Science.gov

Sample records for 1970 1991 sectoral analysis

  1. Energy use in Poland, 1970--1991: Sectoral analysis and international comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Salay, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides an analysis of how and why energy use has changed in Poland since the 1970s, with particular emphasis on changes since the country began its transition from a centrally planned to a market economy in 1989. The most important factors behind the large decline in Polish energy use in 1990 were a sharp fall in industrial output and a huge drop in residential coal use driven by higher prices. The structural shift away from heavy industry was slight. Key factors that worked to increase energy use were the rise in energy intensity in many heavy industries and the shift toward more energy intensive modes of transport. The growth in private activities in 1991 was nearly sufficient to balance out continued decline in industrial energy use in that year. We compared energy use in Poland and the factors that shape it with similar elements in the West. We made a number of modifications to the Polish energy data to bring it closer to a Western energy accounting framework, and augmented these with a variety of estimates in order to construct a sufficiently detailed portrait of Polish energy use to allow comparison with Western data. Per capita energy use in Poland was not much below W. European levels despite Poland`s much lower GDP per capita. Poland has comparatively high energy intensities in manufacturing and residential space heating, and a large share of heavy industries in manufacturing output, all factors that contribute to higher energy use per capita. The structure of passenger and freight transportation and the energy intensity of automobiles contribute to lower energy use per capita in Poland than in Western Europe, but the patterns in Poland are moving closer to those that prevail in the West.

  2. [In the America of mountain ranges, the brief summer of Indian agrarian movements (1970-1991)].

    PubMed

    Le Bot, Y

    1991-01-01

    Important rural Indian movements appeared almost simultaneously in the early 1970s in 3 countries, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Guatemala, which had the distinction of remaining the most rural and the most Indian countries of Latin America. A similar movement with similar characteristics arose in a rural and Indian region of Colombia, a largely urban and mestizo country. Each movement constituted a particular response to the same problems in different contexts. This work provides a comparative analysis of the historical context, development, constitution, and functioning of Bolivian katarisme, the Ecuarrunari movement in Ecuador, the Regional Committee of the Indigenous of Cauca (CRIC) in Colombia, and the Committee of Peasant Unity (CUC) in Guatemala. The indigenous peasant movements were defined in relation to national-populist models of development and integration: limitations and failures of national-populism in Bolivia and to some extent also in Ecuador, marginalization of the Indian populations vis a vis modernization processes in Ecuador and Colombia, or a crisis caused by blockage of participation in the sociopolitical system in Guatemala. The movements appeared in the context of strong peasant communities left at the margin of processes of integration, but also in contexts where the social dynamics were reinforced by reforms and modernization during a long period of precarious reconstitution of communities sometimes dating back to the 1930s. Another contributing factor in some cases was the dissolution of peonage and other forms of servitude on the great estates. An Indian elite whose emergence was related to modernization of the communities is present in all the movements. It is composed of educated and partially urbanized young people who have maintained ties to the communities, of leaders trained in cooperative or union activity, of promoters of new religious currents, and others affected by change. The leaders belong to modern organizations that wish to make

  3. [In the America of mountain ranges, the brief summer of Indian agrarian movements (1970-1991)].

    PubMed

    Le Bot, Y

    1991-01-01

    Important rural Indian movements appeared almost simultaneously in the early 1970s in 3 countries, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Guatemala, which had the distinction of remaining the most rural and the most Indian countries of Latin America. A similar movement with similar characteristics arose in a rural and Indian region of Colombia, a largely urban and mestizo country. Each movement constituted a particular response to the same problems in different contexts. This work provides a comparative analysis of the historical context, development, constitution, and functioning of Bolivian katarisme, the Ecuarrunari movement in Ecuador, the Regional Committee of the Indigenous of Cauca (CRIC) in Colombia, and the Committee of Peasant Unity (CUC) in Guatemala. The indigenous peasant movements were defined in relation to national-populist models of development and integration: limitations and failures of national-populism in Bolivia and to some extent also in Ecuador, marginalization of the Indian populations vis a vis modernization processes in Ecuador and Colombia, or a crisis caused by blockage of participation in the sociopolitical system in Guatemala. The movements appeared in the context of strong peasant communities left at the margin of processes of integration, but also in contexts where the social dynamics were reinforced by reforms and modernization during a long period of precarious reconstitution of communities sometimes dating back to the 1930s. Another contributing factor in some cases was the dissolution of peonage and other forms of servitude on the great estates. An Indian elite whose emergence was related to modernization of the communities is present in all the movements. It is composed of educated and partially urbanized young people who have maintained ties to the communities, of leaders trained in cooperative or union activity, of promoters of new religious currents, and others affected by change. The leaders belong to modern organizations that wish to make

  4. Buildings Sector Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  5. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  6. World data center a for solar-terrestrial physics. Catalog of coronal holes, 1970-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Ibarra, A.; Barraza-Paredes, M.

    1992-10-01

    Coronal Holes were first noted as 'M' regions that produced periodic geomagnetic disturbances. These were first observed in 1970 by instruments on the Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO) satellites, and also were noted with optical observations during the total solar eclipse of March 7, 1970. The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) on the Skylab manned mission observed in short wavelengths the real nature of Coronal Holes as regions of lower density and temperature than the rest of the solar corona. Three observational periods from Skylab produced substantial data on the development of Coronal Holes as well as their relationship with other types of solar activity. After Skylab, although Coronal Holes were later deduced from radio observations, the main data were obtained by observing the He l 10830A line at the Vacuum Solar Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. These data, continuous from 1977 to date, were published in Solar-Geophysical Data (SGD) as Helium synoptic charts by Carrington Rotation or as Coronal Hole contours plotted on H-alpha synoptic charts. The Skylab observations of Coronal Holes were the subject of exhaustive examination. However, the main data source on Coronal Holes currently are the synoptic maps published in SGD. This catalogue was motivated by the lack of a global reference guide. This catalogue is based only on summary data for each Carrington Rotation, it presents interesting values and enough data to analyze several aspects of the evolution of Coronal Holes.

  7. [Daily observations (1970-1992) of fluctuations in frequency of occurrence of a sector structure in bacterial colonies selected from open air and from S. aureus cultures].

    PubMed

    Faraone, P

    1995-01-01

    The frequencies of sector structure occurrence in different bacteria colonies (SSC) denuded from open air every day in period from 1970 to 1982 years and also in laboratory cultures Staphylococcus Aureus from 1984 to 1992 were investigated. The value SSC was expressed in percents to general number of colonies. Variations of average SSC is found out distinctly expressed opposition to 11-years cycle of Solar activity for the same period of time. The year cycle SSC was registered also with local maxima in June, August and November and global minimum in March. SSC also were observed on level of sea, on height about 1000 m over the level of sea and in gallery under the rock of thickness 1400 m (Gran Cacco, National laboratory, Assergi). The value of SSC has its maximum on height 1000 M and its minimum in gallery under the rock; it is possible, SSC depends on the intensity of space galactic rays. The results of experience, executed in April-July 1992 on cultures S.aureus have compared with average (on ten-day time periods) values for the same months of 1984-1991. Good correlation of these two curves of SSC was received. Array of measurements received from 1970 to 1992 and made conclusions can be used for long-term forecasts of cosmophysical fluctuating phenomena at least on latitude between Rome and Milano.

  8. Analysis of Coaching Science Research Published from 1970-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Wade D.; Trudel, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    The study followed a four-phase design. In Phase I an exhaustive search was conducted for all English language coaching research published in journals from 1970 to 2001. In Phase II, copies of the research were obtained. An expert panel conducted a manual search and a review in Phase III to address validity. Analysis of the research was completed…

  9. Gender pay gap and employment sector: sources of earnings disparities in the United States, 1970-2010.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Hadas; Semyonov, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    Using data from the IPUMS-USA, the present research focuses on trends in the gender earnings gap in the United States between 1970 and 2010. The major goal of this article is to understand the sources of the convergence in men's and women's earnings in the public and private sectors as well as the stagnation of this trend in the new millennium. For this purpose, we delineate temporal changes in the role played by major sources of the gap. Several components are identified: the portion of the gap attributed to gender differences in human-capital resources; labor supply; sociodemographic attributes; occupational segregation; and the unexplained portion of the gap. The findings reveal a substantial reduction in the gross gender earnings gap in both sectors of the economy. Most of the decline is attributed to the reduction in the unexplained portion of the gap, implying a significant decline in economic discrimination against women. In contrast to discrimination, the role played by human capital and personal attributes in explaining the gender pay gap is relatively small in both sectors. Differences between the two sectors are not only in the size and pace of the reduction but also in the significance of the two major sources of the gap. Working hours have become the most important factor with respect to gender pay inequality in both sectors, although much more dominantly in the private sector. The declining gender segregation may explain the decreased impact of occupations on the gender pay gap in the private sector. In the public sector, by contrast, gender segregation still accounts for a substantial portion of the gap. The findings are discussed in light of the theoretical literature on sources of gender economic inequality and in light of the recent stagnation of the trend.

  10. Gender pay gap and employment sector: sources of earnings disparities in the United States, 1970-2010.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Hadas; Semyonov, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    Using data from the IPUMS-USA, the present research focuses on trends in the gender earnings gap in the United States between 1970 and 2010. The major goal of this article is to understand the sources of the convergence in men's and women's earnings in the public and private sectors as well as the stagnation of this trend in the new millennium. For this purpose, we delineate temporal changes in the role played by major sources of the gap. Several components are identified: the portion of the gap attributed to gender differences in human-capital resources; labor supply; sociodemographic attributes; occupational segregation; and the unexplained portion of the gap. The findings reveal a substantial reduction in the gross gender earnings gap in both sectors of the economy. Most of the decline is attributed to the reduction in the unexplained portion of the gap, implying a significant decline in economic discrimination against women. In contrast to discrimination, the role played by human capital and personal attributes in explaining the gender pay gap is relatively small in both sectors. Differences between the two sectors are not only in the size and pace of the reduction but also in the significance of the two major sources of the gap. Working hours have become the most important factor with respect to gender pay inequality in both sectors, although much more dominantly in the private sector. The declining gender segregation may explain the decreased impact of occupations on the gender pay gap in the private sector. In the public sector, by contrast, gender segregation still accounts for a substantial portion of the gap. The findings are discussed in light of the theoretical literature on sources of gender economic inequality and in light of the recent stagnation of the trend. PMID:25149647

  11. Pronounced warming in the Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean during the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, Chris; Fogwill, Chris; Palmer, Jonathan; van Sebille, Erik; Thomas, Zoë; McGlone, Matt; Richardson, Sarah; Wilmshurst, Janet; Fenwick, Pavla; Carter, Lionel; Jones, Richard; Harsch, Melanie; Wilson, Kerry-Jayne; Clark, Graeme; Marzinelli, Ezequiel; Rogers, Tracey; Rainsley, Eleanor; Ciasto, Laura; Waterman, Stephanie; Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014 Members, Australasian

    2015-04-01

    Occupying some 20% of the world's ocean surface, the Southern Ocean is home to a diverse and unique biota and plays a fundamental role in global oceanic circulation, climate variability, Antarctic ice sheet stability and carbon cycling. Significant warming has been observed over recent decades, most prominently in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). The mechanism(s) behind this warming, however, remain uncertain. Here, we integrate historic ocean and atmospheric observations and climate-sensitive tree growth on subantarctic islands from the northern limit of the ACC to extend historic and satellite measurements to produce a unique proxy record of temperature across 4˚ of latitude in the southwest Pacific. We demonstrate a hitherto unobserved abrupt warming during the 1970s that is unprecedented over the past 130 years, coincident with a significant decline in marine vertebrate populations and wider warming across the Indian Ocean. Comparison between our reconstruction and high-resolution ocean modelling provides a possible mechanism, suggesting warmer waters resulted from a poleward migration of the subtropical and ACC fronts. Projected increases in the strength of westerly winds are likely to continue the fronts' migration, driving warming in the Southern Ocean (>50˚S), with significant impacts on biota.

  12. 1991 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters' Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to foster communication among NASA, industrial, and academic specialists, and to integrate their inputs and disseminate information to them. The overall objective of systems analysis within the Life Support Technology Program of OAST is to identify, guide the development of, and verify designs which will increase the performance of the life support systems on component, subsystem, and system levels for future human space missions. The specific goals of this workshop were to report on the status of systems analysis capabilities, to integrate the chemical processing industry technologies, and to integrate recommendations for future technology developments related to systems analysis for life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with time allocated for discussion of both technology status and time-phased technology development recommendations. Key personnel from NASA, industry, and academia delivered inputs and presentations on the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

  13. Cross sectional analysis of mortality by country of birth in England and Wales, 1970-92.

    PubMed Central

    Wild, S.; McKeigue, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare mortalities for selected groups of immigrants with the national average. DESIGN: Analysis of mortality for adults aged 20-69 in 1970-2 and 1989-92 using population data from 1971 and 1991 censuses. Mortality of Scottish and Irish immigrants aged 25-74 was also compared with mortality in Scotland and Ireland for 1991. SETTING: England and Wales. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Standardised mortality ratios for deaths from all causes, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lung cancer, and breast cancer. RESULTS: In 1989-92 mortality from all causes was higher than the national average for Scottish immigrants, by 32% for men and 36% for women; for Irish immigrants it was higher by 39% for men and 20% for women; and for Caribbean born men it was lower by 23%. Ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer accounted for 30-40% of the excess mortality in Scottish and Irish immigrants. For south Asians, excess mortality from circulatory disease was balanced by lower mortality from cancer. Standardised mortality ratios for cerebrovascular disease in 1989-92 were highest for west African immigrants (271 for men and 181 for women). CONCLUSIONS: Widening differences in mortality ratios for migrants compared with the general population were not simply due to socioeconomic inequalities. The low mortality from all causes for Caribbean immigrants could largely be attributed to low mortality from ischaemic heart disease, which is unexplained. The excess mortality from cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases in migrants from both west Africa and the Caribbean suggests that genetic factors underlie the susceptibility to hypertension in people of black African descent. PMID:9116545

  14. Retrofitting America: A 1970s Home Energy Efficiency Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-17

    This paper describes a modeling tool that Building America research team CARB developed to identify the energy benefits of various retrofit energy efficiency measures for a typical 1970’s ranch home in ten cities across four climate zones in the United States.

  15. An analysis of the coma of comet Bennett 1970 II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheimer, M.

    1978-01-01

    Brightness profiles for emission features of H2O(+) in comet Bennett 1970 II are analyzed, taking into account the role of chemical reactions in the coma. By comparing the rates of transport processes derived from the brightness profile with known chemical rate constants, upper limits on the abundances and production rates of H2O, CH4, NH3, and other possible coma constituents are found. The derived upper limit on the H2O production rate inside 10 to the 4th power km is less than the observed OH production rate averaged over the coma of this comet. It is concluded that the brightness profiles of H2O(+) and OH in comet Bennett 1970 II which are presently available are inconsistent with production of OH primarily by photodissociation of H2O molecules sublimating from the nucleus. The existence of an extended source of H2O is not ruled out.

  16. State energy price and expenditure report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1991. Data for all years, 1970 through 1991, are available on personal computer diskettes. Documentation in Appendix A describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1990, published in September 1992.

  17. Protein Sectors: Statistical Coupling Analysis versus Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Teşileanu, Tiberiu; Colwell, Lucy J.; Leibler, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    Statistical coupling analysis (SCA) is a method for analyzing multiple sequence alignments that was used to identify groups of coevolving residues termed “sectors”. The method applies spectral analysis to a matrix obtained by combining correlation information with sequence conservation. It has been asserted that the protein sectors identified by SCA are functionally significant, with different sectors controlling different biochemical properties of the protein. Here we reconsider the available experimental data and note that it involves almost exclusively proteins with a single sector. We show that in this case sequence conservation is the dominating factor in SCA, and can alone be used to make statistically equivalent functional predictions. Therefore, we suggest shifting the experimental focus to proteins for which SCA identifies several sectors. Correlations in protein alignments, which have been shown to be informative in a number of independent studies, would then be less dominated by sequence conservation. PMID:25723535

  18. Health Disparities in Ischaemic Heart Disease Mortality in Hungary From 1970 to 2010: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gero, Krisztina; Eshak, Ehab S.; Ma, Enbo; Takahashi, Hideto; Noda, Hiroyuki; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine long-term trends in rates of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality, a leading cause of mortality in Hungary. The study examined the effects of age, period, and cohort on IHD mortality rates and compared mortality rates between the capital (Budapest) and non-capital counties. Methods Data on IHD deaths and population censuses were obtained from the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Age-period-cohort analysis utilized nine age-group classes for ages 40 to 84 years, eight time periods from 1970 to 2009, and 16 birth cohorts from 1886 to 1969. Results Age-adjusted IHD mortality rates for men and for women generally increased from 1970 to 1993 and from 1980 to 1999, respectively, decreasing thereafter for both sexes. IHD mortality rates for men and for women from Budapest were lower from 1991 and from 1970, respectively, than corresponding rates in non-capital counties, with the difference increasing after 1999. Age had a more significant influence on mortality rates for women than for men. The period effect increased from 1972 to 1982 and decreased thereafter for men, while the period effect decreased consistently for women from 1972 to 2007. The decline in period effect for both sexes was larger for individuals from the capital than for those from non-capital counties. The cohort effect for both sexes declined from birth years 1890 to 1965, with a steeper decline for individuals from the capital than for those from non-capital counties. Conclusions The findings indicate a need for programs in Hungary for IHD prevention, especially for non-capital counties. PMID:25986153

  19. Application of modified VICAR/IBIS GIS to analysis of July 1991 Flevoland AIRSAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norikane, L.; Broek, B.; Freeman, A.

    1992-01-01

    Three overflights of the Flevoland calibration/agricultural site were made by the JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) on 3, 12, and 28 July 1991 as part of MAC-Europe '92. A polygon map was generated at TNO-FEL which overlayed the slant range projected July 3 data set. Each polygon was identified by a sequence of points and a crop label. The polygon map was composed of 452 uniquely identified polygons and 15 different crop types. Analysis of the data was done using our modified Video Image Communication and Retrieval/Image Based Information System Geographic Information System (VICAR/IBIS GIS). This GIS is an extension of the VICAR/IBIS GIS first developed by Bryant in the 1970's which is itself an extension of the VICAR image processing system also developed at JPL.

  20. Major models and data sources for residential and commercial sector energy conservation analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Major models and data sources are reviewed that can be used for energy-conservation analysis in the residential and commercial sectors to provide an introduction to the information that can or is available to DOE in order to further its efforts in analyzing and quantifying their policy and program requirements. Models and data sources examined in the residential sector are: ORNL Residential Energy Model; BECOM; NEPOOL; MATH/CHRDS; NIECS; Energy Consumption Data Base: Household Sector; Patterns of Energy Use by Electrical Appliances Data Base; Annual Housing Survey; 1970 Census of Housing; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; RECS; Solar Market Development Model; and ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book. Models and data sources examined in the commercial sector are: ORNL Commercial Sector Model of Energy Demand; BECOM; NEPOOL; Energy Consumption Data Base: Commercial Sector; F.W. Dodge Data Base; NFIB Energy Report for Small Businesses; ADL Commercial Sector Energy Use Data Base; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; Nonresidential Buildings Surveys of Energy Consumption; General Electric Co: Commercial Sector Data Base; The BOMA Commercial Sector Data Base; The Tishman-Syska and Hennessy Data Base; The NEMA Commercial Sector Data Base; ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book; and Solar Market Development Model. Purpose; basis for model structure; policy variables and parameters; level of regional, sectoral, and fuels detail; outputs; input requirements; sources of data; computer accessibility and requirements; and a bibliography are provided for each model and data source.

  1. Photometrical analysis of the Neck-Line structure of Comet Bennet 1970II

    SciTech Connect

    Fulle, M.; Sedmak, G.

    1988-06-01

    The Kimura and Liu (1977) analysis of the motion in space of cometary dust tail grains, which furnished information on the size-dependence of the dust ejection velocity from the inner coma and the size distribution on a millimetric scale, is presently applied to the Neck-Line Structure (NLS) displayed by Comet Bennett 1970II at the begining of May, 1970. Attention is given to two photographs of the comet which have been analyzed by digital image processing in order to extract reliable photometric data; the strong excess of millimetric grains noted is in agreement with the Fulle (1987) results for preperihelion times. 24 references.

  2. A Descriptive Analysis of Studies on Behavioural Treatment of Drooling (1970-2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Burg, Jan J. W.; Didden, Robert; Jongerius, Peter H.; Rotteveel, Jan J.

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive analysis was conducted on studies on the behavioural treatment of drooling (published between 1970 and 2005). The 17 articles that met the inclusion criteria described 53 participants (mean age 14y 7mo, [SD 4y 9mo]; range 6-28y). Sex of 87% of the participants was reported: 28 male, 18 female. For 60% of the participants the degree…

  3. Astrometric analysis of Europa-Io occultations observed in 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descamps, P.

    1994-11-01

    Astrometric results from an analysis of 36 lightcurves of Io's occultations by Europa, observed during 1991 in the visible bands, are presented. They are issued from the adjustment of a theoretical astrometric-photometric model to observations using Hapke's law. These observations are of importance because they give high quality astrometric information useful to the determination of the location of Io's hotspots. In fact, accurate positioning of hotspots on Io is made possible from infrared observations only if the occultation timing is well-known.

  4. [Comparative analysis of suicides in the Bydgoszcz region in the years 1977-1991 and 1991-2006].

    PubMed

    Bloch-Bogusławska, Elzbieta; Sygit, Bogusław; Pufal, Ewa; Sygit, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of suicide cases has been observed in everyday forensic practice. The same view is discernible in the perception of the general public. Data concerning this subject from the years 1991 to 2006 have been compiled and compared to the earlier investigations from the years 1977 to 1991. The comparative analysis allowed the authors to show a relatively reliable picture of suicides in the Bydgoszcz region. Many false beliefs and myths pertaining to the subject were disproved. The authors also presented the evolution in the approach of penal legislators to the issue of suicide.

  5. Quality Guidance: A Sectoral Analysis. NICEC Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.; Sadler, Jackie

    This report reviews the structure of the guidance field and provides a sector-by-sector analysis of current quality assurance arrangements in the United Kingdom. Part 1 presents an outline of the guidance sector, including some key concepts, structures, and roles. It defines guidance and other terms; discusses the three main categories…

  6. SECTOR ANALYSIS--FROM SENTENCE TO MORPHEME IN ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALLEN, ROBERT L.

    THE ADVANTAGES OF SECTOR ANALYSIS ARE DISCUSSED, WITH SPECIAL REGARD TO THE SEPARATION OF FUNCTION AND FORM IN SENTENCE ANALYSIS. SECTOR ANALYSIS, LIKE TAGMEMIC ANALYSIS, REJECTS THE USE OF REWRITE RULES FOR EXPRESSING GRAMMATICAL TRANSFORMS, AS WELL AS THE CONCEPT OF "KERNEL SENTENCES." A BRIEF DISCUSSION OF A CHILD'S LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROCESS…

  7. Defense programs occurrence analysis report for third quarter CY-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The quarterly Defense Programs Occurrence Analysis Report (DPOAR) is compiled by the Office of Self-Assessment and Emergency Management (DP-9). It utilizes the Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) data to assess the quality and effectiveness of the reporting process and the significance of the occurrences. In addition, areas where further improvement and corrective actions are necessary is fully demonstrated by an analysis of the data. The results of the assessment may also be used as the basis for conducting other evaluations such as the diagnostic and augmented evaluations. This quarterly report provides feedback to DOE/DP and contractor management to improve the control of operations and achieve a higher standard of excellence. The report analyzes one year of ORPS data at the end of each calendar quarter, therefore, the performance of DP Field Offices and facilities will be continuously compared to their past quarter and yearly performances. During this assessment from 1 October 1990 through 30 September 1991, there were a number of initiatives that were undertaken by Field Office management to improve the overall performance and the quality of the Occurrence Reporting and Processing System. These initiatives include the training of their staff for self-assessment activities. These intiatives can be found in the programs implemented according to the DOE Conduct of Operations and Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information Orders. These initiatives were found to be, based on the ORPS data, stronger at Albuquerque, Nevada, Oak Ridge Field Offices and Richland DP facilities.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC's staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC's staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC's response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC's information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  10. Nursing leadership in the US 1950s-1970s: a discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, J; Cushing, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes that the development of nursing leadership and the struggle for professionalisation from the time of the early nineteenth century to the late twentieth century may be conceived as a series of products of constituent discourses. However, particular attention is focused on the concept of leadership as it pertains to the nursing profession in the US between the 1950s-1970s. This time-frame is an important period in the discursive formation of the idea of leadership and professionalisation as the US literature on these subjects in the areas of sociology, psychology, education and business administration exercised a strong influence on the microsocial world of professional nursing practice in the US and, indeed elsewhere, for example, Australia and the UK. The sociological complexity of the concept of leadership ultimately meant that it came to be regarded as a dynamic process pervading the existence of all people; their interrelationships, their morale, their confidence and their capacity to achieve. These features are reflected through the perceptions, beliefs and experiences of the American nursing profession as its constituent discourse appeared during the 1950s-1970s. Thus the paper is a discourse analysis on leadership in nursing with particular attention given to the bureaucratic authority of the hospital, the drive for the creation of a profession and the idea of leadership itself.

  11. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  12. Deciding State School Policy in Minnesota. An Analysis of Policy Participants, Influence Relationships, and Decision Processes in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzoni, Tim L.

    This report examines the process through which the Minnesota state government established school policy during the 1970s. The analysis focuses on who shaped state school policy and how they did it. The data come in part from personal interviews to determine the perceptions key participants had of the state school policy system. These interview…

  13. A Periodization of North American Adult Education (1919-1970): A Critical Sociological Analysis of Trends and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, André P.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a critical sociological analysis of trends and perspectives pervasive during the emergence of North American adult education (1919-1970). In discussing transitions during the first 50 years of what is considered modern practice, it draws on Webster E. Cotton's (1986, "On Behalf of Adult Education: A Historical…

  14. Analysis of the reversal in breast feeding trends in the early 1970s.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, K W; Hendershot, G E

    1984-01-01

    The long downward trend in the practice of breast feeding was reversed during the 1972-73 period. Data from the National Survey of Family Growth conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics were used to investigate the social correlates of breast feeding during the periods 1970-72 and 1973-75 to determine if these factors were related to the reversal in the breast feeding trend. A multivariate log linear modeling technique was used to test hypotheses regarding the direct and indirect effects of education, race, employment status, and source of prenatal care. While education, race, and employment status were directly related to the breast feeding decision, the analysis showed that the trend in breast feeding was unrelated to these correlates. Two alternate conclusions may be drawn from these findings: first, it is possible that changes in infant feeding practices occur earlier in some groups than in others, but the characteristics that distinguish such groups are not included in conventional social demographic data. Alternately, it is possible that the practice of breast feeding appeals equally to all social groups, and changes in the practice occur in response to broad social forces which affect society as a whole.

  15. Genetic Analysis of Oncorhynchus Nerka : 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.; Setter, A.L.; Welsh, T.L.; Rocklage, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 project to develop DNA assessment techniques for the purpose of determining relationships among populations of Oncorhynchus nerka demonstrated differences that had potential for such application. The work was continued in 1991 with specific application of the techniques to develop DNA probes that could be used in separating populations of 0. nerka associated with the lakes in the upper Salmon River, principally those in Redfish Lake. Research included sockeye-kokanee life history studies that might add supporting evidence for assessing the degree of difference or similarity among populations in the lake systems. This report summarizes the annual activities under the work plan.

  16. Convective Weather Forecast Accuracy Analysis at Center and Sector Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao; Sridhar, Banavar

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed convective forecast accuracy analysis at center and sector levels. The study is aimed to provide more meaningful forecast verification measures to aviation community, as well as to obtain useful information leading to the improvements in the weather translation capacity models. In general, the vast majority of forecast verification efforts over past decades have been on the calculation of traditional standard verification measure scores over forecast and observation data analyses onto grids. These verification measures based on the binary classification have been applied in quality assurance of weather forecast products at the national level for many years. Our research focuses on the forecast at the center and sector levels. We calculate the standard forecast verification measure scores for en-route air traffic centers and sectors first, followed by conducting the forecast validation analysis and related verification measures for weather intensities and locations at centers and sectors levels. An approach to improve the prediction of sector weather coverage by multiple sector forecasts is then developed. The weather severe intensity assessment was carried out by using the correlations between forecast and actual weather observation airspace coverage. The weather forecast accuracy on horizontal location was assessed by examining the forecast errors. The improvement in prediction of weather coverage was determined by the correlation between actual sector weather coverage and prediction. observed and forecasted Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM) data collected from June to September in 2007. CWAM zero-minute forecast data with aircraft avoidance probability of 60% and 80% are used as the actual weather observation. All forecast measurements are based on 30-minute, 60- minute, 90-minute, and 120-minute forecasts with the same avoidance probabilities. The forecast accuracy analysis for times under one-hour showed that the errors in

  17. Cross-Sector Impact Analysis of Industrial Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William; CreskoEngineering, Joe; Carpenter, Alberta; Masanet, Eric; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Shehabi, Arman

    2013-01-01

    The industrial or manufacturing sector is a foundational component to all economic activity. In addition to being a large direct consumer of energy, the manufacturing sector also produces materials, products, and technologies that influence the energy use of other economic sectors. For example, the manufacturing of a lighter-weight vehicle component affects the energy required to ship that component as well as the fuel efficiency of the assembled vehicle. Many energy efficiency opportunities exist to improve manufacturing energy consumption, however comparisons of manufacturing sector energy efficiency investment opportunities tend to exclude any impacts that occur once the product leaves the factory. Expanding the scope of analysis to include energy impacts across different stages of product life-cycle can highlight less obvious opportunities and inform actions that create the greatest economy-wide benefits. We present a methodology and associated analysis tool (LIGHTEnUP Lifecycle Industry GHgas, Technology and Energy through the Use Phase) that aims to capture both the manufacturing sector energy consumption and product life-cycle energy consumption implications of manufacturing innovation measures. The tool architecture incorporates U.S. national energy use data associated with manufacturing, building operations, and transportation. Inputs for technology assessment, both direct energy saving to the manufacturing sector, and indirect energy impacts to additional sectors are estimated through extensive literature review and engineering methods. The result is a transparent and uniform system of comparing manufacturing and use-phase impacts of technologies.

  18. Analysis of U.S. soil lead (Pb) studies from 1970 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Datko-Williams, Laura; Wilkie, Adrien; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer

    2014-01-15

    Although lead (Pb) emissions to the air have substantially decreased in the United States since the phase-out of leaded gasoline by 1995, amounts of lead in some soils remain elevated. Lead concentrations in residential and recreational soils are of concern because health effects have been associated with Pb exposure. Elevated soil Pb is especially harmful to young children due to their higher likelihood of soil ingestion. The purpose of this study is to create a comprehensive compilation of U.S. soil Pb data published from 1970 through 2012 as well as to analyze the collected data to reveal spatial and/or temporal soil Pb trends in the U.S. over the past 40 years. A total of 84 soil Pb studies across 62 U.S. cities were evaluated. Median soil Pb values from the studies were analyzed with respect to year of sampling, residential location type (e.g., urban, suburban), and population density. In aggregate, there was no statistically significant correlation between year and median soil Pb; however, within single cities, soil Pb generally declined over time. Our analysis shows that soil Pb quantities in city centers were generally highest and declined towards the suburbs and exurbs of the city. In addition, there was a statistically significant, positive relationship between median soil Pb and population density. In general, the trends examined here align with previously reported conclusions that soil Pb levels are higher in larger urban areas and Pb tends to remain in soil for long periods of time. PMID:24076506

  19. Farming and Place Population Change in Michigan, 1930-1970: An Exploratory Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Kevin F.; Rodefeld, Richard D.

    Farming has undergone substantial changes in both economic and social structure in the past 40 years; these changes have affected the larger society with population changes in rural, nonmetropolitan areas. Seeking to explore the relationships between changes in farming and changes in place population for Michigan from 1930 to 1970, six variables…

  20. Cost analysis of ground-water supplies in the North Atlantic region, 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrom, Dagfin John

    1973-01-01

    The cost of municipal and industrial ground water (or, more specifically, large supplies of ground water) at the wellhead in the North Atlantic Region in 1970 generally ranged from 1.5 to 5 cents per thousand gallons. Water from crystalline rocks and shale is relatively expensive. Water from sandstone is less so. Costs of water from sands and gravels in glaciated areas and from Coastal Plain sediments range from moderate to very low. In carbonate rocks costs range from low to fairly high. The cost of ground water at the wellhead is low in areas of productive aquifers, but owing to the cost of connecting pipe, costs increase significantly in multiple-well fields. In the North Atlantic Region, development of small to moderate supplies of ground water may offer favorable cost alternatives to planners, but large supplies of ground water for delivery to one point cannot generally be developed inexpensively. Well fields in the less productive aquifers may be limited by costs to 1 or 2 million gallons a day, but in the more favorable aquifers development of several tens of millions of gallons a day may be practicable and inexpensive. Cost evaluations presented cannot be applied to any one specific well or specific site because yields of wells in any one place will depend on the local geologic and hydrologic conditions; however, with such cost adjustments as may be necessary, the methodology presented should have wide applicability. Data given show the cost of water at the wellhead based on the average yield of several wells. The cost of water delivered by a well field includes costs of connecting pipe and of wells that have the yields and spacings specified. Cost of transport of water from the well field to point of consumption and possible cost of treatment are not evaluated. In the methodology employed, costs of drilling and testing, pumping equipment, engineering for the well field, amortization at 5% percent interest, maintenance, and cost of power are considered. The

  1. Analysis of technological innovation and environmental performance improvement in aviation sector.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joosung; Mo, Jeonghoon

    2011-09-01

    The past oil crises have caused dramatic improvements in fuel efficiency in all industrial sectors. The aviation sector-aircraft manufacturers and airlines-has also made significant efforts to improve the fuel efficiency through more advanced jet engines, high-lift wing designs, and lighter airframe materials. However, the innovations in energy-saving aircraft technologies do not coincide with the oil crisis periods. The largest improvement in aircraft fuel efficiency took place in the 1960s while the high oil prices in the 1970s and on did not induce manufacturers or airlines to achieve a faster rate of innovation. In this paper, we employ a historical analysis to examine the socio-economic reasons behind the relatively slow technological innovation in aircraft fuel efficiency over the last 40 years. Based on the industry and passenger behaviors studied and prospects for alternative fuel options, this paper offers insights for the aviation sector to shift toward more sustainable technological options in the medium term. Second-generation biofuels could be the feasible option with a meaningful reduction in aviation's lifecycle environmental impact if they can achieve sufficient economies of scale. PMID:22016716

  2. Analysis of technological innovation and environmental performance improvement in aviation sector.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joosung; Mo, Jeonghoon

    2011-09-01

    The past oil crises have caused dramatic improvements in fuel efficiency in all industrial sectors. The aviation sector-aircraft manufacturers and airlines-has also made significant efforts to improve the fuel efficiency through more advanced jet engines, high-lift wing designs, and lighter airframe materials. However, the innovations in energy-saving aircraft technologies do not coincide with the oil crisis periods. The largest improvement in aircraft fuel efficiency took place in the 1960s while the high oil prices in the 1970s and on did not induce manufacturers or airlines to achieve a faster rate of innovation. In this paper, we employ a historical analysis to examine the socio-economic reasons behind the relatively slow technological innovation in aircraft fuel efficiency over the last 40 years. Based on the industry and passenger behaviors studied and prospects for alternative fuel options, this paper offers insights for the aviation sector to shift toward more sustainable technological options in the medium term. Second-generation biofuels could be the feasible option with a meaningful reduction in aviation's lifecycle environmental impact if they can achieve sufficient economies of scale.

  3. A Content Analysis of "Learning Disabilities Research & Practice:" 1991-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vostal, Brooks R.; Hughes, Charles A.; Ruhl, Kathy L.; Benedek-Wood, Elizabeth; Dexter, Douglas D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to analyze the content of "Learning Disabilities Research & Practice" to identify prevalent topics and types and proportions of articles published from 1991 through 2007. Also analyzed was the nature of the research reported including designs, participants, interveners, and settings. Analysis indicated that the three…

  4. Working after childbirth: a lifecourse transition analysis of Canadian women from the 1970s to the 2000s.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Stephanie; Cooke, Martin; Jacob, Joanna

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we compare cohorts of mothers who had their first children between 1970 and 1999, in terms of their probability of beginning work shortly after childbearing. Using the 2001 General Social Survey, Cycle 15 on Family History, we investigate the effects of women's socioeconomic characteristics on labor force withdrawal. Our discussion focuses on the analysis of the transition as a type of life course analysis. We underline the differentiation of the transition by cohorts, educational attainment, income, et cetera. We show that since the mid-1980s, mothers with low educational attainment are dramatically excluded from the labor market within the two years following the birth of their first child.

  5. Business, Households, and Governments: Health Spending, 1991

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Cathy A.; McDonnell, Patricia A.

    1993-01-01

    Governments have been thrust to the forefront of health care reform efforts as growth in government health care costs was faster than growth in all other sponsor sectors in 1991. In the business sector, real health care costs per worker have risen 65 times faster than real wages and salaries per worker during the past 26 years. Households continue to devote 5 percent of income after taxes to health care, the same percentage for the last 8 years. This article presents data supporting these findings, and an analysis of health care spending by each sponsor sector. PMID:10130577

  6. Annual compilation and analysis of hydrologic data for Calaveras Creek, San Antonio River basin, Texas 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, D.R.

    1971-01-01

    The U.S. Soil Conservation Service is actively engaged in the installation of flood and soil erosion reducing measures in Texas under the authority of "The Flood Control Act of 1936 and 1944" and ''Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act" (Public Law 566), as amended. The Soil Conservation Service has found a total of approximately 3,500 floodwater-retarding structures to be physically and economically feasible in Texas. As of September 30, 1970, 1,439 of these structures had been built. This watershed-development program will have varying but important effects on the natural surface- and ground-water resources of river basins, especially where a large number of the floodwater-retarding structures are built. Basic hydrologic data under natural and developed conditions are needed to appraise the effects of the structures on the yield and mode of occurrence of runoff.

  7. [Wound treatment: scientific production analysis published in the Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem from 1970-2003].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Angela Lima; Bachion, Maria Márcia

    2005-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to analyze the scientific production concerning the use of products in the treatment of wounds, published by REBEn from 1970 to 2003. We consulted all numbers of the journal published in the period, identifying 41 articles of interest. After an appraisal reading we included 11 papers in the sample. We identified a larger publication in the decade of 1990, prevailing authors of the attendance area, almost-experimental plan and experience repor. The studied products were papain, propolis, sugar, Unna boot, activated coal, transparent film, amniotic membrane, albumin, collagenase, hydrocolloid dressing, calcium alginate, anti-bacterial agents, essential greasing acids, viscose fibers and polyester. The findings demonstrated they denote positive effects of the use of the products.

  8. Proceedings of the 1991 Socioeconomic Energy Research and Analysis Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    These proceedings analyze US energy policy as it pertains to minority groups. Example topics include: Economic impacts of the National Energy Strategy on minority and majority households, Utility measures to assist payment-troubled customers, Equity impacts of controlling energy usage through market-based versus regulatory approaches, Technical and planning support for the DOE-HUD initiative for energy efficiency in housing, an analysis of residential energy consumption and expenditures by minority households by home type and housing vintage, and methodical issues in evaluating integrated least cost planning programs.

  9. Analysis of energy-related CO2 emissions and driving factors in five major energy consumption sectors in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2016-10-01

    Continual growth of energy-related CO2 emissions in China has received great attention, both domestically and internationally. In this paper, we evaluated the CO2 emissions in five major energy consumption sectors which were evaluated from 1991 to 2012. In order to analyze the driving factors of CO2 emission change in different sectors, the Kaya identity was extended by adding several variables based on specific industrial characteristics and a decomposition analysis model was established according to the LMDI method. The results demonstrated that economic factor was the leading force explaining emission increase in each sector while energy intensity and sector contribution were major contributors to emission mitigation. Meanwhile, CO2 emission intensity had no significant influence on CO2 emission in the short term, and energy consumption structure had a small but growing negative impact on the increase of CO2 emissions. In addition, the future CO2 emissions of industry from 2013 to 2020 under three scenarios were estimated, and the reduction potential of CO2 emissions in industry are 335 Mt in 2020 under lower-emission scenario while the CO2 emission difference between higher-emission scenario and lower-emission scenario is nearly 725 Mt. This paper can offer complementary perspectives on determinants of energy-related CO2 emission change in different sectors and help to formulate mitigation strategies for CO2 emissions.

  10. Analysis of energy-related CO2 emissions and driving factors in five major energy consumption sectors in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2016-10-01

    Continual growth of energy-related CO2 emissions in China has received great attention, both domestically and internationally. In this paper, we evaluated the CO2 emissions in five major energy consumption sectors which were evaluated from 1991 to 2012. In order to analyze the driving factors of CO2 emission change in different sectors, the Kaya identity was extended by adding several variables based on specific industrial characteristics and a decomposition analysis model was established according to the LMDI method. The results demonstrated that economic factor was the leading force explaining emission increase in each sector while energy intensity and sector contribution were major contributors to emission mitigation. Meanwhile, CO2 emission intensity had no significant influence on CO2 emission in the short term, and energy consumption structure had a small but growing negative impact on the increase of CO2 emissions. In addition, the future CO2 emissions of industry from 2013 to 2020 under three scenarios were estimated, and the reduction potential of CO2 emissions in industry are 335 Mt in 2020 under lower-emission scenario while the CO2 emission difference between higher-emission scenario and lower-emission scenario is nearly 725 Mt. This paper can offer complementary perspectives on determinants of energy-related CO2 emission change in different sectors and help to formulate mitigation strategies for CO2 emissions. PMID:27397029

  11. Analysis of Technological Innovation and Environmental Performance Improvement in Aviation Sector

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joosung; Mo, Jeonghoon

    2011-01-01

    The past oil crises have caused dramatic improvements in fuel efficiency in all industrial sectors. The aviation sector—aircraft manufacturers and airlines—has also made significant efforts to improve the fuel efficiency through more advanced jet engines, high-lift wing designs, and lighter airframe materials. However, the innovations in energy-saving aircraft technologies do not coincide with the oil crisis periods. The largest improvement in aircraft fuel efficiency took place in the 1960s while the high oil prices in the 1970s and on did not induce manufacturers or airlines to achieve a faster rate of innovation. In this paper, we employ a historical analysis to examine the socio-economic reasons behind the relatively slow technological innovation in aircraft fuel efficiency over the last 40 years. Based on the industry and passenger behaviors studied and prospects for alternative fuel options, this paper offers insights for the aviation sector to shift toward more sustainable technological options in the medium term. Second-generation biofuels could be the feasible option with a meaningful reduction in aviation’s lifecycle environmental impact if they can achieve sufficient economies of scale. PMID:22016716

  12. A Multistate Life Table Analysis of Union Regimes in the United States: Trends and Racial Differentials, 1970–2002

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, S. Philip; Wang, Zhenglian; Gu, Danan; Yang, Chingli

    2013-01-01

    We estimate trends and racial differentials in marriage, cohabitation, union formation and dissolution (union regimes) for the period 1970–2002 in the United States. These estimates are based on an innovative application of multistate life table analysis to pooled survey data. Our analysis demonstrates (1) a dramatic increase in the lifetime proportions of transitions from never-married, divorced or widowed to cohabiting; (2) a substantial decrease in the stability of cohabiting unions; (3) a dramatic increase in mean ages at cohabiting after divorce and widowhood; (4) a substantial decrease in direct transition from never-married to married; (5) a significant decrease in the overall lifetime proportion of ever marrying and re-marrying in the 1970s to 1980s but a relatively stable pattern in the 1990s to 2000–2002; and (6) a substantial decrease in the lifetime proportion of transition from cohabiting to marriage. We also present, for the first time, comparable evidence on differentials in union regimes between four racial groups. PMID:24179311

  13. A Multistate Life Table Analysis of Union Regimes in the United States: Trends and Racial Differentials, 1970-2002.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Morgan, S Philip; Wang, Zhenglian; Gu, Danan; Yang, Chingli

    2012-04-01

    We estimate trends and racial differentials in marriage, cohabitation, union formation and dissolution (union regimes) for the period 1970-2002 in the United States. These estimates are based on an innovative application of multistate life table analysis to pooled survey data. Our analysis demonstrates (1) a dramatic increase in the lifetime proportions of transitions from never-married, divorced or widowed to cohabiting; (2) a substantial decrease in the stability of cohabiting unions; (3) a dramatic increase in mean ages at cohabiting after divorce and widowhood; (4) a substantial decrease in direct transition from never-married to married; (5) a significant decrease in the overall lifetime proportion of ever marrying and re-marrying in the 1970s to 1980s but a relatively stable pattern in the 1990s to 2000-2002; and (6) a substantial decrease in the lifetime proportion of transition from cohabiting to marriage. We also present, for the first time, comparable evidence on differentials in union regimes between four racial groups.

  14. Dental malpractice: baseline data from insurance claims closed in 1970, with analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, N; Paquin, N; Nevin, J

    1984-01-01

    A study of dental malpractice claims closed during the 1970s was conducted using closed claim data available as a byproduct of a survey conducted by the Secretary's Commission on Medical Malpractice, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The intent of the authors of this study is to establish a baseline that can be used for future comparisons of dental malpractice. Far fewer cases of dental malpractice were found than expected, and specialists such as oral surgeons were at higher risk than general practitioners. One-half of the claims resulted in no payment to the plaintiff. Trial verdicts were reached in just over 7 percent of the cases, and 93 percent of the verdicts were in favor of the defendant. The amount of damages paid to claimants for dental cases was approximately one-third that paid on claims involving physicians or medical specialists. The median award to the plaintiff for dental malpractice was $750. Ninety-five percent of the awards made were under $5,000. PMID:6422499

  15. Follow-up of Students Who Entered Montgomery Community College Fall 1970. A Preliminary Analysis of Student Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gell, Robert L.

    As part of a statewide followup study of all students who entered a community college in the fall of 1970, a questionnaire was mailed in April 1974 to the 3,615 students who had entered Montgomery Community College in fall 1970. Twenty percent of the questionnaires were nondeliverable; thus, 2,890 students received the questionnaire, and of these,…

  16. Trends analysis of precipitation and temperature in the Alto Genil basin (Southeast Spain) from 1970 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Chacón, Francisca; Pulido-Velázquez, David; Jiménez-Sánchez, Jorge; Jimeno-Sáez, Patricia; Juan Collados-Lara, Antonio; Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The last studies of climate change predict a trend to more arid conditions in most of Spain. These studies show a significant increment in seasonal and annual air temperature, a reduction in mean precipitation and a raising number of extreme events of both variables. The historic data analysis is essential for identifying cycles, recent weather trends and to calibrate predictive models. In this work we analyses the recent historical climate in Alto Genil Basin. The system is located at SE Iberian Peninsula and includes an important part of the Sierra Nevada catchment. A high-resolution Spain02 dataset (~11 km) have been employed in this study. In accordance with the available data we have analyzed the period from 1970 to 2010 for daily precipitation and from 1970 to 2007 for daily temperature. In order to detect cycles and climate trends we have analyzed the temporal, seasonal and spatial distribution of the precipitation and temperature variables. We have calculated and analyzed the accumulated deviations from the mean daily precipitation. This analysis has been also performed with monthly and annual series. A non-parametric Mann Kendall method has been applied to study trends. In the period 1971-2007, the temperature has increased. The strongest trends appear since 1994. Between of 1971-1993 the average temperature observed was 13.6 °C, however from 1994 to 2007 the average temperature observed was 14.84 °C. Seasonally, during the study period, the spring has been the season with biggest increment in temperature. These temperature increments are more significant during March, April, May, June, July and October. In the period 1971-2010 the Mann Kendall test does not show a clear trend for precipitation. It is mainly due to the series culminates in three exceptional hydrological years that mask the overall trend of the study period. For this reason, we have also performed a sensitivity analysis of the Mann Kendall analysis to the period of data considered. On the

  17. Supporting analysis and assessments quality metrics: Utility market sector

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.

    1996-10-01

    In FY96, NREL was asked to coordinate all analysis tasks so that in FY97 these tasks will be part of an integrated analysis agenda that will begin to define a 5-15 year R&D roadmap and portfolio for the DOE Hydrogen Program. The purpose of the Supporting Analysis and Assessments task at NREL is to provide this coordination and conduct specific analysis tasks. One of these tasks is to prepare the Quality Metrics (QM) for the Program as part of the overall QM effort at DOE/EERE. The Hydrogen Program one of 39 program planning units conducting QM, a process begun in FY94 to assess benefits/costs of DOE/EERE programs. The purpose of QM is to inform decisionmaking during budget formulation process by describing the expected outcomes of programs during the budget request process. QM is expected to establish first step toward merit-based budget formulation and allow DOE/EERE to get {open_quotes}most bang for its (R&D) buck.{close_quotes} In FY96. NREL coordinated a QM team that prepared a preliminary QM for the utility market sector. In the electricity supply sector, the QM analysis shows hydrogen fuel cells capturing 5% (or 22 GW) of the total market of 390 GW of new capacity additions through 2020. Hydrogen consumption in the utility sector increases from 0.009 Quads in 2005 to 0.4 Quads in 2020. Hydrogen fuel cells are projected to displace over 0.6 Quads of primary energy in 2020. In future work, NREL will assess the market for decentralized, on-site generation, develop cost credits for distributed generation benefits (such as deferral of transmission and distribution investments, uninterruptible power service), cost credits for by-products such as heat and potable water, cost credits for environmental benefits (reduction of criteria air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions), compete different fuel cell technologies against each other for market share, and begin to address economic benefits, especially employment.

  18. Analysis of nutrients in the surface waters of the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit, 1970-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ham, L.K.; Hatzell, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    During the early phase of the Georgia-Florida National Water Quality Assessment study, existing information on nutrients was compiled and analyzed in order to evaluate the nutrient concentrations within the 61,545 square mile study unit. Evaluation of the nutrient concentrations collected at surface- water sites between October 1, 1970, and September 30,1991, utilized the environmental characteristics of land resource provinces, land use, and nonpoint and point-source discharges within the study unit. Long-term trends were investigated to determine the temporal distribution of nutrient concentrations. In order to determine a level of concern for nutrient concentrations, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines were used-(1) for nitrate concentrations, the maximum contaminant level in public-drinking water supplies (10 mg/L); (2) for ammonia concentrations, the chronic exposure of aquatic organisms to un-ionized ammonia (2.1 mg/L); (3) for total-phosphorus concentrations, the recommended concentration in flowing water to discourage excessive growth of aquatic plants (0.1 mg/L); and (4) for kjeldahl concentrations, however, no guidelines were available. For sites within the 10 major river basins, median nutrient concentrations were generally below USEPA guidelines, except for total-phosphorus concentrations where 45 percent of the medians exceeded the guideline. The only median ammonia concentration that exceeded the guideline occurred at the Swift Creek site (3.4 mg/L), in the Suwannee River basin, perhaps due to wastewater discharges. For all sites within the Withlacoochee, Aucilla, and St. Marys River basins, median concentrations of nitrate, ammonia, and total phosphorus were below the USEPA guidelines. Nutrient data at each monitoring site within each major basin were aggregated for comparisons of median nutrient concentrations among major basins. The Ochlockonee and Hillsborough River basins had the highest median nutrient concentrations, the

  19. [Homicides involving firearms in Argentina between 1991 and 2006: a multilevel analysis].

    PubMed

    Zunino, Marina Gabriela; Diez Roux, Ana Victoria; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

    2012-12-01

    The influence of variables at different levels of organization and the effect of time on the occurrence of firearm-related homicides (FRH) in Argentina between 1991 and 2006 was analyzed using multilevel analysis. A three-level Poisson regression model was used. The first level corresponded to the distribution of the number of FRH by sex and age group for each administrative region and (four-year) period; the second corresponded to the variation over time in the interior of each administrative region; the third modeled the variation between administrative regions in accordance with the Level of Urbanization, Percentage of Homes with Unsatisfied Basic Needs and the Percentage of Working Adults. There were 15,067 FRH in persons aged 14 and over between 1991 and 2006 in the 493 administrative regions. The risk of death was higher in males and persons of 15 to 29 years of age; ages above that were associated with a lower risk. The influence of age was greater in central-urban zones and between 1999 and 2002 than during other periods. The level of urbanization was the socioeconomic variable most strongly associated with FRH risk. The risk of death from FRH was 1.6 times higher in central-urban zones compared with non-central zones. In both zones, the risk was highest between 1999 and 2002.

  20. Risk Dimensions and Political Decisions Frame Environmental Communication: A Content Analysis of Seven U.S. Newspapers from 1970-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantham, Susan; Vieira, Edward T., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This project examined the focus of environmental news frames used in seven American newspapers between 1970 and 2010. During this time newspapers were a primary source of news. Based on gatekeeping and agenda-setting theory, as well as source credibility, the content analysis of 2,123 articles examined the environmental topics within the articles,…

  1. Dichotomous factor analysis of symptoms reported by UK and US veterans of the 1991 Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Nisenbaum, Rosane; Ismail, Khalida; Wessely, Simon; Unwin, Catherine; Hull, Lisa; Reeves, William C

    2004-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Factor analysis is one of the most used statistical techniques to analyze the inter-relationships among symptoms reported by Gulf War veterans. The objective of this study was to apply factor analyses to binary symptom data from the UK study of Gulf War illness and the US Air Force study of Gulf War veterans, and to compare the symptom domains derived from the distinct samples. METHODS: UK veterans of the 1991 Gulf War (n = 3,454), individuals deployed to Bosnia on U.N. peacekeeping operations (n = 1,979) and Gulf War-era servicemen (n = 2,577) who were not deployed to the Gulf were surveyed in 1997-1998, and US 1991 Gulf War veterans from four Air Force units (n = 1,163) were surveyed in 1995 to collect health characteristics including symptoms. Each sample was randomly split in half for exploratory and confirmatory dichotomous factor analyses with promax oblique rotation. RESULTS: Four correlated factors were identified in each of the samples. Three factors (Respiratory, Mood-Cognition, Peripheral Nervous) overlapped considerably across the UK cohorts. The Gastrointestinal/Urogenital factor in the UK Gulf cohort was noticeably different from the Gastrointestinal factor identified from the Bosnia and Era cohorts. Symptoms from Gulf War UK and U.S cohorts yielded similar Gastrointestinal, Respiratory and Mood-Cognition factors, despite differences in symptom inventories between the two surveys. A Musculoskeletal factor was only elicited from the US Gulf sample. CONCLUSION: Findings of this report are consistent with those from other factor analysis studies that identified similar symptom dimensions between Gulf and non-Gulf War veterans, except that the Gastrointestinal factor in Gulf veterans included other symptom types. Correlations among factors raise the question as to whether there is a general illness, even if not unique to Gulf veterans, representing the common pathway underlying the identified factors. Hierarchical factor analysis models may be

  2. A Content and Sample Analysis of Quantitative Articles Published in the "Journal of Counseling & Development" between 1991 and 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Love, Keisha M.; Taylor, Kathryn J.; Slusher, Anita L.

    2007-01-01

    This study reviewed the content of articles and characteristics of samples in all quantitative articles published in the "Journal of Counseling & Development" between 1991 and 2000. The content analysis revealed that the areas that received the most attention were academic/career, multicultural issues, symptoms/disorders, and counseling process.…

  3. LSAT Dimensionality Analysis for the December 1991, June 1992, and October 1992 Administrations. Statistical Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Jeff; Kim, Hae-Rim; Roussos, Louis; Stout, William; Zhang, Jinming

    An extensive nonparametric dimensionality analysis of latent structure was conducted on three forms of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) (December 1991, June 1992, and October 1992) using the DIMTEST model in confirmatory analyses and using DIMTEST, FAC, DETECT, HCA, PROX, and a genetic algorithm in exploratory analyses. Results indicate that…

  4. Malignant Lymphatic and Hematopoietic Neoplasms Mortality in Serbia, 1991–2010: A Joinpoint Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ilic, Milena; Ilic, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited data on mortality from malignant lymphatic and hematopoietic neoplasms have been published for Serbia. Methods The study covered population of Serbia during the 1991–2010 period. Mortality trends were assessed using the joinpoint regression analysis. Results Trend for overall death rates from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms significantly decreased: by −2.16% per year from 1991 through 1998, and then significantly increased by +2.20% per year for the 1998–2010 period. The growth during the entire period was on average +0.8% per year (95% CI 0.3 to 1.3). Mortality was higher among males than among females in all age groups. According to the comparability test, mortality trends from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms in men and women were parallel (final selected model failed to reject parallelism, P = 0.232). Among younger Serbian population (0–44 years old) in both sexes: trends significantly declined in males for the entire period, while in females 15–44 years of age mortality rates significantly declined only from 2003 onwards. Mortality trend significantly increased in elderly in both genders (by +1.7% in males and +1.5% in females in the 60–69 age group, and +3.8% in males and +3.6% in females in the 70+ age group). According to the comparability test, mortality trend for Hodgkin's lymphoma differed significantly from mortality trends for all other types of malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms (P<0.05). Conclusion Unfavourable mortality trend in Serbia requires targeted intervention for risk factors control, early diagnosis and modern therapy. PMID:25333862

  5. Input-output analysis of some sector actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Selected energy conservation actions previously discussed in depth but separately in the areas of the energy industry, the industry sector, the transportation sector, and the residential and commercial sector, were brought together and assessed as a group. Particular emphasis was devoted to identifying secondary or indirect impacts and multiple interactions. Preliminary results obtained from the ECASTAR energy input-output model suggest that the impacts of energy conservation actions can be grossly misrepresented if secondary impacts are not included in the assessment. A methodology which stresses the importance of secondary and multiple interactions permeates the underlying philosophy of this discussion.

  6. Detection and Analysis of Threats to the Energy Sector: DATES

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonso Valdes

    2010-03-31

    This report summarizes Detection and Analysis of Threats to the Energy Sector (DATES), a project sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and performed by a team led by SRI International, with collaboration from Sandia National Laboratories, ArcSight, Inc., and Invensys Process Systems. DATES sought to advance the state of the practice in intrusion detection and situational awareness with respect to cyber attacks in energy systems. This was achieved through adaptation of detection algorithms for process systems as well as development of novel anomaly detection techniques suited for such systems into a detection suite. These detection components, together with third-party commercial security systems, were interfaced with the commercial Security Information Event Management (SIEM) solution from ArcSight. The efficacy of the integrated solution was demonstrated on two testbeds, one based on a Distributed Control System (DCS) from Invensys, and the other based on the Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE) from Sandia. These achievements advance the DOE Cybersecurity Roadmap [DOE2006] goals in the area of security monitoring. The project ran from October 2007 until March 2010, with the final six months focused on experimentation. In the validation phase, team members from SRI and Sandia coupled the two test environments and carried out a number of distributed and cross-site attacks against various points in one or both testbeds. Alert messages from the distributed, heterogeneous detection components were correlated using the ArcSight SIEM platform, providing within-site and cross-site views of the attacks. In particular, the team demonstrated detection and visualization of network zone traversal and denial-of-service attacks. These capabilities were presented to the DistribuTech Conference and Exhibition in March 2010. The project was hampered by interruption of funding due to continuing resolution issues and agreement on cost share for four months in 2008

  7. Doctorate Needs in Educational Administration During the 1970's and 1980's: A Preliminary Analysis. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knezevich, S. J.

    There are no data in this research report that would support the generalization that educational administration will face a doctorate glut during the 1970's or 1980's. There is far more reason to be worried about a glut in the number of institutions producing doctorates in educational administration than about a glut in the number of doctorates…

  8. Mutual phenomena of the Galilean satellites: an analysis of the 1991 observations from VBO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasundhara, R.

    1994-01-01

    Results of analysis of seventeen mutual events, of the Galilean satellites, observed at the Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO) during the 1991 are presented. The light curves were fitted with theoretical models to derive the relative astrometric positions of the satellites. The dependence of te derived parameters on the various light scattering laws are investigated. Results of the analysis indicate that for Io fits using Minnaert's and Lommel-Seeliger's laws are comparable however the Lambert's law solution fails to give good fit at the centre and at the wings of the light curves. The mean value of the Minnaert's parameter for this satellite derived from the good quality occulation of light curves in the I band is 0.559 +/- 0.11. Analysis of occulation light curves of 201 events using model with albedo variations inferred from Voyager imagery lead to best fit. An average residual of -340 +/- 10 km in the position of Io along its track relative to Europa compared to the E-3 ephemiris is noticed.

  9. United States Industrial Sector Energy End Use Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shehabi, Arman; Morrow, William R.; Masanet, Eric

    2012-05-11

    The United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) conducts the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) to provide detailed data on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector. The survey is a sample of approximately 15,000 manufacturing establishments selected from the Economic Census - Manufacturing Sector. MECS provides statistics on the consumption of energy by end uses (e.g., boilers, process, electric drives, etc.) disaggregated by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) categories. The manufacturing sector (NAICS Sector 31-33) consists of all manufacturing establishments in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. According to the NAICS, the manufacturing sector comprises establishments engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products. The establishments are physical facilities such as plants, factories, or mills. For many of the sectors in the MECS datasets, information is missing because the reported energy use is less than 0.5 units or BTUs, or is withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual establishments, or is withheld because the standard error is greater than 50%. We infer what the missing information likely are using several approximations techniques. First, much of the missing data can be easily calculated by adding or subtracting other values reported by MECS. If this is not possible (e.g. two data are missing), we look at historic MECS reports to help identify the breakdown of energy use in the past and assume it remained the same for the current MECS. Lastly, if historic data is also missing, we assume that 3 digit NAICS classifications predict energy use in their 4, 5, or 6 digit NAICS sub-classifications, or vice versa. Along with addressing data gaps, end use energy is disaggregated beyond the specified MECS allocations using additional industry specific energy consumption data. The result is a

  10. Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report, July 1991--June 1992. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report documents the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The data are used to characterize conditions, confirm design assumptions, and understand and predict the performance of the underground excavations during operations. The data are obtained as part of a routine monitoring program and do not include data from tests performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the Scientific Advisor to the project, in support of performance assessment studies. The purpose of the geomechanical monitoring program is to provide in situ data to support continuing assessments of the design for the underground facilities. Specifically, the program provides: Early detection of conditions that could compromise operational safety; evaluation of room closure to ensure retrievability of waste; guidance for design modifications and remedial actions; and data for interpreting the actual behavior of underground openings, in comparison with established design criteria. This Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report covers the period July 1, 1991 to June 30, 1992. Volume 1 provides an interpretation of the field data while Volume 2 describes and presents the data itself.

  11. Concentration in the Greek private hospital sector: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Boutsioli, Zoe

    2007-07-01

    Over the last 20 years, governments all around the world have attempted to boost the role of market and competition in health care industries in order to increase efficiency and reduce costs. The increased competition and the significant implications on costs and prices of health care services resulted in health care industries being transformed. Large firms are merging and acquiring other firms. If this trend continues, few firms will dominate the health care markets. In this study, I use the simple concentration ratio (CR) for the largest 4, 8 and 20 companies to measure the concentration of Greek private hospitals during the period 1997-2004. Also, the Gini coefficient for inequality is used. For the two different categories of hospitals used (a) general and neuropsychiatric and (b) obstetric/gynaecological it is evident that the top four firms of the first category accounted for 43% of sales in 1997, and 52% in 2004, while the four largest firms of the second category accounted for almost 83% in 1997, and 81% in 2004. Also, the Gini coefficient increases over the 8-year period examined from 0.69 in 1997 to 0.82 in 2004. It explains that the market of the private health care services becomes less equal in the sense that fewer private hospitals and clinics hold more and more of the share of the total sales. From a cross-industry analysis it is clear that the private hospital sector has the highest concentration rate. Finally, it appears that the market structure of the private hospitals in Greece resembles more closely to an oligopoly rather than a monopolistic competition, since very few firms dominate the market.

  12. Consumption trend analysis in the industrial sector: Existing forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-08-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is engaged in medium- to long-range research and development in various sectors of the economy that depend on gasing technologies and equipment. To assess the potential demand for natural gas in the industrial sector, forecasts available from private and public sources were compared and analyzed. More than 20 projections were examined, and 10 of the most appropriate long-range demand forecasts were analyzed and compared with respect to the various assumptions, methodologies and criteria on which each was based.

  13. Population viability analysis of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), 1976-1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marmontel, M.; Humphrey, S.R.; O'Shea, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent development of age-determination techniques for Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has permitted derivation of age-specific data on reproduction and survival of a sample of 1212 carcasses obtained throughout Florida from 1976–1991. Population viability analysis using these data projects a slightly negative growth rate (−0.003) and an unacceptably low probability of persistence (0.44) over 1000 years. The main factors affecting population projections were adult survival and fecundity. A 10% increase in adult mortality would drive the population to extinction over a 1000-year time scale, whereas a 10% decrease in adult mortality would allow slow population growth. A 10% decrease in reproduction would also result in extinction. We conclude that management must focus on retaining and improving the conditions under which manatee demography operates. The major identified agent of mortality is boat-manatee collisions, and rapidly increasing numbers of humans and registered boats portend an increase in manatee mortality. Zoning of manatee-occupied waters for reductions in boating activity and speed is essential to safeguard the manatee population. If boating regulations being implemented by the state of Florida in each of 13 key coastal counties are completed, enforced, and effective, manatees and human recreation could coexist indefinitely. If regulation is unsuccessful, the Florida manatee population is likely to decline slowly toward extinction.

  14. Stable isotope analysis of 1987-1991 zooplankton samples and bowhead whale tissues. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    Stable isotope analyses of bowhead whale tissue samples and bowhead whale prey organisms collected over the years 1987 to 1991 were used to provide detail on the isotope ratio gradients evident in the arctic Alaskan zooplankton and to verify previous findings regarding the growth rates and age determination techniques developed for bowhead whales. Zooplankton of the Bering and Chukchi seas are enriched in (13)C relative to the eastern Beaufort Sea. The analysis of baleen from bowhead whales taken between 1987 to 1990 indicate that the whales are slow-growing and the young animals between year one and about six to seven years of age, undergo a period of little or no linear growth. The authors estimate that bowheads require 16-18 years to reach the length of sexual maturity, i.e., 13-14 m. From baleen Delta(13C) cycles, a 20 year record of the isotope ratios in the phytoplankton of the northern Bering and Chukchi seas was constructed. The long-term record has been compared with the temperature anomalies in surface waters of the Bering Sea. The Delta(13C) of the zooplankton is inversely correlated with temperature and refutes current models attempting to relate ocean temperature, and atmospheric carbon dioxide levels with the Delta(13C) of ocean sediment organic matter.

  15. Analysis of vegetation changes in Rock Creek Park, 1991-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatfield, Jeff S.; Krafft, Cairn

    2009-01-01

    Vegetation data collected at Rock Creek Park every 4 years during 1991-2007 were analyzed for differences among 3 regions within the park and among years. The variables measured and analyzed were percentage of twigs browsed, percentage of canopy cover, species richness of herbaceous plants, number of tree seedlings in each of 7 height classes, tree seedling stocking rate for low deer density and high deer density areas, percentage of tree and shrub cover < 2 m in height, mean diameter at breast height (DBH) of trees > 1 cm DBH, number of tree stems > 1 cm DBH, species richness of trees and shrubs, and mean height of the 5 tallest trees in each plot quadrant. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences and, except for some differences in tree species composition among the 3 regions, no differences (P > 0.01) were found among the 3 regions in the variables discussed above. Many of the variables showed very significant differences (P < 0.01) among years, and causative factors should be investigated further. In addition, importance values were calculated for the 10 most important tree species in each region and changes over time were reported. Future sampling recommendations are also discussed.

  16. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the City of Houston`s 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA`s Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  17. Women's labour force participation and socioeconomic development: the case of Peninsular Malaysia, 1957-1970.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, C; Aghajanian, A

    1980-03-01

    Changes in labor force participation of Malay, Chinese and Indian women in the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors in Peninsular Malaysia, based on the 1957 and 1970 censuses, are analyzed. Brief discussions of the relation between economic development and female labor force participation, the socioeconomic development and ethnic composition of Malaysia, and past research on women's labor force participation in Peninsular Malaysia provide background for the analysis. The overall participation rate of women aged 15 to 64 rose from 31% in 1957 to 37% in 1970, with most of the increase among younger women. Participation rates rose for Malay women at all ages, dropped sharply for Indian women at all ages, and rose for Chinese women below age 40 but declined thereafter. Trends in Chinese female labor force activity seem to fit the developmental model most closely; Malay employment in agriculture among middle-aged women probably appeared to increase due to underestimation in the 1957 census; and Indian participation declined due to a sharp curtailment of the entire plantation labor force. Cross sectional analysis using the 1970 2% census sample demonstrates that rural residence, low educational level, and married status are associated with employment in the traditional and modern agricultural sectors. Higher educational attainment, urban residence, and delayed marriage are associated with employment in the modern non-agricultural sector. Chinese women had higher proportions in the modern sector. PMID:12336488

  18. Research and writing in the history of health sciences, 1970-1982: a quantitative analysis of NLM's HISTLINE database.

    PubMed

    Kopp, J J

    1985-04-01

    HISTLINE, the MEDLARS file on the history of the health sciences, was analyzed to determine predominant areas of historical research and publication in the years 1970-1982, as reflected in this database produced within the History of Medicine Division at the National Library of Medicine. Subject content, chronologic and geographic breakdowns, and subjects of biographical studies are examined in view of their frequency in the file. Speculation for the predominance of particular descriptors and individuals is presented. An examination is made of the journals publishing the most medical history. Strengths and weaknesses of the database as reflected in this study also are discussed. PMID:3888330

  19. Impact of climate on energy sector in economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, H.E.; LeDuc, S.K.

    1981-12-01

    Assessments of economic conditions by region or sector attempt to include relevant climatic variability through residual adjustment techniques. There is no direct consideration of climatic fluctuations. Three recent severe winters combined with the increasing price of energy have intensified the need to quantify the interaction of climate with the energy sector of the economy. This paper presents examples of the uses of climatic data by utilities, public service commissions and the NOAA Center for Environmental Assessment Services to determine econoclimatic energy relationships at the local, state, regional and national levels. A technique based on the linear relationships between heating degree days and natural gas consumption for space heating is used to quantify the interaction of climate and prices on gas consumption. This provides regional estimates of the response of gas consumption to degree days and price.

  20. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

    1992-08-01

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model`s parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

  1. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

    1992-08-01

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model's parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

  2. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Biotechnology equipment. Export Trade Information

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, T.

    1989-06-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A) for biotechnology equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for biotechnology equipment.

  3. Communication in Ballot Issue Campaigns: A Rhetorical Analysis of the 1991 Cincinnati Public Schools Levy Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Jeffrey; German, Kathleen

    Following the failure of several school levies, the Cincinnati Public School System placed a $9.83 million levy on the ballot in 1991 which passed in spite of tremendous odds against it. The Cincinnati tax levy campaign was successful largely because it adapted to the unique nature of ballot issue campaigns. First, it provided proactive leadership…

  4. Analysis of 1970-1995 Trends in Tropospheric Ozone at Northern Hemisphere Midlatitudes with the GEOS-CHEM Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusco, Andrew C.; Logan, Jennifer A.

    2004-01-01

    I ] The causes of trends in tropospheric ozone at Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes from 1970 to 1995 are investigated with the GEOS-CHEM model, a global three-dimensional model of the troposphere driven by assimilated meteorological observations from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS). This model is used to investigate the sensitivity of tropospheric ozone with respect to (1) changes in the anthropogenic emission of nitrogen oxides and nonmethane hydrocarbons, (2) increases in methane concentrations, (3) variations in the stratospheric source of ozone, (4) changes in solar radiation resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion, and ( 5 ) increases in tropospheric temperatures. Model results indicate that local increases in NO, emissions have caused most of the increases seen in lower tropospheric ozone over Europe and Japan. Increases in methane are responsible for roughly one fifth of the anthropogenically induced increase in tropospheric ozone at northern midlatitudes. However, changes in ozone precursors do not adequately explain either the spatial differences in observed ozone trends across midlatitudes or the observed decreases in ozone over Canada throughout the troposphere. We argue that ozone depletion in the lowermost stratosphere is likely to have reduced the stratospheric source by as much as 30% from the early 1970s to the mid 1990s. Model simulations that account for such a reduction along with reported changes in anthropogenic emissions show steep declines of ozone in the upper troposphere and variable increases in the lower troposphere that are more consistent with observations. Differential temperature trends in summer between North America and Europe may account for at least some of the remaining spatial variation in tropospheric ozone trends. Increases in ultraviolet (UV) radiation due to stratospheric ozone depletion do not appear to significantly reduce tropospheric ozone, except at midlatitudes in the Southern Hemisphere following the

  5. Turn-over rate of academic faculty at the College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University: a 20-year analysis (1991 to 2011)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Faculty turn-over affects both workers and organizations. Turnover of faculty and researchers is increasing alarmingly and costing the universities and the country at large. Fast turnover of health professionals from the health system and from academic institutions has recently received substantial attention from both academia and health sector managers. This paper calculates the faculty turnover rate at the College of Health Sciences of Addis Ababa University during the period of September 1991 to August 2011. Methods The study was conducted at the College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University. Retrospective analysis of employee records was done. All records of the faculty that were working in the College during the 20-year period, starting from September 1991 to August 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected from the employee records accessed from the College’s human resources database and supplemented by payroll sheets and different reports. A structured checklist was used to extract the required data from the database. The crude turnover rate for academic faculty was calculated. Results Within the 20-year period of September 1991 to August 2011, a total of 120 faculty members left. The overall turn-over rate was 92.8 %. The rate in the most recent five years (172 %) is 8.5 times higher than the rate for the first five years (20 %). The average retention period before the termination of an employment contract was 4.9 years. The top five departments where employment contracts were relatively higher include: Nursing 15 (15.6 %), Internal Medicine 12 (12.5%), Public Health 10 (10.4%), Pediatrics 9 (9.4%) and Surgery 9 (9.4%). About two thirds (66.6%) of the faculty who were leaving were at the ranks of assistant professorship and above. Conclusion This study revealed that outflow of faculty has been continuously increasing in the period reviewed. This implies that the College had been losing highly skilled professionals with

  6. A Descriptive Analysis of Oral Health Systematic Reviews Published 1991–2012: Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Saltaji, Humam; Cummings, Greta G.; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Major, Michael P.; Amin, Maryam; Major, Paul W.; Hartling, Lisa; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify all systematic reviews (SRs) published in the domain of oral health research and describe them in terms of their epidemiological and descriptive characteristics. Design Cross sectional, descriptive study. Methods An electronic search of seven databases was performed from inception through May 2012; bibliographies of relevant publications were also reviewed. Studies were considered for inclusion if they were oral health SRs defined as therapeutic or non-therapeutic investigations that studied a topic or an intervention related to dental, oral or craniofacial diseases/disorders. Data were extracted from all the SRs based on a number of epidemiological and descriptive characteristics. Data were analysed descriptively for all the SRs, within each of the nine dental specialities, and for Cochrane and non-Cochrane SRs separately. Results 1,188 oral health (126 Cochrane and 1062 non-Cochrane) SRs published from 1991 through May 2012 were identified, encompassing the nine dental specialties. Over half (n = 676; 56.9%) of the SRs were published in specialty oral health journals, with almost all (n = 1,178; 99.2%) of the SRs published in English and almost none of the non-Cochrane SRs (n = 11; 0.9%) consisting of updates of previously published SRs. 75.3% of the SRs were categorized as therapeutic, with 64.5% examining non-drug interventions, while approximately half (n = 150/294; 51%) of the non-therapeutic SRs were classified as epidemiological SRs. The SRs included a median of 15 studies, with a meta-analysis conducted in 43.6%, in which a median of 9 studies/1 randomized trial were included in the largest meta-analysis conducted. Funding was received for 25.1% of the SRs, including nearly three-quarters (n = 96; 76.2%) of the Cochrane SRs. Conclusion Epidemiological and descriptive characteristics of the 1,188 oral health SRs varied across the nine dental specialties and by SR category (Cochrane vs. non-Cochrane). There is a

  7. Toxoplasma encephalitis in AIDS patients in São Paulo during 1988 and 1991. A comparative retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Passos, L N; Araújo Filho, O F; Andrade Junior, H F

    2000-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis of Toxoplasma encephalitis patients from Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas, the main AIDS hospital of São Paulo, Brazil, during two different stages of the HIV epidemics, in 1988 (38 patients) and 1991 (33 patients). There were AIDS-related demographic differences, but the clinical presentation and diagnostic efficiency were similar, usually based on tomography and clinical response to therapy, with a clear distinction from other CNS infections, based on clinical and laboratory findings. Specific serologic studies were performed less often in 1991, with a high frequency of therapy change. The direct acute death rate from Toxoplasma encephalitis was high during both periods, i.e. 8/38 in 1988 and 10/33 in 1991. The direct acute death rate for the patients from the two periods as a whole was 25.4% (18/71), related to the time of HIV infection, absence of fever and presence of meningeal irritation at presentation, blood leukocytes higher than 10,000/mm3 and blood lymphocytes lower than 350/mm3. Toxoplasma encephalitis is a preventable disease when adequate prophylactic therapy is used and is relatively easy to treat in diagnosed HIV patients. Unfortunately, this severe and deadly disorder is the HIV diagnostic disease in several patients, and our data support the need for careful management of these patients, especially in those countries with a high toxoplasmosis prevalence where AIDS is concurrent with economic and public health problems.

  8. Children of divorce in the 1990s: an update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Amato, P R

    2001-09-01

    The present study updates the P. R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) meta-analysis of children and divorce with a new analysis of 67 studies published in the 1990s. Compared with children with continuously married parents, children with divorced parents continued to score significantly lower on measures of academic achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social relations. After controlling for study characteristics, curvilinear trends with respect to decade of publication were present for academic achievement, psychological well-being, self-concept, and social relations. For these outcomes, the gap between children with divorced and married parents decreased during the 1980s and increased again during the 1990s.

  9. Earth Science in 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reviews advancements in earth science during 1970 in each of these areas: economic geology (fuels), economic geology (metals), economic geology (nonmetals), environmental geology, geochemistry, manpower, hydrology, mapping, marine geology, mineralogy, paleontology, plate tectonics, politics and geology, remote sensing, and seismology. (PR)

  10. Environment Law Review--1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, H. Floyd; And Others

    This is the first of several volumes to be published annually in the field of environmental law. It contains material from periodicals published in early 1970, 1969, and several articles of special significance which appeared in periodicals bearing 1968 dates. It has been collected primarily for lawyers so they may have, in convenient reference…

  11. Risk-based input-output analysis of influenza epidemic consequences on interdependent workforce sectors.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joost R; May, Larissa; Haimar, Amine El

    2013-09-01

    Outbreaks of contagious diseases underscore the ever-looming threat of new epidemics. Compared to other disasters that inflict physical damage to infrastructure systems, epidemics can have more devastating and prolonged impacts on the population. This article investigates the interdependent economic and productivity risks resulting from epidemic-induced workforce absenteeism. In particular, we develop a dynamic input-output model capable of generating sector-disaggregated economic losses based on different magnitudes of workforce disruptions. An ex post analysis of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the national capital region (NCR) reveals the distribution of consequences across different economic sectors. Consequences are categorized into two metrics: (i) economic loss, which measures the magnitude of monetary losses incurred in each sector, and (ii) inoperability, which measures the normalized monetary losses incurred in each sector relative to the total economic output of that sector. For a simulated mild pandemic scenario in NCR, two distinct rankings are generated using the economic loss and inoperability metrics. Results indicate that the majority of the critical sectors ranked according to the economic loss metric comprise of sectors that contribute the most to the NCR's gross domestic product (e.g., federal government enterprises). In contrast, the majority of the critical sectors generated by the inoperability metric include sectors that are involved with epidemic management (e.g., hospitals). Hence, prioritizing sectors for recovery necessitates consideration of the balance between economic loss, inoperability, and other objectives. Although applied specifically to the NCR, the proposed methodology can be customized for other regions.

  12. Risk-Based Input-Output Analysis of Influenza Epidemic Consequences on Interdependent Workforce Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Joost R.; May, Larissa; Haimar, Amine El

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of contagious diseases underscore the ever-looming threat of new epidemics. Compared to other disasters that inflict physical damage to infrastructure systems, epidemics can have more devastating and prolonged impacts on the population. This paper investigates the interdependent economic and productivity risks resulting from epidemic-induced workforce absenteeism. In particular, we develop a dynamic input-output model capable of generating sector-disaggregated economic losses based on different magnitudes of workforce disruptions. An ex post analysis of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the National Capital Region (NCR) reveals the distribution of consequences across different economic sectors. Consequences are categorized into two metrics: (i) economic loss, which measures the magnitude of monetary losses incurred in each sector, and (ii) inoperability, which measures the normalized monetary losses incurred in each sector relative to the total economic output of that sector. For a simulated mild pandemic scenario in NCR, two distinct rankings are generated using the economic loss and inoperability metrics. Results indicate that the majority of the critical sectors ranked according to the economic loss metric comprise of sectors that contribute the most to the NCR's gross domestic product (e.g., federal government enterprises). In contrast, the majority of the critical sectors generated by the inoperability metric include sectors that are involved with epidemic management (e.g., hospitals). Hence, prioritizing sectors for recovery necessitates consideration of the balance between economic loss, inoperability, and other objectives. Although applied specifically to the NCR region, the proposed methodology can be customized for other regions. PMID:23278756

  13. Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry: 1970-1991

    EIA Publications

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of the ownership of the U.S. electric power industry over the past two decades, with emphasis on the major changes that have occurred, their causes, and their effects.

  14. An analysis of variables influencing the number of radiation overexposure events in Texas from 1970 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Emery, R J; Valizadeh, F; Kennedy, V; Shelton, A J

    2005-07-01

    Sources of radiation are used in a variety of modern work settings, including industrial, medical, research, and agricultural applications. Although regulatory controls exist to limit radiation exposures in these different settings, instances of radiation doses in excess of acceptable limits (referred to as overexposures) do occur. A unique study examined overexposure events in Texas over a 45-y period from 1956 to 2001. The primary purpose of the study was to characterize the factors associated with overexposure events. As part of this characterization, an interesting trend in the number of overexposures by year was observed, but not completely explained. The data revealed a dramatic increase in the number of overexposure events, followed by three apparent phases of decline. These declines are of particular interest because, while the increase and subsequent decrease in overexposures occurred, the number of permits to possess radiation sources in Texas generally increased over the same time period. This study focused on the identification of the factors that led to the trends in overexposure events. Data describing the reported overexposure events in Texas from 1970 to 2000 were obtained from the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Radiation Control (TDH BRC) and entered into a computerized database. With the assistance of senior members of the TDH BRC, the three primary factors influencing the number of overexposures were identified. These included domestic oil and gas exploration and production from 1970 to 2000, wherein sources of radiation are employed in various operations; the establishment of a training and certification requirement for industrial radiographers during the period of 1986 to 1988; and modification of the applicable regulations between 1992 and 1994. The generally accepted indicator of oil and gas exploration and production activity, known as "rig count," is the measure of the number of active oil and gas exploration and production platforms

  15. 1991 NACUBO Endowment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the results of a 1991 study of the performance and management of endowments of colleges and universities. Part I offers information on the data collection and describes several definitions and formula used in the analysis. Part II presents the report's exhibits in two sections the first of which treats endowment…

  16. Quality-assurance results for routine water analysis in US Geological Survey laboratories, water year 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maloney, T.J.; Ludtke, A.S.; Krizman, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    The US. Geological Survey operates a quality- assurance program based on the analyses of reference samples for the National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado, and the Quality of Water Service Unit in Ocala, Florida. Reference samples containing selected inorganic, nutrient, and low ionic-strength constituents are prepared and disguised as routine samples. The program goal is to determine precision and bias for as many analytical methods offered by the participating laboratories as possible. The samples typically are submitted at a rate of approximately 5 percent of the annual environmental sample load for each constituent. The samples are distributed to the laboratories throughout the year. Analytical data for these reference samples reflect the quality of environmental sample data produced by the laboratories because the samples are processed in the same manner for all steps from sample login through data release. The results are stored permanently in the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System. During water year 1991, 86 analytical procedures were evaluated at the National Water Quality Laboratory and 37 analytical procedures were evaluated at the Quality of Water Service Unit. An overall evaluation of the inorganic (major ion and trace metal) constituent data for water year 1991 indicated analytical imprecision in the National Water Quality Laboratory for 5 of 67 analytical procedures: aluminum (whole-water recoverable, atomic emission spectrometric, direct-current plasma); calcium (atomic emission spectrometric, direct); fluoride (ion-exchange chromatographic); iron (whole-water recoverable, atomic absorption spectrometric, direct); and sulfate (ion-exchange chromatographic). The results for 11 of 67 analytical procedures had positive or negative bias during water year 1991. Analytical imprecision was indicated in the determination of two of the five National Water Quality Laboratory nutrient constituents: orthophosphate as phosphorus and

  17. NASA Space Geodesy Program: GSFC data analysis, 1992. Crustal Dynamics Project VLBI geodetic results, 1979 - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. W.; Ma, C.; Caprette, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    The Goddard VLBI group reports the results of analyzing 1648 Mark 3 data sets acquired from fixed and mobile observing sites through the end of 1991, and available to the Crustal Dynamics Project. Two large solutions were used to obtain Earth rotation parameters, nutation offsets, radio source positions, site positions, site velocities, and baseline evolution. Site positions are tabulated on a yearly basis for 1979 to 1995, inclusive. Site velocities are presented in both geocentric Cartesian and topocentric coordinates. Baseline evolution is plotted for 200 baselines, and individual length determinations are presented for an additional 356 baselines. This report includes 155 quasar radio sources, 96 fixed stations and mobile sites, and 556 baselines.

  18. Application of Social Network Analysis to Health Care Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hae Lan; Lee, Young Sung

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine the feasibility of social network analysis as a valuable research tool for indicating a change in research topics in health care and medicine. Methods Papers used in the analysis were collected from the PubMed database at the National Library of Medicine. After limiting the search to papers affiliated with the National Institutes of Health, 27,125 papers were selected for the analysis. From these papers, the top 100 non-duplicate and most studied Medical Subject Heading terms were extracted. NetMiner V.3 was used for analysis. Weighted degree centrality was applied to the analysis to compare the trends in the change of research topics. Changes in the core keywords were observed for the entire group and in three-year intervals. Results The core keyword with the highest centrality value was "Risk Factor," followed by "Molecular Sequence Data," "Neoplasms," "Signal Transduction," "Brain," and "Amino Acid Sequence." Core keywords varied between time intervals, changing from "Molecular Sequence Data" to "Risk Factors" over time. "Risk Factors" was added as a new keyword and its social network was expanded. The slope of the keywords also varied over time: "Molecular Sequence Data," with a high centrality value, had a decreasing slope at certain intervals, whereas "SNP," with a low centrality value, had an increasing slope at certain intervals. Conclusions The social network analysis method is useful for tracking changes in research topics over time. Further research should be conducted to confirm the usefulness of this method in health care and medicine. PMID:22509473

  19. 3-D vibration analysis of annular sector plates using the Chebyshev-Ritz method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Lo, S. H.; Cheung, Y. K.

    2009-02-01

    The three-dimensional free vibration of annular sector plates with various boundary conditions is studied by means of the Chebyshev-Ritz method. The analysis is based on the three-dimensional small strain linear elasticity theory. The product of Chebyshev polynomials satisfying the necessary boundary conditions is selected as admissible functions in such a way that the governing eigenvalue equation can be conveniently derived through an optimization process by the Ritz method. The boundary functions guarantee the satisfaction of the geometric boundary conditions of the plates and the Chebyshev polynomials provide the robustness for numerical calculation. The present study provides a full vibration spectrum for the thick annular sector plates, which cannot be given by the two-dimensional (2-D) theories such as the Mindlin theory. Comprehensive numerical results with high accuracy are systematically produced, which can be used as benchmark to evaluate other numerical methods. The effect of radius ratio, thickness ratio and sector angle on natural frequencies of the plates with a sector angle from 120° to 360° is discussed in detail. The three-dimensional vibration solutions for plates with a re-entrant sector angle (larger than 180°) and shallow helicoidal shells (sector angle larger than 360°) with a small helix angle are presented for the first time.

  20. Analysis of the spatio-temporal and semantic aspects of land-cover/use change dynamics 1991-2001 in Albania at national and district levels.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Louisa J M; Carrai, Giancarlo; Morandini, Luca; Cerutti, Paolo O; Spisni, Andrea

    2006-08-01

    In the turmoil of a rapidly changing economy the Albanian government needs accurate and timely information for management of their natural resources and formulation of land-use policies. The transformation of the forestry sector has required major changes in the legal, regulatory and management framework. The World Bank financed Albanian National Forest Inventory project provides an analysis of spatially explicit land-cover/use change dynamics in the period 1991-2001 using the FAO/UNEP Land Cover Classification System for codification of classes, satellite remote sensing and field survey for data collection and elements of the object-oriented geo-database approach to handle changes as an evolution of land-cover/use objects, i.e. polygons, over time to facilitate change dynamics analysis. Analysis results at national level show the trend of natural resources depletion in the form of modifications and conversions that lead to a gradual shift from land-cover/use types with a tree cover to less dense tree covers or even a complete removal of trees. Policy failure (e.g., corruption, lack of law enforcement) is seen as the underlying cause. Another major trend is urbanisation of areas near large urban centres that change urban-rural linkages. Furthermore, after privatisation agricultural areas increased in the hills where environmental effects may be detrimental, while prime agricultural land in the plains is lost to urbanisation. At district level, the local variability of spatially explicit land-cover/use changes shows different types of natural resources depletion. The distribution of changes indicates a regional prevalence, thus a decentralised approach to the natural resources management could be advocated. PMID:16770509

  1. Analysis of the spatio-temporal and semantic aspects of land-cover/use change dynamics 1991-2001 in Albania at national and district levels.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Louisa J M; Carrai, Giancarlo; Morandini, Luca; Cerutti, Paolo O; Spisni, Andrea

    2006-08-01

    In the turmoil of a rapidly changing economy the Albanian government needs accurate and timely information for management of their natural resources and formulation of land-use policies. The transformation of the forestry sector has required major changes in the legal, regulatory and management framework. The World Bank financed Albanian National Forest Inventory project provides an analysis of spatially explicit land-cover/use change dynamics in the period 1991-2001 using the FAO/UNEP Land Cover Classification System for codification of classes, satellite remote sensing and field survey for data collection and elements of the object-oriented geo-database approach to handle changes as an evolution of land-cover/use objects, i.e. polygons, over time to facilitate change dynamics analysis. Analysis results at national level show the trend of natural resources depletion in the form of modifications and conversions that lead to a gradual shift from land-cover/use types with a tree cover to less dense tree covers or even a complete removal of trees. Policy failure (e.g., corruption, lack of law enforcement) is seen as the underlying cause. Another major trend is urbanisation of areas near large urban centres that change urban-rural linkages. Furthermore, after privatisation agricultural areas increased in the hills where environmental effects may be detrimental, while prime agricultural land in the plains is lost to urbanisation. At district level, the local variability of spatially explicit land-cover/use changes shows different types of natural resources depletion. The distribution of changes indicates a regional prevalence, thus a decentralised approach to the natural resources management could be advocated.

  2. Exploratory space-time analysis of reported dengue cases during an outbreak in Florida, Puerto Rico, 1991-1992.

    PubMed

    Morrison, A C; Getis, A; Santiago, M; Rigau-Perez, J G; Reiter, P

    1998-03-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of dengue cases reported during a 1991-1992 outbreak in Florida, Puerto Rico (population = 8,689), were studied by using a Geographic Information System. A total of 377 dengue cases were identified from a laboratory-based dengue surveillance system and georeferenced by their residential addresses on digital zoning and U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps. Weekly case maps were generated for the period between June and December 1991, when 94.2% of the dengue cases were reported. The temporal evolution of the epidemic was rapid, affecting a wide geographic area within seven weeks of the first reported cases of the season. Dengue cases were reported in 217 houses; of these 56 (25.8%) had between two and six reported cases. K-function analysis was used to characterize the spatial clustering patterns for all reported dengue cases (laboratory-positive and indeterminate) and laboratory-positive cases alone, while the Barton and David and Knox tests were used to characterize spatio-temporal attributes of dengue cases reported during the 1991-1992 outbreak. For both sets of data significant case clustering was identified within individual households over short periods of time (three days or less), but in general, the cases had spatial pattern characteristics much like the population pattern as a whole. The rapid temporal and spatial progress of the disease within the community suggests that control measures should be applied to the entire municipality, rather than to the areas immediately surrounding houses of reported cases. The potential for incorporating Geographic Information System technologies into a dengue surveillance system and the limitations of using surveillance data for spatial studies are discussed. PMID:9546405

  3. The mineral sector and economic development in Ghana: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addy, Samuel N.

    A computable general equilibrium model (CGE) model is formulated for conducting mineral policy analysis in the context of national economic development for Ghana. The model, called GHANAMIN, places strong emphasis on production, trade, and investment. It can be used to examine both micro and macro economic impacts of policies associated with mineral investment, taxation, and terms of trade changes, as well as mineral sector performance impacts due to technological change or the discovery of new deposits. Its economywide structure enables the study of broader development policy with a focus on individual or multiple sectors, simultaneously. After going through a period of contraction for about two decades, mining in Ghana has rebounded significantly and is currently the main foreign exchange earner. Gold alone contributed 44.7 percent of 1994 total export earnings. GHANAMIN is used to investigate the economywide impacts of mineral tax policies, world market mineral prices changes, mining investment, and increased mineral exports. It is also used for identifying key sectors for economic development. Various simulations were undertaken with the following results: Recently implemented mineral tax policies are welfare increasing, but have an accompanying decrease in the output of other export sectors. World mineral price rises stimulate an increase in real GDP; however, this increase is less than real GDP decreases associated with price declines. Investment in the non-gold mining sector increases real GDP more than investment in gold mining, because of the former's stronger linkages to the rest of the economy. Increased mineral exports are very beneficial to the overall economy. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in mining increases welfare more so than domestic capital, which is very limited. Mining investment and the increased mineral exports since 1986 have contributed significantly to the country's economic recovery, with gold mining accounting for 95 percent of the

  4. Effects of urban land-use change on streamflow and water quality in Oakland County, Michigan, 1970-2003, as inferred from urban gradient and temporal analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aichele, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    This apparent contradiction may be caused by the differences in the changes measured in each analysis. The change-through-time approach describes change from a fixed starting point of approximately 1970; the gradient approach describes the cumulative effect of all change up to approximately 2000. These findings indicate that although urbanization in Oakland County results in most of the effects observed in the literature, as evidenced in the gradient approach, relatively few of the anticipated effects have been observed during the past three decades. This relative stability despite rapid land-cover change may be related to efforts to mitigate the effects of development and a general decrease in the density of new residential development. It may also be related to external factors such as climate variability and reduced atmospheric deposition of specific chemicals. 

  5. Approaching 4 Decades of Legislation in the National Family Planning Program: An Analysis of Title X's History From 1970 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Ellen M.; Perrin, Kay M.; Mahan, Charles S.; Buhi, Eric R.

    2011-01-01

    Family planning is an important public health activity. Title X (Pub L No. 91-572), enacted in 1970, remains the only national family planning program in the United States dedicated to providing voluntary and confidential services to all individuals. We conducted a thematic analysis of Title X's legislative history. Of 293 federal bills included in the legislative history, only 20 (6.8%) were enacted into law. Regardless of the proposed challenges, limited changes have been adopted. Except for technical amendments, bills involving restrictions accounted for the highest percentage of enacted bills, demonstrating efforts to undermine reproductive health rights. Title X requires political will and bipartisan support if it is to continue to protect individuals' reproductive rights. PMID:21940931

  6. Macroergonomic analysis of an assembly sector of a furniture company.

    PubMed

    Cristiane, A A Z; Danielle, M D; Vanessa, C B

    2012-01-01

    From of Macroergonomic Analysis of Work were diagnosed the main ergonomics demands in a furniture company in the city of Cambé, Paraná. Through this method we could identify the most problematic points of the analyzed environment for posterior solutions of improvement with the objective of increasing the working and psychological quality of the employees, motivating their good performance and satisfaction. PMID:22317139

  7. Evidence of increased anthropogenic emissions of platinum: time-series analysis of mussels (1991-2011) of an urban beach.

    PubMed

    Neira, Patricia; Cobelo-García, Antonio; Besada, Victoria; Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Bellas, Juan

    2015-05-01

    The anthropogenic emissions of Pt to the environment have increased significantly over the past decades, especially after the introduction of the catalytic converters in motor vehicles. In order to check whether this is affecting the levels of this trace metal on living organisms, time-series analysis of freeze-dried soft tissue material of wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) covering the period from 1991 to 2001 and collected at an urban beach in the city of Vigo (NW Iberian Peninsula) was conducted. Concentrations ranged from 0.30 to 0.68 ng g(-1) with an average concentration of 0.47 ± 0.10 ng g(-1) (n=21); these concentrations were higher than those obtained for samples collected at a control location away from anthropogenic pressure (0.31 ± 0.10 ng g(-1); n=5). Platinum concentrations followed a statistically significant temporal trend (at the 0.020 level), and the excess of Pt in mussels over the 1991-2011 period compared to the control location were correlated with the European Pt autocatalyst demand (p=0.0006) and, especially, the car sales in Spain (p=0.0001). A bioaccumulation factor of ~5·10(3) was derived, which is greater than those previously calculated for Pt from exposure experiments, but 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than other trace elements (e.g. Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd).

  8. Education and Earnings: A Multilevel Analysis. A Case Study of the Manufacturing Sector in Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naderi, A.; Mace, J.

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the manufacturing sector of Iran, examines the existence of hierarchical structure in data used and the advantages of employing multilevel modeling in human capital analysis of earnings differentials. Finds that (1) data used are dominated by a hierarchical structure and (2) the amount of education and experience is significantly…

  9. Sensitivity analysis of conservation opportunities in the irrigated agriculture sector of the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.

    1985-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of a sensitivity analysis of the cost effectiveness and energy-savings potential of conservation measures in the irrigation sector of the Pacific Northwest. This study examines the sensitivity of estimates of the cost effectiveness and energy-savings potential of conservation measures in the irrigation sector generated in a previous study (Harrer et al. 1985c) to changes in various types of input data parameters: reductions in purchase, installation and operating/maintenance costs for irrigation-sector conservation measures. Increases in the amounts of irrigation pumping head savings that would result from the use of the measures were also implemented in the sensitivity analysis. The assumptions used in the sensitivity analysis cause the analysis to represent a ''best-case'' scenario for the amount of energy that can potentially be saved through the implementation of irrigation-sector conservation measures in the Pacific Northwest and the costs per kWh saved for obtaining these savings. Under these ''best-case'' assumptions, it is estimated that approximately 207 average megawatts of electricity can potentially be saved by the year 2003 through the implementation of low-pressure irrigation, pump fittings redesign, increases in mainline size, and improved irrigation scheduling on new and existing irrigated acres. The majority of these savings (70%) can be obtained for a cost of 20 mills per kWh saved or less.

  10. School Sector and Academic Achievement: A Multilevel Analysis of NAEP Mathematics Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Sarah Theule; Lubienski, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the 2003 National Assessment of Educational Progress, this analysis compared mathematics achievement in public, charter, and major types of private schools to examine whether disparities in achievement are due to differences in school performance or student demographics in various sectors. Hierarchical linear models were used to…

  11. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  12. Lost Opportunities in the Buildings Sector: Energy-Efficiency Analysis and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Dirks, James A.; Anderson, David M.; Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2008-09-12

    This report summarizes the results and the assumptions used in an analysis of the potential “lost efficiency opportunities” in the buildings sector. These targets of opportunity are those end-uses, applications, practices, and portions of the buildings market which are not currently being addressed, or addressed fully, by the Building Technologies Program (BTP) due to lack of resources. The lost opportunities, while a significant increase in effort and impact in the buildings sector, still represent only a small portion of the full technical potential for energy efficiency in buildings.

  13. Integrated power sector efficiency analysis: A case study of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.; MacDonald, J.M.

    1990-03-01

    In an effort to analyze and document the potential for power sector efficiency improvements from generation to end-use, the Agency for International Development and the Government of Costa Rica are jointly conducting an integrated power sector efficiency analysis. Potential for energy and cost savings in power plants, transmission and distribution, and demand-side management programs are being evaluated. The product of this study will be an integrated investment plan for the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, incorporating both supply and demand side investment options. This paper presents the methodology employed in the study, as well as preliminary estimates of the results of the study. 14 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Analysis of power sector efficiency improvements for an integrated utility planning process in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.; MacDonald, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to analyze and document the potential for power sector efficiency improvements from generation to end-use, the Agency for International Development and the Government of Costa Rica are jointly conducting an integrated power sector efficiency analysis. Potential for energy and cost savings in power plants, transmission and distribution, and demand-side management programs are being evaluated. The product of this study will be an integrated investment plan for the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, incorporating both supply and demand side investment options. This paper presents the methodology employed in the study, as well as preliminary estimates of the results of the study. 14 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Evolution and hazard analysis of high-mountain lakes in the Cordillera Vilcabamba (Southern Peru) from 1991 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardamino, Lucía; Drenkhan, Fabian

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, glaciers in high-mountain regions have experienced unprecedented glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age (LIA). This development triggers the formation and growth of glacier lakes, which in combination with changes in glacier parameters might produce more frequent conditions for the occurrence of disasters, such as Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF). Facing such a scenario, the analysis of changing lake characteristics and identification of new glacier lakes are imperative in order to identify and reduce potential hazards and mitigate or prevent future disasters for adjacent human settlements. In this study, we present a multi-temporal analysis with Landsat TM 5 and OLI 8 images between 1991 and 2014 in the Cordillera Vilcabamba region (Southern Peru), a remote area with difficult access and climate and glaciological in-situ data scarcity. A semi-automatic model was developed using the band ratios Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) in order to identify glacier and lake area changes. Results corroborate a strong glacier area reduction of about 51% from 1991 (200.3 km²) to 2014 (98.4 km²). At the same time, the number of lakes (total lake surface) has increased at an accelerated rate, from 0.77% (0.48%) in 1991 to 2.31% (2.49%) in 2014. In a multiple criteria analysis to identify potential hazards, 90 out of a total of 329 lakes in 2014 have been selected for further monitoring. Additionally, 29 population centers have been identified as highly exposed to lake related hazards from which 25 indicate a distance less than 1 km to an upstream lake and four are situated in a channel of potential debris flow. In these areas human risks are particularly high in view of a low HDI below Peru's average and hence pronounced vulnerability. We suggest more future research on measurements and monitoring of glacier and lake characteristics in these remote high-mountain regions, which include comprehensive risk

  16. Globalization, Development and International Migration: A Cross-National Analysis of Less-Developed Countries, 1970-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Matthew R.; Kentor, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely argued that globalization and economic development are associated with international migration. However, these relationships have not been tested empirically. We use a cross-national empirical analysis to assess the impact of global and national factors on international migration from less-developed countries. An interdisciplinary…

  17. Estimating size and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector using the Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-02-15

    This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the Portuguese water sector applying Bayesian and classical statistics to make inference in stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This study proves the usefulness and advantages of the application of Bayesian statistics for making inference in SFA over traditional SFA which just uses classical statistics. The resulting Bayesian methods allow overcoming some problems that arise in the application of the traditional SFA, such as the bias in small samples and skewness of residuals. In the present case study of the water sector in Portugal, these Bayesian methods provide more plausible and acceptable results. Based on the results obtained we found that there are important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope in the Portuguese water sector, pointing out to the huge advantages in undertaking mergers by joining the retail and wholesale components and by joining the drinking water and wastewater services.

  18. Estimating size and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector using the Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-02-15

    This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the Portuguese water sector applying Bayesian and classical statistics to make inference in stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This study proves the usefulness and advantages of the application of Bayesian statistics for making inference in SFA over traditional SFA which just uses classical statistics. The resulting Bayesian methods allow overcoming some problems that arise in the application of the traditional SFA, such as the bias in small samples and skewness of residuals. In the present case study of the water sector in Portugal, these Bayesian methods provide more plausible and acceptable results. Based on the results obtained we found that there are important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope in the Portuguese water sector, pointing out to the huge advantages in undertaking mergers by joining the retail and wholesale components and by joining the drinking water and wastewater services. PMID:26674686

  19. Development of an improved commercial sector energy model for national policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.

    1992-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory provided support to the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE), under the Office of Planning and Assessment, to develop improved energy and environmental analysis tools. Commercial building sector energy models from the past decade were analyzed in order to provoke comment and stimulate discussion between potential model users and developers as to the appropriate structure and capability of a commercial sector energy model supported by CE. Three specific areas were examined during this review. These areas provide (1) a look at recent suggestions and guidance as to what constitutes a minimal set of requirements and capabilities for a commercial buildings energy model for CE, (2) a review of several existing models in terms of their general structure and how they match up with the requirements listed previously, and (3) an overview of a proposed improved commercial sector energy model.

  20. External assistance to the health sector in developing countries: a detailed analysis, 1972-90.

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, C.; Murray, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    This study, which was conducted for the World Bank's World development report 1993: investing in health, provides an objective analysis of the external assistance to the health sector by quantifying in detail the sources and recipients of such assistance in 1990, by analysing time trends for external assistance to the health sector over the last two decades, and, to the extent possible, by describing the allocation of resources to specific activities in the health sector. The main findings of the study are that total external assistance to the health sector in 1990 was US$ 4800 million, or only 2.9% of total health expenditures in developing countries. After stagnation in real terms during the first half of the 1980s, health sector assistance has been increasing since 1986. Despite their small volume, external assistance at the margins may play a critical role in capital investment, research and strategic planning. The study confirms prior findings that health status variables per se are not related to the amount of aid received. Comparing investments to the burden of disease shows tremendous differences in the funding for different health problems. A number of conditions are comparatively under-financed, particularly noncommunicable diseases and injuries. PMID:7923543

  1. Thermal-hydraulics and safety analysis of sectored compact reactor for lunar surface power

    SciTech Connect

    Schriener, T. M.; El-Genk, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    The liquid NaK-cooled, fast-neutron spectrum, Sectored Compact Reactor (SCoRe-N 5) concept has been developed at the Univ. of New Mexico for lunar surface power applications. It is loaded with highly enriched UN fuel pins in a triangular lattice, and nominally operates at exit and inlet coolant temperatures of 850 K and 900 K. This long-life reactor generates up to 1 MWth continuously for {>=} 20 years. To avoid a single point failure in reactor cooling, the core is divided into 6 sectors that are neutronically and thermally coupled, but hydraulically independent. This paper performs a 3-D the thermal-hydraulic analysis of SCoRe--N 5 at nominal operation temperatures and a power level of 1 MWth. In addition, the paper investigates the potential of continuing reactor operation at a lower power in the unlikely event that one sector in the core experiences a loss of coolant (LOC). Redesigning the core with a contiguous steel matrix enhances the cooling of the sector experiencing a LOC. Results show that with a core sector experiencing a LOC, SCORE-N 5 could continue operating safely at a reduced power of 166.6 kWth. (authors)

  2. Comparative analysis of energy data bases for the industrial and commercial sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Belzer, D.B.; Bohn, A.A.

    1986-12-01

    Energy data bases for the industrial and commercial sectors were analyzed to determine how valuable this data might be for policy analysis. The approach is the same for both end-use sectors: first a descrption or overview of relevant data bases identifies the available data; the coverage and methods used to generate the data are then explained; the data are then characterized and examples are provided for the major data sets under consideration. A final step assesses the data bases under consideration and draws conclusions. There are a variety of data bases considered for each of the end-use sectors included in this report. Data bases for the industrial sector include the National Energy Accounts, process-derived data bases such as the Drexel data base and data obtained from industry trade associations. For the commercial sector, three types of data bases are analyzed: the Nonresidential Building Energy Consumption Surveys, Dodge Construction Data and the Building Owners and Manager's Association Experience Exchange Report.

  3. Conic Sector Analysis of Hybrid Control Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P. M.

    1982-01-01

    A hybrid control system contains an analog plant and a hybrid (or sampled-data) compensator. In this thesis a new conic sector is determined which is constructive and can be used to: (1) determine closed loop stability, (2) analyze robustness with respect to modelling uncertainties, (3) analyze steady state response to commands, and (4) select the sample rate. The use of conic sectors allows the designer to treat hybrid control systems as though they were analog control systems. The center of the conic sector can be used as a rigorous linear time invariant approximation of the hybrid control system, and the radius places a bound on the errors of this approximation. The hybrid feedback system can be multivariable, and the sampler is assumed to be synchronous. Algorithms to compute the conic sector are presented. Several examples demonstrate how the conic sector analysis techniques are applied. Extensions to single loop multirate hybrid feedback systems are presented. Further extensions are proposed for multiloop multirate hybrid feedback system and for single rate systems with asynchronous sampling.

  4. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  5. An analysis of inputs cost for carp farming sector in 2001 in Iran.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Hassan

    2007-11-01

    Carp is widely sold and used in its fresh in Iran, however, recently a range of value additions may also be observed. It is essential to the sustainable development of a carp farm to know the production costs and their contribution. Warm-water fish farming is mainly based on common, silver, grass and bighead carp and the common carp and the three Chinese species are often reared in poly culture in Iran. Since, the 1970s carp farming has spread around the Caspian coast and farmed production reached a peak in 2006 with production of more than 73,400 tons. A study of production, costs and profitability of carp farming sector was carried out to help clarify carp production costs and their difference with location in 2001. A total of 101 farms from the three main carp farming provinces, Guilan, Mazandaran and Khuzestan were randomly selected, classified and studied. The results of the survey showed that the various producer provinces have different cost structures. Overall, feed and fertilizer with the highest level of variation accounted for 23% of total costs, followed by seed and labor and salary with 23 and 17%, respectively. On average, benefit-cost ratio and the rate of farm income were closely related to location. This result suggests that farmers practice more efficiently and have better conditions in Mazandaran, followed by Guilan province. PMID:19090234

  6. An analysis of inputs cost for carp farming sector in 2001 in Iran.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Hassan

    2007-11-01

    Carp is widely sold and used in its fresh in Iran, however, recently a range of value additions may also be observed. It is essential to the sustainable development of a carp farm to know the production costs and their contribution. Warm-water fish farming is mainly based on common, silver, grass and bighead carp and the common carp and the three Chinese species are often reared in poly culture in Iran. Since, the 1970s carp farming has spread around the Caspian coast and farmed production reached a peak in 2006 with production of more than 73,400 tons. A study of production, costs and profitability of carp farming sector was carried out to help clarify carp production costs and their difference with location in 2001. A total of 101 farms from the three main carp farming provinces, Guilan, Mazandaran and Khuzestan were randomly selected, classified and studied. The results of the survey showed that the various producer provinces have different cost structures. Overall, feed and fertilizer with the highest level of variation accounted for 23% of total costs, followed by seed and labor and salary with 23 and 17%, respectively. On average, benefit-cost ratio and the rate of farm income were closely related to location. This result suggests that farmers practice more efficiently and have better conditions in Mazandaran, followed by Guilan province.

  7. Big Data Analysis Framework for Healthcare and Social Sectors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae-Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We reviewed applications of big data analysis of healthcare and social services in developed countries, and subsequently devised a framework for such an analysis in Korea. Methods We reviewed the status of implementing big data analysis of health care and social services in developed countries, and strategies used by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea (Government 3.0). We formulated a conceptual framework of big data in the healthcare and social service sectors at the national level. As a specific case, we designed a process and method of social big data analysis on suicide buzz. Results Developed countries (e.g., the United States, the UK, Singapore, Australia, and even OECD and EU) are emphasizing the potential of big data, and using it as a tool to solve their long-standing problems. Big data strategies for the healthcare and social service sectors were formulated based on an ICT-based policy of current government and the strategic goals of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. We suggest a framework of big data analysis in the healthcare and welfare service sectors separately and assigned them tentative names: 'health risk analysis center' and 'integrated social welfare service network'. A framework of social big data analysis is presented by applying it to the prevention and proactive detection of suicide in Korea. Conclusions There are some concerns with the utilization of big data in the healthcare and social welfare sectors. Thus, research on these issues must be conducted so that sophisticated and practical solutions can be reached. PMID:25705552

  8. Water-quality trend analysis and sampling design for streams in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1970-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is considering several alternatives to meet the future municipal, rural, and industrial water-supply needs in the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin, and an environmental impact statement is being prepared to evaluate the potential effects of the various alternatives on the water quality and aquatic health in the basin in relation to the historical variability of streamflow and constituent concentration. Therefore, a water-quality trend analysis was needed to determine the amount of natural water-quality variability that can be expected to occur in the basin, to determine if significant water-quality changes have occurred as a result of human activities, to explore potential causal mechanisms for water-quality changes, and to establish a baseline from which to monitor future water-quality trends. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, to analyze historical water-quality trends in two dissolved major ions, dissolved solids, three nutrients, and two dissolved trace metals for nine streamflow-gaging stations in the basin. Annual variability in streamflow in the Red River Basin was high during the trend-analysis period (1970-2001). The annual variability affects constituent concentrations in individual tributaries to the Red River and, in turn, affects constituent concentrations in the main stem of the Red River because of the relative streamflow contribution from the tributaries to the main stem. Therefore, an annual concentration anomaly, which is an estimate of the interannual variability in concentration that can be attributed to long-term variability in streamflow, was used to analyze annual streamflow-related variability in constituent concentrations. The concentration trend is an estimate of the long-term systematic changes in concentration that are unrelated to seasonal or long-term variability in streamflow. Concentrations that have both

  9. Accounting for trends in health poverty: a decomposition analysis for Britain, 1991-2008.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Michal

    2015-03-01

    We use data from the British Household Panel Survey to analyse changes in poverty of self-reported health from 1991 to 2008. We use the indices recently introduced by Bennett and Hatzimasoura (Poverty measurement with ordinal data. Institute for International Economic Policy, IIEP-WP-2011-14, 2011), which can be interpreted as ordinal counterparts of the classical Foster et al. (Econometrica 52(3):761-766, 1984) poverty measures. We decompose changes in self-reported health poverty over time into within-group health poverty changes and population shifts between groups. We also provide statistical inference for the Bennett and Hatzimasoura's (Poverty measurement with ordinal data. Institute for International Economic Policy, IIEP-WP-2011-14, 2011) indices. Results suggest that when "fair" self-reported health status is chosen as a health poverty threshold all of the used indices indicate the growth of health poverty in Britain. However, when the health poverty threshold is lower ("poor" self-reported health status) the increase in health poverty incidence was compensated by decreasing average health poverty depth and improving health inequality among those who are poor with respect to health. The subgroup decompositions suggest that the most important factors accounting for the changes in total health poverty in Britain include a rise of both health poverty and population shares of persons cohabiting and couples with no children as well as an increase of the population of retired persons.

  10. [The alcoholization process in Latin America. Critical analysis of biomedical and sociological production, 1970-1980 (2)].

    PubMed

    Menéndez, E L

    1984-03-01

    This work analyses the bibliographical production in the sociological and biomedical fields on alcoholization generated within and for Latin America during the seventies. This production is characterized by a unilaterally "pathologizing" outlook, which contrasts with the outlook dominant in the socio-anthropological fields, and which was analysed in a previous work. Empirical and factorial outlook dominate, in both, theory and methodology. They stress again an approach whose serious limitations have already been shown. The dominant technical elements--the sociological and epidemiological inquest--keep on being utilized, in spite of the many criticisms which they have received. Data obtained not only bears little relevance on the problem, but also stresses facts at a level of depth which is not justified, and do not justify, the theoretical framework of analysis. In spite of the fact that unsystematized empirical data and specific research which has been undertaken in other regional areas have made reference to a continual deficit on the part of the health team for the diagnosis and treatment of the alcoholization process; we hardly have any research which can throw light on the scientific and ideological limitations of medical and paramedical actions. Besides, we do not have a systematic analysis of alternative therapeutic strategics. All bibliographical publications refers, in a very biased way, the process of alcoholization to the lower population strata, without any critical reflection on that association. The biomedical dimension, although it utilizes conceptions and viewpoints which have been taken from anthropological and sociological production, this appropiation has meant a modification, which, in fact, has caused a split between the two dominant productions in Latin America: the biomedical and the anthropological one. This split replicates the conflict between models, that operates within other national and international contexts. PMID:6741586

  11. Analysis of health sector gender equality and social inclusion strategy 2009 of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Mahara, G B; Dhital, S R

    2014-01-01

    The policy on gender equality and social inclusion (GESI) in health sector of Nepal is formulated in 2009 targeting toward poor, vulnerable, marginalized social and ethnic groups. Gender inequality and social discrimination are a social problem that affect on individual health finally. The main objective of this paper is to critically analysis and evaluates the Government's strategy on health sector gender equality and social inclusion in Nepal. We collected published and unpublished information assessing the public health, policy analysis and research needs from different sources. A different policy approaches for the analysis and evaluation of GESI strategies is applied in this paper. Universal education, community participation, individual, group and mass communication approaches, and social capital are the key aspects of effective implementation of policy at target levels.

  12. The public sector nursing workforce in Kenya: a county-level analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Kenya’s human resources for health shortage is well documented, yet in line with the new constitution, responsibility for health service delivery will be devolved to 47 new county administrations. This work describes the public sector nursing workforce likely to be inherited by the counties, and examines the relationships between nursing workforce density and key indicators. Methods National nursing deployment data linked to nursing supply data were used and analyzed using statistical and geographical analysis software. Data on nurses deployed in national referral hospitals and on nurses deployed in non-public sector facilities were excluded from main analyses. The densities and characteristics of the public sector nurses across the counties were obtained and examined against an index of county remoteness, and the nursing densities were correlated with five key indicators. Results Of the 16,371 nurses in the public non-tertiary sector, 76% are women and 53% are registered nurses, with 35% of the nurses aged 40 to 49 years. The nursing densities across counties range from 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000 population. There are statistically significant associations of the nursing densities with a measure of health spending per capita (P value = 0.0028) and immunization rates (P value = 0.0018). A higher county remoteness index is associated with explaining lower female to male ratio of public sector nurses across counties (P value <0.0001). Conclusions An overall shortage of nurses (range of 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000) in the public sector countrywide is complicated by mal-distribution and varying workforce characteristics (for example, age profile) across counties. All stakeholders should support improvements in human resources information systems and help address personnel shortages and mal-distribution if equitable, quality health-care delivery in the counties is to be achieved. PMID:24467776

  13. Green corona and solar sector structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonucci, E.; Svalgaard, L.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of the green-line corona for the interval 1947-1970 suggests the existence of large-scale organization of the emission. The green-line emission at high northern latitudes (approximately 40 to 60 deg) is correlated with the emission at high southern latitudes 6, 15, and 24 days later, while the low-latitude green corona seems to be correlated on both sides of the equator with no time lag. These coronal features are recurrent with a 27-day period at all latitudes between plus or minus 60 deg, and these large-scale structures are believed to be associated with the solar magnetic sector structure. The high correlation between northern and southern high-latitude emission at 15 days time lag is explained as a signature of a two-sector structure, while four sectors are associated with the 6- and 24-day peaks.

  14. Industrial process fuel switching analysis. Topical report, September 1990-March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The study was undertaken to develop accurate, up-to-date profiles of process heat energy consumption and assess the fuel switching capability from natural gas to No. 6 oil for the industrial sector. Energy profiles of drying, calcining, clay firing, petroleum refining, copper smelting, chemical fluid heating, steel heating, iron melting, iron smelting, and ferrous heat treating processes were developed. The natural gas capacity switchable to No. 6 residual oil was also determined. It was determined that 18% (262 trillion Btu) of the natural gas capacity was convertible to No. 6 oil in these processes. Fuel switching capability of No. 6 oil is on the decline in many of the industrial processes. This is due to: replacement of aging equipment capable to burning both natural gas and No. 6 oil, availability and cost effectiveness of natural gas utilization, and emission standards set by amendments to the Clean Air Act and other environmental regulations.

  15. Analysis of US commercial building energy use trends, 1972--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.; Marsh, T.L.; Sands, R.D.

    1994-08-01

    Over the past two decades energy consumption in commercial buildings has been the fastest growing segment among the major end-use sectors in the US. This paper provides a decomposition of the major factors behind the trends in commercial energy use over this period. It examines the impact on overall commercial sector energy intensity from: (1) new buildings, (2) changes in the composition of buildings by geographic region and building type, (3) the growth in office equipment and computers, and (4) the influence of several common envelope conservation measures. A statistical decomposition of historical monthly electricity and gas consumption data is developed to separate energy use into heating, cooling, and ventilation (HVAC) and other components (non-HVAC). This data is then used in conjunction with historical commercial building floor space estimates to derive end-use intensities for these components of energy consumption. Deterministic analyses are performed to estimate the impacts of other factors. The impact of new buildings is measured by estimating the average improvement in heating efficiencies for buildings built after 1980. The effect of building composition on aggregate commercial building energy intensity is based upon estimates of historical floor space by building type and region and building-specific intensities derived from the 1989 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). Stocks of various types of office equipment were constructed from industry statistics and independent surveys. The stocks of selected office equipment were combined with estimates of unit energy consumption to estimate the impact on total commercial electricity consumption. For estimating changes in energy intensity due to the building retrofits, the study utilizes a new energy simulation tool developed as part of the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system for the US Department of Energy.

  16. A multivariate analysis of observed and modeled biophysical variability on the Bering Sea shelf: Multidecadal hindcasts (1970-2009) and forecasts (2010-2040)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Albert J.; Gibson, Georgina A.; Bond, Nicholas A.; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Hedstrom, Kate; Cheng, Wei; Wang, Muyin; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Eisner, Lisa; Cieciel, Kristin D.

    2013-10-01

    Coupled physical/biological models can be used to downscale global climate change to the ecology of subarctic regions, and to explore the bottom-up and top-down effects of that change on the spatial structure of subarctic ecosystems—for example, the relative dominance of large vs. small zooplankton in relation to ice cover. Here we utilize a multivariate statistical approach to extract the emergent properties of a coupled physical/biological hindcast of the Bering Sea for years 1970-2009, which includes multiple episodes of warming and cooling (e.g. the recent cooling of 2005-2009), and a multidecadal regional forecast of the coupled models, driven by an IPCC global model forecast of 2010-2040. Specifically, we employ multivariate empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to derive the spatial covariance among physical and biological timeseries from our simulations. These are compared with EOFs derived from spatially gridded measurements of the region, collected during multiyear field programs. The model replicates observed relationships among temperature and salinity, as well as the observed inverse correlation between temperature and large crustacean zooplankton on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Predicted future warming of the shelf is accompanied by a northward shift in both pelagic and benthic biomass.

  17. Technology Outlook for STEM+ Education 2013-2018: An NMC Horizon Project Sector Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Estrada, V.; Martín, S.

    2013-01-01

    The "Technology Outlook for STEM+ Education 2013-2018: An NMC Horizon Project Sector Analysis" reflects a collaborative research effort between the New Media Consortium (NMC), the Centro Superior para la Enseñanza Virtual (CSEV), the Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Electrónica y de Control at the Universidad Nacional de Educación a…

  18. Trends in Family Income: 1970-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roberton C.

    Comparing the experiences of different types of families, this report analyzes family incomes in the United States from 1970 to 1986. The adjusted family income (AFI) measure used in the analysis corrects for family size and for inflation, but does not take account of either in-kind income or taxes. After a section summarizing the report's…

  19. Statistics of Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Schools, 1970-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertler, Diane B.; Barker, Linda A.

    This publication presents the results obtained from the most recent Survey of Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education (1970-71). The data included present a measurement of the scope and describe some of the characteristics of the schools comprising the nonpublic sector, and reflect the status of these schools in the 50 States and the District…

  20. Region growing by sector analysis for detection of blue-gray ovoids in basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guvenc, S. Pelin; Leander, Robert W.; Kefel, Serkan; Rader, Ryan K.; Hinton, Kristen A.; Stricklin, Sherea M.; Stoecker, William V.

    2014-01-01

    Blue-gray ovoids (B-GOs) are critical dermoscopic structures in basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) that pose a challenge for automatic detection. Due to variation in size and color, B-GOs can be easily mistaken for similar structures in benign lesions. Analysis of these structures could help further accomplish the goal of automatic BCC detection. This study introduces an efficient sector-based method for segmenting B-GOs. Four modifications of conventional region-growing techniques are presented: (i) employing a seed area rather than a seed point, (ii) utilizing fixed control limits determined from the seed area to eliminate re-calculations of previously-added regions, (iii) determining region growing criteria using logistic regression, and (iv) area analysis and expansion by sectors. Contact dermoscopy images of 68 confirmed BCCs having B-GOs were obtained. A total of 24 color features were analyzed for all B-GO seed areas. Logistic regression analysis determined blue chromaticity, followed by red variance, were the best features for discriminating B-GO edges from surrounding areas. Segmentation of malignant structures obtained an average Pratt's figure of merit of 0.397. The techniques presented here provide a non-recursive, sector-based, region-growing method applicable to any colored structure appearing in digital images. Further research using these techniques could lead to automatic detection of B-GOs in BCCs. PMID:23724851

  1. Factors Influencing the Organizational Stress among Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector in Kerala: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to explore the various factors that influence the organizational stress of teachers working in higher education sector in the state of Kerala. The data required for the study has been conveniently collected from 200 teachers working in higher education sector. Exploratory factor analysis revealed nine factors, which significantly…

  2. Toward the greening of nuclear energy: A content analysis of nuclear energy frames from 1991 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Sonya R.

    Framing theory has emerged as one of the predominant theories employed in mass communications research in the 21st century. Frames are identified as interpretive packages for content where some issue attributes are highlighted over other attributes. While framing effects studies appear plentiful, longitudinal studies assessing trends in dominant framing packages and story elements for an issue appear to be less understood. Through content analysis, this study examines dominant frame packages, story elements, headline tone, story tone, stereotypes, and source attribution for nuclear energy from 1991-2008 in the New York Times, USA Today, the Wall Street Journal, and the Washington Post. Unlike many content analysis studies, this study compares intercoder reliability among three indices---percentage agreement, proportional reduction of loss and Scott's Pi. The newspapers represented in this study possess a commonality in the types of dominant frames packages employed. Significant dominant frame packages among the four newspapers include human/health, proliferation, procedural, and marketplace. While the procedural frame package was more likely to appear prior to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the proliferation frame packaged was more likely to appear after the Kyoto Protol. Over time, the sustainable frame package demonstrated increased significance. This study is part of the growing literature regarding the function of frames over time.

  3. Models for residential-and commercial-sector energy conservation analysis: Applications, limitations, and future potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, H. E.; Fuller, R. E.

    1980-09-01

    Four of the major models used by DOE for energy conservation analyses in the residential and commercial building sectors are reviewed and critically analyzed to determine how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. The most effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy conservation policy and analysis is assessed. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  4. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  5. Private participation in infrastructure: A risk analysis of long-term contracts in power sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceran, Nisangul

    The objective of this dissertation is to assess whether the private participation in energy sector through long term contracting, such as Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) type investments, is an efficient way of promoting efficiency in the economy. To this end; the theoretical literature on the issue is discussed, the experience of several developing countries are examined, and a BOT project, which is undertaken by the Enron company in Turkey, has been studied in depth as a case study. Different risk analysis techniques, including sensitivity and probabilistic risk analysis with the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method have been applied to assess the financial feasibility and risks of the case study project, and to shed light on the level of rent-seeking in the BOT agreements. Although data on rent seeking and corruption is difficult to obtain, the analysis of case study investment using the sensitivity and MCS method provided some information that can be used in assessing the level of rent-seeking in BOT projects. The risk analysis enabled to test the sustainability of the long-term BOT contracts through the analysis of projects financial feasibility with and without the government guarantees in the project. The approach of testing the sustainability of the project under different scenarios is helpful to understand the potential costs and contingent liabilities for the government and project's impact on a country's overall economy. The results of the risk analysis made by the MCS method for the BOT project used as the case study strongly suggest that, the BOT projects does not serve to the interest of the society and transfers substantial amount of public money to the private companies, implying severe governance problems. It is found that not only government but also private sector may be reluctant about full privatization of infrastructure due to several factors such as involvement of large sunk costs, very long time period for returns to be received, political and

  6. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector-A qualitative content analysis of the political rationale.

    PubMed

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During the preparatory work, the rationales of diversity on the market and entrepreneurship were added, while the original rationales of efficiency, price pressure, and better usage of medicines were abandoned. The reform can be seen as a typical New Public Management reform influenced by the notion that private actors are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use. PMID:25841749

  7. Conceptual models for waste tank mechanistic analysis. Status report, January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Allemann, R. T.; Antoniak, Z. I.; Eyler, L. L.; Liljegren, L. M.; Roberts, J. S.

    1992-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting a study for Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), a contractor for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of the work is to study possible mechanisms and fluid dynamics contributing to the periodic release of gases from double-shell waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This interim report emphasizing the modeling work follows two other interim reports, Mechanistic Analysis of Double-Shell Tank Gas Release Progress Report -- November 1990 and Collection and Analysis of Existing Data for Waste Tank Mechanistic Analysis Progress Report -- December 1990, that emphasized data correlation and mechanisms. The approach in this study has been to assemble and compile data that are pertinent to the mechanisms, analyze the data, evaluate physical properties and parameters, evaluate hypothetical mechanisms, and develop mathematical models of mechanisms.

  8. A genetic analysis of Adh1 regulation. Progress report, June 1991--February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Freeling, M.

    1992-03-01

    The overall goal of our research proposal is to understand the meaning of the various cis-acting sites responsible for AdH1 expression in the entire maize plant. Progress is reported in the following areas: Studies on the TATA box and analysis of revertants of the Adh1-3F1124 allele; screening for more different mutants that affect Adh1 expression differentially; studies on cis-acting sequences required for root-specific Adh1 expression; refinement of the use of the particle gun; and functional analysis of a non- glycolytic anaerobic protein.

  9. A Content Analysis of the CNHEO Journals for Policy and Advocacy Articles: 1991-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galer-Unti, Regina A.; Miller, Susan M.; Tappe, Marlene K.

    2004-01-01

    Advocacy and public policy were determined to be one of the six key focal points for the profession at the Health Education in the 21st Century meeting held in 1995. A content analysis of journals of the member organizations of the Coalition of National Health Education Organizations was conducted to discover whether there was a difference in the…

  10. The Impact Analysis of Direct Public R&D and Innovation Investments in Turkish Space Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Derya; Cakir, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    According to The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), space sector plays a pivotal role in the functioning of modern societies and their economic development. It is in the scope of OECD's International Futures Programme. The global space economy, as defined by the OECD Space Forum, comprises the space industry's core activities in space manufacturing and in satellite operations, plus other consumer activities that have been derived over the years from governmental research and development. In 2013 commercial revenues generated by the space economy amounted to USD 256.2 billion globally that is huge amount of space investment in the world. Recently, Turkey has also entered to the sector and it has growing strategic interest in space. First satellite project was started with a technology transfer from UK by TUBITAK Space Technologies Research Institute in 2001 and it launched to its orbit in 2003. Then RASAT and GÖKTÜRK-2 satellites were developed and launched to their orbits respectively in 2011 and 2012. Today, we have other satellite projects that are going on, too. However, we do not have a mechanism or a model to assess the impacts of those projects. What kind of model can be used to measure the impact of direct public R&D and innovation investments in Turkish space sector? The aim of this study is to develop a model which would be useful for monitoring the performance of R&D and Innovation investments that are conducted through government policies and strategies and so on to give feedback for effective strategy making. When we look at the impact analysis studies in Turkey, we see a few such as TUBITAK (Özçelik and Taymaz, 2008; Erden, 2010; Tandoǧan, 2011), İşkur (World Bank Report, 2013), Ministry of Economy (TTGV, 2013), Development Agencies (İZKA, 2011; Elçi vd., 2011; Pınar, 2014; Meydan, 2014). There is need for a systematic approach to impact analysis. Since there is no data for this study, we would develop a model with

  11. More on the alleged 1970 geomagnetic jerk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    French and United Kingdom workers have published reports describing a sudden change in the secular acceleration, called an impulse or a jerk, which took place around 1970. They claim that this change took place in a period of a year or two and that the sources of the alleged jerk are internal. An earlier paper by this author questioned their method of analysis pointing out that their method of piecemeal fitting of parabolas to the data will always create a discontinuity in the secular acceleration where the parabolas join and that the place where the parabolas join is an a priori assumption and not a result of the analysis. This paper gives a very brief summary of this first paper and then adds additional reasons for questioning the allegation that there was a worldwide sudden jerk in the magnetic field of internal origin around 1970. These new reasons are based largely on new field models which give cubic approximations of the field right through the 1970 timeframe and therefore have no discontinuities in the second derivative (jerk) around 1970. Some recent Japanese work shows several sudden changes in the secular variation pattern which cover limited areas and do not seem to be closely related to each other or to the irregularity noted in the European area near 1970. The secular variation picture which seems to be emerging is one with many local or limited-regional secular variation changes which appear to be almost unrelated to each other in time or space. A worldwide spherical harmonic model including coefficients up to degree 13 could never properly depict such a situation. ?? 1985.

  12. Crew interface analysis: Selected articles on space human factors research, 1987 - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagian, Tandi (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    As part of the Flight Crew Support Division at NASA, the Crew Interface Analysis Section is dedicated to the study of human factors in the manned space program. It assumes a specialized role that focuses on answering operational questions pertaining to NASA's Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom Programs. One of the section's key contributions is to provide knowledge and information about human capabilities and limitations that promote optimal spacecraft and habitat design and use to enhance crew safety and productivity. The section provides human factors engineering for the ongoing missions as well as proposed missions that aim to put human settlements on the Moon and Mars. Research providing solutions to operational issues is the primary objective of the Crew Interface Analysis Section. The studies represent such subdisciplines as ergonomics, space habitability, man-computer interaction, and remote operator interaction.

  13. Direct conversion technology. Annual summary report CY 1991, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  14. A genetic analysis of Adhl regulation. Progress report, June 1991--May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Freeling, M.

    1992-12-01

    Several separate but related studies are reported on the mechanism of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh-1) are reported. A study of a deletion mutation in the TATA box region which resulted in an increase from 6--60% of wildtype Adh-1 expression in the revertant has led to a focus on trans-acting protein factors that bind the TATA box. Analysis of another revertant has led to study of cis-acting sequences in Adh-1 expression. Screening efforts aimed at defining different mutants affecting Adh-1 expression are reported.

  15. Cost benefit analysis of excess flow valves: An update. Topical report, August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-26

    Calculations and analysis of the cost-to-benefit ratio of using excess flow valves (EFVs) of all U.S. new and renewed gas services operating at 10 psig or more are presented. The study is an update of an earlier evaluation performed by the same contractor, entitled 'Costs and Benefits of Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution Services' (GRI-86/0022). As calculated with up-to-date information and average operating cost data, the ratio continues to be unfavorable even when using high value for human life and injury and low operating cost data. Data collected from EFV users indicate that EFVs are highly reliable and generally perform as required with very few problems. The report expresses the opinion that the cost-to-benefit ratio is highly dependent on individual company operations, location, and pipeline characteristics, and that the decision to use EFVs should be left to individual companies after performing their own cost benefit analysis, which should include an assessment of alternative accident mitigation measures.

  16. Geotechnical field data and analysis report, July 1991--June 1992. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report presents the data for the assessments of the geotechnical status of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). During the period of shaft sinking and construction of the principal underground access and experimental areas, reporting was on a quarterly basis. Since 1987, reporting has been carried out annually because excavation of the waste storage panels will take place more slowly and over an extended period. This report presents the data collected up to June 30, 1992. This report focuses on the presentation of geotechnical data from the various underground facilities including the shafts, shaft stations, access drifts, test rooms, and waste storage areas. It also describes the techniques used to acquire the data and the performance history of the instruments.

  17. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis. Quarterly report, April--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.

  18. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis. Quarterly report, January--March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.

  19. Applying machine learning techniques to DNA sequence analysis. Progress report, February 14, 1991--February 13, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Shavlik, J.W.

    1992-04-01

    We are developing a machine learning system that modifies existing knowledge about specific types of biological sequences. It does this by considering sample members and nonmembers of the sequence motif being learned. Using this information (which we call a ``domain theory``), our learning algorithm produces a more accurate representation of the knowledge needed to categorize future sequences. Specifically, the KBANN algorithm maps inference rules, such as consensus sequences, into a neural (connectionist) network. Neural network training techniques then use the training examples of refine these inference rules. We have been applying this approach to several problems in DNA sequence analysis and have also been extending the capabilities of our learning system along several dimensions.

  20. Anatomical sector analysis of load-bearing tibial bone structure during 90-day bed rest and 1-year recovery.

    PubMed

    Cervinka, Tomas; Rittweger, Jörn; Hyttinen, Jari; Felsenberg, Dieter; Sievänen, Harri

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the bone response to long bed rest-related immobility and during subsequent recovery differed at anatomically different sectors of tibial epiphysis and diaphysis. For this study, peripheral quantitative tomographic (pQCT) scans obtained from a previous 90-day 'Long Term Bed Rest' intervention were preprocessed with a new method based on statistical approach and re-analysed sector-wise. The pQCT was performed on 25 young healthy males twice before the bed rest, after the bed rest and after 1-year follow-up. All men underwent a strict bed rest intervention, and in addition, seven of them received pamidronate treatment and nine did flywheel exercises as countermeasures against disuse-related bone loss. Clearly, 3-9% sector-specific losses in trabecular density were observed at the tibial epiphysis on average. Similarly, cortical density decreased in a sector-specific way being the largest at the anterior sector of tibial diaphysis. During recovery, the bed rest-induced bone losses were practically restored and no consistent sector-specific modulation was observed in any subgroup. It is concluded that the sector-specific analysis of bone cross-sections has potential to reveal skeletal responses to various interventions that cannot be inferred from the average analysis of the whole bone cross-section. This approach is considered also useful for evaluating the bone responses from the biomechanical point of view. PMID:21672131

  1. Tipping points for carbon dioxide and air pollution benefits: an energy systems analysis of natural gas verses electric technologies in the U.S. buildings sector

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our analysis examines emission trade-offs between electricity and natural gas use in the buildings sector at the system level, including upstream emissions from the electric sector and natural gas mining emissions.

  2. Topographyc metrics in the southern sector of the Marche foothills: implication for active tectonic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materazzi, Marco; Aringoli, Domenico; Carducci, Tamara; Cavitolo, Paolo; Farabollini, Piero; Giacopetti, Marco; Pambianchi, Gilberto; Tondi, Emanuele; Troiani, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative geomorphic analysis can be provided a useful contribution to the study of recent tectonics. Some parameters, that quantify the channels morphology, as the Stream Length-Gradient (SL) Index (Hack, 1973) and the Steepness (Ks) Index (Flint, 1974), are generally used to detect anomalies on the expected concave-up equilibrium stream-profile, which can result in local abrupt changes in stream gradient (i.e., knickpoints) and/or broad convexities on stream long-profiles extending for tens of kilometres (i.e., knickzones). The main goal of this work is the study of the morphological and morphometrical features in the southern sector of the Marche Region, with the aim to gain new knowledge on the influences of rock resistance and rock uplift on the fluvial and topographic system. The investigated area is situated in central Italy and it extends from the axial zone of the Umbria-Marche Apennines to the Adriatic Sea, including the southern sector of the Marche Region and belongs to the foredeep domain of the Apennines orogenic system, which has affected by tectonic activity up to very recent times. The rheology of outcropping deposits doesn't allow the strain to be easily recorded at the outcrop scale. The analyses have been aimed at to test the sensitivity of both SL and Ks for evaluating active crustal deformations, acting at different wavelengths on land surface, within a low tectonically active thrust-and-fold belt. Additional purpose was the understanding of the pattern of regional differential crustal activity in the topographic arrangement of the study area In this research project two sets of analysis were conducted. References Hack J.T. 1973. Stream-profile analysis and stream-gradient index. Journal of Research of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1, 421-429. Flint J.J. 1974. Stream gradient as a function of order, magnitude and discharge. Water Resources Research, 10, 969-973.

  3. An analysis of the role of information and communication technology sectors on Japanese national economy from 1995 through 2005: An application of multiplier analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to continue the previous studies which focused on Japanese Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors. More specifically, this study aims to analyze the role of ICT sectors on Japanese national economy using simple household income multiplier, one of the analysis instruments in Input-Output (IO) analysis. The analysis period of this study is from 1995-2005. The results show that the sectors did not have an important role on the national economy of Japan on the period. Besides, the results also show that, from the point of view of the multiplier, Japanese national economy tended to stable during the period.

  4. [The influenza pandemic 1968-1970: crisis management in separated Germany - "Vodka and Raspberry Tea"].

    PubMed

    Witte, W

    2011-12-01

    The Hong Kong Flu in the years 1968-1970 challenged both German health care systems. This article intends to analyse the patterns of reaction to the pandemic. Both German states faced the threat according to their respective ideological orientation. This applied to the two parts of Berlin - West and East - as well. In the GDR the control of influenza was centrally organized. When the pandemic passed away an influenza guiding document ("Führungsdokument") was made obligatory for the fight against the plague. In the FRG hospital treatment maintained predominance while the outpatient sector was administrated by physicians in private practice. In West- Berlin outpatient clinics were declined by the Association of Physicians ("Kassenärztliche Vereinigung"). In 1970 a first concept of surveillance was presented on the level of the state in West Germany. In the years 1968-1970 vaccinations were not common in both German states. The essay is based on the analysis of archival sources, monographs, scientific and newspaper articles.

  5. OFT sectorization approach to analysis of optical scattering in mercurous chloride single crystals.

    PubMed

    Pata, Petr; Klima, Milos; Bednar, Jan; Janout, Petr; Barta, Cestmir; Hasal, Radek; Maresi, Luca; Grabarnik, Semen

    2015-08-10

    This paper is devoted to the application of the optical Fourier transform (OFT) for the study and evaluation of optical scattering in the latest generation of calomel single crystals ready for application in several possible devices such as IR polarizers and acoustooptic tunable filters (AOTF). There are numerous effects that are responsible for the scattering of optical wave passing through the crystal sample volume and surface layers because they affect the optical crystal quality. The scattering level is a crucial and limiting parameter in many technical applications of the evaluated crystal. The proposed approach is based upon the high dynamic range optical FT configuration, creating the amplitude spectrum in the focal plane and its spatial angular distribution analysis based on the spectrum sectorization. The optical scattering pattern was tested in nine locations within each crystal sample volume and on numerous crystal samples. The experimental results are presented and discussed.

  6. A cross spectral analysis of high-latitude Pc 5 pulsations in the morning sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saka, O.; Kim, J. S.; Sugiura, M.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of the spatial phase and amplitude structures of the ground Pc 5 pulsations in the morning sector was carried out using data from the North American IMS magnetometer network. Signals in the X, Y, and Z components were found to propagate from noon to the nightside with an apparent phase velocity of 13 km/sec. The phase was determined to vary with latitude, with total latitudinal phase differences of 200 and 90 deg, respectively, for the X and Y components. Corresponding latitudinal phase differences in the vertical components were 550 deg for the Alaska chain, and 360 deg for the Fort Churchill chain. Phase variation in the Fort Churchill chain was attributed to the ionospheric Hall current related to the field line resonance and the earth induction current. The earth induction current in the shallower regions near Fort Yukon is a necessary factor to explain the large variation in the Alaska chain.

  7. Annual Safety Education Review 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet presents articles completed in 1970 by the Division of Safety Education of the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation. The 11 articles deal with the following topics: a) the problem of apathy in safety education, b) the safety aspects of archery and riflery, c) weight training for high school girls, d)…

  8. The dynamics of the total output of the Japanese fisheries sector: An analysis using input-output approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamics of the total output of the fisheries industry when the changes of the final demand occur. This study focuses on the case of Japan. This study employs a demand-pull Input-Output (IO) quantity model, one of the calculation instruments in the IO analysis, as an analysis tool. Two conditions are included in calculations and analysis parts, namely (1) “whole sector change”, and (2) “pure change”. An initial period in this study is 2005. The results show that, in both conditions, the analyzed sector has similar patterns, namely this industry obtains the positive impacts from scenarios 1, 3, and 4 while the negative impact is received from scenario 2. The results also expose that, in both conditions, the biggest positive impact for the discussed sector is given by scenario 4, the modification of the consumption expenditures of the private.

  9. "Climate change on Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy): rapid temperature rise, new records of heavy precipitation and orographic effects on temperature extremes across Alps and Adriatic. Analysis of the data of the period 1991-2015 in comparison to the histori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordio, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Friuli Venezia Giulia is weel-know as the wettest land of Italy with important yearly average from 1000 m over coastal zone to 3300 m over prealpine sector., and from 1991, OSMER has implemented a observative meteorological system and investigated over a pattern of meteorological phenomena, some oh this, typical of this zone, as strong rainfall precipitation, frequent thunderstorms with hail, strong wind Bora over the sea. During the last 25 years we have seen significant change in weather conditions, with a rapid rise of temperature and distribution, frequency and intensity of precipitation. The most frequent extension to high latitude of tropical high pressure and a irregularity of westerly circulation over Mediterranean zone cause a change of the distribution of precipitation, an increasing a strong and quickly rainfall, and a rapid increase in average temperatures, with many new heat and cold records. During the 1961-1990 time, but too in the past since the beginning of observation, the average precipitation is quiet stable, but in the last 25 years it's possible observe more variability with more frequency of period of abundance and scarcity. This extremes of variability of precipitations is even more significant over the last 15 years, with an exceptional peak in 2014. The temperature analysis shows a clear upward trend, more pronounced than the other Italian regions, with new records, due to the location and geography of the region, the bridge between the Alps, the Adriatic and the Balkans.

  10. The Economic Effects of a Booming Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corden, W. M.

    1983-01-01

    Since the 1970s, economists have recognized that a booming export sector of the economy can have unfortunate consequences for other sectors and lead to both appreciation of that nation's currency and a weakening position for its exports. A model to stimulate the effects of this situation is discussed. (IS)

  11. Mound publications for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Nowka, Stephen L.

    1992-05-01

    This document is a compilation of all Mound formal technical publications and oral presentations for calendar year 1991. It is intended to serve as an aid to personnel in obtaining or referring to specific publications by giving the proper complete reference for each information item published during the year. Some items, such as proceedings publications, may have issue dates or periods of coverage prior to 1991; however, they were formally published during 1991.

  12. Cost analysis of Periodontitis management in public sector specialist dental clinics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this paper is to quantify the cost of periodontitis management at public sector specialist periodontal clinic settings and analyse the distribution of cost components. Methods Five specialist periodontal clinics in the Ministry of Health represented the public sector in providing clinical and cost data for this study. Newly-diagnosed periodontitis patients (N = 165) were recruited and followed up for one year of specialist periodontal care. Direct and indirect costs from the societal viewpoint were included in the cost analysis. They were measured in 2012 Ringgit Malaysia (MYR) and estimated from the societal perspective using activity-based and step-down costing methods, and substantiated by clinical pathways. Cost of dental equipment, consumables and labour (average treatment time) for each procedure was measured using activity-based costing method. Meanwhile, unit cost calculations for clinic administration, utilities and maintenance used step-down approach. Patient expenditures and absence from work were recorded via diary entries. The conversion from MYR to Euro was based on the 2012 rate (1€ = MYR4). Results A total of 2900 procedures were provided, with an average cost of MYR 2820 (€705) per patient for the study year, and MYR 376 (€94) per outpatient visit. Out of this, 90% was contributed by provider cost and 10% by patient cost; 94% for direct cost and 4% for lost productivity. Treatment of aggressive periodontitis was significantly higher than for chronic periodontitis (t-test, P = 0.003). Higher costs were expended as disease severity increased (ANOVA, P = 0.022) and for patients requiring surgeries (ANOVA, P < 0.001). Providers generally spent most on consumables while patients spent most on transportation. Conclusions Cost of providing dental treatment for periodontitis patients at public sector specialist settings were substantial and comparable with some non-communicable diseases. These findings

  13. Water flows, energy demand, and market analysis of the informal water sector in Kisumu, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Sima, Laura C; Kelner-Levine, Evan; Eckelman, Matthew J; McCarty, Kathleen M; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-03-01

    In rapidly growing urban areas of developing countries, infrastructure has not been able to cope with population growth. Informal water businesses fulfill unmet water supply needs, yet little is understood about this sector. This paper presents data gathered from quantitative interviews with informal water business operators (n=260) in Kisumu, Kenya, collected during the dry season. Sales volume, location, resource use, and cost were analyzed by using material flow accounting and spatial analysis tools. Estimates show that over 76% of the city's water is consumed by less than 10% of the population who have water piped into their dwellings. The remainder of the population relies on a combination of water sources, including water purchased directly from kiosks (1.5 million m(3) per day) and delivered by hand-drawn water-carts (0.75 million m(3) per day). Energy audits were performed to compare energy use among various water sources in the city. Water delivery by truck is the highest per cubic meter energy demand (35 MJ/m(3)), while the city's tap water has the highest energy use overall (21,000 MJ/day). We group kiosks by neighborhood and compare sales volume and cost with neighborhood-level population data. Contrary to popular belief, we do not find evidence of price gouging; the lowest prices are charged in the highest-demand low-income area. We also see that the informal sector is sensitive to demand, as the number of private boreholes that serve as community water collection points are much larger where demand is greatest.

  14. Water flows, energy demand, and market analysis of the informal water sector in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Laura C.; Kelner-Levine, Evan; Eckelman, Matthew J.; McCarty, Kathleen M.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-01-01

    In rapidly growing urban areas of developing countries, infrastructure has not been able to cope with population growth. Informal water businesses fulfill unmet water supply needs, yet little is understood about this sector. This paper presents data gathered from quantitative interviews with informal water business operators (n=260) in Kisumu, Kenya, collected during the dry season. Sales volume, location, resource use, and cost were analyzed by using material flow accounting and spatial analysis tools. Estimates show that over 76% of the city's water is consumed by less than 10% of the population who have water piped into their dwellings. The remainder of the population relies on a combination of water sources, including water purchased directly from kiosks (1.5 million m3 per day) and delivered by hand-drawn water-carts (0.75 million m3 per day). Energy audits were performed to compare energy use among various water sources in the city. Water delivery by truck is the highest per cubic meter energy demand (35 MJ/m3), while the city's tap water has the highest energy use overall (21,000 MJ/day). We group kiosks by neighborhood and compare sales volume and cost with neighborhood-level population data. Contrary to popular belief, we do not find evidence of price gouging; the lowest prices are charged in the highest-demand low-income area. We also see that the informal sector is sensitive to demand, as the number of private boreholes that serve as community water collection points are much larger where demand is greatest. PMID:23543887

  15. The impacts of final demand changes on total output of Indonesian ICT sectors: An analysis using input-output approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of final demand changes on total output of Indonesian Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors. This study employs Input-Output (IO) analysis as a tool of analysis. More specifically, demand-pull IO quantity model is applied in order to achieve the objective. "Whole sector change" and "pure change" conditions are considered in this study. The results of calculation show that, in both conditions, the biggest positive impact to the total output of the sectors is given by the change of households consumption while the change of import has a negative impact. One of the recommendations suggested from this study is to construct import restriction policy for ICT products.

  16. The Challenge of Increasing Access and Improving Quality: An Analysis of Universal Primary Education Interventions in Kenya and Tanzania since the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sifuna, Daniel N.

    2007-11-01

    This article shows how interventions to provide Universal Primary Education (UPE) from the 1970s into the twenty-first century affected efforts to improve the quality of primary education in Kenya and Tanzania. While the interventions have made significant differences in the lives of many communities by increasing access to education of children who would have been denied schooling, quality indicators (including attrition and completion rates and examination scores) have stagnated at best or declined. Efforts to ensure and maintain quality in primary education in the two countries are reported to face serious challenges, including mainly inadequate funding to ensure the provision of essential teaching and learning materials, appropriate infrastructure as well as a sufficient number of competent teachers.

  17. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in the forestry sector of The Gambia: Analysis based on COMAP model

    SciTech Connect

    Jallow, B.P.

    1996-12-31

    Results of the 1993 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory of The Gambia showed net CO{sub 2} emissions of over (1.66 x 10{sup 6} tons) and 1% was due to uptake by plantations (0.01 x 10{sup 6} tons). This is a clear indication that there is need to identify changes in the land-use policy, law and tenure that discourages forest clearing at the same time significantly influencing the sustainable distribution of land among forestry, rangeland and livestock, and agriculture. About 11% of the total area of The Gambia is either fallow or barren flats that once supported vegetation and hence is still capable of supporting vegetation. The US Country Study Programme has provided the Government of The Gambia through the National Climate Committee funds to conduct Assessment of Mitigation Options to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The Forestry Sector is one area for which assessment is being conducted. The assessment is expected to end in September 1996. The Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) is one of the Models supplied to the National Climate Committee by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, on behalf of the US Country Study Programme, and is being used to conduct the analysis in The Gambia.

  18. SEADS 3.0 Sectoral Energy/Employment Analysis and Data System

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, Joseph M.; Anderson, David A.; Schultz, Robert W.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2007-12-17

    SEADS 3.0, the Sectoral Energy/Employment Analysis and Data System, is a revision and upgrading of SEADS--PC, a software package designed for the analysis of policy that could be described by modifying final demands of consumer, businesses, or governments (Roop, et al., 1995). If a question can be formulated so that implications can be translated into changes in final demands for goods and services, then SEADS 3.0 provides a quick and easy tool to assess preliminary impacts. And SEADS 3.0 should be considered just that: a quick and easy way to get preliminary results. Often a thorough answer, even to such a simple question as, “What would be the effect on U. S. energy use and employment if the Federal Government doubled R&D expenditures?” requires a more sophisticated analytical framework than the input-output structure embedded in SEADS 3.0. This tool uses a static, input-output model to assess the impacts of changes in final demands on first industry output, then employment and energy use. The employment and energy impacts are derived by multiplying the industry outputs (derived from the changed final demands) by industry-specific energy and employment coefficients. The tool also allows for the specification of regional or state employment impacts, though this option is not available for energy impacts.

  19. Local and Regional Interactions Between Air Quality and Climate in New Delhi -- a Sector Based Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrapu, P.; Cheng, Y.; Carmichael, G. R.; Beig, G.; Spak, S.; Lin, M.; Decker, M.; Schultz, M. G.; Winiwarter, W.

    2011-12-01

    Out of the 26 mega-cities in the world, 13 of them are affected by atmospheric brown clouds with high aerosol loadings and 5 of them are in South Asia. New Delhi (India) is one of the world's most polluted megacities. In this study we evaluate the air pollution levels in Delhi and their impacts on weather and climate. The two way interactions between pollution and meteorology are evaluated using the WRF-Chem model. The analysis period is focused on October 2010, the time period of the Commonwealth Games. The model is compared to BC and PM2.5 measurements at 11 sites. A sector based analysis is performed to assess the contributions to pollution and direct radiative forcing from transport, residential, power and industrial emissions. The contributions from emissions outside of Delhi are also evaluated to see the extent that regional emissions need to be controlled to meet air quality targets in Delhi. Results of simulations for emission scenarios generated by the GAINS model that address air quality and climate strategies are also discussed

  20. Occupations in the Hotel Tourist Sector within the European Community. A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peroni, Giovanni; Guerra, Duccio

    This report contains a directory of job profiles in the tourist/hotel sector that is based on seven national monographs. It provides an instrument for comparing factors that characterize practitioners working in the sector in Germany, Spain, France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. A methodological note discusses study objectives,…

  1. School Sector Differences in Student Achievement in Australian Primary and Secondary Schools: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary N.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines school sector differences in student performance Years 3, 5, and 7 in numeracy, reading, writing, spelling and grammar using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the national testing program (NAPLAN). At each of the 3 Year levels, there are sizable school sector differences with students from…

  2. [Changes in lipid availability in Venezuela, 1970-1992].

    PubMed

    Abreu Olivo, E A; Ablan de Flórez, E

    1994-12-01

    The authors carry out a research focused on the quantification and analysis of the main changes in feeding and nutrition in Venezuela between 1970 and 1992. Such research started with the review and adjustment of the Food Balance Sheets (Hojas de Balance de Alimentos) elaborated by the Instituto Nacional de Nutrición (National Nutrition Institute) between 1970 and 1979 in order to homogenize them in a methodological way to make them similar to those elaborated by that institution and the Fundación Polar for the 1980-90 period. Estimates were made about the daily and per person availability of food for human consumption (DCH) for 1991 and 1992. This report, a partial product of that research, characterizes the evolution of the lipidic DCH in Venezuela for the 1970-1992 period. This period has been divided in seven stages of the evolution of the total energetic DCH, as this reflects well the course of the daily and per person Food Purchasing Power (PCA); there is a direct and strong functional relationship between these two variables. Along those stages the behaviour of the lipidic DCH is studied and we try to view possible relationships between the evolution of the Venezeluans economical situation and the absolute and relative variations observed in the level and the structure of the lipidic DCH. This structure is analyzed from several points of view: groups of food sources, origin, "visibility", and place of origin. One purpose is to determine also which food groups are mainly responsible for the venezuelan's external lipidic dependence. A general picture of the evolution of the DCH for saturated fatty acids and cholesterol is made, as well as of the variations experienced by the P/S and M/S relationships. It was found that the most dynamic elements, those that can explain a very high percentage of the variations observed in the level and the structure of the lipidic DCH were: the groups of foods of Visible Fats, Milk and dairy products, and Meats; vegetal lipids

  3. Development and benefit analysis of a sector design algorithm for terminal dynamic airspace configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciandra, Vincent

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is the vast network of systems enabling safe and efficient air travel in the United States. It consists of a set of static sectors, each controlled by one or more air traffic controllers. Air traffic control is tasked with ensuring that all flights can depart and arrive on time and in a safe and efficient matter. However, skyrocketing demand will only increase the stress on an already inefficient system, causing massive delays. The current, static configuration of the NAS cannot possibly handle the future demand on the system safely and efficiently, especially since it is projected to triple by 2025. To overcome these issues, the Next Generation of Air Transportation System (NextGen) is being enacted to increase the flexibility of the NAS. A major objective of NextGen is to implement Adaptable Dynamic Airspace Configuration (ADAC) which will dynamically allocate the sectors to best fit the traffic in the area. Dynamically allocating sectors will allow resources such as controllers to be better distributed to meet traffic demands. Currently, most DAC research has involved the en route airspace. This leaves the terminal airspace, which accounts for a large amount of the overall NAS complexity, in need of work. Using a combination of methods used in en route sectorization, this thesis has developed an algorithm for the dynamic allocation of sectors in the terminal airspace. This algorithm will be evaluated using metrics common in the evaluation of dynamic density, which is adapted for the unique challenges of the terminal airspace, and used to measure workload on air traffic controllers. These metrics give a better view of the controller workload than the number of aircraft alone. By comparing the test results with sectors currently used in the NAS using real traffic data, the algorithm xv generated sectors can be quantitatively evaluated for improvement of the current sectorizations. This will be accomplished by testing the

  4. Adoption of formal HIV and AIDS workplace policies: an analysis of industry/sector variations.

    PubMed

    Bakuwa, Rhoda

    2010-12-01

    Addressing HIV and AIDS is the responsibility of many stakeholders including private sector companies. However, increasing evidence reveals that the majority of companies around the world are yet to acknowledge and respond to HIV and AIDS as a workplace issue. One factor that has been identified in the literature as playing a role in determining whether a company responds to HIV and AIDS, or not, is the industry/sector in which a company operates. This study therefore sought to empirically examine whether in the context of Malawi there were significant variations in the adoption of formal HIV and AIDS workplace policies based on the industry/sector in which a company was operating, as well as analyse the dynamics underlying such variations. Using survey data collected from 152 randomly selected private sector companies in Malawi, the results of this study revealed significant variations in the adoption of HIV and AIDS workplace policies among companies operating in various sectors. Companies in the service sector were leading the adoption compared to companies in other sectors such as the trading sector. Furthermore, the evidence from this study showed that differences in staff participation in the activities of HIV and AIDS institutions may explain the industry/sector variations. These results provide an important avenue to scale up company responses to HIV and AIDS by intensifying staff participation in the activities of HIV and AIDS institutions. Such institutions appear to play a vital role of providing up to date HIV-and AIDS-related information upon which companies are able to develop a business case for responding to the epidemic.

  5. Adoption of formal HIV and AIDS workplace policies: an analysis of industry/sector variations.

    PubMed

    Bakuwa, Rhoda

    2010-12-01

    Addressing HIV and AIDS is the responsibility of many stakeholders including private sector companies. However, increasing evidence reveals that the majority of companies around the world are yet to acknowledge and respond to HIV and AIDS as a workplace issue. One factor that has been identified in the literature as playing a role in determining whether a company responds to HIV and AIDS, or not, is the industry/sector in which a company operates. This study therefore sought to empirically examine whether in the context of Malawi there were significant variations in the adoption of formal HIV and AIDS workplace policies based on the industry/sector in which a company was operating, as well as analyse the dynamics underlying such variations. Using survey data collected from 152 randomly selected private sector companies in Malawi, the results of this study revealed significant variations in the adoption of HIV and AIDS workplace policies among companies operating in various sectors. Companies in the service sector were leading the adoption compared to companies in other sectors such as the trading sector. Furthermore, the evidence from this study showed that differences in staff participation in the activities of HIV and AIDS institutions may explain the industry/sector variations. These results provide an important avenue to scale up company responses to HIV and AIDS by intensifying staff participation in the activities of HIV and AIDS institutions. Such institutions appear to play a vital role of providing up to date HIV-and AIDS-related information upon which companies are able to develop a business case for responding to the epidemic. PMID:21409305

  6. Analysis and monitoring of chloramphenicol residues in food of animal origin in Slovenia from 1991 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Cerkvenik, V

    2002-04-01

    To prevent the illegal use of chloramphenicol (CAP), regulatory control of its residues in food of animal origin is essential. In Slovenia, the monitoring of CAP residues for statutory purpose started in 1991. The results of a 10-year period are presented. CAP residues were determined by capillary gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD) using meta-CAP as an internal standard (ISTD). Before chromatographic determination, analytes were derivatized by silylation. Overall, CAP recovery, adjusted for ISTD, was for bovine muscle tissue and raw cow's milk (in the region of 2-10 microg kg(-1)) 89 and 102%, respectively, and for whole eggs, 87% (in the region of 1-10 microg kg(-1)). The use of meta-CAP improved significantly the precision of the method. The detection limit for CAP was 1 microg kg(-1), which was sufficiently sensitive for routine use. A total of 1308 random samples of Slovenian origin were analysed from 1991 to 2000, covering all parts of the country. CAP was found only in one milk sample in 1997 at a concentration of 4.6 microg kg(-1).

  7. Analysis of the strain on employees in the retail sector considering work-life balance.

    PubMed

    Zülch, Gert; Stock, Patricia; Schmidt, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Many companies currently strive to support their employees' work-life balance through appropriate measures in order to improve employees' loyalty towards the company and to recruit new employees. In this context, flexibility in the area of working times is a measure that can influence employees' private lives immensely. This is why the individualisation of working time arrangements has been accorded high importance in current discussions on work-life balance. In this area, best practice examples can be found showing how working-time arrangements can improve the situation of the employees. It should be noted, however, that there is not one single perfect working-time model. A working-time model must always be adapted specifically to the actual situation of the company and the employees. Therefore, a targeted analysis of the challenges facing the company and the demands on the employees is essential for the creation of an appropriate working time policy. In particular, the employees' working-time preferences must be appropriately taken into account. Owing, however, to a combination of organisational complications and legal data protection restrictions, it is for the most part impossible to meet these working-time preferences in their entirety. This paper, which is based on an employee survey, illustrates the strain on employees in the retail sector and identifies different types of working-time preferences. PMID:22317125

  8. Analysis of International Policies In The Solar Electricity Sector: Lessons for India

    SciTech Connect

    Deshmukh, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Gambhir, Ashwin; Phadke, Amol

    2011-08-10

    Although solar costs are dropping rapidly, solar power is still more expensive than conventional and other renewable energy options. The solar sector still needs continuing government policy support. These policies are driven by objectives that go beyond the goal of achieving grid parity. The need to achieve multiple objectives and ensure sufficient political support for solar power makes it diffi cult for policy makers to design the optimal solar power policy. The dynamic and uncertain nature of the solar industry, combined with the constraints offered by broader economic, political and social conditions further complicates the task of policy making. This report presents an analysis of solar promotion policies in seven countries - Germany, Spain, the United States, Japan, China, Taiwan, and India - in terms of their outlook, objectives, policy mechanisms and outcomes. The report presents key insights, primarily in qualitative terms, and recommendations for two distinct audiences. The first audience consists of global policy makers who are exploring various mechanisms to increase the penetration of solar power in markets to mitigate climate change. The second audience consists of key Indian policy makers who are developing a long-term implementation plan under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission and various state initiatives.

  9. Spatial analysis of low carbon development 2050: A case of residential sector, Bhopal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheolikar, P.; Yawale, S.; Puntambekar, K.; Kapshe, M.

    2014-02-01

    Indian cities are witnessing economic development, urbanization and lifestyle changes, leading to increase in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. In cities, sectors contributing to GHG emission are residential sector, transport and waste sector. In order to reduce emission, it is important to assess how individual city can contribute to emission reduction to become a Low Carbon Society (LCS). In this paper, we have analyzed residential sector of Bhopal City at ward level for demand side management through energy efficiency and lifestyle change. Two LCS, countermeasure scenarios CM1 and CM2 along with a Business as Usual scenario are developed and emission reduction potential is quantified using the AIM/Enduse model up to year 2050. The quantitative results are represented in spatial format using Geographical Information System (GIS) software providing a better understanding for decision makers.

  10. An analysis of research on religious and spiritual variables in three major mental health nursing journals, 1991-1995.

    PubMed

    Weaver, A J; Flannelly, L T; Flannelly, K J; Koenig, H G; Larson, D B

    1998-01-01

    A review of quantitative research studies published between 1991 and 1995 in 3 major mental health nursing journals revealed that approximately 10% (31 of 311) included a measure of religion or spirituality. This percentage (10%) is 3 to 8 times higher than that found in previous reviews of empirical research in psychological and psychiatric journals, suggesting that mental health nursing research is more sensitive to the role of religious-spiritual factors on mental health than research in related disciplines. The results are discussed in the context of the history and philosophy of nursing and in comparison to related disciplines. Methodological aspects of the research, especially the importance of multiple measures, are discussed, as are other salient findings.

  11. El Niño, Climate, and Cholera Associations in Piura, Peru, 1991-2001: A Wavelet Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Iván J; Grady, Sue C

    2016-03-01

    In Peru, it was hypothesized that epidemic cholera in 1991 was linked to El Niño, the warm phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation. While previous studies demonstrated an association in 1997-1998, using cross-sectional data, they did not assess the consistency of this relationship across the decade. Thus, how strong or variable an El Niño-cholera relationship was in Peru or whether El Niño triggered epidemic cholera early in the decade remains unknown. In this study, wavelet and mediation analyses were used to characterize temporal patterns among El Niño, local climate variables (rainfall, river discharge, and air temperature), and cholera incidence in Piura, Peru from 1991 to 2001 and to estimate the mediating effects of local climate on El Niño-cholera relationships. The study hypothesis is that El Niño-related connections with cholera in Piura were transient and interconnected via local climate pathways. Overall, our findings provide evidence that a strong El Niño-cholera link, mediated by local hydrology, existed in the latter part of the 1990s but found no evidence of an El Niño association in the earlier part of the decade, suggesting that El Niño may not have precipitated cholera emergence in Piura. Further examinations of cholera epicenters in Peru are recommended to support these results in Piura. For public health planning, the results may improve existing efforts that utilize El Niño monitoring for preparedness during future climate-related extremes in the region.

  12. 1991 research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Selected research and technology activities at Ames Research Center, including the Moffett Field site and the Dryden Flight Research Facility, are summarized. These activities exemplify the Center's varied and productive research efforts for 1991.

  13. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis for national-level priority-setting in the health sector

    PubMed Central

    Hutubessy, Raymond; Chisholm, Dan; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres

    2003-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is potentially an important aid to public health decision-making but, with some notable exceptions, its use and impact at the level of individual countries is limited. A number of potential reasons may account for this, among them technical shortcomings associated with the generation of current economic evidence, political expediency, social preferences and systemic barriers to implementation. As a form of sectoral CEA, Generalized CEA sets out to overcome a number of these barriers to the appropriate use of cost-effectiveness information at the regional and country level. Its application via WHO-CHOICE provides a new economic evidence base, as well as underlying methodological developments, concerning the cost-effectiveness of a range of health interventions for leading causes of, and risk factors for, disease. The estimated sub-regional costs and effects of different interventions provided by WHO-CHOICE can readily be tailored to the specific context of individual countries, for example by adjustment to the quantity and unit prices of intervention inputs (costs) or the coverage, efficacy and adherence rates of interventions (effectiveness). The potential usefulness of this information for health policy and planning is in assessing if current intervention strategies represent an efficient use of scarce resources, and which of the potential additional interventions that are not yet implemented, or not implemented fully, should be given priority on the grounds of cost-effectiveness. Health policy-makers and programme managers can use results from WHO-CHOICE as a valuable input into the planning and prioritization of services at national level, as well as a starting point for additional analyses of the trade-off between the efficiency of interventions in producing health and their impact on other key outcomes such as reducing inequalities and improving the health of the poor. PMID:14687420

  14. [The population census in Nigeria 1991: geographical aspects of a political poker game].

    PubMed

    Fricke, W; Malchau, G

    1994-01-01

    The population of Nigeria has been estimated at more than 100 million by various sources. The UN in 1987 estimated it at 87 million, the World Bank at 106.2 million, and the Nigerian National Population Commission at 112.3 million. However, the 1991 census, which was carefully conducted, came up with only 87.5 million, whereas according to the World Bank the number should have exceeded 120 million. The discrepancy of 30 million provoked strong reaction among politicians in the country. 5-year average growth rates between 1970 and 1990 indicated an increase from 26.6% to 37.9%; therefore, the population during the 28-year period from 1963 and 1991 must have approximated 100 million. The figure of 112.3 million would require a growth rate of 34.9%, which was plausible from the early 1970s. The results of the 1991 census have pointed to an enigmatic curiosity: was it an accident that the North has registered the highest annual growth rates dating back to 1963, or even 1952? The political infighting and series of coups d'etat by generals may also be correlated to this numerical distortion, since all these generals were Northerners. An accurate analysis was not possible because of the paucity of data. The census of 1991 has not been fully disclosed until the present time [August 1994], strengthening the case of the skeptics, although the full publication of the figures has to do with the political situation in Nigeria. The democratization process was halted after June 1992, especially after the invalidation of the results of the presidential election and the seizing of power by General Abacha. In the event that a democratic government arises, perhaps the figures of the 1991 census will be published, which could also explain the lower growth rate of the economic centers in the Southwest and the Southeast. Nigeria sorely needs more reliable census data for planning because of a one-sided export structure (95% of foreign currency is earned from oil), neglected agriculture

  15. China fulfills 1991 population plan.

    PubMed

    Peng, P

    1992-06-01

    Minister Peng of the State Family Planning (FP) Commission of China's remarks are summarized. A major new achievement in 1991 was the meeting of population targets in FP. The birth rate for 1991 was 19.68/1000, which was lower than the 1991 target by .118%. The rate of natural increase was 12.98/1000, which was also lower. 1991 marks the lowest population increase in 6 years. Even though those 20-29 years and those at peak childbearing years increased over 1990, the rate of natural increase still declined by .1%. The decline is attributed to the strengthening of all Party leadership over FP; to more widespread publicity and education on FP and acceptance; more conscientious contraception, including permanent methods, and effective FP research; and strengthening of grassroots level FP. 1992 is the year of the 3rd baby boom peak since 1949. 318.9 million will be of childbearing age in 1992, which is an increase of 4.1 million; 13.25 million will be those at the peak age (23 years); 123.7 million will be fecund ages (20-29 years). Continued work is required in strengthening FP, in improving management of population and FP targets, in extensive and penetrating publicity on FP, on consistent and focused FP policy implementation, on increasing input for FP programs, and on pooling government and society's resources for administration of the population problem. Conscientious FP means responsibility and urgency in implementation, FP as a priority, and active FP effort. Earnest FP means using "down to earth" grassroots implementation which is painstaking and meticulous. Persistent FP means unremitting effort in a longterm struggle in controlling population growth. The quality of statistics needs to be improved as well as better criteria for assessment. Emphasis should be on the socioeconomic benefits of the FP program. The focus is still rural areas. The operating funds for FP have been increased to 2 yuan RMB per capita/year. Minorities should practice FP, and a conference

  16. An application of input-output analysis in analyzing the impacts of final demands changes on the total outputs of Japanese energy sectors: A further study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to continue the previous study which discussed the impacts of final demands changes on the total outputs of Japanese energy sectors. More specifically, this study aims to conduct a deeper analysis regarding these impacts. This study employs a demand-pull Input- Output (IO) quantity model, one of the calculation instruments in IO analysis, as a tool of analysis. This study focuses on two sectors, namely (1) petroleum refinery products, and (2) non-ferrous metals. Two conditions are considered in the analysis part, namely (1) “whole sector change”, and (2) “pure change”. The results show that in both conditions, both discussed sectors have similar patterns. The results also explain that, in both conditions, the biggest positive impact for the sector of petroleum refinery products is given by scenario 4, the modification of consumption expenditures of private.

  17. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production: 1970-2050.

    PubMed

    Bennetzen, Eskild H; Smith, Pete; Porter, John R

    2016-02-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements allowing not only a combined analysis of the total level of all emissions jointly with emissions per unit area and emissions per unit product. It also allows us to examine how a change in emissions from a given source contributes to the change in total emissions over time. We show that agricultural production and GHGs have been steadily decoupled over recent decades. Emissions peaked in 1991 at ~12 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) and have not exceeded this since. Since 1970 GHG emissions per unit product have declined by 39% and 44% for crop- and livestock-production, respectively. Except for the energy-use component of farming, emissions from all sources have increased less than agricultural production. Our projected business-as-usual range suggests that emissions may be further decoupled by 20-55% giving absolute agricultural emissions of 8.2-14.5 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) by 2050, significantly lower than many previous estimates that do not allow for decoupling. Beyond this, several additional costcompetitive mitigation measures could reduce emissions further. However, agricultural GHG emissions can only be reduced to a certain level and a simultaneous focus on other parts of the food-system is necessary to increase food security whilst reducing emissions. The identity approach presented here could be used as a methodological framework for more holistic food systems analysis.

  18. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production: 1970-2050.

    PubMed

    Bennetzen, Eskild H; Smith, Pete; Porter, John R

    2016-02-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements allowing not only a combined analysis of the total level of all emissions jointly with emissions per unit area and emissions per unit product. It also allows us to examine how a change in emissions from a given source contributes to the change in total emissions over time. We show that agricultural production and GHGs have been steadily decoupled over recent decades. Emissions peaked in 1991 at ~12 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) and have not exceeded this since. Since 1970 GHG emissions per unit product have declined by 39% and 44% for crop- and livestock-production, respectively. Except for the energy-use component of farming, emissions from all sources have increased less than agricultural production. Our projected business-as-usual range suggests that emissions may be further decoupled by 20-55% giving absolute agricultural emissions of 8.2-14.5 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) by 2050, significantly lower than many previous estimates that do not allow for decoupling. Beyond this, several additional costcompetitive mitigation measures could reduce emissions further. However, agricultural GHG emissions can only be reduced to a certain level and a simultaneous focus on other parts of the food-system is necessary to increase food security whilst reducing emissions. The identity approach presented here could be used as a methodological framework for more holistic food systems analysis. PMID:26451699

  19. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Nonrenewable organic materials. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.R.; Kelly, T.D.

    1993-05-01

    Mrs. Simmons, industrial program manager with the Branch of Materials of the U.S. Bureau of Mines, directs work in the analysis of the petroleum, petrochemical, and plastic industries as related to the application of nonrenewable organic materials in major industrial sectors. Mr. Kelly, materials specialist in the Materials Engineering Group at the Minerals Availability Office of the U.S. Bureau of Mines, has over 6 years of experience in the petroleum industry. Some of the data were prepared by John Sznopeke, materials specialist in the Materials Engineering Group at the Minerals Availability Field Office. The data were obtained from a variety of sources, including the Annual Energy Review 1991 from the Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy; the Department of Commerce; and a wide variety of industry contacts.

  20. Analysis of the occupational, consumer and environmental exposure to engineered nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Bernd; Brouwer, Connie; Geertsma, Robert E; Heugens, Evelyn H W; Ross, Bryony L; Toufektsian, Marie-Claire; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Aitken, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Humans and the environment can come into contact with nanomaterials through a wide range of applications during all stages of the life cycle of nanoproducts. The aim of this commentary is to present an assessment of the potential for exposure and thus identify possible environmental, health and safety (EHS) issues for nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors. We analysed all life cycle stages with regard to potential for exposure of workers, consumers/patients, and the environment. A wide variety of nanomaterials are used of which many have negligible potential for exposure, while others have medium or even high potential for exposure. Based on the likelihood of exposure, it appears that in general most attention should be paid to the agrifood, chemistry/materials, textiles and health sectors; and less to the information and communication technology (ICT), security and energy sectors. Toxicity and exposure are both important; however, the EHS impact of nanomaterials is always dependent on their particular use. PMID:22783888

  1. Sector analysis of pH values in the northeastern region of Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Peñalber-Ramos, J; Méndez-Tejeda, R; Rodríguez-Rosario, M

    2002-06-01

    Acid rain precipitation has become a major environmental concern. Many long-range projects in the United States and Europe are devoted to the problems associated with acid rain pollution. In Puerto Rico, there has been no formal study on acid rain. The rainfall pH values and the air-mass trajectory of the northeastern part of the island of Puerto Rico on the surface were analyzed from January 1998 to December 2000. The air-mass trajectory was classified in five different sectors, according to where it originates. The mean pH value measured during that period showed a tendency toward acidity. The 80% of the air-mass trajectory that arrived at the station occurred in Sector I, with a pH value of 4.30. The lowest pH value measured was 4.16, and it occurred in Sector V, where the air mass originates in the northwest part of the island.

  2. Analysis of the occupational, consumer and environmental exposure to engineered nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Bernd; Brouwer, Connie; Geertsma, Robert E; Heugens, Evelyn H W; Ross, Bryony L; Toufektsian, Marie-Claire; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Aitken, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Humans and the environment can come into contact with nanomaterials through a wide range of applications during all stages of the life cycle of nanoproducts. The aim of this commentary is to present an assessment of the potential for exposure and thus identify possible environmental, health and safety (EHS) issues for nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors. We analysed all life cycle stages with regard to potential for exposure of workers, consumers/patients, and the environment. A wide variety of nanomaterials are used of which many have negligible potential for exposure, while others have medium or even high potential for exposure. Based on the likelihood of exposure, it appears that in general most attention should be paid to the agrifood, chemistry/materials, textiles and health sectors; and less to the information and communication technology (ICT), security and energy sectors. Toxicity and exposure are both important; however, the EHS impact of nanomaterials is always dependent on their particular use.

  3. Social network analysis of multi-level linkages: a Swedish case study on Northern Forest-Based sectors.

    PubMed

    Keskitalo, E Carina H; Baird, Julia; Laszlo Ambjörnsson, Emmeline; Plummer, Ryan

    2014-10-01

    Forest use in Northern Sweden is being influenced both by global trends and local situations. This results in interactions between numerous groups that may impact local forest governance. Social network analysis can here provide insight into the total pattern of positive, negative, and cross-level interactions within user group community structure (within and among groups). This study analyses interactions within selected renewable resource sectors in two northern Swedish municipalities, both with regard to whether they are positive, neutral, or negative, as well as with regard to how local actors relate to actors across levels, e.g., with regional, national, and international actors. The study illustrates that many interactions both within and outside a given sector are seen as neutral or positive, and that considerable interaction and impact are defined as national and in some cases even international. It also indicates that the impact of Sweden's only existing Model Forest may to some extent constitute a bridge between different sectors and levels, in comparison with the interactions between sectors in a municipality where such a cooperation mechanism does not exist.

  4. Net present value analysis to select public R&D programs and valuate expected private sector participation.

    PubMed

    Hinman, N D; Yancey, M A

    1997-01-01

    One of the main functions of government is to invest taxpayer dollars in projects, programs, and properties that will result in social benefit. Public programs focused on the development of technology are examples of such opportunities. Selecting these programs requires the same investment analysis approaches that private companies and individuals use. Good use of investment analysis approaches to these programs will minimize our tax costs and maximize public benefit from tax dollars invested. This article describes the use of the net present value (NPV) analysis approach to select public R&D programs and valuate expected private sector participation in the programs.

  5. Economic analysis of the water demand in the hotels and restaurants sector: Shadow prices and elasticities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, Ana; Atwi, Majed; Barberán, Ramón; Mur, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Despite the growing economic importance of tourism, and its impact on relative water shortage, little is known about the role that water plays in the productive process of hotels and restaurants and, therefore, the possible implications of water demand management policy for this sector. This study aims to fill this gap. It is based on the microdata of 676 firms in the sector, operating in the city of Zaragoza (Spain) for a 12 year period. Based on the Translog cost function, we estimate the shadow price of water in the short run and, from a long-run perspective, its direct price elasticity, its cross elasticities relative to labor, capital, and supplies, and its elasticity with respect to the level of output. The results obtained show that water provides sector firms returns that are on average higher than its price, although in the case of hotels the margin is really narrow. This situation provides policy makers with a margin for applying price increases without affecting the sector's viability, with some caution in the case of hotels. Water demand elasticity equals -0.38 in the case of hotels, but it is not significant in the case of restaurants and bar-cafes; hence, only in hotels is there potential for influencing water use patterns, encouraging the resource's conservation through pricing policy. Moreover, capital is a substitutive factor of water, and the elasticity of water with respect to output is 0.40, all of which should also be considered by policy makers in water resource management.

  6. Sector-Based Analysis of the Education-Occupation Mismatch in the Turkish Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercan, Murat Anil; Karakas, Mesut; Citci, Sadettin Haluk; Babacan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of sectorial undereducation and overeducation problems in the Turkish labor market. In order to cope with this issue, the 2009 Household Labor Force Survey (TurkStat), which covers 145,934 individuals within 27 sectors, was utilized. An objective measure of education-occupation mismatch based…

  7. A Market Analysis of the Latter Half of the Nineteenth-Century American Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edirisooriya, Gunapala

    2009-01-01

    Most of the basic features of the American higher education sector started to evolve during the latter half of the nineteenth century. In response to the deficient demand in higher education, the suppliers (higher education institutions) adopted various marketing strategies to stay afloat in the market. Such strategies not only contributed a great…

  8. Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

    2014-07-01

    Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

  9. Analysis of Aircraft Clusters to Measure Sector-Independent Airspace Congestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Lee, Hilda Q.

    2005-01-01

    The Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) concept of operations* permits appropriately equipped aircraft to conduct Free Maneuvering operations. These independent aircraft have the freedom to optimize their trajectories in real time according to user preferences; however, they also take on the responsibility to separate themselves from other aircraft while conforming to any local Traffic Flow Management (TFM) constraints imposed by the air traffic service provider (ATSP). Examples of local-TFM constraints include temporal constraints such as a required time of arrival (RTA), as well as spatial constraints such as regions of convective weather, special use airspace, and congested airspace. Under current operations, congested airspace typically refers to a sector(s) that cannot accept additional aircraft due to controller workload limitations; hence Dynamic Density (a metric that is indicative of controller workload) can be used to quantify airspace congestion. However, for Free Maneuvering operations under DAG-TM, an additional metric is needed to quantify the airspace congestion problem from the perspective of independent aircraft. Such a metric would enable the ATSP to prevent independent aircraft from entering any local areas of congestion in which the flight deck based systems and procedures may not be able to ensure separation. This new metric, called Gaggle Density, offers the ATSP a mode of control to regulate normal operations and to ensure safety and stability during rare-normal or off-normal situations (e.g., system failures). It may be difficult to certify Free Maneuvering systems for unrestricted operations, but it may be easier to certify systems and procedures for specified levels of Gaggle Density that could be monitored by the ATSP, and maintained through relatively minor flow-rate (RTA type) restrictions. Since flight deck based separation assurance is airspace independent, the challenge is to measure congestion independent of sector

  10. Government and Navy knowledge regarding health hazards of asbestos: a state of the science evaluation (1900 to 1970).

    PubMed

    Franke, Kara; Paustenbach, Dennis

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated dozens of published and unpublished documents describing the knowledge and awareness of both the scientific community and governmental entities, particularly the US Navy, regarding the health hazards associated with asbestos over time. We divided our analysis into specific blocks of time: 1900-1929, 1930-1959, and 1960-1970. By 1930, it was clear that high occupational exposure to asbestos caused a unique disease (asbestosis). Between about 1938 and 1965, a considerable amount of exposure and epidemiology data were collected by various scientific and government organizations. Between 1960 and 1970, mesothelioma was clearly linked to exposure to amphibole asbestos. Nonetheless, the Navy continued to require the use of asbestos-containing materials on ships, but also recommended that proper precautions be taken when handling asbestos. We concluded that the Navy was arguably one of the most knowledgeable organizations in the world regarding the health hazards of asbestos, and that it attempted to implement procedures that would minimize the opportunity for adverse effects on both servicemen and civilians. Finally, it is apparent from our research that through at least 1970, neither the military nor the private sector believed that the myriad of asbestos-containing products considered "encapsulated" (e.g. gaskets, brakes, Bakelite) posed a health hazard to those working with them.

  11. Comparative estimated effectiveness of antibiotic classes as initial and secondary treatments of respiratory tract infections: longitudinal analysis of routine data from UK primary care 1991-2012.

    PubMed

    Berni, Ellen; Butler, Chris C; Jenkins-Jones, Sara; de Voogd, Hanka; Ouwens, Mario; Morgan, Christopher Ll; Currie, Craig J

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To compare the estimated effectiveness of seven frequently prescribed antibiotic classes as initial and secondary treatments of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) 1991-2012. The main outcome measure was a surrogate for estimated antibiotic effectiveness. Methods Routine, primary care data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) were used. Having established standardized criteria representing antibiotic treatment failure, estimated treatment effectiveness rates were calculated as one minus the treatment failure rate. For each year from 1991 to 2012, estimated effectiveness rates by treatment line, indication, and sub-indication were calculated. These were presented by antibiotic class, with a sub-analysis for the macrolide clarithromycin. Findings From approximately 58 million antibiotic prescriptions in CPRD, we analyzed 8,654,734 courses of antibiotic monotherapy: 4,825,422 courses (56%) were associated with URTI; 3,829,312 (44%) were associated with LRTI. Amino-penicillins (4,148,729 [56%]), penicillins (1,304,561 [18%]), and macrolides (944,622 [13%]) predominated as initial treatments; macrolides (375,903 [32%]), aminopenicillins (275,866 [23%]), and cephalosporins (159,954 [14%]) as secondary treatments. Macrolides and aminopenicillins had estimated effectiveness rates ≥80% across the study period as initial treatments of URTI and LRTI. In secondary use, only macrolides maintained these rates: 80.7% vs. 79.8% in LRTI, 85.1% vs. 84.5% in throat infections, 80.7% vs. 82.3% in nasal infections, 83.5% vs. 83.8% in unspecified URTI in 1991 and 2012, respectively. Implications After more than two decades, macrolides remained amongst the most effective antibiotic classes for both URTI and LRTI in initial and secondary antibiotic treatment when a further antibiotic course was prescribed. Limitations Antibiotic treatments were classified as intention to treat. It is unknown whether the

  12. An application of multiplier analysis in analyzing the role of information and communication technology sectors on Indonesian national economy: 1990-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to continue the previous studies which focused on Indonesian Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors. More specifically, this study aims to analyze the role of ICT sectors on Indonesian national economy using simple household income multiplier, one of the analysis tools in Input-Output (IO) analysis. The analysis period of this study is from 1990-2005. The results show that the sectors did not have an important role on the national economy of Indonesia on the period. Besides, the results also show that, from the point of view of the multiplier, Indonesian national economy tended to stable during the period.

  13. Archaeology: site studies, activation analysis, preservation, and remote sensing. December 1979-December 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for December 1970-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    These citations of federally-funded research contains the chemical analysis of archaeological specimens, as well as general studies. The chemical analysis deals primarily with activation analysis. Articles examined include metals, pottery, coins, paintings, soils, glass, and paper from Medieval, Grecian, Egyptian, Mayan, and prehistoric times. The general studies cites other archaeological research, including results of excavation from the United States. Also covered is work on preservation of artifacts and remote sensing for the site location. (This updated bibliography contains 133 citations, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  14. California energy flow in 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1993-04-01

    Energy consumption in California fell in 1991 for the first time in five years. The State`s economy was especially hard hit by a continuing national recession. The construction industry for the second year experienced a dramatic downturn. Energy use in the industrial sector showed a modest increase, but consumption in other end-use categories declined. The decrease in energy used in transportation can be traced to a substantial fall in the sales of both highway diesel fuels and vessel bunkering fuels at California ports, the latter reflecting a mid-year increase in taxes. Gasoline sales by contrast increased as did the number of miles traveled and the number of automobiles in the State. Production in California`s oil and gas fields was at 1990 levels thus arresting a steady decline in output. Due to enlarged steam flooding operations, production at several fields reached record levels. Also countering the decline in many of California fields was new production from the Port Arguello offshore field. California natural gas production, despite a modest 1991 increase, will not fill the use within the State. Petroleum comprised more than half of the State`s energy supply principally for transportation. Natural gas use showed a small increase. Oil products play virtually no role in electrical production. The largest single source of electricity to the State is imports from the Pacific Northwest and from coal-fired plants in the Southwest. Combined contributions to transmitted electricity from renewable and alternate sources declined as hydropower was constrained by a prolonged drought and as geothermal power from the largest and oldest field at The Geysers fell. Windpower grew slightly; however solar power remained at 1990 levels and made no substantial contribution to total power generation.

  15. Metropolitan Professional Sexual Differentiation, 1970: An Ecological Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gordon C., Jr.

    From the perspective of contemporary human ecology, this paper presents a descriptive analysis of sexual differentiation in professional occupations, using data provided for the large metropolitan labor forces of the United States in 1970. Aggregate profile characteristics of the total metropolitan labor force [the combined professional work…

  16. Guidelines for Analysis of Health Sector Financing in Developing Countries. Volume 8: Health Sector Financing in Developing Countries. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Robert L.; And Others

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this eighth of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods series provides a methodology for conducting a study of health sector financing. It presents an…

  17. Is Deindustrialization Causing High Unemployment in Affluent Countries? Evidence from 16 OECD Countries, 1970-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollmeyer, Christopher; Pichler, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the possibility that deindustrialization has been contributing to the persistently high unemployment rates experienced by most affluent countries since the mid-1970s. Combining insights from Lilien's (1982) "sectoral shift" thesis and the literature on deindustrialization, the authors assert that the decades-long contraction of…

  18. Women's Labor Force Participation and Socioeconomic Development: The Case of Peninsular Malaysia, 1957-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Charles; Aghajanian, Akbar

    Using 1957 and 1970 census data, four independent variables were used to explore determinants and constraints of Malaysian women's participation in the modern sector: ethnic community, educational attainment, size of place of residence, and marital/family status. Women's labor force participation increased as agricultural employment declined and a…

  19. Analysis and Interpretation of ABE Experience in the Inner City: Toward a Theory of Practice in the Public Schools. Annual Report, May 1969 - June 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Center for Adult Education.

    The project here reported was conceived as a two-year effort involving analysis, interpretation, and dissemination. Its first year was funded to permit comprehensive, in-depth, comparative study of selected public school Adult Basic Education (ABE) programs in six metropolitan areas. The purpose was to utilize field research methods to construct a…

  20. FPL's Christmas 1991 transmission outages

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, J.T.; Busch, D.W.; Renowden, J.D. . Transmission Line Dept.)

    1993-10-01

    A record number of contamination related outages occurred on FPL transmission lines during Christmas of 1991 and resulted in an investigation of inservice insulator performance. The field investigation process used was enhanced by recent improvements in outage data recording. Also used in the analysis were weather information, the results of recently completed accelerated aging tests of polymers, and specially conducted tests on the effects of weathering steel stain on porcelain insulators. Specific insulator problems were identified and actions taken to reduce the possibility of recurrence.

  1. Women on Campus: 1970; A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Center for Continuing Education for Women.

    The symposium: Women on Campus, 1970, held at Michigan University on October 14, 1970, centered on 3 major topics: "Toward a New Psychology of Women"; "The Case of the Woman Graduate Student"; and "The University and Women." The papers that were presented concerning the first topic included: "Internal Barriers to Achievement in Women--An…

  2. Manpower Research in the 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palomba, Neil A., Ed.; Jakubauskas, Edward B., Ed.

    Manpower research needs for the 1970's and the development and purpose of manpower research centers were the themes of a 1-week summer Manpower Research Institute held at Ames, Iowa in 1970. Sponsored by the Industrial Relations Center and funded by the U.S. Department of Labor's Manpower Institutional Grant Program, this interdisciplinary…

  3. FY 1991 Children's Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Coalition for Children and Families, East Lansing.

    Addressed to advocates and decision makers, this agenda identifies state services in Michigan that will be most vital to the state's children and families in fiscal year 1991. Initial contents provide general policy recommendations of the Michigan Coalition for Children and Families. Policy recommendations for the programs of the departments of…

  4. English Leadership Quarterly. 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent the quarterly for 1991. Articles in number 1 deal with whole language and include: "CEL: Shorter and Better" (Myles D. Eley); "Toward a New Philosophy of Language Learning" (Kathleen Strickland); "Whole Language: Implications for Secondary Classrooms" (Barbara King-Shaver); "Whole…

  5. TACSCE Research Annual 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesko, Silvia Jo

    1991-01-01

    This annual contains the paper that won the 1991 President's Award of the Texas Association for Community Service and Continuing Education (TACSCE) as well as the runner-up paper and other articles. An editorial, "Learning to Crawl" (Silvia Lesko), focuses on the editor's "discovery" of the adult learner. "Ethics and Continuing Education" (Janet…

  6. Development Communication Report, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The four 1991 issues of the newsletter "Development Communication Report" are primarily concerned with the use of communication technologies in developing countries to educate the people. Evaluation is the theme of the first issue, which contains the following articles: "Evaluating Communication Programs: Means and Ends,""Making a Splash: How…

  7. 1991 Children's Book Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Annual (SLMA), 1991

    1991-01-01

    Lists the winners of the 1991 children's book awards, including the Newbery Award (Jerry Spinelli); the Caldecott Award (David Macaulay); the Coretta Scott King Award (Mildred Taylor, author; Leo and Diane Dillon, illustrators); and the Mildred L. Batchelder Award (Rafik Shami, author; translated from Arabic by Rika Lesser). (LRW)

  8. Local and regional interactions between air quality and climate in New Delhi- A sector based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrapu, Pallavi

    Deteriorating air quality is one of the major problems faced worldwide and in particular in Asia. The world's most polluted megacities are located in Asia highlighting the urgent need for efforts to improve the air quality. New Delhi (India), one of the world's most polluted cities, was the host of the Common Wealth Games during the period of 4-14 October 2010. This high profile event provided a good opportunity to accelerate efforts to improve air quality. Computational advances now allow air quality forecast models to fully couple the meteorology with chemical constituents within a unified modeling system that allows two-way interactions. The WRF-Chem model is used to simulate air quality in New Delhi. The thesis focuses on evaluating air quality and meteorology feedbacks. Four nested domains ranging from South Asia, Northern India, NCR Delhi and Delhi city at 45km, 15km, 5km and 1.67km resolution for a period of 20 day (26th Sep--15th Oct, 2010) are used in the study. The predicted mean surface concentrations of various pollutants show similar spatial distributions with peak values in the middle of the domain reflecting the traffic and population patterns in the city. Along with these activities, construction dust and industrial emissions contribute to high levels of criteria pollutants. The study evaluates the WRF-Chem capabilities using a new emission inventory developed over Delhi at a fine resolution of 1.67km and evaluating the results with observational data from 11 monitoring sties placed at various Game venues. The contribution of emission sectors including transportation, power, industry, and domestic to pollutant concentrations at targeted regions are studied and the results show that transportation and domestic sector are the major contributors to the pollution levels in Delhi, followed by industry. Apart from these sectors, emissions outside of Delhi contribute 20-50% to surface concentrations depending on the species. This indicates that pollution

  9. Analysis of the gas-lubricated flat-sector-pad thrust bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.

    1976-01-01

    A flat sector-shaped pad geometry for a gas-lubricated thrust bearing is analyzed considering both the pitch and roll of the pad. It is shown that maximum load capacity is achieved when the pad is tilted so as to create uniform minimum film thickness along the pad trailing edge. Performance characteristics for various geometries and operating conditions of gas thrust bearings are presented in the form of design curves, and a comparison is made with the rectangular slider approximation. It is found that this approximation is unsafe for practical design, since it always overestimates load capacity.

  10. Analysis and design of a gas-lubricated, sectored, floating ring seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, W.; Lee, C.; Jones, H.

    1987-01-01

    Helium buffered floating-ring seals used in cryogenic turbopumps are subject to large temperature variations, shaft centrifugal growth, and dynamic shaft excursions. To prevent dangerous contact friction over a wide range of operating conditions generally requires liberal clearances with consequent high leakage. Reduction of helium consumption translates into lower space vehicle helium storage requirements and thus increased payload. A hydrostatic sectored floating-ring seal is described with self-adjusting clearance capabilities that enables the seal to operate with small clearances over the operating range to minimize leakage.

  11. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    PubMed

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae

  12. Exploring Oman's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saqlawi, Juman; Madani, Kaveh; Mac Dowell, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Located in a region where over 40% of the world's oil and gas reserves lie and in a trend similar to that of its neighbors, Oman's economy has been reliant on crude oil export since the 1970's. Being aware of the dangers of this reliance along with the discovery of Natural Gas since the 1980s, the Omani government's policy of diversifying its economy has shifted its reliance on Oil to another fossil fuel, namely Natural Gas. Given that energy is the lifeline of Oman's economy, effective and efficient forward planning and policy development is essential for the country's current and future economic development. This presentation explores the current status of the energy sector in Oman from home production and import to eventual final uses. The presentation highlights the major issues with Oman's current energy policies and suggests various strategies that could be adopted by Oman for a more efficient and sustainable future.

  13. The Analytic Onion: Examining Training Issues from Different Levels of Analysis. Interim Technical Paper for Period July 1989-June 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Theodore A.; Chin, Keric B. O.

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework based on different levels of analysis using the metaphor of the layers of an onion to help organize and structure thinking on research issues concerning training. It discusses the core of the "analytic onion," the biological level, and seven levels of analysis that surround that core: the individual, the…

  14. Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

    1980-09-01

    This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  15. Envisioning the Third Sector's Welfare Role: Critical Discourse Analysis of ‘Post-Devolution’ Public Policy in the UK 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy – thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities – such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision – policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance. PMID:25574063

  16. Photogrammetric Tools For Panoramic Sector Scan Imagery In The VIDARS Analysis Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leberl, Franz W.; Kaufmann, Viktor; Gustafson, Glen C.; Stevens, Matt; Kienegger, Erwin

    1985-12-01

    Computer-assisted photo-interpretation is a recent development supported by the advent of numerous interpretation stations. A unique universal station is VIDARS--manufactured by the Richards Corporation of McLean, Virginia--since it has recently been equipped with a new software system that incorporates complex photogrammetric mensuration capabilities. Photo-interpreters typically find it difficult to perform mensuration tasks; therefore the implementation of the photogrammetric functions must not burden the user with a need to understand photogrammetric theories. This paper illustrates a difficult application of VIDARS to sector-scan panoramic film (Long Range Aerial Panoramic--LORAP) imagery and will show how well the user can perform target positioning tasks within his interpretation work.

  17. Computational Analysis of Dynamic SPK(S8)-JP8 Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, R.; Hendricks, Roberts C.; Huber, M. L.; Shouse, D. T.

    2010-01-01

    Civil and military flight tests using blends of synthetic and biomass fueling with jet fuel up to 50:50 are currently considered as "drop-in" fuels. They are fully compatible with aircraft performance, emissions and fueling systems, yet the design and operations of such fueling systems and combustors must be capable of running fuels from a range of feedstock sources. This paper provides Smart Combustor or Fuel Flexible Combustor designers with computational tools, preliminary performance, emissions and particulates combustor sector data. The baseline fuel is kerosene-JP-8+100 (military) or Jet A (civil). Results for synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK) fuel blends show little change with respect to baseline performance, yet do show lower emissions. The evolution of a validated combustor design procedure is fundamental to the development of dynamic fueling of combustor systems for gas turbine engines that comply with multiple feedstock sources satisfying both new and legacy systems.

  18. An input-output table based analysis on the virtual water by sectors with the five northwest provinces in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chenchen; Zhan, Jinyan

    Virtual water refers to the volumes of water required to produce a commodity or service. It reflects human's actual consumption of water resources and therefore has certain significance in water resources management. Over the years, the concept of virtual water has caught the attentions of water manager and decision maker. In order to utilize this concept, the accounting and estimation of virtual water is the foundation that lies in this issue. Till now, the accounting methods mainly include the method provided by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), water footprint and input-output analysis method. In this paper, we chose Northwest China, which is a typical arid region that is facing with rapid economic development, as the study area and built an Input-Output (IO) analysis method to estimate virtual water among different industry sectors in the northwest China. The accounting and estimation results could be used to give suggestions to increase water use efficiency and promote virtual water trade in the study area. Comparison of the proposed method with other prevailing method was also analyzed. The introduced method could be utilized for accounting and estimation of virtual water by sectors, with its superiority in characterizing industrial water consumption and the accounting results could lend certain credence to the water resource management and industrial transformation for the future economic development of northwest China.

  19. Trends in population mental health before and after the 2008 recession: a repeat cross-sectional analysis of the 1991–2010 Health Surveys of England

    PubMed Central

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Niedzwiedz, Claire L; Popham, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess short-term differences in population mental health before and after the 2008 recession and explore how and why these changes differ by gender, age and socio-economic position. Design Repeat cross-sectional analysis of survey data. Setting England. Participants Representative samples of the working age (25–64 years) general population participating in the Health Survey for England between 1991 and 2010 inclusive. Main outcome measures Prevalence of poor mental health (caseness) as measured by the general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ). Results Age–sex standardised prevalence of GHQ caseness increased from 13.7% (95% CI 12.9% to 14.5%) in 2008 to 16.4% (95% CI 14.9% to 17.9%) in 2009 and 15.5% (95% CI 14.4% to 16.7%) in 2010. Women had a consistently greater prevalence since 1991 until the current recession. However, compared to 2008, men experienced an increase in age-adjusted caseness of 5.1% (95% CI 2.6% to 7.6%, p<0.001) in 2009 and 3% (95% CI 1.2% to 4.9%, p=0.001) in 2010, while no statistically significant changes were seen in women. Adjustment for differences in employment status and education level did not account for the observed increase in men nor did they explain the differential gender patterning. Over the last decade, socio-economic inequalities showed a tendency to increase but no clear evidence for an increase in inequalities associated with the recession was found. Similarly, no evidence was found for a differential effect between age groups. Conclusions Population mental health in men has deteriorated within 2 years of the onset of the current recession. These changes, and their patterning by gender, could not be accounted for by differences in employment status. Further work is needed to monitor recessionary impacts on health inequalities in response to ongoing labour market and social policy changes. PMID:23075569

  20. The Forgotten Minority: An Analysis of American Indian Employment Patterns in State and Local Governments, 1991-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Valerie H.; Kerr, Brinck; Ketcher, Linda K.; Murphy, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address a gap in the empirical literature by analyzing levels of proportional representation of American Indians over time in state and local government bureaucracies in key states. The authors limit their analysis to six states with the largest percentages of American Indian populations in 2000: Alaska, Arizona,…

  1. A Spreadsheet for a 2 x 3 x 2 Log-Linear Analysis. AIR 1991 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saupe, Joe L.

    This paper describes a personal computer spreadsheet set up to carry out hierarchical log-linear analyses, a type of analysis useful for institutional research into multidimensional frequency tables formed from categorical variables such as faculty rank, student class level, gender, or retention status. The spreadsheet provides a concrete vehicle…

  2. SOIL AND FILL LABORATORY SUPPORT - 1991

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of soil analysis laboratory work by the University of Florida in Support of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). Analyses were performed on soil and fill samples collected during 1991 by the FRRP Research House program and the New House Evaluation P...

  3. Using multipliers analysis in order to get another perspective related to the role of ICT sectors in national economy of Indonesia: 1990-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to get another perspective related to the role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors in national economy of Indonesia. The period of analysis of this study is 1990-2005. This study employs Input-Output (IO) analysis as a tool of analysis. More specifically, this study uses simple output multipliers method in order to achieve the purpose. Comparison with previous study is conducted in order to get the objective of this study. Previous study, using Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA), showed that ICT sectors did not have an important role in Indonesian national economy in above period. The similar results also appear in this study. In other words, from this study, another perspective related to the role of these sectors in Indonesian national economy in analysis period is not found.

  4. [Physicians in Mexico, 1970-1990].

    PubMed

    Frenk, J; Durán-Arenas, L; Vázquez-Segovia, A; García, C; Vázquez, D

    1995-01-01

    A study was carried out in 1970 on the distribution of medical personnel in Mexico. At that time an unequal distribution of physicians was detected, but not emphasized given the general shortage of physicians in the country. At the present time, the situation has changed. In this article the analysis of the 1990 census data using traditional indicators of availability of physicians in the country, as well as indirect criteria of physician requirements is presented. In the year of reference there were 157,407 physicians in the country, with a national average of 673 persons per physician. The distribution of physicians by state showed a great deal of variation in the number of persons per physician. For example, the state of Chiapas has 1,642 inhabitants per physician, whereas the Federal District has 292. The relation between trained and employed physicians shows another important phenomenon: there is a high percentage of physicians that do not practice clinical medicine (19.4%). Nevertheless, the number of physicians almost tripled the growth experienced by the general population, and important differences among and within states do persist. Furthermore, a new paradoxical effect has emerged, the presence of underemployment and unemployment of physicians, even in communities with greater needs for medical care. This indicates that the strategy of training more physicians has not solved the problems of accessibility and coverage, but in fact has fostered new problems and perhaps greater inequalities. PMID:7754425

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the agricultural sector.

    PubMed

    Bakam, Innocent; Balana, Bedru Babulo; Matthews, Robin

    2012-12-15

    Market-based policy instruments to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are generally considered more appropriate than command and control tools. However, the omission of transaction costs from policy evaluations and decision-making processes may result in inefficiency in public resource allocation and sub-optimal policy choices and outcomes. This paper aims to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of market-based GHG mitigation policy instruments in the agricultural sector by incorporating transaction costs. Assuming that farmers' responses to mitigation policies are economically rationale, an individual-based model is developed to study the relative performances of an emission tax, a nitrogen fertilizer tax, and a carbon trading scheme using farm data from the Scottish farm account survey (FAS) and emissions and transaction cost data from literature metadata survey. Model simulations show that none of the three schemes could be considered the most cost effective in all circumstances. The cost effectiveness depends both on the tax rate and the amount of free permits allocated to farmers. However, the emissions trading scheme appears to outperform both other policies in realistic scenarios. PMID:22868381

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the agricultural sector.

    PubMed

    Bakam, Innocent; Balana, Bedru Babulo; Matthews, Robin

    2012-12-15

    Market-based policy instruments to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are generally considered more appropriate than command and control tools. However, the omission of transaction costs from policy evaluations and decision-making processes may result in inefficiency in public resource allocation and sub-optimal policy choices and outcomes. This paper aims to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of market-based GHG mitigation policy instruments in the agricultural sector by incorporating transaction costs. Assuming that farmers' responses to mitigation policies are economically rationale, an individual-based model is developed to study the relative performances of an emission tax, a nitrogen fertilizer tax, and a carbon trading scheme using farm data from the Scottish farm account survey (FAS) and emissions and transaction cost data from literature metadata survey. Model simulations show that none of the three schemes could be considered the most cost effective in all circumstances. The cost effectiveness depends both on the tax rate and the amount of free permits allocated to farmers. However, the emissions trading scheme appears to outperform both other policies in realistic scenarios.

  7. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Electricity Usage in India’s Housing Sector

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    India offers a unique set of features for studying electricity use in the context of a developing country. First, it has a rapidly developing economy with high yearly growth rates in gross domestic product (GDP). Second, it has the second -largest population in the world and is likely to have the largest population in the future. Third, its electric system is maturing—with known difficulties (outages, shortages, issues with reliability and quality) that are characteristic of a developing country. This article focuses on electricity use in the residential sector of India and discusses key trends and provides an overview of available usage estimates from various sources. Indian households are an interesting environment where many of India’s unique features interact. The recent economic gains correlate with rising incomes and possible changes in living standards, which could affect electricity or other energy use within households. Additionally, the maturing electric system and large population in India both offer opportunities to study a range of interactions between electrification and electricity usage in a developing country.

  8. Multifractality of sectoral price indices: Hurst signature analysis of Cantillon effects in disequilibrium factor markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Robert F.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents Hurst exponent signatures from time series of aggregate price indices for the US over the 1975-2011 time period. Though all highly aggregated, these indices include both broad measures of consumer and producer prices. The constellation of prices evolves as a complex system throughout processes of production and distribution, culminating in the final delivery of output to consumers. Massive feedback characterizes this system, where the demand for consumable output determines the demand for the inputs used to produce it, and supply scarcities for the necessary inputs in turn determine the supply of the final product. Prices in both factor and output markets are jointly determined by interdependent supply and demand conditions. Fractal examination of the interplay among market prices would be of interest regardless, but added interest arises from the consideration of how these markets respond to external shocks over the business cycle, particularly monetary expansion. Because the initial impact of monetary injection is localized in specific sectors, the way the impact on prices diffuses throughout the economy is of special interest.

  9. Sectoral shifts and aggregate unemployment

    SciTech Connect

    Loungani, P.

    1986-01-01

    Some recent research has taken the view that sectoral or industry-specific shocks significantly affect aggregate unemployment by increasing the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required. The empirical evidence for this view rests on the finding that during the 1950s - and again during the 1970s - there was a positive correlation between aggregate unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth rates. This thesis demonstrates that this correlation arises largely because oil price shocks affect both unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth. Once the dispersion due to oil shocks is accounted for, the residual dispersion in employment has very low explanatory power for unemployment. Since the dispersion index does not measure pure sectoral shifts, an alternate measure of dispersion is developed that serves as a better proxy for the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required each period. Estimates using this measure suggest that, during the 1950s, temporary increases in the relative price of oil were responsible for generating the observed correlation. On the other hand, sectoral shifts were important during the 1970s; in particular, the 1973 oil price increase has had significant reallocative effects on the economy. This contention is subjected to further tests by looking at the time-series behavior of employment in durable-goods industries and also by following the inter-industry movements of workers over time through the use of panel data.

  10. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Final progress report, 1 March 1991--28 February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, F.T.

    1994-04-01

    The objectives of this grant proposal include (1) development of a chromosome microdissection and PCR-mediated microcloning technology, (2) application of this microtechnology to the construction of region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. During this grant period, the authors have successfully developed this microtechnology and have applied it to the construction of microdissection libraries for the following chromosome regions: a whole chromosome 21 (21E), 2 region-specific libraries for the long arm of chromosome 2, 2q35-q37 (2Q1) and 2q33-q35 (2Q2), and 4 region-specific libraries for the entire short arm of chromosome 2, 2p23-p25 (2P1), 2p21-p23 (2P2), 2p14-p16 (wP3) and 2p11-p13 (2P4). In addition, 20--40 unique sequence microclones have been isolated and characterized for genomic studies. These region-specific libraries and the single-copy microclones from the library have been used as valuable resources for (1) isolating microsatellite probes in linkage analysis to further refine the disease locus; (2) isolating corresponding clones with large inserts, e.g. YAC, BAC, P1, cosmid and phage, to facilitate construction of contigs for high resolution physical mapping; and (3) isolating region-specific cDNA clones for use as candidate genes. These libraries are being deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) for general distribution.

  11. Cost-benefit analysis of alternative LNG vapor-mitigation measures. Topical report, September 14, 1987-January 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.

    1992-06-25

    A generalized methodology is presented for comparing the costs and safety benefits of alternative hazard mitigation measures for a large LNG vapor release. The procedure involves the quantification of the risk to the public before and after the application of LNG vapor mitigation measures. In the study, risk was defined as the product of the annual accident frequency, estimated from a fault tree analysis, and the severity of the accident. Severity was measured in terms of the number of people who may be exposed to 2.5% or higher concentration. The ratios of the annual costs of the various mitigation measures to their safety benefits (as determined by the differences between the risk before and after mitigation measure implementation), were then used to identify the most cost-effective approaches to vapor cloud mitigation.

  12. Analysis of energy use in building services of the industrial sector in California: Two case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

    1991-09-01

    Energy-use patterns in many of California's fastest-growing industries are not typical of the existing mix of industries in the US. Many California firms operate small- and medium-sized facilities housed in buildings used simultaneously or interchangeably over time for commercial (office, retail, warehouse) and industrial activities. In these industrial subsectors, the energy required for building services (providing occupant comfort and necessities like lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.) may be at least as important as the more familiar process energy requirements -- especially for electricity and on-peak demand. Electricity for building services is sometimes priced as if it were base loaded like process uses; in reality this load varies significantly according to occupancy schedules and cooling and heating loads, much as in any commercial building. Using informal field surveys, simulation studies, and detailed analyses of existing data (including utility commercial/industrial audit files), we studied the energy use of this industrial subsector through a multi-step procedure: (1) characterizing non-process building energy and power use in California industries, (2) identifying conservation and load-shaping opportunities in industrial building services, and (3) investigating industrial buildings and system design methodologies. In an earlier report, we addressed these issues by performing an extensive survey of the existing publicly available data, characterizing and comparing the building energy use in this sector. In this report, we address the above objectives by examining and analyzing energy use in two industrial case-study facilities in California. Based on the information for the case studies, we discuss the design consideration for these industrial buildings, characterize their energy use, and review their conservation and load-shaping potentials. In addition, we identify and discuss some research ideas for further investigation.

  13. Atmospheric fingerprints of East Asia, 1986-1991. An urgent record of aerosol analysis by the jack network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Yoshikazu; Sekine, Yoshika; Kim, Hui Kang; Chen, Zong Liang; Yang, Zhi Min

    In order to establish a record of air quality in the Asian region, a JACK (Japan-China-Korea) air monitoring network was privately established with five stations in China and one in Korea. The monitoring methods of atmospheric aerosol components followed those of the National Air Surveillance Network, Japan, with some modifications, in order that the data could be directly compared. The latest results of the network were described with data analysis and discussion. The annual change of pollution patterns at Seoul, Korea showed the gradual increase of anthropogenic emissions, especially those emissions contributed by automobiles with the indication of the La/Sm ratio. Comparison of the data at Chinese cities showed the characteristics of air quality of each city: high contribution of soil dust in the northern part of China, influence of coal combustion effluents at a large urban area, industrial effects of Sb, W and rare earth elements, etc. The importance of collection of air quality data in the east Asian area was emphasized in the text.

  14. 1996-2004 Trends in the Single-Family Housing Market: Spatial Analysis of the Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dave M.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2006-09-05

    This report provides a detailed geographic analysis of two specific topics affecting the residential sector. First, we performed an analysis of new construction market trends using annual building permit data. We report summarized tables and national maps to help illustrate market conditions. Second, we performed a detailed geographic analysis of the housing finance market. We analyzed mortgage application data to provide citable statistics and detailed geographic summarization of the residential housing picture in the US for each year in the 1996-2004 period. The databases were linked to geographic information system tools to provide various map series detailing the results geographically. Looking at these results geographically may suggest potential new markets for TD programs addressing the residential sector that have not been considered previously. For example, we show which lenders affect which regions and which income or mortgage product classes. These results also highlight the issue of housing affordability. Energy efficiency R&D programs focused on developing new technology for the residential sector must be conscious of the costs of products resulting from research that will eventually impact the home owner or new home buyer. Results indicate that home values as a proportion of median family income in Building America communities are closely aligned with the national average of home value as a proportion of median income. Other key findings: • The share of home building and home buying activity continues to rise steadily in the Hot-Dry and Hot-Humid climate zones, while the Mixed-Humid and Cold climate zone shares continue to decline. Other zones remain relatively stable in terms of share of housing activity. • The proportion of home buyers having three times the median family income for their geography has been steadily increasing during the study period. • Growth in the Hispanic/Latino population and to a lesser degree in the Asian population has

  15. Assessing National Employment Impacts of Investment in Residential and Commercial Sector Energy Efficiency: Review and Example Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David M.; Belzer, David B.; Livingston, Olga V.; Scott, Michael J.

    2014-06-18

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) modeled the employment impacts of a major national initiative to accelerate energy efficiency trends at one of two levels: • 15 percent savings by 2030. In this scenario, efficiency activities save about 15 percent of the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) Reference Case electricity consumption by 2030. It is assumed that additional energy savings in both the residential and commercial sectors begin in 2015 at zero, and then increase in an S-shaped market penetration curve, with the level of savings equal to about 7.0 percent of the AEO 2014 U.S. national residential and commercial electricity consumption saved by 2020, 14.8 percent by 2025, and 15 percent by 2030. • 10 percent savings by 2030. In this scenario, additional savings begin at zero in 2015, increase to 3.8 percent in 2020, 9.8 percent by 2025, and 10 percent of the AEO reference case value by 2030. The analysis of the 15 percent case indicates that by 2030 more than 300,000 new jobs would likely result from such policies, including an annual average of more than 60,000 jobs directly supporting the installation and maintenance of energy efficiency measures and practices. These are new jobs resulting initially from the investment associated with the construction of more energy-efficient new buildings or the retrofit of existing buildings and would be sustained for as long as the investment continues. Based on what is known about the current level of building-sector energy efficiency jobs, this would represent an increase of more than 10 percent from the current estimated level of over 450,000 such jobs. The more significant and longer-lasting effect comes from the redirection of energy bill savings toward the purchase of other goods and services in the general economy, with its attendant influence on increasing the total number of jobs. This example analysis utilized PNNL’s ImSET model, a modeling framework that PNNL has used over the past two decades to assess

  16. How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development

  17. A threat analysis framework as applied to critical infrastructures in the Energy Sector.

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, John T.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The need to protect national critical infrastructure has led to the development of a threat analysis framework. The threat analysis framework can be used to identify the elements required to quantify threats against critical infrastructure assets and provide a means of distributing actionable threat information to critical infrastructure entities for the protection of infrastructure assets. This document identifies and describes five key elements needed to perform a comprehensive analysis of threat: the identification of an adversary, the development of generic threat profiles, the identification of generic attack paths, the discovery of adversary intent, and the identification of mitigation strategies.

  18. International oil and gas exploration and development: 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This report starts where the previous quarterly publication ended. This first publication of a new annual series contains most of the same data as the quarterly report, plus some new material, through 1991. It also presents historical data covering a longer period of time than the previous quarterly report. Country-level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve-to-production rations (R/P ratios) are listed for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form. The most popular table in the previous quarterly report, a listing of new discoveries, continues in this annual report as Appendix A.

  19. Training in the Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector in Ireland. Report for the FORCE Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuite, Dominick

    A study viewed the existing motor vehicle sector, structure, and trading conditions and identified and analyzed the best and most significant continuing vocational training practices in Ireland. In 1991, the motor vechicle sector accounted for 6.2 percent of the Gross National Product. Employment in the sector has decreased from an estimated…

  20. An Analysis of the Implementation and Impact of Speech-Recognition Technology in the Healthcare Sector

    PubMed Central

    Parente, Ronaldo; Kock, Ned; Sonsini, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual framework and offers research propositions for understanding the adoption of speech-recognition technology, drawing from Rogers's work on the diffusion of innovation, from interview findings, and from case study analysis. The study's focus was the analysis of the implementation of speech recognition and its impact on performance in the healthcare industry. Our interview findings indicated that, while there is still much room for improvement in the way speech-recognition technology is adopted and implemented, this particular technology has had a significant impact on the ability of healthcare providers to operate more cost effectively and provide a better level of patient care. PMID:18066385

  1. Semiannual final report, 1 October 1991 - 31 March 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A summary of research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period 1 Oct. 1991 through 31 Mar. 1992 is presented.

  2. Agriculture sector resource and environmental policy analysis: an economic and biophysical approach.

    PubMed

    House, R; McDowell, H; Peters, M; Heimlich, R

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural pollution of the environment is jointly determined by economic decisions driving land use, production practices, and stochastic biophysical processes associated with agricultural production, land and climate characteristics. It follows that environmental and economic statistics, traditionally collected independently of each other, offer little insight into non-point pollutant loadings. We argue that effective policy development would be facilitated by integrating environmental and economic data gathering, combined with simulation modelling linking economic and biophysical components. Integrated data collection links economics, land use, production methods and environmental loadings. An integrated economic/biophysical modelling framework facilitates policy analysis because monetary incentives to reduce pollution can be evaluated in the context of market costs and returns that influence land use and production activity. This allows prediction of environmental and economic outcomes from alternative policies to solve environmental problems. We highlight steps taken to merge economic and biophysical modelling for policy analysis within the Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. An example analysis of a policy to reduce agricultural nitrogen pollution is presented, with the economic and environmental results illustrating the value of linked economic and biophysical analysis. PMID:10231835

  3. A Hybrid Model for IT Investment Analysis: Application to RFID Adoption in the Retail Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasiri, Narges A.

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study. One of the major obstacles in Information Technology (IT) adoption is its return on investment analysis. IT benefits in organizations are hard to measure and are usually realized over time. System dynamics approach has been used in IT literature to identify the impact of IT on business processes. Given benefits of any IT…

  4. Public and private sector responses to essential drugs policies: a multilevel analysis of drug prescription and selling practices in Mali.

    PubMed

    Maïga, Fatoumata Ina; Haddad, Slim; Fournier, Pierre; Gauvin, Lise

    2003-09-01

    Many African countries have introduced cost recovery mechanisms based on the sale of drugs and measures aimed at improving drug supply. This study compares prescribing and selling practices in Mali, in 3 cities where the public sector contributes differentially to the supply of drugs on the market. Multilevel models are used to analyse the content and cost of 700 medication transactions observed in 14 private and public legal points of sale. Results show that the objective of improving access to drugs seems to have been achieved in the sites studied. Costs of prescriptions were lower where public health services had been revitalized. Affordable generic drugs were accessible and widely used, even in the private sector. However, measures intended to rationalize the prescription and delivery of drugs did not always have the desired effect. While agents in the public sector tended to prescribe fewer antibiotics, injectables, or brand-name drugs, the data confirm the virtual absence of advice concerning the use or the side effects of the drugs in both public and private sectors. In addition, data supported the notion that the public and private sectors are closely intertwined. Notably, availability of drugs in the public sector contributed to diminishing the prices charged in the private sector. Similarly, the use that agents in the public sector made of the opportunities afforded by the presence of the private pharmaceutical sector provided another illustration of interrelatedness. Finally, the data showed that the presence of a private sector, which has not been affected by measures aimed at rationalizing prescription and sales practices, limits the effects of measures implemented in the public sector. More assertive policies, based on strategies encompassing actors in the private sector, are needed to increase the safety and effectiveness of prescription and sales practices.

  5. Indian Health Service Training Center, Training Course TC-70-4 (April 13-May 1, 1970): A Descriptive Analysis of the Utilization of Health Resources in the Zuni, New Mexico Service Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Washington, DC. Div. of Indian Health.

    A descriptive study of health services utilization patterns, and possible factors contributing to such patterns, was conducted in April 1970 at the Zuni, New Mexico, Indian Health Service Unit. Health service utilization was explored by selected disease categories, preventative services (maternal and child health), and general population attitudes…

  6. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. Final Project Report. California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-01

    This report on the California Energy Balance version 2 (CALEB v2) database documents the latest update and improvements to CALEB version 1 (CALEB v1) and provides a complete picture of how energy is supplied and consumed in the State of California. The CALEB research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) performed the research and analysis described in this report. CALEB manages highly disaggregated data on energy supply, transformation, and end-use consumption for about 40 different energy commodities, from 1990 to 2008. This report describes in detail California's energy use from supply through end-use consumption as well as the data sources used. The report also analyzes trends in energy demand for the "Manufacturing" and "Building" sectors. Decomposition analysis of energy consumption combined with measures of the activity driving that consumption quantifies the effects of factors that shape energy consumption trends. The study finds that a decrease in energy intensity has had a very significant impact on reducing energy demand over the past 20 years. The largest impact can be observed in the industry sector where energy demand would have had increased by 358 trillion British thermal units (TBtu) if subsectoral energy intensities had remained at 1997 levels. Instead, energy demand actually decreased by 70 TBtu. In the "Building" sector, combined results from the "Service" and "Residential" subsectors suggest that energy demand would have increased by 264 TBtu (121 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 143 TBtu in the "Residential" sector) during the same period, 1997 to 2008. However, energy demand increased at a lesser rate, by only 162 TBtu (92 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 70 TBtu in the "Residential" sector). These energy intensity reductions can be indicative of energyefficiency improvements during the past 10 years. The research presented in this report provides a basis for developing an energy-efficiency performance index to measure

  7. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  8. Research and technology, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA Lewis' research and technology accomplishments are summarized for the fiscal year 1991. Approximately 150 articles are presented which were submitted by the technical directorates. There are six major sections: Aeronautics; Aerospace technology; Space flight systems; Space Station Freedom; Engineering and Computational support; and Lewis Research Academy. A table of contents by subject was developed to assist the reader in finding articles of special interest. For each article, a Lewis contact person is identified, and where possible, a reference document is listed so that additional information can be easily obtained. The diversity of topics attests to the breadth of research and technology being pursued and to the skill mix of the staff that makes it possible.

  9. 1970 External Summer Youth Opportunity Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    The Federal Highway Administration exceeded its goal of 50,000 jobs in its 1970 External Summer Youth Opportunity Campaign by providing 57,646 jobs. Of the jobs available, a large majority were filled by disadvantaged youth. Various Federal and private agencies were involved in making the program work. This pamphlet describes the national youth…

  10. Project Description, FY 1970. Title I, ESEA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racine Unified School District 1, WI.

    This report describes a teacher evaluation instrument for identifying educationally disadvantaged children. Also described are proposed and existing projects for fiscal year 1970, among which is an after school study center which will provide reinforcement for children retarded in reading and arithmetic skills. Other projects include a home…

  11. The Development Function in the 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantzreb, Arthur C.

    The development function of the 1970's is seen as a test of the management skills of policy-making trustees, decision-making administrators and sales management development officers to plan for and secure financial resources from constituents buffeted by new issues and new forces in American society, in the economy, and in the educational system.…

  12. Teacher MA Attainment Rates, 1970-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, S. Eric

    2010-01-01

    The share of female teachers in the U.S. with an MA more than doubled between 1970 and 2000. This increase is puzzling, as it is much larger than that of other college-educated women, and it occurred over a period of declining teacher aptitude. I estimate the contribution of changes in teacher demographic characteristics, increases in the returns…

  13. Oregon Migrant Health Project, 1970 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Health, Portland.

    The 1970 annual report on the Oregon Migrant Health Project discusses health services for migrant agricultural workers and their families (approximately 30,000 individuals) who worked and lived temporarily in various Oregon counties. As noted, some 9,000 of the 30,000 migrants were estimated to be in need of some type of medical service. Thus, the…

  14. Medical School Salary Study, 1970-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The Association of American Medical Colleges conducted a survey by means of a questionnaire in 1970-71 to determine the salaries of medical school faculties. Ninety-three schools submitted returns; salaries for 4,366 basic scientists and 12,701 clinical scientists are reported. The areas covered include strict full-time faculty by department, and…

  15. Toward Explaining Earlier Retirement after 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Rule changes in the social security system and pension plans suggest that labor force participation rates for men aged 55 to 64 fell by 20 percent from 1970 through 1986 because of the increase in social security benefits and a change in private pension rules encouraging earlier retirement. (Author/JOW)

  16. 1970 Inter-Agency Employment Meeting (Navajo).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    The document provides names of participants, a meeting agenda, and a record of proceedings of the Inter-Agency Employment Meeting held in Window Rock, Arizona, on April 15, 1970. Representatives of various agencies concerned with the problem of Navajo Indian employment (e.g., the Arizona State Employment Commission, Bureau of Indian Affairs, and…

  17. 1970s: Camping in Tough Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camping Magazine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    In the 1970s, camps were challenged by economic recession, growing administrative demands, and changing attitudes and interests of campers and staff. An illustrative article from 1972, "Facing the Camping Future with Confidence" (Michael F. Buynak), discusses hidden costs in camp operation and the need for camp administration to shift from…

  18. The Total Solar Eclipse, March 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William H.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the circumstances of the total and partial solar eclipse of March 7, 1970 in certain American cities. Also discussed are (1) a classroom demonstration of the cause of solar eclipses, (2) techniques for safely observing the eclipse, and (3) what to observe during the eclipse. Bibliography. (LC)

  19. Programs and Registrations, 1970-1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Gayle B., Ed.

    This report provides, in tabular form, Association of University Evening Colleges (AUEC)-National University Extension Association (NUEA) programs and registrations for 1970-1971. Academic subjects are grouped under the following basic headings: Agriculture, Behavioral Sciences, Biological Sciences, Business, Education, Engineering, Health…

  20. Bibliography of Nursing Monographs, 1970-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewens, Wilma A., Comp.; And Others

    This list consists of titles published since 1970 on nursing, grouping them into five broad categories: (1) nursing practice, including clinical nursing, communication, community health, emergency care, family health, obstetrics, and universal self care; (2) nursing as a profession; (3) educational aspects of nursing; (4) basic health science…

  1. Vocational and Technical Training--1970-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1973

    Divided into seven sections and written in a 2-column format in both English and French, this document presents statistical data on the following vocational schools and training programs in operation in Canada during the 1970-71 academic year: (1) publicly sponsored post-secondary courses, (2) publicly-operated vocational schools, (3)…

  2. Remembering 1970, and Premonitions about 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouran, Dennis S.

    In the history of small group studies (in the field of communication theory and research), two factors contributed to the changes that led to Ernest Bormann publishing in 1970 his work questioning the value of the knowledge being reported and the appropriateness of the methods by which it was being generated. First, prior to 1965, a limited amount…

  3. Mate Selection in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murstein, Bernard I.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the literature of the 1970s showed that individual determination in marriage continued to increase across the world, though less rapidly in the lesser industrialized nations. One concomitant of this freedom is delayed marriage and the right not to marry at all. (Author)

  4. Pennsylvania Farm Labor Service Annual Report, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Labor and Industry, Harrisburg.

    A delineation of the results of an effort to satisfy the needs of the Pennsylvania farmer and to procure gainful employment for migrant workers is the stated purpose of this 1970 annual report by the Rural Services Section of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Employment Security. The report divides Pennsylvania into 7 crop-reporting areas, in which…

  5. Women and Crime: 1960-1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noblit, George W.; Burcart, Janie M.

    1976-01-01

    Using data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Report, this research looks at crimes committed by women in 1960 and 1970. The study documents trends and offers possible explanations for the observed patterns. (For a critique of this article, see SO 504 653). (Author/RM)

  6. The corn blight problem: 1970 and 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Southern corn leaf blight is caused by the fungus, Helminthosporium maydis. Race T of H maydis adapted itself to the Texas male sterile cytoplasm corn. The problems caused by this variety of the blight in 1970 and 1971 are discussed, as well as the symptoms and development of the disease.

  7. Resources for the Future. Annual Report 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Presented is the Annual Report for Resources For The Future, Inc. (RFF) for the year ending September 30, 1970. This organization is dedicated to advancing the development, conservation, and use of natural resources and the improvement of the quality of the environment through programs of research and education. Most of their studies are in the…

  8. A retrospective content analysis of studies on factors constraining the implementation of health sector reform in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sakyi, E Kojo

    2008-01-01

    Ghana has undertaken many public service management reforms in the past two decades. But the implementation of the reforms has been constrained by many factors. This paper undertakes a retrospective study of research works on the challenges to the implementation of reforms in the public health sector. It points out that most of the studies identified: (1) centralised, weak and fragmented management system; (2) poor implementation strategy; (3) lack of motivation; (4) weak institutional framework; (5) lack of financial and human resources and (6) staff attitude and behaviour as the major causes of ineffective reform implementation. The analysis further revealed that quite a number of crucial factors obstructing reform implementation which are particularly internal to the health system have either not been thoroughly studied or overlooked. The analysis identified lack of leadership; weak communication and consultation; lack of stakeholder participation, corruption and unethical professional behaviour as some of the missing variables in the literature. The study, therefore, indicated that there are gaps in the literature that needed to be filled through rigorous reform evaluation based on empirical research particularly at district, sub-district and community levels. It further suggested that future research should be concerned with the effects of both systems and structures and behavioural factors on reform implementation.

  9. Analysis of energy use and CO2 emissions in the U.S. refining sector, with projections for 2025.

    PubMed

    Hirshfeld, David S; Kolb, Jeffrey A

    2012-04-01

    This analysis uses linear programming modeling of the U.S. refining sector to estimate total annual energy consumption and CO(2) emissions in 2025, for four projected U.S. crude oil slates. The baseline is similar to the current U.S. crude slate; the other three contain larger proportions of higher density, higher sulfur crudes than the current or any previous U.S. crude slates. The latter cases reflect aggressive assumptions regarding the volumes of Canadian crudes in the U.S. crude slate in 2025. The analysis projects U.S. refinery energy use 3.7%-6.3% (≈ 0.13-0.22 quads/year) higher and refinery CO(2) emissions 5.4%-9.3% (≈ 0.014-0.024 gigatons/year) higher in the study cases than in the baseline. Refining heavier crude slates would require significant investments in new refinery processing capability, especially coking and hydrotreating units. These findings differ substantially from a recent estimate asserting that processing heavy oil or bitumen blends could increase industry CO(2) emissions by 1.6-3.7 gigatons/year.

  10. Access to Vocational Training in Three Sectors of the European Economy. Comparative Analysis. 2nd Edition. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassibille, Gerard; Paul, Jean-Jacques

    This report presents findings of a study of the theoretical and practical methods of access to continuing vocational training. It summarizes six reports that compare the following: the construction sector in Spain, France, Italy, and Luxembourg; the banking, insurance, commerce, and administration sectors in Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, and…

  11. Efficacy of fuzzy MADM approach in Six Sigma analysis phase in automotive sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathi, Rajeev; Khanduja, Dinesh; Sharma, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    Six Sigma is a strategy for achieving process improvement and operational excellence within an organization. Decisions on critical parameter selection in analysis phase are always very crucial; it plays a primary role in successful execution of Six Sigma project and for productivity improvement in manufacturing environment and involves the imprecise, vague and uncertain information. Using a case study approach; the paper demonstrates a tactical approach for selection of critical factors of machine breakdown in center less grinding (CLG) section at an automotive industry using fuzzy logic based multi attribute decision making approach. In this context, we have considered six crucial attributes for selection of critical factors for breakdown. Mean time between failure is found to be the pivotal selection criterion in CLG section. Having calculated the weights pertinent to criteria through two methods (fuzzy VIKOR and fuzzy TOPSIS) critical factors for breakdown are prioritized. Our results are in strong agreement with the perceptions of production and maintenance department of the company.

  12. Analysis of Strategic Maps for a Company in the Software Development Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Camargo Silveira, Marisa; Link, Brandon; Johann, Silvio; Vanti, Adolfo Alberto; Andrade, Rafael Espin

    The present work develops the analysis of two strategic maps. One is based on the principles of Compensatory Fuzzy Logic (CFL) and the other studies Organizational Culture. The research is applied with a quali-quantitative approach and it studies the case of a software development company with the use of a technical procedure and a documentary base with the application of interviews and questionnaires. It concludes that the strategic maps based on and Organizational Culture are robust methodologies that identify and prioritize strategic variables. There is also an interrelationship amongst them in their consideration of important behavioral aspects. With this it was possible to analyze strategic aspects of the companies in a more complex and realistic way.

  13. Unemployment, public–sector health care expenditure and HIV mortality: An analysis of 74 countries, 1981–2009

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Da Zhou, Charlie; Williams, Callum; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    Background The global economic downturn has been associated with increased unemployment and reduced public–sector expenditure on health care (PSEH). We determined the association between unemployment, PSEH and HIV mortality. Methods Data were obtained from the World Bank and the World Health Organisation (1981–2009). Multivariate regression analysis was implemented, controlling for country–specific demographics and infrastructure. Time–lag analyses and robustness–checks were performed. Findings Data were available for 74 countries (unemployment analysis) and 75 countries (PSEH analysis), equating to 2.19 billion and 2.22 billion people, respectively, as of 2009. A 1% increase in unemployment was associated with a significant increase in HIV mortality (men: 0.1861, 95% CI: 0.0977 to 0.2744, P = 0.0000, women: 0.0383, 95% CI: 0.0108 to 0.0657, P = 0.0064). A 1% increase in PSEH was associated with a significant decrease in HIV mortality (men: –0.5015, 95% CI: –0.7432 to –0.2598, P = 0.0001; women: –0.1562, 95% CI: –0.2404 to –0.0720, P = 0.0003). Time–lag analysis showed that significant changes in HIV mortality continued for up to 5 years following variations in both unemployment and PSEH. Interpretation Unemployment increases were associated with significant HIV mortality increases. PSEH increases were associated with reduced HIV mortality. The facilitation of access–to–care for the unemployed and policy interventions which aim to protect PSEH could contribute to improved HIV outcomes. PMID:25734005

  14. Private or public? An empirical analysis of the importance of work values for work sector choice among Norwegian medical specialists.

    PubMed

    Midttun, Linda

    2007-03-01

    In the aftermath of the Norwegian hospital reform of 2002, the private supply of specialized healthcare has increased substantially. This article analyses the likelihood of medical specialists working in the private sector. Sector choice is operationalized in two ways: first, as the likelihood of medical specialists working in the private sector at all (at least 1% of the total work hours), and second, as the likelihood of working full-time (90-100%) privately. The theoretical framework is embedded in work values theory and the results suggest that work values are important predictors of sector choice. All analyses are based on a postal questionnaire survey of medical specialists working in private contract practices and for-profit hospitals and a control group of specialists selected from the Norwegian Medical Association's member register. The analyses revealed that while autonomy values impact positively on the propensity for allocating any time at all to the private sector, professional values have a negative effect. Given that the medical specialist already works in the private sector, a high valuation of professional values and payment and benefit values increases the likelihood of having a dual sector job rather than a full-time private position. However, due to the cross-sectional structure of the data and limitations in the dataset, causality questions cannot be fully settled on the basis of the analyses. The relationship between work values and sector choice should, therefore, be regarded as associations rather than causality links. Finally, the likelihood of working in the private sector varies significantly at the municipality level, suggesting that medical specialist's location is important for sector choice. PMID:17161892

  15. Subsidence of Surtsey volcano, 1967 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, James G.; Jakobsson, Sveinn; Holmjarn, Josef

    1992-12-01

    The Surtsey marine volcano was built on the southern insular shelf of Iceland, along the seaward extension of the east volcanic zone, during episodic explosive and effusive activity from 1963 to 1967. A 1600-m-long, east-west line of 42 bench marks was established across the island shortly after volcanic activity stopped. From 1967 to 1991 a series of leveling surveys measured the relative elevation of the original bench marks, as well as additional bench marks installed in 1979, 1982 and 1985. Concurrent measurements were made of water levels in a pit dug on the north coast, in a drill hole, and along the coastline exposed to the open ocean. These surveys indicate that the dominant vertical movement of Surtsey is a general subsidence of about 1.1±0.3 m during the 24-year period of observations. The rate of subsidence decreased from 15 20 cm/year for 1967 1968 to 1 2 cm/year in 1991. Greatest subsidence is centered about the eastern vent area. Through 1970, subsidence was locally greatest where the lava plain is thinnest, adjacent to the flanks of the eastern tephra cone. From 1982 onward, the region closest to the hydrothermal zone, which is best developed in the vicinity of the eastern vent, began showing less subsidence relative to the rest of the surveyed bench marks. The general subsidence of the island probably results from compaction of the volcanic material comprising Surtsey, compaction of the sea-floor sediments underlying the island, and possibly downwarping of the lithosphere due to the laod of Surtsey. The more localized early downwarping near the eastern tephra cone is apparently due to greater compaction of tephra relative to lava. The later diminished local subsidence near the hydrothermal zone is probably due to a minor volume increase caused by hydrous alteration of glassy tephra. However, this volume increase is concentrated at depth beneath the bottom of the 176-m-deep cased drillhole.

  16. IMF sector behavior estimated from geomagnetic data at South Pole

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushita, S.; Xu, W.h.

    1981-05-01

    IMF sector behavior which has previously been estimated from the geomagnetic data at Godhavn is confirmed by study of the data at South Pole for 1959--1970 with the same estimation technique, taking the difference between northern and southern hemispheres into consideration. A method to improve (about 18%) the agreement between assigned and actual sector structures by study of the data at the two stations is suggested. Geomagnetic disturbance effects on sector estimation are discussed, and reversed sector effects in winter are given special emphasis.

  17. Longitudinal analysis of VP7 gene of group A human rotavirus G2P[4] strains circulating in the pre-vaccine era in Sapporo, Japan from 1991 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Masatoshi; Nagaoka, Yoshinobu; Tsugawa, Takeshi; Yoto, Yuko; Hori, Tsukasa; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    Sequence analysis of the VP7 gene in 23 group A human rotavirus G2P[4] strains obtained during 1991-2011, that is, the pre-vaccine era, in Sapporo, Japan showed considerable genetic diversity, mainly in variable regions. Recent G2P[4] epidemic strains were located in sublineage IVa with a distinctive substitution of D96N. This study provides background data on the genetic variability of G2P[4] rotavirus-VP7 gene prior to the widespread use of rotavirus vaccines in Japan.

  18. PVUSA progress report, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ellyn, W.; Jennings, C.

    1991-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generating systems. PVUSA participants include Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and eight utilities and other agencies. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1991, and summarizes key findings and conclusions from work to date. PVUSA offers utilities hands-on experience needed to evaluate and utilize maturing PV technology. The project also provides manufacturers a test bed for their products, encourages technology improvement and cost reductions in PV modules and other system components, and establishes communication channels between utilities and the PV industry. The project consists of two types of demonstrations: Emerging Module Technology (EMT) arrays, which are unproven but promising state-of-the-art PV technologies in 20-kW (nominal) arrays; and Utility Scale (US) systems, which represent more mature PV technologies in 200- to 500-kW turnkey systems.

  19. 1991 Fall Meeting Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, David S.

    The AGU 1991 Fall Meeting, held in San Francisco December 9-13, was the largest national AGU meeting ever held. Meeting participation continued the steady growth trend set throughout the previous decade. A total of 4,037 papers and posters were presented, and by Friday noon of the meeting over 5,500 members had registered.Several special events were scheduled to inform and engage members on societal and programmatic aspects of our science. AGU's Committee on Education and Human Resources sponsored an open forum that addressed opportunities and problems associated with dual-career couples. A discussion of NASA's strategic plan by Berrien Moore and Joseph Alexander drew a large audience, and a special session on societal aspects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption drew an overflow crowd. Two special lectures— “Plumes, Plates, and Deep Earth Structure” by Don L. Anderson and “New Frontiers in Aeronomy: Effects of Global Atmospheric Change” by P. M. Banks-also drew overflow crowds.

  20. Comparison of implant quality between intraoperatively built custom-linked seeds and loose seeds in permanent prostate brachytherapy using sector analysis

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Norihisa; Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Takamoto, Atsushi; Ihara, Hiroki; Katsui, Kuniaki; Ebara, Shin; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    We compared the implant quality of intraoperatively built custom-linked (IBCL) seeds with loose seeds in permanent prostate brachytherapy. Between June 2012 and January 2015, 64 consecutive prostate cancer patients underwent brachytherapy with IBCL seeds (n = 32) or loose seeds (n = 32). All the patients were treated with 144 Gy of brachytherapy alone. Brachytherapy was performed using a dynamic dose calculation technique. Computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging fusion-based dosimetry was performed 1 month after brachytherapy. Post-implant dose–volume histogram (DVH) parameters, prostate sector dosimetry, operation time, seed migration, and toxicities were compared between the IBCL seed group and the loose seed group. A sector analysis tool was used to divide the prostate into six sectors (anterior and posterior sectors at the base, mid-gland, and apex). V100 (95.3% vs 89.7%; P = 0.014) and D90 (169.7 Gy vs 152.6 Gy; P = 0.013) in the anterior base sector were significantly higher in the IBCL seed group than in the loose seed group. The seed migration rate was significantly lower in the IBCL seed group than in the loose seed group (6% vs 66%; P < 0.001). Operation time per seed was significantly longer in the IBCL seed group than in the loose seed group (1.31 min vs 1.13 min; P = 0.003). Other post-implant DVH parameters and toxicities did not differ significantly between the two groups. Our study showed more dose coverage post-operatively in the anterior base prostate sector and less seed migration in IBCL seed implantation compared with loose seed implantation. PMID:26976125

  1. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. Results There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P < 0.01). Discordance between what motivational factors health workers considered important and their perceptions of actual presence of these factors were also highest in Uttar Pradesh in the public sector, where all 17 items had greater discordance for public sector workers than for workers in the private sector (P < 0.001). Conclusion There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non

  2. The Changing Face of War in Textbooks: Depictions of World War II and Vietnam, 1970-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachmann, Richard; Mitchell, Lacy

    2014-01-01

    How have U.S. high school textbook depictions of World War II and Vietnam changed since the 1970s? We examined 102 textbooks published from 1970 to 2009 to see how they treated U.S. involvement in World War II and Vietnam. Our content analysis of high school history textbooks finds that U.S. textbooks increasingly focus on the personal experiences…

  3. Analysis of geomagnetic secular variation during 1980-1985 and 1985- 1990, and geomagnetic models proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1992-01-01

    The secular variation of the main geomagnetic field during the periods 1980-1985 and 1985-1990 was analyzed in terms of spherical harmonics up to the eighth degree and order. Data from worldwide magnetic observatories and the Navy's Project MAGNET aerial surveys were used. The resulting pair of secular-variation models was used to update the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF) model for 1980, resulting in new mainfield models for 1985.0 and 1990.0. These, along with the secular-variation model for 1985-1990, were proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). -Author

  4. Water-quality assessment of the Ozark Plateaus study unit, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma-analysis of information on nutrients, suspended sediment, and suspended solids, 1970-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Jerri V.; Petersen, James C.; Adamski, James C.; Freiwald, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Water-quality data collected during water years 1970-90 (October 1 to September 30) for 83 surface-water sites and during 1970-92 for 395 ground-water sites in the 48,000 square mile Ozark Plateaus study unit of the National Water Quality Assessment Program were analyzed using selected descriptive and statistical methods. The water- quality data include nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus), suspended sediment, and suspended- solids data, and ancillary information such as fertilizer use, animal waste, sewage treatment plant, and land use. Statistically significant differences exist in surface-water quality that can be attributed to physiography, land use, and other effects. The sites that were considered to be substantially affected by sewage treatment plants had the largest concentrations of nutrients. Nutrient concentrations generally were larger at sites associated with agricultural basins than at sites associated with forested basins. Statistically significant differences existed in the quality of ground water that can be attributed to hydrogeologic and land-use effects. Nutrient concentrations generally were largest where the water source is indicated to be shallow in origin and where parts of the hydrogeologic units are in agricultural land-use areas. Water quality has changed at several surface-water sites since 1970. Nutrient concentrations appear to have increased at some sites and decreased at other sites. Causes of these apparent trends are not known, but many of the sites with apparent trends are in agricultural areas. Surface-water loads of nutrients and suspended sediment were affected by several factors including streamflow, climate, drainage area, reservoir operation, and inputs from point and nonpoint sources. Annual loads were largest in large basins, with large inputs of nutrients or sediment during periods of high streamflows at locations where reservoir operation effects are not substantial.

  5. Retrospective analysis of the response of soil and stream chemistry of a northern forest ecosystem to atmospheric emission controls from the 1970 and 1990 Amendments of the Clean Air Act.

    PubMed

    Gbondo-Tugbawa, Solomon S; Driscoll, Charles T

    2002-11-15

    The 1970 and 1990 Amendments of the Clean Air Act (CAAA) have resulted in a decline in acidic deposition in the northeastern United States. Results from the application of a biogeochemical model (PnET-BGC) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire suggest that, without the implementation of the CAAAs, soil base saturation and soil solution molar Ca/Al ratio would decrease to values below 6% and 1.0, respectively, while S would continue to accumulate in organic matter and adsorbed pools at rates of 2 and 3 kg of S ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. This scenario of conditions without the CAAAs was projected to result in higher stream concentrations of SO4(2-), NO3-, and Ca2+; monomeric Al; pH below 4.8; and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) less than -15 microequiv L(-1). The implementation of the CAAAs has led to a slight improvement in the soil base saturation, while recovery of soil solution Ca/Al cannot be fully assessed because of variability in observed values. Our evaluation of the relative benefits of the 1970 and 1990 CAAAs indicate that although the magnitude of the cumulative decrease in strong acid deposition was greater following the 1970 CAAA as compared to the 1990 CAAA, the extent of ecosystem recovery relative to the changes in acidic deposition suggests that the 1990 CAAA was also beneficial. The slow recovery rates might be the result of a legacy of chemical effects of acidic deposition for the last 150 years and suggests that additional controls in emissions might be required to show significant changes.

  6. Analysis of transcripts that are differentially expressed in three sectors of the rice root system under water deficit.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Zheng, B; Mao, C; Qi, X; Liu, F; Wu, P

    2004-11-01

    Short periods of water deprivation can stimulate the growth of seminal and lateral roots in rice, and inhibit the emergence of adventitious roots. Identification of genes in the different tissues that respond to a water deficit may help us to understand the mechanism underlying root growth under conditions when water is scarce. cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was used to profile gene expression upon imposition of water deficit in three types of root tissue from the upland rice variety Azucena: seminal root tips, lateral root zones and adventitious root primordial zones. In all, 121 unique transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were cloned, and Northern analysis was carried out for 30 TDFs to confirm their expression patterns. Sixty-six TDFs were differentially expressed in all three root samples. Four (AC2, D6, L22 and T23) were up-regulated by water deficit in seminal root tips and lateral root zones, and down-regulated in adventitious root primordial zones, an expression pattern which reflects the phenotypic changes observed in the different root sectors. In contrast, T17 and T37 showed the opposite expression pattern in Azucena: up-regulation in adventitious roots and repression in the other two zones. Functions could be assigned to five of these six TDFs on the basis of homology: they encode an expansin (T37), a fruit-ripening protein similar to ASR (T23), submergence-induced protein 2A (T17), a dehydrin (D6) and a 9- cis -epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase1 (L22), respectively. AC2 did not show a significant match to any known gene. Northern analysis showed that these six clones exhibited expression patterns that differed between the two cultivars tested (Azucena and the lowland variety IR1552) with respect to regulation by water limitation. Furthermore, T17, T37, D6 and T23 mapped within intervals known to contain QTLs (quantitative trait loci) for root growth in rice under water deficit. These genes may regulate or co-regulate the growth

  7. Analysis of energy use in building services of the industrial sector in California: A literature review and a preliminary characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Borgers, T.; Gadgil, A.; Sezgen, O.

    1991-04-01

    Energy use patterns in many of California's fastest-growing industries are not typical of those in the mix of industries elsewhere in the US. Many California firms operate small and medium-sized facilities, often in buildings used simultaneously or interchangeably for commercial (office, retail, warehouse) and industrial activities. In these industrial subsectors, the energy required for building services'' to provide occupant comfort and necessities (lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.) may be at least as important as the more familiar process energy requirements -- especially for electricity and on-peak demand. In this report, published or unpublished information on energy use for building services in the industrial sector have been compiled and analyzed. Seven different sources of information and data relevant to California have been identified. Most of these are studies and/or projects sponsored by the Department of Energy, the California Energy Commission, and local utilities. The objectives of these studies were diverse: most focused on industrial energy use in general, and, in one case, the objective was to analyze energy use in commercial buildings. Only one of these studies focused directly on non-process energy use in industrial buildings. Our analysis of Northern California data for five selected industries shows that the contribution of total electricity consumption for lighting ranges from 9.5% in frozen fruits to 29.1% in instruments; for air-conditioning, it ranges from nonexistent in frozen fruits to 35% in instrument manufacturing. None of the five industries selected had significant electrical space heating. Gas space heating ranges from 5% in motor vehicles facilities to more than 58% in the instrument manufacturing industry. 15 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Astronautics and aeronautics, 1970. Chronology on science, technology, and policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An immediate reference to aerospace-related events of 1970 is provided to help historians in preserving historical accuracy and precision. Chronologies of major NASA launches, and manned space flights for 1970 are included.

  9. Venus ionopause 'clouds' and IMF sector boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, Janet G.; Russell, C. T.; Wei, Hanying; Ma, Yingjuan; Zhang, Tielong; McEnulty, T.

    Disconnected or partially connected structures observed by the PVO Langmuir Probe near the ionopause of Venus were called 'clouds' by Brace et al. (1980). These authors speculated that the loss of atmosphere represented by these features could be significant compared to other loss processes. Russell et al. (1982) subsequently showed that the clouds occurred together with sharp rotations in the magnetic field. They suggested that the extreme draping of the interplanetary field that occurs near the ionopause at the draping poles could exert JxB forces sufficient to pull the ionospheric plasma in the cloud tailward and out into the heliosphere. But in 1991, Ong et al. demonstrated via analysis of many clouds that they are not generally seen in the polar regions of the draped magnetosheath field. Instead they occur at times when the interplanetary magnetic field undergoes a sudden rotation, as in interplanetary field sector boundaries. We discuss the statistics of such rotations at the orbit of Venus and their frequency as a function of solar cycle. Whether they enable or enhance escape or not requires simulation studies, but this study calls attention to the potential importance of time dependent external conditions.

  10. Space View of the 1991 Gulf War Kuwaiti Oil Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Larko, D.

    2014-12-01

    During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, over 700 oil wells in Kuwait were set ablaze by the withdrawing Iraqi army with the apparent intent of hindering satellite reconnaissance and intelligence gathering activities by the coalition of forces repelling Iraq from occupied Kuwait. The oil fires that burned for an estimated 10 months, created a huge smoke plume whose spatial extent went at times beyond the Persian Gulf region, mobilized across the Saharan Desert reaching as far west as the North Atlantic Ocean. The Nimbus-7 TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, in operation from October 1978 to May 1993, measured the near UV radiances that in the mid-1990's became the input in the calculation of the well know Absorbing Aerosol Index that represented a major breakthrough in satellite-based aerosol remote sensing. Thus, unknowingly to the world, the N7-TOMS sensor was collecting in 1991 an unprecedented daily record of what can be considered the worst environmental catastrophe affecting the atmosphere since the beginning of the era of space-based remote sensing in the 1970's. An overview of the temporal and spatial extent of the synoptic scale 1991 Gulf War smoke plume as seen by the Nimbus-7 TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index will be presented.

  11. Workplace violence: differences in perceptions of nursing work between those exposed and those not exposed: a cross-sector analysis.

    PubMed

    Hegney, Desley; Tuckett, Anthony; Parker, Deborah; Eley, Robert M

    2010-04-01

    Nurses are at high risk of incurring workplace violence during their working life. This paper reports the findings on a cross-sectional, descriptive, self-report, postal survey in 2007. A stratified random sample of 3000 of the 29 789 members of the Queensland Nurses Union employed in the public, private and aged care sectors resulted in 1192 responses (39.7%). This paper reports the differences: between those nurses who experienced workplace violence and those who did not; across employment sectors. The incidence of workplace violence is highest in public sector nursing. Patients/clients/residents were the major perpetrators of workplace violence and the existence of a workplace policy did not decrease levels of workplace violence. Nurses providing clinical care in the private and aged care sectors experienced more workplace violence than more senior nurses. Although workplace violence was associated with high work stress, teamwork and a supportive workplace mitigated workplace violence. The perception of workplace safety was inversely related to workplace violence. With the exception of public sector nursing, nurses reported an inverse relationship with workplace violence and morale.

  12. Analysis of water and soil from the wetlands of Upper Three Runs Creek. Volume 2A, Analytical data packages September--October 1991 sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, L.A.; Rogers, V.A.; Riordan, C.J.; Eidson, G.W.; Herring, M.K.

    1992-08-01

    Shallow water and soils along Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and associated wetlands between SRS Road F and Cato Road were sampled for nonradioactive and radioactive constituents. The sampling program is associated with risk evaluations being performed for various regulatory documents in these areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC selected fifty sampling sites bordering the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB), and the Sanitary Landfill (SL). The analytical results from this study provided information on the water and soil quality in UTRC and its associated wetlands. The analytical results from this investigation indicated that the primary constituents and radiological indicators detected in the shallow water and soils were tritium, gross alpha, radium 226, total radium and strontium 90. This investigation involved the collection of shallow water samples during the Fall of 1991 and the Spring of 1992 at fifty (50) sampling locations. Sampling was performed during these periods to incorporate high and low water table periods. Samples were collected from three sections along UTRC denoted as Phase I (MWMF), Phase II (FHSB) and Phase III (SL). One vibracored soil sample was also collected in each phase during the Fall of 1991. This document is compiled solely of experimental data obtained from the sampling procedures.

  13. Changes in poverty and income inequality in Pakistan during the 1970s.

    PubMed

    De Kruijk, H; Van Leeuwen, M

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the development of poverty and income inequality in Pakistan during the 1970s, and decomposes this inequality into various components in order to identify the location of increasing inequality. The figures show that poverty decreased by about 50%. Not only has the percentage of households below the poverty line decreased by about 34%, but the average income of the remaining poor also went up. At the same time, income inequality between households increased during the period concerned. The decomposition technique applied in this paper discovered 4 elements of inequality increase. 1) Increase in the inequality of earnings in rural areas explains 33% of total inequality increase. 2) Increasing participation rates of both urban and rural households explain 32% of total inequality increase. 3) 25% of total inequality increase can be attributed to a sectoral shift from rural to urban areas. The urban income share increased from 33% in 1969-1970 to 50% in 1979. Since the Theil coefficient of urban labor income is far higher than the Theil coefficient of rural labor income in both 1969-1970 and 1979, inequality increased due to this sectoral shift. 4) Inequality between urban and rural areas increased, explaining 11% of total inequality increase.

  14. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  15. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  17. Assessing the Sustainability of Japan's Foreign Aid Program: An Analysis of Development Assistance to Energy Sectors of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the effect of Japan's official development assistance (ODA) over 10 years that proposed to facilitate environmental conservation in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to ODA disbursements in the energy sector to evaluate whether Japan's foreign aid has shifted its policy toward more environmentally sound goals.…

  18. Sectoral and Gender-Wise Analysis of the Choice of Computer Science Studies in Israeli High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidelman, L.; Hazzan, O.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide surveys indicate that the number of women studying undergraduate-level Computer Science is constantly decreasing. Based on data collected in Israel, significant differences were found in the percentages of female high school students studying advanced-level Computer Science among different sectors. More specifically, while the percentage…

  19. Social Sector Expenditure and Child Mortality in India: A State-Level Analysis from 1997 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Makela, Susanna M.; Dandona, Rakhi; Dilip, T. R.; Dandona, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    Background India is unlikely to meet the Millennium Development Goal for child mortality. As public policy impacts child mortality, we assessed the association of social sector expenditure with child mortality in India. Methods and Findings Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess the relationship of state-level overall social sector expenditure and its major components (health, health-related, education, and other) with mortality by sex among infants and children aged 1–4 years from 1997 to 2009, adjusting for potential confounders. Counterfactual models were constructed to estimate deaths averted due to overall social sector increases since 1997. Increases in per capita overall social sector expenditure were slightly higher in less developed than in more developed states from 1997 to 2009 (2.4-fold versus 2-fold), but the level of expenditure remained 36% lower in the former in 2009. Increase in public expenditure on health was not significantly associated with mortality reduction in infants or at ages 1–4 years, but a 10% increase in health-related public expenditure was associated with a 3.6% mortality reduction (95% confidence interval 0.2–6.9%) in 1–4 years old boys. A 10% increase in overall social sector expenditure was associated with a mortality reduction in both boys (6.8%, 3.5–10.0%) and girls (4.1%, 0.8–7.5%) aged 1–4 years. We estimated 119,807 (95% uncertainty interval 53,409 – 214,662) averted deaths in boys aged 1–4 years and 94,037 (14,725 – 206,684) in girls in India in 2009 that could be attributed to increases in overall social sector expenditure since 1997. Conclusions Further reduction in child mortality in India would be facilitated if policymakers give high priority to the social sector as a whole for resource allocation in the country’s 5-year plan for 2012–2017, as public expenditure on health alone has not had major impact on reducing child mortality. PMID:23409166

  20. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -- formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  1. Comparison of inferred and observed interplanetary magnetic field polarities, 1970-1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, J. M.; Svalgaard, L.; Hedgecock, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    The inferred polarity (toward or away from the sun) of the interplanetary magnetic field at earth using polar observations of the geomagnetic field has been compared with spacecraft observations. A list published by Svalgaard (1974) of the inferred field polarities in the period from 1970 to 1972 is found to be correct on 82% of the days. A near real-time (same day) method of inferring the polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field using geomagnetic observations at Vostok and Thule is in use at the NOAA Space Environment Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado. During 1972, this method is found to be correct on 87% of the days. A list of 'well-defined' sector boundaries at earth from 1970 to 1972 is given.

  2. Tight gas field, reservoir, and completion analysis of the United States. Volume 2. Output tables. Topical report, November 1, 1991-May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hugman, R.H.; Springer, P.S.; Vidas, E.H.

    1992-05-01

    Tight gas fields, reservoirs, and completions have been identified in all non-Appalachian U.S. basins containing tight formation designations specified by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. A total of 909 fields containing 1,643 tight reservoirs and 37,074 tight gas completions have been identified (through 1988). Non-Appalachian tight production increased from 0.88 Tcf per year in 1970 to 1.71 Tcf per year in 1985 before declining slightly to 1.65 Tcf in 1988. Tight ultimate recovery (cumulative production plus proven reserves) is estimated to be 52.3 Tcf. Evaluation includes basin and formation level evaluation of completion counts, production, ultimate recovery, field size distribution and well density.

  3. Tight gas field, reservoir, and completion analysis of the United States. Volume 1. Project summary. Topical report, November 1, 1991-May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hugman, R.H.; Springer, P.S.; Vidas, E.H.

    1992-05-01

    Tight gas fields, reservoirs, and completions have been identified in all non-Appalachian U.S. basins containing tight formation designations specified by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. A total of 909 fields containing 1,643 tight reservoirs and 37,074 tight gas completions have been identified (through 1988). Non-Appalachian tight production increased from 0.88 Tcf per year in 1970 to 1.71 Tcf per year in 1985 before declining slightly to 1.65 Tcf in 1988. Tight ultimate recovery (cumulative production plus proven reserves) is estimated to be 52.3 Tcf. Evaluation includes basin and formation level evaluation of completion counts, production, ultimate recovery, field size distribution and well density.

  4. Selection and analysis of sites highly vulnerable to groundwater contamination in southwestern Michigan. Final technical report, 1 April 1991-31 March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, J.L.; Lusch, D.P.

    1992-04-01

    An ongoing study in central Cass County has demonstrated extensive nitrate contamination of the glacial drift aquifer in the Donnell Lake watershed. In addition, about 20% of 121 wells sampled showed detectable herbicides (atrazine, alachlor/metolachlor, and/or alachlor soil metabolite). Monthly monitoring of these wells in 1991 demonstrated stable water quality in the deeper wells, with some shallow wells showing from 30 to 300% increases in nitrate concentration over the summer. One well showed an 80% decrease in nitrate concentration. Herbicide concentrations were quite stable and consistent with previous findings. Generally the deeper wells (over 50 feet) demonstrated less contamination, but one 80 foot deep well demonstrated substantial nitrate and herbicide concentrations.

  5. Vortex Wake Turbulence: Flight Tests Conducted During 1970

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A flight test program designed to obtain data on the characteristics of wing-tip vortices generated by large jet aircraft was initiated on 12 February 1970. The objective was to update the interim air traffic separation standards issued on 21 January 1970 restricting the airspace behind the B-747 and C-5A aircraft 60 deg either side and 2,000 feet below to a distance of 10 miles. The program involved flight tests at three different locations, which were conducted simultaneously. (1) At the Edwards Air Force Base test range, a NASA CV-990 and F-104 probed the vortices of a C-5A. This supplemented previous flight tests in U-3A and F-104 behind a B-52 and C-5A. (2) At Seattle, the Boeing Company probed the vortices of a B-747 and a B-707-300 with a B-737 and F-86. In addition, approach, landing, takeoff, and crossing runway tests were conducted with a B-737 trailing a B-747. Immediately following the Edwards tests, the NASA CV-990 proceeded to Seattle and engaged in probing flights behind the same B-747 and B-707-300. (3) At Idaho Falls, Idaho, FAA personnel, utilizing the Atomic Energy Commission and Environmental Science Services Administration facilities and a 200 ft, instrumented tower, conducted 114 flights past the tower. The aircraft were positioned to permit their vortices to descend into the air flow sensors and smoke generated from various levels on the tower. This permitted obtaining measurements and photography of the vortex core diameters, tangential velocities and related characteristics. Immediately following this test phase, analysis of the interrelated data was completed by the project managers representing NASA, Boeing and FAA and a Compilation of Work Papers was issued on 30 April 1970. These data were the basis of a revised General Notice issued on 26 February 1970 which, in essence, modified the restricted airspace to five miles behind heavy jets in the 300,000 lb. gross takeoff weight category.

  6. The Simeon Cadre in Formation, Summer 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpo, Calvin

    This report explicates the concrete group development of a cadre of persons from Simeon High School, the University of Chicago, and the Board of Education in the summer sector of the Ford Training and Placement Program. The report is organized around crucial indices of group development, i.e., the problem of leadership. Data were collected from…

  7. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the modeling work carried out in this project was to quantify long-term scenarios for the future emission reduction potentials in the iron and steel sector. The main focus of the project is to examine the impacts of carbon reduction options in the U.S. iron and steel sector under a set of selected scenarios. In order to advance the understanding of carbon emission reduction potential on the national and global scales, and to evaluate the regional impacts of potential U.S. mitigation strategies (e.g., commodity and carbon trading), we also included and examined the carbon reduction scenarios in China’s and India’s iron and steel sectors in this project. For this purpose, a new bottom-up energy modeling framework, the Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM), (Karali et al. 2012) was used to provide detailed annual projections starting from 2010 through 2050. We used the ISEEM modeling framework to carry out detailed analysis, on a country-by-country basis, for the U.S., China’s, and India’s iron and steel sectors. The ISEEM model applicable to iron and steel section, called ISEEM-IS, is developed to estimate and evaluate carbon emissions scenarios under several alternative mitigation options - including policies (e.g., carbon caps), commodity trading, and carbon trading. The projections will help us to better understand emission reduction potentials with technological and economic implications. The database for input of ISEEM-IS model consists of data and information compiled from various resources such as World Steel Association (WSA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), China Steel Year Books, India Bureau of Mines (IBM), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and recent LBNL studies on bottom-up techno-economic analysis of energy efficiency measures in the iron and steel sector of the U.S., China, and India, including long-term steel production in China. In the ISEEM-IS model, production technology and manufacturing details are

  8. Subsidence of Surtsey volcano, 1967-1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.G.; Jakobsson, S.; Holmjarn, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Surtsey marine volcano was built on the southern insular shelf of Iceland, along the seaward extension of the east volcanic zone, during episodic explosive and effusive activity from 1963 to 1967. A 1600-m-long, east-west line of 42 bench marks was established across the island shortly after volcanic activity stopped. From 1967 to 1991 a series of leveling surveys measured the relative elevation of the original bench marks, as well as additional bench marks installed in 1979, 1982 and 1985. Concurrent measurements were made of water levels in a pit dug on the north coast, in a drill hole, and along the coastline exposed to the open ocean. These surveys indicate that the dominant vertical movement of Surtsey is a general subsidence of about 1.1??0.3 m during the 24-year period of observations. The rate of subsidence decreased from 15-20 cm/year for 1967-1968 to 1-2 cm/year in 1991. Greatest subsidence is centered about the eastern vent area. Through 1970, subsidence was locally greatest where the lava plain is thinnest, adjacent to the flanks of the eastern tephra cone. From 1982 onward, the region closest to the hydrothermal zone, which is best developed in the vicinity of the eastern vent, began showing less subsidence relative to the rest of the surveyed bench marks. The general subsidence of the island probably results from compaction of the volcanic material comprising Surtsey, compaction of the sea-floor sediments underlying the island, and possibly downwarping of the lithosphere due to the laod of Surtsey. The more localized early downwarping near the eastern tephra cone is apparently due to greater compaction of tephra relative to lava. The later diminished local subsidence near the hydrothermal zone is probably due to a minor volume increase caused by hydrous alteration of glassy tephra. However, this volume increase is concentrated at depth beneath the bottom of the 176-m-deep cased drillhole. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  9. The Service Sector and Rural America: Issues for Public Policy and Topics for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menchik, Mark David

    An examination of trends in the service industries, as determined by U.S. Bureau of the Census figures (1970-77), reveals it to be the fastest growing sector in the economy, both nationally and rurally. Employment in this sector increased 24% nationally and accounted for 74% of the net gain in nonmetropolitan employment; growth was at least 65%…

  10. Antimicrobial resistance in Libya: 1970-2011.

    PubMed

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Tawil, Khaled; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Franka, Ezzedin

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major health problem that affects the whole world. Providing information on the past state of antimicrobial resistance in Libya may assist the health authorities in addressing the problem more effectively in the future. Information was obtained mainly from Highwire Press (including PubMed) search for the period 1970-2011 using the terms 'antibiotic resistance in Libya', 'antimicrobial resistance in Libya', 'tuberculosis in Libya', and 'primary and acquired resistance in Libya' in title and abstract. From 1970 to 2011 little data was available on antimicrobial resistance in Libya due to lack of surveillance and few published studies. Available data shows high resistance rates for Salmonella species in the late 1970s and has remained high to the present day. High prevalence rates (54-68%) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were reported in the last decade among S. aureus from patients with burns and surgical wound infections. No reports were found of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) or vancomycin-intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) using standard methods from Libya up to the end of 2011. Reported rates of primary (i.e. new cases) and acquired (i.e. retreatment cases) multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) from the eastern region of Libya in 1971 were 16.6 and 33.3% and in 1976 were 8.6 and 14.7%, in western regions in 1984-1986 were 11 and 21.5% and in the whole country in 2011 were estimated at 3.4 and 29%, respectively. The problem of antibiotic resistance is very serious in Libya. The health authorities in particular and society in general should address this problem urgently. Establishing monitoring systems based on the routine testing of antimicrobial sensitivity and education of healthcare workers, pharmacists, and the community on the health risks associated with the problem and benefits of prudent use of antimicrobials are some steps that can be taken to tackle the problem in the future.

  11. Twisted sectors from plane partitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Shouvik; Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Li, Wei; Peng, Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Twisted sectors arise naturally in the bosonic higher spin CFTs at their free points, as well as in the associated symmetric orbifolds. We identify the coset representations of the twisted sector states using the description of W_{∞} representations in terms of plane partitions. We confirm these proposals by a microscopic null-vector analysis, and by matching the excitation spectrum of these representations with the orbifold prediction.

  12. Space cryogenics from 1970 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, P.

    1990-09-01

    While space-related cryogenic engineering in the 1950s and 1960s was primarily concerned with liquid fueled rocket fuel supply systems, the leading edge of technology development moved in the 1970s to the supply of 1.4-70 K cooling facilities for IR and gamma-ray astronomy instruments. Attention is presently given to the development history, current status, and future prospects for superfluid He cryocooling systems, in view of prospective requirements for micro-K cooling capacities over astronomical instrument service lives of the order of 10 years. The spacecraft in question will be launched in the mid-to-late 1990s and encompass the Advanced X-ray Astronomy facility, the Gyro Test of General Relativity, the Space IR Telescope Facility, Astromag, and the Submillimeter Explorer.

  13. Pre-industrial and recent (1970-2010) atmospheric deposition of sulfate and mercury in snow on southern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Zdanowicz, Christian; Kruemmel, Eva; Lean, David; Poulain, Alexandre; Kinnard, Christophe; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Chen, JiuBin; Hintelmann, Holger

    2015-03-15

    Sulfate (SO4(2-)) and mercury (Hg) are airborne pollutants transported to the Arctic where they can affect properties of the atmosphere and the health of marine or terrestrial ecosystems. Detecting trends in Arctic Hg pollution is challenging because of the short period of direct observations, particularly of actual deposition. Here, we present an updated proxy record of atmospheric SO4(2-) and a new 40-year record of total Hg (THg) and monomethyl Hg (MeHg) deposition developed from a firn core (P2010) drilled from Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada. The updated P2010 record shows stable mean SO4(2-) levels over the past 40 years, which is inconsistent with observations of declining atmospheric SO4(2-) or snow acidity in the Arctic during the same period. A sharp THg enhancement in the P2010 core ca 1991 is tentatively attributed to the fallout from the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Hekla. Although MeHg accumulation on Penny Ice Cap had remained constant since 1970, THg accumulation increased after the 1980s. This increase is not easily explained by changes in snow accumulation, marine aerosol inputs or air mass trajectories; however, a causal link may exist with the declining sea-ice cover conditions in the Baffin Bay sector. The ratio of THg accumulation between pre-industrial times (reconstructed from archived ice cores) and the modern industrial era is estimated at between 4- and 16-fold, which is consistent with estimates from Arctic lake sediment cores. The new P2010 THg record is the first of its kind developed from the Baffin Island region of the eastern Canadian Arctic and one of very few such records presently available in the Arctic. As such, it may help to bridge the knowledge gap linking direct observation of gaseous Hg in the Arctic atmosphere and actual net deposition and accumulation in various terrestrial media.

  14. Pre-industrial and recent (1970-2010) atmospheric deposition of sulfate and mercury in snow on southern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Zdanowicz, Christian; Kruemmel, Eva; Lean, David; Poulain, Alexandre; Kinnard, Christophe; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Chen, JiuBin; Hintelmann, Holger

    2015-03-15

    Sulfate (SO4(2-)) and mercury (Hg) are airborne pollutants transported to the Arctic where they can affect properties of the atmosphere and the health of marine or terrestrial ecosystems. Detecting trends in Arctic Hg pollution is challenging because of the short period of direct observations, particularly of actual deposition. Here, we present an updated proxy record of atmospheric SO4(2-) and a new 40-year record of total Hg (THg) and monomethyl Hg (MeHg) deposition developed from a firn core (P2010) drilled from Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada. The updated P2010 record shows stable mean SO4(2-) levels over the past 40 years, which is inconsistent with observations of declining atmospheric SO4(2-) or snow acidity in the Arctic during the same period. A sharp THg enhancement in the P2010 core ca 1991 is tentatively attributed to the fallout from the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Hekla. Although MeHg accumulation on Penny Ice Cap had remained constant since 1970, THg accumulation increased after the 1980s. This increase is not easily explained by changes in snow accumulation, marine aerosol inputs or air mass trajectories; however, a causal link may exist with the declining sea-ice cover conditions in the Baffin Bay sector. The ratio of THg accumulation between pre-industrial times (reconstructed from archived ice cores) and the modern industrial era is estimated at between 4- and 16-fold, which is consistent with estimates from Arctic lake sediment cores. The new P2010 THg record is the first of its kind developed from the Baffin Island region of the eastern Canadian Arctic and one of very few such records presently available in the Arctic. As such, it may help to bridge the knowledge gap linking direct observation of gaseous Hg in the Arctic atmosphere and actual net deposition and accumulation in various terrestrial media. PMID:24835341

  15. Library Orientation and Instruction--1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Hannelore B.

    1992-01-01

    This 196-item annotated bibliography lists materials published in 1991 that deal with information literacy, including instruction in the use of information resources, research, and computer skills related to retrieving, using, and evaluating information, in all library settings. Publishing trends in this subject area since 1973 are briefly…

  16. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  17. Sweden: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that in Sweden, International Petroleum Corp. completed a study for Gotlandsolja, operator of Block BKB 88, which identified prospects in the Lower Paleozoic that are similar to producing zones onshore in the Baltic Republics of the USSR. An application to drill has been submitted, and pending approval, a well is scheduled for the second half of 1991.

  18. English Teachers' Journal (Israel), 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Teachers' Journal (Israel), 1991

    1991-01-01

    This document consists of the two issues of "English Teachers' Journal (Israel)" issued during 1991. Contents include: "Introduction for English Teachers"; "Announcements for Bagrut Teachers and Examiners"; "News from E.T.A.I. (English Teachers' Association of Israel)" (Ephraim Weintroub); "Learning English During the 'Emergency'"; "Immigrant…

  19. The Forum, 1987-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Herbert L., Ed.; Whittaker, Catherine J. R., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This document consists of five consecutive volumes (19 issues) of the newsletter of the New York State Federation of Chapters of Council for Exceptional Children, covering the 5-year period 1987-1991. Selected major articles from the last three years are are follows (only first author noted); (1) "Whole Language and Special Education" (Kathy…

  20. Reports of planetary astronomy - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahe, Jurgen (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This publication provides information about currently funded scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program during 1991, and consists of two main sections. The first section gives a summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and projected future investigations, as submitted by each principal investigator. In the second section, recent scientifically significant accomplishments within the Program are highlighted.

  1. Reports of planetary astronomy, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A collection is presented of summaries designed to provide information about scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program in 1990 and 1991, and to facilitate communication and coordination among concerned scientists and interested persons in universities, government, and industry. Highlights of recent accomplishments in planetary astronomy are included.

  2. The Science of Reading. 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arisawa, Shuntaro, Ed.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This collection of the 1991 issues of the Japanese-language journal "The Science of Reading" presents 18 articles (research reports and "personal views of reading") on a variety of questions dealing with reading. The articles in the collection all have summaries in English. Articles in the April issue are "Features of Large-Print Picture Books for…

  3. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for April 1991 through September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-10-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1991, through September 30, 1991, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development (USAID). The Fossil Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Project discussed are: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; coal conversion development; coal combustion research; fossil fuel supplies modeling and research; evaluations and assessments; and coal structure and chemistry.

  4. Saturnispora Liu & Kurtzman (1991)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes species of the yeast genus Saturnispora. The genus has been defined from analysis of multiple gene sequences and includes seven species that form ascospores as well as two additional species in which ascospores have not yet been detected. The species are most often foun...

  5. Reforming the health sector in Thailand: the role of policy actors on the policy stage.

    PubMed

    Green, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on exploratory research carried out into the processes of policy-making, and in particular health sector reform, in the health sector of Thailand. It is one of a set of studies examining health sector reform processes in a number of countries. Though in the period under study (1970-1996) there had been no single health sector reform package in Thailand, there was interest in a number of quarters in the development of such an initiative. It is clear, however, that despite recognition of the need for reform such a policy was far from being formulated, let alone implemented. The research, based on both documentary analysis and interviews, explores the reasons underpinning the failure of the policy process to respond to such a perceived need. The research findings suggest that the policy formation process in Thailand successfully occurs when there is a critical mass of support from strategic interest groups. The relative power of these interest groups is constantly changing. In particular the last two decades has seen a decline in the power of the bureaucratic élites (military and civilian) and a related rise in the power of the economic élites either directly or through their influence on political parties and government. Other critical groups include the media, NGOs and the professions. Informal policy groups are also significant. A number of implications for policy makers operating under such circumstances are drawn.

  6. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc... indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and then...

  7. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc... indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and then...

  8. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc... indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and then...

  9. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc... indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and then...

  10. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc... indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and then...

  11. 49 CFR 199.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 199.1 Section 199.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING General § 199.1 Scope....

  12. [Mammographic screening. An analysis of the characteristics of interval carcinomas observed in the program in the province of Firenze (1989-1991)].

    PubMed

    Ciatto, S; Rosselli del Turco, M; Bonardi, R; Bianchi, S

    1994-04-01

    The authors evaluated 30 interval cancers consecutively observed from 1989 to 1991 and compared them to 98 screening-detected cancers observed in the same period. Interval cancers have a more advanced stage (stage I = 13 lesions, stage II + = 17 lesions) with respect to screening-detected cancers (stage 0 = 10 lesions, stage I = 61 lesions, stage II + = 27 lesions). This finding seems unrelated to an intrinsically higher aggressivity of interval cancers (length biased sampling) which do not differ significantly from screening-detected cancers as far as histopathologic characteristics of prognostic value are concerned. Diagnostic delay due to technical or reading error (9 cases), to radiologically occult cancer in clear (10 cases) or dense parenchymal areas (11 cases) is most likely. This seems to be confirmed by the low frequency observed among interval cancers of easily visible lesions such as isolated microcalcifications (3% vs. 35%) or stellate opacities (13% vs. 31%), and by the higher frequency of opacities with irregular margins (57% vs. 26%) which are more likely masked by dense parenchyma. The chances of reducing interval cancer rate by attempting to increase sensitivity or by increasing screening frequency are discussed, as well as the possible negative consequences of such protocols in terms of cost-effectiveness.

  13. An analysis of intravenous hyperalimentation (IVH) catheter-related infection in a university hospital in Japan over a ten year period (1982-1991).

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Y; Daimon, Y; Oota, T; Morinaga, S; Kashii, T; Nakagawa, K; Kobayashi, M

    1993-01-01

    In order to follow changes in clinical characteristics of IVH catheter-related infections, 183 patients were analyzed in whom microorganisms had been isolated from the tips of IVH catheters over a ten year period (1982-1991) in our university hospital. In 183 patients, the male to female ratio was 2.4, the internal medicine departments (Int. Med. Depts.) to surgical departments (Surg. Depts.) ratio was 0.49, 58% of the patients were over 60 years old, 27% had surgical procedures within 30 days before isolation of organisms, and 44% died before discharge. Malignancies were the highest in number for underlying diseases. The same strains of microorganisms as tip cultures were isolated from blood in around 48% of cases in which blood cultures were employed. In the first 5 years (n = 71) and the latter 5 years (n = 112), the proportion of patients form the Int. Med. Depts. increased from 21 to 40% (p < 0.01), and the proportion of Gram positive bacteria from 44 to 64% (p < 0.01). Their antibiotic sensitivity was, as a whole, slightly lower in the latter 5 years. Among Gram-negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa has shown a tendency to increase (11 to 35%). Clinical features were different depending on the kinds of organisms or types of underlying diseases. Measures against IVH catheter-related infections are discussed.

  14. An analysis of intravenous hyperalimentation (IVH) catheter-related infection in a university hospital in Japan over a ten year period (1982-1991).

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Y; Daimon, Y; Oota, T; Morinaga, S; Kashii, T; Nakagawa, K; Kobayashi, M

    1993-01-01

    In order to follow changes in clinical characteristics of IVH catheter-related infections, 183 patients were analyzed in whom microorganisms had been isolated from the tips of IVH catheters over a ten year period (1982-1991) in our university hospital. In 183 patients, the male to female ratio was 2.4, the internal medicine departments (Int. Med. Depts.) to surgical departments (Surg. Depts.) ratio was 0.49, 58% of the patients were over 60 years old, 27% had surgical procedures within 30 days before isolation of organisms, and 44% died before discharge. Malignancies were the highest in number for underlying diseases. The same strains of microorganisms as tip cultures were isolated from blood in around 48% of cases in which blood cultures were employed. In the first 5 years (n = 71) and the latter 5 years (n = 112), the proportion of patients form the Int. Med. Depts. increased from 21 to 40% (p < 0.01), and the proportion of Gram positive bacteria from 44 to 64% (p < 0.01). Their antibiotic sensitivity was, as a whole, slightly lower in the latter 5 years. Among Gram-negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa has shown a tendency to increase (11 to 35%). Clinical features were different depending on the kinds of organisms or types of underlying diseases. Measures against IVH catheter-related infections are discussed. PMID:8110988

  15. Energy consumption behavior in the commercial sector: An ethnographic analysis of utility bill information and customer comprehension in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Christopher Todd

    The commercial and industrial sectors of the United States compose roughly one-third of total United States energy consumption. Many studies have suggested that significant cost-effective energy savings opportunities exist in this sector, but there is a gap between predictions of potential and actual investment in energy-efficient technologies. Very few studies have been conducted to examine the decision-making environment of the business sector. In particular, there is essentially no information about how small-business decision-makers make choices about energy consumption. My research is intended to begin the process of understanding this important arena of energy consumption behavior. Using semi-structured interview techniques, I interviewed forty-four businesses in ten states. The focus of the interviews was the business decision-maker's handling and use of the utility bill---the main (often sole) piece of information that links energy consumption to cost. Through the interviews, I collected information about how utility bills are understood and misunderstood, what components of the bill are seen as useful or confusing, and how energy consumption was seen in the context of larger business decision-making. In addition, I collected data on two forms of energy consumption feedback: historic consumption feedback, in which informants compared their current energy use to patterns of their own energy consumption over time; and group comparison consumption feedback, in which informants compared their energy consumption to the consumption of a group of similar energy consumers. Finally, I collected data on sources of information to which decision-makers turned when they wanted to seek more information about energy consumption alternatives. Overall, my findings suggest that the current utility bill format is often misunderstood. In many cases, particularly in the small-business and medium-size-business categories, the link between energy consumption and energy cost is

  16. Analysis of the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program in terms of its institutional arrangements: sector cooperation, federative relations, social participations and territoriality.

    PubMed

    Lotta, Gabriela Spanghero; Galvão, Maria Cristina Costa Pinto; Favareto, Arilson da Silva

    2016-09-01

    This article analyzes the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) program based on the concept of an institutional arrangement, understood as the set of rules, organizations and processes that define the specific design of a given public policy, defining how it will articulate across players and interests. This concept will allow us to understand the dynamics of the players in this arrangement, as well as their governance, decision-making and governability, and how these factors reflect on public policy performance. A deeper analysis is based on four categories considered essential to understand an organizational arrangement in Brazil: sector cooperation (sometimes referred to as intersecoriality), federative relationships, social involvement and territoriality. PMID:27653061

  17. Energy-saving impacts of DOE's conservation and solar programs. (An ORNL/MITRE study performed in 1980). Volume 2: Historical trends, details of sectoral analysis, and appendixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. W.; Blue, J. L.; Boyd, D. M.; Corum, K. R.; Gerstein, R.; Greene, D. L.; Hamvlin, D. M.; Hirst, E.; Hoffman, H.; Kamp, G.

    1981-05-01

    Energy and oil impacts were estimated under a common set of assumptions concerning rising energy prices and economic growth. Historical trends in U.S. energy consumption, buildings and community systems, industry, transportation, solar, energy storage systems, and Energy Management Partnership Act are titles of sections presented. Information presented in the appendices includes: existing energy legislation; research, development, and demonstration projects included in the OIP program analysis; regionalization of transportation sector inputs; national solar legislation; and the Energy Management Partnership Act and related acts.

  18. Photovoltaics program plan, FY 1991--FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This program plan describes the goals and philosophy of DOE National Photovoltaics Program and its major research and development activities for fiscal years (FY) 1991 through 1995. The plan represents a consensus among researchers and manufacturers, as well as current and potential users of photovoltaics (PV). It defines the activites that we believe are necessary to continue the rapid progress toward acceptance of photovoltaics as a serious candidate for cost-competitive electric power generation by the utility, transportation, buildings, and industrial sectors. A succesful National Photovoltaics Program will help achieve many of our national priorities. The mission of the National Photovoltaics Program is to help US industry to develop photovoltaic technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States, making PV a significant part of our national energy mix. To fully achieve this, we must continue to work toward the long-term goals established in our previous program plan: reducing the price of delivered electricity to 5 to 6 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh), increasing lifetimes to 30 years, and increasing module efficiencies to 15% for flat-plate and 25% for concentrator technologies. If progress continues at its current pace, we expect that the PV industry will have installed at least 1000 megawatts (MW) of capacity in the United States and 500 MW internationally by the year 2000.

  19. Buildings Energy Program annual report, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, T.J.

    1992-05-01

    The Buildings Energy Program at PNL conducts research and development (R&D) for DOE`s Office of Building Technologies (OBT). The OBT`s mission is to lead a national program supporting private and federal sector efforts to improve the energy efficiency of the nation`s buildings and to increase the use of renewable energy sources. Under an arrangement with DOE, Battelle staff also conduct research and development projects for other federal agencies and private clients. This annual report contains an account of the buildings-related research projects conducted at PNL during fiscal year (FY) 1991. A major focus of PNL`s energy projects is to improve the energy efficiency of commercial and residential buildings. Researchers who are developing solutions to energy-use problems view a building as an energy-using system. From this perspective, a desirable solution is not only one that is cost-effective and responsive to the needs of the occupants, but also one that optimizes the interaction among the energy components and systems that compose the whole.

  20. Life-course and cohort trajectories of mental health in the UK, 1991-2008--a multilevel age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    There is ongoing debate regarding the shape of life-course trajectories in mental health. Many argue the relationship is U-shaped, with mental health declining with age to mid-life, then improving. However, I argue that these models are beset by the age-period-cohort (APC) identification problem, whereby age, cohort and year of measurement are exactly collinear and their effects cannot be meaningfully separated. This means an apparent life-course effect could be explained by cohorts. This paper critiques two sets of literature: the substantive literature regarding life-course trajectories in mental health, and the methodological literature that claims erroneously to have 'solved' the APC identification problem statistically (e.g. using Yang and Land's Hierarchical APC-HAPC-model). I then use a variant of the HAPC model, making strong but justified assumptions that allow the modelling of life-course trajectories in mental health (measured by the General Health Questionnaire) net of any cohort effects, using data from the British Household Panel Survey, 1991-2008. The model additionally employs a complex multilevel structure that allows the relative importance of spatial (households, local authority districts) and temporal (periods, cohorts) levels to be assessed. Mental health is found to increase throughout the life-course; this slows at mid-life before worsening again into old age, but there is no evidence of a U-shape--I argue that such findings result from confounding with cohort processes (whereby more recent cohorts have generally worse mental health). Other covariates were also evaluated; income, smoking, education, social class, urbanity, ethnicity, gender and marriage were all related to mental health, with the latter two in particular affecting life-course and cohort trajectories. The paper shows the importance of understanding APC in life-course research generally, and mental health research in particular. PMID:25215933

  1. Analysis of reservoir heterogeneities due to shallowing-upward cycles in carbonate rocks of the Pennsylvanian Wahoo Limestone of Northeastern Alaska. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, K.

    1992-09-01

    The primary objective of this project is to develop an integrated database to characterize reservoir heterogeneities resulting from numerous small-scale shallowing-upward cycles (parasequences) comprising the carboniferous Pennsylvanian Wahoo Limestone. The Wahoo Limestone is the upper formation of an extensive carbonate platform sequence of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group which is widely exposed in the Brooks Range and is a widespread hydrocarbon reservoir unit in the subsurface of the North Slope of Alaska. A principal goal is to determine lateral and vertical variations in the complex mosaic of carbonate facies comprising the Wahoo Limestone. This report presents the preliminary results of research accomplished by a team of specialists in carbonate petrology, biostratigraphy, and diagenesis during the 1990--1991 fiscal year.It includes a summary of regional geological framework studies, a discussion conodont analyses, an overview of diagenetic studies, a brief description of progress in computerized database development, and appendices containing some of the new data on petrographic analyses, conodont analyses, and locality and sample information. Our correlation scheme, which uses cyclic stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and cement stratigraphy, will allow interpretation of the depositional history and paleogeographic evolution of the region. We have developed predictive facies models and will make paleogeographic maps to illustrate different stages in the history of the Wahoo carbonate ramp. Our detailed analyses of the Wahoo Limestone will provide a basis for interpreting correlative rocks in the adjacent subsurface of the coastal plain of ANWR, a potential hydrocarbon lease-sale area. In a broader sense, our work will provide an excellent generic example of carbonate shallowing-upward cycles which typify carbonate sediments.

  2. Reduction and analysis of seasons 15 and 16 (1991 - 1992) Pioneer Venus radio occultation data and correlative studies with observations of the near-infrared emission of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Jon M.

    1992-01-01

    Radio occultation experiments, and radio astronomical observations have suggested that significant variations (both spatial and temporal) in the abundances of sulfur-bearing gases are occurring below the Venus cloud layers. In addition, recent Near Infra-Red images of the nightside of Venus revealed large-scale features which sustain their shape over multiple rotations (the rotation periods of the features are 6.0 +/- 0.5 days). Presumably, the contrast variations in the NIR images are caused by variations in the abundance of large particles in the cloud deck. If these particles are composed of liquid sulfuric acid, one would expect a strong anticorrelation between regions with a high abundance of sulfuric acid vapor, and regions where there are large particles. One technique for monitoring the abundance and distribution of sulfuric acid vapor (H2SO4) at and below the main Venus cloud layer (altitudes below 50 km) is to measure the 13-cm wavelength opacity using Pioneer Venus Orbiter Radio Occultation Studies (PV-ORO). We are working to characterize variations in the abundance and distribution of subcloud H2SO4(g) in the Venus atmosphere by using a number of 13-cm radio occultation measurements conducted with the Pioneer Venus Orbiter near the inferior conjunction of 1991. When retrieved, the vertical profiles of the abundance of H2SO4(g) will be compared and correlated with NIR images of the night side of Venus made during the same period of time. Hopefully, the combination of these two different types of data will make it possible to constrain or identify the composition of the large particles causing the features observed in the NIR images. Considered on their own, however, the parameters retrieved from the radio occultation experiments are valuable science products.

  3. Life-course and cohort trajectories of mental health in the UK, 1991-2008--a multilevel age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    There is ongoing debate regarding the shape of life-course trajectories in mental health. Many argue the relationship is U-shaped, with mental health declining with age to mid-life, then improving. However, I argue that these models are beset by the age-period-cohort (APC) identification problem, whereby age, cohort and year of measurement are exactly collinear and their effects cannot be meaningfully separated. This means an apparent life-course effect could be explained by cohorts. This paper critiques two sets of literature: the substantive literature regarding life-course trajectories in mental health, and the methodological literature that claims erroneously to have 'solved' the APC identification problem statistically (e.g. using Yang and Land's Hierarchical APC-HAPC-model). I then use a variant of the HAPC model, making strong but justified assumptions that allow the modelling of life-course trajectories in mental health (measured by the General Health Questionnaire) net of any cohort effects, using data from the British Household Panel Survey, 1991-2008. The model additionally employs a complex multilevel structure that allows the relative importance of spatial (households, local authority districts) and temporal (periods, cohorts) levels to be assessed. Mental health is found to increase throughout the life-course; this slows at mid-life before worsening again into old age, but there is no evidence of a U-shape--I argue that such findings result from confounding with cohort processes (whereby more recent cohorts have generally worse mental health). Other covariates were also evaluated; income, smoking, education, social class, urbanity, ethnicity, gender and marriage were all related to mental health, with the latter two in particular affecting life-course and cohort trajectories. The paper shows the importance of understanding APC in life-course research generally, and mental health research in particular.

  4. Contraceptive practice in China: 1970-2004.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cuntong

    2015-03-01

    Using large-scale data from the national conventional statistics and nationally representative sample surveys, the current study aims to assess the level, mode, and determinants of modern contraceptive use from 1970 to 2004 among married couples aged 20 to 49 years in China. A relatively stable Chinese mode of contraception has been established and maintained since the 1980s, characterized by prominent, long-acting contraceptive use and the highest overall prevalence in the world during the past 3 decades. In recent years, the composition of contraceptive use has changed, characterized by the increasing use of the intrauterine device and short-acting methods and a drastic decrease in male and female sterilization. However, the dominance of the long-acting methods has not undergone substantial change. The results from a multinomial logit model employed in this study indicate that family planning policy and socioeconomic and demographic factors jointly influence contraceptive choice. In particular, contraceptive choice is closely associated with the strength of family planning policy in China.

  5. The gediz earthquake: reconstruction between 1970 & 1977.

    PubMed

    Germen, A

    1978-03-01

    Our observations in Gediz weremadein 1970,1973,1975 and 1977. Information was collected in each of these trips but the fullest interviewing took place in 1977. Some of the people interviewed evaded our questions and many would not talk freely. This was mainly in New Gediz, where we were often referred to the mayor. Gediz has had three mayors since the earthquake, but the present mayor is fully informed on the aid which has arrived since the earthquake. He was generous with this information and his opinion Equally generous and gracious were the members of an informal association concerned with the revival of Old Gediz. In addition, we were able to talk to people in public places and to shopkeepers. Our contacts on the street were rather few We visited Akcaalan in 1975 and 1977, conducting interviews in both years. Much of the information and opinion was collected in two coffee shops. The mayor, Mr. M. Taskin, impressed us with his precision and graciousness. PMID:20958377

  6. Marine power - Accomplishments of the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, W. R.

    Progress made in the 1970s toward power production using marine power systems is discussed, noting that all renewable systems have a low intensity source. Consideration has been given to tidal, ocean current, kelp biomass, wave, salinity gradient, thermal gradient, and wind energy systems. Tidal plants delivering 240 MWe and 400 kWe are operating in France and Russia, respectively, and China is operating 90 small plants generating around 7 MW. Kelp growth rates were found to be lower than necessary for economic methane conversion. Experimentation in compressed air wave energy conversion is being pursued in Japan, and small programs are being conducted to study salinity gradients in the U.S. and Sweden. A 10 kW OTEC plant was operated successfully in Hawaii and the Japanese are testing a 100 kW plant. Offshore windpower is projected as the most likely marine system to succeed, both as a power producer and as a supplemental power system for ships. Near term efforts are expected to be in small facilities to expand the data base, gain experience in construction and operations, and to make evaluations.

  7. Adjustment, social sectors, and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ekouevi, K; Adepoju, A

    1995-01-01

    This discussion concludes that the economic crises of the 1980s resulted in a halt to the social and economic development of sub-Saharan Africa. Employment, health, and education sectors all deteriorated under structural adjustment programs (SAPs) and poor economic performance. SAPs are considered inadequate solutions to long-term problems. Economic crises were found to affect countries differently in their demographic impact. Delayed demographic transition occurred both through economic development as a prerequisite and as a result of poor economic development. Case studies of each country are considered the appropriate geographic unit of analysis of demographic change rather than regional or comparative studies. The economic crises in sub-Saharan Africa occurred due to both external (commodity prices, high real interest rates, and decreasing net capital flows) and internal distortions (strategies of development such as import substitution, neglect of the agricultural sector, and government control of prices and trade). The unfavorable external context reduced export prices and earnings while increasing the costs of imports. Internal controls were detrimental to farmers. During the 1970s and 1980s African countries experienced declines in both the volume and value of exports, increases in import volume, and imbalances in the balance of payments. Large domestic borrowing and foreign borrowing was done by governments, which was at the expense of the private sector. Economic management and corruption were rampant. SAPs restrained demand, reduced public expenditures, adjusted exchange rates, contracted the size of the public sector, liberalized trade, deregulated the interest rate, stimulated domestic production, and used market forces for balancing optimum allocation of resources. SAPs were the fix for trade imbalances and government debt. Development was slowed or stopped. During 1980-87 spending on health care, education, and infrastructure was drastically reduced

  8. Adjustment, social sectors, and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ekouevi, K; Adepoju, A

    1995-01-01

    This discussion concludes that the economic crises of the 1980s resulted in a halt to the social and economic development of sub-Saharan Africa. Employment, health, and education sectors all deteriorated under structural adjustment programs (SAPs) and poor economic performance. SAPs are considered inadequate solutions to long-term problems. Economic crises were found to affect countries differently in their demographic impact. Delayed demographic transition occurred both through economic development as a prerequisite and as a result of poor economic development. Case studies of each country are considered the appropriate geographic unit of analysis of demographic change rather than regional or comparative studies. The economic crises in sub-Saharan Africa occurred due to both external (commodity prices, high real interest rates, and decreasing net capital flows) and internal distortions (strategies of development such as import substitution, neglect of the agricultural sector, and government control of prices and trade). The unfavorable external context reduced export prices and earnings while increasing the costs of imports. Internal controls were detrimental to farmers. During the 1970s and 1980s African countries experienced declines in both the volume and value of exports, increases in import volume, and imbalances in the balance of payments. Large domestic borrowing and foreign borrowing was done by governments, which was at the expense of the private sector. Economic management and corruption were rampant. SAPs restrained demand, reduced public expenditures, adjusted exchange rates, contracted the size of the public sector, liberalized trade, deregulated the interest rate, stimulated domestic production, and used market forces for balancing optimum allocation of resources. SAPs were the fix for trade imbalances and government debt. Development was slowed or stopped. During 1980-87 spending on health care, education, and infrastructure was drastically reduced

  9. The Political Economy of Manufacturing Growth and Decline across the American States, 1970-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Don Sherman, II; Wallace, Michael

    1994-01-01

    A pooled, cross-sectional, time-series analysis of state manufacturing growth rates for 1970-85 indicates that manufacturing growth was influenced by workforce quality, population density, and elements of states' political economies, including state fiscal capacity, organizational capacity of labor, social wage policies, and state…

  10. Remote Sensing of Earth Resources: A literature survey with indexes (1970 - 1973 supplement). Section 1: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between March 1970 and December 1973 are presented in the following areas: agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, oceanography and marine resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  11. Family Relationships in Realistic Young Adult Fiction, 1987 to 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Cathie

    The purpose of this study was to determine how parents and family relationships are characterized in realistic young adult fiction. A random sample of 20 realistic young adult novels was selected from the American Library Association's Best Lists for the years 1987-1991. A content analysis of the novels focused on the following: (1) whether…

  12. Letter report: Media information review, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    The media information review, requested by the Communications Subcommittee of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP), provides a general indication of the media's areas of interests with regard to the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. This review briefly assesses 24 newspaper and magazine articles collected between September 1991 and January 1992 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Articles that mention the project, activities closely associated with it, or members of the Panel were included in the analysis. Attempts were made to identify general categories and issues found within the articles and display the results in an order of ranking. This review is unscientific and is not meant to display a technical analysis of the materials.

  13. Decomposition analysis of wastewater pollutant discharges in industrial sectors of China (2001-2009) using the LMDI I Method.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

    2012-06-01

    China's industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was -2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, -1.39%, and -16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH(4)-N discharges was -4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, -2.88%, and -17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH(4)-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH(4)-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH(4)-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH(4)-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and

  14. Economic impact of ethanol production on U.S. livestock sector: A spatial analysis of corn and distillers grain shipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'guessan, Yapo Genevier

    2007-12-01

    The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has increased from 1,630 million gallons in 2000 to 4,855 million gallons in 2006, representing a 198% growth over the period considered. This growth is favored by the availability of more efficient technologies in the production process of ethanol and is sustained by the high prices of ethanol in the market. The industry is also supported by a favorable public policy, expressed in the form of laws, mandating an increase in the use of ethanol, and also in the form of tax incentives. The tremendous increase in the use of corn for the ethanol industry is made at the expense of the livestock industry that was the traditional destination for much of the U.S. corn grain. As the ethanol industry continues to expand, concerns are raised in regard to its impact as more and more corn is diverted from the livestock sector. This study investigates the economic impact of the ethanol industry on the U.S. livestock sector. Specifically, a shipping cost model is developed to simulate the impact of the ethanol industry on the shipping cost of corn at the national and individual state levels. The dynamics for major livestock producing states are also analyzed at the crop reporting district level. Different scenarios based on assumptions on the availability of corn and the production capacities of the ethanol industry are displayed. Results from the model indicate that nationwide there is a 5 to 22% increase in the shipping cost of corn for the livestock industry due to the ethanol industry, depending on the scenario involved. At the state level, there is an increase in the transportation cost for most of the states, with shipping cost doubling in some cases. Nevertheless, some states benefit from the dynamics created by the development of ethanol plants and are experiencing a reduction in their livestock industry corn transportation cost.

  15. A HIGHER ALTITUDE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN 1970, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A HIGHER ALTITUDE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN 1970, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD THE HUACHUCA MOUNTAINS. THE 1916 STABLES ARE LOCATED IN THE RIGHT MIDDLE PORTION OF THE PICTURE (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1970.15.00.59, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  16. 42 CFR 423.1970 - Right to an ALJ hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right to an ALJ hearing. 423.1970 Section 423.1970 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC...

  17. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. (a) Identification. A radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer is a device intended to be used...

  18. Employment by Industry in Ohio Counties, 1940-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Bureau of Employment Services, Columbus.

    These 89 tables present total employment in Ohio (civilian and military) and in each of its 88 counties from 1940 to 1970 as tabulated by the Bureau of Census. Each table indicates the number employed and the percent of the total employed for 1940, 1950, 1960, and 1970 in the following industries: Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries; mining;…

  19. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  20. Institute of Library Research Annual Report, July 1969 - June 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, R. M.; Maron, M. E.

    This "Annual Report," July 1969 to June 1970, is the fourth progress report of the Institute of Library Research. The activities of the Institute encompassed the completion of several projects and the initiation of other projects during this period. One recorded milestone of singular importance was the establishment in June 1970 of the Library…

  1. Pre-1970 transuranic solid waste at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1995-05-23

    The document is based on a search of pre-1970 Hanford Solid Waste Records. The available data indicates seven out of thirty-one solid waste burial sites used for pre-1970 waste appear to be Transuranic (TRU). A burial site defined to be TRU contains >100 nCi/gm Transuranic nuclides.

  2. 26 CFR 1.615-1 - Pre-1970 exploration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pre-1970 exploration expenditures. 1.615-1 Section 1.615-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-1 Pre-1970 exploration expenditures. (a) General rule. Section 615 prescribes...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. (a) Identification. A radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer is a device intended to be used...

  4. Demographics of the Canadian dairy industry from 1991 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jelinski, Murray D.; LeBlanc, Stephen; Kennedy, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective study of the demographics of the Canadian dairy industry was conducted using data derived from Statistics Canada’s Census of Agriculture from 1991 to 2011. This longitudinal study shows that Canada’s dairy industry has undergone considerable consolidation. From 1991 to 2011, the number of dairy producers and dairy farms decreased by 48.9% and 61.9%, respectively. Furthermore, this trend in consolidation is likely to continue; nearly half (45.8%) of all dairy producers in Canada were ≥ 50 y of age in 2011. Not only will most of these producers be retired by 2021, but younger producers will also exit the industry for other reasons. These findings mirror what is occurring in Canada’s cow-calf industry, underscoring that supply-managed sectors experience demographic consolidation similar to non-supply managed sectors. These substantial changes will have ramifications for the veterinary profession. There will be fewer but larger farms, and the services and knowledge demanded of veterinarians will change accordingly, which has implications for food animal veterinary education. PMID:26130831

  5. Network topology of economic sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djauhari, Maman A.; Gan, Siew Lee

    2016-09-01

    A lot of studies dealing with stock network analysis, where each individual stock is represented by a univariate time series of its closing price, have been published. In these studies, the similarity of two different stocks is quantified using a Pearson correlation coefficient on the logarithmic price returns. In this paper, we generalize the notion of similarity between univariate time series into multivariate time series which might be of different dimensions. This allows us to deal with economic sector network analysis, where the similarity between economic sectors is defined using Escoufier’s vector correlation RV. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study dealing with this notion of economic sector similarity. Two examples of data from the New York stock exchange will be presented and discussed, and some important results will be highlighted.

  6. Analysis of ambient conditions and simulation of hydrodynamics, constituent transport, and water-quality characteristics in Lake Maumelle, Arkansas, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, W. Reed

    2001-01-01

    Lake Maumelle is the major drinking-water source for the Little Rock metropolitan area in central Arkansas. Urban and agricultural development has increased in the Lake Maumelle Basin and information is needed related to constituent transport and waterquality response to changes in constituent loading or hydrologic regime. This report characterizes ambient conditions in Lake Maumelle and its major tributary, Maumelle River; describes the calibration and verification of a numerical model of hydrodynamics and water quality; and provides several simulations that describe constituent transport and water quality response to changes in constituent loading and hydrologic regime. Ambient hydrologic and water-quality conditions demonstrate the relatively undisturbed nature of Lake Maumelle and the Maumelle River. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were low, one to two orders of magnitude lower than estimates of national background nutrient concentrations. Phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations in Lake Maumelle demonstrate its oligotrophic/mesotrophic condition. However, concentrations of chlorophyll a appeared to increase since 1990 within the upper and middle reaches of the reservoir. A two-dimensional, laterally averaged hydrodynamic and water-quality model developed and calibrated for Lake Maumelle simulates water level, currents, heat transport and temperature distribution, conservative material transport, and the transport and transformation of 11 chemical constituents. Simulations included the movement and dispersion of spills or releases in the reservoir during stratified and unstratified conditions, release of the fish nursery pond off the southern shore of Lake Maumelle, and algal responses to changes in external loading. The model was calibrated using 1991 data and verified using 1992 data. Simulated temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations related well when compared to measured values. Simulated nutrient and algal biomass also related reasonably

  7. Seeding cumulus in Florida: new 1970 results.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J; Woodley, W L

    1971-04-01

    In the Florida single cloud experiments, the main result of the statistical analyses is that the dynamic seeding effect on rainfall is large, positive, and significant. From all the 1968 and 1970 data together, the seeding effect is estimated to be larger than a factor of 3; that is, the seeded clouds rained more than three times as much as the controls after the seeding run. On fair days, defined objectively by percentage of area covered by showers, the seeding effect is shown to be larger than the overall average, but it may be negative on rainy days. Rainy days in the tropics are about 10 percent of the days with rain, but they produce about half the total rainfall. The applicability of our single cloud results to other areas is not established but seems hopeful for many tropical and subtropical regions. It can be assessed by cloud population studies together with our numerical model (25). Guidance for the next steps toward practical rainfall enhancement and toward the understanding and modification of cloud systems in storms may be provided by our study of merger clouds. Mergers are shown often to produce more than an order of magnitude more rain than isolated clouds on the same day, probably owing to dynamic invigoration of the merged cloud circulations. Results of our first small attempt toward inducing and documenting mergers in a multiple cloud seeding experiment appear promising. Although far from statistically conclusive, they have opened a new frontier in the science and technology of dynamic cloud modification. It is also hoped that the multiple cumulus seeding experiments will help to clarify the formation of "cloud clusters" and their role in large-scale circulations, thus contributing to the focal subject of the Global Atmospheric Research Program in the tropics.

  8. Coal supply/demand, 1980 to 2000. Task 3. Resource applications industrialization system data base. Final review draft. [USA; forecasting 1980 to 2000; sector and regional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, W.M.; Hasson, V.

    1980-10-10

    This report is a compilation of data and forecasts resulting from an analysis of the coal market and the factors influencing supply and demand. The analyses performed for the forecasts were made on an end-use-sector basis. The sectors analyzed are electric utility, industry demand for steam coal, industry demand for metallurgical coal, residential/commercial, coal demand for synfuel production, and exports. The purpose is to provide coal production and consumption forecasts that can be used to perform detailed, railroad company-specific coal transportation analyses. To make the data applicable for the subsequent transportation analyses, the forecasts have been made for each end-use sector on a regional basis. The supply regions are: Appalachia, East Interior, West Interior and Gulf, Northern Great Plains, and Mountain. The demand regions are the same as the nine Census Bureau regions. Coal production and consumption in the United States are projected to increase dramatically in the next 20 years due to increasing requirements for energy and the unavailability of other sources of energy to supply a substantial portion of this increase. Coal comprises 85 percent of the US recoverable fossil energy reserves and could be mined to supply the increasing energy demands of the US. The NTPSC study found that the additional traffic demands by 1985 may be met by the railways by the way of improved signalization, shorter block sections, centralized traffic control, and other modernization methods without providing for heavy line capacity works. But by 2000 the incremental traffic on some of the major corridors was projected to increase very significantly and is likely to call for special line capacity works involving heavy investment.

  9. Undergraduate Origins of Women and Men 1970-1982 Graduates Who Received Doctorates between 1970-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Carol H.

    Data from a study of the undergraduate origins of Ph.D.s are presented. Baccalaureate origins of doctorate recipients were analyzed for total and proportional productivity for each of the U.S. institutions whose graduates between 1970 and 1982 had earned at least one doctorate between 1970 and 1986. The numbers of baccalaureate degrees for men and…

  10. Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001-2009) Using the LMDI I Metho

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

    2012-01-01

    China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was −2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, −1.39%, and −16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH4-N discharges was −4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, −2.88%, and −17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH4-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH4-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH4-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH4-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and

  11. Analysis of synoptic-scale low pressure systems within the Antarctic Peninsula sector of the circumpolar trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, John; Marshall, Gareth J.; Lachlan-Cope, Thomas A.

    1998-03-01

    Satellite imagery of the Antarctic Peninsula, Bellingshausen Sea, and Weddell Sea region, together with operational meteorological analyses, are used to investigate the development, tracks, and structure of synoptic-scale weather systems within the Antarctic Peninsula sector of the circumpolar trough, which rings the Southern Hemisphere between the latitudes of 60° and 70°S. A number of previous studies have shown that more cyclogenesis events take place within this zone than in any other region of the Southern Hemisphere, although the mechanisms behind these developments have not been investigated previously. This study confirms the large number of cyclogenesis events taking place within the circumpolar trough and, in the year examined, the mean latitude of cyclogenesis within the sector was 64°S. During the year, 504 lows were observed, with 281 developing in the area and 223 moving in. The diameters of the systems observed ranged from 300 to 3500 km, with the smallest vortices being mesocyclones that later grew into synoptic-scale lows. The mean distance travelled by the depressions was only 1377 km (standard deviation 1205 km), reflecting the fact that the systems observed ranged from small quasi-stationary lows to large, very mobile depressions. The mean meridional movement of the lows during their existence was very small. The greatest number of cyclogenesis events were observed over the Bellingshausen Sea, where more than 0.48 events 10 000 km-2 year-1 were found, with a secondary maximum in the lee of the Antarctic Peninsula. The mean lifetime of the systems observed was 22 h, with over half the vortices existing for less than 24 h. A maximum of cyclolysis was found just to the west of the Antarctic Peninsula, with a secondary maximum in the South Atlantic. Of the systems that formed within the area, 36% were developments within pre-existing large areas of low pressure, which were similar to the merry-go-round formations of mesocyclones. A further 39% of

  12. Problems persist for French refining sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-27

    This paper reports that France's refiners face a continuing shortfall of middle distillate capacity and a persistent surplus of heavy fuel oil. That's the main conclusion of the official Hydrocarbon Directorate's report on how France's refining sector performed in 1991. Imports up---The directorate noted that although net production of refined products in French refineries rose to 1.534 million b/d in 1991 from 1.48 million b/d in 1990, products imports jumped 9.7% to 602,000 b/d in the period. The glut of heavy fuel oil eased to some extent last year because French nuclear power capacity, heavily dependent on ample water supplies, was crimped by drought. That spawned fuel switching. The most note worthy increase in imports was for motor diesel, climbing to 176,000 b/d from 148,000 b/d in 1990. Tax credits are spurring French consumption of that fuel. For the first time, consumption of motor diesel in 1991 outstripped that of gasoline at 374,000 b/d and 356,000 b/d respectively.

  13. NSF plans for 1991 eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Science Foundation plans to support observations related to the total eclipse of the Sun in July 1991. The proposal deadline for logistics or science support is March 30, 1990.We are considering establishing a base camp in Baja, California. Costs of transportation for team members and their equipment from their home institution and logistics support at the camp (food, shelter, power, etc.) would be provided. Arrangements for import-export of equipment to and from the United States-Mexico would be handled by a contractor supported by NSF.

  14. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, M.W.; Karapatakis, L.K.; Mamatey, A.R.; Todd, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes environmental activities conducted on and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, S.C., from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1991, with an update on compliance activities through April 1, 1992. The report is a single volume with a separate summary pamphlet highlighting the major findings for 1991. The report is divided into an executive summary and 14 chapters containing information on environmental compliance issues, environmental monitoring methods and programs, and environmental research activities for 1991, as well as historical data from previous years. Analytical results, figures, charts, and data tables relevant to the environmental monitoring program for 1991 at SRS are included.

  15. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1991-01-01

    Initially, rehabilitation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka met with apparent success reaching a peak abundance of 10.2 million fishTl988. However, a decline of 47% followed from 1988 through 1991 to 5.4 million fish. The decreased population was attributed to poor recruitment of wild fish, poor egg take, thus, low stocking of hatchery fry (7.3 million in 1990 and 5.0 million in 1991 compared to about 13.0 million in 1981), and poor survival of fish ages 3 and 4 (average survival of the older fish was only 35% in 1990 compared to 72% in prior years but it was 68% in 1991). In addition, standing stocks of kokanee have remained relatively stable (x = 8.6 kg/hectare) since 1986 despite the dramatic changes in density. Prior to this study (1985) standing stocks were substantially higher (x = 13.6 kg/hectare). The kokanee population is probably operating below carrying capacity. Hatchery fry comprised 59% of the total kokanee recruitment in 1991 (93% of fry biomass). This contribution of 1.06 million fry ranked fifth behind 1988 (3.74 million), 1989 (2.25 million), 1982 (1.89 million), and 1990 (1.56 million) since hatchery supplementation began in the 1970s. Survival of hatchery fry was 21% in 1991, the second highest since this investigation began. Two release strategies were tested in 1991 of which the best survival was recorded for the Sullivan Springs release at 23% while the early Clark Fork River release continued to have lowest survival at 18%. Survival of hatchery reared kokanee fry is still below the goal of 30% and it appears that this goal may not be attainable most years. Statistical analysis between number of days from fry release to recapture day and fry survival did not reveal a relationship (P = 0.43). Survival of fry from late releases is higher (P = 0.05) than early releases but no difference (P L 0.71) was detected between stocking locations. Good survival of fry from the Sullivan Springs releases was attributed to large size of kokanee fry (55 mm), warm

  16. Analysis of energy use in building services of the industrial sector in California: Two case studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

    1991-09-01

    Energy-use patterns in many of California`s fastest-growing industries are not typical of the existing mix of industries in the US. Many California firms operate small- and medium-sized facilities housed in buildings used simultaneously or interchangeably over time for commercial (office, retail, warehouse) and industrial activities. In these industrial subsectors, the energy required for building services (providing occupant comfort and necessities like lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.) may be at least as important as the more familiar process energy requirements -- especially for electricity and on-peak demand. Electricity for building services is sometimes priced as if it were base loaded like process uses; in reality this load varies significantly according to occupancy schedules and cooling and heating loads, much as in any commercial building. Using informal field surveys, simulation studies, and detailed analyses of existing data (including utility commercial/industrial audit files), we studied the energy use of this industrial subsector through a multi-step procedure: (1) characterizing non-process building energy and power use in California industries, (2) identifying conservation and load-shaping opportunities in industrial building services, and (3) investigating industrial buildings and system design methodologies. In an earlier report, we addressed these issues by performing an extensive survey of the existing publicly available data, characterizing and comparing the building energy use in this sector. In this report, we address the above objectives by examining and analyzing energy use in two industrial case-study facilities in California. Based on the information for the case studies, we discuss the design consideration for these industrial buildings, characterize their energy use, and review their conservation and load-shaping potentials. In addition, we identify and discuss some research ideas for further investigation.

  17. FORCE Sectoral Survey on European Retail Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertzeletou, Tina

    1993-01-01

    A sectoral survey focused on ways in which vocational training plans are formulated and analysis of the cost effectiveness of continuing vocational training at the company level. It examined techniques applied to developing continuing vocational training and improving access. National surveys carried out for the retail trade sector revealed…

  18. Climate change mitigation in the agricultural sector- an analysis of marginal abatement costs of climate mitigation in global paddy rice agriculture based on DNDC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Li, J.; Beach, R.; Salas, W.; Ingraham, P.; Ragnauth, S.

    2012-12-01

    Authors: Jia Li1, Robert H. Beach2, Changsheng Li3, William Salas4, Pete Ingraham5, Shaun Ragnauth1 INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Climate Change Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, United States. 2. RTI International, Durham, NC, United States. 3. ESRC, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, United States. 4. Applied Geosolutions, LLC, Newmarket, NH, United States. Global agriculture sector faces the dual challenge of climate change mitigation and providing food security for a growing population. In a new study, the U.S. EPA has developed an analysis of mitigation of non-CO2 greenhouse gases for the global agriculture sector. We estimate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy rice cultivation and rice yields under baseline management conditions as well as for alternative mitigation options. These biophysical effects are combined with data on input use and costs to estimate marginal abatement cost curves and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of mitigation options for global rice cropping systems. DNDC, a process-based crop model, is used to simulate crop yields, methane and nitrous oxide emissions, as well as soil carbon sequestration of the various rice cropping systems (irrigated and rainfed, and single, double, triple and mixed rotations) under local climatic and soil conditions at a 0.5 degree resolution at the global scale. We evaluate the impacts of various management alternatives (e.g., flooding methods, fertilizer applications, and crop residue management) on crop yields and GHG emissions and report the spatial and temporal distributions of the outcomes. The analysis provides important insights on the potential for closing the production efficiency gaps and the trade-offs and synergies between GHG mitigation and food security in different parts of the world.

  19. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry analysis of ground deformation in the Po Plain (Piacenza-Reggio Emilia sector, Northern Italy): seismo-tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Cenni, Nicola; Devanthéry, Núria; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico

    2016-08-01

    This work aims to explore the ongoing tectonic activity of structures in the outermost sector of the Northern Apennines, which represents the active leading edge of the thrust belt and is dominated by compressive deformation. We have applied the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique to obtain new insights into the present-day deformation pattern of the frontal area of the Northern Apennine. PSI has proved to be effective in detecting surface deformation of wide regions involved in low tectonic movements. We used 34 Envisat images in descending geometry over the period of time between 2004 and 2010, performing about 300 interferometric pairs. The analysis of the velocity maps and of the PSI time-series has allowed to observe ground deformation over the sector of the Po Plain between Piacenza and Reggio Emilia. The time-series of permanent GPS stations located in the study area, validated the results of the PSI technique, showing a good correlation with the PS time-series. The PS analysis reveals the occurrence of a well-known subsidence area on the rear of the Ferrara arc, mostly connected to the exploitation of water resources. In some instances, the PS velocity pattern reveals ground uplift (with mean velocities ranging from 1 to 2.8 mm yr-1) above active thrust-related anticlines of the Emilia and Ferrara folds, and part of the Pede-Apennine margin. We hypothesize a correlation between the observed uplift deformation pattern and the growth of the thrust-related anticlines. As the uplift pattern corresponds to known geological features, it can be used to constrain the seismo-tectonic setting, and a working hypothesis may involve that the active Emilia and Ferrara thrust folds would be characterized by interseismic periods possibly dominated by aseismic creep.

  20. [Clinical electro-ophthalmology at the Max Planck Institute of the Frankfurt University Ophthalmology Clinic 1970-1991].

    PubMed

    Lorenz, R; Baier, M; Eckl, G; Raile, A

    1996-07-01

    The survey shows the frequency and distribution of diseases evaluated by electroophthalmological methods. Patients with retinal diseases (51.2%) and those with diseases of the optic nerve (21.8%) were examined most frequently. In a high percentage these investigations lead to a clinically useful assessment: described as confirmation or exclusion of a clinical diagnosis, as establishing a possible differential diagnosis or clearing up formerly unknown aspects of a disease. In cases of hereditary retinal disorders only 11% remained unclear, with presumed optic neuritis only 6%. The importance of electroophthalmological investigations is there ability to assess functional deficits in the visual system especially in somehow more rare retinal and centrally located disorders, functional deficits of unknown origins or in general diseases including the visual system.

  1. Trends in health sciences library and information science research: an analysis of research publications in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association from 1991 to 2007*

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Sally A.; Nordberg, Judith M.; Palmer, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study analyzed trends in research activity as represented in the published research in the leading peer-reviewed professional journal for health sciences librarianship. Methodology: Research articles were identified from the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association (1991–2007). Using content analysis and bibliometric techniques, data were collected for each article on the (1) subject, (2) research method, (3) analytical technique used, (4) number of authors, (5) number of citations, (6) first author affiliation, and (7) funding source. The results were compared to a previous study, covering the period 1966 to 1990, to identify changes over time. Results: Of the 930 articles examined, 474 (51%) were identified as research articles. Survey (n = 174, 37.1%) was the most common methodology employed, quantitative descriptive statistics (n = 298, 63.5%) the most used analytical technique, and applied topics (n = 332, 70%) the most common type of subject studied. The majority of first authors were associated with an academic health sciences library (n = 264, 55.7%). Only 27.4% (n = 130) of studies identified a funding source. Conclusion: This study's findings demonstrate that progress is being made in health sciences librarianship research. There is, however, room for improvement in terms of research methodologies used, proportion of applied versus theoretical research, and elimination of barriers to conducting research for practicing librarians. PMID:19626146

  2. 11. COPY OF 1970 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF LORING AIR FORCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. COPY OF 1970 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF LORING AIR FORCE BASE. PHOTOGRAPH LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Airfield, Central portion of base, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  3. 40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN HOUSE (9 UNION STREET) AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  4. 8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  5. 7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  6. 29. August, 1970 WEST ELEVATIONS OF 14, 16, 18, 20 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. August, 1970 WEST ELEVATIONS OF 14, 16, 18, 20 UNION STREET (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  7. 2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  8. 10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH FOM IN FRONT OF THE LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  9. 16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  10. 11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE (MASS-912), 14 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  11. 24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM HALF-WAY POINT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  12. 22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM GARDNER HOUSES - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  13. 8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE STREET (MASS-1063) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  14. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  15. Atomic and molecular data for space astronomy - Needs, analysis, and availability; 21st IAU General Assembly, Buenos Aires, Argentina, July 23-Aug. 1, 1991, Selected Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Peter L. (Editor); Wiese, Wolfgang L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on atomic and molecular spectroscopic data for space astrophysics discusses scientific problems and laboratory data needs associated with the Hubble Space Telescope, atomic data needed for far ultraviolet astronomy with HUT and FUSE and for analysis of EUV and X-ray spectra, and data for observations of interstellar medium with the Hubble Space Telescope. Attention is also given to atomic and molecular data for analysis of IR spectra from ISO and SIRTF, atomic data from the opacity project, sources of atomic spectroscopic data for astrophysics, and summary of current molecular data bases.

  16. Hierarchical analysis of spatial pattern and processes of Douglas-fir forests. Ph.D. Thesis, 10 Sep. 1991 Abstract Only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in the quantification of pattern in ecological systems over the past years. This interest is motivated by the desire to construct valid models which extend across many scales. Spatial methods must quantify pattern, discriminate types of pattern, and relate hierarchical phenomena across scales. Wavelet analysis is introduced as a method to identify spatial structure in ecological transect data. The main advantage of the wavelet transform over other methods is its ability to preserve and display hierarchical information while allowing for pattern decomposition. Two applications of wavelet analysis are illustrated, as a means to: (1) quantify known spatial patterns in Douglas-fir forests at several scales, and (2) construct spatially-explicit hypotheses regarding pattern generating mechanisms. Application of the wavelet variance, derived from the wavelet transform, is developed for forest ecosystem analysis to obtain additional insight into spatially-explicit data. Specifically, the resolution capabilities of the wavelet variance are compared to the semi-variogram and Fourier power spectra for the description of spatial data using a set of one-dimensional stationary and non-stationary processes. The wavelet cross-covariance function is derived from the wavelet transform and introduced as a alternative method for the analysis of multivariate spatial data of understory vegetation and canopy in Douglas-fir forests of the western Cascades of Oregon.

  17. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: FY 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Hicks, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from April 1991 through September 1991. The ASEMP was established in 1989 by Solid Waste Operations (SWO) and the Environmental Sciences Division, both of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level (radioactive) waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 as required by chapters II and III of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. A new set of action levels was developed on the basis of a statistical analysis of background contamination. These new action levels have been used to evaluate results in this report. Results of ASEMP monitoring continue to demonstrate that no LLW (except [sup 3]H) is being leached from the storage vaults on the tumulus pads. Loading of vaults on Tumulus II, which began in early FY 1991, was >90% complete at the end of September 1991. Results of sampling of groundwater and surface waters is presented.

  18. Roadmap for Development of Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructructure and Analysis of Vehicular Natural Gas Consumption by Niche Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen C. Yborra

    2007-04-30

    per-vehicle fuel use, central fueling and sensitivity to fuel costs, fleets will continue to be the primary target for NGV deployment and station development efforts. The transit sector is projected to continue to account for the greatest vehicular natural gas use and for new volume growth. New tax incentives and improved life-cycle economics also create opportunities to deploy additional vehicles and install related vehicular natural gas fueling infrastructure in the refuse, airport and short-haul sectors. Focusing on fleets generates the highest vehicular natural gas throughout but it doesn't necessarily facilitate public fueling infrastructure because, generally, fleet operators prefer not to allow public access due to liability concerns and revenue and tax administrative burdens. While there are ways to overcome this reluctance, including ''outside the fence'' retail dispensers and/or co-location of public and ''anchor'' fleet dispensing capability at a mutually convenient existing or new retail location, each has challenges that complicate an already complex business transaction. Partnering with independent retail fuel station companies, especially operators of large ''truck stops'' on the major interstates, to include natural gas at their facilities may build public fueling infrastructure and demand enough to entice the major oil companies to once again engage. Garnering national mass media coverage of success in California and Utah where vehicular natural gas fueling infrastructure is more established will help pave the way for similar consumer market growth and inclusion of public accessibility at stations in other regions. There isn't one ''right'' business model for growing the nation's NGV inventory and fueling infrastructure. Different types of station development and ownership-operation strategies will continue to be warranted for different customers in different markets. Factors affecting NGV deployment and station development include: regional air

  19. The Emergence of a Service Society: Demographic and Sociological Aspects of the Sectoral Transformation of the Labor Force in the U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Harley L.; Singelmann, Joachim

    Sectoral transformation (inter-industry shifts), which is generally analyzed by use of the Fisher-Clark tri-partite division, is examined in this study dealing mainly with the 1960-1970 decade and based on the 1/100 sample of the 1960 and 1970 censuses. (The Fisher-Clark tri-partite division of labor involves a primary sector--agriculture, mining,…

  20. Interplanetary sector boundaries, 1971 - 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, L.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1979-01-01

    Eighteen interplanetary sector boundary crossings observed at 1 AU by the magnetometer on the IMP-6 spacecraft are discussed. The events were examined on many different time scales ranging from days on either side of the boundary to high resolution measurements of 12.5 vectors per second. Two categories of boundaries were found, one group being relatively thin and the other being thick. In many cases the field vector rotated in a plane from one polarity to the other. Only two of the transitions were null sheets. Using the minimum variance analysis to determine the normals to the plane of rotation, and assuming that this is the same as the normal to the sector boundary surface, it was found that the normals were close to the ecliptic plane. An analysis of tangential discontinuities contained in 4-day periods about the events showed that their orientations were generally not related to the orientations of the sector boundary surface, but rather their characteristics were about the same as those for discontinuities outside the sector boundaries.

  1. State Legislation Relating to Native Americans, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, James B.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes legislative activities in states that enacted bills and resolutions relating to Native Americans in 1991. Conflicts between states and the Indian tribes within their borders were the subject of significant legislation in 1991. In all, 220 bills and resolutions were introduced in state legislatures; 77 passed and 20 are still…

  2. Astronomical data analysis software and systems I; Proceedings of the 1st Annual Conference, Tucson, AZ, Nov. 6-8, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worrall, Diana M. (Editor); Biemesderfer, Chris (Editor); Barnes, Jeannette (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to a definition of a distribution format for X-ray data, the Einstein on-line system, the NASA/IPAC extragalactic database, COBE astronomical databases, Cosmic Background Explorer astronomical databases, the ADAM software environment, the Groningen Image Processing System, search for a common data model for astronomical data analysis systems, deconvolution for real and synthetic apertures, pitfalls in image reconstruction, a direct method for spectral and image restoration, and a discription of a Poisson imagery super resolution algorithm. Also discussed are multivariate statistics on HI and IRAS images, a faint object classification using neural networks, a matched filter for improving SNR of radio maps, automated aperture photometry of CCD images, interactive graphics interpreter, the ROSAT extreme ultra-violet sky survey, a quantitative study of optimal extraction, an automated analysis of spectra, applications of synthetic photometry, an algorithm for extra-solar planet system detection and data reduction facilities for the William Herschel telescope.

  3. Experiments and analysis concerning the use of external burning to reduce aerospace vehicle transonic drag. Ph.D. Thesis - Maryland Univ., 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J.

    1992-01-01

    The external combustion of hydrogen to reduce transonic drag was investigated. A control volume analysis is developed and indicates that the specific impulse performance of external burning is competitive with other forms of airbreathing propulsion and depends on the fuel-air ratio, freestream Mach number, and the severity of the base drag. A method is presented for sizing fuel injectors for a desired fuel-air ratio in the unconfined stream. A two-dimensional Euler analysis is also presented which indicates that the total axial force generated by external burning depends on the total amount of energy input and is independent of the transverse and streamwise distribution of heat addition. Good agreement between the Euler and control volume analysis is demonstrated. Features of the inviscid external burning flowfield are discussed. Most notably, a strong compression forms at the sonic line within the burning stream which may induce separation of the plume and prevent realization of the full performance potential. An experimental program was conducted in a Mach 1.26 free-jet to demonstrate drag reduction on a simple expansion ramp geometry, and verify hydrogen-air stability limits at external burning conditions. Stable combustion appears feasible to Mach number of between 1.4 and 2 depending on the vehicle flight trajectory. Drag reduction is demonstrated on the expansion ramp at Mach 1.26; however, force levels showed little dependence on fuel pressure or altitude in contrast to control volume analysis predictions. Various facility interference mechanisms and scaling issues were studied and are discussed.

  4. Methods used in studies of drink-drive control efforts: a meta-analysis of the literature from 1960 to 1991.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, A C; Zobeck, T S; Williams, G D; Hingson, R

    1995-06-01

    We searched the drink-drive control literature over the past three decades, finding over six thousand documents. After detailed review of the abstracts and papers, 125 studies contained separate empirical evaluations of the effects of 12 DWI control policies and enforcement efforts (administrative license suspension, illegal per se, implied consent, preliminary breath test, mandatory jail sentence, mandatory community service, mandatory license suspension, limits on plea bargaining, mandatory fines, selective enforcement patrols, regular police patrols, and sobriety checkpoints). The 125 studies contained 664 distinct analyses that formed the basis for meta-analysis. All of the DWI control efforts were associated with reductions in drink-driving and traffic crashes. The DWI control literature is limited by the preponderance of weak study designs and reports that often fail to include basic data required for meta-analysis. Because of the poor quality of much extant research, we were limited to simple gain scores or percent change estimates in the current study. Further research that does not include appropriate research designs and analytic methods will be of limited utility. We recommend that all future reports include effect estimates and standard error estimates, minimum data required for effective meta-analysis.

  5. Compliance monitoring for the chemical weapons convention preliminary operational concepts--an adversarial analysis. Technical report, 5 September-12 November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.; Rudney, B.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this report is to assess preliminary operational concepts developed by the U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC). The 'Adversarial Analysis Methodology for the Chemical Weapons Convention,' developed by the JAYCOR Team, provides a conceptual framework and criteria for this assessment. Adversarial analysis (AA) complements the CRDEC methodology by accounting for noncompliance activities and includes risk and vulnerability analyses as well as a politico-strategic assessment of potentially noncompliant nations. CRDEC highlights many difficulties, flaws, and discrepancies in the formal CWC verification regime. AA helps overcome these shortcomings. First, it identifies how an adversary might accomplish cheating, spoofing, and circumvention (CSC), including underlying motivations and objectives. Second, it highlights potential verification system vulnerabilities that would permit CSC. Finally, it assesses the impact of such activities qualitatively and quantitatively. The end product of this approach is a vulnerability assessment report describing the potential effectiveness of various deceptive practices and recommendations for improving the verification regime's resistance to deception.... On-Site Inspections, CRDEC, Adversarial Analysis, Verification, Deception, Chemical Weapons, Convention, Chemical Weapons, Noncompliance.

  6. Trends in Thailand pan evaporation from 1970 to 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limjirakan, Sangchan; Limsakul, Atsamon

    2012-05-01

    One of the expected consequences of an anthropogenically warmed climate is the increase in evaporation. Paradoxically, terrestrial observations across the world show that the rates of pan evaporation (Epan) have been steadily decreasing since 1950s. In this study, we present a trend in Thailand Epan based on quality-controlled data from 28 weather stations from 1970 to 2007. Results indicated that, despite the annual mean air temperature increased by 0.91 °C over the past 38 years (0.024 °C per annum), the trend in annual Epan has steadily declined on average by ~ 7.7 mm a-2 (i.e. mm per annum per annum). By comparing, this change is larger than those previously reported for several countries. A further examination by Kendal's rank correlation and stepwise regression analysis based on some available weather data showed that reduction in wind speed and, to a lesser degree, sunshine duration were the likely causative meteorological factors affecting the Epan decrease in Thailand over the past 38 years. The findings of this study highlight local changes in aerodynamic and radiative drivers of the hydrological cycle, and their linkages to climate change could have important implications for Thailand's nature and society.

  7. Analysis of organic sulfur and nitrogen in coal via tandem degradation methods. Technical report, 1 December 1991--29 February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kruge, M.A.; Palmer, S.R.; Baudet, N.

    1992-08-01

    With the recent increase in concern for environmental issues and the implication of sulfur and nitrogen in coal combustion products as prime causes of acid rain, it has become clear that there is an urgent need for alternative methods for determining the nature of organic sulfur and nitrogen compounds in coal. The present study couples mild oxidative and reductive procedures to enhance the depolymerization of coal and its constituent macerals and the quantities of products amenable to analysis. The study also seeks to apply the degradative techniques to coal asphaltenes, since they are believed to be polymeric structures similar to the whole coal, but smaller and more readily analyzed.

  8. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  9. Selected Instrumentation Films, 1969-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Raymond L., Ed.

    This list of currently available films and filmstrips pertinent to instrumentation has been compiled from information solicited from many government and private sources. The 1969 compilation has been organized into the following eight categories: (1) principles of measurement and basic measurements; (2) analysis instrumentation; (3) automation and…

  10. Trends of chlorinated organic contaminants in Great Lakes trout and walleye from 1970-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, J.P.; Batterman, S.A.; Chernyak, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Levels of chlorinated organic contaminants in predator fish have been monitored annually in each of the Great Lakes since the 1970s. This article updates earlier reports with data from 1991 to 1998 for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and (Lake Erie only) walleye (Sander vitreus) to provide a record that now extends nearly 30 years. Whole fish were analyzed for a number of industrial contaminants and pesticides, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), dieldrin, toxaphene, and mirex, and contaminant trends were quantified using multicompartment models. As in the past, fish from Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron have the highest levels of PCBs, DDT, and dieldrin; Superior has the highest levels of toxaphene; and Ontario has the highest levels of mirex. In the period after curtailment of chemical use, concentrations rapidly decreased, represented by relatively short half-lives from approximately 1 to 9 years. Although trends depend on both the contaminant and the lake, in many cases the rate of decline has been decreasing, and concentrations are gradually approaching an irreducible concentration. For dioxin-like PCBs, levels have not been decreasing during the most recent 5-year period (1994 to 1998). In some cases, the year-to-year variation in contaminant levels is large, mainly because of food-web dynamics. Although this variation sometimes obscures long-term trends, the general pattern of a rapid decrease followed by slowing or leveling-off of the downward trend seems consistent across the Great Lakes, and future improvements of the magnitude seen in the 1970s and early 1980s likely will take much longer.

  11. Analysis of the research and development effort in the private sector to reduce energy consumption in irrigated agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, E.A.; Cone, B.W.

    1980-09-01

    Manufacturers of irrigation equipment perform research and development in an effort to improve or maintain their position in a very competitive market. The market forces and conditions that create the intense competition and provide incentive for invention are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the market force of increased energy costs, but the analysis is developed from the perspective that energy is but one of many inputs to agricultural production. The analysis is based upon published literature, patent activity profiles, microeconomic theory, and conversations with many representatives of the irrigation industry. The published literature provides an understanding of the historical development of irrigation technology, a description of the industry's structure, and various data, which were important for the quantitative analyses. The patent activity profiles, obtained from the US Patent Office, provided details of patent activity within the irrigation industry over the past decade. Microeconomic theory was used to estimate industry-wide research and development expenditures on energy-conserving products. The results of these analyses were then compared with the insights gained from conversations with the industry representatives.

  12. Proceedings of the 1991 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    This Conference, which was the sixth held since 1984, is a key technology-transfer activity supported by the ongoing Combustion Equipment Technology program at BNL, and is aimed at providing a forum for the exchange of information among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The objectives of the Conference were to: Identify and evaluate the state-of-the-art and recommend; new initiatives to satisfy consumer needs cost-effectively, reliably, and safely; Foster cooperation among federal and industrial representatives with the common goal of national security via energy conservation. The 1991 Oil Technology Conference comprised: (a) two plenary sessions devoted to presentations and summations by public and private sector representatives from the United States, Europe, and Canada; and, (b) four workshops which focused on mainstream issues in oil-heating technology. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Solar-Geophysical Data Number 562, June 1991. Part 1 (prompt reports). Data for May, April 1991, and late data

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, H.E.

    1991-06-01

    The contents include: Detailed index for 1990-1991; Data for May 1991--Solar-terrestrial environment, IUWDS alert periods (advance and worldwide), Solar activity indices, Solar flares, Solar radio emission, Stanford mean solar magnetic field; Data for April 1991--Solar active regions, Sudden ionospheric disturbances, Solar radio spectral observations, Cosmic ray measurements by neutron monitor, Geomagnetic indices; Late data--Solar radio emission March-April 1991, Geomagnetic indices February-March 1991, Solar active regions errata March 1991.

  14. Damage analysis and fundamental studies for fusion reactor materials development for the period March 1, 1991--February 28, 1994. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    The philosophy of the program at the University of California Santa Barbara has been to develop a fundamental understanding of both the basic damage processes and microstructural evolution that take place in a material during neutron irradiation and the consequent dimensional and mechanical property changes. This fundamental understanding can be used in conjunction with empirical data obtained from a variety of irradiation facilities to develop physically-based models of neutron irradiation effects in structural materials. The models in turn can be used to guide alloy development and to help extrapolate the irradiation data base to the fusion reactor regime. This philosophy is consistent with that of the national and international programs for developing structural materials for fusion reactors. During this period work has encompassed: (1) analysis of the degradation of the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of using these steels in ITER; (2) examining helium effects on radiation damage in austenitic and ferritic stainless steels; (3) development and application of electropotential drop techniques to monitor the growth of cracks in steel specimens for a variety of specimen geometries (4) development of advanced methods of measuring fracture properties; (5) combining micromechanical modeling of fracture with finite element calculations of crack and notch-tip stress and strain fields to predict failure; (6) developing a data base on flow and fracture properties of ferritic steels. Each of these activities is described in more detail below and in greater detail in the attached publications.

  15. Analysis of linkage effects among industry sectors in China's stock market before and after the financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Li, Xiangyang; Zhang, Tong

    2014-10-01

    This paper uses two physics-derived techniques, the minimum spanning tree and the hierarchical tree, to investigate the networks formed by CITIC (China International Trust and Investment Corporation) industry indices in three periods from 2006 to 2013. The study demonstrates that obvious industry clustering effects exist in the networks, and Durable Consumer Goods, Industrial Products, Information Technology, Frequently Consumption and Financial Industry are the core nodes in the networks. We also use the rolling window technique to investigate the dynamic evolution of the networks' stability, by calculating the mean correlations and mean distances, as well as the variance of correlations and the distances of these indices. China's stock market is still immature and subject to administrative interventions. Therefore, through this analysis, regulators can focus on monitoring the core nodes to ensure the overall stability of the entire market, while investors can enhance their portfolio allocations or investment decision-making.

  16. Birds of Wallops Island, Virginia, 1970 - 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum provides extensive data on birdlife at Wallops Island, a mid-Atlantic barrier island, and home to NASA Wallops Flight Facility's launch range. Variation in the distribution and abundance of many species is considerable in this region, which is centered along the north-south axis of the Delmarva Peninsula. Data (date of occurrence and general abundance) and analysis of the Island's diverse habitat structure are provided. A total of 244 species of birds are recorded; a summary of the records are given in the Species Accounts and the Appendix.

  17. A Labor Market Analysis of the Electricity Sector for 2030 using the National Energy with Weather System Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, L.; Clack, C.; Marquis, M.; Paine, J.; Picciano, P.

    2015-12-01

    We conducted an analysis that utilized the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models to estimate the temporary and permanent jobs, earnings, and state sales tax revenues that would be created by various scenarios of the National Energy with Weather System (NEWS) simulator. This simulator was created by a collaboration between the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado and the Earth Systems Research Laboratory (ESRL NOAA). The NEWS simulator used three years of high-resolution (13-km, hourly) weather and power data to select the most cost-efficient, resource-maximizing, and complementary locations for wind, solar photovoltaic, and natural gas power plants along with high-voltage direct-current transmission, thereby providing the cheapest possible electricity grid that facilitates the incorporation of large amounts of wind and solar PV. We applied various assumptions to ensure that we produced conservative estimates, while keeping costs in line with those of the NEWS simulator. Our analysis shows that under the lowest carbon-emitting scenario of the NEWS carried out (80% reduction in CO2 compared with 1990 levels), almost ten million new jobs could be created by 2030. Of those jobs, over 400,000 would be permanently supporting the operations of the power plants. That particular scenario would also add over 500 billion to the paychecks of American workers and 75 billion to state tax revenues by 2030. All of this is achieved with average electricity costs of 10.7¢/kWh, because the electric system relies less heavily on fuel and more on jobs constructing, operating, and maintaining infrastructure. We use the current presentation to describe the methods used to reach these findings and examine some potential impacts of our estimates on public policy. Although we are able to identify some systematic problems with the JEDI model, we find that these problems

  18. Earth remote sensing - 1970-1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    The past-achievements, current status, and future prospects of the Landsat terrestrial-remote-sensing satellite program are surveyed. Topics examined include the early history of space flight; the development of analysis techniques to interpret the multispectral images obtained by Landsats 1, 2, and 3; the characteristics of the advanced Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper; microwave scanning by Seasat and the Shuttle Imaging Radar; the usefulness of low-resolution AVHRR data from the NOAA satellites; improvements in Landsats 4 and 5 to permit tailoring of information to user needs; expansion and internationalization of the remote-sensing market in the late 1980s; and technological advances in both instrumentation and data-processing predicted by the 1990s.

  19. [[Changes in population and households in a Malay village, 1971-1991

    PubMed

    Tsubouchi, Y

    1992-09-01

    "The Malay village of Galok in Kelantan was revisited [in]...1991 to investigate the changes in the population and households in the 20 years since the first intensive community study was conducted there in 1970/71. Major economic activities in 1970/71 were paddy cultivation in rain-fed fields, small scale rubber tapping, and newly introduced tobacco cultivation. The village's population increased from 690 in 1971 to 1,100 in 1991, and the number of households from 145 to 211. Despite the increase in population and households, the households cultivating paddy decreased from 71 to 36, those tapping rubber from 94 to 53, and those growing tobacco from 124 to 40, while regular employment, irregular wage labor in the surrounding areas, and temporary migratory work in Singapore increased remarkably. Many people moved out of the village and many others moved in. Though the former exceed the latter in number, the village population is still increasing owing to the high fertility...." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12157850

  20. [[Changes in population and households in a Malay village, 1971-1991

    PubMed

    Tsubouchi, Y

    1992-09-01

    "The Malay village of Galok in Kelantan was revisited [in]...1991 to investigate the changes in the population and households in the 20 years since the first intensive community study was conducted there in 1970/71. Major economic activities in 1970/71 were paddy cultivation in rain-fed fields, small scale rubber tapping, and newly introduced tobacco cultivation. The village's population increased from 690 in 1971 to 1,100 in 1991, and the number of households from 145 to 211. Despite the increase in population and households, the households cultivating paddy decreased from 71 to 36, those tapping rubber from 94 to 53, and those growing tobacco from 124 to 40, while regular employment, irregular wage labor in the surrounding areas, and temporary migratory work in Singapore increased remarkably. Many people moved out of the village and many others moved in. Though the former exceed the latter in number, the village population is still increasing owing to the high fertility...." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  1. Syria: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on discoveries by foreign license holders in 1991, another production record and progress on a major water injection project that could further substantially boost national output that are highlights of recent activity in Syria. Syrian production at the end of last year topped 470,000 bpd, about 300,000 of which was 37{degrees} gravity oil from 20 fields in eastern Syria operated by the Al Furat Petroleum Co. (AFPC). Some 20,000 bpd of 36{degrees} crude being produced by Elf from its Attala North field and 150,000 bpd of heavy oil produced by Syrian Petroleum Co. (SPC) from its declining fields in the northeastern part of the country accounted for the remainder. Discoveries of significant light oil production near the town of Deir Ez Zor in recent years were made by the Shell Group (Royal Dutch, Pecten International and Deminex). AFPC, owned by SPC and Shell Group participants, which is developing the discoveries, has become the largest producer in the country. AFPC recently began injecting water on its $100-million flood in Omar field which is designed to overcome a sharp reservoir pressure decline that occurred in 1989 when the field was brought onstream at 100,000 bpd. Water injection is ultimately expected to boost Omar production from about 16,400 bpd last January to between 40,000 and 50,000 bpd.

  2. NASA SBIR product catalog, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This catalog is a partial list of products of NASA SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) projects that have advanced to some degree into Phase 3. While most of the products evolved from work conducted during SBIR Phase 1 and 2, a few advanced to commercial status solely from Phase 1 activities. The catalog presents information provided to NASA by SBIR contractors who wished to have their products exhibited at Technology 2001, a NASA-sponsored technology transfer conference held in San Jose, California, on December 4, 5, and 6, 1991. The catalog presents the product information in the following technology areas: computer and communication systems; information processing and AI; robotics and automation; signal and image processing; microelectronics; electronic devices and equipment; microwave electronic devices; optical devices and lasers; advanced materials; materials processing; materials testing and NDE; materials instrumentation; aerodynamics and aircraft; fluid mechanics and measurement; heat transfer devices; refrigeration and cryogenics; energy conversion devices; oceanographic instruments; atmosphere monitoring devices; water management; life science instruments; and spacecraft electromechanical systems.

  3. Radon Research Program, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The scientific information being sought in this program encompasses research designed to determine radon availability and transport outdoors, modeling transport into and within buildings, physics and chemistry of radon and radon progeny, dose response relationships, lung cancer risk, and mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. The main goal of the DOE/OHER Radon Research Program is to develop information to reduce these uncertainties and thereby provide an improved health risk estimate of exposure to radon and its progeny as well as to provide information useful in radon control strategies. Results generated under the Program were highlighted in a National Research Council report on radon dosimetry. The study concluded that the risk of radon exposure is 30% less in homes than in mines. This program summary of book describes the OHER FY-1991 Radon Research Program. It is the fifth in an annual series of program books designed to provide scientific and research information to the public and to other government agencies on the DOE Radon Research Program.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  5. The women's health movement: making policy, 1970-1995.

    PubMed

    Munch, Shari

    2006-01-01

    With the advent of second-wave feminism during the 1970s, a significant body of literature emerged describing sexist practices in women's health care. Gender-bias and gender disparities found in women's health care became concerns that garnered considerable attention in the United States because of the increased health risks posed for women. This article describes key historical challenges and accomplishments made in U.S. women's health care policy during the quarter century spanning 1970-1995 that influence contemporary health care social work practice and social work education.

  6. Demographic trends in tubal sterilization: United States, 1970-1978.

    PubMed

    DeStefano, F; Greenspan, J R; Ory, H W; Peterson, H B; Maze, J M; Smith, J C

    1982-05-01

    In the period 1970-1977, an estimated 4,236,000 women 15-44 years of age had tubal sterilization operations in United States hospitals. Both the number and the rate of tubal sterilizations increased each year from 1970-1977, but in 1978 both declined. Tubal sterilization rates for Black women were higher than for White women. Black women also tended to be younger at the time of tubal sterilization. For the nation as a whole, the mean age at the time of tubal sterilization remained constant at about 30 with the youngest age group having the highest proportion of never-married women.

  7. Three Dimensional Sector Design with Optimal Number of Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min

    2010-01-01

    In the national airspace system, sectors get overloaded due to high traffic demand and inefficient airspace designs. Overloads can be eliminated in some cases by redesigning sector boundaries. This paper extends the Voronoi-based sector design method by automatically selecting the number of sectors, allowing three-dimensional partitions, and enforcing traffic pattern conformance. The method was used to design sectors at Fort-Worth and Indianapolis centers for current traffic scenarios. Results show that new designs can eliminate overloaded sectors, although not in all cases, reduce the number of necessary sectors, and conform to major traffic patterns. Overall, the new methodology produces enhanced and efficient sector designs.

  8. American social psychology: Examining the contours of the 1970s crisis.

    PubMed

    Faye, Cathy

    2012-06-01

    Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, social psychologists diagnosed their field as suffering a state of disciplinary crisis. The crisis was a multifaceted one, but issues of methodology, social relevance, and disciplinary, philosophical, and theoretical orientation were the primary areas of concern. Given that these issues have been prominent ones throughout the history of the social and behavioral sciences, it becomes necessary to look to the immediate context of the 1970s crisis to understand how and why a disciplinary crisis came to be diagnosed. The present analysis suggests that the crisis reflected the larger crisis in American society and also drew on the language of crisis prevalent at the time. Employing this language may have offered the field a method of making sense of, reframing, and redirecting internal and external critiques of the discipline.

  9. The 1991 eruptions of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, Edward W.

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of the volcanic unrest at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines began when steam explosions occurred on April 2, 1991. The unrest culminated ten weeks later in the world's largest eruption in more than half a century. 

  10. Geothermal Energy Program Overview: Fiscal Year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    In FY 1990-1991, the Geothermal Energy Program made significant strides in hydrothermal, geopressured brine, hot dry rock, and magma research, continuing a 20-year tradition of advances in geothermal technology.

  11. The Growth of Protestantism in Brazil and Its Impact on Male Earnings, 1970–2000

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Joseph E.; Amaral, Ernesto F. L.; Woodberry, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Protestantism has expanded rapidly in Brazil in recent decades. The question we tackle in this paper is whether Protestantism has had a positive influence on male earnings in this setting, either through its influence on health and productivity, by way of social networks or employer favor and reduced discrimination, or through other mechanisms. We tackle the problem of the selectivity of religious conversion and affiliation using microdata from the Brazilian censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991, and 2000, and analyzing the association between Protestantism and earnings at the group rather than the individual level. Our results show a strong association between the proportion of Protestants in a region, and the earnings of men in one educational group: those with less than five years of education. Upon introducing race into our models, we found that the association between religion and the earnings of less educated men is concentrated in regions in which there is a substantial non-white population. The relationships we have uncovered contribute to the literature on racial inequality and discrimination in Brazil, which to date has given little space to the role of religion in moderating the pernicious effect of race on economic outcomes in Brazil. The substantial association we found between religion and earnings contrasts with much of the research that has been carried out on the influence of religion on earnings in the United States. PMID:26146415

  12. Early lidar observations of the June 1991 Pinatubo eruption plume at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defoor, Thomas E.; Robinson, Elmer; Ryan, Steven

    1992-01-01

    The Pinatubo plume was first observed by lidar on 1 July 1991. During July and August the observable effects from this plume increased in intensity in terms of aerosol optical properties, plume height, and broad-band solar radiation. Preliminary data analysis shows that the plume over Hawaii arrived in three generalized pulses or waves on approximately 3 July, 24 July, and 9 August. There was a decrease of about 13 percent in a broad-band atmospheric transmission factor over Hawaii between June 1991 and Pinatubo affected conditions on 31 August 1991. At the end of August 1991, the Pinatubo plume over Hawaii exhibited characteristics similar in magnitude to what was observed at Mauna Loa after the El Chichon eruption in 1982. However, the early Pinatubo maximum plume heights were lower than were observed in the early months of the El Chichon plume dispersion. The Pinatubo plume was continuing to increase in magnitude and height at the end of August.

  13. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-05

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  14. Educational Research in the United Kingdom: Scotland 1970-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scottish Council for Research in Education.

    Over 35 educational research projects in Scotland are briefly described in this survey report which is an update of the research projects being performed in Scotland during 1970-72. A variety of research projects in general subject areas such as the teaching of reading, science, and English and foreign language are described. Other research…

  15. Federal Library Committee Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Library Committee, Washington, DC.

    The three goals of the Federal Library Committee are to: (1) achieve better utilization of library resources and facilities; (2) provide more effective planning, development and operation of Federal libraries and (3) promote an optimum exchange of experience, skills and resources. During fiscal year 1970, emphasis of secretariat efforts was placed…

  16. Turning On: The Selling of the Present, 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillion, Bryant

    1971-01-01

    Advocates teachers' working with students "toward a better understanding of media's personal and social effects, and toward freedom from media addiction"; a paper presented at annual convention of National Council of Teachers of English (Atlanta, November 27, 1970). (Author/RD)

  17. 18. Photographic copy of photograph, 1970 (original photograph in STRATCOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photographic copy of photograph, 1970 (original photograph in STRATCOM Historian files, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Interior view of two crew members operating the data display system in the battle staff compartment. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 23. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Composite first floor plan - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  19. 28. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Composite fourth floor plan, equipment and access platforms - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  20. 26. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Composite removable third floor and duplexer area - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  1. 25. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Composite second floor plan - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  2. 24. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Composite mezzanine floor plan - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  3. Research and Investigation in Adult Education: 1970 Annual Register.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCrow, Roger, Ed.; Grabowski, Stanley M., Ed.

    Embracing 750 items on adult education research and investigation (mostly dated 1969 or 1970), this annotated bibliography covers adult learning characteristics, program planning and administration, learning environments, instructional methods, curriculum materials and instructional devices, personnel and staffing; education of specific clientele…

  4. 12. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 15 June 1973 (original print in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division). Spartan launch station concrete sections - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Launch Area, Within Exclusion Area, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  5. Child Labor in Agriculture, Summer 1970: A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, PA.

    A special project, undertaken to furnish some of the hard facts on child labor in agriculture in the summer of 1970, resulted in publication of this report. Part I of the report discusses society's attitudes toward agricultural workers, laws about the use of children as industrial laborers, work activities (with definitions of work for the various…

  6. NUC Symposium on Environmental Preservation, 20-21 May 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Undersea Center, San Diego, CA.

    This publication consists of papers presented at an in-house symposium held at the Naval Undersea Research and Development (R and D) Center, San Diego, in May 1970. The topics discussed in these presentations are as follows: principles of evolution and the ecological crisis; alternatives to overpopulation; examples of San Diego noise climate;…

  7. 5. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated September 30, 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated September 30, 1970, U.S. Army Engineer District, Detroit, Corps of Engineers, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS, SHEET 1 OF 3, DRAWING NO. 86-11-22, FILE SF 5/1782. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 570, Ammo Road northeast of Taxiway A, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  8. 4. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Elevations - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Universal Missile Building, Between Tactical Road South & Patrol Road, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  9. 3. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Upper area and roof plans - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Universal Missile Building, Between Tactical Road South & Patrol Road, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  10. 2. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) First floor plan - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Universal Missile Building, Between Tactical Road South & Patrol Road, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  11. Changing Characteristics of the West Virginia Population: 1940-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Richard D.; Singh, Ram N.

    West Virginia's population history from 1940 to 1970 was traced in this paper. Data were collected to illustrate (1) population size, distribution, and composition for West Virginia and its rural and urban subunits and (2) the changing fertility pattern which occurred during this period. Whenever possible, comparisons between West Virginia…

  12. Academic Relations between Canada and China: 1970-95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Martin

    This report reviews development of Sino-Canadian academic relations over the past 25 years. It offers an overview of four periods of Sino-Canadian academic relations (1970-79, 1979-83, 1983-89, and 1989-95), and briefly describes a number of programs in six areas: (1) foreign trade and economic cooperation, (2) foreign affairs and international…

  13. Progress Report on Rural Development for Fiscal Year 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Rural development progress relative to State-U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) committees is presented via exemplary citation in this 1970 report. Summaries are given for: (1) Status of State-USDA Organization for Rural Development, (2) Functional Relationships of USDA Committees on Rural Development, (3) Activities and Projects Underway, (4)…

  14. 221. Photocopy of photograph, Denver Post photographer, 20 March 1970 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    221. Photocopy of photograph, Denver Post photographer, 20 March 1970 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). RABBIT USED TO TEST FOR NERVE GAS AT RMA. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. Education and Society in Quebec in the 1970's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Roger

    1973-01-01

    Education in Quebec in the 1970's is being staged against the backdrop of the language question, which may be expressed as the desire of the French Canadians to promote the use of their language. The growing importance of language in Quebec is considered. (Editor/RK)

  16. Economic and Demographic Futures in Education -- Alberta 1970-2005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seastone, Don

    This document reports on a study conducted to (1) consider probable levels and distribution of Alberta's population from 1970 to 1980 and from 1980 to 2005, and to explore the implications of these population data for enrollment at various levels of the provincial educational process; and (2) to consider the growth potential of the provincial…

  17. The Environmental and Ecological Forum 1970-1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. Office of Information Services.

    This report contains the papers presented in the 1970-1971 Environmental and Ecological Forum series, planned to provide an overview of the significant environmental, social, and economic aspects of electric power generation, more specifically, the pros and cons of nuclear power production. The Forum was organized as a public service to foster…

  18. Cumulative index to NASA Tech Briefs, 1970-1975. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Tech briefs of technology derived from the research and development activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are presented. Abstracts and indexes of subject, personal author, originating center, and tech brief number for the 1970-1975 tech briefs are presented.

  19. Higher Education and Middle Manpower for the 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Norman C.

    After taking a brief look at the developments and some generalized trends of the past three decades, this paper attempts to identify some of the characteristics of the decade ahead and new and emerging middle manpower occupations in the 1970's. It is the thesis of this paper that a country interested in rapid economic development should invest…

  20. Lynch Street. The May 1970 Slayings at Jackson State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spofford, Tim

    The story of the 1970 Jackson State College slayings following an unruly anti-war demonstration by black students is pieced together via interviews with students wounded in the gunfire and other eyewitnesses, as well as an examination of public records, court testimony, and newspaper accounts. The events are presented in the context of the history…

  1. Nonpublic Schools in Large Cities: 1970-71 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertler, Diane B.

    This publication presents the results obtained from the most recent Survey of Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education (1970-71). The data included present a measurement of the scope, describe some of the characteristics, and reflect the status of the nonpublic schools in 43 large cities in the United States. Nonpublic schools are defined as…

  2. Economic study of future aircraft fuels (1970-2000)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, A. D., III

    1972-01-01

    Future aircraft fuels are evaluated in terms of fuel resource availability and pricing, processing methods, and economic projections over the period 1970-2000. Liquefied hydrogen, methane and propane are examined as potential turbine engine aircraft fuels relative to current JP fuel.

  3. Third World Communication Development in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.

    Quantitative data on various indexes of national development--mass media, "horizontal communication" (mail, telephones, and telegrams), democracy, social growth, literacy, and urbanization--were collected and estimated for more than 100 developing countries for roughly the decade between 1970 and 1980. These data were then used to test various…

  4. 1970 Annual Report of the Appalachian Regional Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    During 1970, the Appalachian Regional Development Program completed its 5th year of operations. Authorized under the 1965 Appalachian Regional Development Act, the program tries to cooperatively promote Appalachia's future economic and social development through a phased series of public investments to improve education, health, transportation,…

  5. Bethune Continuous Progress Primary Evaluation, 1970-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesset, Bonna C.; Faunce, R. W.

    The Continuous Progress Primary (CPP) was adopted in grades K-3 at Bethune Elementary School (Minneapolis) in 1970. The intermediate grades (4-6) were organized in grade levels. In the CPP, each child progresses at his own rate, the emphasis being on small-group learning. The school staff took part in a questionnaire evaluation of the CPP in May…

  6. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables during…

  7. Training Grant Scheme, 1969-1970; General Guide to Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    In its fourth grant scheme, the Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board of Great Britain gives guidelines on grants available to its industries for training conducted between August 1, 1969 and July 31, 1970. It covers such aspects as grant conditions for external and internal training; training staff qualifications; rates…

  8. Health for the Harvesters: Decade of Hope 1960-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, David O.

    In 1970, the Farm Workers Health Service, which was begun in 1961, included 33 decentralized medical clinics which served 24,000 seasonal farm workers and their families in 17 counties during the peak harvest months. Seventeen clinics offered year-round general medical services, and in 12 counties free medical and dental care was available to farm…

  9. Maintaining Campus Order and Integrity. AASCU Studies 1970/4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC. Office of Information and Research.

    To prepare for the possibility of further campus unrest and disorders, the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) held a series of regional seminars in the summer of 1970. About 70 presidents and other administrators attended each of the seminars. Their major concern was not the repression of student dissent but finding…

  10. 3. Inclined Plane 10, 1970. Track bed at left. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Inclined Plane 10, 1970. Track bed at left. View some what similar to that of NJ-30-2. Stone track bed is visible under cable system of NJ-30-2. - Morris Canal, Inclined Plane 10 West, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  11. A History of Australian Children's Literature, 1941-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, H. M.

    This book is a systematic examination of the range of fiction available to Australian children from 1941 to 1970. The author not only provides a guide for parents, teachers, librarians, and students who are discovering that there is a considerable body of Australian fiction for children, but he also outlines possible trends and patterns that are…

  12. 2. VIEW OF THE EXPERIMENT CONTROL PANEL IN 1970. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF THE EXPERIMENT CONTROL PANEL IN 1970. THE NUCLEAR SAFETY GROUP CONDUCTED ABOUT 1,700 CRITICAL MASS EXPERIMENTS USING URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM IN SOLUTIONS (900 TESTS), COMPACTED POWDER (300), AND METALLIC FORMS (500). ALL 1,700 CRITICALITY ASSEMBLIES WERE CONTROLLED FROM THIS PANEL. - Rocky Flats Plant, Critical Mass Laboratory, Intersection of Central Avenue & 86 Drive, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. 26 CFR 1.615-1 - Pre-1970 exploration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-1 Pre-1970 exploration expenditures... the development stage of the mine or other natural deposit. Such expenditures hereinafter in the... mine or other natural deposit will be deemed to begin at the time when, in consideration of all...

  14. Approaches to Relocation; North Carolina Mobility Project, 1970-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Manpower Development Corp., Chapel Hill.

    This report covers the contract period from October 1, 1970-September 30, 1971. It follows earlier reports and summarizes much that has been learned about assisted relocation of rural workers to urban locations within North Carolina. These developments include attempted linkage with training programs, some successful others not and various…

  15. 6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1970 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1970 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Floor plan and section. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Shop, In west corner of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 27. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Interior elevations, third floor - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  17. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 12 March 1971 (original Army Operational Drawing in the possession of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville, Division). MSRPP interior elevations, corridors #216, upper and lower levels - Stanely R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Radar Power Plant, Southeast of, & adjacent to, Missile Site Control Building, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  18. 21. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Roof plan - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  19. 29. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Interior elevations, fourth floor - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  20. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 24 May 1972 (original Army Operational Drawing in the possession of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville, Division). MSRPP general floor plan, lower level - Stanely R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Radar Power Plant, Southeast of, & adjacent to, Missile Site Control Building, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND