Science.gov

Sample records for 1970 1991 sectoral analysis

  1. Energy use in Poland, 1970--1991: Sectoral analysis and international comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Salay, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides an analysis of how and why energy use has changed in Poland since the 1970s, with particular emphasis on changes since the country began its transition from a centrally planned to a market economy in 1989. The most important factors behind the large decline in Polish energy use in 1990 were a sharp fall in industrial output and a huge drop in residential coal use driven by higher prices. The structural shift away from heavy industry was slight. Key factors that worked to increase energy use were the rise in energy intensity in many heavy industries and the shift toward more energy intensive modes of transport. The growth in private activities in 1991 was nearly sufficient to balance out continued decline in industrial energy use in that year. We compared energy use in Poland and the factors that shape it with similar elements in the West. We made a number of modifications to the Polish energy data to bring it closer to a Western energy accounting framework, and augmented these with a variety of estimates in order to construct a sufficiently detailed portrait of Polish energy use to allow comparison with Western data. Per capita energy use in Poland was not much below W. European levels despite Poland`s much lower GDP per capita. Poland has comparatively high energy intensities in manufacturing and residential space heating, and a large share of heavy industries in manufacturing output, all factors that contribute to higher energy use per capita. The structure of passenger and freight transportation and the energy intensity of automobiles contribute to lower energy use per capita in Poland than in Western Europe, but the patterns in Poland are moving closer to those that prevail in the West.

  2. Enrollment Analysis, 1970-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Don

    A series of tables are presented, providing a 15-year analysis of enrollment, student demographic characteristics, and first census weekly student contact hours (WSCH) by division at College of the Sequoias (COS). Data indicate: (1) total enrollment increased from 5,447 in 1970 to 7,587 in 1985, peaking in 1981 with a high of 7,625 students; (2)…

  3. Growth in Service Sector Employment and MSA Gender Earnings Inequality: 1970-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorence, Jon

    1991-01-01

    Panel analyses of 1970 and 1980 census data from the 124 largest metropolitan areas support the "deindustrialization thesis" in that service sector growth is economically detrimental to both sexes. However, men's earnings deteriorate at a faster rate than women's earnings, reducing the gender earnings gap. Contains 60 references.…

  4. Buildings Sector Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  5. [In the America of mountain ranges, the brief summer of Indian agrarian movements (1970-1991)].

    PubMed

    Le Bot, Y

    1991-01-01

    Important rural Indian movements appeared almost simultaneously in the early 1970s in 3 countries, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Guatemala, which had the distinction of remaining the most rural and the most Indian countries of Latin America. A similar movement with similar characteristics arose in a rural and Indian region of Colombia, a largely urban and mestizo country. Each movement constituted a particular response to the same problems in different contexts. This work provides a comparative analysis of the historical context, development, constitution, and functioning of Bolivian katarisme, the Ecuarrunari movement in Ecuador, the Regional Committee of the Indigenous of Cauca (CRIC) in Colombia, and the Committee of Peasant Unity (CUC) in Guatemala. The indigenous peasant movements were defined in relation to national-populist models of development and integration: limitations and failures of national-populism in Bolivia and to some extent also in Ecuador, marginalization of the Indian populations vis a vis modernization processes in Ecuador and Colombia, or a crisis caused by blockage of participation in the sociopolitical system in Guatemala. The movements appeared in the context of strong peasant communities left at the margin of processes of integration, but also in contexts where the social dynamics were reinforced by reforms and modernization during a long period of precarious reconstitution of communities sometimes dating back to the 1930s. Another contributing factor in some cases was the dissolution of peonage and other forms of servitude on the great estates. An Indian elite whose emergence was related to modernization of the communities is present in all the movements. It is composed of educated and partially urbanized young people who have maintained ties to the communities, of leaders trained in cooperative or union activity, of promoters of new religious currents, and others affected by change. The leaders belong to modern organizations that wish to make

  6. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  7. Analysis of Coaching Science Research Published from 1970-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Wade D.; Trudel, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    The study followed a four-phase design. In Phase I an exhaustive search was conducted for all English language coaching research published in journals from 1970 to 2001. In Phase II, copies of the research were obtained. An expert panel conducted a manual search and a review in Phase III to address validity. Analysis of the research was completed…

  8. Gender pay gap and employment sector: sources of earnings disparities in the United States, 1970-2010.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Hadas; Semyonov, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    Using data from the IPUMS-USA, the present research focuses on trends in the gender earnings gap in the United States between 1970 and 2010. The major goal of this article is to understand the sources of the convergence in men's and women's earnings in the public and private sectors as well as the stagnation of this trend in the new millennium. For this purpose, we delineate temporal changes in the role played by major sources of the gap. Several components are identified: the portion of the gap attributed to gender differences in human-capital resources; labor supply; sociodemographic attributes; occupational segregation; and the unexplained portion of the gap. The findings reveal a substantial reduction in the gross gender earnings gap in both sectors of the economy. Most of the decline is attributed to the reduction in the unexplained portion of the gap, implying a significant decline in economic discrimination against women. In contrast to discrimination, the role played by human capital and personal attributes in explaining the gender pay gap is relatively small in both sectors. Differences between the two sectors are not only in the size and pace of the reduction but also in the significance of the two major sources of the gap. Working hours have become the most important factor with respect to gender pay inequality in both sectors, although much more dominantly in the private sector. The declining gender segregation may explain the decreased impact of occupations on the gender pay gap in the private sector. In the public sector, by contrast, gender segregation still accounts for a substantial portion of the gap. The findings are discussed in light of the theoretical literature on sources of gender economic inequality and in light of the recent stagnation of the trend.

  9. Pronounced warming in the Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean during the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, Chris; Fogwill, Chris; Palmer, Jonathan; van Sebille, Erik; Thomas, Zoë; McGlone, Matt; Richardson, Sarah; Wilmshurst, Janet; Fenwick, Pavla; Carter, Lionel; Jones, Richard; Harsch, Melanie; Wilson, Kerry-Jayne; Clark, Graeme; Marzinelli, Ezequiel; Rogers, Tracey; Rainsley, Eleanor; Ciasto, Laura; Waterman, Stephanie; Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014 Members, Australasian

    2015-04-01

    Occupying some 20% of the world's ocean surface, the Southern Ocean is home to a diverse and unique biota and plays a fundamental role in global oceanic circulation, climate variability, Antarctic ice sheet stability and carbon cycling. Significant warming has been observed over recent decades, most prominently in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). The mechanism(s) behind this warming, however, remain uncertain. Here, we integrate historic ocean and atmospheric observations and climate-sensitive tree growth on subantarctic islands from the northern limit of the ACC to extend historic and satellite measurements to produce a unique proxy record of temperature across 4˚ of latitude in the southwest Pacific. We demonstrate a hitherto unobserved abrupt warming during the 1970s that is unprecedented over the past 130 years, coincident with a significant decline in marine vertebrate populations and wider warming across the Indian Ocean. Comparison between our reconstruction and high-resolution ocean modelling provides a possible mechanism, suggesting warmer waters resulted from a poleward migration of the subtropical and ACC fronts. Projected increases in the strength of westerly winds are likely to continue the fronts' migration, driving warming in the Southern Ocean (>50˚S), with significant impacts on biota.

  10. 1991 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters' Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to foster communication among NASA, industrial, and academic specialists, and to integrate their inputs and disseminate information to them. The overall objective of systems analysis within the Life Support Technology Program of OAST is to identify, guide the development of, and verify designs which will increase the performance of the life support systems on component, subsystem, and system levels for future human space missions. The specific goals of this workshop were to report on the status of systems analysis capabilities, to integrate the chemical processing industry technologies, and to integrate recommendations for future technology developments related to systems analysis for life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with time allocated for discussion of both technology status and time-phased technology development recommendations. Key personnel from NASA, industry, and academia delivered inputs and presentations on the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

  11. Cross sectional analysis of mortality by country of birth in England and Wales, 1970-92.

    PubMed Central

    Wild, S.; McKeigue, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare mortalities for selected groups of immigrants with the national average. DESIGN: Analysis of mortality for adults aged 20-69 in 1970-2 and 1989-92 using population data from 1971 and 1991 censuses. Mortality of Scottish and Irish immigrants aged 25-74 was also compared with mortality in Scotland and Ireland for 1991. SETTING: England and Wales. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Standardised mortality ratios for deaths from all causes, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lung cancer, and breast cancer. RESULTS: In 1989-92 mortality from all causes was higher than the national average for Scottish immigrants, by 32% for men and 36% for women; for Irish immigrants it was higher by 39% for men and 20% for women; and for Caribbean born men it was lower by 23%. Ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer accounted for 30-40% of the excess mortality in Scottish and Irish immigrants. For south Asians, excess mortality from circulatory disease was balanced by lower mortality from cancer. Standardised mortality ratios for cerebrovascular disease in 1989-92 were highest for west African immigrants (271 for men and 181 for women). CONCLUSIONS: Widening differences in mortality ratios for migrants compared with the general population were not simply due to socioeconomic inequalities. The low mortality from all causes for Caribbean immigrants could largely be attributed to low mortality from ischaemic heart disease, which is unexplained. The excess mortality from cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases in migrants from both west Africa and the Caribbean suggests that genetic factors underlie the susceptibility to hypertension in people of black African descent. PMID:9116545

  12. Day Care Survey-1970. Summary Report and Basic Analysis. Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., Bladensburg, MD.

    This report presents the technical details of the sample design used for the day care survey conducted by Westat Research, Inc. under subcontract to Westinghouse Learning Corporation. It follows the recommendations of the preliminary report on sampling design (available as ED 051 880) submitted on August 15, 1970. That report presented the merits…

  13. Trends of anthropogenic mercury emissions from 1970-2008 using the global EDGARv4 database: the role of increasing emission mitigation by the energy sector and the chlor-alkali industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Guizzardi, D.; Dentener, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) describes time-series of emissions of man-made greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970-2008. EDGARv4 is continuously updated to respond to needs of both the scientific community and environmental policy makers. Mercury, a toxic pollutant with bioaccumulation properties, is included in the forthcoming EDGARv4.3 release, thereby enriching the spectrum of multi-pollutant sources. Three different forms of mercury have been distinguished: gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), divalent mercury compounds (Hg2+) and particulate associated mercury (Hg-P). A complete inventory of mercury emission sources has been developed at country level using the EDGAR technology-based methodology together with international activity statistics, technology-specific abatement measures, and emission factors from EMEP/EEA (2009), USEPA AP 42 and the scientific literature. A comparison of the EDGAR mercury emission data to the widely used UNEP inventory shows consistent emissions across most sectors compared for the year 2005. The different shares of mercury emissions by region and by sector will be presented with special emphasis on the region-specific mercury emission mitigation potential. We provide a comprehensive ex-post analysis of the mitigation of mercury emissions by respectively end-of-pipe abatement measures in the power generation sector and technology changes in the chlor-alkali industry between 1970 and 2008. Given the local scale impacts of mercury, we have paid special attention to the spatial distribution of emissions. The default EDGAR Population proxy data was only used to distribute emissions from the residential and solid waste incineration sectors. Other sectors use point source data of power plants, industrial plants, gold and mercury mines. The 2008 mercury emission distribution will be presented, which shows emissions hot-spots on a 0.1°x0.1°resolution gridmap.

  14. Major models and data sources for residential and commercial sector energy conservation analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Major models and data sources are reviewed that can be used for energy-conservation analysis in the residential and commercial sectors to provide an introduction to the information that can or is available to DOE in order to further its efforts in analyzing and quantifying their policy and program requirements. Models and data sources examined in the residential sector are: ORNL Residential Energy Model; BECOM; NEPOOL; MATH/CHRDS; NIECS; Energy Consumption Data Base: Household Sector; Patterns of Energy Use by Electrical Appliances Data Base; Annual Housing Survey; 1970 Census of Housing; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; RECS; Solar Market Development Model; and ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book. Models and data sources examined in the commercial sector are: ORNL Commercial Sector Model of Energy Demand; BECOM; NEPOOL; Energy Consumption Data Base: Commercial Sector; F.W. Dodge Data Base; NFIB Energy Report for Small Businesses; ADL Commercial Sector Energy Use Data Base; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; Nonresidential Buildings Surveys of Energy Consumption; General Electric Co: Commercial Sector Data Base; The BOMA Commercial Sector Data Base; The Tishman-Syska and Hennessy Data Base; The NEMA Commercial Sector Data Base; ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book; and Solar Market Development Model. Purpose; basis for model structure; policy variables and parameters; level of regional, sectoral, and fuels detail; outputs; input requirements; sources of data; computer accessibility and requirements; and a bibliography are provided for each model and data source.

  15. Application of modified VICAR/IBIS GIS to analysis of July 1991 Flevoland AIRSAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norikane, L.; Broek, B.; Freeman, A.

    1992-01-01

    Three overflights of the Flevoland calibration/agricultural site were made by the JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) on 3, 12, and 28 July 1991 as part of MAC-Europe '92. A polygon map was generated at TNO-FEL which overlayed the slant range projected July 3 data set. Each polygon was identified by a sequence of points and a crop label. The polygon map was composed of 452 uniquely identified polygons and 15 different crop types. Analysis of the data was done using our modified Video Image Communication and Retrieval/Image Based Information System Geographic Information System (VICAR/IBIS GIS). This GIS is an extension of the VICAR/IBIS GIS first developed by Bryant in the 1970's which is itself an extension of the VICAR image processing system also developed at JPL.

  16. Health Disparities in Ischaemic Heart Disease Mortality in Hungary From 1970 to 2010: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gero, Krisztina; Eshak, Ehab S.; Ma, Enbo; Takahashi, Hideto; Noda, Hiroyuki; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine long-term trends in rates of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality, a leading cause of mortality in Hungary. The study examined the effects of age, period, and cohort on IHD mortality rates and compared mortality rates between the capital (Budapest) and non-capital counties. Methods Data on IHD deaths and population censuses were obtained from the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Age-period-cohort analysis utilized nine age-group classes for ages 40 to 84 years, eight time periods from 1970 to 2009, and 16 birth cohorts from 1886 to 1969. Results Age-adjusted IHD mortality rates for men and for women generally increased from 1970 to 1993 and from 1980 to 1999, respectively, decreasing thereafter for both sexes. IHD mortality rates for men and for women from Budapest were lower from 1991 and from 1970, respectively, than corresponding rates in non-capital counties, with the difference increasing after 1999. Age had a more significant influence on mortality rates for women than for men. The period effect increased from 1972 to 1982 and decreased thereafter for men, while the period effect decreased consistently for women from 1972 to 2007. The decline in period effect for both sexes was larger for individuals from the capital than for those from non-capital counties. The cohort effect for both sexes declined from birth years 1890 to 1965, with a steeper decline for individuals from the capital than for those from non-capital counties. Conclusions The findings indicate a need for programs in Hungary for IHD prevention, especially for non-capital counties. PMID:25986153

  17. A Descriptive Analysis of Studies on Behavioural Treatment of Drooling (1970-2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Burg, Jan J. W.; Didden, Robert; Jongerius, Peter H.; Rotteveel, Jan J.

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive analysis was conducted on studies on the behavioural treatment of drooling (published between 1970 and 2005). The 17 articles that met the inclusion criteria described 53 participants (mean age 14y 7mo, [SD 4y 9mo]; range 6-28y). Sex of 87% of the participants was reported: 28 male, 18 female. For 60% of the participants the degree…

  18. A Critical Analysis of School Leavers in the Quincy Public School System. (1969-1970)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curley, Theodore J.; And Others

    During the school year 1969-1970 Quincy Public Schools in Massachusetts, a community of 90,000 adjacent to Boston, conducted an intensive investigation of all students leaving school for reasons other than transfer to another educational institution and death. Interviews with these students, their parents and an exhaustive analysis of school…

  19. Transient analysis of the 1991 Hijiori Shallow Reservoir Circulation Test

    SciTech Connect

    Hyodo, M.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S.; Wright, C.A.; Conant, R..

    1996-01-24

    Like any dynamic system, HDR reservoirs cannot be fully characterized by their steady-state behavior. Circulation tests analysis should be performed on both the steady-state response and the transient response of HDR systems. Transient analysis allows not only estimation of critical reservoir parameters and how these parameters change with operating conditions / history, but transient analysis also aids in evaluating the feasibility of various modes of HDR system operation (base load, load following, etc.). This paper details the transient analysis of NEDO's FY 1991 Shallow Reservoir Circulation Test at the Hijiori HDR site in Japan. Reservoir fluid storage is carefully bounded through the employment of two distinct methods for calculation of the fluid storage from the observed transient response. A brief discussion is also included of the distribution of reservoir fluid storage; the relationship between pressure, reservoir stress, and apparent reservoir capacitance; and appropriate circulation test design to facilitate transient analysis.

  20. [Comparative analysis of suicides in the Bydgoszcz region in the years 1977-1991 and 1991-2006].

    PubMed

    Bloch-Bogusławska, Elzbieta; Sygit, Bogusław; Pufal, Ewa; Sygit, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of suicide cases has been observed in everyday forensic practice. The same view is discernible in the perception of the general public. Data concerning this subject from the years 1991 to 2006 have been compiled and compared to the earlier investigations from the years 1977 to 1991. The comparative analysis allowed the authors to show a relatively reliable picture of suicides in the Bydgoszcz region. Many false beliefs and myths pertaining to the subject were disproved. The authors also presented the evolution in the approach of penal legislators to the issue of suicide.

  1. The Job Training Experiences of Black and White Women, 1970-1991 [and] Invited Reaction: Reflections on Caputo and Cianni's Research [and] Final Word: Response to Adams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputo, Richard K.; Cianni, Mary; Adams, Doris E.

    1997-01-01

    Caputo and Cianni's study of women's training patterns by race, 1970-91, found that as the cohort matured, cumulative intensity of training accounted for a marginal variance in income. Adams critiques their model in terms of the effects of early childbearing and marriage on income. (SK)

  2. A global analysis of the 1991 geomagnetic jerk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Michelis, Paola; Cafarella, Lili; Meloni, Antonio

    2000-12-01

    A recent examination of the geomagnetic annual mean values for the European magnetic observatories has shown the existence of a sudden change in the secular acceleration in about 1991 (Cafarella & Meloni 1995; Macmillan 1996). Using first differences of the Y (east geomagnetic field component) mean values from 74 observatories, the worldwide character of the 1991 impulse has been determined (De Michelis et al. 1998). Using data from 109 observatories widely distributed all over the world, the structure of the secular variation for the X (north) and Z (vertical) magnetic field intensities around 1990 was investigated, and evidence of this most recent jerk was found. External effects were removed from the annual mean data by comparing the long-term variations of the geomagnetic field components at individual observatories with the long-term variations of two geomagnetic indices, aa and Dst, and of a solar index, the Wolf number R. A careful analysis has been carried out on the amplitude of the external disturbance, on its dependence on latitude, and on the weights of the geomagnetic indices in the evaluation of the resulting external field. The secular variation has been evaluated from the corrected annual means. Around 1990, the secular variation can be fitted at many observatories by two straight lines with a sudden and marked change in slope. In this manner the jerk occurrence time and the intensity of the step in the second time derivative (ΔX'', ΔY'' and ΔZ'') were computed. Maps of ΔX'', ΔY'' and ΔZ'' provide information on the worldwide intensity distribution of the examined event. Maps of the jerk occurrence-time distributions are also given. The mean jerk occurrence time is 1990.1+/-0.6. Finally, a spherical harmonic analysis was used to complete the quantitative description of this phenomenon in order to study the trend of the energy density spectrum as a function of the harmonic degree n.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC's staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC's staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC's response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC's information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  5. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  6. Convective Weather Forecast Accuracy Analysis at Center and Sector Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao; Sridhar, Banavar

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed convective forecast accuracy analysis at center and sector levels. The study is aimed to provide more meaningful forecast verification measures to aviation community, as well as to obtain useful information leading to the improvements in the weather translation capacity models. In general, the vast majority of forecast verification efforts over past decades have been on the calculation of traditional standard verification measure scores over forecast and observation data analyses onto grids. These verification measures based on the binary classification have been applied in quality assurance of weather forecast products at the national level for many years. Our research focuses on the forecast at the center and sector levels. We calculate the standard forecast verification measure scores for en-route air traffic centers and sectors first, followed by conducting the forecast validation analysis and related verification measures for weather intensities and locations at centers and sectors levels. An approach to improve the prediction of sector weather coverage by multiple sector forecasts is then developed. The weather severe intensity assessment was carried out by using the correlations between forecast and actual weather observation airspace coverage. The weather forecast accuracy on horizontal location was assessed by examining the forecast errors. The improvement in prediction of weather coverage was determined by the correlation between actual sector weather coverage and prediction. observed and forecasted Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM) data collected from June to September in 2007. CWAM zero-minute forecast data with aircraft avoidance probability of 60% and 80% are used as the actual weather observation. All forecast measurements are based on 30-minute, 60- minute, 90-minute, and 120-minute forecasts with the same avoidance probabilities. The forecast accuracy analysis for times under one-hour showed that the errors in

  7. Analysis of fuel shares in the industrial sector

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Belzer, D.B.

    1986-06-01

    These studies describe how fuel shares have changed over time; determine what factors are important in promoting fuel share changes; and project fuel shares to the year 1995 in the industrial sector. A general characterization of changes in fuel shares of four fuel types - coal, natural gas, oil and electricity - for the industrial sector is as follows. Coal as a major fuel source declined rapidly from 1958 to the early 1970s, with oil and natural gas substituting for coal. Coal's share of total fuels stabilized after the oil price shock of 1972-1973, and increased after the 1979 price shock. In the period since 1973, most industries and the industrial sector as a whole appear to freely substitute natural gas for oil, and vice versa. Throughout the period 1958-1981, the share of electricity as a fuel increased. These observations are derived from analyzing the fuel share patterns of more than 20 industries over the 24-year period 1958 to 1981.

  8. Analysis of pediatric blood lead levels in New York City for 1970-1976.

    PubMed Central

    Billick, I H; Curran, A S; Shier, D R

    1979-01-01

    A study was completed of more than 170,000 records of pediatric venous blood levels and supporting demographic information collected in New York City during 1970-1976. The geometric mean (GM) blood lead level shows a consistent cyclical variation superimposed on an overall decreasing trend with time for all ages and ethnic groups studied. The GM blood lead levels for blacks are significantly greater than those for either Hispanics or whites. Regression analysis indicates a significant statistical association between GM blood lead level and ambient air lead level, after appropriate adjustments are made for age and ethnic group. These highly significant statistical relationships provide extremely strong incentives and directions for research into casual factors related to blood lead levels in children. PMID:499123

  9. Cross-Sector Impact Analysis of Industrial Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William; CreskoEngineering, Joe; Carpenter, Alberta; Masanet, Eric; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Shehabi, Arman

    2013-01-01

    The industrial or manufacturing sector is a foundational component to all economic activity. In addition to being a large direct consumer of energy, the manufacturing sector also produces materials, products, and technologies that influence the energy use of other economic sectors. For example, the manufacturing of a lighter-weight vehicle component affects the energy required to ship that component as well as the fuel efficiency of the assembled vehicle. Many energy efficiency opportunities exist to improve manufacturing energy consumption, however comparisons of manufacturing sector energy efficiency investment opportunities tend to exclude any impacts that occur once the product leaves the factory. Expanding the scope of analysis to include energy impacts across different stages of product life-cycle can highlight less obvious opportunities and inform actions that create the greatest economy-wide benefits. We present a methodology and associated analysis tool (LIGHTEnUP Lifecycle Industry GHgas, Technology and Energy through the Use Phase) that aims to capture both the manufacturing sector energy consumption and product life-cycle energy consumption implications of manufacturing innovation measures. The tool architecture incorporates U.S. national energy use data associated with manufacturing, building operations, and transportation. Inputs for technology assessment, both direct energy saving to the manufacturing sector, and indirect energy impacts to additional sectors are estimated through extensive literature review and engineering methods. The result is a transparent and uniform system of comparing manufacturing and use-phase impacts of technologies.

  10. Genetic Analysis of Oncorhynchus Nerka : 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.; Setter, A.L.; Welsh, T.L.; Rocklage, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 project to develop DNA assessment techniques for the purpose of determining relationships among populations of Oncorhynchus nerka demonstrated differences that had potential for such application. The work was continued in 1991 with specific application of the techniques to develop DNA probes that could be used in separating populations of 0. nerka associated with the lakes in the upper Salmon River, principally those in Redfish Lake. Research included sockeye-kokanee life history studies that might add supporting evidence for assessing the degree of difference or similarity among populations in the lake systems. This report summarizes the annual activities under the work plan.

  11. Deciding State School Policy in Minnesota. An Analysis of Policy Participants, Influence Relationships, and Decision Processes in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzoni, Tim L.

    This report examines the process through which the Minnesota state government established school policy during the 1970s. The analysis focuses on who shaped state school policy and how they did it. The data come in part from personal interviews to determine the perceptions key participants had of the state school policy system. These interview…

  12. A Periodization of North American Adult Education (1919-1970): A Critical Sociological Analysis of Trends and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, André P.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a critical sociological analysis of trends and perspectives pervasive during the emergence of North American adult education (1919-1970). In discussing transitions during the first 50 years of what is considered modern practice, it draws on Webster E. Cotton's (1986, "On Behalf of Adult Education: A Historical…

  13. Analysis of technological innovation and environmental performance improvement in aviation sector.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joosung; Mo, Jeonghoon

    2011-09-01

    The past oil crises have caused dramatic improvements in fuel efficiency in all industrial sectors. The aviation sector-aircraft manufacturers and airlines-has also made significant efforts to improve the fuel efficiency through more advanced jet engines, high-lift wing designs, and lighter airframe materials. However, the innovations in energy-saving aircraft technologies do not coincide with the oil crisis periods. The largest improvement in aircraft fuel efficiency took place in the 1960s while the high oil prices in the 1970s and on did not induce manufacturers or airlines to achieve a faster rate of innovation. In this paper, we employ a historical analysis to examine the socio-economic reasons behind the relatively slow technological innovation in aircraft fuel efficiency over the last 40 years. Based on the industry and passenger behaviors studied and prospects for alternative fuel options, this paper offers insights for the aviation sector to shift toward more sustainable technological options in the medium term. Second-generation biofuels could be the feasible option with a meaningful reduction in aviation's lifecycle environmental impact if they can achieve sufficient economies of scale.

  14. Bibliometric analysis of Human Factors (1970-2000): a quantitative description of scientific impact.

    PubMed

    Dee, John D; Cassano-Pinché, Andrea; Vicente, Kim J

    2005-01-01

    Bibliometric analyses use the citation history of scientific articles as data to measure scientific impact. This paper describes a bibliometric analysis of the 1682 papers and 2413 authors published in Human Factors from 1970 to 2000. The results show that Human Factors has substantial relative scientific influence, as measured by impact, immediacy, and half-life, exceeding the influence of comparable journals. Like other scientific disciplines, human factors research is a highly stratified activity. Most authors have published only one paper, and many papers are cited infrequently, if ever. A small number of authors account for a disproportionately large number of the papers published and citations received. However, the degree of stratification is not as extreme as in many other disciplines, possibly reflecting the diversity of the human factors discipline. A consistent trend of more authors per paper parallels a similar trend in other fields and may reflect the increasingly interdisciplinary nature of human factors research and a trend toward addressing human-technology interaction in more complex systems. Ten of the most influential papers from each of the last 3 decades illustrate trends in human factors research. Actual or potential applications of this research include considerations for the publication and distribution policy of Human Factors.

  15. Analysis of U.S. soil lead (Pb) studies from 1970 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Datko-Williams, Laura; Wilkie, Adrien; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer

    2014-01-15

    Although lead (Pb) emissions to the air have substantially decreased in the United States since the phase-out of leaded gasoline by 1995, amounts of lead in some soils remain elevated. Lead concentrations in residential and recreational soils are of concern because health effects have been associated with Pb exposure. Elevated soil Pb is especially harmful to young children due to their higher likelihood of soil ingestion. The purpose of this study is to create a comprehensive compilation of U.S. soil Pb data published from 1970 through 2012 as well as to analyze the collected data to reveal spatial and/or temporal soil Pb trends in the U.S. over the past 40 years. A total of 84 soil Pb studies across 62 U.S. cities were evaluated. Median soil Pb values from the studies were analyzed with respect to year of sampling, residential location type (e.g., urban, suburban), and population density. In aggregate, there was no statistically significant correlation between year and median soil Pb; however, within single cities, soil Pb generally declined over time. Our analysis shows that soil Pb quantities in city centers were generally highest and declined towards the suburbs and exurbs of the city. In addition, there was a statistically significant, positive relationship between median soil Pb and population density. In general, the trends examined here align with previously reported conclusions that soil Pb levels are higher in larger urban areas and Pb tends to remain in soil for long periods of time.

  16. Characterizing the urban temperature trend using seasonal unit root analysis: Hong Kong from 1970 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    To, Wai-Ming; Yu, Tat-Wai

    2016-12-01

    This paper explores urban temperature in Hong Kong using long-term time series. In particular, the characterization of the urban temperature trend was investigated using the seasonal unit root analysis of monthly mean air temperature data over the period January 1970 to December 2013. The seasonal unit root test makes it possible to determine the stochastic trend of monthly temperatures using an autoregressive model. The test results showed that mean air temperature has increased by 0.169°C (10 yr)-1 over the past four decades. The model of monthly temperature obtained from the seasonal unit root analysis was able to explain 95.9% of the variance in the measured monthly data — much higher than the variance explained by the ordinary least-squares model using annual mean air temperature data and other studies alike. The model accurately predicted monthly mean air temperatures between January 2014 and December 2015 with a root-mean-square percentage error of 4.2%. The correlation between the predicted and the measured monthly mean air temperatures was 0.989. By analyzing the monthly air temperatures recorded at an urban site and a rural site, it was found that the urban heat island effect led to the urban site being on average 0.865°C warmer than the rural site over the past two decades. Besides, the results of correlation analysis showed that the increase in annual mean air temperature was significantly associated with the increase in population, gross domestic product, urban land use, and energy use, with the R2 values ranging from 0.37 to 0.43.

  17. Non-linear analysis of moderately thick sector plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Y.; Sharda, H. B.; Sharma, Ashish

    2005-10-01

    Non-linear static analysis of moderately thick sector plates under uniformly distributed loading is presented. Using the first-order shear deformation theory and Von Karman type non-linearity, the governing equations of equilibrium are developed and expressed in terms of displacement components. The Chebyshev polynomial is used for spatial discretization of the differential equations. An iterative incremental approach based on Newton-Raphson method is used for the solution. Convergence study is carried out. Effects of annularity, thickness ratio, sector angle and boundary conditions are investigated. Results are compared with those available from the literature.

  18. Electrodynamics of the Inner Magnetosphere Observed in the Dusk Sector by CRRES and DMSP during the Magnetic Storm of June 4-6, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruke, W. J.; Maynard, N. C.; Hagan, M. P.; Wolf, R. A.; Wilson, G. R.; Gentile, L. C.; Gussenhoven, M. S.; Huang, C. Y.; Garner, T. W.; Rich, F. J.

    1998-01-01

    We compare equatorward/earthward boundaries of convection electric fields and auroral/plasma sheet electrons detected by the DMSP F8 and CRRES satellites during the June 1991 magnetic storm. Measurements come from the dusk magnetic local time sector where the ring current penetrates closest to the Earth. The storm was triggered by a rapid increase in the solar wind dynamic pressure accompanied by a southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Satellite data show the following: (1) all particle and field boundaries moved equatorward/earthward during the initial phase, probably in response to the strong southward IMF turning; (2) electric field boundaries were either at lower magnetic L shells or close to the inner edge of ring current ions throughout the main and early recovery phases. Penetration earthward of the ring current occurred twice as the polar cap potential increased rapidly; (3) electric potentials at subauroral latitudes were large fractions of the total potentials in the afternoon cell, twice exceeding 60 kV; and (4) the boundaries of auroral electron precipitation were more variable than those of electric fields and mapped to lower L shells than where CRRES encountered plasma sheet electrons. Observations qualitatively agree with predictions of empirical models for auroral electron and electric field boundaries.

  19. Farming and Place Population Change in Michigan, 1930-1970: An Exploratory Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Kevin F.; Rodefeld, Richard D.

    Farming has undergone substantial changes in both economic and social structure in the past 40 years; these changes have affected the larger society with population changes in rural, nonmetropolitan areas. Seeking to explore the relationships between changes in farming and changes in place population for Michigan from 1930 to 1970, six variables…

  20. Content Analysis of Jordanian Elementary Textbooks during 1970-2013 as Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Eman Rasmi; Al-Absi, Mohammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine types of mathematic disciplines (in term of topics) in Jordanian Elementary textbooks. This study evaluates mathematics text books especially in the period between 1970 and 2013 and identifies types and quantities of mathematics. To examine the relative quantity of mathematics, branches of mathematics, presentation…

  1. Analysis of energy-related CO2 emissions and driving factors in five major energy consumption sectors in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2016-10-01

    Continual growth of energy-related CO2 emissions in China has received great attention, both domestically and internationally. In this paper, we evaluated the CO2 emissions in five major energy consumption sectors which were evaluated from 1991 to 2012. In order to analyze the driving factors of CO2 emission change in different sectors, the Kaya identity was extended by adding several variables based on specific industrial characteristics and a decomposition analysis model was established according to the LMDI method. The results demonstrated that economic factor was the leading force explaining emission increase in each sector while energy intensity and sector contribution were major contributors to emission mitigation. Meanwhile, CO2 emission intensity had no significant influence on CO2 emission in the short term, and energy consumption structure had a small but growing negative impact on the increase of CO2 emissions. In addition, the future CO2 emissions of industry from 2013 to 2020 under three scenarios were estimated, and the reduction potential of CO2 emissions in industry are 335 Mt in 2020 under lower-emission scenario while the CO2 emission difference between higher-emission scenario and lower-emission scenario is nearly 725 Mt. This paper can offer complementary perspectives on determinants of energy-related CO2 emission change in different sectors and help to formulate mitigation strategies for CO2 emissions.

  2. Analysis of Technological Innovation and Environmental Performance Improvement in Aviation Sector

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joosung; Mo, Jeonghoon

    2011-01-01

    The past oil crises have caused dramatic improvements in fuel efficiency in all industrial sectors. The aviation sector—aircraft manufacturers and airlines—has also made significant efforts to improve the fuel efficiency through more advanced jet engines, high-lift wing designs, and lighter airframe materials. However, the innovations in energy-saving aircraft technologies do not coincide with the oil crisis periods. The largest improvement in aircraft fuel efficiency took place in the 1960s while the high oil prices in the 1970s and on did not induce manufacturers or airlines to achieve a faster rate of innovation. In this paper, we employ a historical analysis to examine the socio-economic reasons behind the relatively slow technological innovation in aircraft fuel efficiency over the last 40 years. Based on the industry and passenger behaviors studied and prospects for alternative fuel options, this paper offers insights for the aviation sector to shift toward more sustainable technological options in the medium term. Second-generation biofuels could be the feasible option with a meaningful reduction in aviation’s lifecycle environmental impact if they can achieve sufficient economies of scale. PMID:22016716

  3. Seasonal trend analysis of published ground-based and TOMS total ozone data through 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinsel, Gregory C.; Tiao, George C.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Kerr, James B.; Miller, Alvin J.; Nagatani, Ronald M.; Bishop, Lane; Ying, Lisa H.

    1994-01-01

    A seasonal trend analysis of published Dobson (including stations' newly revised and Brewer-simulated Dobson) total ozone data through 1991 from a network of 56 stations has been performed, using three different data periods. The trend results for the longest data period 1964 - 1991 indicate substantial negative trends in ozone in the higher northern latitudes during the winter and spring seasons, some evidence of negative trend in the higher southern latitudes (30 deg S - 55 deg S) during all seasons, and trends close to zero for all seasons over the 30 deg S - 30 deg N latitude range. For the shortest data period, November 1978 through 1991, there is a clear indication that trends have become more negative in the higher northern latitudes, especially during the winter and spring seasons, and also in the higher southern latitudes in all seasons. A seasonal trend analysis of zonal averages of total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) satellite total ozone data for the comparable period November 1978 through 1991 has also been performed, and moderately good agreement is found between trends in Dobson and TOMS data over this period.

  4. Cost analysis of ground-water supplies in the North Atlantic region, 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrom, Dagfin John

    1973-01-01

    The cost of municipal and industrial ground water (or, more specifically, large supplies of ground water) at the wellhead in the North Atlantic Region in 1970 generally ranged from 1.5 to 5 cents per thousand gallons. Water from crystalline rocks and shale is relatively expensive. Water from sandstone is less so. Costs of water from sands and gravels in glaciated areas and from Coastal Plain sediments range from moderate to very low. In carbonate rocks costs range from low to fairly high. The cost of ground water at the wellhead is low in areas of productive aquifers, but owing to the cost of connecting pipe, costs increase significantly in multiple-well fields. In the North Atlantic Region, development of small to moderate supplies of ground water may offer favorable cost alternatives to planners, but large supplies of ground water for delivery to one point cannot generally be developed inexpensively. Well fields in the less productive aquifers may be limited by costs to 1 or 2 million gallons a day, but in the more favorable aquifers development of several tens of millions of gallons a day may be practicable and inexpensive. Cost evaluations presented cannot be applied to any one specific well or specific site because yields of wells in any one place will depend on the local geologic and hydrologic conditions; however, with such cost adjustments as may be necessary, the methodology presented should have wide applicability. Data given show the cost of water at the wellhead based on the average yield of several wells. The cost of water delivered by a well field includes costs of connecting pipe and of wells that have the yields and spacings specified. Cost of transport of water from the well field to point of consumption and possible cost of treatment are not evaluated. In the methodology employed, costs of drilling and testing, pumping equipment, engineering for the well field, amortization at 5% percent interest, maintenance, and cost of power are considered. The

  5. [Analysis of the temporal and regional development of fertility, 1970-1978, for projecting the population in forecasts].

    PubMed

    Schawo, F A

    1981-01-01

    This study attempts to use empirically based appraisals of regional fertility patterns in West Germany as a basis for forecasts of future fertility. Nondemographic fertility determinants must be stressed in such an investigation: about 90% of the fertility decline in Berlin between 1970-77 was due to changes in reproductive behavior rather than in age structures. The analysis seeks to quantify the nondemographic influences on fertility and to use the resulting measure as a basis for forecasts of future development of fertility in the different regions. The crude birth rate, general fertility rate, total fertility rate, net reproduction rate, and standardized fertility rate are defined and explained, and some comparisons presented for the years 1970, 1974, and 1977 for different regions defined on the basis of density and settlement structure. A typology of 5 regional types is constructed on the basis of changes in the standardized fertility rate between 1970-1977 and between 1974-77. Necessary assumptions for forecasting future fertility on this basis and a suggested procedure for making such predictions are supplied. An example of application of the procedure is included.

  6. Analysis of labour risks in the Spanish industrial aerospace sector.

    PubMed

    Laguardia, Juan; Rubio, Emilio; Garcia, Ana; Garcia-Foncillas, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Labour risk prevention is an activity integrated within Safety and Hygiene at Work in Spain. In 2003, the Electronic Declaration for Accidents at Work, Delt@ (DELTA) was introduced. The industrial aerospace sector is subject to various risks. Our objective is to analyse the Spanish Industrial Aerospace Sector (SIAS) using the ACSOM methodology to assess its labour risks and to prioritise preventive actions. The SIAS and the Services Subsector (SS) were created and the relevant accident rate data were obtained. The ACSOM method was applied through double contrast (deviation and translocation) of the SIAS or SS risk polygon with the considered pattern, accidents from all sectors (ACSOM G) or the SIAS. A list of risks was obtained, ordered by action phases. In the SIAS vs. ACSOM G analysis, radiation risks were the worst, followed by overstrains. Accidents caused by living beings were also significant in the SS vs. SIAE, which will be able to be used to improve Risk Prevention. Radiation is the most significant risk in the SIAS and the SS. Preventive actions will be primary and secondary. ACSOM has shown itself to be a valid tool for the analysis of labour risks.

  7. Proceedings of the 1991 Socioeconomic Energy Research and Analysis Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    These proceedings analyze US energy policy as it pertains to minority groups. Example topics include: Economic impacts of the National Energy Strategy on minority and majority households, Utility measures to assist payment-troubled customers, Equity impacts of controlling energy usage through market-based versus regulatory approaches, Technical and planning support for the DOE-HUD initiative for energy efficiency in housing, an analysis of residential energy consumption and expenditures by minority households by home type and housing vintage, and methodical issues in evaluating integrated least cost planning programs.

  8. Annual compilation and analysis of hydrologic data for Calaveras Creek, San Antonio River basin, Texas 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, D.R.

    1971-01-01

    The U.S. Soil Conservation Service is actively engaged in the installation of flood and soil erosion reducing measures in Texas under the authority of "The Flood Control Act of 1936 and 1944" and ''Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act" (Public Law 566), as amended. The Soil Conservation Service has found a total of approximately 3,500 floodwater-retarding structures to be physically and economically feasible in Texas. As of September 30, 1970, 1,439 of these structures had been built. This watershed-development program will have varying but important effects on the natural surface- and ground-water resources of river basins, especially where a large number of the floodwater-retarding structures are built. Basic hydrologic data under natural and developed conditions are needed to appraise the effects of the structures on the yield and mode of occurrence of runoff.

  9. Parkinson's disease and its comorbid disorders: an analysis of Michigan mortality data, 1970 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Gorell, J M; Johnson, C C; Rybicki, B A

    1994-10-01

    Using data from death certificates, we compared underlying causes of death for two populations of Michigan decedents: (1) persons 40 years of age and older for whom Parkinson's disease (PD) was listed as a contributing cause of death and who died in the years 1970 through 1989, and (2) all persons in Michigan over 40 years of age who died in 1970, 1980, or 1990. PD decedents were approximately 1.5 times more likely to die from cerebrovascular disease and three to four times more likely to die from pneumonia/influenza, but they had just 29% of the expected number of deaths due to cancer. These associations were maintained irrespective of gender or race. PD decedents had diabetes mellitus and heart diseases as frequently as decedents in the general population, but liver diseases were less frequent among PD decedents. These trends held throughout the 21-year study period. When we stratified cancers by whether they are known to be (1) highly related, (2) moderately related, or (3) weakly related or unrelated to smoking, there were still 2.5 times fewer cancers unrelated or weakly related to smoking among PD decedents than among decedents in the general population. We believe that the greater frequency of cerebrovascular disease in PD decedents may be due to a detection bias, since PD patients are more likely to be seen by neurologists, who are more apt to diagnose and document diseases of the nervous system. Pneumonia/influenza is more common among PD patients because of their relative immobility near the end of life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. A Multistate Life Table Analysis of Union Regimes in the United States: Trends and Racial Differentials, 1970-2002.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Morgan, S Philip; Wang, Zhenglian; Gu, Danan; Yang, Chingli

    2012-04-01

    We estimate trends and racial differentials in marriage, cohabitation, union formation and dissolution (union regimes) for the period 1970-2002 in the United States. These estimates are based on an innovative application of multistate life table analysis to pooled survey data. Our analysis demonstrates (1) a dramatic increase in the lifetime proportions of transitions from never-married, divorced or widowed to cohabiting; (2) a substantial decrease in the stability of cohabiting unions; (3) a dramatic increase in mean ages at cohabiting after divorce and widowhood; (4) a substantial decrease in direct transition from never-married to married; (5) a significant decrease in the overall lifetime proportion of ever marrying and re-marrying in the 1970s to 1980s but a relatively stable pattern in the 1990s to 2000-2002; and (6) a substantial decrease in the lifetime proportion of transition from cohabiting to marriage. We also present, for the first time, comparable evidence on differentials in union regimes between four racial groups.

  11. Supporting analysis and assessments quality metrics: Utility market sector

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.

    1996-10-01

    In FY96, NREL was asked to coordinate all analysis tasks so that in FY97 these tasks will be part of an integrated analysis agenda that will begin to define a 5-15 year R&D roadmap and portfolio for the DOE Hydrogen Program. The purpose of the Supporting Analysis and Assessments task at NREL is to provide this coordination and conduct specific analysis tasks. One of these tasks is to prepare the Quality Metrics (QM) for the Program as part of the overall QM effort at DOE/EERE. The Hydrogen Program one of 39 program planning units conducting QM, a process begun in FY94 to assess benefits/costs of DOE/EERE programs. The purpose of QM is to inform decisionmaking during budget formulation process by describing the expected outcomes of programs during the budget request process. QM is expected to establish first step toward merit-based budget formulation and allow DOE/EERE to get {open_quotes}most bang for its (R&D) buck.{close_quotes} In FY96. NREL coordinated a QM team that prepared a preliminary QM for the utility market sector. In the electricity supply sector, the QM analysis shows hydrogen fuel cells capturing 5% (or 22 GW) of the total market of 390 GW of new capacity additions through 2020. Hydrogen consumption in the utility sector increases from 0.009 Quads in 2005 to 0.4 Quads in 2020. Hydrogen fuel cells are projected to displace over 0.6 Quads of primary energy in 2020. In future work, NREL will assess the market for decentralized, on-site generation, develop cost credits for distributed generation benefits (such as deferral of transmission and distribution investments, uninterruptible power service), cost credits for by-products such as heat and potable water, cost credits for environmental benefits (reduction of criteria air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions), compete different fuel cell technologies against each other for market share, and begin to address economic benefits, especially employment.

  12. The Medical Library Assistance Act: An Analysis of the NLM Extramural Programs, 1965-1970 *

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Martin M.; Corning, Mary E.

    1971-01-01

    The imbalance between medical library resources and information needs of the health professional led to a reexamination of the mandate for the National Library of Medicine. Legislation known as the Medical Library Assistance Act (MLAA) was passed in 1965 which enabled the NLM to (1) initiate programs to assist the nation's medical libraries and (2) develop a medical library network with the establishment of regional medical libraries to link the NLM with local institutions. The National Library of Medicine, through the MLAA, has made available $40.8 million to the medical library community under a competitive grant and contract mechanism for the period July 1965—June 1970. A total of 604 projects has been executed in resources, research and development, training, construction, regional medical libraries, publications, and special scientific projects. An assessment is given of each of these programs and their impact on both the National Library of Medicine and individual medical libraries. In the aggregate, these programs have significantly improved library and information services to the professional health user. The principal limitation has been inadequate funding to accomplish the level of originally stated objectives. PMID:5146762

  13. Sleeping sickness in southeastern Uganda: a spatio-temporal analysis of disease risk, 1970-2003.

    PubMed

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Berke, Olaf; Sweeney, Sean; Abdelrahman, Lubowa

    2010-12-01

    Sleeping sickness is a major threat to human health in sub-Saharan Africa. Southeastern Uganda has experienced a number of significant epidemics in the past 100 years, most recently from 1976 to 1989. Recent and continued spread of the disease has highlighted gaps in the ability of current research to explain and predict the distribution of infection. Vegetation cover and changes in vegetation may be important determinants of transmission and disease risk because of the habitat preferences of the tsetse fly vector. This study examines the determinants of sleeping sickness distribution and incidence in southeastern Uganda from 1970 to 2003, spanning the full epidemic region and cycle, and focusing in particular on vegetation cover and change. Sleeping sickness data were collected from records of the Ugandan Ministry of Health, individual sleeping sickness treatment centers, and interviews with public health officials. Vegetation data were acquired from satellite imagery for four dates spanning the epidemic period, 1973, 1986, 1995, and 2001. Zero-inflated regression models were used to model predictors of disease presence and magnitude. Correlations between disease incidence and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) at the subcounty level were evaluated. Results indicate that sleeping sickness infection is predominantly associated with proximity to water and spatial location, while disease incidence is highest in subcounties with moderate to high NDVI. The vegetation density (NDVI) at which sleeping sickness incidence peaked differed throughout the study period. The optimal vegetation density capable of supporting sleeping sickness transmission may be lower than indicated by data from endemic regions, indicating increased potential for disease spread under suitable conditions.

  14. Forestry sector analysis for developing countries: Issues and methods. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, R.W.

    1993-10-01

    A satellite meeting of the 10th Forestry World Congress focused on the methods used for forest sector analysis and their application in both developed and developing countries. The results of that meeting are summarized, and a general approach for forest sector modeling is proposed. The approach includes models derived from the existing literature and can be used as a structure for applying forest sector analysis in developing countries.

  15. A Technical Analysis of Ontario Universities' Requirements for Library Facilities, 1970-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ivor William; Hansen, Bertrand L.

    The Ontario Council of University Librarians (OCUL) was requested to undertake an assessment of the library facilities that would be required by each university to serve the enrollment projected for 1975-76. After submission of the report a research staff refined the data and analysis, and placed the figures for all universities on a comparable…

  16. Detection and Analysis of Threats to the Energy Sector: DATES

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonso Valdes

    2010-03-31

    This report summarizes Detection and Analysis of Threats to the Energy Sector (DATES), a project sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and performed by a team led by SRI International, with collaboration from Sandia National Laboratories, ArcSight, Inc., and Invensys Process Systems. DATES sought to advance the state of the practice in intrusion detection and situational awareness with respect to cyber attacks in energy systems. This was achieved through adaptation of detection algorithms for process systems as well as development of novel anomaly detection techniques suited for such systems into a detection suite. These detection components, together with third-party commercial security systems, were interfaced with the commercial Security Information Event Management (SIEM) solution from ArcSight. The efficacy of the integrated solution was demonstrated on two testbeds, one based on a Distributed Control System (DCS) from Invensys, and the other based on the Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE) from Sandia. These achievements advance the DOE Cybersecurity Roadmap [DOE2006] goals in the area of security monitoring. The project ran from October 2007 until March 2010, with the final six months focused on experimentation. In the validation phase, team members from SRI and Sandia coupled the two test environments and carried out a number of distributed and cross-site attacks against various points in one or both testbeds. Alert messages from the distributed, heterogeneous detection components were correlated using the ArcSight SIEM platform, providing within-site and cross-site views of the attacks. In particular, the team demonstrated detection and visualization of network zone traversal and denial-of-service attacks. These capabilities were presented to the DistribuTech Conference and Exhibition in March 2010. The project was hampered by interruption of funding due to continuing resolution issues and agreement on cost share for four months in 2008

  17. Risk Dimensions and Political Decisions Frame Environmental Communication: A Content Analysis of Seven U.S. Newspapers from 1970-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantham, Susan; Vieira, Edward T., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This project examined the focus of environmental news frames used in seven American newspapers between 1970 and 2010. During this time newspapers were a primary source of news. Based on gatekeeping and agenda-setting theory, as well as source credibility, the content analysis of 2,123 articles examined the environmental topics within the articles,…

  18. Urban heat island research from 1991 to 2015: a bibliometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qunfang; Lu, Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    A bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-Expanded) database from the Web of Science was performed to review urban heat island (UHI) research from 1991 to 2015 and statistically assess its developments, trends, and directions. In total, 1822 papers published in 352 journals over the past 25 years were analyzed for scientific output; citations; subject categories; major journals; outstanding keywords; and leading countries, institutions, authors, and research collaborations. The number of UHI-related publications has continuously increased since 1991. Meteorology atmospheric sciences, environmental sciences, and construction building technology were the three most frequent subject categories. Building and Environment, International Journal of Climatology, and Theoretical and Applied Climatology were the three most popular publishing journals. The USA and China were the two leading countries in UHI research, contributing 49.56% of the total articles. Chinese Academy of Science, Arizona State University, and China Meteorological Administration published the most UHI articles. Weng QH and Santamouris M were the two most prolific authors. Author keywords were classified into four major groups: (1) research methods and indicators, e.g., remote sensing, field measurement, and models; (2) generation factors, e.g., impervious urban surfaces, urban geometry, waste heat, vegetation, and pollutants; (3) environmental effects, e.g., urban climate, heat wave, ecology, and pollution; and (4) mitigation and adaption strategies, e.g., roof technology cooling, reflective cooling, vegetation cooling, and urban geometry cooling. A comparative analysis of popular issues revealed that UHI determination (intensity, heat source, supporting techniques) remains the central topic, whereas UHI impacts and mitigation strategies are becoming the popular issues that will receive increasing scientific attention in the future. Modeling will continue to be the

  19. Analysis of nutrients in the surface waters of the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit, 1970-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ham, L.K.; Hatzell, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    During the early phase of the Georgia-Florida National Water Quality Assessment study, existing information on nutrients was compiled and analyzed in order to evaluate the nutrient concentrations within the 61,545 square mile study unit. Evaluation of the nutrient concentrations collected at surface- water sites between October 1, 1970, and September 30,1991, utilized the environmental characteristics of land resource provinces, land use, and nonpoint and point-source discharges within the study unit. Long-term trends were investigated to determine the temporal distribution of nutrient concentrations. In order to determine a level of concern for nutrient concentrations, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines were used-(1) for nitrate concentrations, the maximum contaminant level in public-drinking water supplies (10 mg/L); (2) for ammonia concentrations, the chronic exposure of aquatic organisms to un-ionized ammonia (2.1 mg/L); (3) for total-phosphorus concentrations, the recommended concentration in flowing water to discourage excessive growth of aquatic plants (0.1 mg/L); and (4) for kjeldahl concentrations, however, no guidelines were available. For sites within the 10 major river basins, median nutrient concentrations were generally below USEPA guidelines, except for total-phosphorus concentrations where 45 percent of the medians exceeded the guideline. The only median ammonia concentration that exceeded the guideline occurred at the Swift Creek site (3.4 mg/L), in the Suwannee River basin, perhaps due to wastewater discharges. For all sites within the Withlacoochee, Aucilla, and St. Marys River basins, median concentrations of nitrate, ammonia, and total phosphorus were below the USEPA guidelines. Nutrient data at each monitoring site within each major basin were aggregated for comparisons of median nutrient concentrations among major basins. The Ochlockonee and Hillsborough River basins had the highest median nutrient concentrations, the

  20. National health expenditures, 1991

    PubMed Central

    Letsch, Suzanne W.; Lazenby, Helen C.; Levit, Katharine R.; Cowan, Cathy A.

    1992-01-01

    Spending for health care rose to $751.8 billion in 1991, an increase of 11.4 percent from the 1990 level. National health expenditures as a share of gross domestic product increased to 13.2 percent, up from 12.2 percent in 1990. The health care sector exhibited strong growth, despite slow growth in the overall economy. This combination resulted in the largest increase in the share of the Nation's output consumed by health care in the past three decades. In this article, the authors present estimates of health spending in the United States for 1991. The authors also examine reasons for the unusually large growth in Medicaid expenditures and highlight recent trends in the hospital sector. PMID:10127445

  1. United States Industrial Sector Energy End Use Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shehabi, Arman; Morrow, William R.; Masanet, Eric

    2012-05-11

    The United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) conducts the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) to provide detailed data on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector. The survey is a sample of approximately 15,000 manufacturing establishments selected from the Economic Census - Manufacturing Sector. MECS provides statistics on the consumption of energy by end uses (e.g., boilers, process, electric drives, etc.) disaggregated by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) categories. The manufacturing sector (NAICS Sector 31-33) consists of all manufacturing establishments in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. According to the NAICS, the manufacturing sector comprises establishments engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products. The establishments are physical facilities such as plants, factories, or mills. For many of the sectors in the MECS datasets, information is missing because the reported energy use is less than 0.5 units or BTUs, or is withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual establishments, or is withheld because the standard error is greater than 50%. We infer what the missing information likely are using several approximations techniques. First, much of the missing data can be easily calculated by adding or subtracting other values reported by MECS. If this is not possible (e.g. two data are missing), we look at historic MECS reports to help identify the breakdown of energy use in the past and assume it remained the same for the current MECS. Lastly, if historic data is also missing, we assume that 3 digit NAICS classifications predict energy use in their 4, 5, or 6 digit NAICS sub-classifications, or vice versa. Along with addressing data gaps, end use energy is disaggregated beyond the specified MECS allocations using additional industry specific energy consumption data. The result is a

  2. LSAT Dimensionality Analysis for the December 1991, June 1992, and October 1992 Administrations. Statistical Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Jeff; Kim, Hae-Rim; Roussos, Louis; Stout, William; Zhang, Jinming

    An extensive nonparametric dimensionality analysis of latent structure was conducted on three forms of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) (December 1991, June 1992, and October 1992) using the DIMTEST model in confirmatory analyses and using DIMTEST, FAC, DETECT, HCA, PROX, and a genetic algorithm in exploratory analyses. Results indicate that…

  3. Treatment Integrity of School-Based Interventions with Children in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" 1991-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Laura Lee; Gresham, Frank M.; DiGennaro, Florence D.; Reed, Derek D.

    2007-01-01

    We reviewed all school-based experimental studies with individuals 0 to 18 years published in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" (JABA) between 1991 and 2005. A total of 142 articles (152 studies) that met review criteria were included. Nearly all (95%) of these experiments provided an operational definition of the independent variable,…

  4. A Content and Sample Analysis of Quantitative Articles Published in the "Journal of Counseling & Development" between 1991 and 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Love, Keisha M.; Taylor, Kathryn J.; Slusher, Anita L.

    2007-01-01

    This study reviewed the content of articles and characteristics of samples in all quantitative articles published in the "Journal of Counseling & Development" between 1991 and 2000. The content analysis revealed that the areas that received the most attention were academic/career, multicultural issues, symptoms/disorders, and counseling process.…

  5. A descriptive analysis of notifiable gastrointestinal illness in the Northwest Territories, Canada, 1991–2008

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jeff; Edge, Victoria L; Furgal, Chris; Reid-Smith, Richard; Santos, Maria; McEwen, Scott A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe the major characteristics of reported notifiable gastrointestinal illness (NGI) data in the Northwest Territories (NWT) from January 1991 through December 2008. Design Descriptive analysis of 708 reported cases of NGI extracted from the Northwest Territories Communicable Disease Registry (NWT CDR). Setting Primary, secondary and tertiary health care centres across all 33 communities of the NWT. Population NWT residents of all ages with confirmed NGI reported to the NWT CDR from January 1991 through December 2008. Main outcome measure Laboratory-confirmed NGI, with a particular emphasis on campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and salmonellosis. Results Campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and salmonellosis were the most commonly identified types of NGI in the territory. Seasonal peaks for all three diseases were observed in late summer to autumn (p<0.01). Higher rates of NGI (all 15 diseases/infections) were found in the 0–9-year age group and in men (p<0.01). Similarly, rates of giardiasis were higher in the 0–9-year age group and in men (p<0.02). A disproportionate burden of salmonellosis was found in people aged 60 years and older and in women (p<0.02). Although not significant, the incidence of campylobacteriosis was greater in the 20–29-years age group and in men (p<0.07). The health authority with the highest incidence of NGI was Yellowknife (p<0.01), while for salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis, it was Tlicho (p<0.01) and for giardiasis, the Sahtu region (p<0.01). Overall, disease rates were higher in urban areas (p<0.01). Contaminated eggs, poultry and untreated water were believed by health practitioners to be important sources of infection in cases of salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and giardiasis, respectively. Conclusions The general patterns of these findings suggest that environmental and behavioural risk factors played key roles in infection. Further research into potential individual and community-level risk factors is

  6. Energy productivity in the industrial sector: an econometric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Energy productivity and energy intensity within the industrial sector of the economy are examined. Results suggest that relative prices and other economic factors can explain much of the variation in both energy productivity and energy intensity for manufacturing and mining and for the industrial sector as a whole. Cyclical factors, seasonal factors and trend variables are also useful in explaining variation in these data, both for annual and monthly time series. Of the variables examined, it appears that the relative price of energy is a highly significant factor in accounting for the difference between actual industrial energy intensity and that which might have been expected had pre-1973 trends continued.

  7. Qualitative environmental health research: an analysis of the literature, 1991-2008.

    PubMed

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2011-10-01

    Qualitative research uses nonnumeric data to understand people's opinions, motives, understanding, and beliefs about events or phenomena. In this analysis, I report the use of qualitative methods and data in the study of the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. A primary search for peer-reviewed journal articles dated from 1991 through 2008 included the following three terms: qualitative, environ*, and health. Searches resulted in 3,155 records. Data were extracted and findings of articles analyzed to determine where and by whom qualitative environmental health research is conducted and published, the types of methods and analyses used in qualitative studies of environmental health, and the types of information qualitative data contribute to environmental health. The results highlight a diversity of disciplines and techniques among researchers who used qualitative methods to study environmental health. Nearly all of the studies identified increased scientific understanding of lay perceptions of environmental health exposures. This analysis demonstrates the potential of qualitative data to improve understanding of complex exposure pathways, including the influence of social factors on environmental health, and health outcomes.

  8. Impact of climate on energy sector in economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, H.E.; LeDuc, S.K.

    1981-12-01

    Assessments of economic conditions by region or sector attempt to include relevant climatic variability through residual adjustment techniques. There is no direct consideration of climatic fluctuations. Three recent severe winters combined with the increasing price of energy have intensified the need to quantify the interaction of climate with the energy sector of the economy. This paper presents examples of the uses of climatic data by utilities, public service commissions and the NOAA Center for Environmental Assessment Services to determine econoclimatic energy relationships at the local, state, regional and national levels. A technique based on the linear relationships between heating degree days and natural gas consumption for space heating is used to quantify the interaction of climate and prices on gas consumption. This provides regional estimates of the response of gas consumption to degree days and price.

  9. An Analysis of the Degree-Credit Students and Unclassified Students in 93 Community Colleges in California, Fall 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlock, Jerry C.

    The data for this report concerning enrollment in California community colleges was collected by the National Center for Educational Statistics, Office of Education, United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare in the fall of 1970. The following data are presented: (1) total number of degree-credit students; (2) resident students…

  10. Doctorate Needs in Educational Administration During the 1970's and 1980's: A Preliminary Analysis. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knezevich, S. J.

    There are no data in this research report that would support the generalization that educational administration will face a doctorate glut during the 1970's or 1980's. There is far more reason to be worried about a glut in the number of institutions producing doctorates in educational administration than about a glut in the number of doctorates…

  11. Women's labour force participation and socioeconomic development: the case of Peninsular Malaysia, 1957-1970.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, C; Aghajanian, A

    1980-03-01

    Changes in labor force participation of Malay, Chinese and Indian women in the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors in Peninsular Malaysia, based on the 1957 and 1970 censuses, are analyzed. Brief discussions of the relation between economic development and female labor force participation, the socioeconomic development and ethnic composition of Malaysia, and past research on women's labor force participation in Peninsular Malaysia provide background for the analysis. The overall participation rate of women aged 15 to 64 rose from 31% in 1957 to 37% in 1970, with most of the increase among younger women. Participation rates rose for Malay women at all ages, dropped sharply for Indian women at all ages, and rose for Chinese women below age 40 but declined thereafter. Trends in Chinese female labor force activity seem to fit the developmental model most closely; Malay employment in agriculture among middle-aged women probably appeared to increase due to underestimation in the 1957 census; and Indian participation declined due to a sharp curtailment of the entire plantation labor force. Cross sectional analysis using the 1970 2% census sample demonstrates that rural residence, low educational level, and married status are associated with employment in the traditional and modern agricultural sectors. Higher educational attainment, urban residence, and delayed marriage are associated with employment in the modern non-agricultural sector. Chinese women had higher proportions in the modern sector.

  12. Population viability analysis of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), 1976-1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marmontel, M.; Humphrey, S.R.; O'Shea, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent development of age-determination techniques for Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has permitted derivation of age-specific data on reproduction and survival of a sample of 1212 carcasses obtained throughout Florida from 1976–1991. Population viability analysis using these data projects a slightly negative growth rate (−0.003) and an unacceptably low probability of persistence (0.44) over 1000 years. The main factors affecting population projections were adult survival and fecundity. A 10% increase in adult mortality would drive the population to extinction over a 1000-year time scale, whereas a 10% decrease in adult mortality would allow slow population growth. A 10% decrease in reproduction would also result in extinction. We conclude that management must focus on retaining and improving the conditions under which manatee demography operates. The major identified agent of mortality is boat-manatee collisions, and rapidly increasing numbers of humans and registered boats portend an increase in manatee mortality. Zoning of manatee-occupied waters for reductions in boating activity and speed is essential to safeguard the manatee population. If boating regulations being implemented by the state of Florida in each of 13 key coastal counties are completed, enforced, and effective, manatees and human recreation could coexist indefinitely. If regulation is unsuccessful, the Florida manatee population is likely to decline slowly toward extinction.

  13. Stable isotope analysis of 1987-1991 zooplankton samples and bowhead whale tissues. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    Stable isotope analyses of bowhead whale tissue samples and bowhead whale prey organisms collected over the years 1987 to 1991 were used to provide detail on the isotope ratio gradients evident in the arctic Alaskan zooplankton and to verify previous findings regarding the growth rates and age determination techniques developed for bowhead whales. Zooplankton of the Bering and Chukchi seas are enriched in (13)C relative to the eastern Beaufort Sea. The analysis of baleen from bowhead whales taken between 1987 to 1990 indicate that the whales are slow-growing and the young animals between year one and about six to seven years of age, undergo a period of little or no linear growth. The authors estimate that bowheads require 16-18 years to reach the length of sexual maturity, i.e., 13-14 m. From baleen Delta(13C) cycles, a 20 year record of the isotope ratios in the phytoplankton of the northern Bering and Chukchi seas was constructed. The long-term record has been compared with the temperature anomalies in surface waters of the Bering Sea. The Delta(13C) of the zooplankton is inversely correlated with temperature and refutes current models attempting to relate ocean temperature, and atmospheric carbon dioxide levels with the Delta(13C) of ocean sediment organic matter.

  14. Analysis of vegetation changes in Rock Creek Park, 1991-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatfield, Jeff S.; Krafft, Cairn

    2009-01-01

    Vegetation data collected at Rock Creek Park every 4 years during 1991-2007 were analyzed for differences among 3 regions within the park and among years. The variables measured and analyzed were percentage of twigs browsed, percentage of canopy cover, species richness of herbaceous plants, number of tree seedlings in each of 7 height classes, tree seedling stocking rate for low deer density and high deer density areas, percentage of tree and shrub cover < 2 m in height, mean diameter at breast height (DBH) of trees > 1 cm DBH, number of tree stems > 1 cm DBH, species richness of trees and shrubs, and mean height of the 5 tallest trees in each plot quadrant. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences and, except for some differences in tree species composition among the 3 regions, no differences (P > 0.01) were found among the 3 regions in the variables discussed above. Many of the variables showed very significant differences (P < 0.01) among years, and causative factors should be investigated further. In addition, importance values were calculated for the 10 most important tree species in each region and changes over time were reported. Future sampling recommendations are also discussed.

  15. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

    1992-08-01

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model's parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

  16. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

    1992-08-01

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model`s parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

  17. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the City of Houston`s 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA`s Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  18. Technology Co-evolution Analysis in the Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjoo; Yoon, Byungun

    This paper suggests the method that can describe the co-evolutionary patterns in the energy sectors. Technologies that have facilitated the growth of other technologies should get the priority in the R&D investment, if other conditions are almost the same. In the suggested method, LVC equations were applied to the patents relating to energy technologies. Then a network showing the interactions between technologies in their evolution process is visualised. Research findings will provide numerous implications for policy-making and strategic planning for energy technology development.

  19. Analysis of the economic structure of the eating-out sector: The case of Spain.

    PubMed

    Cabiedes-Miragaya, Laura

    2017-01-19

    The objective of this article is to analyse the structure of the Spanish eating-out sector from an economic point of view, and more specifically, from the supply perspective. This aspect has been studied less than the demand side, almost certainly due to the gaps which exist in available official statistics in Spain, and which have been filled basically with consumer surveys. For this reason, focus is also placed on the economic relevance of the sector and attention is drawn to the serious shortcomings regarding official statistics in this domain, in contrast to the priority that hotel industry statistics have traditionally received in Spain. Based on official statistics, a descriptive analysis was carried out, focused mainly, though not exclusively, on diverse structural aspects of the sector. Special emphasis was placed on issues such as business demography (for instance, number and types of enterprises, survival rates, size distribution, and age structure), market concentration and structure of costs. Among other conclusions, the analysis allowed us to conclude that: part of the sector is more concentrated than it may at first appear to be; the dual structure of the sector described by the literature in relation to other countries is also present in the Spanish case; and the impact of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) on the sector are, and will foreseeably continue to be, particularly relevant. The main conclusion of this study refers to the fact that consumers have gained prominence in their contribution to shaping the structure of the sector.

  20. Qualitative Environmental Health Research: An Analysis of the Literature, 1991–2008

    PubMed Central

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent articles have advocated for the use of qualitative methods in environmental health research. Qualitative research uses nonnumeric data to understand people’s opinions, motives, understanding, and beliefs about events or phenomena. Objective In this analysis of the literature, I report the use of qualitative methods and data in the study of the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Data sources A primary search on ISI Web of Knowledge/Web of Science for peer-reviewed journal articles dated from 1991 through 2008 included the following three terms: qualitative, environ*, and health. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are described. Data extraction Searches resulted in 3,155 records. Data were extracted and findings of articles analyzed to determine where and by whom qualitative environmental health research is conducted and published, the types of methods and analyses used in qualitative studies of environmental health, and the types of information qualitative data contribute to environmental health. Data synthesis Ninety-one articles met inclusion criteria. These articles were published in 58 different journals, with a maximum of eight for a single journal. The results highlight a diversity of disciplines and techniques among researchers who used qualitative methods to study environmental health, with most studies relying on one-on-one interviews. Details of the analyses were absent from a large number of studies. Nearly all of the studies identified increased scientific understanding of lay perceptions of environmental health exposures. Discussion and conclusions Qualitative data are published in traditionally quantitative environmental health studies to a limited extent. However, this analysis demonstrates the potential of qualitative data to improve understanding of complex exposure pathways, including the influence of social factors on environmental health, and health outcomes. PMID:20421191

  1. Risk-Based Input-Output Analysis of Influenza Epidemic Consequences on Interdependent Workforce Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Joost R.; May, Larissa; Haimar, Amine El

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of contagious diseases underscore the ever-looming threat of new epidemics. Compared to other disasters that inflict physical damage to infrastructure systems, epidemics can have more devastating and prolonged impacts on the population. This paper investigates the interdependent economic and productivity risks resulting from epidemic-induced workforce absenteeism. In particular, we develop a dynamic input-output model capable of generating sector-disaggregated economic losses based on different magnitudes of workforce disruptions. An ex post analysis of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the National Capital Region (NCR) reveals the distribution of consequences across different economic sectors. Consequences are categorized into two metrics: (i) economic loss, which measures the magnitude of monetary losses incurred in each sector, and (ii) inoperability, which measures the normalized monetary losses incurred in each sector relative to the total economic output of that sector. For a simulated mild pandemic scenario in NCR, two distinct rankings are generated using the economic loss and inoperability metrics. Results indicate that the majority of the critical sectors ranked according to the economic loss metric comprise of sectors that contribute the most to the NCR's gross domestic product (e.g., federal government enterprises). In contrast, the majority of the critical sectors generated by the inoperability metric include sectors that are involved with epidemic management (e.g., hospitals). Hence, prioritizing sectors for recovery necessitates consideration of the balance between economic loss, inoperability, and other objectives. Although applied specifically to the NCR region, the proposed methodology can be customized for other regions. PMID:23278756

  2. Enhancing Subject Access in Online Systems: The Year's Work in Subject Analysis, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Arlene G.

    1992-01-01

    Review of the 1991 literature on subject access in online systems discusses users and subject searching; subject access in online catalogs, including improvement of the database, search processing, the user interface, and user understanding; subject cataloging and indexing; information retrieval; thesaurus and indexing approaches; classification;…

  3. Research and writing in the history of health sciences, 1970-1982: a quantitative analysis of NLM's HISTLINE database.

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, J J

    1985-01-01

    HISTLINE, the MEDLARS file on the history of the health sciences, was analyzed to determine predominant areas of historical research and publication in the years 1970-1982, as reflected in this database produced within the History of Medicine Division at the National Library of Medicine. Subject content, chronologic and geographic breakdowns, and subjects of biographical studies are examined in view of their frequency in the file. Speculation for the predominance of particular descriptors and individuals is presented. An examination is made of the journals publishing the most medical history. Strengths and weaknesses of the database as reflected in this study also are discussed. PMID:3888330

  4. Toxoplasma encephalitis in AIDS patients in São Paulo during 1988 and 1991. A comparative retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Passos, L N; Araújo Filho, O F; Andrade Junior, H F

    2000-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis of Toxoplasma encephalitis patients from Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas, the main AIDS hospital of São Paulo, Brazil, during two different stages of the HIV epidemics, in 1988 (38 patients) and 1991 (33 patients). There were AIDS-related demographic differences, but the clinical presentation and diagnostic efficiency were similar, usually based on tomography and clinical response to therapy, with a clear distinction from other CNS infections, based on clinical and laboratory findings. Specific serologic studies were performed less often in 1991, with a high frequency of therapy change. The direct acute death rate from Toxoplasma encephalitis was high during both periods, i.e. 8/38 in 1988 and 10/33 in 1991. The direct acute death rate for the patients from the two periods as a whole was 25.4% (18/71), related to the time of HIV infection, absence of fever and presence of meningeal irritation at presentation, blood leukocytes higher than 10,000/mm3 and blood lymphocytes lower than 350/mm3. Toxoplasma encephalitis is a preventable disease when adequate prophylactic therapy is used and is relatively easy to treat in diagnosed HIV patients. Unfortunately, this severe and deadly disorder is the HIV diagnostic disease in several patients, and our data support the need for careful management of these patients, especially in those countries with a high toxoplasmosis prevalence where AIDS is concurrent with economic and public health problems.

  5. A Descriptive Analysis of Oral Health Systematic Reviews Published 1991–2012: Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Saltaji, Humam; Cummings, Greta G.; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Major, Michael P.; Amin, Maryam; Major, Paul W.; Hartling, Lisa; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify all systematic reviews (SRs) published in the domain of oral health research and describe them in terms of their epidemiological and descriptive characteristics. Design Cross sectional, descriptive study. Methods An electronic search of seven databases was performed from inception through May 2012; bibliographies of relevant publications were also reviewed. Studies were considered for inclusion if they were oral health SRs defined as therapeutic or non-therapeutic investigations that studied a topic or an intervention related to dental, oral or craniofacial diseases/disorders. Data were extracted from all the SRs based on a number of epidemiological and descriptive characteristics. Data were analysed descriptively for all the SRs, within each of the nine dental specialities, and for Cochrane and non-Cochrane SRs separately. Results 1,188 oral health (126 Cochrane and 1062 non-Cochrane) SRs published from 1991 through May 2012 were identified, encompassing the nine dental specialties. Over half (n = 676; 56.9%) of the SRs were published in specialty oral health journals, with almost all (n = 1,178; 99.2%) of the SRs published in English and almost none of the non-Cochrane SRs (n = 11; 0.9%) consisting of updates of previously published SRs. 75.3% of the SRs were categorized as therapeutic, with 64.5% examining non-drug interventions, while approximately half (n = 150/294; 51%) of the non-therapeutic SRs were classified as epidemiological SRs. The SRs included a median of 15 studies, with a meta-analysis conducted in 43.6%, in which a median of 9 studies/1 randomized trial were included in the largest meta-analysis conducted. Funding was received for 25.1% of the SRs, including nearly three-quarters (n = 96; 76.2%) of the Cochrane SRs. Conclusion Epidemiological and descriptive characteristics of the 1,188 oral health SRs varied across the nine dental specialties and by SR category (Cochrane vs. non-Cochrane). There is a

  6. 3-D vibration analysis of annular sector plates using the Chebyshev-Ritz method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Lo, S. H.; Cheung, Y. K.

    2009-02-01

    The three-dimensional free vibration of annular sector plates with various boundary conditions is studied by means of the Chebyshev-Ritz method. The analysis is based on the three-dimensional small strain linear elasticity theory. The product of Chebyshev polynomials satisfying the necessary boundary conditions is selected as admissible functions in such a way that the governing eigenvalue equation can be conveniently derived through an optimization process by the Ritz method. The boundary functions guarantee the satisfaction of the geometric boundary conditions of the plates and the Chebyshev polynomials provide the robustness for numerical calculation. The present study provides a full vibration spectrum for the thick annular sector plates, which cannot be given by the two-dimensional (2-D) theories such as the Mindlin theory. Comprehensive numerical results with high accuracy are systematically produced, which can be used as benchmark to evaluate other numerical methods. The effect of radius ratio, thickness ratio and sector angle on natural frequencies of the plates with a sector angle from 120° to 360° is discussed in detail. The three-dimensional vibration solutions for plates with a re-entrant sector angle (larger than 180°) and shallow helicoidal shells (sector angle larger than 360°) with a small helix angle are presented for the first time.

  7. The mineral sector and economic development in Ghana: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addy, Samuel N.

    A computable general equilibrium model (CGE) model is formulated for conducting mineral policy analysis in the context of national economic development for Ghana. The model, called GHANAMIN, places strong emphasis on production, trade, and investment. It can be used to examine both micro and macro economic impacts of policies associated with mineral investment, taxation, and terms of trade changes, as well as mineral sector performance impacts due to technological change or the discovery of new deposits. Its economywide structure enables the study of broader development policy with a focus on individual or multiple sectors, simultaneously. After going through a period of contraction for about two decades, mining in Ghana has rebounded significantly and is currently the main foreign exchange earner. Gold alone contributed 44.7 percent of 1994 total export earnings. GHANAMIN is used to investigate the economywide impacts of mineral tax policies, world market mineral prices changes, mining investment, and increased mineral exports. It is also used for identifying key sectors for economic development. Various simulations were undertaken with the following results: Recently implemented mineral tax policies are welfare increasing, but have an accompanying decrease in the output of other export sectors. World mineral price rises stimulate an increase in real GDP; however, this increase is less than real GDP decreases associated with price declines. Investment in the non-gold mining sector increases real GDP more than investment in gold mining, because of the former's stronger linkages to the rest of the economy. Increased mineral exports are very beneficial to the overall economy. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in mining increases welfare more so than domestic capital, which is very limited. Mining investment and the increased mineral exports since 1986 have contributed significantly to the country's economic recovery, with gold mining accounting for 95 percent of the

  8. "There has never been anything like a classical child analysis". Clinical discussions with Anna Freud, 1970-1971.

    PubMed

    Penman, Ava Bry

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a series of clinical discussions with Anna Freud, faculty and trainees at the Hampstead Clinic in 1970-1971. Anna Freud's comments are published here for the first time. The meetings concerned the nature and use of relationships in work with children who do not have a well-defined neurosis. If parochial borders are erased among the domains of upbringing, education, and psychoanalysis, potential therapeutic fertility and strength can increase. The clinical material in the paper makes it possible to explore the old and new aspects of the treatment relationship, such as the transferential, the externalization of the self-representational, the developmental, and so forth. This is a personal account of a formative experience during training.

  9. Analysis of 1970-1995 Trends in Tropospheric Ozone at Northern Hemisphere Midlatitudes with the GEOS-CHEM Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusco, Andrew C.; Logan, Jennifer A.

    2004-01-01

    I ] The causes of trends in tropospheric ozone at Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes from 1970 to 1995 are investigated with the GEOS-CHEM model, a global three-dimensional model of the troposphere driven by assimilated meteorological observations from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS). This model is used to investigate the sensitivity of tropospheric ozone with respect to (1) changes in the anthropogenic emission of nitrogen oxides and nonmethane hydrocarbons, (2) increases in methane concentrations, (3) variations in the stratospheric source of ozone, (4) changes in solar radiation resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion, and ( 5 ) increases in tropospheric temperatures. Model results indicate that local increases in NO, emissions have caused most of the increases seen in lower tropospheric ozone over Europe and Japan. Increases in methane are responsible for roughly one fifth of the anthropogenically induced increase in tropospheric ozone at northern midlatitudes. However, changes in ozone precursors do not adequately explain either the spatial differences in observed ozone trends across midlatitudes or the observed decreases in ozone over Canada throughout the troposphere. We argue that ozone depletion in the lowermost stratosphere is likely to have reduced the stratospheric source by as much as 30% from the early 1970s to the mid 1990s. Model simulations that account for such a reduction along with reported changes in anthropogenic emissions show steep declines of ozone in the upper troposphere and variable increases in the lower troposphere that are more consistent with observations. Differential temperature trends in summer between North America and Europe may account for at least some of the remaining spatial variation in tropospheric ozone trends. Increases in ultraviolet (UV) radiation due to stratospheric ozone depletion do not appear to significantly reduce tropospheric ozone, except at midlatitudes in the Southern Hemisphere following the

  10. 1991 NACUBO Endowment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the results of a 1991 study of the performance and management of endowments of colleges and universities. Part I offers information on the data collection and describes several definitions and formula used in the analysis. Part II presents the report's exhibits in two sections the first of which treats endowment…

  11. Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry: 1970-1991

    EIA Publications

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of the ownership of the U.S. electric power industry over the past two decades, with emphasis on the major changes that have occurred, their causes, and their effects.

  12. Environment Law Review--1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, H. Floyd; And Others

    This is the first of several volumes to be published annually in the field of environmental law. It contains material from periodicals published in early 1970, 1969, and several articles of special significance which appeared in periodicals bearing 1968 dates. It has been collected primarily for lawyers so they may have, in convenient reference…

  13. Earth Science in 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reviews advancements in earth science during 1970 in each of these areas: economic geology (fuels), economic geology (metals), economic geology (nonmetals), environmental geology, geochemistry, manpower, hydrology, mapping, marine geology, mineralogy, paleontology, plate tectonics, politics and geology, remote sensing, and seismology. (PR)

  14. Women in 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens Advisory Council on the Status of Women, Washington, DC.

    This document highlights the advances made by women in 1970, e.g., the proclamation of Executive Order 11246, which prohibits sex discrimination by federal contractors and became the instrument for attacking such discrimination in the staffing of universities. The council on female status emphasizes the importance of the growing cooperation among…

  15. Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases. Initial studies, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1992-03-01

    The current objective of the project ``Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases`` is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

  16. Industry sector analysis, China: Urban water sanitation. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the water pollution control equipment market for urban water sanitation in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  17. Analysis of power sector efficiency improvements for an integrated utility planning process in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.; MacDonald, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to analyze and document the potential for power sector efficiency improvements from generation to end-use, the Agency for International Development and the Government of Costa Rica are jointly conducting an integrated power sector efficiency analysis. Potential for energy and cost savings in power plants, transmission and distribution, and demand-side management programs are being evaluated. The product of this study will be an integrated investment plan for the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, incorporating both supply and demand side investment options. This paper presents the methodology employed in the study, as well as preliminary estimates of the results of the study. 14 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Integrated power sector efficiency analysis: A case study of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.; MacDonald, J.M.

    1990-03-01

    In an effort to analyze and document the potential for power sector efficiency improvements from generation to end-use, the Agency for International Development and the Government of Costa Rica are jointly conducting an integrated power sector efficiency analysis. Potential for energy and cost savings in power plants, transmission and distribution, and demand-side management programs are being evaluated. The product of this study will be an integrated investment plan for the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, incorporating both supply and demand side investment options. This paper presents the methodology employed in the study, as well as preliminary estimates of the results of the study. 14 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Lost Opportunities in the Buildings Sector: Energy-Efficiency Analysis and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Dirks, James A.; Anderson, David M.; Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2008-09-12

    This report summarizes the results and the assumptions used in an analysis of the potential “lost efficiency opportunities” in the buildings sector. These targets of opportunity are those end-uses, applications, practices, and portions of the buildings market which are not currently being addressed, or addressed fully, by the Building Technologies Program (BTP) due to lack of resources. The lost opportunities, while a significant increase in effort and impact in the buildings sector, still represent only a small portion of the full technical potential for energy efficiency in buildings.

  20. NASA Space Geodesy Program: GSFC data analysis, 1992. Crustal Dynamics Project VLBI geodetic results, 1979 - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. W.; Ma, C.; Caprette, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    The Goddard VLBI group reports the results of analyzing 1648 Mark 3 data sets acquired from fixed and mobile observing sites through the end of 1991, and available to the Crustal Dynamics Project. Two large solutions were used to obtain Earth rotation parameters, nutation offsets, radio source positions, site positions, site velocities, and baseline evolution. Site positions are tabulated on a yearly basis for 1979 to 1995, inclusive. Site velocities are presented in both geocentric Cartesian and topocentric coordinates. Baseline evolution is plotted for 200 baselines, and individual length determinations are presented for an additional 356 baselines. This report includes 155 quasar radio sources, 96 fixed stations and mobile sites, and 556 baselines.

  1. Quality-assurance results for routine water analysis in US Geological Survey laboratories, water year 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maloney, T.J.; Ludtke, A.S.; Krizman, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    The US. Geological Survey operates a quality- assurance program based on the analyses of reference samples for the National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado, and the Quality of Water Service Unit in Ocala, Florida. Reference samples containing selected inorganic, nutrient, and low ionic-strength constituents are prepared and disguised as routine samples. The program goal is to determine precision and bias for as many analytical methods offered by the participating laboratories as possible. The samples typically are submitted at a rate of approximately 5 percent of the annual environmental sample load for each constituent. The samples are distributed to the laboratories throughout the year. Analytical data for these reference samples reflect the quality of environmental sample data produced by the laboratories because the samples are processed in the same manner for all steps from sample login through data release. The results are stored permanently in the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System. During water year 1991, 86 analytical procedures were evaluated at the National Water Quality Laboratory and 37 analytical procedures were evaluated at the Quality of Water Service Unit. An overall evaluation of the inorganic (major ion and trace metal) constituent data for water year 1991 indicated analytical imprecision in the National Water Quality Laboratory for 5 of 67 analytical procedures: aluminum (whole-water recoverable, atomic emission spectrometric, direct-current plasma); calcium (atomic emission spectrometric, direct); fluoride (ion-exchange chromatographic); iron (whole-water recoverable, atomic absorption spectrometric, direct); and sulfate (ion-exchange chromatographic). The results for 11 of 67 analytical procedures had positive or negative bias during water year 1991. Analytical imprecision was indicated in the determination of two of the five National Water Quality Laboratory nutrient constituents: orthophosphate as phosphorus and

  2. Conic Sector Analysis of Hybrid Control Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P. M.

    1982-01-01

    A hybrid control system contains an analog plant and a hybrid (or sampled-data) compensator. In this thesis a new conic sector is determined which is constructive and can be used to: (1) determine closed loop stability, (2) analyze robustness with respect to modelling uncertainties, (3) analyze steady state response to commands, and (4) select the sample rate. The use of conic sectors allows the designer to treat hybrid control systems as though they were analog control systems. The center of the conic sector can be used as a rigorous linear time invariant approximation of the hybrid control system, and the radius places a bound on the errors of this approximation. The hybrid feedback system can be multivariable, and the sampler is assumed to be synchronous. Algorithms to compute the conic sector are presented. Several examples demonstrate how the conic sector analysis techniques are applied. Extensions to single loop multirate hybrid feedback systems are presented. Further extensions are proposed for multiloop multirate hybrid feedback system and for single rate systems with asynchronous sampling.

  3. External assistance to the health sector in developing countries: a detailed analysis, 1972-90.

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, C.; Murray, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    This study, which was conducted for the World Bank's World development report 1993: investing in health, provides an objective analysis of the external assistance to the health sector by quantifying in detail the sources and recipients of such assistance in 1990, by analysing time trends for external assistance to the health sector over the last two decades, and, to the extent possible, by describing the allocation of resources to specific activities in the health sector. The main findings of the study are that total external assistance to the health sector in 1990 was US$ 4800 million, or only 2.9% of total health expenditures in developing countries. After stagnation in real terms during the first half of the 1980s, health sector assistance has been increasing since 1986. Despite their small volume, external assistance at the margins may play a critical role in capital investment, research and strategic planning. The study confirms prior findings that health status variables per se are not related to the amount of aid received. Comparing investments to the burden of disease shows tremendous differences in the funding for different health problems. A number of conditions are comparatively under-financed, particularly noncommunicable diseases and injuries. PMID:7923543

  4. Comparative analysis of energy data bases for the industrial and commercial sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Belzer, D.B.; Bohn, A.A.

    1986-12-01

    Energy data bases for the industrial and commercial sectors were analyzed to determine how valuable this data might be for policy analysis. The approach is the same for both end-use sectors: first a descrption or overview of relevant data bases identifies the available data; the coverage and methods used to generate the data are then explained; the data are then characterized and examples are provided for the major data sets under consideration. A final step assesses the data bases under consideration and draws conclusions. There are a variety of data bases considered for each of the end-use sectors included in this report. Data bases for the industrial sector include the National Energy Accounts, process-derived data bases such as the Drexel data base and data obtained from industry trade associations. For the commercial sector, three types of data bases are analyzed: the Nonresidential Building Energy Consumption Surveys, Dodge Construction Data and the Building Owners and Manager's Association Experience Exchange Report.

  5. Estimating size and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector using the Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-02-15

    This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the Portuguese water sector applying Bayesian and classical statistics to make inference in stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This study proves the usefulness and advantages of the application of Bayesian statistics for making inference in SFA over traditional SFA which just uses classical statistics. The resulting Bayesian methods allow overcoming some problems that arise in the application of the traditional SFA, such as the bias in small samples and skewness of residuals. In the present case study of the water sector in Portugal, these Bayesian methods provide more plausible and acceptable results. Based on the results obtained we found that there are important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope in the Portuguese water sector, pointing out to the huge advantages in undertaking mergers by joining the retail and wholesale components and by joining the drinking water and wastewater services.

  6. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  7. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  8. Analysis of health sector gender equality and social inclusion strategy 2009 of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Mahara, G B; Dhital, S R

    2014-01-01

    The policy on gender equality and social inclusion (GESI) in health sector of Nepal is formulated in 2009 targeting toward poor, vulnerable, marginalized social and ethnic groups. Gender inequality and social discrimination are a social problem that affect on individual health finally. The main objective of this paper is to critically analysis and evaluates the Government's strategy on health sector gender equality and social inclusion in Nepal. We collected published and unpublished information assessing the public health, policy analysis and research needs from different sources. A different policy approaches for the analysis and evaluation of GESI strategies is applied in this paper. Universal education, community participation, individual, group and mass communication approaches, and social capital are the key aspects of effective implementation of policy at target levels.

  9. A historical review and bibliometric analysis of research on lead in drinking water field from 1991 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Ma, Yuwei; Zhang, Liang; Gan, Fuxing; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2010-03-01

    A bibliometric analysis based on Science Citation Index (SCI) published by Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) was carried out to identify the global research related to lead in drinking water field from 1991 to 2007 and to improve the understanding of research trends in the same period. The results from this analysis indicate that there have been an increasing number of annual publications mainly during two periods: from 1992 to 1997 and from 2004 to 2007. United States produced 37% of all pertinent articles followed by India with 8.0% and Canada with 4.8%. Science of the Total Environment published the most articles followed by Journal American Water Works Association and Toxicology. Summary of the most frequently used keywords are also provided. "Cadmium" was the most popular author keyword in the 17 years. Furthermore based on bibliometric results four research aspects were summarized in this paper and the historical research review was also presented.

  10. Undergraduate programs for health professionals in Brazil: an analysis from 1991 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Ana Estela; Morita, Maria Celeste; Pierantoni, Célia Regina; Brenelli, Sigisfredo Luis; Passarella, Teresa; Campos, Francisco Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    Study conducted to support the planning and implementation of public policies on human health resources. Fourteen undergraduate health courses were analyzed: biomedicine, biological sciences, physical education, nursing, pharmacy, physical therapy, speech and language therapy, medicine, veterinary medicine, nutrition, dentistry, psychology, social work and occupational therapy between 1991 and 2008. Data on number of students admitted, college admission rates, rates of graduating student by inhabitant, gender, geographic area and family income were collected from the Brazilian Ministry of Education database. For medicine undergraduate programs there were 40 applicants per place at public institutions and 10 at private ones. Most students admitted were females. The Southeast region concentrated 57% of graduating students. The study revealed trends that indicates opportunity inequalities in the regional distribution of health professional education, thus supporting the need for policies aimed at reducing such inequalities.

  11. Effects of urban land-use change on streamflow and water quality in Oakland County, Michigan, 1970-2003, as inferred from urban gradient and temporal analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aichele, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    This apparent contradiction may be caused by the differences in the changes measured in each analysis. The change-through-time approach describes change from a fixed starting point of approximately 1970; the gradient approach describes the cumulative effect of all change up to approximately 2000. These findings indicate that although urbanization in Oakland County results in most of the effects observed in the literature, as evidenced in the gradient approach, relatively few of the anticipated effects have been observed during the past three decades. This relative stability despite rapid land-cover change may be related to efforts to mitigate the effects of development and a general decrease in the density of new residential development. It may also be related to external factors such as climate variability and reduced atmospheric deposition of specific chemicals. 

  12. Evolution and hazard analysis of high-mountain lakes in the Cordillera Vilcabamba (Southern Peru) from 1991 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardamino, Lucía; Drenkhan, Fabian

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, glaciers in high-mountain regions have experienced unprecedented glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age (LIA). This development triggers the formation and growth of glacier lakes, which in combination with changes in glacier parameters might produce more frequent conditions for the occurrence of disasters, such as Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF). Facing such a scenario, the analysis of changing lake characteristics and identification of new glacier lakes are imperative in order to identify and reduce potential hazards and mitigate or prevent future disasters for adjacent human settlements. In this study, we present a multi-temporal analysis with Landsat TM 5 and OLI 8 images between 1991 and 2014 in the Cordillera Vilcabamba region (Southern Peru), a remote area with difficult access and climate and glaciological in-situ data scarcity. A semi-automatic model was developed using the band ratios Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) in order to identify glacier and lake area changes. Results corroborate a strong glacier area reduction of about 51% from 1991 (200.3 km²) to 2014 (98.4 km²). At the same time, the number of lakes (total lake surface) has increased at an accelerated rate, from 0.77% (0.48%) in 1991 to 2.31% (2.49%) in 2014. In a multiple criteria analysis to identify potential hazards, 90 out of a total of 329 lakes in 2014 have been selected for further monitoring. Additionally, 29 population centers have been identified as highly exposed to lake related hazards from which 25 indicate a distance less than 1 km to an upstream lake and four are situated in a channel of potential debris flow. In these areas human risks are particularly high in view of a low HDI below Peru's average and hence pronounced vulnerability. We suggest more future research on measurements and monitoring of glacier and lake characteristics in these remote high-mountain regions, which include comprehensive risk

  13. Technology Outlook for STEM+ Education 2013-2018: An NMC Horizon Project Sector Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Estrada, V.; Martín, S.

    2013-01-01

    The "Technology Outlook for STEM+ Education 2013-2018: An NMC Horizon Project Sector Analysis" reflects a collaborative research effort between the New Media Consortium (NMC), the Centro Superior para la Enseñanza Virtual (CSEV), the Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Electrónica y de Control at the Universidad Nacional de Educación a…

  14. Factors Influencing the Organizational Stress among Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector in Kerala: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to explore the various factors that influence the organizational stress of teachers working in higher education sector in the state of Kerala. The data required for the study has been conveniently collected from 200 teachers working in higher education sector. Exploratory factor analysis revealed nine factors, which significantly…

  15. Treatment integrity of school-based interventions with children in the journal of applied behavior analysis 1991-2005.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Laura Lee; Gresham, Frank M; DiGennaro, Florence D; Reed, Derek D

    2007-01-01

    We reviewed all school-based experimental studies with individuals 0 to 18 years published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) between 1991 and 2005. A total of 142 articles (152 studies) that met review criteria were included. Nearly all (95%) of these experiments provided an operational definition of the independent variable, but only 30% of the studies provided treatment integrity data. Nearly half of studies (45%) were judged to be at high risk for treatment inaccuracies. Treatment integrity data were more likely to be included in studies that used teachers, multiple treatment agents, or both. Although there was a substantial increase in reporting operational definitions of independent variables, results suggest that there was only a modest improvement in reported integrity over the past 30 years of JABA studies. Recommendations for research and practice are discussed.

  16. Accounting for trends in health poverty: a decomposition analysis for Britain, 1991-2008.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Michal

    2015-03-01

    We use data from the British Household Panel Survey to analyse changes in poverty of self-reported health from 1991 to 2008. We use the indices recently introduced by Bennett and Hatzimasoura (Poverty measurement with ordinal data. Institute for International Economic Policy, IIEP-WP-2011-14, 2011), which can be interpreted as ordinal counterparts of the classical Foster et al. (Econometrica 52(3):761-766, 1984) poverty measures. We decompose changes in self-reported health poverty over time into within-group health poverty changes and population shifts between groups. We also provide statistical inference for the Bennett and Hatzimasoura's (Poverty measurement with ordinal data. Institute for International Economic Policy, IIEP-WP-2011-14, 2011) indices. Results suggest that when "fair" self-reported health status is chosen as a health poverty threshold all of the used indices indicate the growth of health poverty in Britain. However, when the health poverty threshold is lower ("poor" self-reported health status) the increase in health poverty incidence was compensated by decreasing average health poverty depth and improving health inequality among those who are poor with respect to health. The subgroup decompositions suggest that the most important factors accounting for the changes in total health poverty in Britain include a rise of both health poverty and population shares of persons cohabiting and couples with no children as well as an increase of the population of retired persons.

  17. Bronchial asthma healthcare costs in Mexico: analysis of trends from 1991-1996 with information from the Mexican Institute of Social Security.

    PubMed

    Rico-Méndez, F G; Barquera, S; Cabrera, D A; Escobedo, S; Ochoa, L G; Massey-Reynaud, L F

    2000-01-01

    Cost trends for bronchial asthma have not been previously estimated in Mexico. The increasing prevalence of bronchial asthma as well as its elevated costs make it necessary to expand the availability of information for health planners. This is a growing problem which has been given little attention in national health reports. We did a descriptive, retrospective analysis using national data from the Mexican Institute for Social Security. We estimated the number of medical consultations provided by the state family medicine and specialty areas. A total of 756,843 consultations due to bronchial asthma were provided between 1991 and 1996 in the service areas under study. The healthcare expenditure for bronchial asthma showed an ascending and sustained trend during the study period. When analyzing the trends by type of service, a significant increase in in-hospital care was observed, ranging from US $14.5 (1991) to $19.8 (1996) million and a maximum of $28.4 (1994) million. A similar increase was found in specialty consultation, from $3.96 (1991) to $8.5 (1996) million; in emergencies, from $1. 1 (1991) to $2.9 (1996) million; and family medicine, from $0.66 (1991) to $0.79 (1996) million. Bronchial asthma follows the same pattern as other noncommunicable chronic diseases, increasing in highly urbanized areas and nationwide. In order to improve healthcare and maximize results with scarce resources, a set of strategies is presented to reduce bronchial asthma recurrence, decrease healthcare costs, and improve quality of life.

  18. [Foreigners in Spain in 1991].

    PubMed

    Lora-tamayo D'ocon, G

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the characteristics of the foreign population living in Spain in 1991 is presented using data from two sources, the 1991 census and the system for regularization of the status of foreign workers, which was brought up to date the same year. The characteristics analyzed include country of origin, current province of residence, and occupation. The differences between the data obtained from the two sources are discussed. (ANNOTATION)

  19. Analysis of fuel shares in the residential sector: 1960 to 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, J.M.; Shankle, S.A.; Pomykala, J.S.

    1986-08-01

    Historical and future energy use by fuel type in the residential sector of the United States are examined. Of interest is the likely relative demand for fuels as they affect national policy issues such as the potential shortfall of electric generating capacity in the mid to late 1990's and the ability of the residential sector to switch rapdily among fuels in response to fuel shortages, price increases and other factors. Factors affecting the share of a fuel used rather than the aggregate level of energy use are studied. However, the share of a fuel used is not independent of the level of energy consumption. In the analysis, the level of consumption of each fuel is computed as an intermediate result and is reported for completeness.

  20. Identity of African American Characters in Newbery Medal and Newbery Honor Award Winning Books: A Critical Content Analysis of Books from 1991 to 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Tami Butler

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a critical content analysis of the African American characters found in Newbery Medal award winning books recognized between the years of 1991 and 2011. The John Newbery Medal is a highly regarded award in the United States for children's literature and esteemed worldwide. Children's and adolescents' books…

  1. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  2. Models for residential-and commercial-sector energy conservation analysis: Applications, limitations, and future potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, H. E.; Fuller, R. E.

    1980-09-01

    Four of the major models used by DOE for energy conservation analyses in the residential and commercial building sectors are reviewed and critically analyzed to determine how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. The most effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy conservation policy and analysis is assessed. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  3. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties. Final report, September 1991--February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.

    1996-03-01

    Experiments on equilibrium adsorption loadings of various probe compounds on 60-200 mesh Illinois {number_sign}6 coal (PSOC-1539), Adaville {number_sign}1 coal (PSOC-1544), Wyodak coal (PSOC-1545) and Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal (PSOC-1549) were performed. the probe compounds include m-cresol, p-cresol, o-cresol, phenol, n-octanol, n-heptanol, n-propanol, isopropanol n-butanol, s-butanol, 2-butanol, t-butanol, 2-naphthol, cyclohexanol, 2-methyl-1-pentanol (2M1P), 4-methyl-2-pentanol (4M2P), benzene and toluene. Equilibrium adsorption of various probe compounds on the coals were measured with the inverse liquid chromatography method. Experiments on flotation of various 60-200 mesh treated coals such as Illinois {number_sign}6 coal (PSOC-1539), Adaville {number_sign}1 coal (PSOC-1544), Wyodak coal (PSOC-1545) and Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal (PSOC-1549) were performed. The chosen coals were treated with steam, nitrogen and air at 1 atm and 125-225{degrees}C for 24 hours. The coals were treated with water as well as 20-1000 ppm aqueous alcohol solutions for 3-24 hours at 150-225{degrees}C. The coals also were treated with 20-ppm alcohol aqueous solutions for 1-24 hours at the 0.002-g/min mass flow rate of alcohol aqueous solutions and at 225{degrees}C. Flotation experiments were conducted with a 500-cm{sup 3} batch-type micro flotation apparatus, introducing nitrogen at the bottom of the apparatus. This final report was prepared with the experimental data obtained during the period of September 1991-March 1994.

  4. Globalization, Development and International Migration: A Cross-National Analysis of Less-Developed Countries, 1970-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Matthew R.; Kentor, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely argued that globalization and economic development are associated with international migration. However, these relationships have not been tested empirically. We use a cross-national empirical analysis to assess the impact of global and national factors on international migration from less-developed countries. An interdisciplinary…

  5. Water-quality trend analysis and sampling design for streams in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1970-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is considering several alternatives to meet the future municipal, rural, and industrial water-supply needs in the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin, and an environmental impact statement is being prepared to evaluate the potential effects of the various alternatives on the water quality and aquatic health in the basin in relation to the historical variability of streamflow and constituent concentration. Therefore, a water-quality trend analysis was needed to determine the amount of natural water-quality variability that can be expected to occur in the basin, to determine if significant water-quality changes have occurred as a result of human activities, to explore potential causal mechanisms for water-quality changes, and to establish a baseline from which to monitor future water-quality trends. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, to analyze historical water-quality trends in two dissolved major ions, dissolved solids, three nutrients, and two dissolved trace metals for nine streamflow-gaging stations in the basin. Annual variability in streamflow in the Red River Basin was high during the trend-analysis period (1970-2001). The annual variability affects constituent concentrations in individual tributaries to the Red River and, in turn, affects constituent concentrations in the main stem of the Red River because of the relative streamflow contribution from the tributaries to the main stem. Therefore, an annual concentration anomaly, which is an estimate of the interannual variability in concentration that can be attributed to long-term variability in streamflow, was used to analyze annual streamflow-related variability in constituent concentrations. The concentration trend is an estimate of the long-term systematic changes in concentration that are unrelated to seasonal or long-term variability in streamflow. Concentrations that have both

  6. Private participation in infrastructure: A risk analysis of long-term contracts in power sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceran, Nisangul

    The objective of this dissertation is to assess whether the private participation in energy sector through long term contracting, such as Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) type investments, is an efficient way of promoting efficiency in the economy. To this end; the theoretical literature on the issue is discussed, the experience of several developing countries are examined, and a BOT project, which is undertaken by the Enron company in Turkey, has been studied in depth as a case study. Different risk analysis techniques, including sensitivity and probabilistic risk analysis with the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method have been applied to assess the financial feasibility and risks of the case study project, and to shed light on the level of rent-seeking in the BOT agreements. Although data on rent seeking and corruption is difficult to obtain, the analysis of case study investment using the sensitivity and MCS method provided some information that can be used in assessing the level of rent-seeking in BOT projects. The risk analysis enabled to test the sustainability of the long-term BOT contracts through the analysis of projects financial feasibility with and without the government guarantees in the project. The approach of testing the sustainability of the project under different scenarios is helpful to understand the potential costs and contingent liabilities for the government and project's impact on a country's overall economy. The results of the risk analysis made by the MCS method for the BOT project used as the case study strongly suggest that, the BOT projects does not serve to the interest of the society and transfers substantial amount of public money to the private companies, implying severe governance problems. It is found that not only government but also private sector may be reluctant about full privatization of infrastructure due to several factors such as involvement of large sunk costs, very long time period for returns to be received, political and

  7. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector-A qualitative content analysis of the political rationale.

    PubMed

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During the preparatory work, the rationales of diversity on the market and entrepreneurship were added, while the original rationales of efficiency, price pressure, and better usage of medicines were abandoned. The reform can be seen as a typical New Public Management reform influenced by the notion that private actors are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use.

  8. Identification and analysis of human remains recovered from wells from the 1991 War in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Slaus, Mario; Strinović, Davor; Pećina-Slaus, Nives; Brkić, Hrvoje; Balicević, Drinko; Petrovecki, Vedrana; Pećina, Tatjana Cicvara

    2007-08-24

    From 1996 to the present, the remains of 61 individuals killed during the 1991 War in Croatia were recovered from both dried out and functioning wells. Positive identification was established in 60.7% or 37/61 cases. Remains recovered from the same geographical region but from non-well settings were identified in 77.4% or 1256/1623 cases. The purpose of this paper is to report on the taphonomic, demographic and trauma characteristics of remains recovered from wells and identify factors responsible for the discrepancy in the identification ratios. The age and sex distributions in the well and non-well series were similar, as were the frequencies of recovered personal documents, jewelry and other artifacts. The taphonomic features of the remains were, however, significantly different. Preservation of remains was considerably better in non-well settings (1400/1623 or 86.3% compared to 40/61 or 65.5% in wells). Congruently, commingling of remains was more frequent in wells (26/61 or 42.6% compared to 77/1623 or 4.7% in non-well settings). In bodies recovered from non-well settings the preservation, state and commingling of the remains were strongly correlated with positive identification. None of these features were correlated with the identification of bodies from wells. Instead, identification of remains from wells was significantly affected by the presence or absence of water in the well. As both series have similar frequencies, and identical rankings of identification factors, the reason for the discrepancy in the identification ratios lies in the fact that by themselves, these factors were rarely sufficient for positive identification. In both series the majority of identifications (51.4% in the well, and 58.1% in the non-well series) were established through a combination of biological and non-biological features. The significantly lower identification ratio in the well series resulted from the difficult recovery conditions in wells with significant amounts of

  9. The Impact Analysis of Direct Public R&D and Innovation Investments in Turkish Space Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Derya; Cakir, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    According to The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), space sector plays a pivotal role in the functioning of modern societies and their economic development. It is in the scope of OECD's International Futures Programme. The global space economy, as defined by the OECD Space Forum, comprises the space industry's core activities in space manufacturing and in satellite operations, plus other consumer activities that have been derived over the years from governmental research and development. In 2013 commercial revenues generated by the space economy amounted to USD 256.2 billion globally that is huge amount of space investment in the world. Recently, Turkey has also entered to the sector and it has growing strategic interest in space. First satellite project was started with a technology transfer from UK by TUBITAK Space Technologies Research Institute in 2001 and it launched to its orbit in 2003. Then RASAT and GÖKTÜRK-2 satellites were developed and launched to their orbits respectively in 2011 and 2012. Today, we have other satellite projects that are going on, too. However, we do not have a mechanism or a model to assess the impacts of those projects. What kind of model can be used to measure the impact of direct public R&D and innovation investments in Turkish space sector? The aim of this study is to develop a model which would be useful for monitoring the performance of R&D and Innovation investments that are conducted through government policies and strategies and so on to give feedback for effective strategy making. When we look at the impact analysis studies in Turkey, we see a few such as TUBITAK (Özçelik and Taymaz, 2008; Erden, 2010; Tandoǧan, 2011), İşkur (World Bank Report, 2013), Ministry of Economy (TTGV, 2013), Development Agencies (İZKA, 2011; Elçi vd., 2011; Pınar, 2014; Meydan, 2014). There is need for a systematic approach to impact analysis. Since there is no data for this study, we would develop a model with

  10. Toward the greening of nuclear energy: A content analysis of nuclear energy frames from 1991 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Sonya R.

    Framing theory has emerged as one of the predominant theories employed in mass communications research in the 21st century. Frames are identified as interpretive packages for content where some issue attributes are highlighted over other attributes. While framing effects studies appear plentiful, longitudinal studies assessing trends in dominant framing packages and story elements for an issue appear to be less understood. Through content analysis, this study examines dominant frame packages, story elements, headline tone, story tone, stereotypes, and source attribution for nuclear energy from 1991-2008 in the New York Times, USA Today, the Wall Street Journal, and the Washington Post. Unlike many content analysis studies, this study compares intercoder reliability among three indices---percentage agreement, proportional reduction of loss and Scott's Pi. The newspapers represented in this study possess a commonality in the types of dominant frames packages employed. Significant dominant frame packages among the four newspapers include human/health, proliferation, procedural, and marketplace. While the procedural frame package was more likely to appear prior to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the proliferation frame packaged was more likely to appear after the Kyoto Protol. Over time, the sustainable frame package demonstrated increased significance. This study is part of the growing literature regarding the function of frames over time.

  11. Tipping points for carbon dioxide and air pollution benefits: an energy systems analysis of natural gas verses electric technologies in the U.S. buildings sector

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our analysis examines emission trade-offs between electricity and natural gas use in the buildings sector at the system level, including upstream emissions from the electric sector and natural gas mining emissions.

  12. A multivariate analysis of observed and modeled biophysical variability on the Bering Sea shelf: Multidecadal hindcasts (1970-2009) and forecasts (2010-2040)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Albert J.; Gibson, Georgina A.; Bond, Nicholas A.; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Hedstrom, Kate; Cheng, Wei; Wang, Muyin; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Eisner, Lisa; Cieciel, Kristin D.

    2013-10-01

    Coupled physical/biological models can be used to downscale global climate change to the ecology of subarctic regions, and to explore the bottom-up and top-down effects of that change on the spatial structure of subarctic ecosystems—for example, the relative dominance of large vs. small zooplankton in relation to ice cover. Here we utilize a multivariate statistical approach to extract the emergent properties of a coupled physical/biological hindcast of the Bering Sea for years 1970-2009, which includes multiple episodes of warming and cooling (e.g. the recent cooling of 2005-2009), and a multidecadal regional forecast of the coupled models, driven by an IPCC global model forecast of 2010-2040. Specifically, we employ multivariate empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to derive the spatial covariance among physical and biological timeseries from our simulations. These are compared with EOFs derived from spatially gridded measurements of the region, collected during multiyear field programs. The model replicates observed relationships among temperature and salinity, as well as the observed inverse correlation between temperature and large crustacean zooplankton on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Predicted future warming of the shelf is accompanied by a northward shift in both pelagic and benthic biomass.

  13. Anatomical sector analysis of load-bearing tibial bone structure during 90-day bed rest and 1-year recovery.

    PubMed

    Cervinka, Tomas; Rittweger, Jörn; Hyttinen, Jari; Felsenberg, Dieter; Sievänen, Harri

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the bone response to long bed rest-related immobility and during subsequent recovery differed at anatomically different sectors of tibial epiphysis and diaphysis. For this study, peripheral quantitative tomographic (pQCT) scans obtained from a previous 90-day 'Long Term Bed Rest' intervention were preprocessed with a new method based on statistical approach and re-analysed sector-wise. The pQCT was performed on 25 young healthy males twice before the bed rest, after the bed rest and after 1-year follow-up. All men underwent a strict bed rest intervention, and in addition, seven of them received pamidronate treatment and nine did flywheel exercises as countermeasures against disuse-related bone loss. Clearly, 3-9% sector-specific losses in trabecular density were observed at the tibial epiphysis on average. Similarly, cortical density decreased in a sector-specific way being the largest at the anterior sector of tibial diaphysis. During recovery, the bed rest-induced bone losses were practically restored and no consistent sector-specific modulation was observed in any subgroup. It is concluded that the sector-specific analysis of bone cross-sections has potential to reveal skeletal responses to various interventions that cannot be inferred from the average analysis of the whole bone cross-section. This approach is considered also useful for evaluating the bone responses from the biomechanical point of view.

  14. Dominating Clasp of the Financial Sector Revealed by Partial Correlation Analysis of the Stock Market

    PubMed Central

    Kenett, Dror Y.; Tumminello, Michele; Madi, Asaf; Gur-Gershgoren, Gitit; Mantegna, Rosario N.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2010-01-01

    What are the dominant stocks which drive the correlations present among stocks traded in a stock market? Can a correlation analysis provide an answer to this question? In the past, correlation based networks have been proposed as a tool to uncover the underlying backbone of the market. Correlation based networks represent the stocks and their relationships, which are then investigated using different network theory methodologies. Here we introduce a new concept to tackle the above question—the partial correlation network. Partial correlation is a measure of how the correlation between two variables, e.g., stock returns, is affected by a third variable. By using it we define a proxy of stock influence, which is then used to construct partial correlation networks. The empirical part of this study is performed on a specific financial system, namely the set of 300 highly capitalized stocks traded at the New York Stock Exchange, in the time period 2001–2003. By constructing the partial correlation network, unlike the case of standard correlation based networks, we find that stocks belonging to the financial sector and, in particular, to the investment services sub-sector, are the most influential stocks affecting the correlation profile of the system. Using a moving window analysis, we find that the strong influence of the financial stocks is conserved across time for the investigated trading period. Our findings shed a new light on the underlying mechanisms and driving forces controlling the correlation profile observed in a financial market. PMID:21188140

  15. Dominating clasp of the financial sector revealed by partial correlation analysis of the stock market.

    PubMed

    Kenett, Dror Y; Tumminello, Michele; Madi, Asaf; Gur-Gershgoren, Gitit; Mantegna, Rosario N; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2010-12-20

    What are the dominant stocks which drive the correlations present among stocks traded in a stock market? Can a correlation analysis provide an answer to this question? In the past, correlation based networks have been proposed as a tool to uncover the underlying backbone of the market. Correlation based networks represent the stocks and their relationships, which are then investigated using different network theory methodologies. Here we introduce a new concept to tackle the above question--the partial correlation network. Partial correlation is a measure of how the correlation between two variables, e.g., stock returns, is affected by a third variable. By using it we define a proxy of stock influence, which is then used to construct partial correlation networks. The empirical part of this study is performed on a specific financial system, namely the set of 300 highly capitalized stocks traded at the New York Stock Exchange, in the time period 2001-2003. By constructing the partial correlation network, unlike the case of standard correlation based networks, we find that stocks belonging to the financial sector and, in particular, to the investment services sub-sector, are the most influential stocks affecting the correlation profile of the system. Using a moving window analysis, we find that the strong influence of the financial stocks is conserved across time for the investigated trading period. Our findings shed a new light on the underlying mechanisms and driving forces controlling the correlation profile observed in a financial market.

  16. Analysis of optical structures; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 23, 24, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Donald C.

    1991-12-01

    The present conference discusses the application of FEM methods to optical system structures, the design and analysis of a CCD array mounting structure, lightweight composite mirrors, the dynamic characteristics of joint-dominated space structures, and the design and manufacture of an ultralightweight solid deployable reflector. Also discussed is an analysis of the thermal stability of a fused optical structure, flow visualization for telescope enclosures, an overview of active optics technology, shape control of piezoelectric bimorph mirrors, CAE/CAM of extremely fast steering mirrors, and holographic optical elements as laser irradiation sensor components.

  17. A genetic analysis of Adh1 regulation. Progress report, June 1991--February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Freeling, M.

    1992-03-01

    The overall goal of our research proposal is to understand the meaning of the various cis-acting sites responsible for AdH1 expression in the entire maize plant. Progress is reported in the following areas: Studies on the TATA box and analysis of revertants of the Adh1-3F1124 allele; screening for more different mutants that affect Adh1 expression differentially; studies on cis-acting sequences required for root-specific Adh1 expression; refinement of the use of the particle gun; and functional analysis of a non- glycolytic anaerobic protein.

  18. A Content Analysis of the CNHEO Journals for Policy and Advocacy Articles: 1991-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galer-Unti, Regina A.; Miller, Susan M.; Tappe, Marlene K.

    2004-01-01

    Advocacy and public policy were determined to be one of the six key focal points for the profession at the Health Education in the 21st Century meeting held in 1995. A content analysis of journals of the member organizations of the Coalition of National Health Education Organizations was conducted to discover whether there was a difference in the…

  19. Analysis of Intelligence Support to the 1991 Persian Gulf War Enduring Lessons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-03

    environment (between DoD and CIA). One might argue that this is not a bad news story. In fact, many intelligence professionals would agree that competitive ... intelligence analysis can be quite healthy. A number of BDA problems were caused by events which were simply not in the hands of BDA technicians. For

  20. Macroergonomic analysis of two different work organizations in a same sector of a luminary manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Bitencourt, Rosimeire Sedrez; Guimarães, Lia Buarque de Macedo

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the analysis of the effect of two different types of work organization (the traditional and a new mechanized, more segmented one) in the packing sector of a luminary manufacturing company in Curitiba, Brazil. A macroergonomic analysis was conducted to evaluate the workers satisfaction with the job; the possible associated postural risk, the level of body pain/discomfort and to compare the two models (traditional and mechanized). The mechanized model showed to involve higher postural risk, to generate more pain and less satisfaction, even in relation to the temperature, illumination, uniform and salary, which are the same for the two groups. Excluding job rotation that was well evaluated and should be adopted for all workers, the new model proved to be worse than the traditional although it also needs improvements.

  1. Crew interface analysis: Selected articles on space human factors research, 1987 - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagian, Tandi (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    As part of the Flight Crew Support Division at NASA, the Crew Interface Analysis Section is dedicated to the study of human factors in the manned space program. It assumes a specialized role that focuses on answering operational questions pertaining to NASA's Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom Programs. One of the section's key contributions is to provide knowledge and information about human capabilities and limitations that promote optimal spacecraft and habitat design and use to enhance crew safety and productivity. The section provides human factors engineering for the ongoing missions as well as proposed missions that aim to put human settlements on the Moon and Mars. Research providing solutions to operational issues is the primary objective of the Crew Interface Analysis Section. The studies represent such subdisciplines as ergonomics, space habitability, man-computer interaction, and remote operator interaction.

  2. A genetic analysis of Adhl regulation. Progress report, June 1991--May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Freeling, M.

    1992-12-01

    Several separate but related studies are reported on the mechanism of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh-1) are reported. A study of a deletion mutation in the TATA box region which resulted in an increase from 6--60% of wildtype Adh-1 expression in the revertant has led to a focus on trans-acting protein factors that bind the TATA box. Analysis of another revertant has led to study of cis-acting sequences in Adh-1 expression. Screening efforts aimed at defining different mutants affecting Adh-1 expression are reported.

  3. Analysis of HIV type 1 BF recombinant sequences from South America dates the origin of CRF12_BF to a recombination event in the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Dilernia, Dario A; Jones, Leandro R; Pando, Maria A; Rabinovich, Roberto D; Damilano, Gabriel D; Turk, Gabriela; Rubio, Andrea E; Pampuro, Sandra; Gomez-Carrillo, Manuel; Salomón, Horacio

    2011-05-01

    HIV-1 epidemics in South America are believed to have originated in part from the subtype B epidemic initiated in the Caribbean/North America region. However, circulation of BF recombinants in similar proportions was extensively reported. Information currently shows that many BF recombinants share a recombination structure similar to that found in the CRF12_BF. In the present study, analyzing a set of 405 HIV sequences, we identified the most likely origin of the BF epidemic in an early event of recombination. We found that the subtype B epidemics in South America analyzed in the present study were initiated by a founder event that occurred in the early 1970s, a few years after the introduction of these strains in the Americas. Regarding the F/BF recombinant epidemics, by analyzing a subtype F genomic segment within the viral gene gag present in the majority of the BF recombinants, we found evidence of a geographic divergence very soon after the introduction of subtype F strains in South America. Moreover, through analysis of a subtype B segment present in all the CRF12_BF-like recombination structure, we estimated the circulation of the subtype B strain that gave rise to that recombinant structure around the same time period estimated for the introduction of subtype F strains. The HIV epidemics in South America were initiated in part through a founder event driven by subtype B strains coming from the previously established epidemic in the north of the continent. A second introduction driven by subtype F strains is likely to have encountered the incipient subtype B epidemic that soon after their arrival recombined with them, originating the BF epidemic in the region. These results may explain why in South America the majority of F sequences are found as BF recombinants.

  4. The Economic Effects of a Booming Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corden, W. M.

    1983-01-01

    Since the 1970s, economists have recognized that a booming export sector of the economy can have unfortunate consequences for other sectors and lead to both appreciation of that nation's currency and a weakening position for its exports. A model to stimulate the effects of this situation is discussed. (IS)

  5. Cost benefit analysis of excess flow valves: An update. Topical report, August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-26

    Calculations and analysis of the cost-to-benefit ratio of using excess flow valves (EFVs) of all U.S. new and renewed gas services operating at 10 psig or more are presented. The study is an update of an earlier evaluation performed by the same contractor, entitled 'Costs and Benefits of Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution Services' (GRI-86/0022). As calculated with up-to-date information and average operating cost data, the ratio continues to be unfavorable even when using high value for human life and injury and low operating cost data. Data collected from EFV users indicate that EFVs are highly reliable and generally perform as required with very few problems. The report expresses the opinion that the cost-to-benefit ratio is highly dependent on individual company operations, location, and pipeline characteristics, and that the decision to use EFVs should be left to individual companies after performing their own cost benefit analysis, which should include an assessment of alternative accident mitigation measures.

  6. Topographyc metrics in the southern sector of the Marche foothills: implication for active tectonic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materazzi, Marco; Aringoli, Domenico; Carducci, Tamara; Cavitolo, Paolo; Farabollini, Piero; Giacopetti, Marco; Pambianchi, Gilberto; Tondi, Emanuele; Troiani, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative geomorphic analysis can be provided a useful contribution to the study of recent tectonics. Some parameters, that quantify the channels morphology, as the Stream Length-Gradient (SL) Index (Hack, 1973) and the Steepness (Ks) Index (Flint, 1974), are generally used to detect anomalies on the expected concave-up equilibrium stream-profile, which can result in local abrupt changes in stream gradient (i.e., knickpoints) and/or broad convexities on stream long-profiles extending for tens of kilometres (i.e., knickzones). The main goal of this work is the study of the morphological and morphometrical features in the southern sector of the Marche Region, with the aim to gain new knowledge on the influences of rock resistance and rock uplift on the fluvial and topographic system. The investigated area is situated in central Italy and it extends from the axial zone of the Umbria-Marche Apennines to the Adriatic Sea, including the southern sector of the Marche Region and belongs to the foredeep domain of the Apennines orogenic system, which has affected by tectonic activity up to very recent times. The rheology of outcropping deposits doesn't allow the strain to be easily recorded at the outcrop scale. The analyses have been aimed at to test the sensitivity of both SL and Ks for evaluating active crustal deformations, acting at different wavelengths on land surface, within a low tectonically active thrust-and-fold belt. Additional purpose was the understanding of the pattern of regional differential crustal activity in the topographic arrangement of the study area In this research project two sets of analysis were conducted. References Hack J.T. 1973. Stream-profile analysis and stream-gradient index. Journal of Research of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1, 421-429. Flint J.J. 1974. Stream gradient as a function of order, magnitude and discharge. Water Resources Research, 10, 969-973.

  7. More on the alleged 1970 geomagnetic jerk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    French and United Kingdom workers have published reports describing a sudden change in the secular acceleration, called an impulse or a jerk, which took place around 1970. They claim that this change took place in a period of a year or two and that the sources of the alleged jerk are internal. An earlier paper by this author questioned their method of analysis pointing out that their method of piecemeal fitting of parabolas to the data will always create a discontinuity in the secular acceleration where the parabolas join and that the place where the parabolas join is an a priori assumption and not a result of the analysis. This paper gives a very brief summary of this first paper and then adds additional reasons for questioning the allegation that there was a worldwide sudden jerk in the magnetic field of internal origin around 1970. These new reasons are based largely on new field models which give cubic approximations of the field right through the 1970 timeframe and therefore have no discontinuities in the second derivative (jerk) around 1970. Some recent Japanese work shows several sudden changes in the secular variation pattern which cover limited areas and do not seem to be closely related to each other or to the irregularity noted in the European area near 1970. The secular variation picture which seems to be emerging is one with many local or limited-regional secular variation changes which appear to be almost unrelated to each other in time or space. A worldwide spherical harmonic model including coefficients up to degree 13 could never properly depict such a situation. ?? 1985.

  8. Applying machine learning techniques to DNA sequence analysis. Progress report, February 14, 1991--February 13, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Shavlik, J.W.

    1992-04-01

    We are developing a machine learning system that modifies existing knowledge about specific types of biological sequences. It does this by considering sample members and nonmembers of the sequence motif being learned. Using this information (which we call a ``domain theory``), our learning algorithm produces a more accurate representation of the knowledge needed to categorize future sequences. Specifically, the KBANN algorithm maps inference rules, such as consensus sequences, into a neural (connectionist) network. Neural network training techniques then use the training examples of refine these inference rules. We have been applying this approach to several problems in DNA sequence analysis and have also been extending the capabilities of our learning system along several dimensions.

  9. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis. Quarterly report, April--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.

  10. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis. Quarterly report, January--March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.

  11. The Holocaust as History and Human Rights: A Cross-National Analysis of Holocaust Education in Social Science Textbooks, 1970-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Patricia; Russell, Susan Garnett

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Holocaust education in secondary school social science textbooks around the world since 1970, using data coded from 465 textbooks from 69 countries. It finds that books and countries more connected to world society and with an accompanying emphasis on human rights, diversity in society and a depiction of international, rather…

  12. The health of Australian veterans of the 1991 Gulf War: factor analysis of self-reported symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, A; McKenzie, D; Mackinnon, A; Kelsall, H; McFarlane, A; Ikin, J; Glass, D; Sim, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: A recent report showed that Australian veterans of the 1991 Gulf War displayed a greater prevalence of a multitude of self-reported symptoms than a randomly sampled comparison group of military personnel who were eligible for deployment but were not deployed to the Gulf. Aims: To investigate whether the pattern, rather than frequency, of symptom reporting in these Australian Gulf War veterans differed from that of the comparison group personnel. Methods: Factor analysis was used to determine whether the co-occurrence of 62 symptoms in 1322 male Gulf War veterans can be explained by a number of underlying dimensions, called factors. The methodology was also applied to 1459 male comparison group subjects and the factor solutions of the two groups were compared. Results: For the Gulf War veterans, a three factor solution displayed replicability and construct validity. The three factors were labelled as psycho-physiological distress, somatic distress, and arthro-neuromuscular distress, and were broadly similar to those described in previous studies of Gulf War veterans. A concordant three factor solution was also found for the comparison group subjects, with strong convergence of the factor loadings and factor scores across the two groups being displayed. Conclusion: Results did not display evidence of a unique pattern of self-reported symptoms among Gulf War veterans. Results also indicated that the differences between the groups lie in the degrees of expression of the three underlying factors, consistent with the well documented evidence of increased self-reported symptom prevalence in Gulf War veterans. PMID:15550608

  13. 1991 international petroleum encyclopedia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    There is no other petroleum industry publication quite like the International Petroleum Encyclopedia. With a timely, accurate combination of global industry coverage and analysis, detailed statistical surveys, cutting-edge reports on technological advancements and the ever-popular atlas maps, the 1991 International Petroleum Encyclopedia is a smart buy for professionals whose business is oil and gas, as well as for those whose business is affected by the industry's trends and developments. Written by a professional staff of Oil and Gas Journal petroleum experts, the 1991 IPE gives you the all important global perspective for constructing sound business strategies for the 90's. The petroleum industry is scrambling for information that will help it survive this volitile period. This book reports on the topics in the petroleum industry the latest developments in horizontal drilling, world refining (the latest information on reformulated fuels), and predictions about the post-war Persian Gulf industry. PULS, discussions on changes in the Gulf of Mexico, developments in the LNG trade, and crude oil tanker supply/.demand curves.

  14. Rural-urban migration, informal sector and development policies: a theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M R

    1993-06-01

    "A theoretical model of rural-urban migration has been developed with special reference to the informal sector. The wage rate and employment in the informal sector are determined endogenously. The paper shows the simultaneous existence of open unemployment and informal sector in the urban area in migration equilibrium. The effects of alternative subsidy policies on unemployment and welfare of the workers are studied." The model is intended primarily for use in analyzing trends and policies in developing countries.

  15. Survey review of models for use in market penetration analysis: utility sector focus

    SciTech Connect

    Groncki, P.J.; Kydes, A.S.; Lamontagne, J.; Marcuse, W.; Vinjamuri, G.

    1980-11-01

    The ultimate benefits of federal expenditures in research and development for new technologies are dependent upon the degree of acceptance of these technologies. Market penetration considerations are central to the problem of quantifying the potential benefits. These benefits are inputs to the selection process of projects competing for finite R and D funds. Market penetration is the gradual acceptance of a new commodity or technology. The Office of Coal utilization is concerned with the specialized area of market penetration of new electric power generation technologies for both replacement and new capacity. The common measure of market penetration is the fraction of the market serviced by the challenging technology for each time point considered. The methodologies for estimating market penetration are divided into three generic classes: integrated energy/economy modeling systems, utility capacity expansion models, and technology substitution models. In general, the integrated energy/economy modeling systems have three advantages: they provide internally consistent macro, energy-economy scenarios, they account for the effect of prices on demand by fuel form, and they explicitly capture the effects of population growth and the level and structure of economic activity on energy demand. A variety of deficiencies appear in most energy-economy systems models. All of the methodologies may be applied at some level to questions of market penetration of new technologies in the utility sector; choice of methods for a particular analysis must be conditioned by the scope of the analysis, data availability, and the relative cost of alternative analysis.

  16. Water flows, energy demand, and market analysis of the informal water sector in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Laura C.; Kelner-Levine, Evan; Eckelman, Matthew J.; McCarty, Kathleen M.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-01-01

    In rapidly growing urban areas of developing countries, infrastructure has not been able to cope with population growth. Informal water businesses fulfill unmet water supply needs, yet little is understood about this sector. This paper presents data gathered from quantitative interviews with informal water business operators (n=260) in Kisumu, Kenya, collected during the dry season. Sales volume, location, resource use, and cost were analyzed by using material flow accounting and spatial analysis tools. Estimates show that over 76% of the city's water is consumed by less than 10% of the population who have water piped into their dwellings. The remainder of the population relies on a combination of water sources, including water purchased directly from kiosks (1.5 million m3 per day) and delivered by hand-drawn water-carts (0.75 million m3 per day). Energy audits were performed to compare energy use among various water sources in the city. Water delivery by truck is the highest per cubic meter energy demand (35 MJ/m3), while the city's tap water has the highest energy use overall (21,000 MJ/day). We group kiosks by neighborhood and compare sales volume and cost with neighborhood-level population data. Contrary to popular belief, we do not find evidence of price gouging; the lowest prices are charged in the highest-demand low-income area. We also see that the informal sector is sensitive to demand, as the number of private boreholes that serve as community water collection points are much larger where demand is greatest. PMID:23543887

  17. Fuzzy-Klassen Model for Development Disparities Analysis based on Gross Regional Domestic Product Sector of a Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Tb.; Wardoyo, Retantyo

    2015-08-01

    Analysis of regional development imbalances quadrant has a very important meaning in order to see the extent of achievement of the development of certain areas as well as the difference. Factors that could be used as a tool to measure the inequality of development is to look at the average growth and development contribution of each sector of Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) based on the analyzed region and the reference region. This study discusses the development of a model to determine the regional development imbalances using fuzzy approach system, and the rules of typology Klassen. The model is then called fuzzy-Klassen. Implications Product Mamdani fuzzy system is used in the model as an inference engine to generate output after defuzzyfication process. Application of MATLAB is used as a tool of analysis in this study. The test a result of Kota Cilegon is shows that there are significant differences between traditional Klassen typology analyses with the results of the model developed. Fuzzy model-Klassen shows GRDP sector inequality Cilegon City is dominated by Quadrant I (K4), where status is the sector forward and grows exponentially. While the traditional Klassen typology, half of GRDP sector is dominated by Quadrant IV (K4) with a sector that is lagging relative status.

  18. Dynamics of change in oil and energy use in four Latin American countries. [1970 to 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, A.

    1986-12-01

    This report describes changes in energy demand in the 1970--1984 period and the causes for those changes for the four largest Latin-America countries: Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Venezula. Together these countries account for around three-fourths of total energy use in Latin America. Latin American energy use accounts for over 10 percent of the world's total, 40 percent of the LDC total, and has grown at an average yearly rate of 4.8 percent since 1973. The analysis is based on energy and economic data prepared for the Developing Country Data Series developed by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (IES-LBL). Data were obtained from local sources during visits to government offices, academic research institutions, and from the private sector. We first discuss aggregate trends in energy demand in the 1970--1984 period. We then look separately at the four major sectors: industry, transportation, residential/commerical, and power generation. In these sections we focus on change in energy and oil intensity and the structural causes for those changes. 6 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. "Climate change on Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy): rapid temperature rise, new records of heavy precipitation and orographic effects on temperature extremes across Alps and Adriatic. Analysis of the data of the period 1991-2015 in comparison to the histori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordio, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Friuli Venezia Giulia is weel-know as the wettest land of Italy with important yearly average from 1000 m over coastal zone to 3300 m over prealpine sector., and from 1991, OSMER has implemented a observative meteorological system and investigated over a pattern of meteorological phenomena, some oh this, typical of this zone, as strong rainfall precipitation, frequent thunderstorms with hail, strong wind Bora over the sea. During the last 25 years we have seen significant change in weather conditions, with a rapid rise of temperature and distribution, frequency and intensity of precipitation. The most frequent extension to high latitude of tropical high pressure and a irregularity of westerly circulation over Mediterranean zone cause a change of the distribution of precipitation, an increasing a strong and quickly rainfall, and a rapid increase in average temperatures, with many new heat and cold records. During the 1961-1990 time, but too in the past since the beginning of observation, the average precipitation is quiet stable, but in the last 25 years it's possible observe more variability with more frequency of period of abundance and scarcity. This extremes of variability of precipitations is even more significant over the last 15 years, with an exceptional peak in 2014. The temperature analysis shows a clear upward trend, more pronounced than the other Italian regions, with new records, due to the location and geography of the region, the bridge between the Alps, the Adriatic and the Balkans.

  20. School Sector Differences in Student Achievement in Australian Primary and Secondary Schools: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary N.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines school sector differences in student performance Years 3, 5, and 7 in numeracy, reading, writing, spelling and grammar using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the national testing program (NAPLAN). At each of the 3 Year levels, there are sizable school sector differences with students from…

  1. Occupations in the Hotel Tourist Sector within the European Community. A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peroni, Giovanni; Guerra, Duccio

    This report contains a directory of job profiles in the tourist/hotel sector that is based on seven national monographs. It provides an instrument for comparing factors that characterize practitioners working in the sector in Germany, Spain, France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. A methodological note discusses study objectives,…

  2. SEADS 3.0 Sectoral Energy/Employment Analysis and Data System

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, Joseph M.; Anderson, David A.; Schultz, Robert W.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2007-12-17

    SEADS 3.0, the Sectoral Energy/Employment Analysis and Data System, is a revision and upgrading of SEADS--PC, a software package designed for the analysis of policy that could be described by modifying final demands of consumer, businesses, or governments (Roop, et al., 1995). If a question can be formulated so that implications can be translated into changes in final demands for goods and services, then SEADS 3.0 provides a quick and easy tool to assess preliminary impacts. And SEADS 3.0 should be considered just that: a quick and easy way to get preliminary results. Often a thorough answer, even to such a simple question as, “What would be the effect on U. S. energy use and employment if the Federal Government doubled R&D expenditures?” requires a more sophisticated analytical framework than the input-output structure embedded in SEADS 3.0. This tool uses a static, input-output model to assess the impacts of changes in final demands on first industry output, then employment and energy use. The employment and energy impacts are derived by multiplying the industry outputs (derived from the changed final demands) by industry-specific energy and employment coefficients. The tool also allows for the specification of regional or state employment impacts, though this option is not available for energy impacts.

  3. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in the forestry sector of The Gambia: Analysis based on COMAP model

    SciTech Connect

    Jallow, B.P.

    1996-12-31

    Results of the 1993 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory of The Gambia showed net CO{sub 2} emissions of over (1.66 x 10{sup 6} tons) and 1% was due to uptake by plantations (0.01 x 10{sup 6} tons). This is a clear indication that there is need to identify changes in the land-use policy, law and tenure that discourages forest clearing at the same time significantly influencing the sustainable distribution of land among forestry, rangeland and livestock, and agriculture. About 11% of the total area of The Gambia is either fallow or barren flats that once supported vegetation and hence is still capable of supporting vegetation. The US Country Study Programme has provided the Government of The Gambia through the National Climate Committee funds to conduct Assessment of Mitigation Options to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The Forestry Sector is one area for which assessment is being conducted. The assessment is expected to end in September 1996. The Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) is one of the Models supplied to the National Climate Committee by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, on behalf of the US Country Study Programme, and is being used to conduct the analysis in The Gambia.

  4. Global financial crisis and weak-form efficiency of Islamic sectoral stock markets: An MF-DFA analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensi, Walid; Tiwari, Aviral Kumar; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2017-04-01

    This paper estimates the weak-form efficiency of Islamic stock markets using 10 sectoral stock indices (basic materials, consumer services, consumer goods, energy, financials, health care, industrials, technology, telecommunication, and utilities). The results based on the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) approach show time-varying efficiency for the sectoral stock markets. Moreover, we find that they tend to show high efficiency in the long term but moderate efficiency in the short term, and that these markets become less efficient after the onset of the global financial crisis. These results have several significant implications in terms of asset allocation for investors dealing with Islamic markets.

  5. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  6. Development and benefit analysis of a sector design algorithm for terminal dynamic airspace configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciandra, Vincent

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is the vast network of systems enabling safe and efficient air travel in the United States. It consists of a set of static sectors, each controlled by one or more air traffic controllers. Air traffic control is tasked with ensuring that all flights can depart and arrive on time and in a safe and efficient matter. However, skyrocketing demand will only increase the stress on an already inefficient system, causing massive delays. The current, static configuration of the NAS cannot possibly handle the future demand on the system safely and efficiently, especially since it is projected to triple by 2025. To overcome these issues, the Next Generation of Air Transportation System (NextGen) is being enacted to increase the flexibility of the NAS. A major objective of NextGen is to implement Adaptable Dynamic Airspace Configuration (ADAC) which will dynamically allocate the sectors to best fit the traffic in the area. Dynamically allocating sectors will allow resources such as controllers to be better distributed to meet traffic demands. Currently, most DAC research has involved the en route airspace. This leaves the terminal airspace, which accounts for a large amount of the overall NAS complexity, in need of work. Using a combination of methods used in en route sectorization, this thesis has developed an algorithm for the dynamic allocation of sectors in the terminal airspace. This algorithm will be evaluated using metrics common in the evaluation of dynamic density, which is adapted for the unique challenges of the terminal airspace, and used to measure workload on air traffic controllers. These metrics give a better view of the controller workload than the number of aircraft alone. By comparing the test results with sectors currently used in the NAS using real traffic data, the algorithm xv generated sectors can be quantitatively evaluated for improvement of the current sectorizations. This will be accomplished by testing the

  7. Analysis of International Policies In The Solar Electricity Sector: Lessons for India

    SciTech Connect

    Deshmukh, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Gambhir, Ashwin; Phadke, Amol

    2011-08-10

    Although solar costs are dropping rapidly, solar power is still more expensive than conventional and other renewable energy options. The solar sector still needs continuing government policy support. These policies are driven by objectives that go beyond the goal of achieving grid parity. The need to achieve multiple objectives and ensure sufficient political support for solar power makes it diffi cult for policy makers to design the optimal solar power policy. The dynamic and uncertain nature of the solar industry, combined with the constraints offered by broader economic, political and social conditions further complicates the task of policy making. This report presents an analysis of solar promotion policies in seven countries - Germany, Spain, the United States, Japan, China, Taiwan, and India - in terms of their outlook, objectives, policy mechanisms and outcomes. The report presents key insights, primarily in qualitative terms, and recommendations for two distinct audiences. The first audience consists of global policy makers who are exploring various mechanisms to increase the penetration of solar power in markets to mitigate climate change. The second audience consists of key Indian policy makers who are developing a long-term implementation plan under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission and various state initiatives.

  8. Induced somatic sector analysis of cellulose synthase (CesA) promoter regions in woody stem tissues.

    PubMed

    Creux, Nicky M; Bossinger, Gerd; Myburg, Alexander A; Spokevicius, Antanas V

    2013-03-01

    The increasing focus on plantation forestry as a renewable source of cellulosic biomass has emphasized the need for tools to study the unique biology of woody genera such as Eucalyptus, Populus and Pinus. The domestication of these woody crops is hampered by long generation times, and breeders are now looking to molecular approaches such as marker-assisted breeding and genetic modification to accelerate tree improvement. Much of what is known about genes involved in the growth and development of plants has come from studies of herbaceous models such as Arabidopsis and rice. However, transferring this information to woody plants often proves difficult, especially for genes expressed in woody stems. Here we report the use of induced somatic sector analysis (ISSA) for characterization of promoter expression patterns directly in the stems of Populus and Eucalyptus trees. As a case study, we used previously characterized primary and secondary cell wall-related cellulose synthase (CesA) promoters cloned from Eucalyptus grandis. We show that ISSA can be used to elucidate the phloem and xylem expression patterns of the CesA genes in Eucalyptus and Populus stems and also show that the staining patterns differ in Eucalyptus and Populus stems. These findings show that ISSA is an efficient approach to investigate promoter function in the developmental context of woody plant tissues and raise questions about the suitability of heterologous promoters for genetic manipulation in plant species.

  9. Analysis of the strain on employees in the retail sector considering work-life balance.

    PubMed

    Zülch, Gert; Stock, Patricia; Schmidt, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Many companies currently strive to support their employees' work-life balance through appropriate measures in order to improve employees' loyalty towards the company and to recruit new employees. In this context, flexibility in the area of working times is a measure that can influence employees' private lives immensely. This is why the individualisation of working time arrangements has been accorded high importance in current discussions on work-life balance. In this area, best practice examples can be found showing how working-time arrangements can improve the situation of the employees. It should be noted, however, that there is not one single perfect working-time model. A working-time model must always be adapted specifically to the actual situation of the company and the employees. Therefore, a targeted analysis of the challenges facing the company and the demands on the employees is essential for the creation of an appropriate working time policy. In particular, the employees' working-time preferences must be appropriately taken into account. Owing, however, to a combination of organisational complications and legal data protection restrictions, it is for the most part impossible to meet these working-time preferences in their entirety. This paper, which is based on an employee survey, illustrates the strain on employees in the retail sector and identifies different types of working-time preferences.

  10. Annual Safety Education Review 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet presents articles completed in 1970 by the Division of Safety Education of the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation. The 11 articles deal with the following topics: a) the problem of apathy in safety education, b) the safety aspects of archery and riflery, c) weight training for high school girls, d)…

  11. International Education Year 1970. Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Bulletin number 1 of 17 stated that it will be published at regular monthly intervals. Its purpose is to inform member states, United Nations agencies, National Commissions for UNESCO, non-governmental and inter-governmental organizations of plans for "International Education Year 1970 (IEY)" and coming events. As proclaimed by…

  12. Cyber Threat and Vulnerability Analysis of the U.S. Electric Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, Colleen; Sterbentz, Dane; Wright, Aaron

    2016-12-20

    With utilities in the U.S. and around the world increasingly moving toward smart grid technology and other upgrades with inherent cyber vulnerabilities, correlative threats from malicious cyber attacks on the North American electric grid continue to grow in frequency and sophistication. The potential for malicious actors to access and adversely affect physical electricity assets of U.S. electricity generation, transmission, or distribution systems via cyber means is a primary concern for utilities contributing to the bulk electric system. This paper seeks to illustrate the current cyber-physical landscape of the U.S. electric sector in the context of its vulnerabilities to cyber attacks, the likelihood of cyber attacks, and the impacts cyber events and threat actors can achieve on the power grid. In addition, this paper highlights utility perspectives, perceived challenges, and requests for assistance in addressing cyber threats to the electric sector. There have been no reported targeted cyber attacks carried out against utilities in the U.S. that have resulted in permanent or long term damage to power system operations thus far, yet electric utilities throughout the U.S. have seen a steady rise in cyber and physical security related events that continue to raise concern. Asset owners and operators understand that the effects of a coordinated cyber and physical attack on a utility’s operations would threaten electric system reliability–and potentially result in large scale power outages. Utilities are routinely faced with new challenges for dealing with these cyber threats to the grid and consequently maintain a set of best practices to keep systems secure and up to date. Among the greatest challenges is a lack of knowledge or strategy to mitigate new risks that emerge as a result of an exponential rise in complexity of modern control systems. This paper compiles an open-source analysis of cyber threats and risks to the electric grid, utility best practices

  13. Spatial analysis of low carbon development 2050: A case of residential sector, Bhopal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheolikar, P.; Yawale, S.; Puntambekar, K.; Kapshe, M.

    2014-02-01

    Indian cities are witnessing economic development, urbanization and lifestyle changes, leading to increase in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. In cities, sectors contributing to GHG emission are residential sector, transport and waste sector. In order to reduce emission, it is important to assess how individual city can contribute to emission reduction to become a Low Carbon Society (LCS). In this paper, we have analyzed residential sector of Bhopal City at ward level for demand side management through energy efficiency and lifestyle change. Two LCS, countermeasure scenarios CM1 and CM2 along with a Business as Usual scenario are developed and emission reduction potential is quantified using the AIM/Enduse model up to year 2050. The quantitative results are represented in spatial format using Geographical Information System (GIS) software providing a better understanding for decision makers.

  14. Long-term trends and survival analysis of esophageal and gastric cancer in Yangzhong, 1991-2013

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hengchuan; Yao, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the long-term trends of the incidence, mortality and survival of upper digestive tract cancers in a high-risk area of China. Methods We extracted esophageal and gastric cancer cases diagnosed from 1991 to 2013 through the Yangzhong Cancer Registry and calculated the crude and age-standardized incidence and mortality rates. Cancer trends were calculated using the Joinpoint Regression Program and were reported using the annual percentage change (APC). The cancer-specific survival rates were evaluated and compared between groups using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Results The age-standardized incidence rate of esophageal cancer declined from 107.06 per 100,000 person-years (male: 118.05 per 100,000 person-years; female: 97.42 per 100,000 person-years) in 1991 to 37.04 per 100,000 person-years (male: 46.43 per 100,000 person-years; female: 27.26 per 100,000 person-years) in 2013, with an APC of -2.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): -3.4%, -1.5%) for males and -4.9% (95% CI:-5.8%, -3.9%) for females. The age-standardized incidence rate of gastric cancer was 165.11 per 100,000 person-years (male: 225.39 per 100,000 person-years; female: 113.34 per 100,000 person-years) in 1991 and 53.46 per 100,000 person-years (male: 76.51 per 100,000 person-years; female: 32.43 per 100,000 person-years) in 2013, with the APC of -3.6% (95% CI: -4.5%, -2.7%) for males and -4.8% (95% CI: -5.7%, -3.9%) for females. The median survival time was 3.0 years for patients with esophageal or gastric cancer. Cancer cases detected after 2004 had a better prognosis. Conclusions The age-standardized incidence rates of both esophageal and gastric cancer continuously decreased since 1991 through 2013, whereas the mortality rate remained stable before 2004 and significantly declined following the massive endoscopic screening program initiated in 2004. The survival probability of patients with esophageal and gastric cancer has improved obviously in recent decades. PMID

  15. A Water Mass Analysis of the 1991-1992 El Nino Signal in the Farallon Islands Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Data from the Farallones Shelf and Slope Study. 29 October - 3 November 1991, NPS-OC-92-007, Naval Postgraduate Sch., Monterey, Calif., 180 pp. Julian ...multichannel sea surface temperatures, J.Geophys. Res., 90, pp. 11,587-11601. McCreary , J.P.. 1976: Eastern tropical ocean response to changing wind systems...with application to El Nifio, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, pp. 632- 645. McCreary , J.P., 1984: Equatorial beams, J. Mar. Res., 42. pp. 395-430. McDougall

  16. An application of input-output analysis in analyzing the impacts of final demands changes on the total outputs of Japanese energy sectors: A further study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to continue the previous study which discussed the impacts of final demands changes on the total outputs of Japanese energy sectors. More specifically, this study aims to conduct a deeper analysis regarding these impacts. This study employs a demand-pull Input- Output (IO) quantity model, one of the calculation instruments in IO analysis, as a tool of analysis. This study focuses on two sectors, namely (1) petroleum refinery products, and (2) non-ferrous metals. Two conditions are considered in the analysis part, namely (1) “whole sector change”, and (2) “pure change”. The results show that in both conditions, both discussed sectors have similar patterns. The results also explain that, in both conditions, the biggest positive impact for the sector of petroleum refinery products is given by scenario 4, the modification of consumption expenditures of private.

  17. Optical monitoring of the superluminal quasar 3C 345 in 1984-1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babadzhanyants, M. K.; Belokon', E. T.; Gamm, N. G.

    1995-08-01

    This article continues a series of publications containing results of a program of optical monitoring of OVV quasars, blazars, and similar objects (the Petersburg Quasar Monitoring Program), which has been conducted at the Byurakan station of the St. Petersburg Astronomical Institute since 1968. Results of long-term monitoring of the quasar 3C 345 in 1984-1991 are presented. The observations were conducted in the B band and consist of 365 brightness estimates obtained on 219 nights. The optical variability of 3C 345 on time scales from tens of years to tens of minutes is discussed. In 1991, the appearance of a new large amplitude slow outburst is noted (the characteristic time for brightness variation is of the order of a year). This outburst is similar to outbursts in 1967-1968, 1970-1972, 1976-1977, and 1982-1983, which were associated with the emergence of superluminal components in the milliarcsecond radio jet of 3C 345. The 1991 outburst suggests the emergence from the core of a new superluminal component. Analysis of the full known optical brightness curve for 3C 345 (1965-1993) shows the possible existence of a (quasi-)period of 700 days, which implies the appearance of a new brightness maximum in the 1994 observing season.

  18. Critical clusters in interdependent economic sectors. A data-driven spectral clustering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Gabriele; Setola, Roberto; Panzieri, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we develop a data-driven hierarchical clustering methodology to group the economic sectors of a country in order to highlight strongly coupled groups that are weakly coupled with other groups. Specifically, we consider an input-output representation of the coupling among the sectors and we interpret the relation among sectors as a directed graph; then we recursively apply the spectral clustering methodology over the graph, without a priori information on the number of groups that have to be obtained. In order to do this, we resort to the eigengap criterion, where a suitable number of groups is selected automatically based on the intensity and structure of the coupling among the sectors. We validate the proposed methodology considering a case study for Italy, inspecting how the coupling among clusters and sectors changes from the year 1995 to 2011, showing that in the years the Italian structure underwent deep changes, becoming more and more interdependent, i.e., a large part of the economy has become tightly coupled.

  19. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis for national-level priority-setting in the health sector

    PubMed Central

    Hutubessy, Raymond; Chisholm, Dan; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres

    2003-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is potentially an important aid to public health decision-making but, with some notable exceptions, its use and impact at the level of individual countries is limited. A number of potential reasons may account for this, among them technical shortcomings associated with the generation of current economic evidence, political expediency, social preferences and systemic barriers to implementation. As a form of sectoral CEA, Generalized CEA sets out to overcome a number of these barriers to the appropriate use of cost-effectiveness information at the regional and country level. Its application via WHO-CHOICE provides a new economic evidence base, as well as underlying methodological developments, concerning the cost-effectiveness of a range of health interventions for leading causes of, and risk factors for, disease. The estimated sub-regional costs and effects of different interventions provided by WHO-CHOICE can readily be tailored to the specific context of individual countries, for example by adjustment to the quantity and unit prices of intervention inputs (costs) or the coverage, efficacy and adherence rates of interventions (effectiveness). The potential usefulness of this information for health policy and planning is in assessing if current intervention strategies represent an efficient use of scarce resources, and which of the potential additional interventions that are not yet implemented, or not implemented fully, should be given priority on the grounds of cost-effectiveness. Health policy-makers and programme managers can use results from WHO-CHOICE as a valuable input into the planning and prioritization of services at national level, as well as a starting point for additional analyses of the trade-off between the efficiency of interventions in producing health and their impact on other key outcomes such as reducing inequalities and improving the health of the poor. PMID:14687420

  20. Cost Analysis of Various Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Surveillance Systems in the Dutch Egg Layer Sector

    PubMed Central

    Rutten, Niels; Gonzales, José L.; Elbers, Armin R. W.; Velthuis, Annet G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background As low pathogenic avian influenza viruses can mutate into high pathogenic viruses the Dutch poultry sector implemented a surveillance system for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) based on blood samples. It has been suggested that egg yolk samples could be sampled instead of blood samples to survey egg layer farms. To support future decision making about AI surveillance economic criteria are important. Therefore a cost analysis is performed on systems that use either blood or eggs as sampled material. Methodology/Principal Findings The effectiveness of surveillance using egg or blood samples was evaluated using scenario tree models. Then an economic model was developed that calculates the total costs for eight surveillance systems that have equal effectiveness. The model considers costs for sampling, sample preparation, sample transport, testing, communication of test results and for the confirmation test on false positive results. The surveillance systems varied in sampled material (eggs or blood), sampling location (farm or packing station) and location of sample preparation (laboratory or packing station). It is shown that a hypothetical system in which eggs are sampled at the packing station and samples prepared in a laboratory had the lowest total costs (i.e. € 273,393) a year. Compared to this a hypothetical system in which eggs are sampled at the farm and samples prepared at a laboratory, and the currently implemented system in which blood is sampled at the farm and samples prepared at a laboratory have 6% and 39% higher costs respectively. Conclusions/Significance This study shows that surveillance for avian influenza on egg yolk samples can be done at lower costs than surveillance based on blood samples. The model can be used in future comparison of surveillance systems for different pathogens and hazards. PMID:22523543

  1. Social network analysis of multi-level linkages: a Swedish case study on Northern Forest-Based sectors.

    PubMed

    Keskitalo, E Carina H; Baird, Julia; Laszlo Ambjörnsson, Emmeline; Plummer, Ryan

    2014-10-01

    Forest use in Northern Sweden is being influenced both by global trends and local situations. This results in interactions between numerous groups that may impact local forest governance. Social network analysis can here provide insight into the total pattern of positive, negative, and cross-level interactions within user group community structure (within and among groups). This study analyses interactions within selected renewable resource sectors in two northern Swedish municipalities, both with regard to whether they are positive, neutral, or negative, as well as with regard to how local actors relate to actors across levels, e.g., with regional, national, and international actors. The study illustrates that many interactions both within and outside a given sector are seen as neutral or positive, and that considerable interaction and impact are defined as national and in some cases even international. It also indicates that the impact of Sweden's only existing Model Forest may to some extent constitute a bridge between different sectors and levels, in comparison with the interactions between sectors in a municipality where such a cooperation mechanism does not exist.

  2. [Changes in lipid availability in Venezuela, 1970-1992].

    PubMed

    Abreu Olivo, E A; Ablan de Flórez, E

    1994-12-01

    The authors carry out a research focused on the quantification and analysis of the main changes in feeding and nutrition in Venezuela between 1970 and 1992. Such research started with the review and adjustment of the Food Balance Sheets (Hojas de Balance de Alimentos) elaborated by the Instituto Nacional de Nutrición (National Nutrition Institute) between 1970 and 1979 in order to homogenize them in a methodological way to make them similar to those elaborated by that institution and the Fundación Polar for the 1980-90 period. Estimates were made about the daily and per person availability of food for human consumption (DCH) for 1991 and 1992. This report, a partial product of that research, characterizes the evolution of the lipidic DCH in Venezuela for the 1970-1992 period. This period has been divided in seven stages of the evolution of the total energetic DCH, as this reflects well the course of the daily and per person Food Purchasing Power (PCA); there is a direct and strong functional relationship between these two variables. Along those stages the behaviour of the lipidic DCH is studied and we try to view possible relationships between the evolution of the Venezeluans economical situation and the absolute and relative variations observed in the level and the structure of the lipidic DCH. This structure is analyzed from several points of view: groups of food sources, origin, "visibility", and place of origin. One purpose is to determine also which food groups are mainly responsible for the venezuelan's external lipidic dependence. A general picture of the evolution of the DCH for saturated fatty acids and cholesterol is made, as well as of the variations experienced by the P/S and M/S relationships. It was found that the most dynamic elements, those that can explain a very high percentage of the variations observed in the level and the structure of the lipidic DCH were: the groups of foods of Visible Fats, Milk and dairy products, and Meats; vegetal lipids

  3. Analysis of the occupational, consumer and environmental exposure to engineered nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Bernd; Brouwer, Connie; Geertsma, Robert E; Heugens, Evelyn H W; Ross, Bryony L; Toufektsian, Marie-Claire; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Aitken, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Humans and the environment can come into contact with nanomaterials through a wide range of applications during all stages of the life cycle of nanoproducts. The aim of this commentary is to present an assessment of the potential for exposure and thus identify possible environmental, health and safety (EHS) issues for nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors. We analysed all life cycle stages with regard to potential for exposure of workers, consumers/patients, and the environment. A wide variety of nanomaterials are used of which many have negligible potential for exposure, while others have medium or even high potential for exposure. Based on the likelihood of exposure, it appears that in general most attention should be paid to the agrifood, chemistry/materials, textiles and health sectors; and less to the information and communication technology (ICT), security and energy sectors. Toxicity and exposure are both important; however, the EHS impact of nanomaterials is always dependent on their particular use.

  4. Net present value analysis to select public R&D programs and valuate expected private sector participation.

    PubMed

    Hinman, N D; Yancey, M A

    1997-01-01

    One of the main functions of government is to invest taxpayer dollars in projects, programs, and properties that will result in social benefit. Public programs focused on the development of technology are examples of such opportunities. Selecting these programs requires the same investment analysis approaches that private companies and individuals use. Good use of investment analysis approaches to these programs will minimize our tax costs and maximize public benefit from tax dollars invested. This article describes the use of the net present value (NPV) analysis approach to select public R&D programs and valuate expected private sector participation in the programs.

  5. [The population census in Nigeria 1991: geographical aspects of a political poker game].

    PubMed

    Fricke, W; Malchau, G

    1994-01-01

    The population of Nigeria has been estimated at more than 100 million by various sources. The UN in 1987 estimated it at 87 million, the World Bank at 106.2 million, and the Nigerian National Population Commission at 112.3 million. However, the 1991 census, which was carefully conducted, came up with only 87.5 million, whereas according to the World Bank the number should have exceeded 120 million. The discrepancy of 30 million provoked strong reaction among politicians in the country. 5-year average growth rates between 1970 and 1990 indicated an increase from 26.6% to 37.9%; therefore, the population during the 28-year period from 1963 and 1991 must have approximated 100 million. The figure of 112.3 million would require a growth rate of 34.9%, which was plausible from the early 1970s. The results of the 1991 census have pointed to an enigmatic curiosity: was it an accident that the North has registered the highest annual growth rates dating back to 1963, or even 1952? The political infighting and series of coups d'etat by generals may also be correlated to this numerical distortion, since all these generals were Northerners. An accurate analysis was not possible because of the paucity of data. The census of 1991 has not been fully disclosed until the present time [August 1994], strengthening the case of the skeptics, although the full publication of the figures has to do with the political situation in Nigeria. The democratization process was halted after June 1992, especially after the invalidation of the results of the presidential election and the seizing of power by General Abacha. In the event that a democratic government arises, perhaps the figures of the 1991 census will be published, which could also explain the lower growth rate of the economic centers in the Southwest and the Southeast. Nigeria sorely needs more reliable census data for planning because of a one-sided export structure (95% of foreign currency is earned from oil), neglected agriculture

  6. China fulfills 1991 population plan.

    PubMed

    Peng, P

    1992-06-01

    Minister Peng of the State Family Planning (FP) Commission of China's remarks are summarized. A major new achievement in 1991 was the meeting of population targets in FP. The birth rate for 1991 was 19.68/1000, which was lower than the 1991 target by .118%. The rate of natural increase was 12.98/1000, which was also lower. 1991 marks the lowest population increase in 6 years. Even though those 20-29 years and those at peak childbearing years increased over 1990, the rate of natural increase still declined by .1%. The decline is attributed to the strengthening of all Party leadership over FP; to more widespread publicity and education on FP and acceptance; more conscientious contraception, including permanent methods, and effective FP research; and strengthening of grassroots level FP. 1992 is the year of the 3rd baby boom peak since 1949. 318.9 million will be of childbearing age in 1992, which is an increase of 4.1 million; 13.25 million will be those at the peak age (23 years); 123.7 million will be fecund ages (20-29 years). Continued work is required in strengthening FP, in improving management of population and FP targets, in extensive and penetrating publicity on FP, on consistent and focused FP policy implementation, on increasing input for FP programs, and on pooling government and society's resources for administration of the population problem. Conscientious FP means responsibility and urgency in implementation, FP as a priority, and active FP effort. Earnest FP means using "down to earth" grassroots implementation which is painstaking and meticulous. Persistent FP means unremitting effort in a longterm struggle in controlling population growth. The quality of statistics needs to be improved as well as better criteria for assessment. Emphasis should be on the socioeconomic benefits of the FP program. The focus is still rural areas. The operating funds for FP have been increased to 2 yuan RMB per capita/year. Minorities should practice FP, and a conference

  7. Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

    2014-07-01

    Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

  8. 1991 research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Selected research and technology activities at Ames Research Center, including the Moffett Field site and the Dryden Flight Research Facility, are summarized. These activities exemplify the Center's varied and productive research efforts for 1991.

  9. Economic analysis of the water demand in the hotels and restaurants sector: Shadow prices and elasticities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, Ana; Atwi, Majed; Barberán, Ramón; Mur, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Despite the growing economic importance of tourism, and its impact on relative water shortage, little is known about the role that water plays in the productive process of hotels and restaurants and, therefore, the possible implications of water demand management policy for this sector. This study aims to fill this gap. It is based on the microdata of 676 firms in the sector, operating in the city of Zaragoza (Spain) for a 12 year period. Based on the Translog cost function, we estimate the shadow price of water in the short run and, from a long-run perspective, its direct price elasticity, its cross elasticities relative to labor, capital, and supplies, and its elasticity with respect to the level of output. The results obtained show that water provides sector firms returns that are on average higher than its price, although in the case of hotels the margin is really narrow. This situation provides policy makers with a margin for applying price increases without affecting the sector's viability, with some caution in the case of hotels. Water demand elasticity equals -0.38 in the case of hotels, but it is not significant in the case of restaurants and bar-cafes; hence, only in hotels is there potential for influencing water use patterns, encouraging the resource's conservation through pricing policy. Moreover, capital is a substitutive factor of water, and the elasticity of water with respect to output is 0.40, all of which should also be considered by policy makers in water resource management.

  10. Sector-Based Analysis of the Education-Occupation Mismatch in the Turkish Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercan, Murat Anil; Karakas, Mesut; Citci, Sadettin Haluk; Babacan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of sectorial undereducation and overeducation problems in the Turkish labor market. In order to cope with this issue, the 2009 Household Labor Force Survey (TurkStat), which covers 145,934 individuals within 27 sectors, was utilized. An objective measure of education-occupation mismatch based…

  11. A Market Analysis of the Latter Half of the Nineteenth-Century American Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edirisooriya, Gunapala

    2009-01-01

    Most of the basic features of the American higher education sector started to evolve during the latter half of the nineteenth century. In response to the deficient demand in higher education, the suppliers (higher education institutions) adopted various marketing strategies to stay afloat in the market. Such strategies not only contributed a great…

  12. Analysis of Aircraft Clusters to Measure Sector-Independent Airspace Congestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Lee, Hilda Q.

    2005-01-01

    The Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) concept of operations* permits appropriately equipped aircraft to conduct Free Maneuvering operations. These independent aircraft have the freedom to optimize their trajectories in real time according to user preferences; however, they also take on the responsibility to separate themselves from other aircraft while conforming to any local Traffic Flow Management (TFM) constraints imposed by the air traffic service provider (ATSP). Examples of local-TFM constraints include temporal constraints such as a required time of arrival (RTA), as well as spatial constraints such as regions of convective weather, special use airspace, and congested airspace. Under current operations, congested airspace typically refers to a sector(s) that cannot accept additional aircraft due to controller workload limitations; hence Dynamic Density (a metric that is indicative of controller workload) can be used to quantify airspace congestion. However, for Free Maneuvering operations under DAG-TM, an additional metric is needed to quantify the airspace congestion problem from the perspective of independent aircraft. Such a metric would enable the ATSP to prevent independent aircraft from entering any local areas of congestion in which the flight deck based systems and procedures may not be able to ensure separation. This new metric, called Gaggle Density, offers the ATSP a mode of control to regulate normal operations and to ensure safety and stability during rare-normal or off-normal situations (e.g., system failures). It may be difficult to certify Free Maneuvering systems for unrestricted operations, but it may be easier to certify systems and procedures for specified levels of Gaggle Density that could be monitored by the ATSP, and maintained through relatively minor flow-rate (RTA type) restrictions. Since flight deck based separation assurance is airspace independent, the challenge is to measure congestion independent of sector

  13. El Niño, Climate, and Cholera Associations in Piura, Peru, 1991-2001: A Wavelet Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Iván J; Grady, Sue C

    2016-03-01

    In Peru, it was hypothesized that epidemic cholera in 1991 was linked to El Niño, the warm phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation. While previous studies demonstrated an association in 1997-1998, using cross-sectional data, they did not assess the consistency of this relationship across the decade. Thus, how strong or variable an El Niño-cholera relationship was in Peru or whether El Niño triggered epidemic cholera early in the decade remains unknown. In this study, wavelet and mediation analyses were used to characterize temporal patterns among El Niño, local climate variables (rainfall, river discharge, and air temperature), and cholera incidence in Piura, Peru from 1991 to 2001 and to estimate the mediating effects of local climate on El Niño-cholera relationships. The study hypothesis is that El Niño-related connections with cholera in Piura were transient and interconnected via local climate pathways. Overall, our findings provide evidence that a strong El Niño-cholera link, mediated by local hydrology, existed in the latter part of the 1990s but found no evidence of an El Niño association in the earlier part of the decade, suggesting that El Niño may not have precipitated cholera emergence in Piura. Further examinations of cholera epicenters in Peru are recommended to support these results in Piura. For public health planning, the results may improve existing efforts that utilize El Niño monitoring for preparedness during future climate-related extremes in the region.

  14. Index to Army Times 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    1991; 51(26): p. 6. ARMY--REORGANIZATION Investigators chaLLenge cadre concept. Army Times; Sept. 30, 1991; 52(9): p. 6. ARROW (MISSILE)-- ISRAEL ...p. 10. NUTRITION--RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Tickling palates with pizza, pouch bread. Army Times; Nov. 18, 1991; 52(16): p. 10. OBESITY Poor...Aviators awarded. Army Times; June 24, 1991; 51(48): p. 15. Honoring Patriot crews in Israel . Army Times; Apr. 1, 1991; 51(35): p. 17. House passes

  15. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production: 1970-2050.

    PubMed

    Bennetzen, Eskild H; Smith, Pete; Porter, John R

    2016-02-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements allowing not only a combined analysis of the total level of all emissions jointly with emissions per unit area and emissions per unit product. It also allows us to examine how a change in emissions from a given source contributes to the change in total emissions over time. We show that agricultural production and GHGs have been steadily decoupled over recent decades. Emissions peaked in 1991 at ~12 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) and have not exceeded this since. Since 1970 GHG emissions per unit product have declined by 39% and 44% for crop- and livestock-production, respectively. Except for the energy-use component of farming, emissions from all sources have increased less than agricultural production. Our projected business-as-usual range suggests that emissions may be further decoupled by 20-55% giving absolute agricultural emissions of 8.2-14.5 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) by 2050, significantly lower than many previous estimates that do not allow for decoupling. Beyond this, several additional costcompetitive mitigation measures could reduce emissions further. However, agricultural GHG emissions can only be reduced to a certain level and a simultaneous focus on other parts of the food-system is necessary to increase food security whilst reducing emissions. The identity approach presented here could be used as a methodological framework for more holistic food systems analysis.

  16. Government and Navy knowledge regarding health hazards of asbestos: a state of the science evaluation (1900 to 1970).

    PubMed

    Franke, Kara; Paustenbach, Dennis

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated dozens of published and unpublished documents describing the knowledge and awareness of both the scientific community and governmental entities, particularly the US Navy, regarding the health hazards associated with asbestos over time. We divided our analysis into specific blocks of time: 1900-1929, 1930-1959, and 1960-1970. By 1930, it was clear that high occupational exposure to asbestos caused a unique disease (asbestosis). Between about 1938 and 1965, a considerable amount of exposure and epidemiology data were collected by various scientific and government organizations. Between 1960 and 1970, mesothelioma was clearly linked to exposure to amphibole asbestos. Nonetheless, the Navy continued to require the use of asbestos-containing materials on ships, but also recommended that proper precautions be taken when handling asbestos. We concluded that the Navy was arguably one of the most knowledgeable organizations in the world regarding the health hazards of asbestos, and that it attempted to implement procedures that would minimize the opportunity for adverse effects on both servicemen and civilians. Finally, it is apparent from our research that through at least 1970, neither the military nor the private sector believed that the myriad of asbestos-containing products considered "encapsulated" (e.g. gaskets, brakes, Bakelite) posed a health hazard to those working with them.

  17. Metals Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory information about the metals sector (NAICS 331 & 332), including NESHAPs for metal coatings, effluent guidelines for metal products, combustion compliance assistance, and information about foundry sand recycling.

  18. Exploring Oman's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saqlawi, Juman; Madani, Kaveh; Mac Dowell, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Located in a region where over 40% of the world's oil and gas reserves lie and in a trend similar to that of its neighbors, Oman's economy has been reliant on crude oil export since the 1970's. Being aware of the dangers of this reliance along with the discovery of Natural Gas since the 1980s, the Omani government's policy of diversifying its economy has shifted its reliance on Oil to another fossil fuel, namely Natural Gas. Given that energy is the lifeline of Oman's economy, effective and efficient forward planning and policy development is essential for the country's current and future economic development. This presentation explores the current status of the energy sector in Oman from home production and import to eventual final uses. The presentation highlights the major issues with Oman's current energy policies and suggests various strategies that could be adopted by Oman for a more efficient and sustainable future.

  19. Local and regional interactions between air quality and climate in New Delhi- A sector based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrapu, Pallavi

    Deteriorating air quality is one of the major problems faced worldwide and in particular in Asia. The world's most polluted megacities are located in Asia highlighting the urgent need for efforts to improve the air quality. New Delhi (India), one of the world's most polluted cities, was the host of the Common Wealth Games during the period of 4-14 October 2010. This high profile event provided a good opportunity to accelerate efforts to improve air quality. Computational advances now allow air quality forecast models to fully couple the meteorology with chemical constituents within a unified modeling system that allows two-way interactions. The WRF-Chem model is used to simulate air quality in New Delhi. The thesis focuses on evaluating air quality and meteorology feedbacks. Four nested domains ranging from South Asia, Northern India, NCR Delhi and Delhi city at 45km, 15km, 5km and 1.67km resolution for a period of 20 day (26th Sep--15th Oct, 2010) are used in the study. The predicted mean surface concentrations of various pollutants show similar spatial distributions with peak values in the middle of the domain reflecting the traffic and population patterns in the city. Along with these activities, construction dust and industrial emissions contribute to high levels of criteria pollutants. The study evaluates the WRF-Chem capabilities using a new emission inventory developed over Delhi at a fine resolution of 1.67km and evaluating the results with observational data from 11 monitoring sties placed at various Game venues. The contribution of emission sectors including transportation, power, industry, and domestic to pollutant concentrations at targeted regions are studied and the results show that transportation and domestic sector are the major contributors to the pollution levels in Delhi, followed by industry. Apart from these sectors, emissions outside of Delhi contribute 20-50% to surface concentrations depending on the species. This indicates that pollution

  20. The footwear factory's assembly sector: opposing organizational structure and quality from the ergonomic work analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Kláudia M M N; Coelho, Bernardo G P; Junior, Josemir V S; Faria, Luiz F M; Dutra, Ludmila; Alvarenga, Marília; Roggini, Renan; Echternach, Eliza Helena de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Data from 2006 indicated that Brazilian footwear leather industry was composed of approximately 9,488 formally registered establishments, considering the leather industry, footwear and leather goods. It was responsible for 211,582 people employed. However, in spite of having many employees, this kind of organization found several problems when analyzed from the ergonomics view. With this premise, then, in order to identify bottlenecks and other engineering problems that could cause discomfort and motivation lack among workers, leading directly to the loss of the product quality, the assembly sector of women's shoes factory was characterized.

  1. Analysis of the gas-lubricated flat-sector-pad thrust bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.

    1976-01-01

    A flat sector-shaped pad geometry for a gas-lubricated thrust bearing is analyzed considering both the pitch and roll of the pad. It is shown that maximum load capacity is achieved when the pad is tilted so as to create uniform minimum film thickness along the pad trailing edge. Performance characteristics for various geometries and operating conditions of gas thrust bearings are presented in the form of design curves, and a comparison is made with the rectangular slider approximation. It is found that this approximation is unsafe for practical design, since it always overestimates load capacity.

  2. Is Deindustrialization Causing High Unemployment in Affluent Countries? Evidence from 16 OECD Countries, 1970-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollmeyer, Christopher; Pichler, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the possibility that deindustrialization has been contributing to the persistently high unemployment rates experienced by most affluent countries since the mid-1970s. Combining insights from Lilien's (1982) "sectoral shift" thesis and the literature on deindustrialization, the authors assert that the decades-long contraction of…

  3. Severe malaria--analysis of prognostic symptoms and signs in 169 patients treated in Gdynia in 1991-2005.

    PubMed

    Goljan, Jolanta; Nahorski, Wacław Leszek; Wroczyńska, Agnieszka; Felczak-Korzybska, Iwona; Pietkiewicz, Halina

    2006-01-01

    In the period 1991-2005, 169 patients with the diagnosis of malaria were hospitalized in the Department of Tropical and Parasitic Diseases, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine in Gdynia (from 2003--the Academic Centre of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk). All the cases were analysed for severity, occurrence of complications and permanent sequelae of the disease. According to the criteria set by the WHO (5), malaria was classified as severe in 36 cases. All of them were Plasmodium falciparum infections or mixed infections: P. f. and another species of the parasite. Patients in this group developed a number of complications, inter alia shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute renal failure, blackwater fever, severe anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, myocarditis, consciousness disorders of varied degree, acute transient psychoses, and exacerbation of ischemic heart disease. In one case of a pregnant woman, necrosis of the fetus occurred in the course of disease in the 4th month of pregnancy. Moreover, meningoencephalitis was diagnosed in two patients--in one of them concurrently with symptoms and signs of malaria, while in the other one-3 weeks after the symptoms subsided. In 6 patients, permanent sequelae of the disease developed and in 4 patients the disease was fatal. The cause of death was multi-organ failure, with the first sign of poor prognosis being rapidly progressing renal failure resistant to treatment in three men; in one case death resulted from cerebral malaria. In cases of suspected malaria, relapsing malaria or in mixed infections, molecular testing was a valuable complementary tool of diagnosis, which helped in beginning the appropriate treatment.

  4. FPL's Christmas 1991 transmission outages

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, J.T.; Busch, D.W.; Renowden, J.D. . Transmission Line Dept.)

    1993-10-01

    A record number of contamination related outages occurred on FPL transmission lines during Christmas of 1991 and resulted in an investigation of inservice insulator performance. The field investigation process used was enhanced by recent improvements in outage data recording. Also used in the analysis were weather information, the results of recently completed accelerated aging tests of polymers, and specially conducted tests on the effects of weathering steel stain on porcelain insulators. Specific insulator problems were identified and actions taken to reduce the possibility of recurrence.

  5. Envisioning the Third Sector's Welfare Role: Critical Discourse Analysis of 'Post-Devolution' Public Policy in the UK 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy - thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities - such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision - policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance.

  6. Envisioning the Third Sector's Welfare Role: Critical Discourse Analysis of ‘Post-Devolution’ Public Policy in the UK 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy – thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities – such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision – policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance. PMID:25574063

  7. Geological, petrophysical and engineering analysis of the frontier formation: A case study of the Enron South Hogsback 13-8A cooperative well, Moxa Arch, Green River basin, Wyoming, held in Denver, Colorado on April 14, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    1991-04-01

    The presentation slides from April 1991 Gas Research Institute tight gas sands workshop are assembled in this volume. They illustrate the following discussions: Geological Overview of the Frontier Formation at the Enron South Hogsback Cooperative Well, Reservoir Characterization, Formation Evaluation, Stress Profile Determination, in Tight Gas Sands, Pre-Fracture Reservoir Analysis, Fracture Design and Analysis, Using Microseismicity for Fracture Diagnostics, and Post-Fracture Analysis and Reservoir Stimulation.

  8. Technical Services Research, 1988-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Charles W.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews research published between 1988 and 1991 in technical services in the areas of acquisitions, including automation, costs, and vendor analysis; authority control; automation; cataloging, including costs and time analysis, rules and theory, expert systems, online catalogs, and shared cataloging; classification; preservation; serials; subject…

  9. Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

    1980-09-01

    This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  10. English Leadership Quarterly. 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent the quarterly for 1991. Articles in number 1 deal with whole language and include: "CEL: Shorter and Better" (Myles D. Eley); "Toward a New Philosophy of Language Learning" (Kathleen Strickland); "Whole Language: Implications for Secondary Classrooms"…

  11. FY 1991 Children's Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Coalition for Children and Families, East Lansing.

    Addressed to advocates and decision makers, this agenda identifies state services in Michigan that will be most vital to the state's children and families in fiscal year 1991. Initial contents provide general policy recommendations of the Michigan Coalition for Children and Families. Policy recommendations for the programs of the departments of…

  12. Development Communication Report, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The four 1991 issues of the newsletter "Development Communication Report" are primarily concerned with the use of communication technologies in developing countries to educate the people. Evaluation is the theme of the first issue, which contains the following articles: "Evaluating Communication Programs: Means and Ends,""Making a Splash: How…

  13. TACSCE Research Annual 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesko, Silvia Jo

    1991-01-01

    This annual contains the paper that won the 1991 President's Award of the Texas Association for Community Service and Continuing Education (TACSCE) as well as the runner-up paper and other articles. An editorial, "Learning to Crawl" (Silvia Lesko), focuses on the editor's "discovery" of the adult learner. "Ethics and…

  14. Sectoral shifts and aggregate unemployment

    SciTech Connect

    Loungani, P.

    1986-01-01

    Some recent research has taken the view that sectoral or industry-specific shocks significantly affect aggregate unemployment by increasing the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required. The empirical evidence for this view rests on the finding that during the 1950s - and again during the 1970s - there was a positive correlation between aggregate unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth rates. This thesis demonstrates that this correlation arises largely because oil price shocks affect both unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth. Once the dispersion due to oil shocks is accounted for, the residual dispersion in employment has very low explanatory power for unemployment. Since the dispersion index does not measure pure sectoral shifts, an alternate measure of dispersion is developed that serves as a better proxy for the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required each period. Estimates using this measure suggest that, during the 1950s, temporary increases in the relative price of oil were responsible for generating the observed correlation. On the other hand, sectoral shifts were important during the 1970s; in particular, the 1973 oil price increase has had significant reallocative effects on the economy. This contention is subjected to further tests by looking at the time-series behavior of employment in durable-goods industries and also by following the inter-industry movements of workers over time through the use of panel data.

  15. An input-output table based analysis on the virtual water by sectors with the five northwest provinces in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chenchen; Zhan, Jinyan

    Virtual water refers to the volumes of water required to produce a commodity or service. It reflects human's actual consumption of water resources and therefore has certain significance in water resources management. Over the years, the concept of virtual water has caught the attentions of water manager and decision maker. In order to utilize this concept, the accounting and estimation of virtual water is the foundation that lies in this issue. Till now, the accounting methods mainly include the method provided by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), water footprint and input-output analysis method. In this paper, we chose Northwest China, which is a typical arid region that is facing with rapid economic development, as the study area and built an Input-Output (IO) analysis method to estimate virtual water among different industry sectors in the northwest China. The accounting and estimation results could be used to give suggestions to increase water use efficiency and promote virtual water trade in the study area. Comparison of the proposed method with other prevailing method was also analyzed. The introduced method could be utilized for accounting and estimation of virtual water by sectors, with its superiority in characterizing industrial water consumption and the accounting results could lend certain credence to the water resource management and industrial transformation for the future economic development of northwest China.

  16. Computational Analysis of Dynamic SPK(S8)-JP8 Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, R.; Hendricks, Roberts C.; Huber, M. L.; Shouse, D. T.

    2010-01-01

    Civil and military flight tests using blends of synthetic and biomass fueling with jet fuel up to 50:50 are currently considered as "drop-in" fuels. They are fully compatible with aircraft performance, emissions and fueling systems, yet the design and operations of such fueling systems and combustors must be capable of running fuels from a range of feedstock sources. This paper provides Smart Combustor or Fuel Flexible Combustor designers with computational tools, preliminary performance, emissions and particulates combustor sector data. The baseline fuel is kerosene-JP-8+100 (military) or Jet A (civil). Results for synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK) fuel blends show little change with respect to baseline performance, yet do show lower emissions. The evolution of a validated combustor design procedure is fundamental to the development of dynamic fueling of combustor systems for gas turbine engines that comply with multiple feedstock sources satisfying both new and legacy systems.

  17. Micromechanics-Based Damage Analysis of Fracture in Ti5553 Alloy with Application to Bolted Sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettaieb, Mohamed Ben; Van Hoof, Thibaut; Minnebo, Hans; Pardoen, Thomas; Dufour, Philippe; Jacques, Pascal J.; Habraken, Anne Marie

    2015-03-01

    A physics-based, uncoupled damage model is calibrated using cylindrical notched round tensile specimens made of Ti5553 and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The fracture strain of Ti5553 is lower than for Ti-6Al-4V in the full range of stress triaxiality. This lower ductility originates from a higher volume fraction of damage sites. By proper heat treatment, the fracture strain of Ti5553 increases by almost a factor of two, as a result of a larger damage nucleation stress. This result proves the potential for further optimization of the damage resistance of the Ti5553 alloy. The damage model is combined with an elastoviscoplastic law in order to predict failure in a wide range of loading conditions. In particular, a specific application involving bolted sectors is addressed in order to determine the potential of replacing the Ti-6Al-4V by the Ti5553 alloy.

  18. Nano-energy research trends: bibliometrical analysis of nanotechnology research in the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez-Manjón, Ana; Moldenhauer, Kirsten; Wagener, Philipp; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    Nano-energy, the part of nanotechnology dedicated to the study and improvement of the Energy Supply Sector, is a promising and perspective research field. A robust method to quantify international scientific activities in this field is the literature search. An evaluative bibliometric approach applied to the Science Citation Index has been done to retrieve a set of articles related to nano-energy and get knowledge of the direction and trends followed by this particular scientific topic. The resulting database showed an exponential increase of the number of publications issuing nano-based investigations in the energy sector in the last decade, accelerating to an annual growth rate of 1,100%. The most cited articles and the material-clustering protocol revealed that carbon-nanoelements and their application in solar energy harvesting and conversion, and energy storage devices have been principally investigated and represent the main focus in that continuously growing research field. The number of nanotechnology-related papers in the energy database increased monotonically for harvesting, conversion, and storage the last decade, being energy distribution and usage not affected. TiO2 or SnO2 nanoparticles or thin films, and nanocomposites occupied the following top positions in the investigated material ranking. This trend was constant along the decade, as confirmed by network analyses. Supported by discipline-clustering, we observed the fundamental character of the research developed between 2000 and 2009, relying mainly on material science and chemistry. Hence, further implementation of nanotechnology findings is needed to stimulate nano-based energy-focused technologies reaching widespread commercial applications.

  19. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    PubMed

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae

  20. SERVOL through the Years, 1970-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantin, Gerard

    This report summarizes the activities of the Trinidad-based Service Volunteered for All (SERVOL) from 1970 to 1993. SERVOL works with Caribbean communities to assist them in making social changes that they not only want but also can afford. Projects from 1970-1976 highlighted in the report include: (1) community based preschools; (2) training…

  1. The Analytic Onion: Examining Training Issues from Different Levels of Analysis. Interim Technical Paper for Period July 1989-June 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Theodore A.; Chin, Keric B. O.

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework based on different levels of analysis using the metaphor of the layers of an onion to help organize and structure thinking on research issues concerning training. It discusses the core of the "analytic onion," the biological level, and seven levels of analysis that surround that core: the individual, the…

  2. Multifractality of sectoral price indices: Hurst signature analysis of Cantillon effects in disequilibrium factor markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Robert F.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents Hurst exponent signatures from time series of aggregate price indices for the US over the 1975-2011 time period. Though all highly aggregated, these indices include both broad measures of consumer and producer prices. The constellation of prices evolves as a complex system throughout processes of production and distribution, culminating in the final delivery of output to consumers. Massive feedback characterizes this system, where the demand for consumable output determines the demand for the inputs used to produce it, and supply scarcities for the necessary inputs in turn determine the supply of the final product. Prices in both factor and output markets are jointly determined by interdependent supply and demand conditions. Fractal examination of the interplay among market prices would be of interest regardless, but added interest arises from the consideration of how these markets respond to external shocks over the business cycle, particularly monetary expansion. Because the initial impact of monetary injection is localized in specific sectors, the way the impact on prices diffuses throughout the economy is of special interest.

  3. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Electricity Usage in India’s Housing Sector

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    India offers a unique set of features for studying electricity use in the context of a developing country. First, it has a rapidly developing economy with high yearly growth rates in gross domestic product (GDP). Second, it has the second -largest population in the world and is likely to have the largest population in the future. Third, its electric system is maturing—with known difficulties (outages, shortages, issues with reliability and quality) that are characteristic of a developing country. This article focuses on electricity use in the residential sector of India and discusses key trends and provides an overview of available usage estimates from various sources. Indian households are an interesting environment where many of India’s unique features interact. The recent economic gains correlate with rising incomes and possible changes in living standards, which could affect electricity or other energy use within households. Additionally, the maturing electric system and large population in India both offer opportunities to study a range of interactions between electrification and electricity usage in a developing country.

  4. Spatially Resolved Elemental Analysis, Spectroscopy and Diffraction at the GSECARS Sector at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, Stephen R.; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matthew; Rivers, Mark L.; Eng, Peter; Lefticariu, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    X-ray microprobes (XRM) coupled with high-brightness synchrotron X-ray facilities are powerful tools for environmental biogeochemistry research. One such instrument, the XRM at the Geo Soil Enviro Center for Advanced Radiation Sources Sector 13 at the Advanced Photon Source (APS; Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL) was recently improved as part of a canted undulator geometry upgrade of the insertion device port, effectively doubling the available undulator beam time and extending the operating energy of the branch supporting the XRM down to the sulfur K edge (2.3 keV). Capabilities include rapid, high-resolution, elemental imaging including fluorescence microtomography, microscale X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy including sulfur K edge capability, and microscale X-ray diffraction. These capabilities are advantageous for (i) two-dimensional elemental mapping of relatively large samples at high resolution, with the dwell times typically limited only by the count times needed to obtain usable counting statistics for low concentration elements, (ii) three-dimensional imaging of internal elemental distributions in fragile hydrated specimens, such as biological tissues, avoiding the need for physical slicing, (iii) spatially resolved speciation determinations of contaminants in environmental materials, and (iv) identification of contaminant host phases. In this paper, we describe the XRM instrumentation, techniques, applications demonstrating these capabilities, and prospects for further improvements associated with the proposed upgrade of the APS.

  5. Review: 1991 industry developments

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    This is NUEXCO`s annual summary of the previous year`s (1991) events. There are reviews of major nuclear developments in each continent, as well as international developments. Specific topics include fuels, waste management, new facilities, and decommissioning. Nuclear activities in the following countries are noted: South Africa, Yemen, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Namibia, France, Japan, Taiwan, China, Korea, India, Pakistan, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Italy, Czechoslovakia, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Canada, USA, Argentina, Brazil, and Uraguay.

  6. SOIL AND FILL LABORATORY SUPPORT - 1991

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of soil analysis laboratory work by the University of Florida in Support of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). Analyses were performed on soil and fill samples collected during 1991 by the FRRP Research House program and the New House Evaluation P...

  7. 1996-2004 Trends in the Single-Family Housing Market: Spatial Analysis of the Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dave M.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2006-09-05

    This report provides a detailed geographic analysis of two specific topics affecting the residential sector. First, we performed an analysis of new construction market trends using annual building permit data. We report summarized tables and national maps to help illustrate market conditions. Second, we performed a detailed geographic analysis of the housing finance market. We analyzed mortgage application data to provide citable statistics and detailed geographic summarization of the residential housing picture in the US for each year in the 1996-2004 period. The databases were linked to geographic information system tools to provide various map series detailing the results geographically. Looking at these results geographically may suggest potential new markets for TD programs addressing the residential sector that have not been considered previously. For example, we show which lenders affect which regions and which income or mortgage product classes. These results also highlight the issue of housing affordability. Energy efficiency R&D programs focused on developing new technology for the residential sector must be conscious of the costs of products resulting from research that will eventually impact the home owner or new home buyer. Results indicate that home values as a proportion of median family income in Building America communities are closely aligned with the national average of home value as a proportion of median income. Other key findings: • The share of home building and home buying activity continues to rise steadily in the Hot-Dry and Hot-Humid climate zones, while the Mixed-Humid and Cold climate zone shares continue to decline. Other zones remain relatively stable in terms of share of housing activity. • The proportion of home buyers having three times the median family income for their geography has been steadily increasing during the study period. • Growth in the Hispanic/Latino population and to a lesser degree in the Asian population has

  8. Assessing National Employment Impacts of Investment in Residential and Commercial Sector Energy Efficiency: Review and Example Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David M.; Belzer, David B.; Livingston, Olga V.; Scott, Michael J.

    2014-06-18

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) modeled the employment impacts of a major national initiative to accelerate energy efficiency trends at one of two levels: • 15 percent savings by 2030. In this scenario, efficiency activities save about 15 percent of the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) Reference Case electricity consumption by 2030. It is assumed that additional energy savings in both the residential and commercial sectors begin in 2015 at zero, and then increase in an S-shaped market penetration curve, with the level of savings equal to about 7.0 percent of the AEO 2014 U.S. national residential and commercial electricity consumption saved by 2020, 14.8 percent by 2025, and 15 percent by 2030. • 10 percent savings by 2030. In this scenario, additional savings begin at zero in 2015, increase to 3.8 percent in 2020, 9.8 percent by 2025, and 10 percent of the AEO reference case value by 2030. The analysis of the 15 percent case indicates that by 2030 more than 300,000 new jobs would likely result from such policies, including an annual average of more than 60,000 jobs directly supporting the installation and maintenance of energy efficiency measures and practices. These are new jobs resulting initially from the investment associated with the construction of more energy-efficient new buildings or the retrofit of existing buildings and would be sustained for as long as the investment continues. Based on what is known about the current level of building-sector energy efficiency jobs, this would represent an increase of more than 10 percent from the current estimated level of over 450,000 such jobs. The more significant and longer-lasting effect comes from the redirection of energy bill savings toward the purchase of other goods and services in the general economy, with its attendant influence on increasing the total number of jobs. This example analysis utilized PNNL’s ImSET model, a modeling framework that PNNL has used over the past two decades to assess

  9. How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development

  10. Parallel methods on large-scale structural analysis and physics applications; Symposium, Hampton, VA, Feb. 5, 6, 1991, Selected Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, Olaf O. (Editor); Carmona, Edward A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in parallel methods and algorithms integrated into large-scale codes are presented. Consideration is given to problem decomposition (substructuring), efficient matrix solution algorithms for shared memory architectures, dynamic and transient analysis algorithms for shared memory architectures, and algorithms for distributed and massively parallel architectures. Particular attention is given to partitioning of unstructured problems for parallel processing, parallel-vector computation for linear-structural analysis and nonlinear unconstraint optimization problems, a parallel-vector equation solver for unsymmetric matrices on supercomputers, parallel nonlinear finite element dynamic response, multigrid algorithms for solving structural mechanics problems on supercomputers, structural analysis on massively parallel computers, explicit finite element methods with contact-impact on SIMD computers, and the impact of mapping and sparsity on parallelized finite element method modules.

  11. The Forgotten Minority: An Analysis of American Indian Employment Patterns in State and Local Governments, 1991-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Valerie H.; Kerr, Brinck; Ketcher, Linda K.; Murphy, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address a gap in the empirical literature by analyzing levels of proportional representation of American Indians over time in state and local government bureaucracies in key states. The authors limit their analysis to six states with the largest percentages of American Indian populations in 2000: Alaska, Arizona,…

  12. Research in marriage reproduction (1970).

    PubMed

    Srb, V

    1972-01-01

    Marriage reproduction in Czechoslovakia was investigated between May and July 1970. The sample included 2994 married women in the 15-54 age group. The average age of women in the sample was 32.9 years. The age of the women was the same regardless of whether they were economically active or in the household. The duration of married life of the women in the sample was 11.5 years. At the age of 33 the Czechoslovak spouse has spent 11.5 years in marriage and has on the average 1.9 living children. There are 0.17 live births per every year of married life. The married couple descends from 3.3 children on the average. The higher the educational attainment of either the wife or the husband, the more frequently the couple originated from a small family. The structure of families and households was studied according to internationally recommended composition. The most frequent type was a family household where both parents lived only with their children (66%). Frequently the household was shared with a relative (20%). The average size of Czechoslovak households of married wives between 20-49 was 4.3 members. The fact that a "genuine family" comprised 3.9 members suggests that on the average 0.4 other persons were sharing the household. When her reproductive period ended, the woman had 2.5 children. The families of women married for the 2nd time were larger. The differences were largest at a younger age. In Czechoslovakia the housing stock was rather obsolete. Only recently has there been an increase in residential construction. This is most obvious in the Slovak Socialist Republic (SSR). The best facilities were available to 2 member households (childless families). With an increasing number of members, the amount and quality of the housing facilities rapidly deteriorates. A smaller number of children had been planned by older women who were either childless or with an actually lower fertility. Women with a higher educational level were planning a smaller number of children

  13. A threat analysis framework as applied to critical infrastructures in the Energy Sector.

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, John T.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The need to protect national critical infrastructure has led to the development of a threat analysis framework. The threat analysis framework can be used to identify the elements required to quantify threats against critical infrastructure assets and provide a means of distributing actionable threat information to critical infrastructure entities for the protection of infrastructure assets. This document identifies and describes five key elements needed to perform a comprehensive analysis of threat: the identification of an adversary, the development of generic threat profiles, the identification of generic attack paths, the discovery of adversary intent, and the identification of mitigation strategies.

  14. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. Final Project Report. California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-01

    This report on the California Energy Balance version 2 (CALEB v2) database documents the latest update and improvements to CALEB version 1 (CALEB v1) and provides a complete picture of how energy is supplied and consumed in the State of California. The CALEB research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) performed the research and analysis described in this report. CALEB manages highly disaggregated data on energy supply, transformation, and end-use consumption for about 40 different energy commodities, from 1990 to 2008. This report describes in detail California's energy use from supply through end-use consumption as well as the data sources used. The report also analyzes trends in energy demand for the "Manufacturing" and "Building" sectors. Decomposition analysis of energy consumption combined with measures of the activity driving that consumption quantifies the effects of factors that shape energy consumption trends. The study finds that a decrease in energy intensity has had a very significant impact on reducing energy demand over the past 20 years. The largest impact can be observed in the industry sector where energy demand would have had increased by 358 trillion British thermal units (TBtu) if subsectoral energy intensities had remained at 1997 levels. Instead, energy demand actually decreased by 70 TBtu. In the "Building" sector, combined results from the "Service" and "Residential" subsectors suggest that energy demand would have increased by 264 TBtu (121 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 143 TBtu in the "Residential" sector) during the same period, 1997 to 2008. However, energy demand increased at a lesser rate, by only 162 TBtu (92 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 70 TBtu in the "Residential" sector). These energy intensity reductions can be indicative of energyefficiency improvements during the past 10 years. The research presented in this report provides a basis for developing an energy-efficiency performance index to measure

  15. Application of inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry for low-level environmental americium-241 analysis.

    PubMed

    Varga, Zsolt

    2007-03-28

    An improved and novel sample preparation method for (241)Am analysis by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry has been developed. The procedure involves a selective CaF(2) pre-concentration followed by an extraction chromatographic separation using TRU resin. The achieved absolute detection limit of 0.86 fg (0.11 mBq) is comparable to that of alpha spectrometry (0.1 mBq) and suitable for low-level environmental measurements. Analysis of different kinds of environmental standard reference materials (IAEA-384--Fangataufa lagoon sediment, IAEA-385--Irish Sea sediment and IAEA-308--Mixed seaweed from the Mediterranean Sea) and alpha spectrometry were used to validate the procedure. The chemical recovery of sample preparation ranged between 72 and 94%. The results obtained are in good agreement with reference values and those measured by alpha spectrometry. The proposed method offers a rapid and less labor-intensive possibility for environmental (241)Am analysis than the conventionally applied radioanalytical techniques.

  16. Classification of aerosol radiative properties during African desert dust intrusions over southeastern Spain by sector origins and cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, A.; Olmo, F. J.; Lyamani, H.; Antón, M.; Quirantes, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-03-01

    The main goal of this study is to analyze the dependence of columnar aerosol optical and microphysical properties on source region and transport pathways during desert dust intrusions over Granada (Spain) from January 2005 to December 2010. Columnar aerosol properties have been derived from a non-spherical inversion code using the solar extinction measurements and sky radiances in the principal plane. Two classification methods of the African air masses ending at the study location were used by means of the HYSPLIT back-trajectories analysis. The first one, based on desert dust origin sources, discriminated the optical properties only for sector B (corresponding to western Sahara, northwest Mauritania and southwest Algeria). The particles present marked absorbing properties (low value of single scattering albedo at all wavelengths) during the desert dust events when the air masses were transported from sector A (north Morocco, northwest Algeria). This result may be related to the mixing of desert dust with anthropogenic pollutants from North African industrial areas in addition to the mixing with local anthropogenic aerosol and pollutants transported from European and Mediterranean areas. The second classification method was based on a statistics technique called cluster classification which allows grouping the air masses back trajectories with similar speed and direction of the trajectory. This method showed slight differences in the optical properties between the several transport pathways of air masses. High values of the aerosol optical depth and low mean values of the Angström parameter were associated with longer transport pathways over desert dust sources and slowly moving air masses. Both classification methods showed that the fine mode was mixed with coarse mode, being the fine mode fraction smaller than 55%.

  17. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Final progress report, 1 March 1991--28 February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, F.T.

    1994-04-01

    The objectives of this grant proposal include (1) development of a chromosome microdissection and PCR-mediated microcloning technology, (2) application of this microtechnology to the construction of region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. During this grant period, the authors have successfully developed this microtechnology and have applied it to the construction of microdissection libraries for the following chromosome regions: a whole chromosome 21 (21E), 2 region-specific libraries for the long arm of chromosome 2, 2q35-q37 (2Q1) and 2q33-q35 (2Q2), and 4 region-specific libraries for the entire short arm of chromosome 2, 2p23-p25 (2P1), 2p21-p23 (2P2), 2p14-p16 (wP3) and 2p11-p13 (2P4). In addition, 20--40 unique sequence microclones have been isolated and characterized for genomic studies. These region-specific libraries and the single-copy microclones from the library have been used as valuable resources for (1) isolating microsatellite probes in linkage analysis to further refine the disease locus; (2) isolating corresponding clones with large inserts, e.g. YAC, BAC, P1, cosmid and phage, to facilitate construction of contigs for high resolution physical mapping; and (3) isolating region-specific cDNA clones for use as candidate genes. These libraries are being deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) for general distribution.

  18. An analysis of the implementation and impact of speech-recognition technology in the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Parente, Ronaldo; Kock, Ned; Sonsini, John

    2004-06-18

    This paper develops a conceptual framework and offers research propositions for understanding the adoption of speech-recognition technology, drawing from Rogers's work on the diffusion of innovation, from interview findings, and from case study analysis. The study's focus was the analysis of the implementation of speech recognition and its impact on performance in the healthcare industry. Our interview findings indicated that, while there is still much room for improvement in the way speech-recognition technology is adopted and implemented, this particular technology has had a significant impact on the ability of healthcare providers to operate more cost effectively and provide a better level of patient care.

  19. Cost-benefit analysis of alternative LNG vapor-mitigation measures. Topical report, September 14, 1987-January 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.

    1992-06-25

    A generalized methodology is presented for comparing the costs and safety benefits of alternative hazard mitigation measures for a large LNG vapor release. The procedure involves the quantification of the risk to the public before and after the application of LNG vapor mitigation measures. In the study, risk was defined as the product of the annual accident frequency, estimated from a fault tree analysis, and the severity of the accident. Severity was measured in terms of the number of people who may be exposed to 2.5% or higher concentration. The ratios of the annual costs of the various mitigation measures to their safety benefits (as determined by the differences between the risk before and after mitigation measure implementation), were then used to identify the most cost-effective approaches to vapor cloud mitigation.

  20. A Hybrid Model for IT Investment Analysis: Application to RFID Adoption in the Retail Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasiri, Narges A.

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study. One of the major obstacles in Information Technology (IT) adoption is its return on investment analysis. IT benefits in organizations are hard to measure and are usually realized over time. System dynamics approach has been used in IT literature to identify the impact of IT on business processes. Given benefits of any IT…

  1. Industry sector analysis, Indonesia: Electric power distribution equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Sihombing, P.

    1991-08-20

    The market survey covers the electric power distribution equipment market in Indonesia. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Indonesian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

  2. International oil and gas exploration and development: 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This report starts where the previous quarterly publication ended. This first publication of a new annual series contains most of the same data as the quarterly report, plus some new material, through 1991. It also presents historical data covering a longer period of time than the previous quarterly report. Country-level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve-to-production rations (R/P ratios) are listed for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form. The most popular table in the previous quarterly report, a listing of new discoveries, continues in this annual report as Appendix A.

  3. Semiannual final report, 1 October 1991 - 31 March 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A summary of research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period 1 Oct. 1991 through 31 Mar. 1992 is presented.

  4. Efficacy of fuzzy MADM approach in Six Sigma analysis phase in automotive sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathi, Rajeev; Khanduja, Dinesh; Sharma, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    Six Sigma is a strategy for achieving process improvement and operational excellence within an organization. Decisions on critical parameter selection in analysis phase are always very crucial; it plays a primary role in successful execution of Six Sigma project and for productivity improvement in manufacturing environment and involves the imprecise, vague and uncertain information. Using a case study approach; the paper demonstrates a tactical approach for selection of critical factors of machine breakdown in center less grinding (CLG) section at an automotive industry using fuzzy logic based multi attribute decision making approach. In this context, we have considered six crucial attributes for selection of critical factors for breakdown. Mean time between failure is found to be the pivotal selection criterion in CLG section. Having calculated the weights pertinent to criteria through two methods (fuzzy VIKOR and fuzzy TOPSIS) critical factors for breakdown are prioritized. Our results are in strong agreement with the perceptions of production and maintenance department of the company.

  5. Global nanotechnology development from 1991 to 2012: patents, scientific publications, and effect of NSF funding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Son, Jaebong; Jiang, Shan; Larson, Catherine A.; Gao, Qiang

    2013-09-01

    In a relatively short interval for an emerging technology, nanotechnology has made a significant economic impact in numerous sectors including semiconductor manufacturing, catalysts, medicine, agriculture, and energy production. A part of the United States (US) government investment in basic research has been realized in the last two decades through the National Science Foundation (NSF), beginning with the nanoparticle research initiative in 1991 and continuing with support from the National Nanotechnology Initiative after fiscal year 2001. This paper has two main goals: (a) present a longitudinal analysis of the global nanotechnology development as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patents and Web of Science (WoS) publications in nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) for the interval 1991-2012; and (b) identify the effect of basic research funded by NSF on both indicators. The interval has been separated into three parts for comparison purposes: 1991-2000, 2001-2010, and 2011-2012. The global trends of patents and scientific publications are presented. Bibliometric analysis, topic analysis, and citation network analysis methods are used to rank countries, institutions, technology subfields, and inventors contributing to nanotechnology development. We then, examined how these entities were affected by NSF funding and how they evolved over the past two decades. Results show that dedicated NSF funding used to support nanotechnology R&D was followed by an increased number of relevant patents and scientific publications, a greater diversity of technology topics, and a significant increase of citations. The NSF played important roles in the inventor community and served as a major contributor to numerous nanotechnology subfields.

  6. The Magnitude and Components of Change in the Black-White IQ Difference from 1920 to 1991: A Birth Cohort Analysis of the Woodcock-Johnson Standardizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Charles

    2007-01-01

    The black-white difference in test scores for the three standardizations of the Woodcock-Johnson battery of cognitive tests is analyzed in terms of birth cohorts covering the years from 1920 through 1991. Among persons tested at ages 6-65, a narrowing of the difference occurred in overall IQ and in the two most highly "g"-loaded clusters…

  7. PIRLS-IEA Reading Literacy Framework: Comparative Analysis of the 1991 IEA Reading Study and the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapinus, Barbara

    A study examined how two international studies--the 1991 International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Reading Literacy Study and the 2001 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS, also conducted by IEA)--compared to each other in the aspects of reading literacy each assessed, the types of texts they…

  8. KIRIS Accountability Cycle I Technical Manual. Based on the Analysis of Data from the 1991-92 through 1993-94 School Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dings, Jonathan; Gong, Brian; Kingston, Neal

    This technical manual provides all major existing information about the technical characteristics of the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS). The assessment component of the Kentucky Education Reform Act Accountability System was in use between 1991-92 and 1993-94 and was referred to as Cycle One. Two sets of test…

  9. The Tuberculosis Cascade of Care in India’s Public Sector: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, Srinath; Pai, Madhukar; Thomas, Beena E.; Chadha, Vineet K.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    ,083,243), or 39%, of 2,700,000 TB patients achieved the optimal outcome of 1-y recurrence-free survival. The separate cascades for different forms of TB highlight different patterns of patient attrition. Pretreatment loss to follow-up of diagnosed patients and post-treatment TB recurrence were major points of attrition in the new smear-positive TB cascade. In the new smear-negative and MDR TB cascades, a substantial proportion of patients who were evaluated at RNTCP diagnostic facilities were not successfully diagnosed. Retreatment smear-positive and MDR TB patients had poorer treatment outcomes than the general TB population. Limitations of our analysis include the lack of available data on the cascade of care in the private sector and substantial uncertainty regarding the 1-y period prevalence of TB in India. Conclusions Increasing case detection is critical to improving outcomes in India’s TB cascade of care, especially for smear-negative and MDR TB patients. For new smear-positive patients, pretreatment loss to follow-up and post-treatment TB recurrence are considerable points of attrition that may contribute to ongoing TB transmission. Future multisite studies providing more accurate information on key steps in the public sector TB cascade and extension of this analysis to private sector patients may help to better target interventions and resources for TB control in India. PMID:27780217

  10. Research and technology, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA Lewis' research and technology accomplishments are summarized for the fiscal year 1991. Approximately 150 articles are presented which were submitted by the technical directorates. There are six major sections: Aeronautics; Aerospace technology; Space flight systems; Space Station Freedom; Engineering and Computational support; and Lewis Research Academy. A table of contents by subject was developed to assist the reader in finding articles of special interest. For each article, a Lewis contact person is identified, and where possible, a reference document is listed so that additional information can be easily obtained. The diversity of topics attests to the breadth of research and technology being pursued and to the skill mix of the staff that makes it possible.

  11. Small Town Population Change in Ohio, 1960-1970 and 1970-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Donald W.

    This study of population change in Ohio during the 1960s and 1970s analyzed change by size of place and found sharp contrasts between the two decades. Places in metropolitan core counties which had the highest growth rate in the 1960s showed that lowest growth rate in the 1970s. Small towns in fringe metropolitan areas and nonmetropolitan counties…

  12. Venus ionopause 'clouds' and IMF sector boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, Janet G.; Russell, C. T.; Wei, Hanying; Ma, Yingjuan; Zhang, Tielong; McEnulty, T.

    Disconnected or partially connected structures observed by the PVO Langmuir Probe near the ionopause of Venus were called 'clouds' by Brace et al. (1980). These authors speculated that the loss of atmosphere represented by these features could be significant compared to other loss processes. Russell et al. (1982) subsequently showed that the clouds occurred together with sharp rotations in the magnetic field. They suggested that the extreme draping of the interplanetary field that occurs near the ionopause at the draping poles could exert JxB forces sufficient to pull the ionospheric plasma in the cloud tailward and out into the heliosphere. But in 1991, Ong et al. demonstrated via analysis of many clouds that they are not generally seen in the polar regions of the draped magnetosheath field. Instead they occur at times when the interplanetary magnetic field undergoes a sudden rotation, as in interplanetary field sector boundaries. We discuss the statistics of such rotations at the orbit of Venus and their frequency as a function of solar cycle. Whether they enable or enhance escape or not requires simulation studies, but this study calls attention to the potential importance of time dependent external conditions.

  13. Indian Health Service Training Center, Training Course TC-70-4 (April 13-May 1, 1970): A Descriptive Analysis of the Utilization of Health Resources in the Zuni, New Mexico Service Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Washington, DC. Div. of Indian Health.

    A descriptive study of health services utilization patterns, and possible factors contributing to such patterns, was conducted in April 1970 at the Zuni, New Mexico, Indian Health Service Unit. Health service utilization was explored by selected disease categories, preventative services (maternal and child health), and general population attitudes…

  14. Work satisfaction of professional nurses in South Africa: a comparative analysis of the public and private sectors

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Rubin

    2009-01-01

    Background Work satisfaction of nurses is important, as there is sufficient empirical evidence to show that it tends to affect individual, organizational and greater health and social outcomes. Although there have been several studies of job satisfaction among nurses in South Africa, these are limited because they relate to studies of individual organizations or regions, use small samples or are dated. This paper presents a national study that compares and contrasts satisfaction levels of nurses in both public and private sectors. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of professional nurses conducted throughout South Africa using a pretested and self-administered questionnaire. Univariate and bivariate statistical models were used to evaluate levels of satisfaction with various facets of work and to elicit the differences in satisfaction levels between different groups of nurses. A total of 569 professional nurses participated in the study. Results Private-sector nurses were generally satisfied, while public-sector nurses were generally dissatisfied. Public-sector nurses were most dissatisfied with their pay, the workload and the resources available to them. They were satisfied only with the social context of the work. Private-sector nurses were dissatisfied only with their pay and career development opportunities. Professional nurses in the more rural provinces, those intending to change sectors and those more likely not to be in their current positions within the next five years were also more likely to be dissatisfied with all facets of their work. Conclusion This study highlighted the overall dissatisfaction among South African nurses and confirmed the disparity between the levels of job satisfaction between the public and private sectors. Health managers should address those factors that affect job satisfaction, and therefore retention, of nurses in South Africa. Improving the work environment so that it provides a context congruent with the aspirations

  15. 1991 Fall Meeting Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, David S.

    The AGU 1991 Fall Meeting, held in San Francisco December 9-13, was the largest national AGU meeting ever held. Meeting participation continued the steady growth trend set throughout the previous decade. A total of 4,037 papers and posters were presented, and by Friday noon of the meeting over 5,500 members had registered.Several special events were scheduled to inform and engage members on societal and programmatic aspects of our science. AGU's Committee on Education and Human Resources sponsored an open forum that addressed opportunities and problems associated with dual-career couples. A discussion of NASA's strategic plan by Berrien Moore and Joseph Alexander drew a large audience, and a special session on societal aspects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption drew an overflow crowd. Two special lectures— “Plumes, Plates, and Deep Earth Structure” by Don L. Anderson and “New Frontiers in Aeronomy: Effects of Global Atmospheric Change” by P. M. Banks-also drew overflow crowds.

  16. Jobs for America. Annual Report Fiscal 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Development Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

    During fiscal year 1970, over 800 projects were approved by the Economic Development Administration (EDA) to help create employment opportunities for jobless and underemployed Americans. EDA activities included public works, business loans, technical assistance, and support for local and regional planning programs. Establishment of multi-state…

  17. The British Film Catalogue: 1895-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Denis

    This reference book catalogues nearly every commercial film produced in Britain for public entertainment from 1895 to 1970. The entries are listed chronologically by year and month. Each entry is limited to a single film and contains a cross index code number, exhibition date, main title, length, color system, production company, distribution…

  18. 1970 Inspection of Experimental Marine Piling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The 54 Cooperative piles at Coco Solo, Canal Zone and the 273 Cooperative and NCEL experimental piles at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii were inspected during...the weeks of 9 and 23 March 1970, respectively. After 7 years of exposure at Coco Solo, 9 of the 12 piles treated with creosote-coal tar showed borer

  19. FOI Digest Index, 1970-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedom of Information Center, Columbia, MO.

    An index of the reports and articles appearing in the 1970-79 issues of the "Freedom of Information Digest," a bimonthly newsletter, presents the titles in more than 100 subject categories. The topics covered by the index include access laws, general/school censorship, access to records, employee records, executive privilege, financial disclosure,…

  20. Women and Crime: 1960-1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noblit, George W.; Burcart, Janie M.

    1976-01-01

    Using data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Report, this research looks at crimes committed by women in 1960 and 1970. The study documents trends and offers possible explanations for the observed patterns. (For a critique of this article, see SO 504 653). (Author/RM)

  1. Medical School Salary Study, 1970-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The Association of American Medical Colleges conducted a survey by means of a questionnaire in 1970-71 to determine the salaries of medical school faculties. Ninety-three schools submitted returns; salaries for 4,366 basic scientists and 12,701 clinical scientists are reported. The areas covered include strict full-time faculty by department, and…

  2. Resources for the Future. Annual Report 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Presented is the Annual Report for Resources For The Future, Inc. (RFF) for the year ending September 30, 1970. This organization is dedicated to advancing the development, conservation, and use of natural resources and the improvement of the quality of the environment through programs of research and education. Most of their studies are in the…

  3. The corn blight problem: 1970 and 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Southern corn leaf blight is caused by the fungus, Helminthosporium maydis. Race T of H maydis adapted itself to the Texas male sterile cytoplasm corn. The problems caused by this variety of the blight in 1970 and 1971 are discussed, as well as the symptoms and development of the disease.

  4. Environment for Learning: The 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Alan C.

    The presentation by Alan C. Green briefly discusses the activities and concerns of EFL and elaborates on the learning environment of the 1970's. Building programming is discussed along with the need to consider--(1) time utilization, (2) architect's early involvement in the process of building programming, (3) prevention of domination over the…

  5. Oregon Migrant Health Project, 1970 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Health, Portland.

    The 1970 annual report on the Oregon Migrant Health Project discusses health services for migrant agricultural workers and their families (approximately 30,000 individuals) who worked and lived temporarily in various Oregon counties. As noted, some 9,000 of the 30,000 migrants were estimated to be in need of some type of medical service. Thus, the…

  6. Bibliography of Nursing Monographs, 1970-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewens, Wilma A., Comp.; And Others

    This list consists of titles published since 1970 on nursing, grouping them into five broad categories: (1) nursing practice, including clinical nursing, communication, community health, emergency care, family health, obstetrics, and universal self care; (2) nursing as a profession; (3) educational aspects of nursing; (4) basic health science…

  7. The Total Solar Eclipse, March 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William H.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the circumstances of the total and partial solar eclipse of March 7, 1970 in certain American cities. Also discussed are (1) a classroom demonstration of the cause of solar eclipses, (2) techniques for safely observing the eclipse, and (3) what to observe during the eclipse. Bibliography. (LC)

  8. Wage Differentials Between Federal Government and Private Sector Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sharon Patricia

    This study examined the earnings and wage rate differentials between Federal government and private sector workers in 1960 and 1970 to consider the comparability of these workers and the application of the Comparability Doctrine in Federal pay policy during that period. Two types of earnings and wage rate equations were estimated by ordinary least…

  9. Workplace violence: differences in perceptions of nursing work between those exposed and those not exposed: a cross-sector analysis.

    PubMed

    Hegney, Desley; Tuckett, Anthony; Parker, Deborah; Eley, Robert M

    2010-04-01

    Nurses are at high risk of incurring workplace violence during their working life. This paper reports the findings on a cross-sectional, descriptive, self-report, postal survey in 2007. A stratified random sample of 3000 of the 29 789 members of the Queensland Nurses Union employed in the public, private and aged care sectors resulted in 1192 responses (39.7%). This paper reports the differences: between those nurses who experienced workplace violence and those who did not; across employment sectors. The incidence of workplace violence is highest in public sector nursing. Patients/clients/residents were the major perpetrators of workplace violence and the existence of a workplace policy did not decrease levels of workplace violence. Nurses providing clinical care in the private and aged care sectors experienced more workplace violence than more senior nurses. Although workplace violence was associated with high work stress, teamwork and a supportive workplace mitigated workplace violence. The perception of workplace safety was inversely related to workplace violence. With the exception of public sector nursing, nurses reported an inverse relationship with workplace violence and morale.

  10. Analysis of energy use in building services of the industrial sector in California: A literature review and a preliminary characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Borgers, T.; Gadgil, A.; Sezgen, O.

    1991-04-01

    Energy use patterns in many of California's fastest-growing industries are not typical of those in the mix of industries elsewhere in the US. Many California firms operate small and medium-sized facilities, often in buildings used simultaneously or interchangeably for commercial (office, retail, warehouse) and industrial activities. In these industrial subsectors, the energy required for building services'' to provide occupant comfort and necessities (lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.) may be at least as important as the more familiar process energy requirements -- especially for electricity and on-peak demand. In this report, published or unpublished information on energy use for building services in the industrial sector have been compiled and analyzed. Seven different sources of information and data relevant to California have been identified. Most of these are studies and/or projects sponsored by the Department of Energy, the California Energy Commission, and local utilities. The objectives of these studies were diverse: most focused on industrial energy use in general, and, in one case, the objective was to analyze energy use in commercial buildings. Only one of these studies focused directly on non-process energy use in industrial buildings. Our analysis of Northern California data for five selected industries shows that the contribution of total electricity consumption for lighting ranges from 9.5% in frozen fruits to 29.1% in instruments; for air-conditioning, it ranges from nonexistent in frozen fruits to 35% in instrument manufacturing. None of the five industries selected had significant electrical space heating. Gas space heating ranges from 5% in motor vehicles facilities to more than 58% in the instrument manufacturing industry. 15 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Regulatory Information By Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory, compliance, & enforcement information for various business, industry and government sectors, listed by NAICS code. Sectors include agriculture, automotive, petroleum manufacturing, oil & gas extraction & other manufacturing

  12. End-of-Life in the railway sector: Analysis of recyclability and recoverability for different vehicle case studies.

    PubMed

    Delogu, Massimo; Del Pero, Francesco; Berzi, Lorenzo; Pierini, Marco; Bonaffini, Davide

    2017-02-01

    The railway system represents one of the most resource-efficient answer to our ever-growing demand for transport service and the development trends for the following years forecast a substantial increase in this sector. Considering the European Union, rolling stock realizes a significant share of both goods and passengers carriage while it is responsible for a derisory quota of environmental impact and energy consumption involved by transportation. Contrary to the low environmental impact, the amount of End-of-Life (EoL) waste generated by rolling stocks in relation to the number of vehicles is notable, much greater than in the case of road vehicles. As railway vehicles are constituted by many heterogeneous components, the EoL rolling stock is a precious source of materials, whose recycling brings measurable economic benefits and needs to be appropriately debated. The paper presents calculation of recoverability/recyclability rate for different typologies of vehicles representative of railway transport; calculation is performed on the basis of primary data and according to the recyclability and recoverability calculation method issued by UNIFE in the context of Product Category Rules (PCR). The typologies of railway vehicles taken into account are electric metro, diesel commuter train and high-speed electric train. The analysis envisages also to replicate the calculation in case innovative materials and manufacturing technologies are adopted in the construction of car-body structure. Results show that recyclability/recoverability rates are abundantly over the quota of 90% for each one of the three trains, these latter being made in major part of metals that benefit from very efficient recovery processes. The adoption of innovative materials and manufacturing technologies for car-body structure involves a scarce reduction of recyclability and recoverability rates (about 2% and 0.2% respectively) due to the introduction of components and materials characterized by

  13. Space View of the 1991 Gulf War Kuwaiti Oil Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Larko, D.

    2014-12-01

    During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, over 700 oil wells in Kuwait were set ablaze by the withdrawing Iraqi army with the apparent intent of hindering satellite reconnaissance and intelligence gathering activities by the coalition of forces repelling Iraq from occupied Kuwait. The oil fires that burned for an estimated 10 months, created a huge smoke plume whose spatial extent went at times beyond the Persian Gulf region, mobilized across the Saharan Desert reaching as far west as the North Atlantic Ocean. The Nimbus-7 TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, in operation from October 1978 to May 1993, measured the near UV radiances that in the mid-1990's became the input in the calculation of the well know Absorbing Aerosol Index that represented a major breakthrough in satellite-based aerosol remote sensing. Thus, unknowingly to the world, the N7-TOMS sensor was collecting in 1991 an unprecedented daily record of what can be considered the worst environmental catastrophe affecting the atmosphere since the beginning of the era of space-based remote sensing in the 1970's. An overview of the temporal and spatial extent of the synoptic scale 1991 Gulf War smoke plume as seen by the Nimbus-7 TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index will be presented.

  14. Assessing the Sustainability of Japan's Foreign Aid Program: An Analysis of Development Assistance to Energy Sectors of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the effect of Japan's official development assistance (ODA) over 10 years that proposed to facilitate environmental conservation in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to ODA disbursements in the energy sector to evaluate whether Japan's foreign aid has shifted its policy toward more environmentally sound goals.…

  15. Reauthorizing the Higher Education Act: An Analysis of the Role of the For-Profit Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Brittny Adair

    2013-01-01

    This research project examines the influence of the for-profit college sector on the 2008 reauthorization of the "Higher Education Act." It is based on interviews with Congressional staff, college lobbyists, and higher education reporters, as well as the "Congressional Record" and advocacy materials. Findings indicate that the…

  16. Social Sector Expenditure and Child Mortality in India: A State-Level Analysis from 1997 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Makela, Susanna M.; Dandona, Rakhi; Dilip, T. R.; Dandona, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    Background India is unlikely to meet the Millennium Development Goal for child mortality. As public policy impacts child mortality, we assessed the association of social sector expenditure with child mortality in India. Methods and Findings Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess the relationship of state-level overall social sector expenditure and its major components (health, health-related, education, and other) with mortality by sex among infants and children aged 1–4 years from 1997 to 2009, adjusting for potential confounders. Counterfactual models were constructed to estimate deaths averted due to overall social sector increases since 1997. Increases in per capita overall social sector expenditure were slightly higher in less developed than in more developed states from 1997 to 2009 (2.4-fold versus 2-fold), but the level of expenditure remained 36% lower in the former in 2009. Increase in public expenditure on health was not significantly associated with mortality reduction in infants or at ages 1–4 years, but a 10% increase in health-related public expenditure was associated with a 3.6% mortality reduction (95% confidence interval 0.2–6.9%) in 1–4 years old boys. A 10% increase in overall social sector expenditure was associated with a mortality reduction in both boys (6.8%, 3.5–10.0%) and girls (4.1%, 0.8–7.5%) aged 1–4 years. We estimated 119,807 (95% uncertainty interval 53,409 – 214,662) averted deaths in boys aged 1–4 years and 94,037 (14,725 – 206,684) in girls in India in 2009 that could be attributed to increases in overall social sector expenditure since 1997. Conclusions Further reduction in child mortality in India would be facilitated if policymakers give high priority to the social sector as a whole for resource allocation in the country’s 5-year plan for 2012–2017, as public expenditure on health alone has not had major impact on reducing child mortality. PMID:23409166

  17. The Changing Face of War in Textbooks: Depictions of World War II and Vietnam, 1970-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachmann, Richard; Mitchell, Lacy

    2014-01-01

    How have U.S. high school textbook depictions of World War II and Vietnam changed since the 1970s? We examined 102 textbooks published from 1970 to 2009 to see how they treated U.S. involvement in World War II and Vietnam. Our content analysis of high school history textbooks finds that U.S. textbooks increasingly focus on the personal experiences…

  18. Analysis of geomagnetic secular variation during 1980-1985 and 1985- 1990, and geomagnetic models proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1992-01-01

    The secular variation of the main geomagnetic field during the periods 1980-1985 and 1985-1990 was analyzed in terms of spherical harmonics up to the eighth degree and order. Data from worldwide magnetic observatories and the Navy's Project MAGNET aerial surveys were used. The resulting pair of secular-variation models was used to update the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF) model for 1980, resulting in new mainfield models for 1985.0 and 1990.0. These, along with the secular-variation model for 1985-1990, were proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). -Author

  19. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the modeling work carried out in this project was to quantify long-term scenarios for the future emission reduction potentials in the iron and steel sector. The main focus of the project is to examine the impacts of carbon reduction options in the U.S. iron and steel sector under a set of selected scenarios. In order to advance the understanding of carbon emission reduction potential on the national and global scales, and to evaluate the regional impacts of potential U.S. mitigation strategies (e.g., commodity and carbon trading), we also included and examined the carbon reduction scenarios in China’s and India’s iron and steel sectors in this project. For this purpose, a new bottom-up energy modeling framework, the Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM), (Karali et al. 2012) was used to provide detailed annual projections starting from 2010 through 2050. We used the ISEEM modeling framework to carry out detailed analysis, on a country-by-country basis, for the U.S., China’s, and India’s iron and steel sectors. The ISEEM model applicable to iron and steel section, called ISEEM-IS, is developed to estimate and evaluate carbon emissions scenarios under several alternative mitigation options - including policies (e.g., carbon caps), commodity trading, and carbon trading. The projections will help us to better understand emission reduction potentials with technological and economic implications. The database for input of ISEEM-IS model consists of data and information compiled from various resources such as World Steel Association (WSA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), China Steel Year Books, India Bureau of Mines (IBM), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and recent LBNL studies on bottom-up techno-economic analysis of energy efficiency measures in the iron and steel sector of the U.S., China, and India, including long-term steel production in China. In the ISEEM-IS model, production technology and manufacturing details are

  20. Emerging infectious diseases – 1970s

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Forty years ago is not ancient history in the medical field. However, being an eye witness to the emergence of three new infectious diseases in the northeastern United States in the 1970s left a deep impression on this author. I will relate a small portion of the amazing events that caught the attention of the medical establishment and the general public in a roughly 5-year period of medical discovery. PMID:27802859

  1. Changes in Faculty Salaries: 1970 to 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John B.

    College faculty purchasing power was at an all-time high in 1972-73, but then dropped during the 1970s. In the early 1980s, it began to rise and then leveled off in the past few years with the onset of another drop from the 1988-89 high. Twenty years of full-time college and university faculty members' salaries are compared with annual measures of…

  2. Analysis of water and soil from the wetlands of Upper Three Runs Creek. Volume 2A, Analytical data packages September--October 1991 sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, L.A.; Rogers, V.A.; Riordan, C.J.; Eidson, G.W.; Herring, M.K.

    1992-08-01

    Shallow water and soils along Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and associated wetlands between SRS Road F and Cato Road were sampled for nonradioactive and radioactive constituents. The sampling program is associated with risk evaluations being performed for various regulatory documents in these areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC selected fifty sampling sites bordering the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB), and the Sanitary Landfill (SL). The analytical results from this study provided information on the water and soil quality in UTRC and its associated wetlands. The analytical results from this investigation indicated that the primary constituents and radiological indicators detected in the shallow water and soils were tritium, gross alpha, radium 226, total radium and strontium 90. This investigation involved the collection of shallow water samples during the Fall of 1991 and the Spring of 1992 at fifty (50) sampling locations. Sampling was performed during these periods to incorporate high and low water table periods. Samples were collected from three sections along UTRC denoted as Phase I (MWMF), Phase II (FHSB) and Phase III (SL). One vibracored soil sample was also collected in each phase during the Fall of 1991. This document is compiled solely of experimental data obtained from the sampling procedures.

  3. Astronautics and aeronautics, 1970. Chronology on science, technology, and policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An immediate reference to aerospace-related events of 1970 is provided to help historians in preserving historical accuracy and precision. Chronologies of major NASA launches, and manned space flights for 1970 are included.

  4. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -- formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  5. 40 CFR 49.921-49.1970 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 49.921-49.1970 Section 49.921-49.1970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Implementation Plans for Tribes-Region V §§ 49.921-49.1970...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1970 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of plan. 52.1970 Section 52.1970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1970 Identification of plan. (a) Title of plan: “State of Oregon...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1970 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Identification of plan. 52.1970 Section 52.1970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1970 Identification of plan. (a) Title of plan: “State of Oregon...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1970 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Identification of plan. 52.1970 Section 52.1970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1970 Identification of plan. (a) Title of plan: “State of Oregon...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1970 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Identification of plan. 52.1970 Section 52.1970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1970 Identification of plan. (a) Title of plan: “State of Oregon...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  13. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  14. Water-quality assessment of the Ozark Plateaus study unit, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma-analysis of information on nutrients, suspended sediment, and suspended solids, 1970-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Jerri V.; Petersen, James C.; Adamski, James C.; Freiwald, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Water-quality data collected during water years 1970-90 (October 1 to September 30) for 83 surface-water sites and during 1970-92 for 395 ground-water sites in the 48,000 square mile Ozark Plateaus study unit of the National Water Quality Assessment Program were analyzed using selected descriptive and statistical methods. The water- quality data include nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus), suspended sediment, and suspended- solids data, and ancillary information such as fertilizer use, animal waste, sewage treatment plant, and land use. Statistically significant differences exist in surface-water quality that can be attributed to physiography, land use, and other effects. The sites that were considered to be substantially affected by sewage treatment plants had the largest concentrations of nutrients. Nutrient concentrations generally were larger at sites associated with agricultural basins than at sites associated with forested basins. Statistically significant differences existed in the quality of ground water that can be attributed to hydrogeologic and land-use effects. Nutrient concentrations generally were largest where the water source is indicated to be shallow in origin and where parts of the hydrogeologic units are in agricultural land-use areas. Water quality has changed at several surface-water sites since 1970. Nutrient concentrations appear to have increased at some sites and decreased at other sites. Causes of these apparent trends are not known, but many of the sites with apparent trends are in agricultural areas. Surface-water loads of nutrients and suspended sediment were affected by several factors including streamflow, climate, drainage area, reservoir operation, and inputs from point and nonpoint sources. Annual loads were largest in large basins, with large inputs of nutrients or sediment during periods of high streamflows at locations where reservoir operation effects are not substantial.

  15. Retrospective analysis of the response of soil and stream chemistry of a northern forest ecosystem to atmospheric emission controls from the 1970 and 1990 Amendments of the Clean Air Act.

    PubMed

    Gbondo-Tugbawa, Solomon S; Driscoll, Charles T

    2002-11-15

    The 1970 and 1990 Amendments of the Clean Air Act (CAAA) have resulted in a decline in acidic deposition in the northeastern United States. Results from the application of a biogeochemical model (PnET-BGC) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire suggest that, without the implementation of the CAAAs, soil base saturation and soil solution molar Ca/Al ratio would decrease to values below 6% and 1.0, respectively, while S would continue to accumulate in organic matter and adsorbed pools at rates of 2 and 3 kg of S ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. This scenario of conditions without the CAAAs was projected to result in higher stream concentrations of SO4(2-), NO3-, and Ca2+; monomeric Al; pH below 4.8; and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) less than -15 microequiv L(-1). The implementation of the CAAAs has led to a slight improvement in the soil base saturation, while recovery of soil solution Ca/Al cannot be fully assessed because of variability in observed values. Our evaluation of the relative benefits of the 1970 and 1990 CAAAs indicate that although the magnitude of the cumulative decrease in strong acid deposition was greater following the 1970 CAAA as compared to the 1990 CAAA, the extent of ecosystem recovery relative to the changes in acidic deposition suggests that the 1990 CAAA was also beneficial. The slow recovery rates might be the result of a legacy of chemical effects of acidic deposition for the last 150 years and suggests that additional controls in emissions might be required to show significant changes.

  16. Comparison of inferred and observed interplanetary magnetic field polarities, 1970-1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, J. M.; Svalgaard, L.; Hedgecock, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    The inferred polarity (toward or away from the sun) of the interplanetary magnetic field at earth using polar observations of the geomagnetic field has been compared with spacecraft observations. A list published by Svalgaard (1974) of the inferred field polarities in the period from 1970 to 1972 is found to be correct on 82% of the days. A near real-time (same day) method of inferring the polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field using geomagnetic observations at Vostok and Thule is in use at the NOAA Space Environment Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado. During 1972, this method is found to be correct on 87% of the days. A list of 'well-defined' sector boundaries at earth from 1970 to 1972 is given.

  17. 1991 in Review. October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendahmane, Diane, Ed.

    This report summarizes the 1991 activities of the Inter-American Foundation (IAF). The IAF is an independent agency of the U.S. Government created in 1969 as an experimental alternative to established U.S. foreign assistance programs benefiting Latin America and the Caribbean. The IAF works to promote equitable, responsive, and participatory…

  18. Subsidence of Surtsey volcano, 1967-1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.G.; Jakobsson, S.; Holmjarn, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Surtsey marine volcano was built on the southern insular shelf of Iceland, along the seaward extension of the east volcanic zone, during episodic explosive and effusive activity from 1963 to 1967. A 1600-m-long, east-west line of 42 bench marks was established across the island shortly after volcanic activity stopped. From 1967 to 1991 a series of leveling surveys measured the relative elevation of the original bench marks, as well as additional bench marks installed in 1979, 1982 and 1985. Concurrent measurements were made of water levels in a pit dug on the north coast, in a drill hole, and along the coastline exposed to the open ocean. These surveys indicate that the dominant vertical movement of Surtsey is a general subsidence of about 1.1??0.3 m during the 24-year period of observations. The rate of subsidence decreased from 15-20 cm/year for 1967-1968 to 1-2 cm/year in 1991. Greatest subsidence is centered about the eastern vent area. Through 1970, subsidence was locally greatest where the lava plain is thinnest, adjacent to the flanks of the eastern tephra cone. From 1982 onward, the region closest to the hydrothermal zone, which is best developed in the vicinity of the eastern vent, began showing less subsidence relative to the rest of the surveyed bench marks. The general subsidence of the island probably results from compaction of the volcanic material comprising Surtsey, compaction of the sea-floor sediments underlying the island, and possibly downwarping of the lithosphere due to the laod of Surtsey. The more localized early downwarping near the eastern tephra cone is apparently due to greater compaction of tephra relative to lava. The later diminished local subsidence near the hydrothermal zone is probably due to a minor volume increase caused by hydrous alteration of glassy tephra. However, this volume increase is concentrated at depth beneath the bottom of the 176-m-deep cased drillhole. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Selection and analysis of sites highly vulnerable to groundwater contamination in southwestern Michigan. Final technical report, 1 April 1991-31 March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, J.L.; Lusch, D.P.

    1992-04-01

    An ongoing study in central Cass County has demonstrated extensive nitrate contamination of the glacial drift aquifer in the Donnell Lake watershed. In addition, about 20% of 121 wells sampled showed detectable herbicides (atrazine, alachlor/metolachlor, and/or alachlor soil metabolite). Monthly monitoring of these wells in 1991 demonstrated stable water quality in the deeper wells, with some shallow wells showing from 30 to 300% increases in nitrate concentration over the summer. One well showed an 80% decrease in nitrate concentration. Herbicide concentrations were quite stable and consistent with previous findings. Generally the deeper wells (over 50 feet) demonstrated less contamination, but one 80 foot deep well demonstrated substantial nitrate and herbicide concentrations.

  20. Cited Brazilian papers in general surgery between 1970 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    Heldwein, Flavio L.; Hartmann, Antonio A.; Kalil, Antonio N.; Neves, Bruno V. D.; Ratti, Giorigo S. B.; Beber, Moises C.; Souza, Rafael M.; d’Acampora, Armando J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To identify the most cited articles in general surgery published by Brazilian authors. INTRODUCTION There are several ways for the international community to recognize the quality of a scientific article. Although controversial, the most widely used and reliable methodology to identify the importance of an article is citation analysis. METHODS A search using the Institute for Scientific Information citation database (Science Citation Index Expanded) was performed to identify highly cited Brazilian papers published in twenty-six highly cited general surgery journals, selected based on their elevated impact factors, from 1970 to 2009. Further analysis was done on the 65 most-cited papers. RESULTS We identified 1,713 Brazilian articles, from which nine papers emerged as classics (more than 100 citations received). For the Brazilian contributions, a total increase of about 21-fold was evident between 1970 and 2009. Although several topics were covered, articles covering trauma, oncology and organ transplantation were the most cited. The majority of classic studies were done with international cooperation. CONCLUSIONS This study identified the most influential Brazilian articles published in internationally renowned general surgery journals. PMID:20535371

  1. Dental hygiene's heritage: 1927-1970.

    PubMed

    Sisty-LePeau, N; Nielsen-Thompson, N

    1989-10-01

    Original manuscripts published in the Journal of the American Dental Hygienists' Association (JADHA), (now JDH) from 1927-1970 provide a historical perspective on dental hygiene's professional development. While many of the problems facing hygiene today are not new, there is evidence of progress in addressing them. The problems considered are: (1) hygiene's unique occupational role, (2) independent practice, (3) baccalaureate education, and (4) responsibility for licensure and practice. Support is provided regarding hygiene's unique contribution to society's oral health needs. Further, the article documents progress toward assuming professional responsibility as expressed in hygiene's relationship with dentistry, and in the expansion of hygiene's educational base and research efforts.

  2. Pre-industrial and recent (1970-2010) atmospheric deposition of sulfate and mercury in snow on southern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Zdanowicz, Christian; Kruemmel, Eva; Lean, David; Poulain, Alexandre; Kinnard, Christophe; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Chen, JiuBin; Hintelmann, Holger

    2015-03-15

    Sulfate (SO4(2-)) and mercury (Hg) are airborne pollutants transported to the Arctic where they can affect properties of the atmosphere and the health of marine or terrestrial ecosystems. Detecting trends in Arctic Hg pollution is challenging because of the short period of direct observations, particularly of actual deposition. Here, we present an updated proxy record of atmospheric SO4(2-) and a new 40-year record of total Hg (THg) and monomethyl Hg (MeHg) deposition developed from a firn core (P2010) drilled from Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada. The updated P2010 record shows stable mean SO4(2-) levels over the past 40 years, which is inconsistent with observations of declining atmospheric SO4(2-) or snow acidity in the Arctic during the same period. A sharp THg enhancement in the P2010 core ca 1991 is tentatively attributed to the fallout from the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Hekla. Although MeHg accumulation on Penny Ice Cap had remained constant since 1970, THg accumulation increased after the 1980s. This increase is not easily explained by changes in snow accumulation, marine aerosol inputs or air mass trajectories; however, a causal link may exist with the declining sea-ice cover conditions in the Baffin Bay sector. The ratio of THg accumulation between pre-industrial times (reconstructed from archived ice cores) and the modern industrial era is estimated at between 4- and 16-fold, which is consistent with estimates from Arctic lake sediment cores. The new P2010 THg record is the first of its kind developed from the Baffin Island region of the eastern Canadian Arctic and one of very few such records presently available in the Arctic. As such, it may help to bridge the knowledge gap linking direct observation of gaseous Hg in the Arctic atmosphere and actual net deposition and accumulation in various terrestrial media.

  3. Energy consumption behavior in the commercial sector: An ethnographic analysis of utility bill information and customer comprehension in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Christopher Todd

    The commercial and industrial sectors of the United States compose roughly one-third of total United States energy consumption. Many studies have suggested that significant cost-effective energy savings opportunities exist in this sector, but there is a gap between predictions of potential and actual investment in energy-efficient technologies. Very few studies have been conducted to examine the decision-making environment of the business sector. In particular, there is essentially no information about how small-business decision-makers make choices about energy consumption. My research is intended to begin the process of understanding this important arena of energy consumption behavior. Using semi-structured interview techniques, I interviewed forty-four businesses in ten states. The focus of the interviews was the business decision-maker's handling and use of the utility bill---the main (often sole) piece of information that links energy consumption to cost. Through the interviews, I collected information about how utility bills are understood and misunderstood, what components of the bill are seen as useful or confusing, and how energy consumption was seen in the context of larger business decision-making. In addition, I collected data on two forms of energy consumption feedback: historic consumption feedback, in which informants compared their current energy use to patterns of their own energy consumption over time; and group comparison consumption feedback, in which informants compared their energy consumption to the consumption of a group of similar energy consumers. Finally, I collected data on sources of information to which decision-makers turned when they wanted to seek more information about energy consumption alternatives. Overall, my findings suggest that the current utility bill format is often misunderstood. In many cases, particularly in the small-business and medium-size-business categories, the link between energy consumption and energy cost is

  4. The Science of Reading. 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arisawa, Shuntaro, Ed.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This collection of the 1991 issues of the Japanese-language journal "The Science of Reading" presents 18 articles (research reports and "personal views of reading") on a variety of questions dealing with reading. The articles in the collection all have summaries in English. Articles in the April issue are "Features of…

  5. Reports of planetary astronomy, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A collection is presented of summaries designed to provide information about scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program in 1990 and 1991, and to facilitate communication and coordination among concerned scientists and interested persons in universities, government, and industry. Highlights of recent accomplishments in planetary astronomy are included.

  6. Community College Humanities Review, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabrook, John H., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Designed as a forum for the exchange of ideas on significant issues in the humanities, this annual journal presents articles written by two-year college faculty in the humanities disciplines. The 1991 issue includes the following: (1) "Why I Write and How I Teach," by Linda Ching Sledge; (2) "The Australian Character," by Carol L. Nelson-Burns;…

  7. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  8. English Teachers' Journal (Israel), 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Teachers' Journal (Israel), 1991

    1991-01-01

    This document consists of the two issues of "English Teachers' Journal (Israel)" issued during 1991. Contents include: "Introduction for English Teachers"; "Announcements for Bagrut Teachers and Examiners"; "News from E.T.A.I. (English Teachers' Association of Israel)" (Ephraim Weintroub); "Learning…

  9. Index of 1991 Professional Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Betty J.

    1992-01-01

    This bibliography for school library media specialists lists periodical articles published in 1991 on information service (censorship, CD-ROM and online searching, networking, resource sharing, reading guidance, and reference service); instructional consulting; management; National Education Goals; teaching (computer applications, information…

  10. Reports of planetary astronomy - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahe, Jurgen (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This publication provides information about currently funded scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program during 1991, and consists of two main sections. The first section gives a summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and projected future investigations, as submitted by each principal investigator. In the second section, recent scientifically significant accomplishments within the Program are highlighted.

  11. Network topology of economic sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djauhari, Maman A.; Gan, Siew Lee

    2016-09-01

    A lot of studies dealing with stock network analysis, where each individual stock is represented by a univariate time series of its closing price, have been published. In these studies, the similarity of two different stocks is quantified using a Pearson correlation coefficient on the logarithmic price returns. In this paper, we generalize the notion of similarity between univariate time series into multivariate time series which might be of different dimensions. This allows us to deal with economic sector network analysis, where the similarity between economic sectors is defined using Escoufier’s vector correlation RV. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study dealing with this notion of economic sector similarity. Two examples of data from the New York stock exchange will be presented and discussed, and some important results will be highlighted.

  12. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for April 1991 through September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-10-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1991, through September 30, 1991, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development (USAID). The Fossil Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Project discussed are: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; coal conversion development; coal combustion research; fossil fuel supplies modeling and research; evaluations and assessments; and coal structure and chemistry.

  13. 22 CFR 19.9-1 - Entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) A pension benefit under this section is treated the same as a survivor annuity for purposes of § 19... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entitlement. 19.9-1 Section 19.9-1 Foreign... FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.9-1 Entitlement. (a) Unless otherwise...

  14. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc... indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and then...

  15. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc... indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and then...

  16. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc... indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and then...

  17. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc... indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and then...

  18. Summaries of Research - Fiscal Year 1991.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    Properties of the Outer Membrane of Treponema denticola. Journal of Clinical MicrobioloQy 29(7): 1397-1406, 1991. Barron, S. L., Riviere, G. R., Simonson... Journal of Clinical Microbiology 29: 1397-1406, 1991. A-2 RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORTS ------------------------------------------------------------ NDRI-PR... JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS ............................ A-2 RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORTS - FISCAL YEAR 1991 ................ A-3 FORMAL PRESENTATIONS

  19. Compensatory Education in the State of Rhode Island: 1970-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittingham, Barbara E.; And Others

    The role and effectiveness of compensatory education in Rhode Island was evaluated over a seven year period. An analysis of existing data on Rhode Island compensatory education programs for purposes of describing trends in funding patterns, resource allocations, and the provision of services from 1970 to 1976 was evaluated. Also, an analysis of…

  20. Leaving home in Spain: a regional analysis.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, C

    1998-12-01

    "This paper compares regional patterns of leaving home in Spain during the 1970s and 1980s based on analysis of the 1991 Spanish Sociodemographic Survey. The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate that while nationally Spain is representative of a southern European pattern of leaving home, (i.e. relatively late and closely associated with partnership formation), there is considerable regional variation in timing, incidence and initial destinations on leaving home. These differences are explored using hazard rates of leaving home by destination and birth cohort for 11 Spanish regions."

  1. NRL Review 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    buildings. NRL maintains 12 other 7 THE NAVAL RESEARCH LABORATORY research sites including a vessel for fire research study and analysis of the physical...power sources to Sound Reference Detachment (USRD). At the generate electron and ion beams. powerful main Laboratory site , there are three research ...Sound Reference Detachment (USRD). At the main Laboratory site , there are three research tank facilities-one instrumented for near-field acoustical

  2. Buildings Energy Program annual report, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, T.J.

    1992-05-01

    The Buildings Energy Program at PNL conducts research and development (R&D) for DOE`s Office of Building Technologies (OBT). The OBT`s mission is to lead a national program supporting private and federal sector efforts to improve the energy efficiency of the nation`s buildings and to increase the use of renewable energy sources. Under an arrangement with DOE, Battelle staff also conduct research and development projects for other federal agencies and private clients. This annual report contains an account of the buildings-related research projects conducted at PNL during fiscal year (FY) 1991. A major focus of PNL`s energy projects is to improve the energy efficiency of commercial and residential buildings. Researchers who are developing solutions to energy-use problems view a building as an energy-using system. From this perspective, a desirable solution is not only one that is cost-effective and responsive to the needs of the occupants, but also one that optimizes the interaction among the energy components and systems that compose the whole.

  3. Photovoltaics program plan, FY 1991--FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This program plan describes the goals and philosophy of DOE National Photovoltaics Program and its major research and development activities for fiscal years (FY) 1991 through 1995. The plan represents a consensus among researchers and manufacturers, as well as current and potential users of photovoltaics (PV). It defines the activites that we believe are necessary to continue the rapid progress toward acceptance of photovoltaics as a serious candidate for cost-competitive electric power generation by the utility, transportation, buildings, and industrial sectors. A succesful National Photovoltaics Program will help achieve many of our national priorities. The mission of the National Photovoltaics Program is to help US industry to develop photovoltaic technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States, making PV a significant part of our national energy mix. To fully achieve this, we must continue to work toward the long-term goals established in our previous program plan: reducing the price of delivered electricity to 5 to 6 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh), increasing lifetimes to 30 years, and increasing module efficiencies to 15% for flat-plate and 25% for concentrator technologies. If progress continues at its current pace, we expect that the PV industry will have installed at least 1000 megawatts (MW) of capacity in the United States and 500 MW internationally by the year 2000.

  4. Reduction and analysis of seasons 15 and 16 (1991 - 1992) Pioneer Venus radio occulation data and correlative studies with observations of the near infrared emission of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Jon M.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we sought to characterize variations in the abundance and distribution of subcloud H2SO4(g) in the Venus atmosphere by using a number of 13cm radio occultation measurements conducted with the Pioneer Venus Orbiter near the inferior conjunction of 1991. A total of ten data sets were examined and analyzed, producing vertical profiles of temperature and pressure in the neutral atmosphere, and sulfuric acid vapor abundance below the main cloud layer. Two of the vertical profiles of the abundance of H2SO4(g) were correlated with NIR images of the night side of Venus made during the same period of time by Boris Ragent (under a separate PVO Guest Investigator Grant). Initially, we had hoped that the combination of these two different types of data would make it possible to constrain or identify the composition of the large particles causing the features observed in the NIR images. However, the sparseness of the radio occultation data set, combined with the sparseness of the NIR data set (one image per day over an 8 day period) made it impossible to draw strong conclusions. Considered on their own, however, the parameters retrieved from the radio occultation experiments are valuable science products.

  5. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, July--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1991-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies- heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of- concept (POC) level. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology, Inc. (ApsenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., (ICF KE) and CQ Inc., a subcontractor to ICF KE, for the seventh quarterly reporting period, April through June 1991. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models.

  6. Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis (MRH): case report with review of literature between 1991 and 2014 with in depth analysis of various treatment regimens and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Saad; Hugenberg, Steven T; Hirano-Ali, Stefanie A; Tariq, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis is a rare disease affecting skin and joints primarily and rarely other organs. We present a case report of this disease and an extensive review of the literature. We reviewed the data between 1991 and 2014 and extracted 52 individual cases. Only articles in English were chosen after checking for relevance. The articles were studies and data was extracted into excel spread sheets and later used to compute such variables like frequency, mean and percentage of distribution of various clinical manifestations. The treatments used in these articles were critically analyzed and graded for their relative efficacy for skin and joint manifestations. The grades were 0 = worse, 1 = no benefit/condition remained same, 2 = improvement without resolution, and 3 = resolution. This article also reports the demographic, clinical, laboratory and pathological data from the reviewed articles. Authors attempted to discuss the findings of this review in depth to help manage this condition and proposed a treatment algorithm to help clinicians approach this rare and challenging disease.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance in Libya: 1970-2011.

    PubMed

    Sifaw Ghenghesh, Khalifa; Rahouma, Amal; Tawil, Khaled; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Franka, Ezzedin

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major health problem that affects the whole world. Providing information on the past state of antimicrobial resistance in Libya may assist the health authorities in addressing the problem more effectively in the future. Information was obtained mainly from Highwire Press (including PubMed) search for the period 1970-2011 using the terms 'antibiotic resistance in Libya', 'antimicrobial resistance in Libya', 'tuberculosis in Libya', and 'primary and acquired resistance in Libya' in title and abstract. From 1970 to 2011 little data was available on antimicrobial resistance in Libya due to lack of surveillance and few published studies. Available data shows high resistance rates for Salmonella species in the late 1970s and has remained high to the present day. High prevalence rates (54-68%) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were reported in the last decade among S. aureus from patients with burns and surgical wound infections. No reports were found of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) or vancomycin-intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) using standard methods from Libya up to the end of 2011. Reported rates of primary (i.e. new cases) and acquired (i.e. retreatment cases) multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) from the eastern region of Libya in 1971 were 16.6 and 33.3% and in 1976 were 8.6 and 14.7%, in western regions in 1984-1986 were 11 and 21.5% and in the whole country in 2011 were estimated at 3.4 and 29%, respectively. The problem of antibiotic resistance is very serious in Libya. The health authorities in particular and society in general should address this problem urgently. Establishing monitoring systems based on the routine testing of antimicrobial sensitivity and education of healthcare workers, pharmacists, and the community on the health risks associated with the problem and benefits of prudent use of antimicrobials are some steps that can be taken to tackle the problem in the future.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance in Libya: 1970-2011.

    PubMed

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Tawil, Khaled; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Franka, Ezzedin

    2013-03-27

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major health problem that affects the whole world. Providing information on the past state of antimicrobial resistance in Libya may assist the health authorities in addressing the problem more effectively in the future. Information was obtained mainly from Highwire Press (including PubMed) search for the period 1970-2011 using the terms 'antibiotic resistance in Libya', 'antimicrobial resistance in Libya', 'tuberculosis in Libya', and 'primary and acquired resistance in Libya' in title and abstract. From 1970 to 2011 little data was available on antimicrobial resistance in Libya due to lack of surveillance and few published studies. Available data shows high resistance rates for Salmonella species in the late 1970s and has remained high to the present day. High prevalence rates (54-68%) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were reported in the last decade among S. aureus from patients with burns and surgical wound infections. No reports were found of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) or vancomycin-intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) using standard methods from Libya up to the end of 2011. Reported rates of primary (i.e. new cases) and acquired (i.e. retreatment cases) multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) from the eastern region of Libya in 1971 were 16.6 and 33.3% and in 1976 were 8.6 and 14.7%, in western regions in 1984-1986 were 11 and 21.5% and in the whole country in 2011 were estimated at 3.4 and 29%, respectively. The problem of antibiotic resistance is very serious in Libya. The health authorities in particular and society in general should address this problem urgently. Establishing monitoring systems based on the routine testing of antimicrobial sensitivity and education of healthcare workers, pharmacists, and the community on the health risks associated with the problem and benefits of prudent use of antimicrobials are some steps that can be taken to tackle the problem in the future.

  9. Regional compilation and analysis of aeromagnetic anomalies for the Transantarctic Mountains Ross Sea sector of the Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, M.; Ferraccioli, F.; Bozzo, E.; Damaske, D.

    2002-03-01

    Magnetic observations over the area of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) and the Ross Sea have been compiled into a digital database that furnishes a new regional scale view of the magnetic anomaly crustal field in this key sector of the Antarctic continent. This compilation is a component of the ongoing IAGA/SCAR Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project (ADMAP). The aeromagnetic surveys total 115 000 line km, and are distributed across the Victoria Land sector of the TAM, the Ross Sea, and Marie Byrd Land. The magnetic campaigns were performed within the framework of the national and international Italian-German-US Antarctic research programs and conducted with differing specifications during nine field seasons from 1971 until 1997. Generally flight line spacing was less than 5 km while survey altitude varied from about 610 to 4000 m above sea level for barometric surveys and was equal to 305 m above topography for the single draped survey. Reprocessing included digitizing the old contour data, improved levelling by means of microlevelling in the frequency domain, and re-reduction to a common reference field based on the DGRF90 model. A multi-frequency grid procedure was then applied to obtain a coherent and merged total intensity magnetic anomaly map. The shaded relief map covers an area of approximately 380 000 km 2. This new compilation provides a regional image of the location and spatial extent of the Cenozoic alkaline magmatism related to the TAM-Ross Sea rift, Jurassic tholeiites, and crustal segments of the Early Palaeozoic magmatic arc. A linear, approximately 100-km wide and 600-km long Jurassic rift-like structure is newly identified. Magnetic fabric in the Ross Sea rift often matches seismically imaged Cenozoic fault arrays. Major buried onshore pre-rift fault zones, likely inherited from the Ross Orogen, are also delineated. These faults may have been reactivated as strike-slip belts that segmented the TAM into various crustal blocks.

  10. Economic impact of ethanol production on U.S. livestock sector: A spatial analysis of corn and distillers grain shipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'guessan, Yapo Genevier

    2007-12-01

    The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has increased from 1,630 million gallons in 2000 to 4,855 million gallons in 2006, representing a 198% growth over the period considered. This growth is favored by the availability of more efficient technologies in the production process of ethanol and is sustained by the high prices of ethanol in the market. The industry is also supported by a favorable public policy, expressed in the form of laws, mandating an increase in the use of ethanol, and also in the form of tax incentives. The tremendous increase in the use of corn for the ethanol industry is made at the expense of the livestock industry that was the traditional destination for much of the U.S. corn grain. As the ethanol industry continues to expand, concerns are raised in regard to its impact as more and more corn is diverted from the livestock sector. This study investigates the economic impact of the ethanol industry on the U.S. livestock sector. Specifically, a shipping cost model is developed to simulate the impact of the ethanol industry on the shipping cost of corn at the national and individual state levels. The dynamics for major livestock producing states are also analyzed at the crop reporting district level. Different scenarios based on assumptions on the availability of corn and the production capacities of the ethanol industry are displayed. Results from the model indicate that nationwide there is a 5 to 22% increase in the shipping cost of corn for the livestock industry due to the ethanol industry, depending on the scenario involved. At the state level, there is an increase in the transportation cost for most of the states, with shipping cost doubling in some cases. Nevertheless, some states benefit from the dynamics created by the development of ethanol plants and are experiencing a reduction in their livestock industry corn transportation cost.

  11. March 7, 1970 solar eclipse investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Accardo, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    Studies from rockets directed toward establishing the solar X-ray fluxes during the 7 March 1970 total eclipse over the North American continent are reported. A map of the eclipse path is presented. The measured absorption profiles for the residual X-rays are useful in establishing their contribution to the D and E region ionization during the eclipse. The studies were performed with two Nike-Apache payloads launched over Wallops Island, Virginia. In addition to three X-ray detectors in the 1 to 8A, 8 to 20A and 44 to 60A bands, there was included in the payloads two additional experiments. These were an electric field experiment and an epithermal photoelectron experiment. The X-ray instrumentation, payload description, flight circumstances and finally, the X-ray results obtained are described. The various computer codes employed for the purpose of reducing the telemetered data as well as the eclipse codes are included.

  12. Population trends in Malaysia: 1970-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Saharani Abdul; Ghani, Puzziawati Ab; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-12-01

    The size of population in Malaysia had reached 28.3 million in 2010 and is expected to increase to 38.6 million in the next 30 years. This demographic milestone that is causing renewed attention to the challenges caused by population growth. This paper looks at the last 40 years of changes in Malaysia population structure due to the changes in demographic phenomenon using data obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia. The principal finding of this research indicates that population structure in Malaysia had changed dramatically from the year 1970 to 2010. At the same time, Malaysia has completed its demographic transition in less than four decades. The fall in fertility and mortality rates have led to an improvement in the life expectancy of the population which has resulted an ageing population in Malaysia.

  13. Malaysia: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Khin, J.A. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that the Malaysian government announced tax incentives for fiscal year 1991/92 by cutting export duties on crude oil to encourage companies to develop more oil fields. The export duty exemption on cost recovery oil was increased from the current 20% to 50% on April 1, 1991. Nearly 115,200 sq mi of shallow-water acreage off Malaysia has been awarded to PS contractors, leaving only about five blocks remaining. Therefore, Petronas plans to award deeper water blocks (water depths of 655 ft or more) in the second half of this year, once terms are finalized. It is understood that these areas will be offshore of Sarawak and Sabah, covering in excess of 38,000 sq mi. Petronas the that there would be some improvement in the PSC terms for the deep-water areas.

  14. Demographics of the Canadian dairy industry from 1991 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jelinski, Murray D.; LeBlanc, Stephen; Kennedy, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective study of the demographics of the Canadian dairy industry was conducted using data derived from Statistics Canada’s Census of Agriculture from 1991 to 2011. This longitudinal study shows that Canada’s dairy industry has undergone considerable consolidation. From 1991 to 2011, the number of dairy producers and dairy farms decreased by 48.9% and 61.9%, respectively. Furthermore, this trend in consolidation is likely to continue; nearly half (45.8%) of all dairy producers in Canada were ≥ 50 y of age in 2011. Not only will most of these producers be retired by 2021, but younger producers will also exit the industry for other reasons. These findings mirror what is occurring in Canada’s cow-calf industry, underscoring that supply-managed sectors experience demographic consolidation similar to non-supply managed sectors. These substantial changes will have ramifications for the veterinary profession. There will be fewer but larger farms, and the services and knowledge demanded of veterinarians will change accordingly, which has implications for food animal veterinary education. PMID:26130831

  15. Demographics of the Canadian dairy industry from 1991 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Jelinski, Murray D; LeBlanc, Stephen; Kennedy, Richard

    2015-07-01

    A retrospective study of the demographics of the Canadian dairy industry was conducted using data derived from Statistics Canada's Census of Agriculture from 1991 to 2011. This longitudinal study shows that Canada's dairy industry has undergone considerable consolidation. From 1991 to 2011, the number of dairy producers and dairy farms decreased by 48.9% and 61.9%, respectively. Furthermore, this trend in consolidation is likely to continue; nearly half (45.8%) of all dairy producers in Canada were ≥ 50 y of age in 2011. Not only will most of these producers be retired by 2021, but younger producers will also exit the industry for other reasons. These findings mirror what is occurring in Canada's cow-calf industry, underscoring that supply-managed sectors experience demographic consolidation similar to non-supply managed sectors. These substantial changes will have ramifications for the veterinary profession. There will be fewer but larger farms, and the services and knowledge demanded of veterinarians will change accordingly, which has implications for food animal veterinary education.

  16. Summary of Technical Operations, 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    34Can We Rely on Fault Tolerant Sys- tems?," and Dr. Jean - Claude Laprie, a director at CNRS-LAAS, Toulouse, France, 14 1991 Summary of Technical...Redesign ( DAMMS -R). The domain model will be used in both the Operational Movement Program and Highway Operations Team subsystems of DAMMS -R. Project...SEI will use the model as a basis for designing reusable software packages to be used initially for DAMMS -R and subsequently for ATCCS battlefield

  17. FORCE Sectoral Survey on European Retail Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertzeletou, Tina

    1993-01-01

    A sectoral survey focused on ways in which vocational training plans are formulated and analysis of the cost effectiveness of continuing vocational training at the company level. It examined techniques applied to developing continuing vocational training and improving access. National surveys carried out for the retail trade sector revealed…

  18. Analysis of reservoir heterogeneities due to shallowing-upward cycles in carbonate rocks of the Pennsylvanian Wahoo Limestone of Northeastern Alaska. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, K.

    1992-09-01

    The primary objective of this project is to develop an integrated database to characterize reservoir heterogeneities resulting from numerous small-scale shallowing-upward cycles (parasequences) comprising the carboniferous Pennsylvanian Wahoo Limestone. The Wahoo Limestone is the upper formation of an extensive carbonate platform sequence of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group which is widely exposed in the Brooks Range and is a widespread hydrocarbon reservoir unit in the subsurface of the North Slope of Alaska. A principal goal is to determine lateral and vertical variations in the complex mosaic of carbonate facies comprising the Wahoo Limestone. This report presents the preliminary results of research accomplished by a team of specialists in carbonate petrology, biostratigraphy, and diagenesis during the 1990--1991 fiscal year.It includes a summary of regional geological framework studies, a discussion conodont analyses, an overview of diagenetic studies, a brief description of progress in computerized database development, and appendices containing some of the new data on petrographic analyses, conodont analyses, and locality and sample information. Our correlation scheme, which uses cyclic stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and cement stratigraphy, will allow interpretation of the depositional history and paleogeographic evolution of the region. We have developed predictive facies models and will make paleogeographic maps to illustrate different stages in the history of the Wahoo carbonate ramp. Our detailed analyses of the Wahoo Limestone will provide a basis for interpreting correlative rocks in the adjacent subsurface of the coastal plain of ANWR, a potential hydrocarbon lease-sale area. In a broader sense, our work will provide an excellent generic example of carbonate shallowing-upward cycles which typify carbonate sediments.

  19. Reduction and analysis of seasons 15 and 16 (1991 - 1992) Pioneer Venus radio occultation data and correlative studies with observations of the near-infrared emission of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Jon M.

    1992-01-01

    Radio occultation experiments, and radio astronomical observations have suggested that significant variations (both spatial and temporal) in the abundances of sulfur-bearing gases are occurring below the Venus cloud layers. In addition, recent Near Infra-Red images of the nightside of Venus revealed large-scale features which sustain their shape over multiple rotations (the rotation periods of the features are 6.0 +/- 0.5 days). Presumably, the contrast variations in the NIR images are caused by variations in the abundance of large particles in the cloud deck. If these particles are composed of liquid sulfuric acid, one would expect a strong anticorrelation between regions with a high abundance of sulfuric acid vapor, and regions where there are large particles. One technique for monitoring the abundance and distribution of sulfuric acid vapor (H2SO4) at and below the main Venus cloud layer (altitudes below 50 km) is to measure the 13-cm wavelength opacity using Pioneer Venus Orbiter Radio Occultation Studies (PV-ORO). We are working to characterize variations in the abundance and distribution of subcloud H2SO4(g) in the Venus atmosphere by using a number of 13-cm radio occultation measurements conducted with the Pioneer Venus Orbiter near the inferior conjunction of 1991. When retrieved, the vertical profiles of the abundance of H2SO4(g) will be compared and correlated with NIR images of the night side of Venus made during the same period of time. Hopefully, the combination of these two different types of data will make it possible to constrain or identify the composition of the large particles causing the features observed in the NIR images. Considered on their own, however, the parameters retrieved from the radio occultation experiments are valuable science products.

  20. Diurnal, seasonal, and annual trends in atmospheric CO2 at southwest London during 2000-2012: Wind sector analysis and comparison with Mace Head, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Paniagua, Iván Y.; Lowry, David; Clemitshaw, Kevin C.; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Lanoisellé, Mathias; Ramonet, Michel; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2015-03-01

    In-situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 have been made at Royal Holloway University of London (RHUL) in Egham (EGH), Surrey, UK from 2000 to 2012. The data were linked to the global scale using NOAA-calibrated gases. Measured CO2 varies on time scales that range from minutes to inter-annual and annual cycles. Seasonality and pollution episodes occur each year. Diurnal cycles vary with daylight and temperature, which influence the biological cycle of CO2 and the degree of vertical mixing. Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 dominate the variability during weekdays when transport cycles are greater than at weekends. Seasonal cycles are driven by temporal variations in biological activity and changes in combustion emissions. Maximum mole fractions (μmol/mol) (henceforth referred to by parts per million, ppm) occur in winter, with minima in late summer. The smallest seasonal amplitude observed, peak to trough, was 17.0 ppm CO2 in 2003, whereas the largest amplitude observed was 27.1 ppm CO2 in 2008. Meteorology can strongly modify the CO2 mole fractions at different time scales. Analysis of eight 45° wind sectors shows that the highest CO2 mole fractions were recorded from the E and SE sectors. Lowest mole fractions were observed for air masses from the S and SW. Back-trajectory and meteorological analyses of the data confirm that the dominant sources of CO2 are anthropogenic emissions from London and SE England. The largest annual rate of increase in the annual average of CO2, 3.26 ppm yr-1 (p < 0.05), was for the W sector with a smaller increase, 2.56 ppm yr-1 (p < 0.05), for the E sector. Calm winds showed an annual growth rate of 1.16 ppm yr-1 CO2 (p < 0.05) implying declining local sources. The EGH site shows an average growth rate of 2.5 ppm yr-1 CO2 (p < 0.05) over the measured period, which exceeds the observed global trend and contrasts with the decrease in CO2 emissions reported in UK greenhouse gas inventories. This is presumably because the region has had

  1. Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001-2009) Using the LMDI I Metho

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

    2012-01-01

    China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was −2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, −1.39%, and −16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH4-N discharges was −4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, −2.88%, and −17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH4-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH4-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH4-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH4-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and

  2. How Does the Concentration of Determinants Affect Industrial Innovation Performance? – An Empirical Analysis of 23 Chinese Industrial Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shansong; Bai, Yang; Tan, Qingmei

    2017-01-01

    The agglomeration of innovation determinants has a significant influence on the innovation performance of industries and enterprises. Such an effect has received less attention in empirical research studies. This study involves a survey of the agglomeration effect of two important innovation determinants, R&D investment and R&D personnel, and its influence on innovation performance from the perspective of the industrial level. We analysed the agglomeration features based on the panel data of 23 Chinese industrial sectors from 2001~2013. An interpretation model is proposed to examine the agglomeration effect on innovation performance for 4 industrial groups: state-owned enterprises, individual enterprises, foreign-owned enterprises and enterprises as a whole. We found two main results. First, the agglomeration of determinants has a clear positive effect on the innovation performance of all 4 groups but affects individual enterprises more significantly, followed by state-owned and foreign-owned enterprises. Second, the state-owned enterprises show a much higher concentration of R&D investment and R&D personnel than other groups. However, the induced innovation efficiency in the state-owned enterprises is worse than in the individual enterprises. The advantage of resources and capital does not translate into corresponding innovation output. The privately owned small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) show a high capability of technological innovation and mercerization but have limited innovation resources. PMID:28099452

  3. Greening the greenhouse grower. A behavioral analysis of a sector-initiated system to reduce the environmental load of greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Staats, Henk; Jansen, Lilian; Thøgersen, John

    2011-10-01

    Growing plants and flowers in greenhouses is a commercial activity that imposes a burden on the environment. Recently a system of registration, control, and licensing has been developed by the sector of greenhouse growers in the Netherlands, acknowledged by the state. The current study was executed to understand the achievements of the greenhouse growers within this system. We applied a social-cognitive model to understand intentions to reduce emissions and predict actual pesticide use. The social-cognitive concepts from the model were measured in a questionnaire that was completed by 743 greenhouse growers. Factual information on these growers' pesticide use in 2004 and 2005 was provided by the agency responsible for the program, and could be linked to the questionnaire data. Using structural equation modeling we found that intention to reduce emission was primarily predicted by the attitude, descriptive norm, and self-efficacy. Actual pesticide use was predicted by the interaction of intention and response efficacy. Results can be used to improve communication with growers, focusing on the influential determinants of intention and behavior.

  4. Analysis of Ir in Köfelsit rocks by inductively coupled plasma-sector-field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS).

    PubMed

    Koellensperger, G; Hann, S; Prinz, G; Stingeder, G; Bujatti-Narbeshuber, M

    2001-07-01

    Three different analytical strategies have been evaluated for the quantification of Ir in geological samples. Glassy rock samples from Köfels and reference material WGB-1 were analyzed directly by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) at mass resolution 400 using membrane desolvation and at mass resolution 9500 without membrane desolvation. Matrix separation by anion-exchange pre-concentration was also investigated. The ultrasonic nebulizer USN6000AT+ (Cetac Technologies, Omaha, NE, USA) incorporating a membrane desolvation unit was used as the sample-introduction system. Sample preparation involved complete microwave-assisted acid digestion of the silicate matrix with HNO3-HCl-HF. The results obtained by the three methods of quantification were in good agreement, showing that oxide-type interferences were effectively eliminated solely by membrane desolvation. The limits of detection were 6 pg g for low resolution measurement with use of the membrane, 15 pg g(-1) at a mass resolution of 9500, and 59 pg g(-1) for the ion-exchange procedure. The ultimate precision obtained for the Köfelsit Ir data was, however, compromised by the small sample intake (0.3 g), because of the inhomogeneous distribution of Ir in geological samples.

  5. How Does the Concentration of Determinants Affect Industrial Innovation Performance? - An Empirical Analysis of 23 Chinese Industrial Sectors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shansong; Bai, Yang; Tan, Qingmei

    2017-01-01

    The agglomeration of innovation determinants has a significant influence on the innovation performance of industries and enterprises. Such an effect has received less attention in empirical research studies. This study involves a survey of the agglomeration effect of two important innovation determinants, R&D investment and R&D personnel, and its influence on innovation performance from the perspective of the industrial level. We analysed the agglomeration features based on the panel data of 23 Chinese industrial sectors from 2001~2013. An interpretation model is proposed to examine the agglomeration effect on innovation performance for 4 industrial groups: state-owned enterprises, individual enterprises, foreign-owned enterprises and enterprises as a whole. We found two main results. First, the agglomeration of determinants has a clear positive effect on the innovation performance of all 4 groups but affects individual enterprises more significantly, followed by state-owned and foreign-owned enterprises. Second, the state-owned enterprises show a much higher concentration of R&D investment and R&D personnel than other groups. However, the induced innovation efficiency in the state-owned enterprises is worse than in the individual enterprises. The advantage of resources and capital does not translate into corresponding innovation output. The privately owned small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) show a high capability of technological innovation and mercerization but have limited innovation resources.

  6. Gender-biased diagnosing of women's medical complaints:contributions of feminist thought, 1970-1995.

    PubMed

    Munch, Shari

    2004-01-01

    With the advent of second-wave feminism during the 1970s, a significant body of literature emerged describing sexist practices in women's health care. Gender-biased diagnosing-the notion that somatic complaints by female medical patients are more likely to be labeled by physicians as psychosomatic-became a concern that garnered considerable attention in Europe and the United States because of the increased health risks it posed for women. This article examines the impact of feminist knowledge on this topic during the quarter century spanning 1970-1995. Analysis of the literature reveals feminist perspectives played a critical role in uncovering and problematizing gender bias in women's health care.

  7. Inventory and substance flow analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the Nigerian transport sector-end-of-life vehicles policy and management.

    PubMed

    Babayemi, J O; Osibanjo, O; Sindiku, O; Weber, R

    2016-04-11

    Recently, certain polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention. In this study, a preliminary material and substance flow analysis of commercial pentabromodiphenyl ether (c-PentaBDE) was conducted for motor vehicles-a major use sector for POP-PBDE in polyurethane (PUR) foam-for Nigeria. The methodology of the Stockholm Convention PBDE inventory guidance was used for the calculation of c-PentaBDE. Material/substance flow analysis was conducted applying the STAN software. The time frame for this analysis was 1980-2010, considering that this was the period when POP-PBDE-containing vehicles were largely imported into Nigeria.It is estimated that the approximately 19 million passenger cars imported from 1980 to 2010 contained ca. 270 t of POP-PBDEs in ca. 401,000 t of PUR foam. A major share of cars from the USA and only a small share of cars from Europe and Asia were impacted. This simplified material and substance flow of PUR foams and POP-PBDEs in motor vehicles demonstrated the potential for environmental/human contamination and pollution of recycling/reuse for Nigeria and other developing countries.The study developed the first preliminary inventory of end-of-life vehicles for Nigeria, following which the environment ministry has taken up the important issue of end-of-life vehicles management. Considering that a range of other pollutants are contained in vehicles (e.g. heavy metals, flame retardants, PCBs, chlorofluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons and waste oil), this initiated activity should finally lead to an integrated management of pollutants and resources from the transport sector.

  8. Mineral Processing Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the nonmetallic mineral processing sector (NAICS 327), including NESHAPs for asbestos and hazardous waste, and wastewater permit information.

  9. Remote Sensing of Earth Resources: A literature survey with indexes (1970 - 1973 supplement). Section 1: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between March 1970 and December 1973 are presented in the following areas: agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, oceanography and marine resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  10. Black/Brown/White Relations: Race Relations in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.

    The collection of papers in this book present an analysis of the effects of institutional racism on all races. The first part of the book deals with seeking definitions of the race problem and explores the various facets of race relations in the 1970s, including: (1) the black view of a national population policy and the fear of racial genocide;…

  11. The Tax Limitation Movement of the 1970's: A National Perspective [Chapter Two].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Charles S.; Weinstock, Phyllis

    This analysis is the second of a series of seven reports on the ways that the urban fiscal crisis has affected children. During the 1970s, as a result of general public disenchantment with government, 39 states (78 percent of the 50 states) appear to have enacted tax limitations that affected children's services. Of these states, 37 imposed…

  12. College Women Pursuing Careers in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Patricia P.; Scherrei, Rita A.

    The characteristics and persistence of young women who entered college during the 1970s and expressed an interest in science, math, and engineering (SME) are examined. The study design includes: (1) trend analysis of changes in characteristics of the science-oriented freshman pool from 1971-1979; (2) a longitudinal study of the educational and…

  13. Analysis of ambient conditions and simulation of hydrodynamics, constituent transport, and water-quality characteristics in Lake Maumelle, Arkansas, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, W. Reed

    2001-01-01

    Lake Maumelle is the major drinking-water source for the Little Rock metropolitan area in central Arkansas. Urban and agricultural development has increased in the Lake Maumelle Basin and information is needed related to constituent transport and waterquality response to changes in constituent loading or hydrologic regime. This report characterizes ambient conditions in Lake Maumelle and its major tributary, Maumelle River; describes the calibration and verification of a numerical model of hydrodynamics and water quality; and provides several simulations that describe constituent transport and water quality response to changes in constituent loading and hydrologic regime. Ambient hydrologic and water-quality conditions demonstrate the relatively undisturbed nature of Lake Maumelle and the Maumelle River. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were low, one to two orders of magnitude lower than estimates of national background nutrient concentrations. Phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations in Lake Maumelle demonstrate its oligotrophic/mesotrophic condition. However, concentrations of chlorophyll a appeared to increase since 1990 within the upper and middle reaches of the reservoir. A two-dimensional, laterally averaged hydrodynamic and water-quality model developed and calibrated for Lake Maumelle simulates water level, currents, heat transport and temperature distribution, conservative material transport, and the transport and transformation of 11 chemical constituents. Simulations included the movement and dispersion of spills or releases in the reservoir during stratified and unstratified conditions, release of the fish nursery pond off the southern shore of Lake Maumelle, and algal responses to changes in external loading. The model was calibrated using 1991 data and verified using 1992 data. Simulated temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations related well when compared to measured values. Simulated nutrient and algal biomass also related reasonably

  14. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Jeffrey; Heath, Garvin; Macknick, Jordan; Paranhos, Elizabeth; Boyd, William; Carlson, Ken

    2012-11-01

    Domestic natural gas production was largely stagnant from the mid-1970s until about 2005. However, beginning in the late 1990s, advances linking horizontal drilling techniques with hydraulic fracturing allowed drilling to proceed in shale and other formations at much lower cost. The result was a slow, steady increase in unconventional gas production. The Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) designed this study to address four related key questions, which are a subset from the wider dialogue on natural gas; regarding the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas compared to conventional natural gas and other fuels used to generate electricity; existing legal and regulatory frameworks governing unconventional gas development at federal, state, and local levels, and changes in response to the rapid industry growth and public concerns; natural gas production companies changing their water-related practices; and demand for natural gas in the electric sector.

  15. Meteoroids from Comet Bennett 1970II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulle, M.

    1987-09-01

    The author considers the problem of the contribution of dust from long-period comets to the zodiacal cloud. He derives a new general expression, which takes into account the dust ejection velocity from the inner coma, for the diameter of the smallest particles injected into bounded orbits. For the case of ejection at zero-velocity the author confirms previous results (Burns et al., 1979) which state that no dust can be injected into the interplanetary cloud. But the consideration of an ejection velocity different from zero shows that this conclusion, suggested also by Jambor (1976) and Sekanina (1977), is not realistic. The application to the results of the inversion of the Finson-Probstein functional (Fulle, 1986) for the long-period comet Bennett 1970 II, shows that a significant fraction of the dust mass is injected into bounded orbits before the perihelion, whereas almost the whole dust is lost after. The extrapolation of the results to all long-period comets gives an isotropic source of meteoroids larger than ≈0.4 mm with an input mass rate of (0.4-1.5)×106g s-1, quite far from the ≈107g s-1 required by the collisional models of the zodiacal cloud (Grün et al., 1985).

  16. Marine power - Accomplishments of the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, W. R.

    Progress made in the 1970s toward power production using marine power systems is discussed, noting that all renewable systems have a low intensity source. Consideration has been given to tidal, ocean current, kelp biomass, wave, salinity gradient, thermal gradient, and wind energy systems. Tidal plants delivering 240 MWe and 400 kWe are operating in France and Russia, respectively, and China is operating 90 small plants generating around 7 MW. Kelp growth rates were found to be lower than necessary for economic methane conversion. Experimentation in compressed air wave energy conversion is being pursued in Japan, and small programs are being conducted to study salinity gradients in the U.S. and Sweden. A 10 kW OTEC plant was operated successfully in Hawaii and the Japanese are testing a 100 kW plant. Offshore windpower is projected as the most likely marine system to succeed, both as a power producer and as a supplemental power system for ships. Near term efforts are expected to be in small facilities to expand the data base, gain experience in construction and operations, and to make evaluations.

  17. Climate change mitigation in the agricultural sector- an analysis of marginal abatement costs of climate mitigation in global paddy rice agriculture based on DNDC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Li, J.; Beach, R.; Salas, W.; Ingraham, P.; Ragnauth, S.

    2012-12-01

    Authors: Jia Li1, Robert H. Beach2, Changsheng Li3, William Salas4, Pete Ingraham5, Shaun Ragnauth1 INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Climate Change Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, United States. 2. RTI International, Durham, NC, United States. 3. ESRC, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, United States. 4. Applied Geosolutions, LLC, Newmarket, NH, United States. Global agriculture sector faces the dual challenge of climate change mitigation and providing food security for a growing population. In a new study, the U.S. EPA has developed an analysis of mitigation of non-CO2 greenhouse gases for the global agriculture sector. We estimate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy rice cultivation and rice yields under baseline management conditions as well as for alternative mitigation options. These biophysical effects are combined with data on input use and costs to estimate marginal abatement cost curves and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of mitigation options for global rice cropping systems. DNDC, a process-based crop model, is used to simulate crop yields, methane and nitrous oxide emissions, as well as soil carbon sequestration of the various rice cropping systems (irrigated and rainfed, and single, double, triple and mixed rotations) under local climatic and soil conditions at a 0.5 degree resolution at the global scale. We evaluate the impacts of various management alternatives (e.g., flooding methods, fertilizer applications, and crop residue management) on crop yields and GHG emissions and report the spatial and temporal distributions of the outcomes. The analysis provides important insights on the potential for closing the production efficiency gaps and the trade-offs and synergies between GHG mitigation and food security in different parts of the world.

  18. Index to USA Aviation Digest, 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    Aviation Digest; Nov-Dec 1991: p. 42. CIPPS SEE CIVILIAN INTEGRATION INTO THE PERSONNEL PROPONENCY SYSTEM ( CIPPS ) CIVILIAN INTEGRATION INTO THE PERSONNEL...PROPONENCY SYSTEM ( CIPPS ) Civilian integration into the Personnel Proponency System ( CIPPS ). USA Aviation Digest; Jul-Aug 1991: p. 28. CMIF SEE...HASTINGS, ROBERT T. Twenty commandments for platoon leaders. USA Aviation Digest; Mar-Apr 1991: p. 30-31. HAYES, THOMAS M. Delta models at the

  19. Changing Distribution of Older Americans: 1950-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Thomas O.

    Changes have occurred in the geographic concentrations of elderly people in the United States between 1950 and 1970. The paper examines these trends and identifies the factors which influenced them. Census data from 1950 and 1970 were analyzed as a basis for the study. In 1950, 8.1% of the population was classified as older. States with high…

  20. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. (a) Identification. A radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer is a device intended to be used...

  1. Employment by Industry in Ohio Counties, 1940-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Bureau of Employment Services, Columbus.

    These 89 tables present total employment in Ohio (civilian and military) and in each of its 88 counties from 1940 to 1970 as tabulated by the Bureau of Census. Each table indicates the number employed and the percent of the total employed for 1940, 1950, 1960, and 1970 in the following industries: Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries; mining;…

  2. A HIGHER ALTITUDE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN 1970, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A HIGHER ALTITUDE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN 1970, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD THE HUACHUCA MOUNTAINS. THE 1916 STABLES ARE LOCATED IN THE RIGHT MIDDLE PORTION OF THE PICTURE (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1970.15.00.59, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  3. Pre-1970 transuranic solid waste at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1995-05-23

    The document is based on a search of pre-1970 Hanford Solid Waste Records. The available data indicates seven out of thirty-one solid waste burial sites used for pre-1970 waste appear to be Transuranic (TRU). A burial site defined to be TRU contains >100 nCi/gm Transuranic nuclides.

  4. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  5. 26 CFR 1.615-1 - Pre-1970 exploration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Pre-1970 exploration expenditures. 1.615-1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-1 Pre-1970 exploration expenditures. (a) General rule. Section 615 prescribes rules for the treatment of expenditures (paid or...

  6. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1991-01-01

    Initially, rehabilitation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka met with apparent success reaching a peak abundance of 10.2 million fishTl988. However, a decline of 47% followed from 1988 through 1991 to 5.4 million fish. The decreased population was attributed to poor recruitment of wild fish, poor egg take, thus, low stocking of hatchery fry (7.3 million in 1990 and 5.0 million in 1991 compared to about 13.0 million in 1981), and poor survival of fish ages 3 and 4 (average survival of the older fish was only 35% in 1990 compared to 72% in prior years but it was 68% in 1991). In addition, standing stocks of kokanee have remained relatively stable (x = 8.6 kg/hectare) since 1986 despite the dramatic changes in density. Prior to this study (1985) standing stocks were substantially higher (x = 13.6 kg/hectare). The kokanee population is probably operating below carrying capacity. Hatchery fry comprised 59% of the total kokanee recruitment in 1991 (93% of fry biomass). This contribution of 1.06 million fry ranked fifth behind 1988 (3.74 million), 1989 (2.25 million), 1982 (1.89 million), and 1990 (1.56 million) since hatchery supplementation began in the 1970s. Survival of hatchery fry was 21% in 1991, the second highest since this investigation began. Two release strategies were tested in 1991 of which the best survival was recorded for the Sullivan Springs release at 23% while the early Clark Fork River release continued to have lowest survival at 18%. Survival of hatchery reared kokanee fry is still below the goal of 30% and it appears that this goal may not be attainable most years. Statistical analysis between number of days from fry release to recapture day and fry survival did not reveal a relationship (P = 0.43). Survival of fry from late releases is higher (P = 0.05) than early releases but no difference (P L 0.71) was detected between stocking locations. Good survival of fry from the Sullivan Springs releases was attributed to large size of kokanee fry (55 mm), warm

  7. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, M.W.; Karapatakis, L.K.; Mamatey, A.R.; Todd, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes environmental activities conducted on and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, S.C., from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1991, with an update on compliance activities through April 1, 1992. The report is a single volume with a separate summary pamphlet highlighting the major findings for 1991. The report is divided into an executive summary and 14 chapters containing information on environmental compliance issues, environmental monitoring methods and programs, and environmental research activities for 1991, as well as historical data from previous years. Analytical results, figures, charts, and data tables relevant to the environmental monitoring program for 1991 at SRS are included.

  8. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  9. Roadmap for Development of Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructructure and Analysis of Vehicular Natural Gas Consumption by Niche Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen C. Yborra

    2007-04-30

    per-vehicle fuel use, central fueling and sensitivity to fuel costs, fleets will continue to be the primary target for NGV deployment and station development efforts. The transit sector is projected to continue to account for the greatest vehicular natural gas use and for new volume growth. New tax incentives and improved life-cycle economics also create opportunities to deploy additional vehicles and install related vehicular natural gas fueling infrastructure in the refuse, airport and short-haul sectors. Focusing on fleets generates the highest vehicular natural gas throughout but it doesn't necessarily facilitate public fueling infrastructure because, generally, fleet operators prefer not to allow public access due to liability concerns and revenue and tax administrative burdens. While there are ways to overcome this reluctance, including ''outside the fence'' retail dispensers and/or co-location of public and ''anchor'' fleet dispensing capability at a mutually convenient existing or new retail location, each has challenges that complicate an already complex business transaction. Partnering with independent retail fuel station companies, especially operators of large ''truck stops'' on the major interstates, to include natural gas at their facilities may build public fueling infrastructure and demand enough to entice the major oil companies to once again engage. Garnering national mass media coverage of success in California and Utah where vehicular natural gas fueling infrastructure is more established will help pave the way for similar consumer market growth and inclusion of public accessibility at stations in other regions. There isn't one ''right'' business model for growing the nation's NGV inventory and fueling infrastructure. Different types of station development and ownership-operation strategies will continue to be warranted for different customers in different markets. Factors affecting NGV deployment and station development include: regional air

  10. [Judgment of 10 June 1991].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The plaintiff challenged the refusal by the Ministry of Social Services of his request to be licensed as a counselor to deal with conflicts relating to pregnancy. The Ministry justified its decision by stating that, if the plaintiff were licensed, his first priority would not be to attempt to convince a pregnant woman to continue her pregnancy as required by government law and regulations. In upholding a lower court decision, the Administrative Court at Mannheim, Germany, ruled that, although the abortion law requires the government to protect unborn life, the task of a counselor for women in situations of conflict over their pregnancies is to help such women make a conscientious decision with respect to abortion after weighing arguments on both sides of the question, not to promote continuance of pregnancy. It concluded that obligating a counselor to argue against an abortion or pressure a woman not to have an abortion would violate the language in the abortion law relating to counseling. On 7 May 1991, the same court ruled that a physician planning to perform abortions in his licensed clinic could not obtain from the Ministry of Social Services a declaration that such abortions would be lawful. It held that neither the abortion law nor other statutes authorized the Ministry to issue such a declaration, which would concern the elements of a criminal act not yet having been carried out and would bind law enforcement agencies. See Neue Juristische Wochenschrift, No. 37, 1991, pp. 2365-6.

  11. Undergraduate Origins of Women and Men 1970-1982 Graduates Who Received Doctorates between 1970-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Carol H.

    Data from a study of the undergraduate origins of Ph.D.s are presented. Baccalaureate origins of doctorate recipients were analyzed for total and proportional productivity for each of the U.S. institutions whose graduates between 1970 and 1982 had earned at least one doctorate between 1970 and 1986. The numbers of baccalaureate degrees for men and…

  12. Census of Population and Housing: 1970. General Demographic Trends for Metropolitan Areas, 1960 to 1970. United States Summary. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    This publication is one of a series of 1970 census reports concerned mainly with population and housing trends in metropolitan areas from 1960 to 1970. The analytical text discusses changes in population growth and distribution and housing in the nation as a whole and by regions. Following the detailed tables are included definitions,…

  13. Seeding cumulus in Florida: new 1970 results.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J; Woodley, W L

    1971-04-09

    In the Florida single cloud experiments, the main result of the statistical analyses is that the dynamic seeding effect on rainfall is large, positive, and significant. From all the 1968 and 1970 data together, the seeding effect is estimated to be larger than a factor of 3; that is, the seeded clouds rained more than three times as much as the controls after the seeding run. On fair days, defined objectively by percentage of area covered by showers, the seeding effect is shown to be larger than the overall average, but it may be negative on rainy days. Rainy days in the tropics are about 10 percent of the days with rain, but they produce about half the total rainfall. The applicability of our single cloud results to other areas is not established but seems hopeful for many tropical and subtropical regions. It can be assessed by cloud population studies together with our numerical model (25). Guidance for the next steps toward practical rainfall enhancement and toward the understanding and modification of cloud systems in storms may be provided by our study of merger clouds. Mergers are shown often to produce more than an order of magnitude more rain than isolated clouds on the same day, probably owing to dynamic invigoration of the merged cloud circulations. Results of our first small attempt toward inducing and documenting mergers in a multiple cloud seeding experiment appear promising. Although far from statistically conclusive, they have opened a new frontier in the science and technology of dynamic cloud modification. It is also hoped that the multiple cumulus seeding experiments will help to clarify the formation of "cloud clusters" and their role in large-scale circulations, thus contributing to the focal subject of the Global Atmospheric Research Program in the tropics.

  14. Setting priorities for the health care sector in Zimbabwe using cost-effectiveness analysis and estimates of the burden of disease

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Chapman, Glyn

    2008-01-01

    Background This study aimed at providing information for priority setting in the health care sector of Zimbabwe as well as assessing the efficiency of resource use. A general approach proposed by the World Bank involving the estimation of the burden of disease measured in Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and calculation of cost-effectiveness ratios for a large number of health interventions was followed. Methods Costs per DALY for a total of 65 health interventions were estimated. Costing data were collected through visits to health centres, hospitals and vertical programmes where a combination of step-down and micro-costing was applied. Effectiveness of health interventions was estimated based on published information on the efficacy adjusted for factors such as coverage and compliance. Results Very cost-effective interventions were available for the major health problems. Using estimates of the burden of disease, the present paper developed packages of health interventions using the estimated cost-effectiveness ratios. These packages could avert a quarter of the burden of disease at total costs corresponding to one tenth of the public health budget in the financial year 1997/98. In general, the analyses suggested that there was substantial potential for improving the efficiency of resource use in the public health care sector. Discussion The proposed World Bank approach applied to Zimbabwe was extremely data demanding and required extensive data collection in the field and substantial human resources. The most important limitation of the study was the scarcity of evidence on effectiveness of health interventions so that a range of important health interventions could not be included in the cost-effectiveness analysis. This and other limitations could in principle be overcome if more research resources were available. Conclusion The present study showed that it was feasible to conduct cost-effectiveness analyses for a large number of health interventions in

  15. Analysis of the Army’s Installation Support Modules with the Private Sector’s Open Information Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-09

    according to Bryman , it is possible to use a small sample and still maintain a high degree of validity as long as the sampling size represents a...Analysis of the Army’s 48 References Alperin, Jeffry A. & St. Germain, Robert A., Jr. (1989). Open Systems: Ready for Lift-Off? Best Review, 90, 82. Bryman

  16. Three Dimensional Sector Design with Optimal Number of Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min

    2010-01-01

    In the national airspace system, sectors get overloaded due to high traffic demand and inefficient airspace designs. Overloads can be eliminated in some cases by redesigning sector boundaries. This paper extends the Voronoi-based sector design method by automatically selecting the number of sectors, allowing three-dimensional partitions, and enforcing traffic pattern conformance. The method was used to design sectors at Fort-Worth and Indianapolis centers for current traffic scenarios. Results show that new designs can eliminate overloaded sectors, although not in all cases, reduce the number of necessary sectors, and conform to major traffic patterns. Overall, the new methodology produces enhanced and efficient sector designs.

  17. State Legislation Relating to Native Americans, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, James B.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes legislative activities in states that enacted bills and resolutions relating to Native Americans in 1991. Conflicts between states and the Indian tribes within their borders were the subject of significant legislation in 1991. In all, 220 bills and resolutions were introduced in state legislatures; 77 passed and 20 are still…

  18. Northwest Territories Education: 1991 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    During 1991, the Department of Education of the Northwest Territories took a number of important steps toward its goal of ensuring the school system reflects the cultures of the people it serves. This report expands on the initiatives the department undertook in 1991. Following introductory statements by the minister and deputy minister,…

  19. Trends in health sciences library and information science research: an analysis of research publications in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association from 1991 to 2007*

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Sally A.; Nordberg, Judith M.; Palmer, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study analyzed trends in research activity as represented in the published research in the leading peer-reviewed professional journal for health sciences librarianship. Methodology: Research articles were identified from the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association (1991–2007). Using content analysis and bibliometric techniques, data were collected for each article on the (1) subject, (2) research method, (3) analytical technique used, (4) number of authors, (5) number of citations, (6) first author affiliation, and (7) funding source. The results were compared to a previous study, covering the period 1966 to 1990, to identify changes over time. Results: Of the 930 articles examined, 474 (51%) were identified as research articles. Survey (n = 174, 37.1%) was the most common methodology employed, quantitative descriptive statistics (n = 298, 63.5%) the most used analytical technique, and applied topics (n = 332, 70%) the most common type of subject studied. The majority of first authors were associated with an academic health sciences library (n = 264, 55.7%). Only 27.4% (n = 130) of studies identified a funding source. Conclusion: This study's findings demonstrate that progress is being made in health sciences librarianship research. There is, however, room for improvement in terms of research methodologies used, proportion of applied versus theoretical research, and elimination of barriers to conducting research for practicing librarians. PMID:19626146

  20. Construction Sector (NAICS 23)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  1. Hierarchical analysis of spatial pattern and processes of Douglas-fir forests. Ph.D. Thesis, 10 Sep. 1991 Abstract Only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in the quantification of pattern in ecological systems over the past years. This interest is motivated by the desire to construct valid models which extend across many scales. Spatial methods must quantify pattern, discriminate types of pattern, and relate hierarchical phenomena across scales. Wavelet analysis is introduced as a method to identify spatial structure in ecological transect data. The main advantage of the wavelet transform over other methods is its ability to preserve and display hierarchical information while allowing for pattern decomposition. Two applications of wavelet analysis are illustrated, as a means to: (1) quantify known spatial patterns in Douglas-fir forests at several scales, and (2) construct spatially-explicit hypotheses regarding pattern generating mechanisms. Application of the wavelet variance, derived from the wavelet transform, is developed for forest ecosystem analysis to obtain additional insight into spatially-explicit data. Specifically, the resolution capabilities of the wavelet variance are compared to the semi-variogram and Fourier power spectra for the description of spatial data using a set of one-dimensional stationary and non-stationary processes. The wavelet cross-covariance function is derived from the wavelet transform and introduced as a alternative method for the analysis of multivariate spatial data of understory vegetation and canopy in Douglas-fir forests of the western Cascades of Oregon.

  2. Analysis of the research and development effort in the private sector to reduce energy consumption in irrigated agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, E.A.; Cone, B.W.

    1980-09-01

    Manufacturers of irrigation equipment perform research and development in an effort to improve or maintain their position in a very competitive market. The market forces and conditions that create the intense competition and provide incentive for invention are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the market force of increased energy costs, but the analysis is developed from the perspective that energy is but one of many inputs to agricultural production. The analysis is based upon published literature, patent activity profiles, microeconomic theory, and conversations with many representatives of the irrigation industry. The published literature provides an understanding of the historical development of irrigation technology, a description of the industry's structure, and various data, which were important for the quantitative analyses. The patent activity profiles, obtained from the US Patent Office, provided details of patent activity within the irrigation industry over the past decade. Microeconomic theory was used to estimate industry-wide research and development expenditures on energy-conserving products. The results of these analyses were then compared with the insights gained from conversations with the industry representatives.

  3. Evaluating community investments in the mining sector using multi-criteria decision analysis to integrate SIA with business planning

    SciTech Connect

    Esteves, A.M.

    2008-05-15

    Gaining senior management's commitment to long-term social development projects, which are characterised by uncertainty and complexity, is made easier if projects are shown to benefit the site's strategic goals. However, even though the business case for community investment may have been accepted at a general level, as a strategy for competitive differentiation, risk mitigation and a desire to deliver - and to be seen to deliver - a 'net benefit' to affected communities, mining operations are still faced with implementation challenges. Case study research on mining companies, including interviews with social investment decision-makers, has assisted in developing the Social Investment Decision Analysis Tool (SIDAT), a decision model for evaluating social projects in order to create value for both the company and the community. Multi-criteria decision analysis techniques integrating business planning processes with social impact assessment have proved useful in assisting mining companies think beyond the traditional drivers (i.e. seeking access to required lands and peaceful relations with neighbours), to broader issues of how they can meet their business goals and contribute to sustainable development in the regions in which they operate.

  4. Proceedings of the 1991 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    This Conference, which was the sixth held since 1984, is a key technology-transfer activity supported by the ongoing Combustion Equipment Technology program at BNL, and is aimed at providing a forum for the exchange of information among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The objectives of the Conference were to: Identify and evaluate the state-of-the-art and recommend; new initiatives to satisfy consumer needs cost-effectively, reliably, and safely; Foster cooperation among federal and industrial representatives with the common goal of national security via energy conservation. The 1991 Oil Technology Conference comprised: (a) two plenary sessions devoted to presentations and summations by public and private sector representatives from the United States, Europe, and Canada; and, (b) four workshops which focused on mainstream issues in oil-heating technology. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Salary information for health physicists and nuclear engineers, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey conducted by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) to obtain current salary data from employers of health physicists and nuclear engineers. The questionnaires were distributed to 52 utilities and 139 non-utilities in October 1991. The non-utilities include private sector organizations and Department of Energy laboratories and production facilities operated by contractors. Excluded from the survey are government agencies, educational institutions, and medical/health facilities. The employers were asked to provide data on average salaries for BS, MS, and PhD degree level health physicists and nuclear engineers with zero, one, and three years of professional work experience. Responses from individual employers are kept confidential, and the list of respondents provided at the back of this report includes only those organizations authorizing the release of their names. The survey universe consists of those utilities and non-utilities that employed five or more health physicists or nuclear engineers based on data from the 1991 Survey of Occupational Employment in Nuclear-Related Activities'' conducted by Oak Ridge Associated Universities which includes information provided by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations.

  6. Astronomical data analysis software and systems I; Proceedings of the 1st Annual Conference, Tucson, AZ, Nov. 6-8, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worrall, Diana M. (Editor); Biemesderfer, Chris (Editor); Barnes, Jeannette (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to a definition of a distribution format for X-ray data, the Einstein on-line system, the NASA/IPAC extragalactic database, COBE astronomical databases, Cosmic Background Explorer astronomical databases, the ADAM software environment, the Groningen Image Processing System, search for a common data model for astronomical data analysis systems, deconvolution for real and synthetic apertures, pitfalls in image reconstruction, a direct method for spectral and image restoration, and a discription of a Poisson imagery super resolution algorithm. Also discussed are multivariate statistics on HI and IRAS images, a faint object classification using neural networks, a matched filter for improving SNR of radio maps, automated aperture photometry of CCD images, interactive graphics interpreter, the ROSAT extreme ultra-violet sky survey, a quantitative study of optimal extraction, an automated analysis of spectra, applications of synthetic photometry, an algorithm for extra-solar planet system detection and data reduction facilities for the William Herschel telescope.

  7. Analysis of linkage effects among industry sectors in China's stock market before and after the financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Li, Xiangyang; Zhang, Tong

    2014-10-01

    This paper uses two physics-derived techniques, the minimum spanning tree and the hierarchical tree, to investigate the networks formed by CITIC (China International Trust and Investment Corporation) industry indices in three periods from 2006 to 2013. The study demonstrates that obvious industry clustering effects exist in the networks, and Durable Consumer Goods, Industrial Products, Information Technology, Frequently Consumption and Financial Industry are the core nodes in the networks. We also use the rolling window technique to investigate the dynamic evolution of the networks' stability, by calculating the mean correlations and mean distances, as well as the variance of correlations and the distances of these indices. China's stock market is still immature and subject to administrative interventions. Therefore, through this analysis, regulators can focus on monitoring the core nodes to ensure the overall stability of the entire market, while investors can enhance their portfolio allocations or investment decision-making.

  8. Experiments and analysis concerning the use of external burning to reduce aerospace vehicle transonic drag. Ph.D. Thesis - Maryland Univ., 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J.

    1992-01-01

    The external combustion of hydrogen to reduce transonic drag was investigated. A control volume analysis is developed and indicates that the specific impulse performance of external burning is competitive with other forms of airbreathing propulsion and depends on the fuel-air ratio, freestream Mach number, and the severity of the base drag. A method is presented for sizing fuel injectors for a desired fuel-air ratio in the unconfined stream. A two-dimensional Euler analysis is also presented which indicates that the total axial force generated by external burning depends on the total amount of energy input and is independent of the transverse and streamwise distribution of heat addition. Good agreement between the Euler and control volume analysis is demonstrated. Features of the inviscid external burning flowfield are discussed. Most notably, a strong compression forms at the sonic line within the burning stream which may induce separation of the plume and prevent realization of the full performance potential. An experimental program was conducted in a Mach 1.26 free-jet to demonstrate drag reduction on a simple expansion ramp geometry, and verify hydrogen-air stability limits at external burning conditions. Stable combustion appears feasible to Mach number of between 1.4 and 2 depending on the vehicle flight trajectory. Drag reduction is demonstrated on the expansion ramp at Mach 1.26; however, force levels showed little dependence on fuel pressure or altitude in contrast to control volume analysis predictions. Various facility interference mechanisms and scaling issues were studied and are discussed.

  9. High speed DNA sequence analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry. Final report for period February 15, 1991 - February 14, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Lloyd M.

    2001-04-17

    This grant had as its focus (i) to develop chemistry and enzymology to permit the enzymatic synthesis of 2' fluoro modified Sanger sequencing reactions, which would be resistant to fragmentation during MALDI process, (ii) to develop rapid MALDI analyses of DNA sequence polymorphisms using Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) DNA analogs in conjunction with solid phase chemistry (iii) to study the fundamental mechanisms occurring in the MALDI analysis of nucleic acids.

  10. Problems in acquiring mineral revenues for financing economic development: a case study of Zambia during 1970-78

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, R.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    During the 1970s Zambia granted tax incentives to translational mining companies (thereby foregoing some revenues) in order to achieve expected investment benefits to the economy and government. The Government also acquired ownership interests in the companies via asset acquisition. Global market forces turned against Zambia's interests, and expected benefits were not forthcoming because company profits had become the sole tax base in the mineral sector. Zambia's experience from 1970 to 1978 suggests that it and other mineral export countries should (a) evaluate carefully whether reducing the effective tax rate on company profits actually induces investment and (b) consider thoroughly whether a tax scheme that includes a proper mix of profit, mineral and export levies is more appropriate than a single tax base.

  11. Compliance monitoring for the chemical weapons convention preliminary operational concepts--an adversarial analysis. Technical report, 5 September-12 November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.; Rudney, B.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this report is to assess preliminary operational concepts developed by the U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC). The 'Adversarial Analysis Methodology for the Chemical Weapons Convention,' developed by the JAYCOR Team, provides a conceptual framework and criteria for this assessment. Adversarial analysis (AA) complements the CRDEC methodology by accounting for noncompliance activities and includes risk and vulnerability analyses as well as a politico-strategic assessment of potentially noncompliant nations. CRDEC highlights many difficulties, flaws, and discrepancies in the formal CWC verification regime. AA helps overcome these shortcomings. First, it identifies how an adversary might accomplish cheating, spoofing, and circumvention (CSC), including underlying motivations and objectives. Second, it highlights potential verification system vulnerabilities that would permit CSC. Finally, it assesses the impact of such activities qualitatively and quantitatively. The end product of this approach is a vulnerability assessment report describing the potential effectiveness of various deceptive practices and recommendations for improving the verification regime's resistance to deception.... On-Site Inspections, CRDEC, Adversarial Analysis, Verification, Deception, Chemical Weapons, Convention, Chemical Weapons, Noncompliance.

  12. 29. August, 1970 WEST ELEVATIONS OF 14, 16, 18, 20 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. August, 1970 WEST ELEVATIONS OF 14, 16, 18, 20 UNION STREET (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  13. 40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN HOUSE (9 UNION STREET) AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  14. 11. COPY OF 1970 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF LORING AIR FORCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. COPY OF 1970 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF LORING AIR FORCE BASE. PHOTOGRAPH LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Airfield, Central portion of base, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  15. 8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  16. 7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  17. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  18. 2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  19. 24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM HALF-WAY POINT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  20. 16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  1. 22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM GARDNER HOUSES - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  2. 8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE STREET (MASS-1063) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  3. 10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH FOM IN FRONT OF THE LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  4. 11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE (MASS-912), 14 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  5. Aeronautics and Space Report: Highlights 1970. [NASA programs and research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    These highlights include the 1970 solar eclipse, Tiros, Nimbus, Intelsat, wake turbulence, the Peru earthquake, Oregon fishing grounds, Apollo 13, SI-C static firing, McDonnell/Douglas 90-day confinement test, and the moon from Galileo to 1971.

  6. [A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of gestalt therapy].

    PubMed

    Bretz, H J; Heekerens, H P; Schmitz, B

    1994-01-01

    This metaanalytical assessment of evaluation research in the field of Gestalt therapy has been conducted on the basis of 38 studies which took place between 1970 and 1986. Its scope is substantially broader than the metaanalysis of Smith, Glass and Miller (1980) or the secondary analysis of Grawe's Berner Workgroup documented in Forschungsgutachten zu Fragen eines Psychotherapeutengesetzes (1991). The results indicate Gestalt therapy to be an effective psychotherapeutic treatment which is not inferior to other comparable methods of treatment. No definitive statement can be made concerning differential indication, individual therapy setting or long-term measures.

  7. A Labor Market Analysis of the Electricity Sector for 2030 using the National Energy with Weather System Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, L.; Clack, C.; Marquis, M.; Paine, J.; Picciano, P.

    2015-12-01

    We conducted an analysis that utilized the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models to estimate the temporary and permanent jobs, earnings, and state sales tax revenues that would be created by various scenarios of the National Energy with Weather System (NEWS) simulator. This simulator was created by a collaboration between the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado and the Earth Systems Research Laboratory (ESRL NOAA). The NEWS simulator used three years of high-resolution (13-km, hourly) weather and power data to select the most cost-efficient, resource-maximizing, and complementary locations for wind, solar photovoltaic, and natural gas power plants along with high-voltage direct-current transmission, thereby providing the cheapest possible electricity grid that facilitates the incorporation of large amounts of wind and solar PV. We applied various assumptions to ensure that we produced conservative estimates, while keeping costs in line with those of the NEWS simulator. Our analysis shows that under the lowest carbon-emitting scenario of the NEWS carried out (80% reduction in CO2 compared with 1990 levels), almost ten million new jobs could be created by 2030. Of those jobs, over 400,000 would be permanently supporting the operations of the power plants. That particular scenario would also add over 500 billion to the paychecks of American workers and 75 billion to state tax revenues by 2030. All of this is achieved with average electricity costs of 10.7¢/kWh, because the electric system relies less heavily on fuel and more on jobs constructing, operating, and maintaining infrastructure. We use the current presentation to describe the methods used to reach these findings and examine some potential impacts of our estimates on public policy. Although we are able to identify some systematic problems with the JEDI model, we find that these problems

  8. The Evolution of Malaysias Immigration Policy Since 1970

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    MALAYSIA’S IMMIGRATION POLICY SINCE 1970 by Michelle B. Avila March 2015 Thesis Advisor: Michael Malley Second Reader: Tristan Mabry THIS...8217s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS THE EVOLUTION OF MALAYSIA’S IMMIGRATION POLICY SINCE 1970 6. AUTHOR(S) Michelle B. Avila 7...in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Govemment. IRB

  9. Analysis of organic sulfur and nitrogen in coal via tandem degradation methods. Technical report, 1 December 1991--29 February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kruge, M.A.; Palmer, S.R.; Baudet, N.

    1992-08-01

    With the recent increase in concern for environmental issues and the implication of sulfur and nitrogen in coal combustion products as prime causes of acid rain, it has become clear that there is an urgent need for alternative methods for determining the nature of organic sulfur and nitrogen compounds in coal. The present study couples mild oxidative and reductive procedures to enhance the depolymerization of coal and its constituent macerals and the quantities of products amenable to analysis. The study also seeks to apply the degradative techniques to coal asphaltenes, since they are believed to be polymeric structures similar to the whole coal, but smaller and more readily analyzed.

  10. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the ``Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies. The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level.

  11. Benefits Assessment of Algorithmically Combining Generic High Altitude Airspace Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael; Gupta, Pramod; Lai, Chok Fung; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2009-01-01

    In today's air traffic control operations, sectors that have traffic demand below capacity are combined so that fewer controller teams are required to manage air traffic. Controllers in current operations are certified to control a group of six to eight sectors, known as an area of specialization. Sector combinations are restricted to occur within areas of specialization. Since there are few sector combination possibilities in each area of specialization, human supervisors can effectively make sector combination decisions. In the future, automation and procedures will allow any appropriately trained controller to control any of a large set of generic sectors. The primary benefit of this will be increased controller staffing flexibility. Generic sectors will also allow more options for combining sectors, making sector combination decisions difficult for human supervisors. A sector-combining algorithm can assist supervisors as they make generic sector combination decisions. A heuristic algorithm for combining under-utilized air space sectors to conserve air traffic control resources has been described and analyzed. Analysis of the algorithm and comparisons with operational sector combinations indicate that this algorithm could more efficiently utilize air traffic control resources than current sector combinations. This paper investigates the benefits of using the sector-combining algorithm proposed in previous research to combine high altitude generic airspace sectors. Simulations are conducted in which all the high altitude sectors in a center are allowed to combine, as will be possible in generic high altitude airspace. Furthermore, the algorithm is adjusted to use a version of the simplified dynamic density (SDD) workload metric that has been modified to account for workload reductions due to automatic handoffs and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). This modified metric is referred to here as future simplified dynamic density (FSDD). Finally

  12. Phylogenetic congruence of Sarcocystis neurona Dubey et al., 1991 (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) in the United States based on sequence analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

    PubMed

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Murphy, Alice J; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess the genetic diversity, phylogeny and phylogeographical relationships of available Sarcocystis neurona isolates from different localities in the United States. All 13 Sarcocystis isolates from different hosts were subjected to polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses using two published DNA markers (25/396 and 33/54). The 334 bp sequence of the 25/396 marker of these isolates and Besnoitia darlingi, B. bennetti, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum were sequenced and compared. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using neighbour-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP) and minimum evolution (ME) methods based on the sequences of the 25/396 marker of the 13 Sarcocystis isolates obtained in this study and sequences of 10 related isolates from GenBank. Phylogenetic trees revealed a close relatedness among S. neurona isolates in the US (nucleotide sequence diversity <5.0%). US isolates formed a monophyletic group and appeared more closely related to each other than to the South American isolates, which formed a separate lineage. NJ and ME trees with Kimura 2-parameter model separated S. neurona into two separate groups: a northern US group and a Southern US group. These findings suggest a correlation between grouping of the isolates and geographical segregation and were consistent with a genetic bottleneck hypothesis during opossum colonisation of North America. These data do not support either the view of S. neurona as a single super-species or its division into multiple subspecies.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  14. Syria: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on discoveries by foreign license holders in 1991, another production record and progress on a major water injection project that could further substantially boost national output that are highlights of recent activity in Syria. Syrian production at the end of last year topped 470,000 bpd, about 300,000 of which was 37{degrees} gravity oil from 20 fields in eastern Syria operated by the Al Furat Petroleum Co. (AFPC). Some 20,000 bpd of 36{degrees} crude being produced by Elf from its Attala North field and 150,000 bpd of heavy oil produced by Syrian Petroleum Co. (SPC) from its declining fields in the northeastern part of the country accounted for the remainder. Discoveries of significant light oil production near the town of Deir Ez Zor in recent years were made by the Shell Group (Royal Dutch, Pecten International and Deminex). AFPC, owned by SPC and Shell Group participants, which is developing the discoveries, has become the largest producer in the country. AFPC recently began injecting water on its $100-million flood in Omar field which is designed to overcome a sharp reservoir pressure decline that occurred in 1989 when the field was brought onstream at 100,000 bpd. Water injection is ultimately expected to boost Omar production from about 16,400 bpd last January to between 40,000 and 50,000 bpd.

  15. NASA SBIR product catalog, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This catalog is a partial list of products of NASA SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) projects that have advanced to some degree into Phase 3. While most of the products evolved from work conducted during SBIR Phase 1 and 2, a few advanced to commercial status solely from Phase 1 activities. The catalog presents information provided to NASA by SBIR contractors who wished to have their products exhibited at Technology 2001, a NASA-sponsored technology transfer conference held in San Jose, California, on December 4, 5, and 6, 1991. The catalog presents the product information in the following technology areas: computer and communication systems; information processing and AI; robotics and automation; signal and image processing; microelectronics; electronic devices and equipment; microwave electronic devices; optical devices and lasers; advanced materials; materials processing; materials testing and NDE; materials instrumentation; aerodynamics and aircraft; fluid mechanics and measurement; heat transfer devices; refrigeration and cryogenics; energy conversion devices; oceanographic instruments; atmosphere monitoring devices; water management; life science instruments; and spacecraft electromechanical systems.

  16. Trends of chlorinated organic contaminants in Great Lakes trout and walleye from 1970-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, J.P.; Batterman, S.A.; Chernyak, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Levels of chlorinated organic contaminants in predator fish have been monitored annually in each of the Great Lakes since the 1970s. This article updates earlier reports with data from 1991 to 1998 for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and (Lake Erie only) walleye (Sander vitreus) to provide a record that now extends nearly 30 years. Whole fish were analyzed for a number of industrial contaminants and pesticides, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), dieldrin, toxaphene, and mirex, and contaminant trends were quantified using multicompartment models. As in the past, fish from Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron have the highest levels of PCBs, DDT, and dieldrin; Superior has the highest levels of toxaphene; and Ontario has the highest levels of mirex. In the period after curtailment of chemical use, concentrations rapidly decreased, represented by relatively short half-lives from approximately 1 to 9 years. Although trends depend on both the contaminant and the lake, in many cases the rate of decline has been decreasing, and concentrations are gradually approaching an irreducible concentration. For dioxin-like PCBs, levels have not been decreasing during the most recent 5-year period (1994 to 1998). In some cases, the year-to-year variation in contaminant levels is large, mainly because of food-web dynamics. Although this variation sometimes obscures long-term trends, the general pattern of a rapid decrease followed by slowing or leveling-off of the downward trend seems consistent across the Great Lakes, and future improvements of the magnitude seen in the 1970s and early 1980s likely will take much longer.

  17. Sector-scanning echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, W. L.; Griffith, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical sector scanner is described in detail, and its clinical application is discussed. Cross sectional images of the heart are obtained in real time using this system. The sector scanner has three major components: (a) hand held scanner, (b) video display, and (c) video recorder. The system provides diagnostic information in a wide spectrum of cardiac diseases, and it quantitates the severity of mitral stenosis by measurement of the mitral valve orifice area in diagnosing infants, children and adults with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  18. The 1991 eruptions of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, Edward W.

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of the volcanic unrest at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines began when steam explosions occurred on April 2, 1991. The unrest culminated ten weeks later in the world's largest eruption in more than half a century. 

  19. FAA Air Traffic Activity. Fiscal Year 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    74 0 0 74 0 UHUE ............................................................................. HI M ZHN 1683 1395 62 41 185 LIMA ALLEN COUNTY...1560433 TABLE 24- FISCAL YEAR 1991 FAA CONTRACTOR-OPERATED TRAFIC CONTROL TOWERS BY RANK ORDER OF

  20. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Massachusetts. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.K.; Sinnott, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    The value of nonfuel mineral production in 1991 was $111.6 million, a decrease of $16 million compared with the 1990 value. The decrease in 1991 was largely attributable to lower sales of construction sand and gravel and crushed stone, the State's two leading mineral commodities. Other mineral commodities produced included common clay, industrial sand, dimension stone, lime, and peat. Nationally, the State ranked 41st in the production of nonfuel minerals. It ranked fifth of 34 States that produced dimension stone.

  1. OPEC 1991 results reflect hard times

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-20

    This paper reports that low crude oil prices and economic tough times in industrial countries cause a lean 1991 for members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. OPEC's 1991 annual report the member countries reported an overall loss of $12 billion in 1991 on oil revenues that fell 16.2%. Iraq and Kuwait were not included because of their unusual circumstances in the wake of the Persian Gulf war. Reduced oil revenues reflected a slide to $18.66/bbl in 1991 from $22.26/bbl in 1990 for the average price of OPEC basket crudes. As of last June 5 OPEC's basket crude price has averaged only $17.42/bbl this year, OPEC News Agency (Opecna) reported. First quarter 1992 prices averaged $16.77/bbl, compared wit $19.31/bbl in fourth quarter 1991. The average price jumped 52 cent/bbl the first week in June this year to $19.93/bbl, bouyed by Saudi Arabia's move at the end of May to shift its policy from price moderation to one in favor of higher prices, Opecna the. OPEC members increased production 1% in 1991 to an average 23.28 million b/d in spite of negligible production from Iraq and Kuwait and reduced production from Qatar.

  2. Selected Instrumentation Films, 1969-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Raymond L., Ed.

    This list of currently available films and filmstrips pertinent to instrumentation has been compiled from information solicited from many government and private sources. The 1969 compilation has been organized into the following eight categories: (1) principles of measurement and basic measurements; (2) analysis instrumentation; (3) automation and…

  3. Ecuador: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that there has been considerable turbulence in Ecuador's E and P sector over the last year. For instance, Energy Minister Diego Tramariz was replaced by the country's Congress after he raised subsidized fuel prices. Ecuadoran and U.S. environmentalists, meanwhile, raised a firestorm of controversy over the on-again, off- again development of Conoco's Block 16 in Yasuni National Park. Finally, Unocal and PetroCanada this spring terminated their respective drilling operations after fruitless multiwell efforts. New Energy Minister Donald Castillo certainly has his work cut out in attempting to maintain stability in upstream activity. To that end, Castillo has stated that one of his top priorities will be to maintain a good working relationship with foreign operators. He also expected a seventh round of exploratory blocks to be offered before summer's end to shore up activity. Castillo reiterated in public statements that he stands by the administration's existing energy policies, including development of Block 16.

  4. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-05

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  5. Energy Sector Impacts and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, R. L.; Macknick, J.; Martinez, A.; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    The power sector is the largest user of freshwater in the U.S. The dominant use of water in power plants is for steam cycle cooling. The current portfolio of electricity generating technologies in the U.S. has highly regionalized and technology-specific requirements for water. Certain areas employ once-through cooling technologies with high withdrawals and low consumptive uses, whereas other areas employ recirculating cooling technologies with relatively low withdrawals but high consumptive uses. As water availability differs widely throughout the nation, assessments of water withdrawal and consumption impacts from the power sector must have a high geographic resolution and consider regional differences. The U.S. electricity portfolio is likely to evolve in coming years, shaped by various energy policies and economic drivers on both the national and regional level, which will impact power sector water demands. It is likely that the U.S. will continue to decarbonize its electricity industry, leading to more low-carbon technologies. However, many low-carbon technologies, such as coal with carbon capture and storage, nuclear, and concentrated solar power, can use more water than the current electricity portfolio average. National- and state-level water policies have been proposed (and enacted) that affect cooling system choices for power plants, with resulting implications for water use as well as power plant installed and operating costs and reliability. Energy policy analyses that do not consider power plant cooling system impacts may miss an important component power plant siting decisions. Similarly, water policies that do not take into consideration potential impacts on power plant operations or comprehensive regional water budget impacts may have deleterious effects on the energy industry. Analysis of future energy scenarios that incorporate technology options and constraints as well as different policies can provide useful insights about likely changes to both

  6. Toward evaluating the effect of climate change on investments in the water resources sector: insights from the forecast and analysis of hydrological indicators in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzepek, Kenneth; Jacobsen, Michael; Boehlert, Brent; Neumann, James

    2013-12-01

    The World Bank has recently developed a method to evaluate the effects of climate change on six hydrological indicators across 8951 basins of the world. The indicators are designed for decision-makers and stakeholders to consider climate risk when planning water resources and related infrastructure investments. Analysis of these hydrological indicators shows that, on average, mean annual runoff will decline in southern Europe; most of Africa; and in southern North America and most of Central and South America. Mean reference crop water deficit, on the other hand, combines temperature and precipitation and is anticipated to increase in nearly all locations globally due to rising global temperatures, with the most dramatic increases projected to occur in southern Europe, southeastern Asia, and parts of South America. These results suggest overall guidance on which regions to focus water infrastructure solutions that could address future runoff flow uncertainty. Most important, we find that uncertainty in projections of mean annual runoff and high runoff events is higher in poorer countries, and increases over time. Uncertainty increases over time for all income categories, but basins in the lower and lower-middle income categories are forecast to experience dramatically higher increases in uncertainty relative to those in the upper-middle and upper income categories. The enhanced understanding of the uncertainty of climate projections for the water sector that this work provides strongly support the adoption of rigorous approaches to infrastructure design under uncertainty, as well as design that incorporates a high degree of flexibility, in response to both risk of damage and opportunity to exploit water supply ‘windfalls’ that might result, but would require smart infrastructure investments to manage to the greatest benefit.

  7. An international comparative public health analysis of sex trafficking of women and girls in eight cities: achieving a more effective health sector response.

    PubMed

    Macias Konstantopoulos, Wendy; Ahn, Roy; Alpert, Elaine J; Cafferty, Elizabeth; McGahan, Anita; Williams, Timothy P; Castor, Judith Palmer; Wolferstan, Nadya; Purcell, Genevieve; Burke, Thomas F

    2013-12-01

    Sex trafficking, trafficking for the purpose of forced sexual exploitation, is a widespread form of human trafficking that occurs in all regions of the world, affects mostly women and girls, and has far-reaching health implications. Studies suggest that up to 50 % of sex trafficking victims in the USA seek medical attention while in their trafficking situation, yet it is unclear how the healthcare system responds to the needs of victims of sex trafficking. To understand the intersection of sex trafficking and public health, we performed in-depth qualitative interviews among 277 antitrafficking stakeholders across eight metropolitan areas in five countries to examine the local context of sex trafficking. We sought to gain a new perspective on this form of gender-based violence from those who have a unique vantage point and intimate knowledge of push-and-pull factors, victim health needs, current available resources and practices in the health system, and barriers to care. Through comparative analysis across these contexts, we found that multiple sociocultural and economic factors facilitate sex trafficking, including child sexual abuse, the objectification of women and girls, and lack of income. Although there are numerous physical and psychological health problems associated with sex trafficking, health services for victims are patchy and poorly coordinated, particularly in the realm of mental health. Various factors function as barriers to a greater health response, including low awareness of sex trafficking and attitudinal biases among health workers. A more comprehensive and coordinated health system response to sex trafficking may help alleviate its devastating effects on vulnerable women and girls. There are numerous opportunities for local health systems to engage in antitrafficking efforts while partnering across sectors with relevant stakeholders.

  8. General and Partial Equilibrium Modeling of Sectoral Policies to Address Climate Change in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Pizer, William; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Newell, Richard; Sanchirico, James; Toman, Michael

    2003-03-31

    This document provides technical documentation for work using detailed sectoral models to calibrate a general equilibrium analysis of market and non-market sectoral policies to address climate change. Results of this work can be found in the companion paper, "Modeling Costs of Economy-wide versus Sectoral Climate Policies Using Combined Aggregate-Sectoral Model".

  9. Institute for Defense Analysis. Annual Report 1991.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    environment and dedicating its skills to General Larry D. Welch, President (right) and Mr. Robert F. Froehlke, Chairman. approved to puisMe tsie...strengthen national security in this difficult and uncertain time. General Larry D. Welch, USAF (Ret) President The IDA Research Program IDA’s yearly...former Commander, U.S. Sixth Fleet; Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet; Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic) General Larry D. Welch, USAF

  10. Sensitivity /comparison study between the Jacchia 1970, 1971, and 1977 upper atmospheric density models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    The neutral upper atmospheric models for the Earth's thermosphere currently used in NASA-MSFC programs are the Jacchia 1970 (J70), 1971 (J71), and 1977 (J77). The Jacchia 1970 model (modified) is used in all MSFC orbital mechanics analyses. Since total density and its variations are the main environmental parameters of interest in orbital lifetime and attitude control studies, the total neutral density was selected for this analysis. This report presents the results of a parametric study of the total density (at 400 km altitude) as computed with three MSFC/Jacchia models. The sensitivity of each of the density models at the summer solstice to varying solar conditions (flux) and geomagnetic (index) values is discussed.

  11. American social psychology: Examining the contours of the 1970s crisis.

    PubMed

    Faye, Cathy

    2012-06-01

    Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, social psychologists diagnosed their field as suffering a state of disciplinary crisis. The crisis was a multifaceted one, but issues of methodology, social relevance, and disciplinary, philosophical, and theoretical orientation were the primary areas of concern. Given that these issues have been prominent ones throughout the history of the social and behavioral sciences, it becomes necessary to look to the immediate context of the 1970s crisis to understand how and why a disciplinary crisis came to be diagnosed. The present analysis suggests that the crisis reflected the larger crisis in American society and also drew on the language of crisis prevalent at the time. Employing this language may have offered the field a method of making sense of, reframing, and redirecting internal and external critiques of the discipline.

  12. Birds of Wallops Island, Virginia, 1970 - 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum provides extensive data on birdlife at Wallops Island, a mid-Atlantic barrier island, and home to NASA Wallops Flight Facility's launch range. Variation in the distribution and abundance of many species is considerable in this region, which is centered along the north-south axis of the Delmarva Peninsula. Data (date of occurrence and general abundance) and analysis of the Island's diverse habitat structure are provided. A total of 244 species of birds are recorded; a summary of the records are given in the Species Accounts and the Appendix.

  13. The women's health movement: making policy, 1970-1995.

    PubMed

    Munch, Shari

    2006-01-01

    With the advent of second-wave feminism during the 1970s, a significant body of literature emerged describing sexist practices in women's health care. Gender-bias and gender disparities found in women's health care became concerns that garnered considerable attention in the United States because of the increased health risks posed for women. This article describes key historical challenges and accomplishments made in U.S. women's health care policy during the quarter century spanning 1970-1995 that influence contemporary health care social work practice and social work education.

  14. Use of net present value analysis to evaluate a publicly funded biomass-to-ethanol research, development, and demonstration program and valuate expected private sector participation.

    PubMed

    Hinman, N D; Yancey, M A

    1998-01-01

    One of the functions of government is to invest tax dollars in programs, projects, and properties that will result in greater public benefit than would have resulted from leaving the tax dollars in the private sector or using them to pay off the public debt. This paper describes the use of Net Present Value (NPV) as an approach to analyze and select investment opportunities for government money in public research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) programs and to evaluate potential private sector participation in the programs. This approach is then applied to a specific biomass-to-ethanol opportunity in California.

  15. The Growth of Protestantism in Brazil and Its Impact on Male Earnings, 1970–2000

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Joseph E.; Amaral, Ernesto F. L.; Woodberry, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Protestantism has expanded rapidly in Brazil in recent decades. The question we tackle in this paper is whether Protestantism has had a positive influence on male earnings in this setting, either through its influence on health and productivity, by way of social networks or employer favor and reduced discrimination, or through other mechanisms. We tackle the problem of the selectivity of religious conversion and affiliation using microdata from the Brazilian censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991, and 2000, and analyzing the association between Protestantism and earnings at the group rather than the individual level. Our results show a strong association between the proportion of Protestants in a region, and the earnings of men in one educational group: those with less than five years of education. Upon introducing race into our models, we found that the association between religion and the earnings of less educated men is concentrated in regions in which there is a substantial non-white population. The relationships we have uncovered contribute to the literature on racial inequality and discrimination in Brazil, which to date has given little space to the role of religion in moderating the pernicious effect of race on economic outcomes in Brazil. The substantial association we found between religion and earnings contrasts with much of the research that has been carried out on the influence of religion on earnings in the United States. PMID:26146415

  16. Prevalence of educational inequalities in obesity between 1970 and 2003 in France.

    PubMed

    Singh-Manoux, A; Gourmelen, J; Lajnef, M; Sabia, S; Sitta, R; Menvielle, G; Melchior, M; Nabi, H; Lanoe, J-L; Guéguen, A; Lert, F

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines trends in obesity rates and education-related absolute and relative inequalities in obesity over the last 40 years in France. Data are drawn from the French Decennial Health Surveys of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2003. The difference in obesity rates between the least- and most-educated, the Slope Index of Inequality, is used to estimate absolute inequalities in obesity. The ratio of the corresponding rates, the Relative Index of Inequality, reveals the relative inequalities in obesity. Obesity rates were similar in men and women, but educational inequalities were greater in women. Obesity rates were similar over the first three surveys but increased for all in the 2003 survey. This increase was accompanied by increases in absolute inequalities in men (P = 0.04) from a Slope Index of Inequality of 4.80% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.27, 7.32) to 8.64% (95% CI = 5.97, 11.32) and women (P = 0.004) from 8.90% (95% CI = 6.18, 11.63) to 14.57% (95% CI = 11.83, 17.32). Relative inequalities in obesity remained stable over the 40 years. Recent increase in obesity rates in France is accompanied by increases in absolute education-related inequalities, while relative inequalities have remained stable; this suggests that obesity rates have increased at a much faster rate in the low-education groups.

  17. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Moonier, P.; Talaga, R.; Wagner, R.

    1992-04-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of July 1, 1991--December 31, 1991. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  18. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report, fourth quarter 1991 and 1991 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This progress report for fourth quarter 1991 and 1991 summary fro the Savannah River Plant includes discussion on the following topics: description of facilities; hydrostratigraphic units; monitoring well nomenclature; integrity of the monitoring well network; groundwater monitoring data; analytical results exceeding standards; tritium, nitrate, and pH time-trend data; water levels; groundwater flow rates and directions; upgradient versus downgradient results.

  19. Solar-Geophysical Data Number 566, October 1991. Part 1 (prompt reports). Data for September, August 1991 and late data

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, H.E.

    1991-10-01

    The contents include: Detailed index for 1991; Data for September 1991--Solar-terrestrial environment, IUWDS alert periods (Advance and Worldwide), Solar activity indices, Solar flares, Solar radio emission, Stanford mean solar magnetic field; Data for August 1991--Solar active regions, Sudden ionospheric disturbances, Solar radio spectral observations, Cosmic ray measurements by neutron monitor, Geomagnetic indices; Late data--Cosmic ray measurements by neutron monitor-Huancayo November 1990-June 1991, Geomagnetic activity indices June-July 1991.

  20. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M.; Cronin, F.J.; Currie, J.W.; Tawil, J.

    1982-08-01

    The overall purpose of this research was to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in developing methods for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts due to the effects of increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ on agricultural production. First, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken to determine what types of models and methods have been developed, which could be effectively used to conduct assessments of the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon models and methods for assessing the physical impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields; national and multi-regional agricultural sector models; and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The second task involved a thorough investigation of the research efforts being conducted by other public and private sector organizations in order to determine how more recent analytical methods being developed outside of DOE could be effectively integrated into a more comprehensive analysis of the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. The third and final task involved synthesizing the information gathered in the first two tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes originating in the agricultural sector of the US economy. It is concluded that the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the agricultural sector and the indirect economic impacts caused by spillover effects from agriculture to other sectors of the economy will be pervasive; however, the direction and magnitude of these impacts on producers and consumers cannot be determined a priori.

  1. Venezuela: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on Venezuela's expansion by state oil company PDVSA has gone from a mere concept a year ago to a well-defined plan. The five-year project that began this year and runs through 1995 received a $4-billion upgrading last fall to $25 billion. Money will be spent in increments of $5 billion/year, and all sectors are involved. Largest share, about $10.5 billion, will go to upstream projects, with $6 billion to be invested in refining, $6 billion in petrochemicals, $1.5 billion in coal and $800 million in domestic marketing. PDVSA intends to finance most of the spending directly from its cash flow. The upstream spending will go toward boosting oil production to more than 3.6 MMbpd by the beginning of 1996, with capacity topping at 4.2 MMbopd. Such heavy spending should prove a boon to the Venezuelan economy. The oil industry constitutes 23% of Venezuela's GNP, accounts for 75% of governmental revenues and produces 70% of the nation's annual foreign exchange earnings. The Ministry of Planning already is forecasting a 7% leap in real growth of the GNP this year.

  2. Plasma properties. Annual report, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzner, H

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following topics: MHD equilibrium and stability; MHD transport; statistical analysis; edge physics studies; wave propagation; basic plasma physics; and, space plasma physics.

  3. Sector Study Guideline

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    LIMITS . . . . . . . . 8 5.1 Market Groups . ................ 8 5.2 Market Group A and the Level of Effort (LOE) Assessment...9 5.3 Market Groups B and Level of Effort (LOE) Assessment . . . . . . . . . 10 5.4 Market Group C and the Level of Effort Assessment 11 5.5... Market Groups Al, B1, C1 versus A2, B2, C2 (LOE) 11 6.0 AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7.0 OVERVIEW OF THE PROPOSED SECTOR

  4. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site`s B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  5. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site's B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  6. Understanding the Dynamic Convergence Phenomenon from the Perspective of Diversity and Persistence: A Cross-Sector Comparative Analysis between the United States and South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to improve the explanation for the behavior of the phenomenon of technology convergence. The concepts and measurements of diversity and persistence, as inherent attributes of the phenomenon, were elaborated by reviewing different theories. Diversity was examined by analyzing the degree of capability to absorb heterogeneous technologies, while persistence was investigated by analyzing the degree of continuity in the usage of cumulated technologies. With these two dimensions, an analytic framework was proposed to compare the differences and dynamic patterns of convergence competence by countries at the technology sector level. Three major technology sectors in the United States and South Korea, namely, information and communication technology, biotechnology, and nanotechnology, were explored to explicitly illustrate the differences in technology convergence competence. The results show that although Korea has narrowed the differences of capabilities for technology convergence compared to the US, Korea not only has to continuously pursue the improvement of specialization for all three sectors, but also has to encourage the exploitation of different technology fields. The suggested framework and indicators allow for monitoring of the dynamic patterns of a technology sector and identifying the sources of the gaps. Thus, the framework and indicators are able to ensure the purpose of government innovation policy and to provide strategic directions for redistributing the proper combination of sources to accomplish technology convergence. PMID:27416495

  7. Forecasting Training Needs in the Hotel, Catering and Tourism Sector: A Comparative Analysis of Results from Regional Studies in Three European Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffard, Andre; Guegnard, Christine; Strietska-Ilina, Olga

    2001-01-01

    A pilot study on the hotel, catering, and tourism sector was conducted in the Burgundy region of France, Northwest region of the Czech Republic, and Podravje region of Slovenia. Three main kinds of factors of change were brought out. The first, evoked in Slovenia and the Czech Republic, concerned the opening of borders. Typical trends were…

  8. Bangkok as a magnet for rural labour: changing conditions, 1900-1970.

    PubMed

    Ouyyanont, P

    1998-06-01

    This article describes labor force shifts, in Thailand, from rural areas to Bangkok during 1900-1970 and is a revision of a chapter from a doctoral thesis. Urban growth of Bangkok occurred primarily after World War II. Pre-war wages in rural areas were higher than coolie wages in Bangkok. Opportunity costs of changing occupations were high. Chinese immigration was the key to development of non-farm occupations. The Chinese from Siam were drawn to higher wages in Bangkok than were possible in South China ports. After the war, the Lewis-Fei and Ranis migration model fits a pattern of migration that adjusts the disequilibrium between urban and rural markets. There are shifts from low productivity rural sectors to urban high productivity sectors. Capital investment in commerce and industry raised urban labor productivity. The wage data suggest a growing gap between urban and rural sectors postwar. Rail travel during the 1950s brought higher wages for the unskilled in railroad construction. There was high agricultural productivity relative to labor input due to availability of land. Underpopulation meant little unemployment. After 1950, conditions changed. The population growth rate increased. More in rural areas lived below the poverty line. Low rice productivity constrained rural wages and incomes during the 1950s and 1960s. The more favored commercial crops needed less labor. Chinese immigration declined, and demand for labor increased in urban areas. Low urban wages due to cheap labor stimulated profits and growth. Major roads connected Bangkok to the south and the north. Bangkok was viewed as a magical and desirable place.

  9. Dissolved-Solids Load in Henrys Fork Upstream from the Confluence with Antelope Wash, Wyoming, Water Years 1970-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Katharine; Kenney, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    Annual dissolved-solids load at the mouth of Henrys Fork was estimated by using data from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station 09229500, Henrys Fork near Manila, Utah. The annual dissolved-solids load for water years 1970-2009 ranged from 18,300 tons in 1977 to 123,300 tons in 1983. Annual streamflows for this period ranged from 14,100 acre-feet in 1977 to 197,500 acre-feet in 1983. The 25-percent trimmed mean dissolved-solids load for water years 1970-2009 was 44,300 tons per year at Henrys Fork near Manila, Utah. Previous simulations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model for dissolved solids specific to water year 1991 conditions in the Upper Colorado River Basin predicted an annual dissolved-solids load of 25,000 tons for the Henrys Fork Basin upstream from Antelope Wash. On the basis of computed dissolved-solids load data from Henrys Fork near Manila, Utah, together with estimated annual dissolved-solids load from Antelope Wash and Peoples Canal, this prediction was adjusted to 37,200 tons. As determined by simulations with the Upper Colorado River Basin SPARROW model, approximately 56 percent (14,000 tons per year) of the dissolved-solids load at Henrys Fork upstream from Antelope Wash is associated with the 21,500 acres of irrigated agricultural lands in the upper Henrys Fork Basin.

  10. The skills gap in hospital management: a comparative analysis of hospital managers in the public and private sectors in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Rubin

    2010-02-01

    A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to attaining the goals of health for all in South Africa. As part of the overall management development process, this research aims to identify the skills that are important for health services management and to evaluate managers' self-assessed proficiency in each of these skills. We also examined the impact of past training on perceived competency levels. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 404 hospital managers in the South African public and private sectors. Respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each proposed competency had in their job and to indicate their proficiency in each skill. Both public and private sector managers rated competencies related to 'people management', 'self-management' and 'task-related skills' highest followed by 'strategic planning' and 'health delivery', respectively. The largest differences between mean importance rating and mean skill rating for public sector managers were for people management skills, task-related skills and self-management skills. The largest deficits for private sector managers were for people management skills, self-management skills and health delivery skills. Informal management development programmes were found to be more valuable in improving management skills. These findings reflect the reality of the local health service environment and the need of health managers. It will be useful in the conceptualization, design and delivery of health management programmes aimed at enhancing current and future management and leadership capacity in the health sector in South Africa.

  11. 221. Photocopy of photograph, Denver Post photographer, 20 March 1970 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    221. Photocopy of photograph, Denver Post photographer, 20 March 1970 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). RABBIT USED TO TEST FOR NERVE GAS AT RMA. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. The Future of Newsprint; 1970-2000. Report R-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Paul

    A panel of 37 experts predicted trends in the use of newsprint by the year 2000. The panelists agreed that as a result of increasing education, worldwide demand for newsprint will continue to increase, with consumption exceeding 35 million short tons a year in 2000, compared with 10 million in 1950 and 22 million in 1970. The type of paper desired…

  13. The Cross and Laporte Kidnappings, Montreal, October 1970

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    clandestine groups against Anglo-American colonialism." The basis of FLQ violence was the rationalization that the people of Quebec were * James ... Stewart , The FLQ, Special Report by the Montreal Star, 1970, p. 10. 2 exploited, colonized, and alienated, but were not fully aware of this

  14. Economic study of future aircraft fuels (1970-2000)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, A. D., III

    1972-01-01

    Future aircraft fuels are evaluated in terms of fuel resource availability and pricing, processing methods, and economic projections over the period 1970-2000. Liquefied hydrogen, methane and propane are examined as potential turbine engine aircraft fuels relative to current JP fuel.

  15. 6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1970 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1970 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Floor plan and section. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Shop, In west corner of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. Academic Relations between Canada and China: 1970-95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Martin

    This report reviews development of Sino-Canadian academic relations over the past 25 years. It offers an overview of four periods of Sino-Canadian academic relations (1970-79, 1979-83, 1983-89, and 1989-95), and briefly describes a number of programs in six areas: (1) foreign trade and economic cooperation, (2) foreign affairs and international…

  17. 18. Photographic copy of photograph, 1970 (original photograph in STRATCOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photographic copy of photograph, 1970 (original photograph in STRATCOM Historian files, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Interior view of two crew members operating the data display system in the battle staff compartment. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 2. VIEW OF THE EXPERIMENT CONTROL PANEL IN 1970. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF THE EXPERIMENT CONTROL PANEL IN 1970. THE NUCLEAR SAFETY GROUP CONDUCTED ABOUT 1,700 CRITICAL MASS EXPERIMENTS USING URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM IN SOLUTIONS (900 TESTS), COMPACTED POWDER (300), AND METALLIC FORMS (500). ALL 1,700 CRITICALITY ASSEMBLIES WERE CONTROLLED FROM THIS PANEL. - Rocky Flats Plant, Critical Mass Laboratory, Intersection of Central Avenue & 86 Drive, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. 24. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Composite mezzanine floor plan - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  20. 28. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Composite fourth floor plan, equipment and access platforms - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  1. 23. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Composite first floor plan - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  2. 26. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Composite removable third floor and duplexer area - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  3. 25. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Composite second floor plan - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  4. [Demographic trends in Thailand (1970-1981) and their consequences].

    PubMed

    Laine, J

    1985-01-01

    A review of demographic trends in Thailand between 1970 and 1981 and its consequences is presented. Separate consideration is given to urbanization and migration. The negative consequences of population growth discussed include the decrease in available arable land, poverty, and unemployment. Consideration is also given to the health status of the population, including public health, family planning, and malnutrition.

  5. Progress Report on Rural Development for Fiscal Year 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Rural development progress relative to State-U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) committees is presented via exemplary citation in this 1970 report. Summaries are given for: (1) Status of State-USDA Organization for Rural Development, (2) Functional Relationships of USDA Committees on Rural Development, (3) Activities and Projects Underway, (4)…

  6. Changing Characteristics of the West Virginia Population: 1940-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Richard D.; Singh, Ram N.

    West Virginia's population history from 1940 to 1970 was traced in this paper. Data were collected to illustrate (1) population size, distribution, and composition for West Virginia and its rural and urban subunits and (2) the changing fertility pattern which occurred during this period. Whenever possible, comparisons between West Virginia…

  7. Profiles of Children: 1970 White House Conference on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.

    This book of charts of comparative statistics was compiled to help the 1970 White House Conference on Children evaluate past efforts to improve the well-being of America's children. First, it presents data about aspects of the world into which American children are born, such as population, urbanization, income levels, incidence of disease,…

  8. Migrant Health Program. [New Jersey] 1970 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Health, Trenton.

    During 1970, 3 federally supported migrant health projects continued to serve New Jersey's migrant workers with comprehensive health care. In the 7 counties of principal migrant activity, 4,464 patients received health services. This group represented more than 60% of the noncontract workers. Migrant health programs in Burlington, Gloucester,…

  9. Evaluation Report, Brookville EEE Program, ESEA Title I, Summer, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Don L.

    Contained in this report is an evaluation of the ESEA Title I Environmental-Ecological Education Program for educationally disadvantaged students operated by the Brookville Area School District, Pennsylvania. The program is a modification of a previously operated ESEA Title III Rural Youth Enrichment Program. Conducted during the summer of 1970,…

  10. Citation Characteristics of Physiology Literature, 1970-72

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafner, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    To identify and describe selected characteristics of the research literature of the basic medical science area of physiology during the three-year period 1970-72, this literature was analyzed to determine where, when, by what subject area, and in what countries it was published. (Author/PF)

  11. 5. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated September 30, 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated September 30, 1970, U.S. Army Engineer District, Detroit, Corps of Engineers, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS, SHEET 1 OF 3, DRAWING NO. 86-11-22, FILE SF 5/1782. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 570, Ammo Road northeast of Taxiway A, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  12. Health for the Harvesters: Decade of Hope 1960-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, David O.

    In 1970, the Farm Workers Health Service, which was begun in 1961, included 33 decentralized medical clinics which served 24,000 seasonal farm workers and their families in 17 counties during the peak harvest months. Seventeen clinics offered year-round general medical services, and in 12 counties free medical and dental care was available to farm…

  13. Approaches to Relocation; North Carolina Mobility Project, 1970-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Manpower Development Corp., Chapel Hill.

    This report covers the contract period from October 1, 1970-September 30, 1971. It follows earlier reports and summarizes much that has been learned about assisted relocation of rural workers to urban locations within North Carolina. These developments include attempted linkage with training programs, some successful others not and various…

  14. 26 CFR 1.615-1 - Pre-1970 exploration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-1 Pre-1970 exploration expenditures... the development stage of the mine or other natural deposit. Such expenditures hereinafter in the... mine or other natural deposit will be deemed to begin at the time when, in consideration of all...

  15. 26 CFR 1.615-1 - Pre-1970 exploration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-1 Pre-1970 exploration expenditures... the development stage of the mine or other natural deposit. Such expenditures hereinafter in the... mine or other natural deposit will be deemed to begin at the time when, in consideration of all...

  16. 26 CFR 1.615-1 - Pre-1970 exploration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-1 Pre-1970 exploration expenditures... the development stage of the mine or other natural deposit. Such expenditures hereinafter in the... mine or other natural deposit will be deemed to begin at the time when, in consideration of all...

  17. 26 CFR 1.615-1 - Pre-1970 exploration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-1 Pre-1970 exploration expenditures... the development stage of the mine or other natural deposit. Such expenditures hereinafter in the... mine or other natural deposit will be deemed to begin at the time when, in consideration of all...

  18. The "Magazine Methodology Mess" of the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandra J.

    Throughout most of the 1970s, the two major competing syndicated services measuring consumer magazine audiences utilized different methodologies in gathering magazine audience measurements and released somewhat differing figures. A study was conducted to explore the historical developments of W.R. Simmons and Associates Research, Inc. (Simmons),…

  19. Training Grant Scheme, 1969-1970; General Guide to Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    In its fourth grant scheme, the Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board of Great Britain gives guidelines on grants available to its industries for training conducted between August 1, 1969 and July 31, 1970. It covers such aspects as grant conditions for external and internal training; training staff qualifications; rates…

  20. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 24 May 1972 (original Army Operational Drawing in the possession of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville, Division). MSRPP general floor plan, lower level - Stanely R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Radar Power Plant, Southeast of, & adjacent to, Missile Site Control Building, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  1. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 12 March 1971 (original Army Operational Drawing in the possession of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville, Division). MSRPP interior elevations, corridors #216, upper and lower levels - Stanely R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Radar Power Plant, Southeast of, & adjacent to, Missile Site Control Building, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  2. Third World Communication Development in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.

    Quantitative data on various indexes of national development--mass media, "horizontal communication" (mail, telephones, and telegrams), democracy, social growth, literacy, and urbanization--were collected and estimated for more than 100 developing countries for roughly the decade between 1970 and 1980. These data were then used to test…

  3. Nonpublic Schools in Large Cities: 1970-71 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertler, Diane B.

    This publication presents the results obtained from the most recent Survey of Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education (1970-71). The data included present a measurement of the scope, describe some of the characteristics, and reflect the status of the nonpublic schools in 43 large cities in the United States. Nonpublic schools are defined as…

  4. NUC Symposium on Environmental Preservation, 20-21 May 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Undersea Center, San Diego, CA.

    This publication consists of papers presented at an in-house symposium held at the Naval Undersea Research and Development (R and D) Center, San Diego, in May 1970. The topics discussed in these presentations are as follows: principles of evolution and the ecological crisis; alternatives to overpopulation; examples of San Diego noise climate;…

  5. 1970-1971 Annual Report: Extension Service Program, Silliman University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maturan, Eulalio G.

    The 1970-1971 annual report of the Extension Service Program of Silliman University, Dumaguete City, Philippines, treats the following projects: Mabinay Agricultural Extension, Mabinay Negrito Action-Research, Reforestation, and Livestock Dispersal. Also discussed are the Rural Publications Center and other extension services--a radio program,…

  6. School Finance Reform and Court Challenges in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Joan P. Sullivan

    This publication presents a brief review of the history of school finance programs in the United States and summarizes the changes that have occurred in school finance during the 1970s. Section 1 briefly traces the history of American school finance reform from colonial times until the mid-1960s. Section 2 examines major court challenges of school…

  7. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables…

  8. 2. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) First floor plan - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Universal Missile Building, Between Tactical Road South & Patrol Road, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  9. 4. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Elevations - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Universal Missile Building, Between Tactical Road South & Patrol Road, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  10. 3. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Upper area and roof plans - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Universal Missile Building, Between Tactical Road South & Patrol Road, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  11. Cumulative index to NASA Tech Briefs, 1970-1975. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Tech briefs of technology derived from the research and development activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are presented. Abstracts and indexes of subject, personal author, originating center, and tech brief number for the 1970-1975 tech briefs are presented.

  12. 3. August, 1970 VIEW FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. August, 1970 VIEW FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH OF ORANGE STREET WITH LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE (#14) AT LEFT AND THE BLOCK (#15-23) AT RIGHT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  13. 12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH FROM GARDEN (FORMER SITE OF COL. BRAYTON HOUSE) OF #16 TO #18, #20 AND #22 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  14. 4. August, 1970 VIEW FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. August, 1970 VIEW FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH OF ORANGE STREET PARTICULARLY NOS. 12, 14 AND 14 1/3, AND THE HARBOR - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  15. 3. Inclined Plane 10, 1970. Track bed at left. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Inclined Plane 10, 1970. Track bed at left. View some what similar to that of NJ-30-2. Stone track bed is visible under cable system of NJ-30-2. - Morris Canal, Inclined Plane 10 West, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  16. IFLA Annual 1970; Proceedings of the General Council Annual Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Anthony, Ed.

    The IFLA Annual 1970 is divided into two sections. Section one is the IFLA General Council Proceedings and contains: (1) the Opening Plenary Session; (2) the Plenary Session on the theme "Libraries as a Force in Education;" (3) the Plenary Session on the theme "Lenin and Libraries;" and (4) the reports on activities, meetings in Moscow, and…

  17. 21. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Roof plan - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  18. 22. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Partial underfloor plan of first floor - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  19. 12. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 15 June 1973 (original print in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division). Spartan launch station concrete sections - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Launch Area, Within Exclusion Area, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  20. 27. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Interior elevations, third floor - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND