-born porous nature of zirconium hydroxide nanopowders through a facile hydrogen (H2) gas-bubbles assisted borohydride synthesis route using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and novel information on the temperature-mediated phase transformation, pore geometry as well as pore hysteresis transformation of in-born porous zirconium hydroxide nanopowders with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) isotherm and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images are the main theme of this research work. Without any surfactants or pore forming agents, the borohydride derived amorphous nature of porous powders was stable up to 500 °C and then the seed crystals start to develop within the loose amorphous matrix and trapping the inter-particulate voids, which led to develop the porous nature of tetragonal zirconium oxide at 600 °C and further sustain this porous nature as well as tetragonal phase of zirconium oxide up to 800 °C. The novel hydrogen (H2) gas-bubbles assisted borohydride synthesis route led to develop thermally stable porous zirconium hydroxide/oxide nanopowders with an adequate pore size, pore volume, and surface area and thus these porous materials are further suggested for promising use in different areas of applications. PMID:27198738

  7. Temperature-mediated phase transformation, pore geometry and pore hysteresis transformation of borohydride derived in-born porous zirconium hydroxide nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Nadiya B.; Nayak, Bibhuti B.

    2016-05-01

    Development of in-born porous nature of zirconium hydroxide nanopowders through a facile hydrogen (H2) gas-bubbles assisted borohydride synthesis route using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and novel information on the temperature-mediated phase transformation, pore geometry as well as pore hysteresis transformation of in-born porous zirconium hydroxide nanopowders with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) isotherm and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images are the main theme of this research work. Without any surfactants or pore forming agents, the borohydride derived amorphous nature of porous powders was stable up to 500 °C and then the seed crystals start to develop within the loose amorphous matrix and trapping the inter-particulate voids, which led to develop the porous nature of tetragonal zirconium oxide at 600 °C and further sustain this porous nature as well as tetragonal phase of zirconium oxide up to 800 °C. The novel hydrogen (H2) gas-bubbles assisted borohydride synthesis route led to develop thermally stable porous zirconium hydroxide/oxide nanopowders with an adequate pore size, pore volume, and surface area and thus these porous materials are further suggested for promising use in different areas of applications.

  8. Alternatives for sodium-potassium alloy treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, T.J.; Johnson, M.E.

    1993-04-08

    Sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) is currently treated at the Y-12 Plant by open burning. Due to uncertainties with future permits for this process alternative treatment methods were investigated, revealing that two treatment processes are feasible. One process reacts the NaK with water in a highly concentrated molten caustic solution (sodium and potassium hydroxide). The final waste is a caustic that may be used elsewhere in the plant. This process has two safety concerns: Hot corrosive materials used throughout the process present handling difficulties and the process must be carefully controlled (temperature and water content) to avoid explosive NaK reactions. To avoid these problems a second process was developed that dissolves NaK in a mixture of propylene glycol and water at room temperature. While this process is safer, it generates more waste than the caustic process. The waste may possibly be used as a carbon food source in biological waste treatment operations at the Y-12 Plant. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate both processes, and they showed that both processes are feasible alternatives for NaK treatment. Process flow sheets with mass balances were generated for both processes and compared. While the caustic process generates less waste, the propylene glycol process is safer in several ways (temperature, material handling, and reaction control). The authors recommend that the propylene glycol alternative be pursued further as an alternative for NaK treatment. To optimize this process for a larger scale several experiments should be conducted. The amount of NaK dissolved in propylene glycol and subsequent waste generated should be optimized. The offgas processes should be optimized. The viability of using this waste as a carbon food source at one of the Y-12 Plant treatment facilities should be investigated. If the state accepts this process as an alternative, design and construction of a pilot-scale treatment system should begin.

  9. Sodium storage and injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, A. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A sodium storage and injection system for delivering atomized liquid sodium to a chemical reactor employed in the production of solar grade silicon is disclosed. The system is adapted to accommodate start-up, shut-down, normal and emergency operations, and is characterized by (1) a jacketed injection nozzle adapted to atomize liquefied sodium and (2) a supply circuit connected to the nozzle for delivering the liquefied sodium. The supply circuit is comprised of a plurality of replaceable sodium containment vessels, a pump interposed between the vessels and the nozzle, and a pressurizing circuit including a source of inert gas connected with the vessels for maintaining the sodium under pressure.

  10. Chemical acceleration of a neutral granulated blast-furnace slag activated by sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Kovtun, Maxim Kearsley, Elsabe P. Shekhovtsova, Julia

    2015-06-15

    This paper presents results of a study on chemical acceleration of a neutral granulated blast-furnace slag activated using sodium carbonate. As strength development of alkali-activated slag cements containing neutral GBFS and sodium carbonate as activator at room temperature is known to be slow, three accelerators were investigated: sodium hydroxide, ordinary Portland cement and a combination of silica fume and slaked lime. In all cements, the main hydration product is C–(A)–S–H, but its structure varies between tobermorite and riversideite depending on the accelerator used. Calcite and gaylussite are present in all systems and they were formed due to either cation exchange reaction between the slag and the activator, or carbonation. With accelerators, compressive strength up to 15 MPa can be achieved within 24 h in comparison to 2.5 MPa after 48 h for a mix without an accelerator.

  11. Experimental study of the tritium distribution in the effluents resulting from the sodium hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chassery, A.; Lorcet, H.; Godlewski, J; Liger, K.; Latge, C.; Joulia, X.

    2015-03-15

    Within the framework of the dismantling of fast breeder reactors in France several processes are under investigation regarding sodium disposal. One of them, called ELA (radioactive sodium waste treatment process), is based on the implementation of the sodium-water reaction, in a controlled and progressive way, to remove residual sodium. This sodium contains impurities such as sodium hydride, sodium oxide and tritiated sodium hydride. The hydrolysis of these various chemical species leads to the production of a liquid effluent, mainly composed of an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, and a gaseous effluent, mainly composed of nitrogen (inert gas), hydrogen and steam. The tritium is distributed between these effluents, and, within the gaseous effluent, according to its forms HT and HTO (tritiated water). HTO being 10,000 times more radio-toxic than HT, a precise knowledge of the mechanisms governing the phase distribution of tritium is necessary. This paper presents the first experimental results from a parametric study on the tritium distribution between the various effluents generated during hydrolysis operations. A series of experiments have been performed in order to study the influence of water flow rate, argon flow rate, initial mass and specific activity of the hydrolyzed sodium sample. An important influence of the total tritium concentration in the hydrolyzed sample has been highlighted. As for the phenomena suspected to be responsible for the phase change of tritiated water, in the studied range of parameters, vaporization induced by the heat of reactions seems to be dominant over the evaporation induced by the inert gas flow rate.

  12. Dalapon, sodium salt

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dalapon , sodium salt ; CASRN 75 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  13. Chlorite (sodium salt)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorite ( sodium salt ) ; CASRN 7758 - 19 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  14. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-11-20

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability.

  15. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  16. Clinical overview of nedocromil sodium.

    PubMed

    König, P

    1995-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium is a novel anti-inflammatory agent that has been demonstrated to significantly improve pulmonary function and decrease bronchial hyperreactivity in asthmatic patients. Currently available only as an inhaled drug, nedocromil sodium has an excellent safety profile, the only adverse effect being a slightly unpleasant taste. Nedocromil sodium has been used as a replacement for sustained-release theophylline therapy; the overall efficacy of nedocromil sodium is at least equivalent to that of theophylline, with less adverse effects occurring in those patients treated with nedocromil sodium rather than with theophylline. Nedocromil sodium also appears to be equal in efficacy to low doses of beclomethasone when employed in patients with mild to moderate asthma. Addition of nedocromil sodium to an ongoing regimen of beclomethasone may also allow for reduction in the dosage of inhaled corticosteroid. The overall safety of therapy with nedocromil sodium suggests that it be considered as initial therapy for those patients having mild to moderate asthma.

  17. Final report on the amended safety assessment of sodium polynaphthalenesulfonate and sodium naphthalenesulfonate.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Sodium Polynaphthalenesulfonate (SPNS) and Sodium Naphthalenesulfonate (SNS) are sodium salts of naphthalene sulfonic acid. SPNS was used as an emulsion stabilizer, surfactant--hydrotrope, and/or surfactant--suspending agent at concentrations between 0.1% and 0.4%, in a wide range of products, including one lipstick. SNS is described as a surfactant--hydrotrope; no current uses were reported, but information was provided indicating that use concentrations would be typically below 2%. SNS is manufactured by reacting naphthalene with sulfuric acid to produce a sulfonic acid, which is then reacted with sodium hydroxide to produce the final product. The polymer form uses the sulfonic acid intermediate in a reaction with formaldehyde and water under conditions of heat and pressure to form the polymer sulfonic acid form, to which sodium hydroxide is added to make the final SPNS. The residue level of formaldehyde was 0.09%. Only around 1% of SNS in a 1-mg/ml solution applied to porcine skin penetrated the skin after 24 h, a similar amount was found noncovalently bound to the skin, and the concentration of material applied to the surface of the skin was largely unchanged. Both chemicals were not toxic in acute oral or dermal studies. In a subchronic oral toxicity study in rats, the effects noted were increases in urinary sugar in females and urine protein concentrations in males. Although undiluted SPNS was not a significant eye irritant in rabbits, undiluted SNS was a moderate eye irritant in rabbits. At 2%, SNS was a minimal eye irritant in rabbits. Undiluted SNS was at most a mild irritant in Guinea pigs, and was nonirritating at 20% and 2%. In a delayed contact hypersensitivity test in Guinea pigs, 30% SNS used in the induction phase and in the challenge phase produced no reactions. In a Guinea pig maximization test, 1% SNS used with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) injected in the initial sensitization, 50% SNS applied topically in the second sensitization, and up to

  18. Final report on the amended safety assessment of sodium polynaphthalenesulfonate and sodium naphthalenesulfonate.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Sodium Polynaphthalenesulfonate (SPNS) and Sodium Naphthalenesulfonate (SNS) are sodium salts of naphthalene sulfonic acid. SPNS was used as an emulsion stabilizer, surfactant--hydrotrope, and/or surfactant--suspending agent at concentrations between 0.1% and 0.4%, in a wide range of products, including one lipstick. SNS is described as a surfactant--hydrotrope; no current uses were reported, but information was provided indicating that use concentrations would be typically below 2%. SNS is manufactured by reacting naphthalene with sulfuric acid to produce a sulfonic acid, which is then reacted with sodium hydroxide to produce the final product. The polymer form uses the sulfonic acid intermediate in a reaction with formaldehyde and water under conditions of heat and pressure to form the polymer sulfonic acid form, to which sodium hydroxide is added to make the final SPNS. The residue level of formaldehyde was 0.09%. Only around 1% of SNS in a 1-mg/ml solution applied to porcine skin penetrated the skin after 24 h, a similar amount was found noncovalently bound to the skin, and the concentration of material applied to the surface of the skin was largely unchanged. Both chemicals were not toxic in acute oral or dermal studies. In a subchronic oral toxicity study in rats, the effects noted were increases in urinary sugar in females and urine protein concentrations in males. Although undiluted SPNS was not a significant eye irritant in rabbits, undiluted SNS was a moderate eye irritant in rabbits. At 2%, SNS was a minimal eye irritant in rabbits. Undiluted SNS was at most a mild irritant in Guinea pigs, and was nonirritating at 20% and 2%. In a delayed contact hypersensitivity test in Guinea pigs, 30% SNS used in the induction phase and in the challenge phase produced no reactions. In a Guinea pig maximization test, 1% SNS used with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) injected in the initial sensitization, 50% SNS applied topically in the second sensitization, and up to

  19. Determination of Na(2)O from sodium aluminate NaAlO(2).

    PubMed

    Näykki, T; Raimo, A; Paavo, P; Antero, K; Päivi, N

    2000-07-31

    The aim of the work was to find a suitable method and conditions for determining Na(2)O wt.% from NaAlO(2). Problems were encountered while titrating NaAlO(2) with hydrochloric acid. The problematic area was the pH range 4-10 where aluminum precipitates as hydroxides. The different species of the aluminate solution were determined using potentiometric and complexometric titrations. The equivalent point of the potentiometric titration was detected using Gran's plotting method. Precipitation of aluminum hydroxides did not interfere with titrations, because in potentiometric titrations the pH value was over 10 and in complexometric titrations the pH was 4. The results were accurate and determinations were easy to carry out. Sodium was also determined by DCP-AES.

  20. Advances in aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant research and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    He, Peng; Zou, Yening; Hu, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, hundreds of materials have been tried as adjuvant; however, only aluminum-based adjuvants continue to be used widely in the world. Aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate and alum constitute the main forms of aluminum used as adjuvants. Among these, aluminum hydroxide is the most commonly used chemical as adjuvant. In spite of its wide spread use, surprisingly, the mechanism of how aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants exert their beneficial effects is still not fully understood. Current explanations for the mode of action of aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants include, among others, the repository effect, pro-phagocytic effect, and activation of the pro-inflammatory NLRP3 pathway. These collectively galvanize innate as well as acquired immune responses and activate the complement system. Factors that have a profound influence on responses evoked by aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant applications include adsorption rate, strength of the adsorption, size and uniformity of aluminum hydroxide particles, dosage of adjuvant, and the nature of antigens. Although vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants are beneficial, sometimes they cause adverse reactions. Further, these vaccines cannot be stored frozen. Until recently, aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants were known to preferentially prime Th2-type immune responses. However, results of more recent studies show that depending on the vaccination route, aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants can enhance both Th1 as well as Th2 cellular responses. Advances in systems biology have opened up new avenues for studying mechanisms of aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants. These will assist in scaling new frontiers in aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant research that include improvement of formulations, use of nanoparticles of aluminum hydroxide and development of composite adjuvants. PMID:25692535

  1. Direct ethanol fuel cell using hydrotalcite clay as a hydroxide ion conductive electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2010-10-15

    An alkaline-type direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) using a natural clay electrolyte with non-platinum catalysts is proposed. So-called hydrotalcite clay, Mg–Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with CO₃²⁻, is shown to be a hydroxide ion conductor. An alkaline-type DEFC using this natural clay as the electrolyte and aqueous solution of ethanol and potassium hydroxide as a source of fuel exhibits excellent electrochemical performance from room temperature to 80 °C.

  2. Electrosynthesis and stabilization of α-cobalt hydroxide in the presence of trivalent cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Mridula; Vishnu Kamath, P.

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) of cobalt with aluminium and chromium, isostructural with α-cobalt(II) hydroxide, are electrosynthesized. This paves the way for their possible impregnation into porous metal plaques for ready use as electrodes in alkaline secondary cells. Unlike pure cobalt hydroxide, the LDHs of cobalt are not amphoteric and retain their α-like structure in strong alkali, even after prolonged ageing. In addition, they exhibit electrochemical activity as shown by cyclic voltammetric studies.

  3. Selected-control synthesis of dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods by adjusting hydrothermal temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Song Xuchun Zheng Yifan; Wang Yun

    2008-05-06

    Dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods were prepared directly from commercial bulk Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals by facile hydrothermal process at 130 and 210 deg. C, respectively. The as-synthesized dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods were investigated by various techniques of XRD, TEM, SEM, and EDS. In the process, the temperature was found to play important roles in determining produce dysprosium hydroxide and oxide nanorods.

  4. Advances in aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant research and its mechanism

    PubMed Central

    He, Peng; Zou, Yening; Hu, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, hundreds of materials have been tried as adjuvant; however, only aluminum-based adjuvants continue to be used widely in the world. Aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate and alum constitute the main forms of aluminum used as adjuvants. Among these, aluminum hydroxide is the most commonly used chemical as adjuvant. In spite of its wide spread use, surprisingly, the mechanism of how aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants exert their beneficial effects is still not fully understood. Current explanations for the mode of action of aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants include, among others, the repository effect, pro-phagocytic effect, and activation of the pro-inflammatory NLRP3 pathway. These collectively galvanize innate as well as acquired immune responses and activate the complement system. Factors that have a profound influence on responses evoked by aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant applications include adsorption rate, strength of the adsorption, size and uniformity of aluminum hydroxide particles, dosage of adjuvant, and the nature of antigens. Although vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants are beneficial, sometimes they cause adverse reactions. Further, these vaccines cannot be stored frozen. Until recently, aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants were known to preferentially prime Th2-type immune responses. However, results of more recent studies show that depending on the vaccination route, aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants can enhance both Th1 as well as Th2 cellular responses. Advances in systems biology have opened up new avenues for studying mechanisms of aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants. These will assist in scaling new frontiers in aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant research that include improvement of formulations, use of nanoparticles of aluminum hydroxide and development of composite adjuvants. PMID:25692535

  5. Method of treating inflammatory diseases using a radiolabeled ferric hydroxide calloid

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1992-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  6. The prototype fast reactor at Dounreay, Scotland. Process and engineering development for sodium removal

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, A.; Herrick, R.; Gunn, J.; Husband, W.; Smith, M.; Fletcher, B.

    2007-07-01

    Dounreay was home to commercial fast reactor development in the UK. Following the construction and operation of the Dounreay Fast Reactor, a sodium-cooled Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), was constructed. PFR started operating in 1974, closed in 1994 and is presently being decommissioned. To date the bulk of the sodium has been removed and treated. Due to the design of the existing extraction system however, a sodium pool will remain in the heel of the reactor. To remove this sodium, a pump/camera system was developed, tested and deployed. The Water Vapour Nitrogen (WVN) process has been selected to allow removal of the final sodium residues from the reactor. Due to the design of the reactor and potential for structural damage should Normal WVN (which produces hydrated sodium hydroxide) be used, Low Concentration WVN (LC WVN) has been developed. Pilot scale testing has shown that it is possible treat the reactor within 18 months at a WVN concentration of up to 4% v/v and temperature of 120 deg. C. At present the equipment that will be used to apply LC WVN to the reactor is being developed at the detail design stage. and is expected to be deployed within the next few years. (authors)

  7. Effects of salinity and humic acid on the sorption of Hg on Fe and Mn hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Li, Yi-Chun; Zhang, Chan; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Cui, Hao-Jie; Yu, Shen; Wong, Ming H

    2013-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of humic acid (HA) and salinity on adsorption of Hg on the amorphous and crystalline of iron and manganese hydroxides. The results show that the adsorption of Hg(2+) on Fe and Mn hydroxides was inhibited in marine system due to the formation of stable, nonsorbing aqueous HgCl(2) complexes in solution. Moreover, Cl(-) inhibited the Hg(2+) adsorption more severely on amorphous than crystalline hydroxides. The addition of HA inhibited Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides in freshwater system might be attributed to the competition between Hg(2+) and HA on adsorption to Fe and Mn hydroxides. In contrast, the addition of HA promoted Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides in the marine system, which might be due to the addition of humic acid resulted in the reaction between Cl(-) and HA, and therefore the reducing of Cl(-) promoted more Hg(2+) on Fe and Mn hydroxides. In addition, the influence of HA on Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides are more visible for crystalline than amorphous hydroxides.

  8. Sorption of Np (V) by U (VI) hydroxide solids

    SciTech Connect

    Wruck, D A; Brachmann, A; Sylwester, E; Allen, C E A

    1999-09-20

    The distribution of {sup 237}Np(V) between aqueous NaHCO{sub 3} solutions and U(VI) hydroxide solids was investigated. Experiments were initiated by addition of U solids to Np solutions and by coprecipitation of U and Np. Analysis by U L{sub III} extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and infrared absorption spectroscopy indicated the solid phase was synthetic schoepite. Equilibrium Np distribution coefficients were 5-44 mL/g in the pH range 6-8. The results are consistent with adsorption of Np by the solids and provide no evidence of Np incorporation in the bulk solid.

  9. Bonding by Hydroxide-Catalyzed Hydration and Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung

    2008-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive method for bonding solid objects exploits hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration to form silicate-like networks in thin surface and interfacial layers between the objects. The method can be practiced at room temperature or over a wide range of temperatures. The method was developed especially to enable the formation of precise, reliable bonds between precise optical components. The bonds thus formed exhibit the precision and transparency of bonds formed by the conventional optical-contact method and the strength and reliability of high-temperature frit bonds. The method also lends itself to numerous non-optical applications in which there are requirements for precise bonds and/or requirements for bonds, whether precise or imprecise, that can reliably withstand severe environmental conditions. Categories of such non-optical applications include forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. The method is applicable to materials that either (1) can form silicate-like networks in the sense that they have silicate-like molecular structures that are extensible into silicate-like networks or (2) can be chemically linked to silicate-like networks by means of hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration. When hydrated, a material of either type features surface hydroxyl (-OH) groups. In this method, a silicate-like network that bonds two substrates can be formed either by a bonding material alone or by the bonding material together with material from either or both of the substrates. Typically, an aqueous hydroxide bonding solution is dispensed and allowed to flow between the mating surfaces by capillary action. If the surface figures of the substrates do not match precisely, bonding could be improved by including a filling material in the bonding solution. Preferably, the filling material should include at least one ingredient that can be hydrated to

  10. Iron oxide hydroxide nanoflower assisted removal of arsenic from water

    SciTech Connect

    Raul, Prasanta Kumar; Devi, Rashmi Rekha; Umlong, Iohborlang M.; Thakur, Ashim Jyoti; Banerjee, Saumen; Veer, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Non-magnetic polycrystalline iron oxide hydroxide nanoparticle with flower like morphology is found to play as an effective adsorbent media to remove As(III) from 300 μg L{sup −1} to less than 10 μg L{sup −1} from drinking water over wide range of pH. TEM image clearly reveals that the nanoparticle looks flower like morphology with average particle size less than 20 nm. The maximum sorption capacity of the sorbent is found to be 475 μg g{sup −1} for arsenic at room temperature and the data fitted to different isotherm models indicate the heterogeneity of the adsorbent surface. The material can be regenerated up to 70% using dilute hydrochloric acid and it would be utilized for de-arsenification purposes. - Highlights: • The work includes synthesis of iron oxide hydroxide nanoflower and its applicability for the removal of arsenic from water. • The nanoparticle was characterized using modern instrumental methods like FESEM, TEM, BET, XRD, etc. • The maximum sorption capacity of the sorbent is found to be 475 μg g{sup −1} for arsenic at room temperature. • The sorption is multilayered on the heterogeneous surface of the nano adsorbent. • The mechanism of arsenic removal of IOH nanoflower follows both adsorption and ion-exchange. - Abstract: Non-magnetic polycrystalline iron oxide hydroxide nanoparticle with flower like morphology is found to play as an effective adsorbent media to remove As(III) from 300 μg L{sup −1} to less than 10 μg L{sup −1} from drinking water over wide range of pH. The nanoparticle was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), BET surface area, FTIR, FESEM and TEM images. TEM image clearly reveals flower like morphology with average particle size less than 20 nm. The nanoflower morphology is also supported by FESEM images. The maximum sorption capacity of the sorbent is found to be 475 μg g{sup −1} for arsenic and the data fitted to different isotherm models indicate the

  11. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with...

  17. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension.

  18. Interaction of Pu(IV,VI) hydroxides/oxides with metal hydroxides/oxides in alkaline media

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoseev, A.M.; Krot, N.N.; Budantseva, N.A.; Bessonov, A.A.; Nikonov, M.V.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Y.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N.

    1998-08-01

    The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the possibility, extent, and characteristics of interaction of Pu(IV) and (VI) with hydroxides and oxides of d-elements and other metals [Al(III), LA(III), and U(VI)] in alkaline media. Such information is important in fundamental understanding of plutonium disposition and behavior in Hanford Site radioactive tank waste sludge. These results supply essential data for determining criticality safety and in understanding transuranic waste behavior in storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank waste.

  19. Adsorption kinetic and thermodynamic studies of phosphate onto tantalum hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shi-Hua; Dong, Xiao-Le; Gong, Hong; Jiang, Heng; Liu, Zhi-Gang

    2012-12-01

    Tantalum hydroxide exhibits the ability for the removal of phosphate from aqueous solution. The kinetic study, adsorption isotherm, thermodynamic study, desorption, and foreign anions effect were examined in batch experiments. The kinetic process was very well described by a pseudo-second-order rate model. The adsorption isotherms showed that phosphate uptake fitted with a Langmuir-type model very well, with an increase of PO4(3-) adsorption capacity from 78.5 to 97.0 mg/g when the temperature increased from 298 to 338 K. The negative values of deltaG(0) and the positive values of deltaH(0) indicated that the phosphate adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic naturally. While the deltaS(0) values obtained were positive, indicating an increase in randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the adsorption. Foreign anions tests showed that the presence of competitive ions cause minimal interference with the adsorption of phosphate on tantalum hydroxide.

  20. Ions in water: The microscopic structure of concentrated hydroxide solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imberti, S.; Botti, A.; Bruni, F.; Cappa, G.; Ricci, M. A.; Soper, A. K.

    2005-05-01

    Neutron-diffraction data on aqueous solutions of hydroxides, at solute concentrations ranging from 1 solute per 12 water molecules to 1 solute per 3 water molecules, are analyzed by means of a Monte Carlo simulation (empirical potential structure refinement), in order to determine the hydration shell of the OH- in the presence of the smaller alkali metal ions. It is demonstrated that the symmetry argument between H+ and OH- cannot be used, at least in the liquid phase at such high concentrations, for determining the hydroxide hydration shell. Water molecules in the hydration shell of K+ orient their dipole moment at about 45° from the K+-water oxygen director, instead of radially as in the case of the Li+ and Na+ hydration shells. The K+-water oxygen radial distribution function shows a shallower first minimum compared to the other cation-water oxygen functions. The influence of the solutes on the water-water radial distribution functions is shown to have an effect on the water structure equivalent to an increase in the pressure of the water, depending on both ion concentration and ionic radius. The changes of the water structure in the presence of charged solutes and the differences among the hydration shells of the different cations are used to present a qualitative explanation of the observed cation mobility.

  1. Biodiesel synthesis using calcined layered double hydroxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Schumaker, J. Link; Crofcheck, Czarena; TAckett, S. Adam; Santillan-Jimenez, Eduardo; Morgan, Tonya; Ji, Yaying; Crocker, Mark; Toops, Todd J

    2008-01-01

    The catalytic properties of calcined Li-Al, Mg-Al and Mg-Fe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were examined in two transesterification reactions, namely, the reaction of glyceryl tributyrate with methanol, and the reaction of soybean oil with methanol. While the Li-Al catalysts showed high activity in these reactions at the reflux temperature of methanol, the Mg-Fe and Mg-Al catalysts exhibited much lower methyl ester yields. CO2 TPD measurements revealed the presence of sites of weak, medium and strong basicity on both Mg-Al and Li-Al catalysts, the latter showing higher concentrations of medium and strong base sites; by implication, these are the main sites active in transesterification catalyzed by calcined Li-Al LDHs. Maximum activity was observed for the Li-Al catalysts when a calcination temperature of 450-500 aC was applied, corresponding to decomposition of the layered double hydroxide to the mixed oxide without formation of crystalline lithium aluminate phases.

  2. Hydroxide Degradation Pathways for Substituted Trimethylammonium Cations: A DFT Study

    SciTech Connect

    Long, H.; Kim, K.; Pivovar, B. S.

    2012-05-03

    Substituted trimethylammonium cations serve as small molecule analogues for tetherable cations in anion exchange membranes. In turn, these membranes serve as the basis for alkaline membrane fuel cells by allowing facile conduction of hydroxide. As these cations are susceptible to hydroxide attack, they degrade over time and greatly limit the lifetime of the fuel cell. In this research, we performed density functional theory calculations to investigate the degradation pathways of substituted trimethylammonium cations to probe the relative durability of cation tethering strategies in alkyl and aromatic tethers. Our results show that significant changes in calculated energy barriers occur when substitution groups change. Specifically, we have found that, when available, the Hofmann elimination pathway is the most vulnerable pathway for degradation; however, this barrier is also found to depend on the carbon chain length and number of hydrogens susceptible to Hofmann elimination. S{sub N}2 barriers were also investigated for both methyl groups and substitution groups. The reported findings give important insight into potential tethering strategies for trimethylammonium cations in anion exchange membranes.

  3. Hydroxide Degradation Pathways for Imidazolium Cations. A DFT Study

    SciTech Connect

    Long, H.; Pivovar, B.

    2014-05-15

    Imidazolium cations are promising candidates as covalently tetherable cations for application in anion exchange membranes. They have generated specific interest in alkaline membrane fuel cell applications where ammonium-based cations have been the most commonly applied but have been found to be susceptible to hydroxide attack. In the search for high stability cations, a detailed understanding of the degradation pathways and reaction barriers is required. In this work, we investigate imidazolium and benzimidazolium cations in the presence of hydroxide using density functional theory calculations for their potential in alkaline membrane fuel cells. Moreover, the dominant degradation pathway for these cations is predicted to be the nucleophilic addition–elimination pathway at the C-2 atom position on the imidazolium ring. Steric interferences, introduced by substitutions at the C-2, C-4, and C-5 atom positions, were investigated and found to have a significant, positive impact on calculated degradation energy barriers. Benzimidazolium cations, with their larger conjugated systems, are predicted to degrade much faster than their imidazolium counterparts. Our results provide important insight into designing stable cations for anion exchange membranes. Some of the molecules studied have significantly increased degradation energy barriers suggesting that they could possess significantly improved (several orders of magnitude) durability compared to traditional cations and potentially enable new applications.

  4. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Volatile Metal Hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Dwight L.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Modern superalloys used in the construction of turbomachinery contain a wide range of metals in trace quantities. In addition, metal oxides and silicon dioxide are used to form Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) to protect the underlying metal in turbine blades. Formation of volatile hydroxides at elevated temperatures is an important mechanism for corrosion of metal alloys or oxides in combustion environments (N. Jacobson, D. Myers, E. Opila, and E. Copland, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 66, 471-478, 2005). Thermodynamic data is essential to proper design of components of modern gas turbines. It is necessary to first establish the identity of volatile hydroxides formed from the reaction of a given system with high temperature water vapor, and then to determine the equilibrium pressures of the species under operating conditions. Theoretical calculations of reaction energies are an important check of experimental results. This presentation reports results for several important systems: Si-O-H, Cr-O-H, Al-O-H, Ti-O-H, and ongoing studies of Ta-O-H.

  5. Ions in water: the microscopic structure of concentrated hydroxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Imberti, S; Botti, A; Bruni, F; Cappa, G; Ricci, M A; Soper, A K

    2005-05-15

    Neutron-diffraction data on aqueous solutions of hydroxides, at solute concentrations ranging from 1 solute per 12 water molecules to 1 solute per 3 water molecules, are analyzed by means of a Monte Carlo simulation (empirical potential structure refinement), in order to determine the hydration shell of the OH- in the presence of the smaller alkali metal ions. It is demonstrated that the symmetry argument between H+ and OH- cannot be used, at least in the liquid phase at such high concentrations, for determining the hydroxide hydration shell. Water molecules in the hydration shell of K+ orient their dipole moment at about 45 degrees from the K+-water oxygen director, instead of radially as in the case of the Li+ and Na+ hydration shells. The K+-water oxygen radial distribution function shows a shallower first minimum compared to the other cation-water oxygen functions. The influence of the solutes on the water-water radial distribution functions is shown to have an effect on the water structure equivalent to an increase in the pressure of the water, depending on both ion concentration and ionic radius. The changes of the water structure in the presence of charged solutes and the differences among the hydration shells of the different cations are used to present a qualitative explanation of the observed cation mobility.

  6. Lithium hydroxide, LiOH, at elevated densities

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, Andreas; Ashcroft, N. W.; Hoffmann, Roald

    2014-07-14

    We discuss the high-pressure phases of crystalline lithium hydroxide, LiOH. Using first-principles calculations, and assisted by evolutionary structure searches, we reproduce the experimentally known phase transition under pressure, but we suggest that the high-pressure phase LiOH-III be assigned to a new hydrogen-bonded tetragonal structure type that is unique amongst alkali hydroxides. LiOH is at the intersection of both ionic and hydrogen bonding, and we examine the various ensuing structural features and their energetic driving mechanisms. At P = 17 GPa, we predict another phase transition to a new phase, Pbcm-LiOH-IV, which we find to be stable over a wide pressure range. Eventually, at extremely high pressures of 1100 GPa, the ground state of LiOH is predicted to become a polymeric structure with an unusual graphitic oxygen-hydrogen net. However, because of its ionic character, the anticipated metallization of LiOH is much delayed; in fact, its electronic band gap increases monotonically into the TPa pressure range.

  7. Gene promoter hypermethylation is found in sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients, in samples identified as positive by one-step nucleic acid amplification of cytokeratin 19 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sánchez, E; Pernaut-Leza, E; Mendaza, S; Cordoba, A; Vicente-Garcia, F; Monreal-Santesteban, I; Vizcaino, J Pérez; De Cerio, M J Díaz; Perez-Janices, N; Blanco-Luquin, I; Escors, D; Ulazia-Garmendia, A; Guerrero-Setas, D

    2016-07-01

    We analysed the promoter methylation status of five genes, involved in adhesion (EPB41L3, TSLC-1), apoptosis (RASSF1, RASSF2) or angiogenesis (TSP-1), in intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy samples from patients with breast cancer, that had been processed by the one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) technique. SLN resection is performed to estimate the risk of tumour cells in the clinically negative axilla, to avoid unnecessary axillary lymph node dissection. OSNA is currently one of the eligible molecular methods for detecting tumour cells in SLNs. It is based on the quantitative evaluation of cytokeratin 19 mRNA which allows distinguishing between macrometastasis, micrometastasis and isolated tumour cells, on the basis of the quantity of tumour cells present. There have been no prior studies on the question whether or not samples processed by OSNA can be used for further molecular studies, including epigenetic abnormalities which are some of the most important molecular alterations in breast cancer. Genomic DNA was extracted from samples obtained from 50 patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer. The content of tumour cells in SLNs was evaluated by OSNA, and the promoter methylation status of the selected genes was analysed by methylation-specific PCR. All were found to be hypermethylated to a variable degree, and RASSF1 hypermethylation was significantly associated with macrometastasis, micrometastasis and isolated tumour cells (p = 0.002). We show that samples used for OSNA are suitable for molecular studies, including gene promoter methylation. These samples provide a new source of material for the identification of additional biomarkers. PMID:27097811

  8. High Sodium Simulant Testing To Support SB8 Sludge Preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, J. D.

    2012-09-19

    Scoping studies were completed for high sodium simulant SRAT/SME cycles to determine any impact to CPC processing. Two SRAT/SME cycles were performed with simulant having sodium supernate concentration of 1.9M at 130% and 100% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Both of these failed to meet DWPF processing objectives related to nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Another set of SRAT/SME cycles were performed with simulant having a sodium supernate concentration of 1.6M at 130%, 125%, 110%, and 100% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Only the run at 110% met DWPF processing objectives. Neither simulant had a stoichiometric factor window of 30% between nitrite destruction and excessive hydrogen generation. Based on the 2M-110 results it was anticipated that the 2.5M stoichiometric window for processing would likely be smaller than from 110-130%, since it appeared that it would be necessary to increase the KMA factor by at least 10% above the minimum calculated requirement to achieve nitrite destruction due to the high oxalate content. The 2.5M-130 run exceeded the DWPF hydrogen limits in both the SRAT and SME cycle. Therefore, testing of this wash endpoint was halted. This wash endpoint with this minimum acid requirement and mercury-noble metal concentration profile appears to be something DWPF should not process due to an overly narrow window of stoichiometry. The 2M case was potentially processable in DWPF, but modifications would likely be needed in DWPF such as occasionally accepting SRAT batches with undestroyed nitrite for further acid addition and reprocessing, running near the bottom of the as yet ill-defined window of allowable stoichiometric factors, potentially extending the SRAT cycle to burn off unreacted formic acid before transferring to the SME cycle, and eliminating formic acid additions in the frit slurry.

  9. Layered double hydroxide catalyst for the conversion of crude vegetable oils to a sustainable biofuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollaeian, Keyvan

    Over the last two decades, the U.S. has developed the production of biodiesel, a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, using chiefly vegetable oils as feedstocks. However, there is much concern about the availability of high-quality vegetable oils for longterm biodiesel production. Problems have also risen due to the production of glycerol, an unwanted byproduct, as well as the need for process wash water. Therefore, this study was initiated to produce not only fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) but also fatty acid glycerol carbonates (FAGCs) by replacing methanol with dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The process would have no unnecessary byproducts and would be a simplified process compared to traditional biodiesel. In addition, this altering of the methylating agent could convert triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids to a sustainable biofuel. In this project, Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) was optimized by calcination in different temperature varied from 250°C to 450°C. The gallery between layers was increased by intercalating sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). During catalyst preparation, the pH was controlled ~10. In our experiment, triazabicyclodecene (TBD) was attached with trimethoxysilane (3GPS) as a coupling agent, and N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was added to remove SDS from the catalyst. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of the heterogeneous catalyst on the conversion of canola oil, corn oil, and free fatty acids was investigated. To analyze the conversion of lipid oils to biofuel an in situ Raman spectroscopic method was developed. Catalyst synthesis methods and a proposed mechanism for converting triglycerides and free fatty acids to biofuel will be presented.

  10. Stimuli-responsive hybrid materials: breathing in magnetic layered double hydroxides induced by a thermoresponsive molecule

    DOE PAGES

    Abellán, Gonzalo; Jordá, Jose Luis; Atienzar, Pedro; Varela, María; Jaafar, Miriam; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Zamora, Félix; Ribera, Antonio; García, Hermenegildo; Coronado, Eugenio

    2014-12-04

    In this study, a hybrid magnetic multilayer material of micrometric size, with highly crystalline hexagonal crystals consisting of CoAl–LDH ferromagnetic layers intercalated with thermoresponsive 4-(4 anilinophenylazo)benzenesulfonate (AO5) molecules diluted (ratio 9 : 1) with a flexible sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) surfactant has been obtained. The resulting material exhibits thermochromism attributable to the isomerization between the azo (prevalent at room temperature) and the hydrazone (favoured at higher temperatures) tautomers, leading to a thermomechanical response. In fact, these crystals exhibited thermally induced motion triggering remarkable changes in the crystal morphology and volume. In situ variable temperature XRD of these thin hybrids shows thatmore » the reversible change into the two tautomers is reflected in a shift of the position of the diffraction peaks at high temperatures towards lower interlayer spacing for the hydrazone form, as well as a broadening of the peaks reflecting lower crystallinity and ordering due to non-uniform spacing between the layers. These structural variations between room temperature (basal spacing (BS) = 25.91 Å) and 100 °C (BS = 25.05 Å) are also reflected in the magnetic properties of the layered double hydroxide (LDH) due to the variation of the magnetic coupling between the layers. Finally and in conclusion, our study constitutes one of the few examples showing fully reversible thermo-responsive breathing in a 2D hybrid material. In addition, the magnetic response of the hybrid can be modulated due to the thermotropism of the organic component that, by influencing the distance and in-plane correlation of the inorganic LDH, modulates the magnetism of the CoAl–LDH sheets in a certain range.« less

  11. Stimuli-responsive hybrid materials: breathing in magnetic layered double hydroxides induced by a thermoresponsive molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Abellán, Gonzalo; Jordá, Jose Luis; Atienzar, Pedro; Varela, María; Jaafar, Miriam; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Zamora, Félix; Ribera, Antonio; García, Hermenegildo; Coronado, Eugenio

    2014-12-04

    In this study, a hybrid magnetic multilayer material of micrometric size, with highly crystalline hexagonal crystals consisting of CoAl–LDH ferromagnetic layers intercalated with thermoresponsive 4-(4 anilinophenylazo)benzenesulfonate (AO5) molecules diluted (ratio 9 : 1) with a flexible sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) surfactant has been obtained. The resulting material exhibits thermochromism attributable to the isomerization between the azo (prevalent at room temperature) and the hydrazone (favoured at higher temperatures) tautomers, leading to a thermomechanical response. In fact, these crystals exhibited thermally induced motion triggering remarkable changes in the crystal morphology and volume. In situ variable temperature XRD of these thin hybrids shows that the reversible change into the two tautomers is reflected in a shift of the position of the diffraction peaks at high temperatures towards lower interlayer spacing for the hydrazone form, as well as a broadening of the peaks reflecting lower crystallinity and ordering due to non-uniform spacing between the layers. These structural variations between room temperature (basal spacing (BS) = 25.91 Å) and 100 °C (BS = 25.05 Å) are also reflected in the magnetic properties of the layered double hydroxide (LDH) due to the variation of the magnetic coupling between the layers. Finally and in conclusion, our study constitutes one of the few examples showing fully reversible thermo-responsive breathing in a 2D hybrid material. In addition, the magnetic response of the hybrid can be modulated due to the thermotropism of the organic component that, by influencing the distance and in-plane correlation of the inorganic LDH, modulates the magnetism of the CoAl–LDH sheets in a certain range.

  12. Layered double hydroxide stability. 2. Formation of Cr(III)-containing layered double hydroxides directly from solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.; Jiang, J.; Lou, S.; Yarberry, F.

    1999-01-01

    Solutions containing divalent metal [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+] chlorides and CrCl3 6H2O were titrated with NaOH to yield, for M(II) = Zn, Co, and Ni, hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDHs), [[M(II)]1-z[Cr(III)]z(OH)2][Cl]z yH2O, in a single step, without intermediate formation of chromium hydroxide. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields solubility constants for these compounds. These are in the order Zn < Ni approximately Co, with a clear preference for formation of the phase with z = 1/3. With Mg2+ as chloride, titration gives a mixture of Cr(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2, but the metal sulfates give Mg2Cr(OH)6 1/2(SO4) by a two-step process. Titrimetric and spectroscopic evidence suggests short-range cation order in the one-step LDH systems.

  13. Microstructure of Modified Layer Produced Using Aluminum Oxy-Hydroxide Nanostructured Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, M. A.; Shlyakhova, G. V.; Danilov, V. I.; Zernin, E. A.; Dementyev, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper provides the results of experimental research into the influence of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nano-structured powders on the microstructure of modified layers. It has been demonstrated aluminum oxy-hydroxide nano-structured powders AlO(OH) applied as modifiers bring about the decrease in dendrite dimensions, support equilibrium microstructure formation, and cause the growth of microhardness.

  14. BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES CONTROLLING ARSENIC SPECIATION AND BIOTRANSFORMATION IN GRANULAR FERRIC HYDROXIDE COATED SAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic mobilization from solid phase Fe (III) hydroxides is an issue of concern, as water-borne arsenic can migrate into pristine environments, endangering aquatic and human life. In general, metal oxide (hydroxides) exerts a dominating effect on the fate and transport of arseni...

  15. Sodium channels and pain.

    PubMed

    Habib, Abdella M; Wood, John N; Cox, James J

    2015-01-01

    Human and mouse genetic studies have led to significant advances in our understanding of the role of voltage-gated sodium channels in pain pathways. In this chapter, we focus on Nav1.7, Nav1.8, Nav1.9 and Nav1.3 and describe the insights gained from the detailed analyses of global and conditional transgenic Nav knockout mice in terms of pain behaviour. The spectrum of human disorders caused by mutations in these channels is also outlined, concluding with a summary of recent progress in the development of selective Nav1.7 inhibitors for the treatment of pain. PMID:25846613

  16. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium

    PubMed Central

    Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  17. Cold Trap Dismantling and Sodium Removal at a Fast Breeder Reactor - 12327

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, A.; Petrick, H.; Stutz, U.; Hosking, P.

    2012-07-01

    The first German prototype Fast Breeder Nuclear Reactor (KNK) is currently being dismantled after being the only operating Fast Breeder-type reactor in Germany. As this reactor type used sodium as a coolant in its primary and secondary circuit, seven cold traps containing various amounts of partially activated sodium needed to be disposed of as part of the dismantling. The resulting combined difficulties of radioactive contamination and high chemical reactivity were handled by treating the cold traps differently depending on their size and the amount of sodium contained inside. Six small cold traps were processed onsite by cutting them up into small parts using a band saw under a protective atmosphere. The sodium was then converted to sodium hydroxide by using water. The remaining large cold trap could not be handled in the same way due to its dimensions (2.9 m x 1.1 m) and the declared amount of sodium inside (1,700 kg). It was therefore manually dismantled inside a large box filled with a protective atmosphere, while the resulting pieces were packaged for later burning in a special facility. The experiences gained by KNK during this process may be advantageous for future dismantling projects in similar sodium-cooled reactors worldwide. The dismantling of a prototype fast breeder reactor provides the challenge not only to dismantle radioactive materials but also to handle sodium-contaminated or sodium-containing components. The treatment of sodium requires additional equipment and installations to ensure a safe handling. Since it is not permitted to bring sodium into a repository, all sodium has to be neutralized either through a controlled reaction with water or by incinerating. The resulting components can be disposed of as normal radioactive waste with no further conditions. The handling of sodium needs skilled and experienced workers to minimize the inherent risks. And the example of the disposal of the large KNK cold trap shows the interaction with others and

  18. Assessment of the Potential of CFC (Calcium hydroxide Flagyl Ciprofloxacin) for the Rapid Disinfection of Resilon and Gutta-Percha

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Mariam Omer Bin; Gufran, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obturating materials exposed to the dental operating environment has been shown to be contaminated, making rapid chair side disinfection mandatory to ensure the sterility of the root canals. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of CFC (combination of Calcium hydroxide, Flagyl and Ciprofloxacin) for the rapid disinfection of Gutta-percha and Resilon cones. Materials and Methods Seventy new Gutta-percha and Resilon cones were randomly selected, contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis and divided into 4 group according to the irrigant used for disinfection {Group I: 5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl), Group II: MTAD, Group III: 2% Chlorhexidine (CHX), Group IV: CFC (a combination of Calcium hydroxide, Flagyl and Ciprofloxacin)}. All the samples were placed in a centrifuge tube with BHI broth after being washed with sterile water. The samples were then incubated for 7 days at 37oC. Samples were randomly plated on Mac Conkey agar plate and the colony count was recorded and the observations were drawn. Results A 5.25% NaOCl required 1 minute exposure for effective disinfection of all the samples. MTAD could eliminate E.faecalis from gutta-percha samples in 30 seconds whereas it required 1 minute of exposure for Resilon cones. Both 2% CHX and CFC could not disinfect the samples with 1 minute exposure and a minimum of 5 minute exposure was required. Conclusion A 5.25% NaOCl and Biopure MTAD required less chair side time to disinfect all the samples effectively when compared with 2% CHX and CFC. PMID:26557614

  19. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. The effects of lithium hydroxide solution on alkali silica reaction gels created with opal

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lyndon D.; Beaudoin, James J.; Grattan-Bellew, Patrick

    2004-04-01

    The reaction of Nevada opal with calcium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and lithium hydroxide solutions was investigated. In addition, opal was exposed to a combined solution of these three hydroxides. The progress of the three reactions was followed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD results indicated the presence of a low-angle peak exclusive to the lithium-based reactions. The NMR results suggested a change in the silicate structure in the presence of lithium. These techniques indicated that the reaction of the alkali with the opal starting material is inhibited and perhaps stopped in the presence of lithium hydroxide. SEM revealed that the morphology of the reaction products on the surface of the reacted opal grains is markedly different invariably. It was concluded that evidence to support the theory of a protective layer exists and that the nature of the layer varies with ion type.

  1. Comparison of calcium hydroxide and zinc oxide and eugenol pulpectomies in primary teeth of dogs.

    PubMed

    Hendry, J A; Jeansonne, B G; Dummett, C O; Burrell, W

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare calcium hydroxide with zinc oxide and eugenol (ZOE) as root canal obturants in the pulpectomy procedure for irreversibly inflamed primary pulps of dogs. Clinical, radiographic, and histologic comparisons of calcium hydroxide and ZOE root canal filling materials were made in forty-two primary premolars of seven mongrel puppies. When the animals were 6 weeks of age, the pulps of all samples teeth were extirpated and the canals left open to the oral environment. The root canals were assigned to calcium hydroxide, ZOE, and control groups, instrumented, and filled 2 weeks later. The animals were killed 1 day, 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after filling. Statistical analysis of all categories for comparison at 4 weeks indicated that calcium hydroxide gave significantly more favorable results than ZOE. Canals treated with calcium hydroxide exhibited less inflammation, less resorption, and more hard-tissue apposition than ZOE-treated and control groups.

  2. Europa Sodium Cloud: orbital variability and Sodium recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipriani, F.; Leblanc, F.; Witasse, O.

    2007-08-01

    Discovery and further observations of Europa's thin atmosphere of sodium have been carried out by M.E. Brown (Brown and Hill 1996, Brown 2001, Brown 2004) and A.E. Potter and co-workers (Leblanc et al, 2005). The resonant scattering emission of sodium around Europa has been successfully modelled and compared to the compilation of such observations by Leblanc at al 2002; Leblanc et al 2005). Such an analysis confirmed that the cloud morphology is dominated by the production of Na from the trailing hemisphere. The influence of Europa's centrifugal latitude as well as the contribution of Io's sodium source at Europa orbit were also estimated. These studies concluded that the observed sodium atmosphere should be largely endogenic to Europa. However, significant variations of the total emission intensity along Europa's orbit around Jupiter were reported that were difficult to explain without adhoc assumptions on the variability of the sodium ejecta rate with respect to Europa position in Jupiter magnetosphere. In the present study, we investigate the redistribution of the ejected sodium atoms on the surface of the moon during its orbit around Jupiter following the suggestion by Leblanc et al (2005). In our model, the redistribution of sodium atoms at Europa's surface occurs from a set of ejection and absorption of the sodium atoms. Ejection processes are sputtering induced by energetic jovian particles, as well as photo-stimulated and thermal desorptions from the surface. Absorption mainly depends on the surface temperature and porosity. We will present comparisons of the newly calculated sodium emission with the observations, as well as density distributions of sodium at Europa's surface. Consequences of those calculations on the sodium cloud morphology will also be discussed.

  3. Hydroxide as general base in the saponification of ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Mata-Segreda, Julio F

    2002-03-13

    The second-order rate constant for the saponification of ethyl acetate at 30.0 degrees C in H(2)O/D(2)O mixtures of deuterium atom fraction n (a proton inventory experiment) obeys the relation k(2)(n) = 0.122 s(-1) M(-1) (1 - n + 1.2n) (1 - n + 0.48n)/(1 - n + 1.4n) (1 - n + 0.68n)(3). This result is interpreted as a process where formation of the tetrahedral intermediate is the rate-determining step and the transition-state complex is formed via nucleophilic interaction of a water molecule with general-base assistance from hydroxide ion, opposite to the direct nucleophilic collision commonly accepted. This mechanistic picture agrees with previous heavy-atom kinetic isotope effect data of Marlier on the alkaline hydrolysis of methyl formate.

  4. Cellulose aerogels from aqueous alkali hydroxide-urea solution.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jie; Kimura, Satoshi; Wada, Masahisa; Kuga, Shigenori; Zhang, Lina

    2008-01-01

    Highly porous and strong cellulose aerogels were prepared by gelation of cellulose from aqueous alkali hydroxide/urea solution, followed by drying with supercritical CO2. Their morphology, pore structure, and physical properties were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption measurements, UV/Vis spectrometry, and tensile tests. The cellulose hydrogel was composed of interconnected about 20 nm wide. By using supercritical CO2 drying, the network structure in the hydrogel was well preserved in the aerogel. The results are preliminary but demonstrate the ability of this method to give cellulose aerogels of large surface areas (400-500 m2 g(-1)) which may be useful as adsorbents, heat/sound insulators, filters, catalyst supports, or carbon aerogel precursors. PMID:18605678

  5. Layered Double Hydroxide-Based Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Xue; Zhang, Hui; Dou, Liguang

    2014-01-01

    Biocompatible clay materials have attracted particular attention as the efficient drug delivery systems (DDS). In this article, we review developments in the use of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) for controlled drug release and delivery. We show how advances in the ability to synthesize intercalated structures have a significant influence on the development of new applications of these materials. We also show how modification and/or functionalization can lead to new biotechnological and biomedical applications. This review highlights the most recent progresses in research on LDH-based controlled drug delivery systems, focusing mainly on: (i) DDS with cardiovascular drugs as guests; (ii) DDS with anti-inflammatory drugs as guests; and (iii) DDS with anti-cancer drugs as guests. Finally, future prospects for LDH-based drug carriers are also discussed. PMID:24940733

  6. Deterioration of Parabens in Preserved Magnesium Hydroxide Oral Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamedani Morteza, Pirali; Mohamad Reza, Fazeli; Nasrin, Samadi; Ehsan, Nassireslami; Shams Ali, Rezazadeh; Amini, Mohsen

    In this study the chemical stability of methyl and propyl paraben in magnesium hydroxide suspension (pH about 10) was investigated using both real time (32 months incubation at 25±2°C with humidity of 60±5% RH) and also accelerated (3 months incubation at 40±2°C with humidity of 70±5% RH) methods. Preparation with no added preservative was used as control. Concentrations of methyl and propyl paraben decreased to levels lower than the reported MIC values after the first month and fifth months of real time study, respectively. Preservative effectiveness testing against the Pharmacopeal challanging microorganisms in both suspensions with or without parabens conformed the US Pharmacopeia requirements for oral antacids. It is concluded that alkaline pH of the suspension without parabens could preserve the product against Pharmacopeial challenging microorganisms and incorporation of parabens did not add any antimicrobial activity to the test product.

  7. Hydroxide decomposition of dimethylsulfoniopropionate to form dimethylsulfide. [in sea water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacey, John W. H.; Blough, Neil V.

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of DMS production resulting from reaction of OH(-) with DMSP were investigated as a function of hydroxide concentration and temperature. The reaction was first-order with respect to DMSP and OH(-). The second order rate constant at 20+/-1 C is 0.0044/M/sec. The activation energy for this reaction is 14.4 kcal/mode. The investigation indicates that the rate of reaction of DMSP with OH(-) is very slow at the pH of seawater, suggesting that DMSP, which may be a major precursor of DMS in seawater, decomposes in the ocean by other mechanisms. A bacterium which produces DMS from DMSP quantitatively at rates many orders of magnitude higher than indicated by OH(-1) decomposition has been cultured, suggesting that enzymatic processes accelerate the production of DMS from DMSP in seawater.

  8. Heterogeneous Catalysis by Polyoxometalate-Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rives, Vicente; Carriazo, Daniel; Martín, Cristina

    The preparation, characterisation and catalytic performance of layered double hydroxides (LDH) with the hydrotalcite-type structure containing different polyoxometalates (POM) in the interlayer are studied. Special attention is paid to the preparation procedures, as they control the properties of the solids formed and thus their catalytic behaviour. The study is extended to solids prepared upon thermal decomposition of these POM-LDH systems. It is concluded that the LDH does not act as a simple support, but that its specific properties, such as nature of the cations in the brucite-like layers, specific surface area and the method followed for its preparation, have an outstanding effect on the final catalytic properties of the POM-LDH systems.

  9. Critical operating parameters for microwave solidification of hydroxide sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, G.S.; Eschen, V.G.

    1993-08-01

    Engineers at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed an innovative technology for the treatment of homogeneous wet or dry solids which are contaminated with hazardous and/or radioactive materials. The process uses microwave energy to heat and melt the waste into a vitreous final form that is suitable for land disposal. The advantages include a high density, leach resistant, robust waste form; volume and toxicity reduction; favorable economics; in-container treatment; favorable public acceptance; isolated equipment; and instantaneous energy control. Regulatory certification of the final form is accomplished by meeting the limitation specified in EPA`s Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP). This paper presents the results from a series of TCLP tests performed on a surrogate hydroxide coprecipitation sludge spiked with heavy metals at elevated concentrations. The results are very encouraging and support RFP`s commitment to the use of microwave technology for treatment of various mixed waste streams.

  10. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  11. GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF SODIUM DICHLOROACETATE AND SODIUM TRICHLOROACETATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genotoxic properties of sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) and sodium trichloroacetate (TCA)were evaluated in several short-term in vitro and in vivo assays. Neither compound was mutagenic in tester strain TA102 in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Both DCA and TCA were weak induc...

  12. Final report on the safety assessment of Sodium Metaphosphate, Sodium Trimetaphosphate, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, R S

    2001-01-01

    These inorganic polyphosphate salts all function as chelating agents in cosmetic formulations. In addition, Sodium Metaphosphate functions as an oral care agent, Sodium Trimetaphosphate as a buffering agent, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate as a corrosion inhibitor. Only Sodium Hexametaphosphate is currently reported to be used. Although the typical concentrations historically have been less than 1%, higher concentrations have been used in products such as bath oils, which are diluted during normal use. Sodium Metaphosphate is the general term for any polyphosphate salt with four or more phosphate units. The four-phosphate unit version is cyclic, others are straight chains. The hexametaphosphate is the specific six-chain length form. The trimetaphosphate structure is cyclic. Rats fed 10% Sodium Trimetaphosphate for a month exhibited transient tubular necrosis; rats given 10% Sodium Metaphosphate had retarded growth and those fed 10% Sodium Hexametaphosphate had pale and swollen kidneys. In chronic studies using animals, growth inhibition, increased kidney weights (with calcium deposition and desquamation), bone decalcification, parathyroid hypertrophy and hyperplasia, inorganic phosphaturia, hepatic focal necrosis, and muscle fiber size alterations. Sodium Hexametaphosphate was a severe skin irritant in rabbits, whereas a 0.2% solution was only mildly irritating. A similar pattern was seen with ocular toxicity. These ingredients were not genotoxic in bacterial systems nor were they carcinogenic in rats. No reproductive or developmental toxicity was seen in studies using rats exposed to Sodium Hexametaphosphate or Sodium Trimetaphosphate. In clinical testing, irritation is seen as a function of concentration; concentrations as high as 1% produced no irritation in contact allergy patients. Because of the corrosive nature of Sodium Hexametaphosphate, it was concluded that these ingredients could be used safely if each formulation was prepared to avoid skin irritation; for

  13. An Aluminum Magnesium Hydroxide Stearate-based Skin Barrier Protection Cream Used for the Management of Eczematous Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhambri, Sanjay; Michaels, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Eczematous dermatoses can often be very difficult to treat. An aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream has recently become available for clinical use. Aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream provides an alternative option in treating these dermatoses while providing barrier protection against external allergens and irritants. This article reviews various studies evaluating aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream. PMID:21212843

  14. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate is prepared by...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate...

  16. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  18. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  20. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...