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Sample records for 1970s led nasa

  1. Development of Implicit Methods in CFD NASA Ames Research Center 1970's - 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    The focus here is on the early development (mid 1970's-1980's) at NASA Ames Research Center of implicit methods in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). A class of implicit finite difference schemes of the Beam and Warming approximate factorization type will be addressed. The emphasis will be on the Euler equations. A review of material pertinent to the solution of the Euler equations within the framework of implicit methods will be presented. The eigensystem of the equations will be used extensively in developing a framework for various methods applied to the Euler equations. The development and analysis of various aspects of this class of schemes will be given along with the motivations behind many of the choices. Various acceleration and efficiency modifications such as matrix reduction, diagonalization and flux split schemes will be presented.

  2. NASA Ames UV-LED Poster Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaroux, Belgacem Amar

    2015-01-01

    UV-LED is a small satellite technology demonstration payload being flown on the Saudisat-4 spacecraft that is demonstrating non-contacting charge control of an isolated or floating mass using new solid-state ultra-violet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). Integrated to the rest of the spacecraft and launched on a Dnepr in June 19, 2014, the project is a collaboration between the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Stanford University, and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Beginning with its commissioning in December, 2015, the data collected by UV-LED have validated a novel method of charge control that will improve the performance of drag-free spacecraft allowing for concurrent science collection during charge management operations as well as reduce the mass, power and volume required while increasing lifetime and reliability of a charge management subsystem. UV-LED continues to operate, exploring new concepts in non-contacting charge control and collecting data crucial to understanding the lifetime of ultra-violet light emitting diodes in space. These improvements are crucial to the success of ground breaking missions such as LISA and BBO, and demonstrates the ability of low cost small satellite missions to provide technological advances that far exceed mission costs.

  3. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle NASA Led Propulsion Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Design, development and test of a 2nd generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) is presented. This current paper discusses the following: 2nd Generation RLV Propulsion Project, Overview of NASA Led Tasks in Propulsion, Gen2 Turbo Machinery Technology Demonstrator, and Combustion Devices Test Bed, GRCop-84 Sheet For Combustion Chambers, Nozzles and Large Actively Cooled Structures

  4. The Development Function in the 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantzreb, Arthur C.

    The development function of the 1970's is seen as a test of the management skills of policy-making trustees, decision-making administrators and sales management development officers to plan for and secure financial resources from constituents buffeted by new issues and new forces in American society, in the economy, and in the educational system.…

  5. Manpower Research in the 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palomba, Neil A., Ed.; Jakubauskas, Edward B., Ed.

    Manpower research needs for the 1970's and the development and purpose of manpower research centers were the themes of a 1-week summer Manpower Research Institute held at Ames, Iowa in 1970. Sponsored by the Industrial Relations Center and funded by the U.S. Department of Labor's Manpower Institutional Grant Program, this interdisciplinary…

  6. 1970s: Camping in Tough Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camping Magazine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    In the 1970s, camps were challenged by economic recession, growing administrative demands, and changing attitudes and interests of campers and staff. An illustrative article from 1972, "Facing the Camping Future with Confidence" (Michael F. Buynak), discusses hidden costs in camp operation and the need for camp administration to shift from…

  7. Mate Selection in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murstein, Bernard I.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the literature of the 1970s showed that individual determination in marriage continued to increase across the world, though less rapidly in the lesser industrialized nations. One concomitant of this freedom is delayed marriage and the right not to marry at all. (Author)

  8. Marine power - Accomplishments of the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, W. R.

    Progress made in the 1970s toward power production using marine power systems is discussed, noting that all renewable systems have a low intensity source. Consideration has been given to tidal, ocean current, kelp biomass, wave, salinity gradient, thermal gradient, and wind energy systems. Tidal plants delivering 240 MWe and 400 kWe are operating in France and Russia, respectively, and China is operating 90 small plants generating around 7 MW. Kelp growth rates were found to be lower than necessary for economic methane conversion. Experimentation in compressed air wave energy conversion is being pursued in Japan, and small programs are being conducted to study salinity gradients in the U.S. and Sweden. A 10 kW OTEC plant was operated successfully in Hawaii and the Japanese are testing a 100 kW plant. Offshore windpower is projected as the most likely marine system to succeed, both as a power producer and as a supplemental power system for ships. Near term efforts are expected to be in small facilities to expand the data base, gain experience in construction and operations, and to make evaluations.

  9. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  10. Malaria Control and Elimination,1 Venezuela, 1800s–1970s

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Leopoldo; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-01-01

    Venezuela had the highest number of human malaria cases in Latin American before 1936. During 1891–1920, malaria was endemic to >600,000 km2 of this country; malaria death rates led to major population decreases during 1891–1920. No pathogen, including the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic, caused more deaths than malaria during 1905–1945. Early reports of malaria eradication in Venezuela helped spark the world’s interest in global eradication. We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program and an approach to eradication. Arnoldo Gabaldón was a key policy maker during this development process. He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program planning of the World Health Organization. We discuss how his efforts helped reduce the incidence of malaria in Venezuela and how his approach diverged from World Health Organization guidelines.

  11. Malaria control and elimination, Venezuela, 1800s –1970s.

    PubMed

    Griffing, Sean M; Villegas, Leopoldo; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-10-01

    Venezuela had the highest number of human malaria cases in Latin American before 1936. During 1891–1920,malaria was endemic to >600,000 km2 of this country; malaria death rates led to major population decreases during 1891–1920. No pathogen, including the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic, caused more deaths than malaria during 1905–1945. Early reports of malaria eradication in Venezuela helped spark the world's interest in global eradication. We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program and an approach to eradication.Arnoldo Gabaldón was a key policy maker during this development process. He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program planning of the World Health Organization.We discuss how his efforts helped reduce the incidence of malaria in Venezuela and how his approach diverged from World Health Organization guidelines.

  12. Complexity analysis of the cost effectiveness of PI-led NASA science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, J.; Cowdin, M.; Mize, T.; Kellogg, R.; Bearden, D.

    For the last 20 years, NASA has allowed Principal Investigators (PIs) to manage the development of many unmanned space projects. Advocates of PI-led projects believe that a PI-led implementation can result in a project being developed at lower cost and shorter schedule than other implementation modes. This paper seeks to test this hypothesis by comparing the actual costs of NASA and other comparable projects developed under different implementation modes. The Aerospace Corporation's Complexity-Based Risk Assessment (CoBRA) analysis tool is used to normalize the projects such that the cost can be compared for equivalent project complexities. The data is examined both by complexity and by launch year. Cost growth will also be examined for any correlation with implementation mode. Defined in many NASA Announcements of Opportunity (AOs), a PI-led project is characterized by a central, single person with full responsibility for assembling a team and for the project's scientific integrity and the implementation and integrity of all other aspects of the mission, while operating under a cost cap. PIs have larger degrees of freedom to achieve the stated goals within NASA guidelines and oversight. This study leverages the definitions and results of previous National Research Council studies of PI-led projects. Aerospace has defined a complexity index, derived from mission performance, mass, power, and technology choices, to arrive at a broad representation of missions for purposes of comparison. Over a decade of research has established a correlation between mission complexity and spacecraft development cost and schedule. This complexity analysis, CoBRA, is applied to compare a PI-led set of New Frontiers, Discovery, Explorers, and Earth System Science Pathfinder missions to the overall NASA mission dataset. This reveals the complexity trends against development costs, cost growth, and development era.

  13. Education and Society in Quebec in the 1970's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Roger

    1973-01-01

    Education in Quebec in the 1970's is being staged against the backdrop of the language question, which may be expressed as the desire of the French Canadians to promote the use of their language. The growing importance of language in Quebec is considered. (Editor/RK)

  14. Higher Education and Middle Manpower for the 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Norman C.

    After taking a brief look at the developments and some generalized trends of the past three decades, this paper attempts to identify some of the characteristics of the decade ahead and new and emerging middle manpower occupations in the 1970's. It is the thesis of this paper that a country interested in rapid economic development should invest…

  15. NASA Earth Remote Sensing Programs: An Overview with Special Emphasis on the NASA/JAXA Led Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of NASA's operations monitoring the earth from space. It includes information on NASA's administrative divisions and key operating earth science missions with specific information on the Landsat satellites, Seastar spacecraft, and the TRMM satellite.

  16. Boston in the 1970s: is there a lesbian community? And if there is, who is in it?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This excerpt from Amy Hoffman's memoir, An Army of Ex-Lovers: My Life at the Gay Community News (University of Massachusetts Press, 2007), describes some of the alternative community institutions serving lesbian feminists in Boston in the late 1970s. Hoffman, in her twenties at the time and fairly newly out, is an enthusiastic patron of these institutions. However, after a while, she begins to wonder about them. Boston in the 1970s was racially segregated and tense; a judicial order to desegregate the schools led to racist riots. The women's community was, sadly, no more diverse than the city's neighborhoods, and the alternative institutions, Hoffman realizes, are organized by and cater mostly to young, white, middle-class women like her. They fail to appeal to the needs and interests of poor women of color-although of course some do participate, and others become active in service organizations such as battered women's shelters.

  17. Boston in the 1970s: is there a lesbian community? And if there is, who is in it?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This excerpt from Amy Hoffman's memoir, An Army of Ex-Lovers: My Life at the Gay Community News (University of Massachusetts Press, 2007), describes some of the alternative community institutions serving lesbian feminists in Boston in the late 1970s. Hoffman, in her twenties at the time and fairly newly out, is an enthusiastic patron of these institutions. However, after a while, she begins to wonder about them. Boston in the 1970s was racially segregated and tense; a judicial order to desegregate the schools led to racist riots. The women's community was, sadly, no more diverse than the city's neighborhoods, and the alternative institutions, Hoffman realizes, are organized by and cater mostly to young, white, middle-class women like her. They fail to appeal to the needs and interests of poor women of color-although of course some do participate, and others become active in service organizations such as battered women's shelters. PMID:24641074

  18. [The change of the health insurance policy and social welfare discourse in 1970s].

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byoung-joo

    2011-12-31

    This study is to analyze the change of the health insurance policy in the 1970s in relation to social welfare discourse. The public health care in Korea was in very poor condition around the first amendment of the National Health Insurance Act in 1970. Furthermore, due to the introduction of new medical technology, increasing number of big hospitals participating in the medical market, inflation, and other factors, medical expenses skyrocketed and made it hard for ordinary people to enjoy medical services. Accordingly, the social solution to the problem of medical expenses which an individual found hard to deal with became of demand. And as the way to the solution, it was inevitable to consider the introduction of health insurance as social insurance. In this condition, Park regime began to stress the social development from the 1960s. It was to aim to settle various social problems triggered by the rapid industrialization in the 1960s through social development as well as economic development. As the social development was emphasized, the matter of social welfare appeared of importance and led to the first amendment of the National Health Insurance Act in 1970. However, it was impossible for Korean government to enforce a nationwide health insurance. The key issue was how to fund it. Park regime was reluctant to use government fund; it was also hard to burden private companies. Even while the health insurance policy was not determined yet for this reason, the social demand for health insurance became large and large. In particular, in the midst of the first "Oil Shock" which gave a big blow to people's living condition from the late 1973, some reported issues in relation to health service, such as hospitals' rejection of the poor, became a big problem. Coupled with the social demand for a health insurance system, the changes occurred within the medical community was also important. Most of all, hospitals was facing the decrease of the effectiveness of their

  19. [The change of the health insurance policy and social welfare discourse in 1970s].

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byoung-joo

    2011-12-31

    This study is to analyze the change of the health insurance policy in the 1970s in relation to social welfare discourse. The public health care in Korea was in very poor condition around the first amendment of the National Health Insurance Act in 1970. Furthermore, due to the introduction of new medical technology, increasing number of big hospitals participating in the medical market, inflation, and other factors, medical expenses skyrocketed and made it hard for ordinary people to enjoy medical services. Accordingly, the social solution to the problem of medical expenses which an individual found hard to deal with became of demand. And as the way to the solution, it was inevitable to consider the introduction of health insurance as social insurance. In this condition, Park regime began to stress the social development from the 1960s. It was to aim to settle various social problems triggered by the rapid industrialization in the 1960s through social development as well as economic development. As the social development was emphasized, the matter of social welfare appeared of importance and led to the first amendment of the National Health Insurance Act in 1970. However, it was impossible for Korean government to enforce a nationwide health insurance. The key issue was how to fund it. Park regime was reluctant to use government fund; it was also hard to burden private companies. Even while the health insurance policy was not determined yet for this reason, the social demand for health insurance became large and large. In particular, in the midst of the first "Oil Shock" which gave a big blow to people's living condition from the late 1973, some reported issues in relation to health service, such as hospitals' rejection of the poor, became a big problem. Coupled with the social demand for a health insurance system, the changes occurred within the medical community was also important. Most of all, hospitals was facing the decrease of the effectiveness of their

  20. Educational Change and the Women's Movement: Lessons From British Columbia Schools in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This article uses Melucci's approach to social movements to explore how the women"s movement changed education in British Columbia in the 1970s. The women's movement was a multifaceted social phenomenon with multiple agendas and actors. In the early 1970s, it developed a temporary sense of cohesion in the field of education in the context of a…

  1. College Students of the 1950s and 1970s: Parallels of Two Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeler, Kent D.

    Parallels found between college students of the 1950s and 1970s are discussed with specific reference to campus lifestyles and events, academics, politics, and religion/morality. The comparisons are based on the author's personal experiences as a student at a state university during the 1950s and as a student personnel educator in the 1970s.…

  2. NASA sponsored Light Emitting Diode (LED) development helps in cancer treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    What started out as an attempt to develop a light which would allow for the growth of plants in space led to a remarkable discovery: The Light Emitting Diode (LED). This device through extensive study and experimentation has developed into a tool used by surgeons in the fight against brain cancer in children. Pictured is a mock-up of brain surgery being performed. By encapsulating the end of the LED with a balloon, light is diffused over a larger area of the brain allowing the surgeon a better view. This is one of many programs that begin as research for the space program, and through extensive study end up benefitting all of mankind.

  3. Another Decade of Research in Handwriting: Progress and Prospect in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Michaeleen; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A review of handwriting research conducted in the 1970s reveals that innovative statistical designs were being used, a large number of experimental studies were conducted, and there was increased emphasis on teaching handwriting to handicapped students. (JD)

  4. Looking Back before Stepping Forward: Lessons from the Open Education Reform Movement of the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maling, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Like many other open-education schools of the 1970s, John Adams High School (Portland, Oregon) failed as an experimental school because it rapidly implemented large reforms without parent or teacher involvement, did not provide teacher training and support, and did not develop appropriate administrative or learning structures. (SV)

  5. Trends in Racial Inequalities: Have the Gains of the 1960s Disappeared in the 1970s?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Reynolds

    1977-01-01

    Investigation of recent trends in education, employment, occupations, family income and personal earnings shows that gains made by blacks in the 1960's did not disappear. Indeed, racial differences attenuated in the lean 1970's just as they did in the prosperous 1960's. Despite these improvements, racial differences remain large and will not…

  6. Holt's Theories in the 1970s Ironically Become Predictions for the Next Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    John Holt was a revolutionary educational, published theorist of the 1970s and dared to report candidly his observations of public school classrooms. He found classrooms far too rigid, impersonal, and teacher-controlled. Children's thinking did not reach higher levels of critical thinking. Curiosity and creativity was stifled and stamped out. He…

  7. Change in size and impact performance of football helmets from the 1970s to 2010.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; Halstead, David

    2012-01-01

    Linear impactor tests were conducted on football helmets from the 1970s-1980s to complement recently reported tests on 1990 s and 2010 s helmets. Helmets were placed on the Hybrid III head with an array of accelerometers to determine translational and rotational acceleration. Impacts were at four sites on the helmet shell at 3.6-11.2 m/s. The four generations of helmets show a continuous improvement in response from bare head impacts in terms of Head Injury Criterion (HIC), peak head acceleration and peak rotational acceleration. Helmets of 2010 s weigh 1.95 ± 0.2 kg and are 2.7 times heavier than 1970s designs. They are also 4.3 cm longer, 7.6 cm higher, and 4.9 cm wider. The extra size and weight allow the use of energy absorbing padding that lowers forces in helmet impacts. For frontal impacts at 7.4 m/s, the four best performing 2010 s helmets have HIC of 148 ± 23 compared to 179 ± 42 for the 1990 s baseline, 231 ± 27 for the 1980s, 253 ± 22 for the 1970s helmets, and 354 ± 3 for the bare head. The additional size and padding of the best 2010 s helmets provide superior attenuation of impact forces in normal play and in conditions associated with concussion than helmets of the 1970s-1990 s.

  8. Growth of Arts and Cultural Organizations in the Decade of the 1970's. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Samuel; And Others

    Disparate data on nonprofit arts organizations in the 1970's were analyzed in order to construct a comprehensive picture of the growth of the arts during this decade. Studied were the rate of growth and change in the number of institutions and in their levels of output, employment, income, and expenses. Conclusions are presented regarding the…

  9. Sex Education, Homosexuality, and Social Contestation in 1970s New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This essay examines the relationships between homosexuality and sex education in New Zealand during the 1970s. It argues that reading sex education debates and resources provides a useful way of exploring connections between the ontologies and politics of sexuality at that time. In particular, the advent of social movements concerned with sexual…

  10. From Revolution to Apathy--American Student Activism in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    1979-01-01

    The relative calm of the 1970s is contrasted with the activism of the 1960s in American universities. Some explanations for the current lack of political concern on campus are offered, including the lack of clearly threatening foreign policy issues, economic problems, and disillusionment with past politics. (JMF)

  11. Research on Non-radial Oscillations of the Sun and Stars in the Early 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osaki, Y.

    2013-12-01

    I describe some historical background of helio- and astero-seismology research in the early 1970s from my personal recollection, particularly on how our Tokyo research group on non-radial oscillations of stars got started. I also describe my recent research on the super-outburst mechanism of SU UMa-type dwarf novae.

  12. The Structure of Educational Policy-making in Hungary in the 1960s and 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halasz, Gabor

    1986-01-01

    Explains a theoretical framework for interpreting educational policy-making and, on the basis of that framework, identifies educational policy makers and policy changes in Hungary in the 1960s and 1970s. Tests the theory by examining controversies about secondary education and the structure of the educational system. (JHZ)

  13. Some problems and prospects for marine transportation of oil in the 1970s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zannetos, Z. S.

    1973-01-01

    The problems associated with, and the financial resources required for ocean transportation of petroleum in the 1970s are discussed in terms of the energy crisis. Spot rate fluctuations for tankers are examined along with the financial requirements for ocean transportation.

  14. Bibliography of Selected Literature in the 1970s Related to Crises, Family Stress, Coping and Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesser, Barbara

    This bibliography of literature from the 1970s related to crises, family stress, coping, and adaptation contains references of particular interest to professionals in the areas of counseling, education, and family social, psychological and health services. The bibliography is divided into 26 categories; references are classified according to major…

  15. Overview of Selection Process for Most Influential Paper of the 1970's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Peggy S.; Moser, Kelsey M.

    2011-01-01

    Slides are for a presentation at the AIAA AFM conference invited session titled, 'AFM Most Influential Papers of the 1970's'. The slides describe the selection process used by the members of the technical committee to select the finalists and winning paper. The slides refer to technical papers published in the past, but have no technical data contained within them.

  16. Communicating a New Consciousness: Countercultural Print and the Home Birth Movement in the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Kline, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This essay analyzes the production of three influential home birth texts of the 1970s written by self-proclaimed lay midwives that helped to fuel and sustain a movement in alternative birth practices. As part of a countercultural lifestyle print culture, early "how-to" books (Raven Lang's The Birth Book, Ina May Gaskin's Spiritual Midwifery) provided readers with vivid images and accounts in stark contrast to those of the sterile hospital delivery room. By the end of the decade, Rahima Baldwin's more mainstream guidebook, Special Delivery, indicated an interest in translating home birth to a wider audience who did not necessarily identify as "countercultural." Lay midwives who were authors of radical print texts in the 1970s played an important role in reshaping expectations about the birth experience, suggesting a need to rethink how we define the counterculture and its legacies. PMID:26521671

  17. Communicating a New Consciousness: Countercultural Print and the Home Birth Movement in the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Kline, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This essay analyzes the production of three influential home birth texts of the 1970s written by self-proclaimed lay midwives that helped to fuel and sustain a movement in alternative birth practices. As part of a countercultural lifestyle print culture, early "how-to" books (Raven Lang's The Birth Book, Ina May Gaskin's Spiritual Midwifery) provided readers with vivid images and accounts in stark contrast to those of the sterile hospital delivery room. By the end of the decade, Rahima Baldwin's more mainstream guidebook, Special Delivery, indicated an interest in translating home birth to a wider audience who did not necessarily identify as "countercultural." Lay midwives who were authors of radical print texts in the 1970s played an important role in reshaping expectations about the birth experience, suggesting a need to rethink how we define the counterculture and its legacies.

  18. American social psychology: Examining the contours of the 1970s crisis.

    PubMed

    Faye, Cathy

    2012-06-01

    Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, social psychologists diagnosed their field as suffering a state of disciplinary crisis. The crisis was a multifaceted one, but issues of methodology, social relevance, and disciplinary, philosophical, and theoretical orientation were the primary areas of concern. Given that these issues have been prominent ones throughout the history of the social and behavioral sciences, it becomes necessary to look to the immediate context of the 1970s crisis to understand how and why a disciplinary crisis came to be diagnosed. The present analysis suggests that the crisis reflected the larger crisis in American society and also drew on the language of crisis prevalent at the time. Employing this language may have offered the field a method of making sense of, reframing, and redirecting internal and external critiques of the discipline.

  19. DOE and its Labs -- Evolution of the Relationship from the 1970s to Now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Burton

    2012-03-01

    The Department of Energy is a mash-up that occurred in two steps during the 1970s, transforming the post World War II Atomic Energy Commission with its system of laboratories into the Cabinet level department that exists today. The driver was the energy crises of the 1970s and the result created a system that brought together most of the federal governments energy programs under the single DOE roof. With the expansion of the mission came administrative complexity and the evolution of what has been described as a partnership between the Department and it labs into the vendor -- purchaser relation that is becoming the model of today. I will review what I think were the drivers of the change and comment on how things might be improved in the future.

  20. The reaction of the dental profession to changes in the 1970s.

    PubMed Central

    Waldman, H B

    1980-01-01

    This paper explores the changing realities of dentistry in the 1970s: the development of denturism; the maldistribution of dental practitioners; the growth and activities of expanded function auxiliaries; the intrusion of the Federal Trade Commission into professional issues resulting in advertising, supermarket and franchise dentistry; and the effect of prepayment plans. These realities are considered in terms of their impact on the profession and the efforts by the individual practitioner and his representative organizations to come to terms with them. PMID:7377438

  1. OSC in the 1970s: a springboard for a career in optical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, James E.

    2014-09-01

    Anecdotes and recollections from a graduate student at the Optical Sciences Center (OSC) in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The early faculty of the OCS fostered an exciting environment where even graduate students served significant roles on major government research contracts. Teamwork and collaboration between research groups was often required to meet the contract goals. This unique learning experience at the OSC almost 50 years ago served as a springboard for a satisfying and rewarding career in Optical Engineering.

  2. The reaction of the dental profession to changes in the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Waldman, H B

    1980-06-01

    This paper explores the changing realities of dentistry in the 1970s: the development of denturism; the maldistribution of dental practitioners; the growth and activities of expanded function auxiliaries; the intrusion of the Federal Trade Commission into professional issues resulting in advertising, supermarket and franchise dentistry; and the effect of prepayment plans. These realities are considered in terms of their impact on the profession and the efforts by the individual practitioner and his representative organizations to come to terms with them. PMID:7377438

  3. Did environmental regulations play a significant role in the economic downturn of the 1970s

    SciTech Connect

    Christainsen, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    The poor performance of the US economy during the 1970s is sometimes attributed to environmental regulations. Several studies, varying widely in method, have attempted to assess the effects of these regulations on the growth of productivity, inflation, and unemployment. In this paper, some of the major studies are reviewed and critiqued, and a summary appraisal of the likely impact of environmental regulations on the country's key macroeconomic indicators is offered. 20 references, 2 tables.

  4. Take a Field Trip through the 1970s. Celebrate the Century Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal Service, Washington, DC.

    This is the first in a series of six kits that the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) is publishing to help teach through stamps the history of the 20th-century and the people, places, and events that have shaped our nation during the past 100 years. Each kit is designed to be taught as a complete and independent unit. This kit, featuring the 1970s,…

  5. Public Schools in Australia from the Late 1970s to the Late 1980s: The Seeds of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcan, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The period from the late 1970s to the late 1980s were transition years for most public(government) school systems in Australia. A reaction was developing against the neo-progressive and radical (neo-Marxist) innovations of the late 1960s and 1970s such as school-based curricula, activity methods, and "open education". By the early 1980s the…

  6. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Engaging Classrooms in Student-Led Research Using NASA Data, Access to Scientists, and Integrated Educational Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.; McCollum, T.; Baker, M.; Lindgren, C.; Mailhot, M.

    2011-01-01

    Classroom teachers are challenged with engaging and preparing today s students for the future. Activities are driven by state required skills, education standards, and high-stakes testing. Providing educators with standards-aligned, inquiry-based activities that will help them engage their students in student-led research in the classroom will help them teach required standards, essential skills, and help inspire their students to become motivated learners. The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education Program, classroom educators, and ARES scientists at the NASA Johnson Space Center created the Expedition Earth and Beyond education program to help teachers promote student-led research in their classrooms (grades 5-14) by using NASA data, providing access to scientists, and using integrated educational strategies.

  7. The Development of Two Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) for NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics started the construction of a science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) for processing data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) which will launch on the Aura platform in mid 2004. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is a contribution of the Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programs (NIVR) in collaboration with the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) to the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura mission. It will continue the Total Ozone Monitoring System (TOMS) record for total ozone and other atmospheric parameters related to ozone chemistry and climate. OMI measurements will be highly synergistic with the other instruments on the EOS Aura platform. The LTP previously developed the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Data Processing System (MODAPS), which has been in full operations since the launches of the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts in December, 1999 and May, 2002 respectively. During that time, it has continually evolved to better support the needs of the MODIS team. We now run multiple instances of the system managing faster than real time reprocessings of the data as well as continuing forward processing. The new OMI Data Processing System (OMIDAPS) was adapted from the MODAPS. It will ingest raw data from the satellite ground station and process it to produce calibrated, geolocated higher level data products. These data products will be transmitted to the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (GDAAC) instance of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) for long term archive and distribution to the public. The OMIDAPS will also provide data distribution to the OMI Science Team for quality assessment, algorithm improvement, calibration, etc. We have taken advantage of lessons learned from the MODIS experience and software already developed for MODIS. We made some changes in the hardware system organization, database and

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood mortality: the 1970s to the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Cleland, J; Bicego, G; Fegan, G

    1992-04-01

    The last three decades have witnessed substantial reductions in childhood mortality in most developing nations. Despite this encouraging picture, analysis of WFS and DHS survey data shows that socioeconomic disparities in survival chances have not narrowed between the 1970s and 1980s, and in some cases, have widened. Changes in mother's education and father's occupation contributed only modestly to secular declines in mortality. In most countries studied, no more than 20 per cent of the national trend could be accounted for by compositional improvements. The median contributions of improvements in mother's education and father's occupation were ten and eight per cent, respectively.

  9. Harbinger of storm: influence of Oliver Sacks on levodopa therapy in early 1970s.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lobato, Bruno Lopes Dos; Tumas, Vitor

    2016-08-01

    Most known by his literary ability, the words of the neurologist Oliver Sacks (1933-2015) also had an impact on scientific community about the role of levodopa on parkinsonisms. Different from the most authors and based on his experience described on the book "Awakenings", he had a pessimistic opinion about levodopa, which was related on many articles written by himself and colleagues in early 1970s. We reviewed the scientific contribution of Oliver Sacks associated to levodopa therapy on parkinsonisms, and how he advised caution with its complications before the majority of physicians. PMID:27556381

  10. Contraception or eugenics? Sterilization and "mental retardation" in the 1970s and 1980s.

    PubMed

    Ladd-Taylor, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Nonconsensual sterilization is usually seen as the by-product of a classist and racist society; disability is ignored. This article examines the 1973 sterilization of two young black girls from Alabama and other precedent-setting court cases involving the sterilization of "mentally retarded" white women to make disability more central to the historical analysis of sterilization. It analyzes the concept of mental retardation and the appeal of a surgical solution to birth control, assesses judicial deliberations over the "right to choose" contraceptive sterilization when the capacity to consent is in doubt, and reflects on the shadow of eugenics that hung over the sterilization debate in the 1970s and 1980s.

  11. Self-regulation of recombinant DNA technology in Japan in the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Hiroyuki; Nukaga, Yoshio; Saeki, Koji; Akabayashi, Akira

    2009-07-01

    Recombinant DNA technology was developed in the United States in the early 1970s. Leading scientists held an international Asilomar Conference in 1975 to examine the self regulation of recombinant DNA technology, followed by the U.S. National Institutes of Health drafting the Recombinant DNA Research Guidelines in 1976. The result of this conference significantly affected many nations, including Japan. However, there have been few historical studies on the self-regulation of recombinant technologies conducted by scientists and government officials in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the Science Council of Japan, the Ministry of Education, Science adn Culture, and the Science and Technology Agency developed self-regulation policies for recombinant DNA technology in Japan in the 1970s. Groups of molecular biologist and geneticists played a key role in establishing guidelines in cooperation with government officials. Our findings suggest that self-regulation policies on recombinant DNA technology have influenced safety management for the life sciences and establishment of institutions for review in Japan. PMID:19860031

  12. Multidimensional risk profiles on teen parenthood: evidence from Britain in the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Russell, S T

    1998-01-01

    Research on the antecedents of teen parenthood has most often focused upon the role of the family of origin in creating the contexts within which teen parenthood occurs. A smaller body of work, however, has investigated the multidimensional character of teenagers' lives which extends beyond the family. The results of such exploration can help to provide a more complete understanding of the complexity of teenagers' lives and the varied factors which place them at risk of becoming young parents. The multidimensional character of teenagers' lives is studied together with the risk of becoming a parent among British youths during the 1970s. Data from the National Child Development Study on a British cohort which grew up during the 1970s are examined to assess the degree to which family characteristics from the teenage years mediate and are mediated by physical development, psychosocial characteristics, academic performance and attitudes, and future plans. Study findings suggest the existence of reciprocal relationships between adolescents' families, schools, and peer networks. Multidimensional risk factors show little variation by gender, while risk factors differ according to the marital status of the teen when he or she became a parent. PMID:12322038

  13. Nursing leadership in the US 1950s-1970s: a discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, J; Cushing, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes that the development of nursing leadership and the struggle for professionalisation from the time of the early nineteenth century to the late twentieth century may be conceived as a series of products of constituent discourses. However, particular attention is focused on the concept of leadership as it pertains to the nursing profession in the US between the 1950s-1970s. This time-frame is an important period in the discursive formation of the idea of leadership and professionalisation as the US literature on these subjects in the areas of sociology, psychology, education and business administration exercised a strong influence on the microsocial world of professional nursing practice in the US and, indeed elsewhere, for example, Australia and the UK. The sociological complexity of the concept of leadership ultimately meant that it came to be regarded as a dynamic process pervading the existence of all people; their interrelationships, their morale, their confidence and their capacity to achieve. These features are reflected through the perceptions, beliefs and experiences of the American nursing profession as its constituent discourse appeared during the 1950s-1970s. Thus the paper is a discourse analysis on leadership in nursing with particular attention given to the bureaucratic authority of the hospital, the drive for the creation of a profession and the idea of leadership itself.

  14. Smoking and the New Health Education in Britain 1950s–1970s

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Virginia; Loughlin, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Advertising has a dual function for British public health. Control or prohibition of mass advertising detrimental to health is a central objective for public health in Britain. Use of mass advertising has also been a more general public health strategy, such as during the initial government responses to HIV/AIDS in the 1980s. We trace the initial significance of mass advertising in public health in Britain in the postwar decades up to the 1970s, identifying smoking as the key issue that helped to define this new approach. This approach drew from road safety and drink driving models, US advertising theory, relocation of health education within the central government, the arrival of mass consumption, and the rise of the “new public health” agenda. PMID:15914816

  15. Liberating minds: Consciousness-raising as a bridge between feminism and psychology in 1970s Canada.

    PubMed

    Ruck, Nora

    2015-08-01

    This article examines the interrelations between psychology and feminism in the work of feminist psychologists and radical feminists in Toronto in the early 1970s. For Canadian feminist psychology as well as for second-wave activism, Toronto was a particular hotspot. It was the academic home of some of the first Canadian feminist psychologists, and was the site of a lively scene of feminists working in established women's organizations along with younger socialist and radical feminists. This article analyzes the interrelations of academic feminist psychology and feminist activism by focusing on consciousness-raising, a practice that promised to bridge tensions between the personal and the political, psychological and social liberation, everyday knowledge and institutionalized knowledge production, theory and practice, as well as the women's movement and other spheres of women's lives. PMID:26375157

  16. Commissioning and Testing the 1970's Era LASS Solenoid Magnet in JLab's Hall D

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Joshua T.; Biallas, George H.; Brown, G.; Butler, David E.; Carstens, Thomas J.; Chudakov, Eugene A.; Creel, Jonathan D.; Egiyan, Hovanes; Martin, F.; Qiang, Yi; Smith, Elton S.; Stevens, Mark A.; Spiegel, Scot L.; Whitlatch, Timothy E.; Wolin, Elliott J.; Ghoshal, Probir K.

    2015-06-01

    JLab refurbished and reconfigured the LASS1, 1.85m bore Solenoid and installed it as the principal analysis magnet for nuclear physics in the newly constructed, Hall D at Jefferson Lab. The magnet contains four superconducting coils within an iron yoke. The magnet was built in the early1970's at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and used a second time at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The coils were extensively refurbished and individually tested by JLab. A new Cryogenic Distribution Box provides cryogens and their control valving, current distribution bus, and instrumentation pass-through. A repurposed CTI 2800 refrigerator system and new transfer line complete the system. We describe the re-configuration, the process and problems of re-commissioning the magnet and the results of testing the completed magnet.

  17. Delegating to the automobile: experimenting with automotive restraints in the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Wetmore, Jameson M

    2015-04-01

    This article explores the attempts in the United States in the 1970s to implement a new paradigm for automobile safety-crashworthiness, the idea that automobile passengers should be protected in the event of a crash. A large number of strategies were proposed, including air bags, seatbelt modifications, mandatory belt-use laws, and ignition interlocks. Many of these did not initially come to fruition, but they did give the automobile safety community a chance to experiment with different ways of distributing responsibilities between automobile occupants, automobile manufacturers, and, to a lesser extent, government agencies. These experiments helped pave the way for the successful implementation of a number of new strategies in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s.

  18. Liberating minds: Consciousness-raising as a bridge between feminism and psychology in 1970s Canada.

    PubMed

    Ruck, Nora

    2015-08-01

    This article examines the interrelations between psychology and feminism in the work of feminist psychologists and radical feminists in Toronto in the early 1970s. For Canadian feminist psychology as well as for second-wave activism, Toronto was a particular hotspot. It was the academic home of some of the first Canadian feminist psychologists, and was the site of a lively scene of feminists working in established women's organizations along with younger socialist and radical feminists. This article analyzes the interrelations of academic feminist psychology and feminist activism by focusing on consciousness-raising, a practice that promised to bridge tensions between the personal and the political, psychological and social liberation, everyday knowledge and institutionalized knowledge production, theory and practice, as well as the women's movement and other spheres of women's lives.

  19. Delegating to the automobile: experimenting with automotive restraints in the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Wetmore, Jameson M

    2015-04-01

    This article explores the attempts in the United States in the 1970s to implement a new paradigm for automobile safety-crashworthiness, the idea that automobile passengers should be protected in the event of a crash. A large number of strategies were proposed, including air bags, seatbelt modifications, mandatory belt-use laws, and ignition interlocks. Many of these did not initially come to fruition, but they did give the automobile safety community a chance to experiment with different ways of distributing responsibilities between automobile occupants, automobile manufacturers, and, to a lesser extent, government agencies. These experiments helped pave the way for the successful implementation of a number of new strategies in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s. PMID:26005087

  20. Latitudinal species diversity gradient of mushroom corals off eastern Australia: a baseline from the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, Bert W.

    2015-11-01

    Based on a study of mushroom coral species of eastern Australia, a decrease in species richness can be discerned from north to south. Eastern Australia, including the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), is one of only few coral reef areas suitable for studies on large-scale latitudinal biodiversity patterns. Such patterns may help to recognize biogeographic boundaries and factors regulating biodiversity. Owing to the eastern Australian long coastline, such studies are a logistic challenge unless reliable distribution data are already available, as in museum collections. A large coral collection predominantly sampled from this area in the 1970s is present in the Museum of Tropical Queensland (MTQ). The scleractinian family Fungiidae (mushroom corals), representing about 10% of Indo-Pacific reef coral species, was selected as proxy. It was represented by 1289 specimens belonging to 34 species with latitudinal ranges between 09°09‧S and 31°28‧S. The fauna of the northernmost reefs in the Gulf of Papua and the Torres Strait, and north of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), was represented by a maximum of 30 fungiids. From here a southward decline in species number was observed, down to Lord Howe Island with only one species. Together with previous records, the mushroom coral fauna of eastern Australia consists of 37 species, which is more diverse than hitherto known and similar to numbers found in the Coral Triangle. Future field surveys in the GBR should specifically target rarely known species, which are mainly small and found at depths >25 m. In the light of global climate change, they may also show whether previously recorded species are still present and whether their latitudinal ranges have shifted, using the 1970s records as a baseline.

  1. Dad's in the Garage: Santa Barbara Physicists in the Long 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mody, Cyrus

    2013-03-01

    American physicists faced many challenges in the 1970s: declining research budgets; public skepticism of scientific authority; declining student enrollments; and pressure to shift to topics such as biomedicine, environmental remediation, alternative energy, public housing and transport, and disability technologies. This paper examines the responses to these challenges of a small group of Santa Barbara physicists. While this group is not representative of the American physics profession, the success and failure of their responses to changed conditions tells us something about how American physicists got through the 1970s, and about the origins of some features of American physics today. The three physicists examined here are Philip Wyatt, David Phillips, and Virgil Elings. In the late `60s, Wyatt left a defense think tank to found an instrumentation firm. The Santa Barbara oil spill and other factors pushed that firm toward civilian markets in biomedicine and pollution measurement. Phillips joined Wyatt's firm from UCSB, while also founding his own company, largely to sell electronic devices for parapsychology. Phillips was also the junior partner in a master's of scientific instrumentation degree curriculum founded by Elings in order to save UCSB Physics' graduate program. Through the MSI program, Elings moved into biomedical research and became a serial entrepreneur. By the 1990s, Wyatt, Phillips, and Elings' turn toward academic entrepreneurship, dual military-civilian markets for physics start-ups, and interdisciplinary collaborations between physicists and life scientists were no longer unusual. Together, their journey through the `70s shows how varied the physics' profession's response to crisis was, and how much it pivoted on new interactions between university and industry.

  2. Migration from Jamaica in the 1970s: political protest or economic pull?

    PubMed

    Cooper, D W

    1985-01-01

    This article discusses the high rates of out-migration from Jamaica in the late 1970s. The principal receiving countries of Jamaican migrants since World War II have been in the UK, the US, and Canada. Average yearly out-migration from Jamaica between 1964 and 1984 stands at 20,736. Since the 1950s 1) the actual number of migrants from Jamaica to the UK has decreased considerably with the introduction of prohibitive legislation in 1962, 2) the "slack" has been taken by the US and Canada, and 3) migration to the US dipped slightly in the early to mid 1970s, yet increases during those years of Jamaicans migrating to Canada adequately compensated for any loss of an outlet to the US. The "brain drain" forms a chronic feature of the Jamaican economy--a permanent sapping process of much needed labor--not simply an occasional event capable of being explained primarily by the political position of a particular politician. The increases in the migration rates of professional, technical, administrative, and managerial workers, and skilled craftsmen in 1977 and 1978 did not herald a new event; high rates of migration for these categories of workers have existed for several years. The volume and the composition of the actual Jamaican migrant population are decided in the main by legislation in other parts of the world. Although Jamaica's population problem has been eased over the years by as much as 50% of the country's natural increase being removed by migration, many of those who left were of the type whose skills might have contributed to the national economy--and in ways that might have created employment for others. The economic pull of loss of skilled labor is a permanent feature; legislative pull is the key.

  3. Sensitizing events as trigger for discursive renewal and institutional change in Flanders’ environmental health approach, 1970s-1990s

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sensitizing events may trigger and stimulate discursive renewal. From a discursive institutional perspective, changing discourses are the driving force behind the institutional dynamics of policy domains. Theoretically informed by discursive institutionalism, this article assesses the impact of a series of four sensitizing events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders between the 1970s till the 1990s, and led onto the gradual institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. Methods The Policy Arrangement Approach is used as the analytical framework to structure the empirical results of the historical analysis based on document analysis and in-depth interviews. Results Until the 1990s, environmental health was characterized as an ad hoc policy field in Flanders, where agenda setting was based on sensitizing events – also referred to as incident-driven. Each of these events contributed to a gradual rethinking of the epistemological discourses about environmental health risks and uncertainties. These new discourses were the driving forces behind institutional dynamics as they gradually resulted in an increased need for: 1) long-term, policy-oriented, interdisciplinary environmental health research; 2) policy coordination and integration between the environmental and public health policy fields; and 3) new forms of science-policy interactions based on mutual learning. These changes are desirable in order to detect environmental health problems as fast as possible, to react immediately and communicate appropriately. Conclusions The series of four events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders provided the opportunity to rethink and re-organize the current affairs concerning environmental health and gradually resulted into the institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. PMID:23758822

  4. Optical sensor based on fluorescent quenching and pulsed blue LED excitation for long-term monitoring of dissolved oxygen in NASA space bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Frank G; Fay, James M; Mathew, Grace; Jeevarajan, Antony S; Anderson, Melody M

    2005-01-01

    There is a need to monitor the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) present in the culture medium for NASA's space cell biology experiments, as well as in earth-based cell cultures. Continuous measurement of DO concentration in the cell culture medium in perfused bioreactors requires that the oxygen sensor provide adequate sensitivity and low toxicity to the cells, as well as maintain calibration over several weeks. Although there are a number of sensors for dissolved oxygen on the market and under development elsewhere, very few meet these stringent conditions. An in-house optical oxygen sensor (HOXY) based on dynamic fluorescent quenching of Tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) chloride and a pulsed blue LED light source was developed in our laboratory to address these requirements. The sensing element consisted of the fluorescent dye embedded in a silicone matrix and coated onto a glass capillary. Photobleaching was minimized by a pulsed LED light source. The total noise in the sensor output is 2% and the sensor dynamic range is 0 to 200 mm Hg. The resolution of the sensor is 0.1 mm Hg at 50 mm Hg, and 0.25 mm Hg at 130 mm Hg, while the accuracy is 5%. The LED-based oxygen sensor exhibited stable performance and low drift, making it compatible for space-flight bioreactor systems.

  5. Replicating the 1970s' Weddell Polynya using a coupled ocean-sea ice model with reanalysis surface flux fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Woo Geun; Lee, Sang-Ki; Gordon, Arnold L.; Liu, Yanyun; Cho, Chang-Bong; Park, Jong Jin

    2015-07-01

    The 1970s' Weddell Polynya is simulated in the framework of a coupled ocean-sea ice model forced by reanalysis surface flux fields. A rapid emergence of strongly negative wind stress curl over the Weddell Sea intensifies the cyclonic Weddell gyre and thus causes the relatively warm and salty Weddell Deep Water (WDW) to upwell, generating an open-ocean polynya by melting sea ice or hindering its formation. Once the polynya occurs in the austral winter, the underlying water column is destabilized due to the combined effect of the high-salinity WDW, a massive cooling at the air-sea interface, and the ensuing brine rejection from newly forming ice, thus inducing open-ocean deep convection. Further analysis shows that the buildup of a large heat reservoir at depth by the mid-1970s was a necessary condition to establish the Weddell Polynya of the 1970s.

  6. Pronounced warming in the Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean during the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, Chris; Fogwill, Chris; Palmer, Jonathan; van Sebille, Erik; Thomas, Zoë; McGlone, Matt; Richardson, Sarah; Wilmshurst, Janet; Fenwick, Pavla; Carter, Lionel; Jones, Richard; Harsch, Melanie; Wilson, Kerry-Jayne; Clark, Graeme; Marzinelli, Ezequiel; Rogers, Tracey; Rainsley, Eleanor; Ciasto, Laura; Waterman, Stephanie; Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014 Members, Australasian

    2015-04-01

    Occupying some 20% of the world's ocean surface, the Southern Ocean is home to a diverse and unique biota and plays a fundamental role in global oceanic circulation, climate variability, Antarctic ice sheet stability and carbon cycling. Significant warming has been observed over recent decades, most prominently in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). The mechanism(s) behind this warming, however, remain uncertain. Here, we integrate historic ocean and atmospheric observations and climate-sensitive tree growth on subantarctic islands from the northern limit of the ACC to extend historic and satellite measurements to produce a unique proxy record of temperature across 4˚ of latitude in the southwest Pacific. We demonstrate a hitherto unobserved abrupt warming during the 1970s that is unprecedented over the past 130 years, coincident with a significant decline in marine vertebrate populations and wider warming across the Indian Ocean. Comparison between our reconstruction and high-resolution ocean modelling provides a possible mechanism, suggesting warmer waters resulted from a poleward migration of the subtropical and ACC fronts. Projected increases in the strength of westerly winds are likely to continue the fronts' migration, driving warming in the Southern Ocean (>50˚S), with significant impacts on biota.

  7. Changes in poverty and income inequality in Pakistan during the 1970s.

    PubMed

    De Kruijk, H; Van Leeuwen, M

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the development of poverty and income inequality in Pakistan during the 1970s, and decomposes this inequality into various components in order to identify the location of increasing inequality. The figures show that poverty decreased by about 50%. Not only has the percentage of households below the poverty line decreased by about 34%, but the average income of the remaining poor also went up. At the same time, income inequality between households increased during the period concerned. The decomposition technique applied in this paper discovered 4 elements of inequality increase. 1) Increase in the inequality of earnings in rural areas explains 33% of total inequality increase. 2) Increasing participation rates of both urban and rural households explain 32% of total inequality increase. 3) 25% of total inequality increase can be attributed to a sectoral shift from rural to urban areas. The urban income share increased from 33% in 1969-1970 to 50% in 1979. Since the Theil coefficient of urban labor income is far higher than the Theil coefficient of rural labor income in both 1969-1970 and 1979, inequality increased due to this sectoral shift. 4) Inequality between urban and rural areas increased, explaining 11% of total inequality increase.

  8. Declining pine growth in Central Spain coincides with increasing diurnal temperature range since the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büntgen, Ulf; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Aldea, Jorge; Rigling, Andreas; Fischer, Erich M.; Camarero, J. Julio; Hayes, Michael J.; Fatton, Vincent; Egli, Simon

    2013-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests environmental change to be most severe across the semi-arid subtropics, with past, present and projected drying of the Mediterranean Basin posing a key multidisciplinary challenge. Consideration of a single climatic factor, however, often fails to explain spatiotemporal growth dynamics of drought-prone ecosystems. Here, we present annually resolved and absolutely dated ring width measurements of 871 Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) from 18 individual plot sites in the Central Spanish Pinar Grande forest reserve. Although comprising tree ages from 6 to 175 years, this network correlates surprisingly well with the inverse May-July diurnal temperature range (r = 0.84; p < 0.00011956-2011). Ring width extremes were triggered by pressure anomalies of the North Atlantic Oscillation, and the long-term growth decline coincided with Iberian-wide drying since the mid-1970s. Climate model simulations not only confirm this negative trend over the last decades but also project drought to continuously increase over the 21st century. Associated ecological effects and socio-economic consequences should be considered to improve adaptation strategies of agricultural and forest management, as well as biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service.

  9. Polar firn air reveals large-scale impact of anthropogenic mercury emissions during the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Faïn, Xavier; Ferrari, Christophe P; Dommergue, Aurélien; Albert, Mary R; Battle, Mark; Severinghaus, Jeff; Arnaud, Laurent; Barnola, Jean-Marc; Cairns, Warren; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude

    2009-09-22

    Mercury (Hg) is an extremely toxic pollutant, and its biogeochemical cycle has been perturbed by anthropogenic emissions during recent centuries. In the atmosphere, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM; Hg degrees ) is the predominant form of mercury (up to 95%). Here we report the evolution of atmospheric levels of GEM in mid- to high-northern latitudes inferred from the interstitial air of firn (perennial snowpack) at Summit, Greenland. GEM concentrations increased rapidly after World War II from approximately 1.5 ng m(-3) reaching a maximum of approximately 3 ng m(-3) around 1970 and decreased until stabilizing at approximately 1.7 ng m(-3) around 1995. This reconstruction reproduces real-time measurements available from the Arctic since 1995 and exhibits the same general trend observed in Europe since 1990. Anthropogenic emissions caused a two-fold rise in boreal atmospheric GEM concentrations before the 1970s, which likely contributed to higher deposition of mercury in both industrialized and remotes areas. Once deposited, this toxin becomes available for methylation and, subsequently, the contamination of ecosystems. Implementation of air pollution regulations, however, enabled a large-scale decline in atmospheric mercury levels during the 1980s. The results shown here suggest that potential increases in emissions in the coming decades could have a similar large-scale impact on atmospheric Hg levels.

  10. Polar firn air reveals large-scale impact of anthropogenic mercury emissions during the 1970s

    PubMed Central

    Faïn, Xavier; Ferrari, Christophe P.; Dommergue, Aurélien; Albert, Mary R.; Battle, Mark; Severinghaus, Jeff; Arnaud, Laurent; Barnola, Jean-Marc; Cairns, Warren; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an extremely toxic pollutant, and its biogeochemical cycle has been perturbed by anthropogenic emissions during recent centuries. In the atmosphere, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM; Hg°) is the predominant form of mercury (up to 95%). Here we report the evolution of atmospheric levels of GEM in mid- to high-northern latitudes inferred from the interstitial air of firn (perennial snowpack) at Summit, Greenland. GEM concentrations increased rapidly after World War II from ≈1.5 ng m−3 reaching a maximum of ≈3 ng m−3 around 1970 and decreased until stabilizing at ≈1.7 ng m−3 around 1995. This reconstruction reproduces real-time measurements available from the Arctic since 1995 and exhibits the same general trend observed in Europe since 1990. Anthropogenic emissions caused a two-fold rise in boreal atmospheric GEM concentrations before the 1970s, which likely contributed to higher deposition of mercury in both industrialized and remotes areas. Once deposited, this toxin becomes available for methylation and, subsequently, the contamination of ecosystems. Implementation of air pollution regulations, however, enabled a large-scale decline in atmospheric mercury levels during the 1980s. The results shown here suggest that potential increases in emissions in the coming decades could have a similar large-scale impact on atmospheric Hg levels. PMID:19805267

  11. Large-scale impact of anthropogenic mercury during the 1970s revealed by polar firn air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fain, X.; Ferrari, C. P.; Dommergue, A.; Albert, M. R.; Battle, M. O.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Arnaud, L.; Barnola, J.; Cairns, W.; Barbante, C.; Boutron, C.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an extremely toxic pollutant, and its biogeochemical cycle has been perturbed by anthropogenic emissions during recent centuries. In the atmosphere, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM; Hg°) is the predominant form of mercury (up to 95%). GEM concentrations measured in the interstitial air of the firn (unconsolidated snow) at Summit (central Greenland) enabled reconstruction of the atmospheric history of this species in mid- to high-northern latitudes back to the twentieth century. GEM concentrations increased rapidly after World War II from ~1.5 ng m-3 reaching a maximum of ~3 ng m-3 around 1970 and decreased until stabilizing at ~1.7 ng m-3 around 1995. This reconstruction reproduces real-time measurements available from the Arctic since 1995 and exhibits the same general trend observed in Europe since 1990. Anthropogenic emissions caused a two-fold rise in boreal atmospheric GEM concentrations before the 1970s, which likely contributed to higher deposition of mercury in both industrialized and remotes areas. Once deposited, this toxin becomes available for methylation and, subsequently, the contamination of ecosystems. Implementation of air pollution regulations, however, enabled a large-scale decline in atmospheric mercury levels during the 1980s. Our results suggest that potential increases in emissions in the coming decades could have a similar large-scale impact on atmospheric Hg levels.

  12. "Lesbians are not women": feminine and lesbian sensibilities in Harmony Hammond's late-1970s sculpture.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Margo Hobbs

    2008-01-01

    Harmony Hammond's wrapped fabric sculptures are placed in context of the theories of gender and sexuality that circulated among lesbian and straight feminists at the time they were made, the late 1970s. Hammond has cited in particular Monique Wittig's novels, such as The Lesbian Body, and her essays including "The Straight Mind" where Wittig concludes that the lesbian is not a woman. The critique to which Wittig's lesbian separatism has been subjected by Judith Butler in her consideration of the appeal and limitations of essentialism also applies to Hammond's art. Hammond's use of vaginal imagery was instrumental to visualizing a lesbian sensibility, but the proposition of such a sensibility established a new problematic: a new essential category. The article concludes that because Hammond's work was produced in the context of a complex set of discourses, lesbian, feminist, and aesthetic, it resisted reduction to a singular meaning. Her sculptures avoided the pitfall of substituting one essence for another, lesbian for feminine sensibility, but activated both. The sculptures effectively queered vaginal imagery: When Hammond used vaginal imagery to represent lesbian sensibility, she subverted the equation of sex and gender and the essentialist notion of feminine sensibility. PMID:19042751

  13. Viva viva? Women's meanings associated with male nudity in a 1970s "for women" magazine.

    PubMed

    Beggan, James K; Allison, Scott T

    2009-01-01

    Little research has been conducted with regard to how women view male nudity. The purpose of this analysis was to present an historical case study of Viva, a 1970s women's magazine geared toward the presentation of male nudity. Implicit in Viva's editorial direction was the assumption that women's sexuality is socially constructed and, thus, modifiable but also homologous to men's sexuality. Using sexual scripting theory as a sensitizing concept, a content analysis of women's letters to the editor was conducted. Letters justified inclusion of male nudity on the basis of principles of fairness and equality with men. In addition, letters tried to demarcate boundary conditions for what constituted acceptable male nudity in terms of the presence of erection, size, shape, and coloring of the penis, and whether inclusion of the penis was contextualized by other physical traits such as body musculature. Despite an early effort to modify cultural scripts on the basis of a constructivist world view, it was found that, ultimately, Viva advocated an essentialist viewpoint that reified existing conceptualizations of female sexuality as both static and uninterested in the visual representation of sexually related material. This study explored whether Viva's essentialist final position may have reflected financial exigencies rather than ideologies. PMID:19288337

  14. The Back Office of School Reform: Educational Planning Units in German-Speaking Switzerland (1960s and 1970s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosche, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The present article investigates what consequences for educational policy and/or educational administration were drawn from the upheavals of the 1960s and 1970s. A popular diagnosis in political science is that political decision-makers were pushed into a "reactive" role. In the context of a general "planning euphoria", and an…

  15. Fragmented Sisterhood: Formation of Public Opinions about the Women's Movement by Working-Class Women in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Dina

    To examine working-class women's attitudes and perceptions about the Women's Movement, a study reviewed 14 collections of interviews with low-income women conducted in the 1970s. Interviews were collected from a variety of sources--academic studies, books written for the general reader, and a large-scale study commissioned by a publisher of…

  16. An End of Innocence: African-American High School Protest in the 1960s and 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rury, John L.; Hill, Shirley

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers African-American student protests in secondary schools during the 1960s and early 1970s. Taking a national perspective, it charts a growing sense of independence and militancy among black students as they made the schools a focal point of activism. Activist students challenged established civil rights organisations on a…

  17. The Role and Scope of Oklahoma Higher Education; Guidelines for Planning in the Decade of the 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Dan S.

    The purpose of this study was to assess the needs of Oklahoma for higher education programs and services in the years ahead, and to develop a plan for the various segments of the higher education enterprise. This report, together with one on junior colleges, is intended to provide the basis for a statewide master plan during the 1970s. Chapter 1…

  18. Deciding State School Policy in Minnesota. An Analysis of Policy Participants, Influence Relationships, and Decision Processes in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzoni, Tim L.

    This report examines the process through which the Minnesota state government established school policy during the 1970s. The analysis focuses on who shaped state school policy and how they did it. The data come in part from personal interviews to determine the perceptions key participants had of the state school policy system. These interview…

  19. LAND-USE CHANGE AND CARBON FLUX BETWEEN 1970S AND 1990S IN CENTRAL HIGHLANDS OF CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present results of a study in an intensively impacted and highly fragmented landscape in which we apply field-measured carbon (C) density values to land-use/land-cover (LU/LC) statistics to estimate the flux of C between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere from the 1970s...

  20. Doctorate Needs in Educational Administration During the 1970's and 1980's: A Preliminary Analysis. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knezevich, S. J.

    There are no data in this research report that would support the generalization that educational administration will face a doctorate glut during the 1970's or 1980's. There is far more reason to be worried about a glut in the number of institutions producing doctorates in educational administration than about a glut in the number of doctorates…

  1. Contested Cowboys: Ethnic Mexican Charros and the Struggle for Suburban Public Space in 1970s Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barraclough, Laura R.

    2012-01-01

    While most studies of Mexican American suburbanization since the 1970s focus on the transformation of residential (private) space, it is in suburban public space that some of the most important struggles over belonging and rights have occurred. This article builds a theoretical framework to analyze the relationships between public space,…

  2. History of regulatory requirements for poultry biologics in the United States, 1970s to 1990s.

    PubMed

    Espeseth, David A; Lasher, Hiram

    2013-06-01

    By the end of the 1960s, The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) had established the basic purity and safety standards for poultry biologics in the United States and had licensed products to address many of the major poultry diseases of concern at that time. The emergence of new diseases, advances in scientific technology, and changes in poultry husbandry practices that occurred in the 1970s to the 1990s required the development of many new and amended regulatory requirements to keep abreast of the changing needs of the poultry industry. Veterinary Services often approved the use of special or conditional licensing procedures to shorten the time to license products needed to address emerging diseases. Infectious bronchitis, bursal disease, fowl cholera, duck virus enteritis, avian influenza, and other vaccines were rapidly licensed to address emerging disease problems using this procedure. Changes in labeling and packaging requirements were made to address changing vaccination practices. Veterinary Services permitted diluents to be shipped separate from product, first for Marek's disease vaccine and later for vaccines recommended for administration by automatic vaccinating machines. The maximum number of doses permitted to be in one container and package were also amended to address the increased size of poultry flocks. Veterinary Services also approved the use of split manufacturing procedures that permitted two or more licensed manufacturers to work together in the production of a product. This innovative use of licensing products for further manufacture allowed the industry to use production facilities more efficiently and provided a wider variety of combination products. In 1985, Congress passed an amendment to the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act that gave USDA the authority to regulate all veterinary biological products shipped in or from the United States. This amendment brought intrastate biologics manufacturers under federal jurisdiction and ensured all

  3. Gay, Orthodox, and trembling: the rise of Jewish Orthodox gay consciousness, 1970s-2000s.

    PubMed

    Ariel, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the documentary movie, Trembling Before God, was played in Jewish and gay film festivals around the world, provoking strong emotional reactions. Trembling Before God comprises interviews with Orthodox Jewish gay and lesbian persons who vividly and movingly describe their struggles to live their lives as observant Jewish people, being faithful at the same time to their sexual desires and their religious tradition. Almost all the people interviewed in the movie expressed mixed emotions: love towards their tradition and attachment to their community of faith, coupled with resentment against a community, which in their eyes failed to respond with understanding to their emotional needs, thus adding to their pain. This article aims to modify the picture portrayed in the movie. The dilemmas and struggles of gays and lesbians who live their lives in Orthodox Jewish communities are indeed real. Orthodox gays and lesbians experience a greater dissonance between their sexuality and the values of their community and therefore face more anxieties and inner turmoils than gays and lesbians who live in more permissive environments. The struggles of gay and lesbian Orthodox Jews, however, are not necessarily greater than those of gays and lesbians who live their lives in other conservative communities. In fact, while it is almost impossible to be a sexually active gay or lesbian and a practicing Southern Baptist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Jehovah's Witness, or Mormon, it is not impossible for gays and lesbians to live their lives in an Orthodox Jewish environment. Amazingly, since the 1970s, thousands of gays and lesbians have given up on liberal environments and joined the ranks of traditionalist Jewish congregations. PMID:17594973

  4. Should Age-Period-Cohort Studies Return to the Methodologies of the 1970s?

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Ryan K.; Yang, Y. Claire; Powers, Daniel A.; Zheng, Hui; Land, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have recognized the importance of age-period-cohort (APC) models for half a century, but have spent much of this time mired in debates about the feasibility of APC methods. Recently, a new class of APC methods based on modern statistical knowledge has emerged, offering potential solutions. In 2009, Reither, Hauser and Yang used one of these new methods – hierarchical APC (HAPC) modeling – to study how birth cohorts may have contributed to the U.S. obesity epidemic. They found that recent birth cohorts experience higher odds of obesity than their predecessors, but that ubiquitous period-based changes are primarily responsible for the rising prevalence of obesity. Although these findings have been replicated elsewhere, recent commentaries by Bell and Jones call them into question – along with the new class of APC methods. Specifically, Bell and Jones claim that new APC methods do not adequately address model identification and suggest that “solid theory” is often sufficient to remove one of the three temporal dimensions from empirical consideration. They also present a series of simulation models that purportedly show how the HAPC models estimated by Reither et al. (2009) could have produced misleading results. However, these simulation models rest on assumptions that there were no period effects, and associations between period and cohort variables and the outcome were perfectly linear. Those are conditions under which APC models should never be used. Under more tenable assumptions, our own simulations show that HAPC methods perform well, both in recovering the main findings presented by Reither et al. (2009) and the results reported by Bell and Jones. We also respond to critiques about model identification and theoretically-imposed constraints, finding little pragmatic support for such arguments. We conclude by encouraging social scientists to move beyond the debates of the 1970s and toward a deeper appreciation for modern APC

  5. ‘It's springtime for science’: renewing China–UK scientific relations in the 1970s

    PubMed Central

    Agar, Jon

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how links between the People's Republic of China and the UK were rebuilt in the 1970s. It not only fills a gap in the historiography but also makes three particular arguments. The first is that there were two intersecting institutional paths along which the rebuilding of links were followed: a foreign policy path, in which the most important body was the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, and an academy-level path in which relations between the Royal Society and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (also known in the early years as the Academia Sinica) were crucial. Especially under conditions in which access and travel to China were extremely restricted, the Royal Society acted as a ‘gatekeeper’, rationing visits to a select few researchers. The second argument is that science was a strategic pathfinder or diplomatic ‘avant garde’. The maintenance of scientific links, even during the most difficult periods of this history when they were all but severed, meant that a path was kept open to ‘further communication and exchange between peoples—and governments’, as Kathlin Smith has found in the broadly similar case of relations between China and the USA. In particular, scientific relations formed an important bridge in the negotiation and eventual agreement of the first treaty signed between the UK and communist China in 1978. It was no coincidence that this highest-level political agreement was accompanied by a parallel accord between the scientific academies. Third, I argue that, nevertheless, even this treaty was not entirely new, and that the model for the China–UK treaty was existing agreements on technology exchanges made with Eastern European countries. PMID:24686564

  6. 'Clueless about contraception': the introduction and circulation of the contraceptive pill in state-socialist Poland (1960s-1970s).

    PubMed

    Ignaciuk, Agata

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the introduction of the pill into the state-socialist Polish market in the late 1960s and its circulation over the following decade. Abortion, legalised for socio-economic reasons in 1956, had been available practically on demand since 1959, and there were no legal obstacles to contraception. The pill first appeared in Poland in the early 1960s, but was not widely available in pharmacies until 1969, when the local pharmaceutical industry began production. Throughout the 1970s, only two brands were widely available: Femigen and Angravid. The pill played a marginal role in family planning during the 1960s and 1970s in Poland, with cycle-observation, backed by the possibility of a legal abortion, being the main resource for birth control. This was due to structural limits to the distribution of the pill on a centrally-planned market closed to Western pharmaceutical companies, cultural patterns of sexual behaviour, and the availability of abortion.

  7. 1970's Land use data refined with 1990 population data to indicate new residential development for the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    This data set represents U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) historical Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) from the 1970's that has been refined with 1990 population density at the block group level to indicate new residential development representative of the 1990's. Any area having a population density of at least 1,000 people per square mile had been re-classified as "urban" land in this data set.

  8. 1970's Land use data refined with 2000 population data to indicate new residential development for the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    This data set represents U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) historical Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) from the 1970's that has been refined with 2000 population density at the block group level to indicate new residential development representative of the early 2000's. Any area having a population density of at least 1,000 people per square mile had been re-classified as "urban" land in this data set.

  9. Decrease of cloudiness in the Mediterranean region since the 1970s: consistency between observations and climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Enriquez-Alonso, Aaron; Calbó, Josep; González, Josep-Abel; Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris; Norris, Joel

    2015-04-01

    One the main limitations when studying clouds and their associated radiative effects is related to the difficulties in obtaining temporal homogeneous observations of clouds. In this study, total cloud cover trends from surface observations over land (EECRA) for the Mediterranean area since 1971 have been examined. Then, the observed changes have been compared with different global databases for a common period 1984-2005. Specifically, several satellite projects (ISCCP, CLARA, PATMOS-x) and reanalysis products (ERA-Interim, MERRA, NCEP-DOE, NCEP-CFSR) have been chosen. Finally, simulations from 44 climate models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) corresponding to the historical scenario have been compared against the observations. The observations show a widespread decrease of total cloud cover over the Mediterranean since the 1970s, especially during the winter and spring. There is a relatively good agreement between this time evolution of cloud cover provided by surface observations and reanalyses, as well as with PATMOS-x and corrected ISCCP data (Norris and Evan, 2015), whereas raw ISCCP, CLARA and ERA-Interim provide unrealistic trends. Historical climate model simulations from the CMIP5 also indicate a decrease of cloud cover over the Mediterranean since the 1970s, although with a lower magnitude as compared with observations. Overall, the observed decrease in cloudiness over the Mediterranean could explain a fraction of the increase in downward shortwave surface radiation detected since the 1970s (i.e. brightening period) by using direct and indirect (e.g. sunshine duration data) measurements. Norris, J. R. and A. T. Evan (2015) Empirical Removal of Artifacts from the ISCCP and PATMOS-x Satellite Cloud Records, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, in press.

  10. Evolution of modern treatment of childhood acute leukemia and cancer: adventures and battles in the 1970s and 1980s.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, Yaddanapudi

    2015-02-01

    This article summarizes the adventures and explorations in the 1970s and 1980s in the treatment of children with leukemia and cancer that paved the way for the current success in childhood cancers. Indeed, these were adventures and bold steps into unchartered waters. Because childhood leukemia the most common of the childhood cancers, success in childhood leukemia was pivotal in the push toward cure of all childhood cancers. The success in childhood leukemia illustrates how treatment programs were designed using clinical- and biology-based risk factors seen in the patients.

  11. [Changes in the demographic situation of the Republic of Moldova during the 1970s and 1980s].

    PubMed

    Caldare, G

    1993-01-01

    This is a general analysis of the demographic situation in the Republic of Moldova and of changes that occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. It presents trends in population size, age structure, spatial distribution, and urban/rural structure. Also, the contributions of natural increase and migration are considered. Special attention is given to the effects of "socialist industrialization" on changes in the ethnic composition of the country's population; these changes involved large-scale migration flows from Russia and Ukraine to Moldova.

  12. [Living without atomic power? Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker as expert in the nuclear energy debate of the 1970's].

    PubMed

    Seefried, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker crossed the boundaries separating science, politics and the public sphere. In this he was led by the conviction that scientists in the modern 'technical age' are responsible for consequences resulting from their applied knowledge. Weizsäcker tried to introduce his knowledge into the policy process by advising politicians or by using the public sphere, thus applying pressure on politics. This was not only true for the 'Göttinger Erklärung' in 1957 but also for his engagement in the nuclear energy debate of the 1970s. Influenced by the 'Limits to Growth' discourse, Weizsäcker more and more gravitated towards an ecological world view and increasingly questioned material growth as well as a techno-scientific based understanding of progress. Weizsäcker thought about risks of the technical age in general and of the use of nuclear energy in particular. In the light of a growing fragmentation of scientific authority, Weizsäcker revealed uncertainty as he became fully aware that expertise cannot be based on scientific reason and cannot code the problems in terms of truth, but is inextricably linked with value spheres and contingencies. Nevertheless, his expertise was utilized as he encouraged parts of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) around Erhard Eppler to think about alternatives in energy policy. PMID:24974614

  13. [Living without atomic power? Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker as expert in the nuclear energy debate of the 1970's].

    PubMed

    Seefried, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker crossed the boundaries separating science, politics and the public sphere. In this he was led by the conviction that scientists in the modern 'technical age' are responsible for consequences resulting from their applied knowledge. Weizsäcker tried to introduce his knowledge into the policy process by advising politicians or by using the public sphere, thus applying pressure on politics. This was not only true for the 'Göttinger Erklärung' in 1957 but also for his engagement in the nuclear energy debate of the 1970s. Influenced by the 'Limits to Growth' discourse, Weizsäcker more and more gravitated towards an ecological world view and increasingly questioned material growth as well as a techno-scientific based understanding of progress. Weizsäcker thought about risks of the technical age in general and of the use of nuclear energy in particular. In the light of a growing fragmentation of scientific authority, Weizsäcker revealed uncertainty as he became fully aware that expertise cannot be based on scientific reason and cannot code the problems in terms of truth, but is inextricably linked with value spheres and contingencies. Nevertheless, his expertise was utilized as he encouraged parts of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) around Erhard Eppler to think about alternatives in energy policy.

  14. The NASA Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's scientists are enjoying unprecedented access to astronomy data from space, both from missions launched and operated only by NASA, as well as missions led by other space agencies to which NASA contributed instruments or technology. This paper describes the NASA astrophysics program for the next decade, including NASA's response to the ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey.

  15. 'Clueless about contraception': the introduction and circulation of the contraceptive pill in state-socialist Poland (1960s-1970s).

    PubMed

    Ignaciuk, Agata

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the introduction of the pill into the state-socialist Polish market in the late 1960s and its circulation over the following decade. Abortion, legalised for socio-economic reasons in 1956, had been available practically on demand since 1959, and there were no legal obstacles to contraception. The pill first appeared in Poland in the early 1960s, but was not widely available in pharmacies until 1969, when the local pharmaceutical industry began production. Throughout the 1970s, only two brands were widely available: Femigen and Angravid. The pill played a marginal role in family planning during the 1960s and 1970s in Poland, with cycle-observation, backed by the possibility of a legal abortion, being the main resource for birth control. This was due to structural limits to the distribution of the pill on a centrally-planned market closed to Western pharmaceutical companies, cultural patterns of sexual behaviour, and the availability of abortion. PMID:26054213

  16. Causes of the Decline in Cigarette Smoking Among African American Youths From the 1970s to the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Foulds, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Adult cigarette smoking prevalence trends among African Americans (AAs) and Whites are similar. However, during the decline in youth smoking that occurred between the mid-1970s and the early 1990s, the drop in smoking rates among AA adolescents was more than double that among Whites. We examined the evidence for potential explanations for this phenomenon. On the basis of our findings, we propose that racial differences in parental attitudes, religious ties, negative perceptions and experiences of the health effects of smoking, worsening poverty, increased use of food stamps, and price sensitivity were major factors contributing to the more rapid decrease in and continued lower rates of smoking among AA youths. PMID:21852655

  17. Through the lens of the hospital magazine: Downshire and Holywell psychiatric hospitals in the 1960s and 1970s.

    PubMed

    Prior, Pauline; McClelland, Gillian

    2013-12-01

    An exploration of the pages of two psychiatric hospital magazines, Speedwell from Holywell Hospital, Antrim, and The Sketch from Downshire Hospital, Downpatrick, reveals the activity-filled lives of patients and staff during the 1960s and 1970s. This was a time of great change in mental health care. It was also a time of political turbulence in Northern Ireland. With large in-patient populations, both hospitals had a range of occupational and sporting activities available to patients and staff. The magazines formed part of the effort to promote the ethos of a therapeutic community. While hospital magazines may be viewed as one aspect of an institutional system that allowed people to cut themselves off from the wider society, they also provided opportunities for budding writers to express their views on life in a hospital from the service-user perspective. As such, they offer some valuable insights into the lives of psychiatric patients.

  18. Repositioning the patient: patient organizations, consumerism, and autonomy in Britain during the 1960s and 1970s.

    PubMed

    Mold, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how and why the patient came to be repositioned as a political actor within British health care during the 1960s and 1970s. Focusing on the role played by patient organizations, it is suggested that the repositioning of the patient needs to be seen in the light of growing demands for greater patient autonomy and the application of consumerist principles to health. Examining the activities of two patient groups-the National Association for the Welfare of Children in Hospital (NAWCH) and the Patients Association (PA)-indicates that while such groups undoubtedly placed more emphasis on individual autonomy, collective concerns did not entirely fall away. The voices of patients, as well as the patient, continued to matter within British health care. PMID:23811711

  19. Help for all parents?: Child-rearing advice in English Canada in the 1960s and 1970s.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Changes occurring in Canadian society during the 1960s and 1970s were poorly reflected in the child-rearing advice directed to English-Canadian parents. Despite the rise in the number of women working outside the home and feminist calls for a more equitable division of child care, experts only sometimes modified their advice to acknowledge this reality. In addition, the creation of the welfare state seemed to encourage child-rearing advisors to ignore class disparities. Finally, experts in this period rarely acknowledged any racial diversity in the Canadian population, despite an increasingly multicultural society. They continued to presume as the norm a white, Anglo-Saxon, middle-class family in which mothers remained the primary caregivers.

  20. Repositioning the patient: patient organizations, consumerism, and autonomy in Britain during the 1960s and 1970s.

    PubMed

    Mold, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how and why the patient came to be repositioned as a political actor within British health care during the 1960s and 1970s. Focusing on the role played by patient organizations, it is suggested that the repositioning of the patient needs to be seen in the light of growing demands for greater patient autonomy and the application of consumerist principles to health. Examining the activities of two patient groups-the National Association for the Welfare of Children in Hospital (NAWCH) and the Patients Association (PA)-indicates that while such groups undoubtedly placed more emphasis on individual autonomy, collective concerns did not entirely fall away. The voices of patients, as well as the patient, continued to matter within British health care.

  1. ENSO regimes and the late 1970's climate shift: The role of synoptic weather and South Pacific ocean spiciness

    SciTech Connect

    O'Kane, Terence J.; Matear, Richard J.; Chamberlain, Matthew A.; Oke, Peter R.

    2014-08-15

    South Pacific subtropical density compensated temperature and salinity (spiciness) anomalies are known to be associated with decadal equatorial variability, however, the mechanisms by which such disturbances are generated, advect and the degree to which they modulate the equatorial thermocline remains controversial. During the late 1970's a climate regime transition preceded a period of strong and sustained El Nino events. Using an ocean general circulation model forced by the constituent mechanical and thermodynamic components of the reanalysed atmosphere we show that the late 1970's transition coincided with the arrival of a large-scale, subsurface cold and fresh water anomaly in the central tropical Pacific. An ocean reanalysis for the period 1990–2007 that assimilates subsurface Argo, XBT and CTD data, reveals that disturbances occur due to the subduction of negative surface salinity anomalies from near 30° S, 100° W which are advected along the σ=25–26 kgm{sup −3} isopycnal surfaces. These anomalies take, on average, seven years to reach the central equatorial Pacific where they may substantially perturb the thermocline before the remnants ultimately ventilate in the region of the western Pacific warm pool. Positive (warm–salty) disturbances, known to occur due to late winter diapycnal mixing and isopycnal outcropping, arise due to both subduction of subtropical mode waters and subsurface injection. On reaching the equatorial band (10° S–0° S) these disturbances tend to deepen the thermocline reducing the model's ENSO. In contrast the emergence of negative (cold–fresh) disturbances at the equator are associated with a shoaling of the thermocline and El Nino events. Process studies are used to show that the generation and advection of anomalous density compensated thermocline disturbances critically depend on stochastic forcing of the intrinsic ocean by weather. We further show that in the absence of the inter-annual component of the atmosphere

  2. An interdecadal change in the influence of the spring Arctic Oscillation on the subsequent ENSO around the early 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shangfeng; Yu, Bin; Chen, Wen

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies suggested that the springtime Arctic Oscillation (AO) influences the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) outbreak in the following winter. Using the HadISST, HadSLP2r, ERSSTv3b and NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data for the period 1948-2012, this analysis further reveals that the AO-ENSO relationship experienced a pronounced interdecadal shift. The spring AO influence on the subsequent ENSO is weak before 1970; while the influence becomes strong and statistically significant in the 1970s and 1980s. We then compare the spring AO associated circulation, SST and precipitation anomalies between the PRE (1949-1968) and POST (1970-1989) epochs to explore this interdecadal change of the AO-ENSO relationship. The spring AO-related anomalies of atmospheric circulation over the North Pacific mid-latitudes, cyclonic circulation over the subtropical western-central Pacific, and westerly winds in the tropical western-central Pacific are found to be stronger in the POST epoch than in the PRE epoch. The intensity of spring Pacific synoptic-scale eddy activity is seen to experience a significant interdecadal change around the early-1970s from a weak regime to a strong regime. Thus the strength of synoptic-scale eddy feedback to the low frequency flow becomes stronger after 1970. In the POST epoch, the strong synoptic-scale eddy feedback provides a favorable condition for the formulation of the spring AO-related cyclonic circulation and westerly wind anomalies over the western North Pacific. The tropical SST, precipitation and atmospheric circulation anomalies sustain and develop from spring to winter through the positive Bjerknes feedback, leading to an El Niño-like warming in the tropical central-eastern Pacific in the following winter.

  3. Optimal forcing of ENSO either side of the 1970's climate shift and its implications for predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, Christopher M.; Santoso, Agus; McGregor, Shayne; England, Matthew H.

    2015-07-01

    Inverse methods are used to investigate changes in the precursors to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events since the so-called 1970's climate shift, associated with a change in the phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Linear Inverse Models (LIMs) constructed from tropical sea surface temperature, thermocline depth and zonal wind stress anomalies from each of the periods 1959-1978 and 1979-1998, are able to reproduce the major observed characteristics of ENSO, including its amplitude, frequency and time evolution. Each LIM possesses low-frequency and biennial ENSO modes, the former being both the least damped and the mode responsible for strongest pseudoresonance, as quantified via calculation of the resolvent norm. Because these modes are damped, ENSO variability is sustained in the stochastically forced LIMs by transiently growing perturbations, and predictability is determined by the character of the transiently growing subspace of perturbations. The optimal linear precursor over any given lead time is equivalent to the optimal perturbation of the LIM, that represents the most rapidly growing linear perturbation over that timescale. In both periods linear ENSO growth occurs through one of two trajectories associated with the 7 and 15 month optimal perturbations. The structure of these two optimal perturbations change significantly between the two periods, and their ability to predict ENSO degrades dramatically when applied to the alternate period. This suggests that ENSO precursors changed following the 1970s climate shift over both 7 and 15 month time-scales. In particular, while prior to the climate shift the heat content of the equatorial Pacific alone is a skillful ENSO predictor on 7 month lead times, afterwards Indian and south Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies are inferred to have become important. Optimal ENSO growth over 15 months also contains a significant extra-Pacific contribution, and it is possible to skillfully

  4. From seduction to sexism: Feminists challenge the ethics of therapist-client sexual relations in 1970s america.

    PubMed

    Kim, Susanna; Rutherford, Alexandra

    2015-08-01

    Before the 1970s, psychologists and other mental health professionals who had sex with their patients committed no ethical violations. Indeed, the line between seduction and sexual exploitation in the therapy hour was extremely blurry to patients and therapists alike. This article is about how that changed. We focus on feminist psychologists' efforts, through the American Psychological Association Task Force on Sex Bias and Sex Role Stereotyping in Psychotherapeutic Practice, to document and reduce sexism in psychotherapy, including that involving therapist-client sexual relations. We contextualize these efforts within the larger feminist critique of the psy-disciplines that began in the late 1960s, highlighting how psychologists used several feminist strategies to recast seduction as sexism and revise the profession's ethical standards to specifically state that sexual intimacies with clients are unethical. As an example of a feminist intervention into psychology's-and society's-extant gender ideologies, this process highlights the mutually reinforcing entanglements of psychology and feminism, both methodologically and politically. PMID:26375156

  5. Monitoring coastal land reclamation and land use change around Hangzhou Bay using Landsat dataset (1970s-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Muye; Huang, Lingyan; You, Shucheng; Hua, Yiming; Pan, Yi; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke

    2014-12-01

    The coastal region is an important potential land resource, and reclamation is a valid means to utilize land and expand human living space. Since the 1970s, large-scale reclamation projects have taken place in eastern coastal regions, China. To examine the reclamation program around the Hangzhou Bay in Zhejiang Province, China-using a time-series Landsat dataset in 1976, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014, a visual interpretation is applied to extract artificial coastline and reclamation land-use information. The result showed that during the year 1976 to 2014 period, the total reclamation area around Hangzhou Bay is 1039.84 km2, and the project was mainly occurred in south of Hangzhou Bay, particularly in Ningbo and Shaoxing county. In addition, between 1976 and 1980, the speed of reclamation was higher than any other period, followed by period from 2006 to 2009. Moreover, the early reclamation lands were mainly used for cropland and aqua-farm ponds. After the year 1990, industrial warehouse space and land for harbor and wharf first appeared, and both of them have increased markedly. The land use types tend to be of diversity overall since 21st century.

  6. Gender and homosexuality attitudes across religious groups from the 1970s to 2014: Similarity, distinction, and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Landon

    2016-01-01

    This study uses General Social Survey data to compare gender and homosexuality across American religious groups from the 1970s to 2014, examining three possible patterns for how evangelical attitudes relate to those of other groups: (1) they are similar; (2) they are different, but move together over time; (3) they are different and converge or diverge over time. Evangelical gender attitudes regarding work and family issues are more conservative than those of all other groups, but are adaptive to broad trends, changing at a rate similar to those of other groups. Evangelical attitudes toward the morality of homosexuality and same-sex marriage are more conservative than those of all other religious groups, and their rate of change is slower over time. Separate trends on the two issues suggest that gender and sexuality attitude change is decoupled, especially among evangelicals who are adapting more on gender while increasingly distinguishing themselves on same-sex relationships. A three-stage process of religious tension appears to characterize evangelical identity-building: (1) similarity, (2) distinction, and (3) adaptation.

  7. From seduction to sexism: Feminists challenge the ethics of therapist-client sexual relations in 1970s america.

    PubMed

    Kim, Susanna; Rutherford, Alexandra

    2015-08-01

    Before the 1970s, psychologists and other mental health professionals who had sex with their patients committed no ethical violations. Indeed, the line between seduction and sexual exploitation in the therapy hour was extremely blurry to patients and therapists alike. This article is about how that changed. We focus on feminist psychologists' efforts, through the American Psychological Association Task Force on Sex Bias and Sex Role Stereotyping in Psychotherapeutic Practice, to document and reduce sexism in psychotherapy, including that involving therapist-client sexual relations. We contextualize these efforts within the larger feminist critique of the psy-disciplines that began in the late 1960s, highlighting how psychologists used several feminist strategies to recast seduction as sexism and revise the profession's ethical standards to specifically state that sexual intimacies with clients are unethical. As an example of a feminist intervention into psychology's-and society's-extant gender ideologies, this process highlights the mutually reinforcing entanglements of psychology and feminism, both methodologically and politically.

  8. Gender and homosexuality attitudes across religious groups from the 1970s to 2014: Similarity, distinction, and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Landon

    2016-01-01

    This study uses General Social Survey data to compare gender and homosexuality across American religious groups from the 1970s to 2014, examining three possible patterns for how evangelical attitudes relate to those of other groups: (1) they are similar; (2) they are different, but move together over time; (3) they are different and converge or diverge over time. Evangelical gender attitudes regarding work and family issues are more conservative than those of all other groups, but are adaptive to broad trends, changing at a rate similar to those of other groups. Evangelical attitudes toward the morality of homosexuality and same-sex marriage are more conservative than those of all other religious groups, and their rate of change is slower over time. Separate trends on the two issues suggest that gender and sexuality attitude change is decoupled, especially among evangelicals who are adapting more on gender while increasingly distinguishing themselves on same-sex relationships. A three-stage process of religious tension appears to characterize evangelical identity-building: (1) similarity, (2) distinction, and (3) adaptation. PMID:26680286

  9. Low Atlantic hurricane activity in the 1970s and 1980s compared to the past 270 years.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Johan; Malmgren, Björn A; Winter, Amos; Jury, Mark R; Kilbourne, K Halimeda; Quinn, Terrence M

    2007-06-01

    Hurricane activity in the North Atlantic Ocean has increased significantly since 1995 (refs 1, 2). This trend has been attributed to both anthropogenically induced climate change and natural variability, but the primary cause remains uncertain. Changes in the frequency and intensity of hurricanes in the past can provide insights into the factors that influence hurricane activity, but reliable observations of hurricane activity in the North Atlantic only cover the past few decades. Here we construct a record of the frequency of major Atlantic hurricanes over the past 270 years using proxy records of vertical wind shear and sea surface temperature (the main controls on the formation of major hurricanes in this region) from corals and a marine sediment core. The record indicates that the average frequency of major hurricanes decreased gradually from the 1760s until the early 1990s, reaching anomalously low values during the 1970s and 1980s. Furthermore, the phase of enhanced hurricane activity since 1995 is not unusual compared to other periods of high hurricane activity in the record and thus appears to represent a recovery to normal hurricane activity, rather than a direct response to increasing sea surface temperature. Comparison of the record with a reconstruction of vertical wind shear indicates that variability in this parameter primarily controlled the frequency of major hurricanes in the Atlantic over the past 270 years, suggesting that changes in the magnitude of vertical wind shear will have a significant influence on future hurricane activity.

  10. The Environmental Decade, Action Proposals for the 1970's. Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations (H.R., 91st Congress).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    The evidence presented during the hearings and the statements submitted by interested parties to the Subcommittee on Conservation and Natural Resources are contained in this report. The committee was inquiring into action programs that "must be developed to restore the quality of our environment during the decade of the 1970's." Evidence was…

  11. Teachers' Discriminations in the Narratives of Primary School Students of Different Periods in Turkey: 1950s, 1970s and 1980s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Mehmet; Sungu, Hilmi

    2015-01-01

    This study zeros in on rendering the teachers' discriminations among their students in various aspects in the narratives of primary school students of 1950s, 1970s and 1980s' Turkey. Construction and reconstruction of personal and social stories of teachers and students is also a sort of education and educational research. The method of the…

  12. Literacy Crisis and Color-Blindness: The Problematic Racial Dynamics of Mid-1970s Language and Literacy Instruction for "High-Risk" Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamos, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that mid-1970s discourses of literacy crisis prompted a problematic shift toward color-blind ideologies of language and literacy within both disciplinary and institutional discussions of writing instruction for "high-risk" minority students. It further argues that this shift has continuing import for contemporary antiracist…

  13. The Struggle for Comprehensive Education in the Netherlands: The Representation of Secondary School Innovation in Dutch Newspaper Articles in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsing, Hilda T. A.; Greveling, Linda; Dekker, Jeroen J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how Dutch newspapers represented the debate in the Netherlands in the 1970s on comprehensive education and thus influenced the Dutch Middle School experiment. Wiborg's identification of key factors of success in Scandinavia was used as a point of reference. The article shows that these key factors did not exist in the…

  14. The Impact of Economic Crises on Women's Employment: A Comparison of the Great Depression (1930s) and the Current Crisis (1970s-1980s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokoloff, Natalie J.

    Two areas in which the impact of economic crises on women's employment in the Great Depression of 1930 and during the 1970's and 1980's appear to be similar are examined: (1) the actual changes in female employment; and (2) the ideological campaigns and policies generated and/or reinforced, especially by the federal government, blaming women for…

  15. Intermediate-dose versus high-dose prophylaxis for severe hemophilia: comparing outcome and costs since the 1970s

    PubMed Central

    Steen Carlsson, Katarina; Petrini, Pia; Holmström, Margareta; Ljung, Rolf; van den Berg, H. Marijke; Berntorp, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Prophylactic treatment in severe hemophilia is very effective but is limited by cost issues. The implementation of 2 different prophylactic regimens in The Netherlands and Sweden since the 1970s may be considered a natural experiment. We compared the costs and outcomes of Dutch intermediate- and Swedish high-dose prophylactic regimens for patients with severe hemophilia (factor VIII/IX < 1 IU/dL) born between 1970 and 1994, using prospective standardized outcome assessment and retrospective collection of cost data. Seventy-eight Dutch and 50 Swedish patients, median age 24 years (range, 14-37 years), were included. Intermediate-dose prophylaxis used less factor concentrate (median: Netherlands, 2100 IU/kg per year [interquartile range (IQR), 1400-2900 IU/kg per year] vs Sweden, 4000 IU/kg per year [IQR, 3000-4900 IU/kg per year]); (P < .01). Clinical outcome was slightly inferior for the intermediate-dose regimen (P < .01) for 5-year bleeding (median, 1.3 [IQR, 0.8-2.7] vs 0 [IQR, 0.0-2.0] joint bleeds/y) and joint health (Haemophilia Joint Health Score >10 of 144 points in 46% vs 11% of participants), although social participation and quality of life were similar. Annual total costs were 66% higher for high-dose prophylaxis (mean, 180 [95% confidence interval, 163 - 196] × US$1000 for Dutch vs 298 [95% confidence interval, 271-325]) × US$1000 for Swedish patients; (P < .01). At group level, the incremental benefits of high-dose prophylaxis appear limited. At the patient level, prophylaxis should be tailored individually, and many patients may do well receiving lower doses of concentrate without compromising safety. PMID:23777770

  16. Intermediate-dose versus high-dose prophylaxis for severe hemophilia: comparing outcome and costs since the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Kathelijn; Steen Carlsson, Katarina; Petrini, Pia; Holmström, Margareta; Ljung, Rolf; van den Berg, H Marijke; Berntorp, Erik

    2013-08-15

    Prophylactic treatment in severe hemophilia is very effective but is limited by cost issues. The implementation of 2 different prophylactic regimens in The Netherlands and Sweden since the 1970s may be considered a natural experiment. We compared the costs and outcomes of Dutch intermediate- and Swedish high-dose prophylactic regimens for patients with severe hemophilia (factor VIII/IX < 1 IU/dL) born between 1970 and 1994, using prospective standardized outcome assessment and retrospective collection of cost data. Seventy-eight Dutch and 50 Swedish patients, median age 24 years (range, 14-37 years), were included. Intermediate-dose prophylaxis used less factor concentrate (median: Netherlands, 2100 IU/kg per year [interquartile range (IQR), 1400-2900 IU/kg per year] vs Sweden, 4000 IU/kg per year [IQR, 3000-4900 IU/kg per year]); (P < .01). Clinical outcome was slightly inferior for the intermediate-dose regimen (P < .01) for 5-year bleeding (median, 1.3 [IQR, 0.8-2.7] vs 0 [IQR, 0.0-2.0] joint bleeds/y) and joint health (Haemophilia Joint Health Score >10 of 144 points in 46% vs 11% of participants), although social participation and quality of life were similar. Annual total costs were 66% higher for high-dose prophylaxis (mean, 180 [95% confidence interval, 163 - 196] × US$1000 for Dutch vs 298 [95% confidence interval, 271-325]) × US$1000 for Swedish patients; (P < .01). At group level, the incremental benefits of high-dose prophylaxis appear limited. At the patient level, prophylaxis should be tailored individually, and many patients may do well receiving lower doses of concentrate without compromising safety.

  17. NASA as a Catalyst: Use of Satellite Data in the States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warnecke, Lisa

    1997-01-01

    NASA revolutionized our view of the world in 1972 with the launch of the first satellite to monitor the Earth. Recognizing the importance of states in governing the United States, NASA then established a program in the late 1970s to educate and assist states in using satellite data products. This report reviews this brief, but beneficial program that laid a foundation and catalyzed satellite data work that continues today in several states. More recently, outreach efforts as part of NASAs Mission to Planet Earth program and growing state government roles, responsibilities, and initiatives led NASA to begin a new effort in 1994 to understand and work effectively with states. This effort included an investigation and synthesis of current satellite data conditions in each of the 50 states that are included in this report. It provided strong evidence that some state governments are applying satellite data to an increasing array of government needs, while other states have very limited applications to date. A wide range of satellite data applications in executive branch agencies are described, as well as the recent status of the Gap Analysis Program in each of the states with this program. The report also reviews the status of satellite data and geographic information coordination efforts in each of the 50 states. In addition to this investigation, NASA convened a meeting of representatives of 12 states experienced with satellite data to identify future satellite data uses and needs, as well as NASA opportunities to enhance the utility of satellite data products. The findings and recommendations from this meeting, the 50 state investigations, and NASAs past state programs are also included in the report; they provide the rationale for NASA to establish a new outreach effort with state governments in the late 1990s.

  18. Effects of increased urbanization from 1970's to 1990's on storm-runoff characteristics in Perris Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guay, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Urban areas in Perris Valley, California, have more than tripled during the last 20 years. To quantify the effects of increased urbanization on storm runoff volumes and peak discharges, rainfall-runoff models of the basin were developed to simulate runoff for 1970-75 and 1990-93 conditions. Hourly rainfall data for 1949-93 were used with the rainfall-runoff models to simulate a long-term record of storm runoff. The hydrologic effects of increased urbanization from 1970-75 to 1990-93 were analyzed by comparing the simulated annual peak discharges and volumes, and storm runoff peaks, frequency of annual peak discharges and runoff volumes, and duration of storm peak discharges for each study period. A Log-Pearson Type-III frequency analysis was calculated using the simulated annual peaks to estimate the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence intervals. The estimated 2-year discharge at the outlet of the basin was 646 cubic feet per second for the 1970-75 conditions and 1,328 cubic feet per second for the 1990-93 conditions. The 100-year discharge at the outlet of the basin was about 14,000 cubic feet per second for the 1970-75 and 1990-93 conditions. The station duration analysis used 925 model-simulated storm peaks from each basin to estimate the percent chance a peak discharge is exceeded. At the outlet of the basin, the chances of exceeding 100 cubic feet per second were about 33 percent under 1970-75 conditions and about 59 percent under 1990-93 conditions. The chance of exceeding 2,500 cubic feet per second at the outlet of the basin was less than 1 percent higher under the 1990-93 conditions than under the 1970-75 conditions. The increase in urbanization from the early 1970's to the early 1990's more than doubled the peak discharges with a 2-year return period. However, peak discharges with return periods greater than 50 years were not significantly affected by the change in urbanization.

  19. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique, called Photodynamic Therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny, pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source that releases long wavelengths of light ) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. 'A young woman operated on in May 1999 has fully recovered with no complications and no evidence of the tumor coming back,' said Dr. Harry Whelan, a pediatric neurologist at the Medical Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The LEDs, developed and managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, have been used on seven Space Shuttle flights inside the Microgravity Astroculture Facility. This technology has also been successfully used to further commercial research in crop growth.

  20. Light Emitting Diode (LED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique called photodynamic therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source releasing long wavelengths of light) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can also be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED probe consists of 144 tiny pinhead-size diodes, is 9-inches long, and about one-half-inch in diameter. The small balloon aids in even distribution of the light source. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The probe was developed for photodynamic cancer therapy by the Marshall Space Flight Center under a NASA Small Business Innovative Research program grant.

  1. Science to the people! (and experimental politics): searching for the roots of participatory discourse in science and technology in the 1970s in France.

    PubMed

    Quet, Mathieu

    2014-08-01

    The current conception of political participation in governmental institutions is deeply marked by the notions of deliberation and precaution. This normative conception of participatory politics neglects, backgrounds or disqualifies other participatory practices, in so far as they are not connected to deliberation and precaution. However, participation has not always been defined in such a restricted way: the current conception of participation is a product of the 1980s and 1990s. In this paper, the meaning ascribed to the notion of participation in the 1970s in France is explored through the study of discourses produced in three fields: the Science Policy Division of the OECD, the French radical science movement, and the emerging STS academic field. As is shown, some of the bases of the current notion of participation originate in the 1970s. Nevertheless, it is argued that in these years, the notion of participation has more to do with experimentation than with deliberation and precaution. Therefore, the conception of participation in the 1970s differs greatly from the current one. Methodologically, this paper combines tools offered by the social history of science and the French school of discourse analysis.

  2. LED Update

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Mark L.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2006-09-01

    This article, which will appear in RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING MAGAZINE, interviews PNNL's Kelly Gordon and presents the interview in question and answer format. The topic is a light emitting diode (LED) lighting also known as solid state lighting. Solid state lighting will be a new category in an energy efficient lighting fixture design competition called Lighting for Tomorrow sponsored by the US Department of Energy Emerging Technologies Office, the American Institute for Lighting, and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency. LED technology has been around since the ’60s, but it has been used mostly for indicator lights on electronics equipment. The big breakthrough was the development in the 1990s of blue LEDs which can be combined with the red and green LEDs that already existed to make white light. LEDs produce 25 to 40 lumens of light per watt of energy used, almost as much as a CFL (50 lumens per watt) and much more efficient than incandescent sources, which are around 15 lumens per watt. They are much longer lived and practical in harsh environments unsuitable for incandescent lighting. They are ready for niche applications now, like under-counter lighting and may be practical for additional applications as technological challenges are worked out and the technology is advancing in leaps and bounds.

  3. LED lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Galvez, Miguel; Grossman, Kenneth; Betts, David

    2013-11-12

    There is herein described a lamp for providing white light comprising a plurality of light sources positioned on a substrate. Each of said light sources comprises a blue light emitting diode (LED) and a dome that substantially covers said LED. A first portion of said blue light from said LEDs is transmitted through said domes and a second portion of said blue light is converted into a red light by a first phosphor contained in said domes. A cover is disposed over all of said light sources that transmits at least a portion of said red and blue light emitted by said light sources. The cover contains a second phosphor that emits a yellow light in response to said blue light. The red, blue and yellow light combining to form the white light and the white light having a color rendering index (CRI) of at least about 80.

  4. History of Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Engines: Emphasizing NASA's Role from 1942 to 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA has played a central role in the development of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for gas turbine applications. This report discusses the history of TBCs emphasizing the role NASA has played beginning with (1) frit coatings in the 1940s and 1950s; (2) thermally sprayed coatings for rocket application in the 1960s and early 1970s; (3) the beginnings of the modern era of turbine section coatings in the mid 1970s; and (4) failure mechanism and life prediction studies in the 1980s and 1990s. More recent efforts are also briefly discussed.

  5. Interdecadal changes on the seasonal prediction of the western North Pacific summer climate around the late 1970s and early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaofan; Lu, Riyu; Dong, Buwen

    2016-04-01

    Identifying predictability and the corresponding sources for the western North Pacific (WNP) summer climate in the case of non-stationary teleconnections during recent decades benefits for further improvements of long-range prediction on the WNP and East Asian summers. In the past few decades, pronounced increases on the summer sea surface temperature (SST) and associated interannual variability are observed over the tropical Indian Ocean and eastern Pacific around the late 1970s and over the Maritime Continent and western-central Pacific around the early 1990s. These increases are associated with significant enhancements of the interannual variability for the lower-tropospheric wind over the WNP. In this study, we further assess interdecadal changes on the seasonal prediction of the WNP summer anomalies, using May-start retrospective forecasts from the ENSEMBLES multi-model project in the period 1960-2005. It is found that prediction of the WNP summer anomalies exhibits an interdecadal shift with higher prediction skills since the late 1970s, particularly after the early 1990s. Improvements of the prediction skills for SSTs after the late 1970s are mainly found around tropical Indian Ocean and the WNP. The better prediction of the WNP after the late 1970s may arise mainly from the improvement of the SST prediction around the tropical eastern Indian Ocean. The close teleconnections between the tropical eastern Indian Ocean and WNP summer variability work both in the model predictions and observations. After the early 1990s, on the other hand, the improvements are detected mainly around the South China Sea and Philippines for the lower-tropospheric zonal wind and precipitation anomalies, associating with a better description of the SST anomalies around the Maritime Continent. A dipole SST pattern over the Maritime Continent and the central equatorial Pacific Ocean is closely related to the WNP summer anomalies after the early 1990s. This teleconnection mode is quite

  6. Limited change in dune mobility in response to a large decrease in wind power in semi-arid northern China since the 1970s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, J.A.; Swinehart, J.B.; Lu, H.; Miao, X.; Cha, P.; Zhou, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The climatic controls on dune mobility, especially the relative importance of wind strength, remain incompletely understood. This is a key research problem in semi-arid northern China, both for interpreting past dune activity as evidence of paleoclimate and for predicting future environmental change. Potential eolian sand transport, which is approximately proportional to wind power above the threshold for sand entrainment, has decreased across much of northern China since the 1970s. Over the same period, effective moisture (ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration) has not changed significantly. This "natural experiment" provides insight on the relative importance of wind power as a control on dune mobility in three dunefields of northern China (Mu Us, Otindag, and Horqin), although poorly understood and potentially large effects of human land use complicate interpretation. Dune forms in these three regions are consistent with sand transport vectors inferred from weather station data, suggesting that wind directions have remained stable and the stations adequately represent winds that shaped the dunes. The predicted effect of weaker winds since the 1970s would be dune stabilization, with lower sand transport rates allowing vegetation cover to expand. Large portions of all three dunefields remained stabilized by vegetation in the 1970s despite high wind power. Since the 1970s, trends in remotely sensed vegetation greenness and change in mobile dune area inferred from sequential Landsat images do indicate widespread dune stabilization in the eastern Mu Us region. On the other hand, expansion of active dunes took place farther west in the Mu Us dunefield and especially in the central Otindag dunefield, with little overall change in two parts of the Horqin dunes. Better ground truth is needed to validate the remote sensing analyses, but results presented here place limits on the relative importance of wind strength as a control on dune mobility in the

  7. Anniversary Paper: Development of x-ray computed tomography: The role of Medical Physics and AAPM from the 1970s to present

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Xiaochuan; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey; La Riviere, Patrick J.; Kalender, Willi A.

    2008-08-15

    The AAPM, through its members, meetings, and its flagship journal Medical Physics, has played an important role in the development and growth of x-ray tomography in the last 50 years. From a spate of early articles in the 1970s characterizing the first commercial computed tomography (CT) scanners through the ''slice wars'' of the 1990s and 2000s, the history of CT and related techniques such as tomosynthesis can readily be traced through the pages of Medical Physics and the annals of the AAPM and RSNA/AAPM Annual Meetings. In this article, the authors intend to give a brief review of the role of Medical Physics and the AAPM in CT and tomosynthesis imaging over the last few decades.

  8. "Pregnancy and labour cause more deaths than oral contraceptives": The debate on the pill in the Spanish press in the 1960s and 1970s.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Gómez, Teresa; Ignaciuk, Agata

    2015-08-01

    From 1941 to 1978, Franco's regime in Spain banned all contraceptive methods. The pill started circulating in Spain from the 1960s, officially as a drug used in gynaecological therapy. However, in the following decade it was also increasingly used and prescribed as a contraceptive. This paper analyses debates about the contraceptive pill in the Spanish daily newspaper ABC and in two magazines, Blanco y Negro and Triunfo, in the 1960s and 1970s. It concludes that the debate on this contraceptive method was much more heterogeneous than might be expected given the Catholic-conservative character of the dictatorship. The daily press focused on the adverse effects of the drug and magazines concentrated on the ethical and religious aspects of the pill and discussed it in a generally positive light. Male doctors and Catholic authors dominated the debate.

  9. The Challenge of Increasing Access and Improving Quality: An Analysis of Universal Primary Education Interventions in Kenya and Tanzania since the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sifuna, Daniel N.

    2007-11-01

    This article shows how interventions to provide Universal Primary Education (UPE) from the 1970s into the twenty-first century affected efforts to improve the quality of primary education in Kenya and Tanzania. While the interventions have made significant differences in the lives of many communities by increasing access to education of children who would have been denied schooling, quality indicators (including attrition and completion rates and examination scores) have stagnated at best or declined. Efforts to ensure and maintain quality in primary education in the two countries are reported to face serious challenges, including mainly inadequate funding to ensure the provision of essential teaching and learning materials, appropriate infrastructure as well as a sufficient number of competent teachers.

  10. Did the decline continue? Comparing the labor-market quality of United States immigrants from the late 1970s and late 1980s.

    PubMed

    Barrett, A

    1996-02-01

    "The issue addressed in this paper is whether or not the decline in immigrant labor-market quality in the U.S. observed in the late 1960s and 1970s continued in the 1980s." The data are from the Immigration and Naturalization Service and are provided for the years 1979-1980 and 1989-1990. "Given the rise in earnings inequality that has occurred in the United States over the 1980s, the returns to immigration for the more highly skilled will have increased relative to the low skilled, ceteris paribus. For this reason, it is possible that the skill decline of immigrants may have halted in the 1980s as immigrants of differing skill levels respond to the altered circumstances they would face in the United States. The empirical results show that the skill decline did indeed halt...." PMID:12291406

  11. Strange old worlds: socio-critical reports about old-age experiences in West German print media (1970s-1990s).

    PubMed

    Streubel, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    This article examines West German images of old age and the elderly in a period when this increasingly became a topical issue. Between the 1970s and the 1990s, the elderly were the subject of socio-critical reports in leading political magazines like Der Spiegel, Die Zeit and Stern. In these specific journalistic formats, the media entered unfamiliar places like old people's homes, the elderly's private apartments or tea dances for senior citizens. By analysing the language used in such media reports, this article shows continuity and change in attitudes towards the elderly, explores the impact of the new old-age model 'the young at heart', and the relevance of gender and generational ascriptions. In doing so, this article uncovers the recent historical context of current social debates about old age.

  12. Spatial and temporal variations of crop fertilization and soil fertility in the loess plateau in china from the 1970s to the 2000s.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoying; Tong, Yanan; Gao, Yimin; Gao, Pengcheng; Liu, Fen; Zhao, Zuoping; Pang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Increased fertilizer input in agricultural systems during the last few decades has resulted in large yield increases, but also in environmental problems. We used data from published papers and a soil testing and fertilization project in Shaanxi province during the years 2005 to 2009 to analyze chemical fertilizer inputs and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on the farmers' level, and soil fertility change from the 1970s to the 2000s in the Loess Plateau in China. The results showed that in different regions of the province, chemical fertilizer NPK inputs and yields of wheat and maize increased. With regard to soil nutrient balance, N and P gradually changed from deficit to surplus levels, while K deficiency became more severe. In addition, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium increased during the same period. The PFP of N, NP and NPK on wheat and maize all decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s as a whole. With the increase in N fertilizer inputs, both soil total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen increased; P fertilizer increased soil available phosphorus and K fertilizer increased soil available potassium. At the same time, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium all had positive impacts on crop yields. In order to promote food safety and environmental protection, fertilizer requirements should be assessed at the farmers' level. In many cases, farmers should be encouraged to reduce nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer inputs significantly, but increase potassium fertilizer and organic manure on cereal crops as a whole. PMID:25380401

  13. Decadal-scale climate variability in the tropical and North Pacific during the 1970s and 1980s: Observations and model results

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, N.E.

    1994-08-01

    An abrupt change in the large-scale boreal winter circulation pattern over the North Pacific was observed during the mid-1970s. This paper presents a variety of observed data and model results to describe the climate shift, and to understand some of the links within the coupled climate system that produced, it. Five main findings are emphasized: (1) evidence of abrupt, simultaneous, and apparently related changes can be found in many fields and in many model results; the climate shift is not an artifact, (2) over the tropical Pacific the climate change represents a shift in the state of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system, some aspects of which resemble features associated with El Nino episodes. However, the shift in state is not well characterized as due to a change in the frequency of intensity of El Nino episodes; it is better described as a change in background mean state, (3) When forced with observed SSTs, both a very simple atmospheric model and a full general circulation model (GCM) qualitatively simulate aspects of the decadalscale shift over the tropical Pacific, (4) when forced with observed surface wind stress, two ocean models of the tropical Pacific, in which surface heat fluxes are parameterized as Newtonian damping, reproduce some aspects of the near-equatorial decadal SST signal. However, the models do not reproduce the large changes in SST observed at higher latitudes of the tropical Pacific. suggesting that altered surface heat fluxes dominated in producing these changes, and (5) an important new finding of this study is the success of a GCM in reproducing important aspects of the observed mid-1970s shift in winter northern hemisphere circulation. Comparative analyses of the observed and GCM simulated circulation suggest the altered patterns of tropical Pacific SST and convection were important in forcing the changes in the mid-latitude circulation, a finding corroborated by recent GCM experiments. 70 refs., 18 figs.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Crop Fertilization and Soil Fertility in the Loess Plateau in China from the 1970s to the 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoying; Tong, Yanan; Gao, Yimin; Gao, Pengcheng; Liu, Fen; Zhao, Zuoping; Pang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Increased fertilizer input in agricultural systems during the last few decades has resulted in large yield increases, but also in environmental problems. We used data from published papers and a soil testing and fertilization project in Shaanxi province during the years 2005 to 2009 to analyze chemical fertilizer inputs and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on the farmers' level, and soil fertility change from the 1970s to the 2000s in the Loess Plateau in China. The results showed that in different regions of the province, chemical fertilizer NPK inputs and yields of wheat and maize increased. With regard to soil nutrient balance, N and P gradually changed from deficit to surplus levels, while K deficiency became more severe. In addition, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium increased during the same period. The PFP of N, NP and NPK on wheat and maize all decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s as a whole. With the increase in N fertilizer inputs, both soil total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen increased; P fertilizer increased soil available phosphorus and K fertilizer increased soil available potassium. At the same time, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium all had positive impacts on crop yields. In order to promote food safety and environmental protection, fertilizer requirements should be assessed at the farmers' level. In many cases, farmers should be encouraged to reduce nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer inputs significantly, but increase potassium fertilizer and organic manure on cereal crops as a whole. PMID:25380401

  15. Nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s through the mid-1970s and occupational radiation doses to technologists from diagnostic radioisotope procedures.

    PubMed

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B; Mettler, Fred A; Beckner, William M; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Gross, Milton D; Hays, Marguerite T; Kirchner, Peter T; Langan, James K; Reba, Richard C; Smith, Gary T; Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S; Melo, Dunstana R; Lee, Choonsik; Simon, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Data on occupational radiation exposure from nuclear medicine procedures for the time period of the 1950s through the 1970s is important for retrospective health risk studies of medical personnel who conducted those activities. However, limited information is available on occupational exposure received by physicians and technologists who performed nuclear medicine procedures during those years. To better understand and characterize historical radiation exposures to technologists, the authors collected information on nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. To collect historical data needed to reconstruct doses to technologists, a focus group interview was held with experts who began using radioisotopes in medicine in the 1950s and the 1960s. Typical protocols and descriptions of clinical practices of diagnostic radioisotope procedures were defined by the focus group and were used to estimate occupational doses received by personnel, per nuclear medicine procedure, conducted in the 1950s to 1960s using radiopharmaceuticals available at that time. The radionuclide activities in the organs of the reference patient were calculated using the biokinetic models described in ICRP Publication 53. Air kerma rates as a function of distance from a reference patient were calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using a hybrid computational phantom. Estimates of occupational doses to nuclear medicine technologists per procedure were found to vary from less than 0.01 μSv (thyroid scan with 1.85 MBq of administered I-iodide) to 0.4 μSv (brain scan with 26 MBq of Hg-chlormerodin). Occupational doses for the same diagnostic procedures starting in the mid-1960s but using Tc were also estimated. The doses estimated in this study show that the introduction of Tc resulted in an increase in occupational doses per procedure.

  16. NUCLEAR MEDICINE PRACTICES IN THE 1950s THROUGH THE mid-1970s AND OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION DOSES TO TECHNOLOGISTS FROM DIAGNOSTIC RADIOISOTOPE PROCEDURES

    PubMed Central

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B.; Mettler, Fred A.; Beckner, William M.; Goldsmith, Stanley J.; Gross, Milton D.; Hays, Marguerite T.; Kirchner, Peter T.; Langan, James K.; Reba, Richard C.; Smith, Gary T.; Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S.; Melo, Dunstana R.; Lee, Choonsik; Simon, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Data on occupational radiation exposure from nuclear medicine procedures for the time period of the 1950s through the 1970s is important for retrospective health risk studies of medical personnel who conducted those activities. However, limited information is available on occupational exposure received by physicians and technologists who performed nuclear medicine procedures during those years. To better understand and characterize historical radiation exposures to technologists, we collected information on nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. To collect historical data needed to reconstruct doses to technologists, a focus group interview was held with experts who began using radioisotopes in medicine in the 1950s and the 1960s. Typical protocols and descriptions of clinical practices of diagnostic radioisotope procedures were defined by the focus group and were used to estimate occupational doses received by personnel, per nuclear medicine procedure, conducted in the 1950s-1960s using radiopharmaceuticals available at that time. The radionuclide activities in the organs of the reference patient were calculated using the biokinetic models described in ICRP Publication 53. Air kerma rates as a function of distance from a reference patient were calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using a hybrid computational phantom. Estimates of occupational doses to nuclear medicine technologists per procedure were found to vary from less than 0.01 μSv (thyroid scan with 1.85 MBq of administered 131I-iodide) to 0.4 μSv (brain scan with 26 MBq of 203Hg-chlormerodin). Occupational doses for the same diagnostic procedures starting in the mid-1960s but using 99mTc were also estimated. The doses estimated in this study show that the introduction of 99mTc resulted in an increase in occupational doses per procedure. PMID:25162420

  17. International nuclear nonproliferation pressure and Japan's domestic policy response: A comparison of plutonium utilization policies in the 1970s and the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hahn-Kyu

    1997-10-01

    This study seeks to explain Japan's different policy responses to international nuclear nonproliferation pressures in the 1970s and the 1990s. It argues that Japan's different responses were not only a consequence of the changing international environment but also the result of the changing domestic political context, specifically, the altered relationship between the government and nuclear power industry and the nature of the policymaking structure. In the 1970s, Japan met severe nonproliferation pressure from the US to stop operations at the Tokai reprocessing plant. At the time the Japanese government and nuclear power industry shared the view that Japan should develop plutonium utilization programs to enhance its energy security. There was also very weak domestic opposition to the plutonium utilization policy. With such strong domestic political base, the Japanese government was able to continue its plutonium utilization policy without major change despite the strong US pressure. In the early 1990s, Japan's shipment of plutonium from France created strong international criticisms of its plutonium programs on the nonproliferation and environment grounds. In 1994 Japan made some important changes in its plutonium utilization policy in response to the international pressures. However, the major impetus behind the policy change was the reduced commitment of the nuclear power industry to plutonium utilization programs. Antinuclear forces also expanded their participation in the policymaking process by politicizing the plutonium issue. This study hopes to contribute to the literature of Japanese political studies by explaining how the interaction between international and domestic politics affects Japanese policymaking, by examining how and when Japan's policies can change under foreign pressure, and by illuminating the more dynamic and pluralistic aspects of Japanese politics in the 1990s.

  18. Spatial and temporal variations of crop fertilization and soil fertility in the loess plateau in china from the 1970s to the 2000s.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoying; Tong, Yanan; Gao, Yimin; Gao, Pengcheng; Liu, Fen; Zhao, Zuoping; Pang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Increased fertilizer input in agricultural systems during the last few decades has resulted in large yield increases, but also in environmental problems. We used data from published papers and a soil testing and fertilization project in Shaanxi province during the years 2005 to 2009 to analyze chemical fertilizer inputs and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on the farmers' level, and soil fertility change from the 1970s to the 2000s in the Loess Plateau in China. The results showed that in different regions of the province, chemical fertilizer NPK inputs and yields of wheat and maize increased. With regard to soil nutrient balance, N and P gradually changed from deficit to surplus levels, while K deficiency became more severe. In addition, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium increased during the same period. The PFP of N, NP and NPK on wheat and maize all decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s as a whole. With the increase in N fertilizer inputs, both soil total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen increased; P fertilizer increased soil available phosphorus and K fertilizer increased soil available potassium. At the same time, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium all had positive impacts on crop yields. In order to promote food safety and environmental protection, fertilizer requirements should be assessed at the farmers' level. In many cases, farmers should be encouraged to reduce nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer inputs significantly, but increase potassium fertilizer and organic manure on cereal crops as a whole.

  19. Seed-to-seed growth of superdwarf wheat and arabidopsis using red light-emitting diodes (LED's): A report on baseline tests conducted for NASA's proposed Plant Research Unit (PRU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goins, G. D.; Yorio, N. C.; Sanwo, M. M.; Brown, C. S.

    1996-01-01

    To determine the influence of narrow-spectrum red light-emitting diodes (LED's) on plant growth and seed production, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.cv Superdwarf) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh, race Columbia) plants were grown under red LED's (peak emission 660 nm) and compared to plants grown under daylight fluorescent (white) light and red LED's supplemented with either 1 percent or 10 percent blue fluorescent (BF) light. Wheat growth under red LED's alone appeared normal, whereas Arabidopsis under red LED's alone developed curled leaf margins and a spiraling growth pattern. Both wheat and Arabidopsis under red LED's alone or red LED's + 1 percent BF light had significantly lower seed yield than plants grown under white light. However, the addition of 10 percent BF light to red LED's partially alleviated the adverse effect of red LED's on yield. Irrespective of the light treatment, viable seeds were produced by wheat(75-92 percent germination rate) and Arabidopsis (85-100 percent germination rate). These results indicate that wheat, and to a lesser extent Arabidopsis, can be successfully grown under red LED's alone, but supplemental blue light is required with red LED's to sufficiently match the growth characteristics and seed yield associated with plants grown under white light.

  20. Nobel Prize In Physics Awarded To Astronomer For NASA-Funded Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    Riccardo Giacconi, the "father of X-ray astronomy," has received the Nobel Prize in physics for "pioneering contributions to astrophysics," which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources. Giaconni, president of the Associated Universities Inc., in Washington, and Research Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, discovered the first X-ray stars and the X-ray background in the 1960s and conceived of and led the implementation of the Uhuru and High Energy Astronomy Observatory-2 (HEAO-2) X-ray observatories in the 1970s. With funding from NASA, he also detected sources of X-rays that most astronomers now consider to contain black holes. Giacconi said that receiving the award confirms the importance of X-ray astronomy. "I think I'm one of the first to get the Nobel prize for work with NASA, so that's good for NASA and I think it's also good for the field," he said. "It's also nice for all the other people who've worked in this field. I recognize that I was never alone. I'm happy for me personally, I'm happy for my family, and I'm happy for the field and for NASA," Giacconi added. In 1976, Giacconi along with Harvey Tananbaum of the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass., submitted a proposal letter to NASA to initiate the study and design of a large X-ray telescope. In 1977 work began on the program, which was then known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility and in 1998 renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory. "Partnerships with universities and scientists are essential in our quest to answer the fundamental questions of the universe," said Dr. Ed Weiler, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science, Headquarters, Washington. "Dr. Giacconi's achievements are a brilliant example of this synergy among NASA, universities and their community of scientists and students," he said. Giacconi is Principal Investigator for the ultradeep survey with Chandra - the "Chandra Deep Field South" - that has

  1. NASA Quest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    Introduces NASA Quest as part of NASA's Learning Technologies Project, which connects students to the people of NASA through the various pages at the website where students can glimpse the various types of work performed at different NASA facilities and talk to NASA workers about the type of work they do. (ASK)

  2. Riverine tot-P loading and seawater concentrations in the Baltic Sea during the 1970s to 2000-transfer function modelling based on the total runoff.

    PubMed

    Hänninen, Jari; Vuorinen, Ilppo

    2015-06-01

    The signal of climate through the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) extends to westerly weather and to the Baltic Sea river runoff (BSRR) and further to the salinity and the marine fauna in the Baltic Sea. Our working hypothesis was that increased BSRR should also lead to increasing nutrient concentrations in the seawater. In rivers, transfer function (TF) models of the loading were constructed by time series of BSRR and tot-P concentrations. Based on the loading time series, we modelled, to our knowledge, first time, seawater tot-P concentrations in both the Northern Baltic Proper and in the Gulf of Bothnia, both on the surface (0-20 m) and deeper (21-70 m) waters. Our results further suggest a unifying mechanism by the BSRR that could explain most prominent ecological changes observed in the Baltic Sea during and after the 1970s. Such changes are eutrophication (as in this paper) and decreasing salinity and growth and reproduction of marine fauna, all of which have been separately described as due to different causes. BSRR is crucial when possible future developments of the Baltic Sea environment are considered because a general opinion exists that the rainfall (and the BSRR) is expected to increase in pace with proceeding climate change.

  3. Nichelle Nichols, NASA Recruiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Actress Nichelle Nichols was born in Robbins, Illinois on December 29, 1936. She played Lieutenant Uhura the Communications Officer on the U.S.S. Enterprise in the original series, Star Trek. Nichols stayed with the show and has appeared in six Star Trek movies. Her portrayal of Uhura on Star Trek marked one of the first non-stereotypical roles assigned to an African-American actress. She also provided the voice for Lt. Uhura on the Star Trek animated series in 1974-75. Before joining the crew on Star Trek, she sang and danced with Duke Ellington's band. Nichols was always interested in space travel. She flew aboard the C-141 Astronomy Observatory, which analyzed the atmospheres of Mars and Saturn on an eight hour, high altitude mission. From the late 1970's until the late 1980's, NASA employed Nichelle Nichols to recruit new astronaut candidates. Many of her new recruits were women or members of racial and ethnic minorities, including Guion Bluford (the first African-American astronaut), Sally Ride (the first female American astronaut), Judith Resnik (one of the original set of female astronauts, who perished during the launch of the Challenger on January 28, 1986), and Ronald McNair (the second African-American astronaut, and another victim of the Challenger accident). Currently Nichelle Nichols is actively involved in movies and special appearances. She is also a spokesperson for her favorite charity, 'The Kwanzaa Foundation.'

  4. NASA International Environmental Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie; Valek, Susan

    2010-01-01

    For nearly five decades, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been preeminent in space exploration. NASA has landed Americans on the moon, robotic rovers on Mars, and led cooperative scientific endeavors among nations aboard the International Space Station. But as Earth's population increases, the environment is subject to increasing challenges and requires more efficient use of resources. International partnerships give NASA the opportunity to share its scientific and engineering expertise. They also enable NASA to stay aware of continually changing international environmental regulations and global markets for materials that NASA uses to accomplish its mission. Through international partnerships, NASA and this nation have taken the opportunity to look globally for solutions to challenges we face here on Earth. Working with other nations provides NASA with collaborative opportunities with the global science/engineering community to explore ways in which to protect our natural resources, conserve energy, reduce the use of hazardous materials in space and earthly applications, and reduce greenhouse gases that potentially affect all of Earth's inhabitants. NASA is working with an ever-expanding list of international partners including the European Union, the European Space Agency and, especially, the nation of Portugal. Our common goal is to foster a sustainable future in which partners continue to explore the universe while protecting our home planet's resources for future generations. This brochure highlights past, current, and future initiatives in several important areas of international collaboration that can bring environmental, economic, and other benefits to NASA and the wider international space community.

  5. LEDs for Efficient Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, David A.

    1978-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are described and three classroom experiments are given, one to prove the, low power requirements and efficiency of LEDs, an LED on-off detector circuit, and the third an LED photoelectric smoke detector. (BB)

  6. The New Left at California State College, Fullerton: A Case Study of the Radical New Left in a Conservative, State College Community during the 1960s & Early 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, Barry S.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact and significance of the New Left on the conservative campus and community of California State College, Fullerton (CSF) during the 1960s and early 1970s. Built to meet the demands of the Baby Boom after World War II, CSF became the latest in a series of California State campus expansions in 1959-1960.…

  7. British and American Influences on the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language from the 1950s till the 1970s Mediated by the British Council and the Council of Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundem, Bjorg B.

    A research project concerned with the development of English as a school subject in the Norwegian elementary and junior high school identifies and describes British and American influences on the theoretical climate of foreign language teaching in Western Europe from the 1950's to the 1970's. A distinct British influence, the so-called Palmer,…

  8. ST2249-MRSA-III: a second major recombinant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone causing healthcare infection in the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Nimmo, G R; Steen, J A; Monecke, S; Ehricht, R; Slickers, P; Thomas, J C; Appleton, S; Goering, R V; Robinson, D A; Coombs, G W

    2015-05-01

    Typing of healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Australia in the 1970s revealed a novel clone, ST2249-MRSA-III (CC45), present from 1973 to 1979. This clone was present before the Australian epidemic caused by the recombinant clone, ST239-MRSA-III. This study aimed to characterize the genome of ST2249-MRSA-III to establish its relationship to other MRSA clones. DNA microarray analysis was conducted and a draft genome sequence of ST2249 was obtained. The recombinant structure of the ST2249 genome was revealed by comparisons to publicly available ST239 and ST45 genomes. Microarray analysis of genomic DNA of 13 ST2249 isolates showed gross similarities with the ST239 chromosome in a segment around the origin of replication and with ST45 for the remainder of the chromosome. Recombination breakpoints were precisely determined by the changing pattern of nucleotide polymorphisms in the genome sequence of ST2249 isolate SK1585 compared with ST239 and ST45. One breakpoint was identified to the right of oriC, between sites 1014 and 1065 of the gene D484_00045. Another was identified to the left of oriC, between sites 1185 and 1248 of D484_01632. These results indicate that ST2249 inherited approximately 35.3% of its chromosome from an ST239-like parent and 64.7% from an ST45-like parent. ST2249-MRSA-III resulted from a major recombination between parents that resemble ST239 and ST45. Although only limited Australian archival material is available, the oldest extant isolate of ST2249 predates the oldest Australian isolate of ST239 by 3 years. It is therefore plausible that these two recombinant clones were introduced into Australia separately.

  9. Education News at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA s challenging missions provide unique opportunities for engaging and educating America s youth, the next generation of explorers. Led by Chief Education Officer Dr. Adena Williams Loston, the Agency coordinates education programs for students, faculty, and institutions in order to help inspire and motivate the scientists and engineers of the future.

  10. My Career at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibley, Ryan P.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the presenter at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. He describes what he does, the projects that he has worked on and the background that led him to his position. The presentation has many pictures of aircraft in flight

  11. The NASA Technical Report Server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M. L.; Gottlich, G. L.; Bianco, D. J.; Paulson, S. S.; Binkley, R. L.; Kellogg, Y. D.; Beaumont, C. J.; Schmunk, R. B.; Kurtz, M. J.; Accomazzi, A.; Syed, O.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and charged it to "provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning...its activities and the results thereof". The search for innovative methods to distribute NASA's information led a grass-roots team to create the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS), which uses the World Wide Web and other popular Internet-based information systems .

  12. NASA's Radio Frequency Bolt Monitor: A Lifetime of Spinoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This story begins in the 1970s, when Dr. Joseph Heyman, a young scientist at NASA s Langley Research Center, was asked to support the investigation of a wind tunnel accident at a sister center. Although the work was outside of his physics background, it sparked a research focus that guided his lengthy NASA career and would earn him a slew of accolades, including NASA s highest award medals for Exceptional Leadership, Exceptional Achievement, and Exceptional Service; the coveted Silver Snoopy Astronaut Award for Space Shuttle Return to Flight; and the Arthur Fleming Award for being one of the Top Ten Federal Scientists in Government Service. He won 30 additional NASA awards, including the Agency s Invention of the Year and the Agency s highest award for technology transfer, and was the only person to ever win 4 R&D 100 Awards. Back in 1973, though, Heyman was a young civil servant with a background in physics who was asked to sit on an accident review panel. The panel met at Ames Research Center, in Moffet Field, California, and after considerable investigation, concluded that a high-pressure pebble heater used for heating gas had failed, due to improperly tightened bolts in a 1,000-pound gate valve control section. The accident showered the facility with incendiary ceramic spheres and nearly a ton of metal, but, luckily, caused no injuries. Heyman returned to Langley and began work on a solution. He developed an ultrasonic device that would measure bolt elongation, as opposed to torque, the factor typically measured in testing bolt preload or tension. Torque measurement can lead to load errors, with miscalculations as high as 80 percent that can be passed over during installation. Bolt stretch, however, is nearly always accurate to 1 percent or better. Within 1 month, he had an acoustic resonance solution that accurately determined bolt elongation. He assumed his work on this project had ended, but it was actually the start of nearly 15 years of work perfecting

  13. NASA Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffner, Edwin J.

    2007-01-01

    The Earth Science Division supports research projects that exploit the observations and measurements acquired by NASA Earth Observing missions and Applied Sciences projects that extend NASA research to the broader user community and address societal needs.

  14. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator (BTR) holds fixed tissue culture bags at 4 degrees C to preserve them for return to Earth and postflight analysis. The cultures are used in research with the NASA Bioreactor cell science program. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  15. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2005-01-01

    NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft (manned or unmanned) launched that did not have a computer on board that provided vital command and control services. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Led by the NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard (STD-18l9.13B) has recently undergone a significant update in an attempt to provide that consistency. This paper will discuss the key features of the new NASA Software Safety Standard. It will start with a brief history of the use and development of software in safety critical applications at NASA. It will then give a brief overview of the NASA Software Working Group and the approach it took to revise the software engineering process across the Agency.

  16. NASA Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, David; Wetzel, Scott

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Network includes nine NASA operated and partner operated stations covering North America, the west coast of South America, the Pacific, and Western Australia . A new station is presently being setup in South Africa and discussions are underway to add another station in Argentina. NASA SLR operations are supported by Honeywell Technical Solutions, Inc (HTSI), formally AlliedSignal Technical Services, The University of Texas, the University of Hawaii and Universidad Nacional de San Agustin.

  17. Innovation @ NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the activities National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is doing to encourage innovation across the agency. All information provided is available publicly.

  18. NASA Solve

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Solve lists opportunities available to the general public to contribute to solving tough problems related to NASA’s mission through challenges, prize competitions, and crowdsourcing activities...

  19. LED Color Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Color quality is an important consideration when evaluating LED-based products for general illumination. This fact sheet reviews the basics regarding light and color and summarizes the most important color issues related to white-light LED systems.

  20. Technological Innovations from NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.

    2006-01-01

    The challenge of human space exploration places demands on technology that push concepts and development to the leading edge. In biotechnology and biomedical equipment development, NASA science has been the seed for numerous innovations, many of which are in the commercial arena. The biotechnology effort has led to rational drug design, analytical equipment, and cell culture and tissue engineering strategies. Biomedical research and development has resulted in medical devices that enable diagnosis and treatment advances. NASA Biomedical developments are exemplified in the new laser light scattering analysis for cataracts, the axial flow left ventricular-assist device, non contact electrocardiography, and the guidance system for LASIK surgery. Many more developments are in progress. NASA will continue to advance technologies, incorporating new approaches from basic and applied research, nanotechnology, computational modeling, and database analyses.

  1. NASA DEVELOP students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA DEVELOP students at Stennis Space Center recently held a midterm review with George Crozier, who serves as a science adviser to the team. The team also was joined by Jamie Favors of the Mobile (Ala.) County Health Department DEVELOP Team; Cheri Miller, the team's NASA adviser; and Kenton Ross, a team science adviser. Students participating in the meeting included: Lauren Childs, Jason Jones, Maddie Brozen, Matt Batina, Jenn Frey, Angie Maki and Aaron Brooks. The primary purpose of the meeting was to update Crozier on the status of the team's work for the summer 2008 term and discuss plans for the fiscal year 2009 project proposal. This included discussion of a possible project to study the effects of hurricanes on the Florida panhandle. DEVELOP is a NASA-sponsored, student-led, student-run program focused on developing projects to help communities.

  2. LEDs in automotive lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Karsten

    2006-02-01

    Light emitting diodes (LED) are becoming more and more significant in interior and exterior automotive lighting. The long service life, energy and space savings, shock and vibration resistance and new styling potential are the main advantages of using LEDs in automotive applications. Today, most central high mounted stop lamps use LEDs. In rear combination lamps the number of LEDs in amber and red is increasing rapidly. This year, a first rear combination lamp using LEDs for all functionalities including the back-up lamp function was realized. In addition, first signal functions in headlamps using white High Power LEDs were launched onto the market. The long service life characteristic makes LEDs especially predestined for the DRL function combined with the position/parking light. Exterior automotive applications, including requirements and performance will be discussed and an outlook will be given on future scenarios.

  3. LED Device Illuminates New Path to Healing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Among NASA s research goals is increased understanding of factors affecting plant growth, including the effects of microgravity. Impeding such studies, traditional light sources used to grow plants on Earth are difficult to adapt to space flight, as they require considerable amounts of power and produce relatively large amounts of heat. As such, an optimized experimental system requires much less energy and reduces temperature variance without negatively affecting plant growth results. Ronald W. Ignatius, founder and chairman of the board at Quantum Devices Inc. (QDI), of Barneveld, Wisconsin, proposed using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as the photon source for plant growth experiments in space. This proposition was made at a meeting held by the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics, a NASA-sponsored research center that facilitates the commercialization of robotics, automation, and other advanced technologies. The Wisconsin group teamed with QDI to determine whether an LED system could provide the necessary wavelengths and intensities for photosynthesis, and the resultant system proved successful. The center then produced the Astroculture3, a plant growth chamber that successfully incorporated this LED light source, which has now flown on several space shuttle missions. NASA subsequently identified another need that could be addressed with the use of LEDs: astronaut health. A central concern in astronaut health is maintaining healthy growth of cells, including preventing bone and muscle loss and boosting the body s ability to heal wounds all adversely affected by prolonged weightlessness. Thus, having determined that LEDs can be used to grow plants in space, NASA decided to investigate whether LEDs might be used for photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT).

  4. LED champing: statistically blessed?

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo

    2015-06-10

    LED champing (smart mixing of individual LEDs to match the desired color and lumens) and color mixing strategies have been widely used to maintain the color consistency of light engines. Light engines with champed LEDs can easily achieve the color consistency of a couple MacAdam steps with widely distributed LEDs to begin with. From a statistical point of view, the distributions for the color coordinates and the flux after champing are studied. The related statistical parameters are derived, which facilitate process improvements such as Six Sigma and are instrumental to statistical quality control for mass productions. PMID:26192863

  5. NASA Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, Mary (Editor); Wood, Jennifer (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This newsletter contains several articles, primarily on International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers and their activities, as well as the activities of NASA administrators. Other subjects covered in the articles include the investigation of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, activities at NASA centers, Mars exploration, a collision avoidance test on a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The ISS articles cover landing in a Soyuz capsule, photography from the ISS, and the Expedition Seven crew.

  6. Diodes stabilize LED output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deters, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Small-signal diodes are placed in series with light-emitting diodes (LED's) to stabilize LED output against temperature fluctuations. Simple inexpensive method compensates for thermal fluctuations over a broad temperature range. Requiring few components, technique is particularly useful where circuit-board space is limited.

  7. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  8. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  9. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  10. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  11. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  12. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  13. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  14. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  15. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  16. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  17. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  18. LEDs Are Diodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisensky, George C.; Condren, S. Michael; Widstrand, Cynthia G.; Breitzer, Jonathan; Ellis, Arthur B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity comparing incandescent bulbs and LEDs powered by dc and ac voltage sources to illustrate properties of matter and the interactions of energy and matter. Includes both instructor information and student activity sheet. (Author/YDS)

  19. Modeling LED street lighting.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ivan; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Saucedo-A, Tonatiuh; Bugarin, Alejandra

    2014-07-10

    LED luminaires may deliver precise illumination patterns to control light pollution, comfort, visibility, and light utilization efficiency. Here, we provide simple equations to determine how the light distributes in the streets. In particular, we model the illuminance spatial distribution as a function of Cartesian coordinates on a floor, road, or street. The equations show explicit dependence on the luminary position (pole height and arm length), luminary angle (fixture tilt), and the angular intensity profile (radiation pattern) of the LED luminary. To achieve this, we propose two mathematical representations to model the sophisticated intensity profiles of LED luminaries. Furthermore, we model the light utilization efficiency, illumination uniformity, and veiling luminance of glare due to one or several LED streetlamps.

  20. Energy Efficiency of LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet on energy efficiency of LEDs, characterizing the current state of the market and discussing package efficacy, luminaire efficacy, and application efficacy.

  1. White LED performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yimin; Narendran, Nadarajah; Freyssinier, Jean Paul

    2004-10-01

    Two life tests were conducted to compare the effects of drive current and ambient temperature on the degradation rate of 5 mm and high-flux white LEDs. Tests of 5 mm white LED arrays showed that junction temperature increases produced by drive current had a greater effect on the rate of light output degradation than junction temperature increases from ambient heat. A preliminary test of high-flux white LEDs showed the opposite effect, with junction temperature increases from ambient heat leading to a faster depreciation. However, a second life test is necessary to verify this finding. The dissimilarity in temperature effect among 5 mm and high-flux LEDs is likely caused by packaging differences between the two device types.

  2. NASA Dryden - 'We Turn Ideas into Reality'

    NASA Video Gallery

    This fast-paced video, led off by comments from NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's director David McBride before a group of students, highlights some of the unique aircraft, flight research proje...

  3. LED flicker pulsing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Mark A.; Cote, Paul J.

    2001-08-01

    There is need to replace hazardous radioluminescent light sources with a means of illumination that is environmentally friendly. This paper describes an electronic source that was developed as a potential candidate to replace low intensity tritium in a military system. It employs an LED for illumination and a 3-volt coin cell battery as a power source. This new light source is electronically invisible, requires minimal maintenance, and provides the lowest practical illumination to preclude detection by optical means. The low intensity requires that the LED be driven at DC current levels resulting in poor luminous efficiency. Therefore, in an effort to maximize battery life, the LED is pulsed into a more optically efficient mode of operation. However, conventional pulsing techniques are not employed because of concerns the electronics could be identified by conspicuous power spectral density (PSD) components in the electromagnetic spectrum generated by a pulsed LED. Therefore, flicker noise concepts have been employed to efficiently drive the LED while generating a virtually undetectable spectral signature. Although ideally the pulse durations, magnitudes, and spacings should be random, a significant reduction in conspicuous PSD components can be achieved when imposing practical constraints. The dominant components of the power spectrum are significantly reduced using fixed pulse durations and magnitudes while varying only the pulse spacing. The mean duty cycle is set to provide the same effective illumination as DC operation while generating a PSD normally associated with natural phenomena.

  4. NASA Astrophysics Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    July 2010, NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) initiated an activity to create and maintain a NASA integrated roadmap for 15 key technology areas which recommend an overall technology investment strategy and prioritize NASA?s technology programs to meet NASA?s strategic goals. Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems(SIOSS) roadmap addresses technology needs to achieve NASA?s highest priority objectives -- not only for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), but for all of NASA.

  5. NASA Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deardorff, Glenn; Djomehri, M. Jahed; Freeman, Ken; Gambrel, Dave; Green, Bryan; Henze, Chris; Hinke, Thomas; Hood, Robert; Kiris, Cetin; Moran, Patrick; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A series of NASA presentations for the Supercomputing 2001 conference are summarized. The topics include: (1) Mars Surveyor Landing Sites "Collaboratory"; (2) Parallel and Distributed CFD for Unsteady Flows with Moving Overset Grids; (3) IP Multicast for Seamless Support of Remote Science; (4) Consolidated Supercomputing Management Office; (5) Growler: A Component-Based Framework for Distributed/Collaborative Scientific Visualization and Computational Steering; (6) Data Mining on the Information Power Grid (IPG); (7) Debugging on the IPG; (8) Debakey Heart Assist Device: (9) Unsteady Turbopump for Reusable Launch Vehicle; (10) Exploratory Computing Environments Component Framework; (11) OVERSET Computational Fluid Dynamics Tools; (12) Control and Observation in Distributed Environments; (13) Multi-Level Parallelism Scaling on NASA's Origin 1024 CPU System; (14) Computing, Information, & Communications Technology; (15) NAS Grid Benchmarks; (16) IPG: A Large-Scale Distributed Computing and Data Management System; and (17) ILab: Parameter Study Creation and Submission on the IPG.

  6. Increased Efficiency LED

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio O. (Inventor); Rogowski, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    In an LED a large portion of the light produced is lost due to total internal reflection at the air-semiconductor interface. A reverse taper of the semiconductor is used to change the angle at which light strikes the interface so that a greater portion of the light is transmitted.

  7. Improved performance white LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narendran, Nadarajah

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes work leading to the development of a new packaging method for white LEDs, called scattered photon extraction (SPE). Previous work by our group showed that the traditional placement of the phosphor close to the die negatively affects the overall luminous efficacy and lumen maintenance of phosphor-converted white LEDs. The new SPE method enables higher luminous efficacy by placing the phosphor at a remote location from the die and by shaping the lens surrounding the die to extract a significant portion of the back-transferred light before it is absorbed by packaging components. Although the remote phosphor concept is not new, SPE is the first method to demonstrate efficient extraction of back-transferred light and show over 60 percent improvement in light output and efficacy compared to similar commercial white LEDs. At low currents, the prototype white LEDs based on the SPE technique showed over 80 lumens per watt. The SPE concept was tried on two types of commercial packages and both showed similar improvements.

  8. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft launched that does not have a computer on board that will provide command and control services. There have been recent incidents where software has played a role in high-profile mission failures and hazardous incidents. For example, the Mars Orbiter, Mars Polar Lander, the DART (Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology), and MER (Mars Exploration Rover) Spirit anomalies were all caused or contributed to by software. The Mission Control Centers for the Shuttle, ISS, and unmanned programs are highly dependant on software for data displays, analysis, and mission planning. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been little to no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Meanwhile, academia and private industry have been stepping forward with procedures and standards for safety critical systems and software, for example Dr. Nancy Leveson's book Safeware: System Safety and Computers. The NASA Software Safety Standard, originally published in 1997, was widely ignored due to its complexity and poor organization. It also focused on concepts rather than definite procedural requirements organized around a software project lifecycle. Led by NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard has recently undergone a significant update. This new standard provides the procedures and guidelines for evaluating a project for safety criticality and then lays out the minimum project lifecycle requirements to assure the software is created, operated, and maintained in the safest possible manner. This update of the standard clearly delineates the minimum set of software safety requirements for a project without detailing the implementation for those

  9. A History of NASA Remote Sensing Contributions to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2010-01-01

    During its long history of developing and deploying remote sensing instruments, NASA has provided a scientific data that have benefitted a variety of scientific applications among them archaeology. Multispectral and hyperspectral instrument mounted on orbiting and suborbital platforms have provided new and important information for the discovery, delineation and analysis of archaeological sites worldwide. Since the early 1970s, several of the ten NASA centers have collaborated with archaeologists to refine and validate the use of active and passive remote sensing for archeological use. The Stennis Space Center (SSC), located in Mississippi USA has been the NASA leader in archeological research. Together with colleagues from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), SSC scientists have provided the archaeological community with useful images and sophisticated processing that have pushed the technological frontiers of archaeological research and applications. Successful projects include identifying prehistoric roads in Chaco canyon, identifying sites from the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery exploration and assessing prehistoric settlement patterns in southeast Louisiana. The Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) stimulated commercial companies to collect archaeological data. At present, NASA formally solicits "space archaeology" proposals through its Earth Science Directorate and continues to assist archaeologists and cultural resource managers in doing their work more efficiently and effectively. This paper focuses on passive remote sensing and does not consider the significant contributions made by NASA active sensors. Hyperspectral data offers new opportunities for future archeological discoveries.

  10. Design of Knight LED system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wen; Lou, Yuna; Xiao, Zhihong

    2010-02-01

    This design introduces a used car on the design of LED decorative light strip. This LED named Knight LED. In This system we use ATMEGA8 as the Master MCU Chip. Through the microcontroller to implement the wireless remote control receiver and the LED lights of different modes of switching, different brightness control. Also we use ULN2803 as the LED driver.

  11. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  12. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  13. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  14. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  15. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

  16. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  17. Aeronautics in NACA and NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Initiated in 1915, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NACA/NASA) aeronautical programs have been the keystone of a sustained U.S. Government, industry, and university research effort which has been a primary factor in the development of our remarkable air transportation systems, the country's largest positive trade balance component, and the world's finest military Air Force. This overview summarizes the flow of events, and the major trends, that have led from the NACA origins to the present NASA Aeronautics program, and indicates some important directions for the years ahead.

  18. Black Families in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert B.

    1980-01-01

    Demonstrates that the number of low income or "underclass" Black families has increased over the past decade, while the proportion of low income Black families in the general population has remained relatively unchanged. However, there does not seem to be a widening economic cleavage within the Black community itself. (Author/GC)

  19. NATIS: The Theme for the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Stephen

    1975-01-01

    A member of the British delegation to the Intergovernmental Conference on the Planning of National Documentation, Library and Archives Infrastructures (Paris, September 1974) gives his views on the results of the conference and its implications for the future development of national information systems. (Author/PF)

  20. Superluminescent LED (SLED) study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olshansky, Robert

    1986-11-01

    This is the final report for a contract to develop superluminescent LEDs (SLEDs) for use with graded-index multimode fibers. The basic technical objective is to develop a SLED which can couple at least 500 micro W to power into a standard 0.20 NA 50-um core graded-index fiber at a drive current not exceeding 200 milli A. The program objectives have been met and exceeded. Three devices mounted in a standard package with thermo-electric cooler (TEC) and graded-index fiber pigtail have been shipped to the customer.

  1. Phytoremediation of Indoor Air: NASA, Bill Wolverton, and the Development of an Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    It was during this period of the early 1970's and 1980's when the issues associated with Sick Building Syndrome were gaining attention that the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) became an unlikely leader in identifying biological solutions to the problem of poor indoor air quality. NASA had been supporting work using biological systems for atmospheric regeneration since the 1950's, with the emphasis on using photosynthetic systems for the removal of carbon dioxide and regeneration of oxygen as part of a life support system. The then Soviet Union was conducting tests using algae systems in the BIO-1 program (1964-1968) to regenerate the air at the Siberian Branch of the Soviet Academy of Sciences in Krasnoyarsk (Later renamed the Institute of Biophysics). These tests were expanded to include the use of higher plants in the BIOS-2 testing in the 1970's, and humans during BIO-3 in the 1980'SI3. Within NASA, large scale testing of bioregenerative life support systems was conducted in the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) at Kennedy Space Center, Florida as part of the Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) Breadboard project.

  2. An updated history of NACA/NASA rotary-wing aircraft research 1915-1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J.

    1984-01-01

    Highlights are drawn from 'A History of NACA/NASA Rotating-Wing Aircraft Research, 1915-1970' by F. Gustafson to build an historical base upon which to build an extension from 1970-1984. Fundamental changes in how NASA conducted rotary-wing research in the early 1970s included an increasing level of contract research and closer ties with research conducted by the U.S. Army. The work done at the Army Research Laboratories at Ames, Langley, and Lewis Research Centers during 1970-1976 is briefly reviewed. In 1976 the Ames Research Center was assigned the Lead Center responsibility for helicopter research, though Langley retained research roles in structures, noise, dynamics, and aeroelasticity in support of rotorcraft. By 1984, NASA Rotorcraft Program Funding reached $35 million per year.

  3. LEDs Illuminate Bulbs for Better Sleep, Wake Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Life on the International Space Station (ISS) wreaks havoc on an astronaut’s biological rhythms, and one way NASA mitigates the problem is through the use of LED lighting to alternately stimulate energy and focus and induce relaxation. Satellite Beach, Florida-based Lighting Science partnered with Kennedy Space Center to commercialize an LED system designed for the ISS, resulting in its DefinityDigital product line of light bulbs now used in numerous homes, hotel chains, and resorts.

  4. Rotorcraft Research at the NASA Vertical Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aponso, Bimal Lalith; Tran, Duc T.; Schroeder, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    In the 1970 s the role of the military helicopter evolved to encompass more demanding missions including low-level nap-of-the-earth flight and operation in severely degraded visual environments. The Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at the NASA Ames Research Center was built to provide a high-fidelity simulation capability to research new rotorcraft concepts and technologies that could satisfy these mission requirements. The VMS combines a high-fidelity large amplitude motion system with an adaptable simulation environment including interchangeable and configurable cockpits. In almost 30 years of operation, rotorcraft research on the VMS has contributed significantly to the knowledge-base on rotorcraft performance, handling qualities, flight control, and guidance and displays. These contributions have directly benefited current rotorcraft programs and flight safety. The high fidelity motion system in the VMS was also used to research simulation fidelity. This research provided a fundamental understanding of pilot cueing modalities and their effect on simulation fidelity.

  5. NASA #801 and NASA 7 on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA N801NA and NASA 7 together on the NASA Dryden ramp. The Beechcraft Beech 200 Super KingAir aircraft N7NA, known as NASA 7, has been a support aircraft for many years, flying 'shuttle' missions to Ames Research Center. It once flew from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and back each day but now (2001) flies between the Dryden Flight Research Center and Ames. A second Beechcraft Beech 200 Super King Air, N701NA, redesignated N801NA, transferred to Dryden on 3 Oct. 1997 and is used for research missions but substitutes for NASA 7 on shuttle missions when NASA 7 is not available.

  6. NASA Mission: The Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is mainly a recruitment tool for the various NASA Centers. This well illustrated booklet briefly describes NASA's mission and career opportunities on the NASA team. NASA field installations and their missions are briefly noted. NASA's four chief program offices are briefly described. They are: (1) Aeronautics, Exploration, and Space Technology; (2) Space Flight; (3) Space Operations; and (4) Space Science and Applications.

  7. Working at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Adam

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the author's educational and work background prior to working at NASA. It then presents an overview of NASA Dryden, a brief review of the author's projects while working at NASA, and some closing thoughts.

  8. NASA - Beyond Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Courtenay

    2016-01-01

    NASA is able to achieve human spaceflight goals in partnership with international and commercial teams by establishing common goals and building connections. Presentation includes photographs from NASA missions - on orbit, in Mission Control, and at other NASA facilities.

  9. NASA project 1: Full-body dynamometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Li-Dai

    1993-01-01

    In space, where the body does only a fraction of work it does on earth, muscle atrophy is a major concern. The bones and the muscles will begin to deteriorate after a short stay in weightlessness. Bone decalcification appears to be a major problem with extensive living in microgravity. Resistance exercise is not only essential to prevent muscle atrophy in space, it also helps to keep bone decalcification in check. For a space station, where the astronauts are expected to live for months at a time, exercise is especially important. Experts recommend about an hour and a half to two hours of exercise per day to keep the muscles in good condition in microgravity. The exercises will not only keep the astronauts in excellent physical condition, it will also make it easier for them to readjust to earth's gravity on return. The stationary bicycle and the treadmill have been the astronauts' primary sources of exercise since the 1970's. The major problem with both the stationary bicycle and the treadmill is that while they may keep the leg muscles from deteriorating in microgravity, they do little for muscles in the upper body. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing a full-body dynamometer (FBD), which will provide the astronauts with a full-body workout. It will also test the astronauts for muscle atrophy and rehabilitate the weakened muscle. The specification and the function structure for the FBD is presented.

  10. NASA's Space Launch Initiative Targets Toxic Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric; McNeal, Curtis; Davis, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When manned and unmanned space flight first began, the clear and overriding design consideration was performance. Consequently, propellant combinations of all kinds were considered, tested, and, when they lifted the payload a kilometer higher, or an extra kilogram to the same altitude, they became part of our operational inventory. Cost was not considered. And with virtually all of the early work being performed by the military, safety was hardly a consideration. After all, fighting wars has always been dangerous. Those days are past now. With space flight, and the products of space flight, a regular part of our lives today, safety and cost are being reexamined. NASA's focus turns naturally to its Shuttle Space Transportation System. Designed, built, and flown for the first time in the 1970s, this system remains today America's workhorse for manned space flight. Without its tremendous lift capability and mission flexibility, the International Space Station would not exist. And the Hubble telescope would be a monument to shortsighted management, rather than the clear penetrating eye on the stars it is today. But the Shuttle system fully represents the design philosophy of its period: it is too costly to operate, and not safe enough for regular long term access to space. And one of the key reasons is the utilization of toxic propellants. This paper will present an overview of the utilization of toxic propellants on the current Shuttle system.

  11. Selling to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This handbook is designed to promote a better understanding of NASA's interests and the process of doing business with NASA. The document is divided into the following sections: (1) this is NASA; (2) the procurement process; (3) marketing your capabilities; (4) special assistance programs; (5) NASA field installations; (6) sources of additional help; (7) listing of NASA small/minority business personnel; and (8) NASA organization chart.

  12. NASA metrication activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlannes, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's organization and policy for metrification, history from 1964, NASA participation in Federal agency activities, interaction with nongovernmental metrication organizations, and the proposed metrication assessment study are reviewed.

  13. NASA Crew and Cargo Launch Vehicle Development Approach Builds on Lessons from Past and Present Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The United States (US) Vision for Space Exploration, announced in January 2004, outlines the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) strategic goals and objectives, including retiring the Space Shuttle and replacing it with new space transportation systems for missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that the new human-rated Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) lofts into space early next decade will initially ferry astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) Toward the end of the next decade, a heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) will deliver the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) carrying the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) to low-Earth orbit (LEO), where it will rendezvous with the CEV launched on the CLV and return astronauts to the Moon for the first time in over 30 years. This paper outlines how NASA is building these new space transportation systems on a foundation of legacy technical and management knowledge, using extensive experience gained from past and ongoing launch vehicle programs to maximize its design and development approach, with the objective of reducing total life cycle costs through operational efficiencies such as hardware commonality. For example, the CLV in-line configuration is composed of a 5-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB), which is an upgrade of the current Space Shuttle 4- segment RSRB, and a new upper stage powered by the liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) J-2X engine, which is an evolution of the J-2 engine that powered the Apollo Program s Saturn V second and third stages in the 1960s and 1970s. The CaLV configuration consists of a propulsion system composed of two 5-segment RSRBs and a 33- foot core stage that will provide the LOX/LED needed for five commercially available RS-68 main engines. The J-2X also will power the EDS. The Exploration Launch Projects, managed by the Exploration Launch Office located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, is leading the design

  14. The NASA teleconferencing system: An evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, M. M.; Lindsey, G.; Miller, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    The communication requirements of the Apollo project led to the development of a teleconferencing network which linked together, in an audio-fax mode, the several NASA centers and supporting contractors of the Apollo project. The usefulness of this communication linkage for the Apollo project suggested that the system might be extended to include all NASA centers, enabling them to conduct their in-house business more efficiently than by traveling to other centers. A pilot project was run in which seventeen NASA center and subcenters, some with multiple facilities, were connected into the NASA teleconferencing network. During that year, costs were charted and, at the end of the year, an evaluation was made to determine how the system had been used and with what results. The year-end evaluation of the use of NASA teleconferencing system is summarized.

  15. Status of NASA's Assessment of Satellite Servicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thronson, Harley A., Jr.; Ahmed, M.; Townsend, J.; Whipple, A.; Oegerle, W.

    2010-01-01

    Following recommendations by the National Research Council, NASA's Authorization Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-422) and the FiscalYear 2009 Omnibus Appropriations Act directed NASA to assess the feasibility of using the planned human spaceflight architecture to service existing and future observatory-class scientific spacecraft. This interest in space servicing, either with astronauts and/or with robots, reflects the decades-long success that NASA has achieved with the Space Shuttle program and the Hubble Space Telescope on behalf of the international astronomical community. This study is led by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and will last about a year, leading to an assessment report to NASA and the science communities. We will report on the status of this study, progress toward goals, workshops, and priorities for the next few months.

  16. Deep UV LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jung; Amano, Hiroshi; Schowalter, Leo

    2014-06-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) photons interact strongly with a broad range of chemical and biological molecules; compact DUV light sources could enable a wide range of applications in chemi/bio-sensing, sterilization, agriculture, and industrial curing. The much shorter wavelength also results in useful characteristics related to optical diffraction (for lithography) and scattering (non-line-of-sight communication). The family of III-N (AlGaInN) compound semiconductors offers a tunable energy gap from infrared to DUV. While InGaN-based blue light emitters have been the primary focus for the obvious application of solid state lighting, there is a growing interest in the development of efficient UV and DUV light-emitting devices. In the past few years we have witnessed an increasing investment from both government and industry sectors to further the state of DUV light-emitting devices. The contributions in Semiconductor Science and Technology 's special issue on DUV devices provide an up-to-date snapshot covering many relevant topics in this field. Given the expected importance of bulk AlN substrate in DUV technology, we are pleased to include a review article by Hartmann et al on the growth of AlN bulk crystal by physical vapour transport. The issue of polarization field within the deep ultraviolet LEDs is examined in the article by Braut et al. Several commercial companies provide useful updates in their development of DUV emitters, including Nichia (Fujioka et al ), Nitride Semiconductors (Muramoto et al ) and Sensor Electronic Technology (Shatalov et al ). We believe these articles will provide an excellent overview of the state of technology. The growth of AlGaN heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy, in contrast to the common organo-metallic vapour phase epitaxy, is discussed by Ivanov et al. Since hexagonal boron nitride (BN) has received much attention as both a UV and a two-dimensional electronic material, we believe it serves readers well to include the

  17. NASA's Space Launch System Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.; Lyles, Garry M.; Beaman, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Exploration beyond Earth orbit will be an enduring legacy for future generations, as it provides a platform for science and exploration that will define new knowledge and redefine known boundaries. NASA s Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is responsible for designing and developing the first exploration-class rocket since the Apollo Program s Saturn V that sent Americans to the Moon in the 1960s and 1970s. The SLS offers a flexible design that may be configured for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle with associated life-support equipment and provisions for long journeys or may be outfitted with a payload fairing that will accommodate flagship science instruments and a variety of high-priority experiments. Building on legacy systems, facilities, and expertise, the SLS will have an initial lift capability of 70 tonnes (t) in 2017 and will be evolvable to 130 t after 2021. While commercial launch vehicle providers service the International Space Station market, this capability will surpass all vehicles, past and present, providing the means to do entirely new missions, such as human exploration of Mars. Building on the foundation laid by over 50 years of human and scientific space flight and on the lessons learned from the Apollo, Space Shuttle, and Constellation Programs the SLS team is delivering both technical trade studies and business case analyses to ensure that the SLS architecture will be safe, affordable, reliable, and sustainable. This panel will address the planning and progress being made by NASA s SLS Program.

  18. A Summary of Closed Brayton Cycle Development Activities at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2009-01-01

    NASA has been involved in the development of Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) power conversion technology since the 1960's. CBC systems can be coupled to reactor, isotope, or solar heat sources and offer the potential for high efficiency, long life, and scalability to high power. In the 1960's and 1970's, NASA and industry developed the 10 kW Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU) and the 2 kW mini-BRU demonstrating technical feasibility and performance, In the 1980's, a 25 kW CBC Solar Dynamic (SD) power system option was developed for Space Station Freedom and the technology was demonstrated in the 1990's as part of the 2 kW SO Ground Test Demonstration (GTD). Since the early 2000's, NASA has been pursuing CBC technology for space reactor applications. Before it was cancelled, the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (HMO) mission was considering a 100 kWclass CBC system coupled to a gas-cooled fission reactor. Currently, CBC technology is being explored for Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems to provide base power on the moon and Mars. These recent activities have resulted in several CBC-related technology development projects including a 50 kW Alternator Test Unit, a 20 kW Dual Brayton Test Loop, a 2 kW Direct Drive Gas Brayton Test Loop, and a 12 kW FSP Power Conversion Unit design.

  19. PA-30 Twin Comanche - NASA 808 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Dryden Flight Research Center's Piper PA-30 Twin Commanche, which helped validate the RPRV concept, descends to a remotely controlled landing on Rogers Dry Lake, unassisted by the onboard pilot. A Piper PA-30 Twin Commanche, known as NASA 808, was used at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center as a rugged workhorse in a variety of research projects associated with both general aviation and military projects. In the early 1970s, the PA-30, serial number 301498, was used to test a flight technique used to fly Remotely Piloted Research Vehicles (RPRV's). The technique was first tested with the cockpit windows of the light aircraft blacked out while the pilot flew the aircraft utilizing a television monitor which gave him a 'pilot's eye' view ahead of the aircraft. Later pilots flew the aircraft from a ground cockpit, a procedure used with all RPRV's. TV and two-way telemetry allow the pilot to be in constant control of the aircraft. The apparatus mounted over the cockpit is a special fish eye lens camera, used to obtain images that are transmitted to the ground based cockpit. This project paved the way for sophisticated, highly successful research programs involving high risk spin, stall, and flight control conditions, such as the HiMAT and the subscale F-15 remotely piloted vehicles. Over the years, NASA 808 has also been used for spin and stall research related to general aviation aircraft and also research to alleviate wake vortices behind large jetliners.

  20. Modernization of the NASA scientific and technical information program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Hunter, Judy F.; Ostergaard, K.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program utilizes a technology infrastructure assembled in the mid 1960s to late 1970s to process and disseminate its information products. When this infrastructure was developed it placed NASA as a leader in processing STI. The retrieval engine for the STI database was the first of its kind and was used as the basis for developing commercial, other U.S., and foreign government agency retrieval systems. Due to the combination of changes in user requirements and the tremendous increase in technological capabilities readily available in the marketplace, this infrastructure is no longer the most cost-effective or efficient methodology available. Consequently, the NASA STI Program is pursuing a modernization effort that applies new technology to current processes to provide near-term benefits to the user. In conjunction with this activity, we are developing a long-term modernization strategy designed to transition the Program to a multimedia, global 'library without walls.' Critical pieces of the long-term strategy include streamlining access to sources of STI by using advances in computer networking and graphical user interfaces; creating and disseminating technical information in various electronic media including optical disks, video, and full text; and establishing a Technology Focus Group to maintain a current awareness of emerging technology and to plan for the future.

  1. Review of NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    NASA has planned a supercomputer for computational fluid dynamics research since the mid-1970's. With the approval of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program as a FY 1984 new start, Congress requested an assessment of the program's objectives, projected short- and long-term uses, program design, computer architecture, user needs, and handling of proprietary and classified information. Specifically requested was an examination of the merits of proceeding with multiple high speed processor (HSP) systems contrasted with a single high speed processor system. The panel found NASA's objectives and projected uses sound and the projected distribution of users as realistic as possible at this stage. The multiple-HSP, whereby new, more powerful state-of-the-art HSP's would be integrated into a flexible network, was judged to present major advantages over any single HSP system.

  2. The Space Shuttle Decision: NASA's Search for a Reusable Space Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppenheimer, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    This significant new study of the decision to build the Space Shuttle explains the Shuttle's origins and early development. In addition to internal NASA discussions, this work details the debates in the late 1960s and early 1970s among policymakers in Congress, the Air Force, and the Office of Management and Budget over the roles and technical designs of the Shuttle. Examining the interplay of these organizations with sometimes conflicting goals, the author not only explains how the world's premier space launch vehicle came into being, but also how politics can interact with science, technology, national security, and economics in national government. The weighty policy decision to build the Shuttle represents the first component of the broader story: future NASA volumes will cover the Shuttle's development and operational histories.

  3. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program has evolved over the last two decades, and currently has several core and community components. Core components provide the basic operational capabilities to process, archive, manage and distribute data from NASA missions. Community components provide a path for peer-reviewed research in Earth Science Informatics to feed into the evolution of the core components. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a core component consisting of twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and eight Science Investigator-led Processing Systems spread across the U.S. The presentation covers how the ESDS Program continues to evolve and benefits from as well as contributes to advances in Earth Science Informatics.

  4. Comparison of different LED Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieker, Henning; Miesner, Christian; Püttjer, Dirk; Bachl, Bernhard

    2007-09-01

    In this paper different technologies for LED packaging are compared, focusing on Chip on Board (COB) and SMD technology. The package technology which is used depends on the LED application. A critical fact in LED technology is the thermal management, especially for high brightness LED applications because the thermal management is important for reliability, lifetime and electrooptical performance of the LED module. To design certain and long life LED applications knowledge of the heat flow from LEDs to the complete application is required. High sophisticated FEM simulations are indispensable for modern development of high power LED applications. We compare simulations of various substrate materials and packaging technologies simulated using FLOTHERM software. Thereby different substrates such as standard FR4, ceramic and metal core printed circuit boards are considered. For the verification of the simulated results and the testing of manufactured modules, advanced measurement tools are required. We show different ways to experimentally characterize the thermal behavior of LED modules. The thermal path is determined by the transient thermal analysis using the MicReD T3Ster analyzer. Afterwards it will be compared to the conventional method using thermocouples. The heat distribution over the module is investigated by an IR-Camera. We demonstrate and compare simulation and measurement results of Chip-on-Board (COB) and Sub-Mounted Devices (SMD) technology. The results reveal that for different applications certain packages are ideal.

  5. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  6. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Mcduffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-01-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive. Superseded by: NASA/SP-2007-6105 Rev 1 (20080008301).

  7. EPCOT, NASA and plant pathogens in space.

    PubMed

    White, R

    1996-01-01

    Cooperative work between NASA and Walt Disney World's EPCOT Land Pavilion is described. Joint efforts include research about allelopathy in multi-species plant cropping in CELSS, LEDs as light sources in hydroponic systems, and the growth of plant pathogens in space. PMID:11540338

  8. EPCOT, NASA and plant pathogens in space.

    PubMed

    White, R

    1996-01-01

    Cooperative work between NASA and Walt Disney World's EPCOT Land Pavilion is described. Joint efforts include research about allelopathy in multi-species plant cropping in CELSS, LEDs as light sources in hydroponic systems, and the growth of plant pathogens in space.

  9. Advanced poly-LED displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, Mark; Nisato, Giovanni; Fish, D.; Giraldo, Andrea; Jenkins, A. J.; Johnson, Mark T.

    2003-05-01

    Philips have been actively developing polymer OLED (poly-LED) displays as a future display technology. Their emissive nature leads to a very attractive visual appearance, with wide viewing angle, high brightness and fast response speed. Whilst the first generation of poly-LED displays are likely to be passive-matrix driven, power reduction and resolution increase will lead to the use of active-matrix poly-LED displays. Philips Research have designed, fabricated and characterized five different designs of active-matrix polymer-LED display. Each of the five displays makes use of a distinct pixel programming- or pixel drive-technique, including current programming, threshold voltage measurement and photodiode feedback. It will be shown that hte simplest voltage-programmed current-source pixel suffers from potentially unacceptable brightness non-uniformity, and that advanced pixel circuits can provide a solution to this. Optical-feedback pixel circuits will be discussed, showing that they can be used to improve uniformity and compensate for image burn-in due to polymer-LED material degradation, improving display lifetime. Philips research has also been active in developing technologies required to implement poly-LED displays on flexible substrates, including materials, processing and testing methods. The fabrication of flexible passive-matrix poly-LED displays will be presented, as well as the ongoing work to assess the suitability of processing flexible next-generation poly-LED displays.

  10. NASA's spacecraft data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudmore, Alan; Flanegan, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Small Explorer Data System (SEDS), a space flight data system developed to support the Small Explorer (SMEX) project, is addressed. The system was flown on the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) SMEX mission, and with reconfiguration for different requirements will fly on the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). SEDS is also foreseen for the Hubble repair mission. Its name was changed to Spacecraft Data System (SDS) in view of expansions. Objectives, SDS hardware, and software are described. Each SDS box contains two computers, data storage memory, uplink (command) reception circuitry, downlink (telemetry) encoding circuitry, Instrument Telemetry Controller (ITC), and spacecraft timing circuitry. The SDS communicates with other subsystems over the MIL-STD-1773 data bus. The SDS software uses a real time Operating System (OS) and the C language. The OS layer, communications and scheduling layer, application task layer, and diagnostic software, are described. Decisions on the use of advanced technologies, such as ASIC's (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) and fiber optics, led to technical improvements, such as lower power and weight, without increasing the risk associated with the data system. The result was a successful SAMPEX development, integration and test, and mission using SEDS, and the upgrading of that system to SDS for TRMM and XTE.

  11. NASA total quality management 1989 accomplishments report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Betty P. (Editor); Stewart, Lynne M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    NASA and contractor employees achieved many notable improvements in 1989. The highlights of those improvements, described in this seventh annual Accomplishments Report, demonstrate that the people who support NASA's activities are getting more involved in quality and continuous improvement efforts. Their gains solidly support NASA's and this Nation's goal to remain a leader in space exploration and in world-wide market competition, and, when communicated to others through avenues such as this report, foster improvement efforts across government and industry. The principles in practice which led to these process refinements are important cultural elements to any organization's productivity and quality efforts. The categories in this report reflect NASA principles set forth in the 1980's and are more commonly known today as Total Quality Management (TQM): top management leadership and support; strategic planning; focus on the customer; employee training and recognition; employee empowerment and teamwork; measurement and analysis; and quality assurance.

  12. NASA systems engineering handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; McDuffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-06-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive.

  13. Chemical Engineering at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the career paths for chemicals engineer at NASA (specifically NASA Johnson Space Center.) The author uses his personal experience and history as an example of the possible career options.

  14. NASA Now: Rocket Engineering

    NASA Video Gallery

    What’s the difference between fission and fusion? What are the applications & benefits of nuclear power & propulsion at NASA? How can NASA gain nuclear energy’s benefits for space exploration? ...

  15. NASA Now: Balloon Research

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this NASA Now program, Debbie Fairbrother discusses two types of high-altitude balloons that NASA is using to test scientific instruments and spacecraft. She also talks about the Ideal Gas Law a...

  16. Building 1100--NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Building 1100 is the NASA administrative building. Services located in this building include two banks, a post office, barber shop, cafeteria, snack bar, travel agency, dry cleaners, the NASA Exchange retail store and medical facilities for employees.

  17. The NASA Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This Handbook, effective 13 September 1994, documents the NASA organization, defines terms, and sets forth the policy and requirements for establishing, modifying, and documenting the NASA organizational structure and for assigning organizational responsibilities.

  18. NASA Geodynamics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Activities and achievements for the period of May 1983 to May 1984 for the NASA geodynamics program are summarized. Abstracts of papers presented at the Conference are inlcuded. Current publications associated with the NASA Geodynamics Program are listed.

  19. NASA strategic plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Strategic Plan is a living document. It provides far-reaching goals and objectives to create stability for NASA's efforts. The Plan presents NASA's top-level strategy: it articulates what NASA does and for whom; it differentiates between ends and means; it states where NASA is going and what NASA intends to do to get there. This Plan is not a budget document, nor does it present priorities for current or future programs. Rather, it establishes a framework for shaping NASA's activities and developing a balanced set of priorities across the Agency. Such priorities will then be reflected in the NASA budget. The document includes vision, mission, and goals; external environment; conceptual framework; strategic enterprises (Mission to Planet Earth, aeronautics, human exploration and development of space, scientific research, space technology, and synergy); strategic functions (transportation to space, space communications, human resources, and physical resources); values and operating principles; implementing strategy; and senior management team concurrence.

  20. #NASATweetup @NASA_Langley

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Langley Research Center's first tweet-up involved a diverse group of more than 40 that included an astronaut's daughter, a physics student from Wisconsin, one of NASA's newest space camp crew ...

  1. Metacapacitors for LED Lighting: Metacapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-02

    ADEPT Project: The CUNY Energy Institute is developing less expensive, more efficient, smaller, and longer-lasting power converters for energy-efficient LED lights. LEDs produce light more efficiently than incandescent lights and last significantly longer than compact fluorescent bulbs, but they require more sophisticated power converter technology, which increases their cost. LEDs need more sophisticated converters because they require a different type of power (low voltage direct current, or DC) than what's generally supplied by power outlets. The CUNY Energy Institute is developing sophisticated power converters for LEDs that contain capacitors made from new, nanoscale materials. Capacitors are electrical components that are used to store energy. CUNY's unique capacitors are configured with advanced power circuits to more efficiently control and convert power to the LED lighting source. They also eliminate the need for large magnetic components, instead relying on networks of capacitors that can be easily printed on plastic substrate. CUNY's prototype LED power converter already meets DOE's 2020 projections for the energy efficiency of LED power converters.

  2. NASA fills key positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe has named Shannon Lucid, a NASA astronaut and veteran of five Space Shuttle flights, to serve as the agency's chief scientist. Lucid replaces Kathie Olsen, whom President Bush has said he intends to nominate as associate administrator for science in the White Office of Science and Technology Policy.President Bush also has announced his intention to nominate former NASA astronaut and Assistant Deputy Administrator Major General Charles F. Bolden as NASA Deputy Administrator.

  3. NASA Propagation Studies Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angkasa, Krisjani S.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA propagation studies objective is to enable the development of new commercial satellite communication systems and services by providing timely data and models about propagation of satellite radio signals through the intervening environment and to support NASA missions. In partnership with industry and academia, the program leverages unique NASA assets (currently Advanced Communications Technology Satellite) to obtain propagation data. The findings of the study are disseminated through referred journals, NASA reference publications, workshops, electronic media, and direct interface with industry.

  4. The NASA Clinic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpa, Philip J.; Williams, Richard

    2009-01-01

    NASA maintains on site occupational health clinics at all Centers and major facilities NASA maintains an on-site clinic that offers comprehensive health care to astronauts at the Johnson Space Center NASA deploys limited health care capability to space and extreme environments Focus is always on preventive health care

  5. History at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The efforts of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to capture and record the events of the past are described, particularly the research accomplishments of NASA's agency-wide history program. A concise guide to the historical research resources available at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., at NASA facilities around the country, and through the federal records systems is given.

  6. NASA's educational programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The educational programs of NASA's Educational Affairs Division are examined. The problem of declining numbers of science and engineering students is reviewed. The various NASA educational programs are described, including programs at the elementary and secondary school levels, teacher education programs, and undergraduate, graduate, and university faculty programs. The coordination of aerospace education activities and future plans for increasing NASA educational programs are considered.

  7. Light pipes for LED measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, S. R.; Thomas, E. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Light pipe directly couples LED optical output to single detector. Small area detector measures total optical output of diode. Technique eliminates thermal measurement problems and channels optical output to remote detector.

  8. NASA Pocket Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA Pocket Statistics is published for the use of NASA managers and their staff. Included herein is Administrative and Organizational information, summaries of Space Flight Activity including the NASA Major Launch Record, and NASA Procurement, Financial, and Manpower data. The NASA Major Launch Record includes all launches of Scout class and larger vehicles. Vehicle and spacecraft development flights are also included in the Major Launch Record. Shuttle missions are counted as one launch and one payload, where free flying payloads are not involved. Satellites deployed from the cargo bay of the Shuttle and placed in a separate orbit or trajectory are counted as an additional payload.

  9. NASA Thesaurus Data File

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus contains the authorized NASA subject terms used to index and retrieve materials in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database (NA&SD) and NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS). The scope of this controlled vocabulary includes not only aerospace engineering, but all supporting areas of engineering and physics, the natural space sciences (astronomy, astrophysics, planetary science), Earth sciences, and the biological sciences. The NASA Thesaurus Data File contains all valid terms and hierarchical relationships, USE references, and related terms in machine-readable form. The Data File is available in the following formats: RDF/SKOS, RDF/OWL, ZThes-1.0, and CSV/TXT.

  10. Standardization of UV LED measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Larason, T. C.; Yoon, H. W.

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally used source spectral-distribution or detector spectral-response based standards cannot be applied for accurate UV LED measurements. Since the CIE standardized rectangular-shape spectral response function for UV measurements cannot be realized with small spectral mismatch when using filtered detectors, the UV measurement errors can be several times ten percent or larger. The UV LEDs produce broadband radiation and both their peaks or spectral bandwidths can change significantly. The detectors used for the measurement of these LEDs also have different spectral bandwidths. In the discussed example, where LEDs with 365 nm peak are applied for fluorescent crack-recognition using liquid penetrant (non-destructive) inspection, the broadband radiometric LED (signal) measurement procedure is standardized. A UV LED irradiance-source was calibrated against an FEL lamp standard to determine its spectral irradiance. The spectral irradiance responsivity of a reference UV meter was also calibrated. The output signal of the reference UV meter was calculated from the spectral irradiance of the UV source and the spectral irradiance responsivity of the reference UV meter. From the output signal, both the integrated irradiance (in the reference plane of the reference meter) and the integrated responsivity of the reference meter were determined. Test UV meters calibrated for integrated responsivity against the reference UV meter, can be used to determine the integrated irradiance from a field UV source. The obtained 5 % (k=2) measurement uncertainty can be decreased when meters with spectral response close to a constant value are selected.

  11. Overview of NASA's Space Solar Power Technology Advanced Research and Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe; Mankins, John C.; Davis, N. Jan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Large solar power satellite (SPS) systems that might provide base load power into terrestrial markets were examined extensively in the 1970s by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Following a hiatus of about 15 years, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the 'fresh look' study, and during 1998 in an SSP 'concept definition study', and during 1999-2000 in the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program. As a result of these efforts, during 2001, NASA has initiated the SSP Technology Advanced Research and Development (STAR-Dev) program based on informed decisions. The goal of the STAR-Dev program is to conduct preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt to gigawatt-class space solar power (SSP) systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). Specific objectives include: (1) Release a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) for SSP Projects; (2) Conduct systems studies; (3) Develop Component Technologies; (4) Develop Ground and Flight demonstration systems; and (5) Assess and/or Initiate Partnerships. Accomplishing these objectives will allow informed future decisions regarding further SSP and related research and development investments by both NASA management and prospective external partners. In particular, accomplishing these objectives will also guide further definition of SSP and related technology roadmaps including performance objectives, resources and schedules; including 'multi-purpose' applications (commercial, science, and other government).

  12. NASA Now: Microbes @ NASA: Early Earth Ecosystems

    NASA Video Gallery

    What may look like green slime growing on a pond is what scientists call a microbial mat! Why does NASA care about slime? Microbial mats are living examples of the most ancient biological communiti...

  13. NASA's Education Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA's current education programs, which will be examined under its Strategic Plan for Education are presented. It is NASA's first goal to maintain this base - revising, expanding, or eliminating programs as necessary. Through NASA's second goal, new education reform initiatives will be added which specifically address NASA mission requirements, national educational reform, and Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET) priorities. The chapters in this publication are divided by educational levels, with additional sections on programs to improve the technological competence of students and on an array of NASA published materials to supplement programs. The resource section lists NASA's national and regional Teacher Resource Centers and introduces the reader to NASA's Central Operation of Resources for Educators (CORE), which distributes materials in audiovisual format.

  14. Technology's Role in NASA's Future

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Chief Technologist Bobby Braun talks to NASA managers about the vital role technology research and development will play in NASA's future. Braun discusses how NASA will use new technologies to...

  15. A STEM Brainstorm at NASA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tom

    2009-01-01

    "I wanna be an astronaut when I grow up" was a common refrain from children in the 1970s, 80s and 90s, and it might have given the U.S. space program leaders a false sense of security that an endless line of well-qualified workers would be waiting outside their door for years to come. The reality has been that not enough students have chosen…

  16. Review of NASA's Planned Mars Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The exploration of Mars has long been a prime scientific objective of the U.S. planetary exploration program. Yet no U.S. spacecraft has successfully made measurements at Mars since the Viking missions of the late 1970s. Mars Observer, which was designed to conduct global observations from orbit, failed just before orbit insertion in 1993. The Russian spacecraft Phobos 2 did succeed in making some observations of the planet in 1989, but it was designed primarily to observe Phobos, the innermost satellite of Mars; the spacecraft failed 2 months after insertion into Mars orbit during the complex maneuvers required to rendezvous with the martian satellite. In fall 1996 NASA plans to launch Mars Pathfinder for a landing on the martian surface in mid-1997. This spacecraft is one of the first two missions in NASA's Discovery program that inaugurates a new style of planetary exploration in which missions are low-cost (less than $150 million) and have very focused science objectives. As can be seen in the comparative data presented in Box 1, this mission is considerably smaller in terms of cost, mass, and scope than NASA's previous Mars missions. NASA's FY 1995 budget initiated a continuing Mars exploration program, called Mars Surveyor, that involves multiple launches of spacecraft as small as or smaller than Mars Pathfinder to Mars over the next several launch opportunities, which recur roughly every 26 months. The first mission in the program, Mars Global Surveyor, set for launch late in 1996, is intended to accomplish many of the objectives of the failed Mars Observer. Like the Discovery program, Mars Surveyor is a continuing series of low-cost missions, each of which has highly focused science objectives. See Box 1 for comparative details of those Surveyor missions currently defined. Around the same time that the Mars Surveyor series was chosen as the centerpiece of NASA's solar system exploration program, the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX

  17. Space astronomy and astrophysics program by NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertz, Paul L.

    2014-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration recently released the NASA Strategic Plan 20141, and the NASA Science Mission Directorate released the NASA 2014 Science Plan3. These strategic documents establish NASA's astrophysics strategic objectives to be (i) to discover how the universe works, (ii) to explore how it began and evolved, and (iii) to search for life on planets around other stars. The multidisciplinary nature of astrophysics makes it imperative to strive for a balanced science and technology portfolio, both in terms of science goals addressed and in missions to address these goals. NASA uses the prioritized recommendations and decision rules of the National Research Council's 2010 decadal survey in astronomy and astrophysics2 to set the priorities for its investments. The NASA Astrophysics Division has laid out its strategy for advancing the priorities of the decadal survey in its Astrophysics 2012 Implementation Plan4. With substantial input from the astrophysics community, the NASA Advisory Council's Astrophysics Subcommittee has developed an astrophysics visionary roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions5, to examine possible longer-term futures. The successful development of the James Webb Space Telescope leading to a 2018 launch is an Agency priority. One important goal of the Astrophysics Division is to begin a strategic mission, subject to the availability of funds, which follows from the 2010 decadal survey and is launched after the James Webb Space Telescope. NASA is studying a Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope as its next large astrophysics mission. NASA is also planning to partner with other space agencies on their missions as well as increase the cadence of smaller Principal Investigator led, competitively selected Astrophysics Explorers missions.

  18. NASA Sponsors Cancer Research at Children's Hospital

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left), during a visit at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, discussed how NASA's special lighting technology may soon treat cancer. Goldin talked with Dr.Harry Whelan (right) and Dr. Kerneth Reichert (center left), both pediatric neurologists with the Hospital and professors at the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Accompanied by Astronaut Mary Ellen Weber, Goldin was shown this innovative treatment, called Photodynamic Therapy, a method used to destroy the tumor without damaging the delicate brain tissue around it. The treatment uses tiny pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) developed for Space Product Development plant growth experiments.

  19. Adjustable spectrum LED solar simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, Kurt J.; Neal, William R.; Serreze, Harvey B.

    2014-02-01

    An LED solar simulator containing LEDs emitting at 23 different wavelengths is described. Taking into account the natural spectral width of each of the LED wavelengths, a reasonably well-behaved and spike-free spectral continuum is demonstrated. The LED light source is based on a modular design that facilitates fabrication of arbitrarily large area simulators for both single solar cell and multi-cell module test and evaluation. The spectral tunability of this simulator makes it an attractive instrument for use in evaluating the performance of both conventional solar cells and tandem solar cells. The basic modular building block is a 10 cm x 10 cm "tile" consisting of the LED emitter platform with reflecting side mirrors and driver electronics conveniently located directly underneath the emitter platform in a compact yet flexible configuration. Combinations of tiles facilitate manufacture of solar simulators of arbitrarily large size and shape, with the advantages of high reliability, spectral tunability, lighter weight, no water cooling requirements and absence of high voltages. Excellent spectral mixing and intensity uniformity is obtained on the measurement plane, resulting in a simulator that meets Class AAA specifications according to ASTM and IEC standards.

  20. Internal NASA Study: NASAs Protoflight Research Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Mary R.; Hirshorn, Steven R.; Moreland, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Protoflight Research Initiative is an internal NASA study conducted within the Office of the Chief Engineer to better understand the use of Protoflight within NASA. Extensive literature reviews and interviews with key NASA members with experience in both robotic and human spaceflight missions has resulted in three main conclusions and two observations. The first conclusion is that NASA's Protoflight method is not considered to be "prescriptive." The current policies and guidance allows each Program/Project to tailor the Protoflight approach to better meet their needs, goals and objectives. Second, Risk Management plays a key role in implementation of the Protoflight approach. Any deviations from full qualification will be based on the level of acceptable risk with guidance found in NPR 8705.4. Finally, over the past decade (2004 - 2014) only 6% of NASA's Protoflight missions and 6% of NASA's Full qualification missions experienced a publicly disclosed mission failure. In other words, the data indicates that the Protoflight approach, in and of it itself, does not increase the mission risk of in-flight failure. The first observation is that it would be beneficial to document the decision making process on the implementation and use of Protoflight. The second observation is that If a Project/Program chooses to use the Protoflight approach with relevant heritage, it is extremely important that the Program/Project Manager ensures that the current project's requirements falls within the heritage design, component, instrument and/or subsystem's requirements for both the planned and operational use, and that the documentation of the relevant heritage is comprehensive, sufficient and the decision well documented. To further benefit/inform this study, a recommendation to perform a deep dive into 30 missions with accessible data on their testing/verification methodology and decision process to research the differences between Protoflight and Full Qualification

  1. Optical characterization of ultrabright LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Benavides, Juan Manuel; Webb, Robert H

    2005-07-01

    Ultrabright light emitting diodes (LEDs) are a new light source for visual psychophysics and microscopy. The new LEDs are intended primarily for room and exterior illumination, and the manufacturers' specifications are adequate for that. However, we use them as light sources in situations where a more complete characterization may be useful. For one set of LEDs we have measured the radiometric intensity and its distribution in space and wavelength, and we have tested for interactions of these variables and their dependence on driver configuration. We describe techniques for making these measurements and give a link to a simple calculator for converting among radiometric and photometric measures, as well as an evaluation of the safety considerations these very bright sources demand.

  2. NASA Software Engineering Benchmarking Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rarick, Heather L.; Godfrey, Sara H.; Kelly, John C.; Crumbley, Robert T.; Wifl, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    To identify best practices for the improvement of software engineering on projects, NASA's Offices of Chief Engineer (OCE) and Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) formed a team led by Heather Rarick and Sally Godfrey to conduct this benchmarking study. The primary goals of the study are to identify best practices that: Improve the management and technical development of software intensive systems; Have a track record of successful deployment by aerospace industries, universities [including research and development (R&D) laboratories], and defense services, as well as NASA's own component Centers; and Identify candidate solutions for NASA's software issues. Beginning in the late fall of 2010, focus topics were chosen and interview questions were developed, based on the NASA top software challenges. Between February 2011 and November 2011, the Benchmark Team interviewed a total of 18 organizations, consisting of five NASA Centers, five industry organizations, four defense services organizations, and four university or university R and D laboratory organizations. A software assurance representative also participated in each of the interviews to focus on assurance and software safety best practices. Interviewees provided a wealth of information on each topic area that included: software policy, software acquisition, software assurance, testing, training, maintaining rigor in small projects, metrics, and use of the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) framework, as well as a number of special topics that came up in the discussions. NASA's software engineering practices compared favorably with the external organizations in most benchmark areas, but in every topic, there were ways in which NASA could improve its practices. Compared to defense services organizations and some of the industry organizations, one of NASA's notable weaknesses involved communication with contractors regarding its policies and requirements for acquired software. One of NASA's strengths

  3. NASA Video Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This issue of the NASA Video Catalog cites video productions listed in the NASA STI database. The videos listed have been developed by the NASA centers, covering Shuttle mission press conferences; fly-bys of planets; aircraft design, testing and performance; environmental pollution; lunar and planetary exploration; and many other categories related to manned and unmanned space exploration. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied by an abstract. The Table of Contents shows how the entries are arranged by divisions and categories according to the NASA Scope and Subject Category Guide. For users with specific information, a Title Index is available. A Subject Term Index, based on the NASA Thesaurus, is also included. Guidelines for usage of NASA audio/visual material, ordering information, and order forms are also available.

  4. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  5. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, the commercial application of existing aeronautics and space technology, and expanded commercial access to available NASA capabilities and services. The progress NASA has made in carrying out its new assignment is highlighted.

  6. NASA Exploration Design Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    From the International Space Station, astronaut Sunita Williams welcomes participants to the NASA Exploration Design Challenge and explains the uncertainties about the effects of space radiation on...

  7. Selling to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Prospective contractors are acquainted with the organizational structure of NASA, and the major technical program offices and selected staff offices at the Headquarters level are briefly described. The basic procedures for Federal procurement are covered. A primer is presented on how to market to NASA. While the information is specific to NASA, many of the principles are applicable to other agencies as well. Some of the major programs are introduced which are available to small and disadvantaged businesses. The major research programs and fields of interest at individual NASA centers are summarized.

  8. NASA Pocket Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Pocket Statistics is published for the use of NASA managers and their staff. Included herein is Administrative and Organizational information, summaries of Space Flight Activity including the NASA Major Launch Record, and NASA Procurement, Financial, and Manpower data. The NASA Major Launch Record includes all launches of Scout class and larger vehicles. Vehicle and spacecraft development flights are also included in the Major Launch Record. Shuttle missions are counted as one launch and one payload, where free flying payloads are not involved. Satellites deployed from the cargo bay of the Shuttle and placed in a separate orbit or trajectory are counted as an additional payload.

  9. NASA agenda for tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Key elements of national policy, NASA goals and objectives, and other materials that comprise the framework for NASA planning are included. The contents are expressed as they existed through much of 1988; thus they describe the strategic context employed by NASA in planning both the FY 1989 program just underway and the proposed FY 1990 program. NASA planning will continue to evolve in response to national policy requirements, a changing environment, and new opportunities. Agenda for Tomorrow provides a status report as of the time of its publication.

  10. NASA's Flight Opportunities Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Flight Opportunities Program is facilitating low-cost access to suborbital space, where researchers can test technologies using commercially developed vehicles. Suborbital flights can quickl...

  11. Multicolor, High Efficiency, Nanotextured LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Jung Han; Arto Nurmikko

    2011-09-30

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and green for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the duration of the contract period include (i) heteroepitaxy of nitrogen-polar LEDs on sapphire, (ii) heteroepitaxy of semipolar (11{bar 2}2) green LEDs on sapphire, (iii) synthesis of quantum-dot loaded nanoporous GaN that emits white light without phosphor conversion, (iv) demonstration of the highest quality semipolar (11{bar 2}2) GaN on sapphire using orientation-controlled epitaxy, (v) synthesis of nanoscale GaN and InGaN medium, and (vi) development of a novel liftoff process for manufacturing GaN thin-film vertical LEDs. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  12. White LED motorcycle headlamp design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wen-Shing

    2015-09-01

    The motorcycle headlamp is composed of a white LED module, an elliptical reflector, a parabolic reflector and a toric lens. We use non-sequential ray to improve the optical efficiency of the compound reflectors. Using the toric lens can meet ECE_113 regulation and obtain a good uniformity.

  13. LED lamp power management system and method

    DOEpatents

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A. M.

    2013-03-19

    An LED lamp power management system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 reduces power loss in one of the channel switch 62 and the shunt switch 68 when LED lamp electronics power loss (P.sub.loss) exceeds an LED lamp electronics power loss limit (P.sub.lim); and each of the channel switches 62 receives a channel switch control signal 63 from the LED controller 58 and each of the shunt switches 68 receives a shunt switch control signal 69 from the LED controller 58.

  14. LED lamp color control system and method

    DOEpatents

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

    2013-02-05

    An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

  15. NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G. (Editor); Williamson, Gary Scott (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    In August 1997, NASA sponsored a 3-day workshop to assess the prospects emerging from physics that may eventually lead to creating propulsion breakthroughs -the kind of breakthroughs that could revolutionize space flight and enable human voyages to other star systems. Experiments and theories were discussed regarding the coupling of gravity and electromagnetism, vacuum fluctuation energy, warp drives and wormholes, and superluminal quantum tunneling. Because the propulsion goals are presumably far from fruition, a special emphasis was to identify affordable, near-term, and credible research tasks that could make measurable progress toward these grand ambitions. This workshop was one of the first steps for the new NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program led by the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  16. Computer Supported Indexing: A History and Evaluation of NASA's MAI System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.

    1997-01-01

    Computer supported or machine aided indexing (MAI) can be categorized in multiple ways. The system used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI) is described as semantic and computational. It's based on the co-occurrence of domain-specific terminology in parts of a sentence, and the probability that an indexer will assign a particular index term when a given word or phrase is encountered in text. The NASA CASI system is run on demand by the indexer and responds in 3 to 9 seconds with a list of suggested, authorized terms. The system was originally based on a syntactic system used in the late 1970's by the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC). The NASA mainframe-supported system consists of three components: two programs and a knowledge base (KB). The evolution of the system is described and flow charts illustrate the MAI procedures. Tests used to evaluate NASA's MAI system were limited to those that would not slow production. A very early test indicated that MAI saved about 3 minutes and provided several additional terms for each document indexed. It also was determined that time and other resources spent in careful construction of the KB pay off with high-quality output and indexer acceptance of MAI results.

  17. NASA total quality management 1989 accomplishments report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Described here are the accomplishments of NASA as a result of the use of Total Quality Management (TQM). The principles in practice which led to these process refinements are important cultural elements to any organization's productivity and quality efforts. The categories of TQM discussed here are top management leadership and support, strategic planning, focus on the customer, employee training and recognition, employee empowerment and teamwork, measurement and analysis, and quality assurance.

  18. NASA's B377SGT Super Guppy Turbine cargo aircraft touches down at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. on

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's B377SGT Super Guppy Turbine cargo aircraft touches down at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. on June 11, 2000 to deliver the latest version of the X-38 flight test vehicle to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. The B-377SGT Super Guppy Turbine evolved from the 1960s-vintage Pregnant Guppy, Mini Guppy and Super Guppy, used for transporting sections of the Saturn rocket used for the Apollo program moon launches and other outsized cargo. The various Guppies were modified from 1940's and 50's-vintage Boeing Model 377 and C-97 Stratocruiser airframes by Aero Spacelines, Inc., which operated the aircraft for NASA. NASA's Flight Research Center assisted in certification testing of the first Pregnant Guppy in 1962. One of the turboprop-powered Super Guppies, built up from a YC-97J airframe, last appeared at Dryden in May, 1976 when it was used to transport the HL-10 and X-24B lifting bodies from Dryden to the Air Force Museum at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. NASA's present Super Guppy Turbine, the fourth and last example of the final version, first flew in its outsized form in 1980. It and its three sister ships were built in the 1970s for Europe's Airbus Industrie to ferry outsized structures for Airbus jetliners to the final assembly plant in Toulouse, France. It later was acquired by the European Space Agency, and then acquired by NASA in late 1997 for transport of large structures for the International Space Station to the launch site. It replaced the earlier-model Super Guppy, which has been retired and is used for spare parts. NASA's Super Guppy Turbine carries NASA registration number N941NA, and is based at Ellington Field near the Johnson Space Center. For more information on NASA's Super Guppy Turbine, log onto the Johnson Space Center Super Guppy web page at http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/station/assembly/superguppy/

  19. NASA and General Aviation. NASA SP-485.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethell, Jeffrey L.

    A detailed examination of the nature and function of general aviation and a discussion of how the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology are offered in this publication. The intricacies of aerodynamics, energy, and safety as well as the achievements in aeronautical experimentation are…

  20. NASA Engineering Network (NEN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topousis, Daria; Trevarthen, Ellie; Yew, Manson

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the NASA Engineering Network (NEN). NEN is designed to search documents over multiple repositories, submit and browse NASA Lessons Learned, collaborate and share ideas with other engineers via communities of practice, access resources from one portal, and find subject matter experts via the People, Organizations, Projects, Skills (POPS) locator.

  1. NASA Now: Propulsion

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA Now, you’ll visit NASA’s Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, called B-2, at NASA Plum Brook Station. You’ll meet Dr. Louis Povinelli and Brian Jones who explain w...

  2. NASA: what now?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    This month marks 50 years since Yuri Gagarin first ventured into space in the Vostok 1 mission, and 30 years since NASA's first shuttle flight. As the shuttle Endeavour prepares for its final flight, seven experts outline what NASA's priorities need to be.

  3. NASA Information Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, May 1987, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This document consists of 11 "NASA Information Summaries" grouped together: (1) "Our Planets at a Glance" (PMS-010); (2) "Space Shuttle Mission Summary: 1985-1986" (PMS-005); (3) "Astronaut Selection and Training" (PMS-019); (4) "Space Station" (PMS-008); (5) "Materials Processing in Space" (PMS-026); (6) "Countdown!: NASA Launch Vehicles and…

  4. NASA educational publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This is a catalog of educational and technical publications, sponsored by NASA, that are available to the general public from the Government Printing Office (GPO). The following types of publications are announced: periodicals, educational publications, NASA Facts, posters and wallsheets, other publications of interest to educators, scientific and technical publications, and educational materials from Regional Service Centers.

  5. NASA Facts, Voyager.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    This document is one of a series of publications of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on facts about the exploration of Jupiter and Saturn. This NASA mission consists of two unmanned Voyager spacecrafts launched in August and September of 1977, and due to arrive at Jupiter in 1979. An account of the scientific equipment…

  6. NASA publications manual 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The various types of NASA publications are described, including formal series, contributions to external publications, informal papers, and supplementary report material. The physical appearance and reproduction procedures for the format of the NASA formal series are discussed, and samples are provided. Matters relating to organization, content, and general style are also considered.

  7. Selling to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The prospective NASA contractor is provided with information that describes the agency and its procurement practices. Products include ideas, manufacturing capabilities, fabricated components, construction, basic materials, and specialized services. NASA assistance in marketing these and other products is emphasized. Small and minority business enterprises are discussed. The agency's scientific and technical information activities are also discussed.

  8. NASA IYA Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Hashima; Smith, D.

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) launched a variety of programs to celebrate the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009. A few examples will be presented to demonstrate how the exciting science generated by NASA's missions in astrophysics, planetary science and heliophysics has been given an IYA2009 flavor and made available to students, educators and the public worldwide. NASA participated in the official kickoff of US IYA activities by giving a sneak preview of a multi-wavelength image of M101, and of other images from NASA's space science missions that are now traveling to 40 public libraries around the country. NASA IYA Student Ambassadors represented the USA at the international Opening Ceremony in Paris, and have made strides in connecting with local communities throughout the USA. NASA's Object of the Month activities have generated great interest in the public through IYA Discovery Guides. Images from NASA's Great Observatories are included in the From Earth to the Universe (FETTU) exhibition, which was inaugurated both in the US and internationally. The Hubble Space Telescope Project had a tremendous response to its 100 Days of Astronomy "You Decide” competition. NASA's IYA programs have started a journey into the world of astronomy by the uninitiated and cultivated the continuation of a quest by those already enraptured by the wonders of the sky.

  9. This is NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The organization, operations, functions, and objectives of NASA are outlined. Data include manned space flights, satellite weather observations, orbiting radio relays, and new views of the earth and beyond the earth as observed by satellites. Details of NASA's work in international programs, educational training programs, and adopting space technology to earth uses are also given.

  10. NASA Dryden Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Steve R.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several projects that NASA Dryden personnel are involved with: Integrated Resilient Aircraft Controls Project (IRAC), NASA G-III Research Aircraft, X-48B Blended Wing Body aircraft, Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), and the Orion CEV Launch Abort Systems Tests.

  11. NASA Technology Plan 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This NASA Strategic Plan describes an ambitious, exciting vision for the Agency across all its Strategic Enterprises that addresses a series of fundamental questions of science and research. This vision is so challenging that it literally depends on the success of an aggressive, cutting-edge advanced technology development program. The objective of this plan is to describe the NASA-wide technology program in a manner that provides not only the content of ongoing and planned activities, but also the rationale and justification for these activities in the context of NASA's future needs. The scope of this plan is Agencywide, and it includes technology investments to support all major space and aeronautics program areas, but particular emphasis is placed on longer term strategic technology efforts that will have broad impact across the spectrum of NASA activities and perhaps beyond. Our goal is to broaden the understanding of NASA technology programs and to encourage greater participation from outside the Agency. By relating technology goals to anticipated mission needs, we hope to stimulate additional innovative approaches to technology challenges and promote more cooperative programs with partners outside NASA who share common goals. We also believe that this will increase the transfer of NASA-sponsored technology into nonaerospace applications, resulting in an even greater return on the investment in NASA.

  12. NASA's Getaway Special.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1978-01-01

    The "Getaway Special" is NASA's semiofficial program for low-budget researchers, who can arrange bookings for their own space experiments on regular flights of the space shuttle. Information about arranging for NASA to take individual experiment packages is presented. (LBH)

  13. NASA Self-Assessment of Space Radiation Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    Space exploration involves unavoidable exposures to high-energy galactic cosmic rays whose penetration power and associated secondary radiation makes radiation shielding ineffective and cost prohibitive. NASA recognizing the possible health dangers from cosmic rays notified the U.S. Congress as early as 1959 of the need for a dedicated heavy ion accelerator to study the largely unknown biological effects of galactic cosmic rays on astronauts. Information and scientific tools to study radiation health effects expanded over the new decades as NASA exploration programs to the moon and preparations for Mars exploration were carried out. In the 1970 s through the early 1990 s a more than 3-fold increase over earlier estimates of fatal cancer risks from gamma-rays, and new knowledge of the biological dangers of high LET radiation were obtained. Other research has increased concern for degenerative risks to the central nervous system and other tissues at lower doses compared to earlier estimates. In 1996 a review by the National Academy of Sciences Space Science Board re-iterated the need for a dedicated ground-based accelerator facility capable of providing up to 2000 research hours per year to reduce uncertainties in risks projections and develop effective mitigation measures. In 1998 NASA appropriated funds for construction of a dedicated research facility and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) opened for research in October of 2003. This year marks the 8th year of NSRL research were about 1000 research hours per year have been utilized. In anticipation of the approaching ten year milestone, funded investigators and selected others are invited to participate in a critical self-assessment of NSRL research progress towards NASA s goals in space radiation research. A Blue and Red Team Assessment format has been integrated into meeting posters and special plenary sessions to allow for a critical debate on the progress of the research and major gaps areas. Blue

  14. LED instrument approach instruction display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.; Kelly, W. L., IV; Crouch, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    A display employing light emitting diodes (LED's) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of such displays for presenting landing and navigation information to reduce the workload of general aviation pilots during IFR flight. The display consists of a paper tape reader, digital memory, control electronics, digital latches, and LED alphanumeric displays. A presentable digital countdown clock-timer is included as part of the system to provide a convenient means of monitoring time intervals for precise flight navigation. The system is a limited capability prototype assembled to test pilot reaction to such a device under simulated IFR operation. Pilot opinion indicates that the display is helpful in reducing the IFR pilots workload when used with a runway approach plate. However, the development of a compact, low power second generation display was recommended which could present several instructions simultaneously and provide information update capability. A microprocessor-based display could fulfill these requirements.

  15. Radiometry of flashing LED sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Don A.; Medley, Stephanie; Roberts, Adam

    2008-08-01

    A laboratory based technique has been devised for measuring the illumination characteristics of flashing light emitting diode (LED) sources. The difference between the photopic measurement of a continuous source and a flashing source is that some analytic method must be incorporated into the measurement to account for the response of the eye. Ohno et al have devised an analytic expression for the impulse response of the eye, which closely matches existing forms used for finding effective intensity1. These other forms are the Blondel-Rey equation, the Form Factor method, and the Allard method.4,5,6 Ohno's research suggests a modified Allard method, but offers no procedure for actually making the measurement. In this research, the modified Allard1 method approach has been updated using standard laboratory equipment such as a silicon detector in conjunction with a digital multi-meter and Labview® software to make this measurement. Labview® allows exact computation of the modified Allard method. However, an approximation scheme for the conversion from radiometric units to photopic units must be adopted. The LED spectral form is approximately a Gaussian line shape with full width at half maximum of about 15 to 30nm. The Gaussian curve makes converting from radiometric to photopic units difficult. To simplify, the technique presented here estimates the spectral form of the LEDs to be a Dirac delta function situated at the peak wavelength. This allows the conversion from watts to lumens to be a simple application of the luminous efficiency curve.2 For LEDs with a full width half maximum of 20nm, this scheme is found to be accurate to +/- 5%.

  16. Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raukas, M.; Wei, G.; Bergenek, K.; Kelso, J.; Zink, N.; Zheng, Y.; Hannah, M.; Stough, M.; Wirth, R.; Linkov, A.; Jermann, F.; Eisert, D.

    2011-03-01

    Many LED-based applications would benefit from more efficient and/or high lumen output devices that enable usage in both white and single color illumination schemes. In the present article we briefly review the materials research history leading to optical ceramic converters and discuss their typical characteristics. Recently demonstrated high performance values in terms of efficacy and external quantum efficiency in orange (amber) spectral region are described.

  17. Highlights of NASA's Role In Developing State-Of-The-Art Nondestructive Evaluation For Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Since the 1970's, when the promise of composites was being pursued for aeronautics applications, NASA has had programs that addressed the development of NDE (NonDestructive Evaluation) methods for composites. These efforts included both microscopic and macroscopic NDE. At the microscopic level, NDE investigations interrogated composites at the submicron to micron level to understand a composite's microstructure. A novel microfocus CT system was developed as well as the science underlying applications of acoustic microscopy to a composite's component material properties. On the macroscopic scale NDE techniques were'developed that advanced the capabilities to be faster and more quantitative. Techniques such as stiffness imaging, ultrasonic arrays, laser based ultrasound, advanced acoustic emission, thermography, and novel health monitoring systems were researched. Underlying these methods has been a strong modeling capability that has aided in method development.

  18. Highlights of NASA's Role in Developing State-of-the-Art Nondestructive Evaluation for Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Since the 1970's, when the promise of composites was being pursued for aeronautics applications, NASA has had programs that addressed the development of NDE methods for composites. These efforts included both microscopic and macroscopic NDE. At the microscopic level, NDE investigations interrogated composites at the submicron to micron level to understand a composite's microstructure. A novel microfocus CT system was developed as well as the science underlying applications of acoustic microscopy to a composite's component material properties. On the macroscopic scale NDE techniques were developed that advanced the capabilities to be faster and more quantitative. Techniques such as stiffness imaging, ultrasonic arrays, laser based ultrasound, advanced acoustic emission, thermography, and novel health monitoring systems were researched. Underlying these methods has been a strong modeling capability that has aided in method development.

  19. The NASA astrobiology program.

    PubMed

    Morrison, D

    2001-01-01

    The new discipline of astrobiology addresses fundamental questions about life in the universe: "Where did we come from?" "Are we alone in the universe?" "What is our future beyond the Earth?" Developing capabilities in biotechnology, informatics, and space exploration provide new tools to address these old questions. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has encouraged this new discipline by organizing workshops and technical meetings, establishing a NASA Astrobiology Institute, providing research funds to individual investigators, ensuring that astrobiology goals are incorporated in NASA flight missions, and initiating a program of public outreach and education. Much of the initial effort by NASA and the research community was focused on determining the technical content of astrobiology. This paper discusses the initial answer to the question "What is astrobiology?" as described in the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.

  20. Attrition of NASA scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    During the past 3 1/2 years the number of physical scientists employed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has dropped by more than 15%. The number of mathematics personnel also dropped by about 13%. NASA says these figures represent a trend to increase the agency's emphasis on its primary activity—aerospace engineering—that began with the completion of the Apollo missions.For the same period the number of NASA personnel falling into the categories of aero-space engineering and electronic engineering increased slightly—by 1.2% and 3.1%, respectively. The decrease in both total NASA personnel and total scientific work force was about the same; NASA's scientific work force declined about 2.8%, compared with a total agency work force decrease of 2.9% .

  1. NASA Applied Sciences Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue M.; Haynes, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's strategic Goals: a) Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of human spaceflight program to focus on exploration. b) Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs. NASA's partnership efforts in global modeling and data assimilation over the next decade will shorten the distance from observations to answers for important, leading-edge science questions. NASA's Applied Sciences program will continue the Agency's efforts in benchmarking the assimilation of NASA research results into policy and management decision-support tools that are vital for the Nation's environment, economy, safety, and security. NASA also is working with NOAH and inter-agency forums to transition mature research capabilities to operational systems, primarily the polar and geostationary operational environmental satellites, and to utilize fully those assets for research purposes.

  2. The NASA astrobiology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    2001-01-01

    The new discipline of astrobiology addresses fundamental questions about life in the universe: "Where did we come from?" "Are we alone in the universe?" "What is our future beyond the Earth?" Developing capabilities in biotechnology, informatics, and space exploration provide new tools to address these old questions. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has encouraged this new discipline by organizing workshops and technical meetings, establishing a NASA Astrobiology Institute, providing research funds to individual investigators, ensuring that astrobiology goals are incorporated in NASA flight missions, and initiating a program of public outreach and education. Much of the initial effort by NASA and the research community was focused on determining the technical content of astrobiology. This paper discusses the initial answer to the question "What is astrobiology?" as described in the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.

  3. NASA Space Safety Standards and Procedures for Human Rating Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, C. Herbert

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America (NASA) has arguably led this planet in space exploration and certainly has been one of two major leaders in those endeavors. NASA governance is institutionalized and managed in a series documents arranged in a hierarchy and flowing down to the work levels. A document tree of NASA s documentation in its totality would likely overwhelm and not be very informative. Taken in segments related to the various business topics and focusing in those segments, however, provides a logical and understandable relationship and flow of requirements and processes. That is the nature of this chapter, a selection of NASA documentation pertaining to space exploration and a description of how those documents together form the plan by which NASA business for space exploration is conducted. Information presented herein is taken from NASA publications and is available publicly and no information herein is protected by copyright or security regulations. While NASA documents are the source of information presented herein, any and all views expressed herein and any misrepresentations of NASA data that may occur herein are those of the author and should not be considered NASA official positions or statements, nor should NASA endorsement of anything presented in this work be assumed.

  4. NASA Social: Behind the Scenes at NASA Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    More than 50 followers of NASA's social media websites went behind the scenes at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center during a "NASA Social" on May 4, 2012. The visitors were briefed on what Dryden...

  5. NASA light emitting diode medical applications from deep space to deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Harry T.; Buchmann, Ellen V.; Whelan, Noel T.; Turner, Scott G.; Cevenini, Vita; Stinson, Helen; Ignatius, Ron; Martin, Todd; Cwiklinski, Joan; Meyer, Glenn A.; Hodgson, Brian; Gould, Lisa; Kane, Mary; Chen, Gina; Caviness, James

    2001-02-01

    This work is supported and managed through the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center-SBIR Program. LED-technology developed for NASA plant growth experiments in space shows promise for delivering light deep into tissues of the body to promote wound healing and human tissue growth. We present the results of LED-treatment of cells grown in culture and the effects of LEDs on patients' chronic and acute wounds. LED-technology is also biologically optimal for photodynamic therapy of cancer and we discuss our successes using LEDs in conjunction with light-activated chemotherapeutic drugs. .

  6. NASA CONNECT: Atmospheric Detectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    'The Measurement of All Things: Atmospheric Detectives' is the second of seven programs in the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT series. Produced by NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, NASA CONNECT is an award-winning series of instructional programs designed to enhance the teaching of math, science and technology concepts in grades 5-8. NASA CONNECT establishes the 'connection' between the mathematics, science, and technology concepts taught in the classroom and NASA research. Each program in the series supports the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; includes a resource-rich teacher guide; and uses a classroom experiment and web-based activity to complement and enhance the math, science, and technology concepts presented in the program. NASA CONNECT is FREE and the programs in the series are in the public domain. Visit our web site and register. http://connect.larc.nasa.gov In 'The Measurement of All Things: Atmospheric Detectives' students will learn how scientists use satellites, lasers, optical detectors, and wavelengths of light to measure the presence of certain gaseous elements, compounds, and aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere.

  7. NASA guidelines on report literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA seeks for inclusion in its Scientific and Technical Information System research reports, conference proceedings, meeting papers, monographs, and doctoral and post graduate theses which relate to the NASA mission and objectives. Topics of interest to NASA are presented.

  8. NASA Technical Standards Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Establish and maintain "NASA Preferred Technical Standard" as a common baseline for NASA programs. Support the use of technical standards on NASA program in the systems requirement process.

  9. NASA replanning efforts continue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A task force of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is producing new launch schedules for NASA's three remaining space shuttle orbiters, possibly supplemented by expendable launch vehicles. In the wake of the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger on January 28, 1986, the task force is assuming a delay of 12-18 months before resumption of shuttle flights.NASA's Headquarters Replanning Task Force, which meets daily, is separate from the agency's Data and Design Analysis Task Force, which collects and analyzes information about the accident for the use of the investigative commission appointed by President Ronald Reagan.

  10. NASA guest investigators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is now seeking guest investigators to participate in the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) and International Cometary Explorer (ICE) programs. The ISEE/ICE project is a joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) venture. A budget of approximately $500,000 to support the ISEE/ICE Guest Investigator Program is expected for fiscal year 1985, and a similar amount is expected for FY 1986.Although NASA welcomes proposals at any time, proposals must be received by mid-October in order to be considered in the initial selection. Those arriving after mid-November may be held for another selection period.

  11. NASA Pocket Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This booklet of pocket statistics includes the 1996 NASA Major Launch Record, NASA Procurement, Financial, and Workforce data. The NASA Major Launch Record includes all launches of Scout class and larger vehicles. Vehicle and spacecraft development flights are also included in the Major Luanch Record. Shuttle missions are counted as one launch and one payload, where free flying payloads are not involved. Satellites deployed from the cargo bay of the Shuttle and placed in a separate orbit or trajectory are counted as an additional payload.

  12. NASA strategic plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Plan summarizes the Agency's vision, mission, and values. Specific goals are listed for each externally focused Enterprise: Mission to Planet Earth, Aeronautics, Human Exploration and Development of Space, Space Science, and Space Technology. These Enterprises satisfy the needs of customers external to NASA. The Strategic Functions (Space Communications, Human Resources, and Physical Resources) are necessary in order to meet the goals of the Enterprises. The goals of these Functions are also presented. All goals must be met while adhering to the discussed values and operating principles of NASA. A final section outlines the implementing strategy.

  13. NASA's supercomputing experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, F. Ron

    1990-01-01

    A brief overview of NASA's recent experience in supercomputing is presented from two perspectives: early systems development and advanced supercomputing applications. NASA's role in supercomputing systems development is illustrated by discussion of activities carried out by the Numerical Aerodynamical Simulation Program. Current capabilities in advanced technology applications are illustrated with examples in turbulence physics, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, chemistry, and structural mechanics. Capabilities in science applications are illustrated by examples in astrophysics and atmospheric modeling. Future directions and NASA's new High Performance Computing Program are briefly discussed.

  14. NASA educational briefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, G. L.

    1982-01-01

    In response to a large public demand for information, the Educational Services Branch of NASA has undertaken a series of publications designed for use by teachers, titled 'Educational Briefs for the Classroom', which has resulted in six to eight issues each year for the last three years. Typical of the topics to which the series is dedicated have been space suits, manned spaceflight mission summaries, solar cells, planetary encounter data, orbits, and rocketry. The planning committee for Educational Briefs is aided in its selection of topics by the many letters received by NASA. Following the Voyager Saturn flybys, NASA received more than 175,000 letters from both children and adults.

  15. The NASA Exobiology Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    NASA will indeed conduct a more active search for life beyond Earth. Research on the Martian meteorites will be augmented by $2 million to be contributed equally by NASA and NSF (National Science Foundation). The science strategy for the NASA Mars Surveyor Program now places a much higher priority on the search for life, particularly fossil evidence. This program features two launches per opportunity (every two years, starting this November). The focus on Exobiology emphasizes high resolution multispectral orbital mapping to locate key aqueous sedimentary minerals, the exploration of ancient terrains by capable rovers, and the need for multiple sample return missions. Additional information is contained within the original extended abstract.

  16. NASA Airborne Science Program: NASA Stratospheric Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducts a wide variety of remote sensing projects using several unique aircraft platforms. These vehicles have been selected and modified to provide capabilities that are particularly important for geophysical research, in particular, routine access to very high altitudes, long range, long endurance, precise trajectory control, and the payload capacity to operate multiple, diverse instruments concurrently. While the NASA program has been in operation for over 30 years, new aircraft and technological advances that will expand the capabilities for airborne observation are continually being assessed and implemented. This presentation will review the current state of NASA's science platforms, recent improvements and new missions concepts as well as provide a survey of emerging technologies unmanned aerial vehicles for long duration observations (Global Hawk and Predator). Applications of information technology that allow more efficient use of flight time and the ability to rapidly reconfigure systems for different mission objectives are addressed.

  17. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Mission Directorate recently completed the deployment of the Earth Observation System (EOS) which is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. One of the many applications derived from EOS is the advancement of archaeological research and applications. Using satellites, manned and unmanned airborne platform, NASA scientists and their partners have conducted archaeological research using both active and passive sensors. The NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) located in south Mississippi, near New Orleans, has been a leader in space archaeology since the mid-1970s. Remote sensing is useful in a wide range of archaeological research applications from landscape classification and predictive modeling to site discovery and mapping. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, including commercial instruments, offer significantly improved spatial and spectral resolutions. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology provides for the direct detection of archaeological sites. As in all archaeological research, the application of remote sensing to archaeology requires a priori development of specific research designs and objectives. Initially targeted at broad archaeological issues, NASA space archaeology has progressed toward developing practical applications for cultural resources management (CRM). These efforts culminated with the Biloxi Workshop held by NASA and the University of Mississippi in 2002. The workshop and resulting publication specifically address the requirements of cultural resource managers through

  18. Upgrading NASA/DOSE laser ranging system control computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Randall L.; Cheek, Jack; Seery, Paul J.; Emenheiser, Kenneth S.; Hanrahan, William P., III; Mcgarry, Jan F.

    1993-01-01

    Laser ranging systems now managed by the NASA Dynamics of the Solid Earth (DOSE) and operated by the Bendix Field Engineering Corporation, the University of Hawaii, and the University of Texas have produced a wealth on interdisciplinary scientific data over the last three decades. Despite upgrades to the most of the ranging station subsystems, the control computers remain a mix of 1970's vintage minicomputers. These encompass a wide range of vendors, operating systems, and languages, making hardware and software support increasingly difficult. Current technology allows replacement of controller computers at a relatively low cost while maintaining excellent processing power and a friendly operating environment. The new controller systems are now being designed using IBM-PC-compatible 80486-based microcomputers, a real-time Unix operating system (LynxOS), and X-windows/Motif IB, and serial interfaces have been chosen. This design supports minimizing short and long term costs by relying on proven standards for both hardware and software components. Currently, the project is in the design and prototyping stage with the first systems targeted for production in mid-1993.

  19. Earth Radiation Budget Research at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.

    2014-01-01

    In the 1970s research studies concentrating on satellite measurements of Earth's radiation budget started at the NASA Langley Research Center. Since that beginning, considerable effort has been devoted to developing measurement techniques, data analysis methods, and time-space sampling strategies to meet the radiation budget science requirements for climate studies. Implementation and success of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) was due to the remarkable teamwork of many engineers, scientists, and data analysts. Data from ERBE have provided a new understanding of the effects of clouds, aerosols, and El Nino/La Nina oscillation on the Earth's radiation. CERES spacecraft instruments have extended the time coverage with high quality climate data records for over a decade. Using ERBE and CERES measurements these teams have created information about radiation at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and throughout the atmosphere for a better understanding of our climate. They have also generated surface radiation products for designers of solar power plants and buildings and numerous other applications

  20. NASA Technology Applications Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The contributions of NASA to the advancement of the level of the technology base of the United States are highlighted. Technological transfer from preflight programs, the Viking program, the Apollo program, and the Shuttle and Skylab programs is reported.

  1. NASA 2014: Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    For the first time in more than a decade, five NASA Earth science missions will be launched into space in the same year, opening new and improved remote eyes to monitor our changing planet. The lau...

  2. NASA Now: Glory Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA Now, Dr. Hal Maring joins us to explain why the upcoming launch of the Glory satellite is so important to further our understanding of climate change. He also will speak on ...

  3. NASA Now: Black Holes

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this NASA Now episode, Dr. Daniel Patnaude talks about how his team discovered a baby black hole, why this is important and how black holes create tidal forces. Throughout his discussion, Patnau...

  4. NASA Now: Expedition 26

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this installment of NASA Now, meet associate International Space Station program scientist Tara Ruttley, who talks about the complexity of conducting research from this one-of-a-kind orbiting sc...

  5. NASA budget in Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The House of Representatives has authorized $161.7 million more than President Ronald Reagan proposed for the fiscal 1984 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) budget. The House NASA authorization bill (H.R. 2065) passed by voice vote on April 26. Five days earlier, the Senate Commerce, Science, and Technology Committee marked up S. 1096, the Senate's NASA authorization bill, and recommended $171.6 million more than the Reagan proposal. The Senate is expected to vote on the bill in mid May, after which time a conference committee will iron out the differences between the House and Senate versions.President Reagan requested a total NASA budget of $7.1065 billion: $5.7085 billion for research and development, $150.5 million for construction of facilities, and $1.2475 billion for research and program management (Eos, February 15, 1983, p. 65).

  6. NASA: Increasing the Awesome

    NASA Video Gallery

    Contemplating the ritual of sending Washington a check every April 15, popular Internet vlogger Hank Green of Vlogbrothers explains why he believes NASA is worth every .45 penny of your hard-earned...

  7. NASA Pocket Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: summary of the NASA program goals and objectives; major mission performance; USSR spaceflights; summary comparisons of the USA and USSR space records; and selected technical, financial, and manpower data.

  8. NASA's Arctic Voyage 2010

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's first oceanographic research expedition left Alaska on June 15, 2010. The ICESCAPE mission will head into the Arctic to study sea ice and the changing ocean ecosystem. Listen to the scientis...

  9. NASA geodynamics program: Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Seventh Geodynamics Program report summarizes program activities and achievements during 1988 and 1989. Included is a 115 page bibliography of the publications associated with the NASA Geodynamics Program since its initiation in 1979.

  10. NASA Archives: UARS

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation, produced in 1999, shows an artist concept of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, launched in 1991. UARS measured chemical compounds found in the ozone layer, wind and temper...

  11. NASA Now: Extremophiles

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA research scientists Dr. Margarita Marinova and Dr. Alfonso Davila discuss how scientists study microbes that live in Earth’s extreme environments to better understand places where life might...

  12. NASA Now: Inflatable Structures

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA senior research engineer Judith Watson is one of a team of engineers at NASA’s Langley Research Center who are studying inflatable structures that might one day be used to establish an outpo...

  13. NASA's Hurricane Hunters

    NASA Video Gallery

    During the 2010 hurricane season, NASA deployed its piloted DC-8 and WB-57, and unmanned Global Hawk aircraft in a massive effort to collect as much data as possible, arming hurricane researchers w...

  14. NASA Now: SLOPE

    NASA Video Gallery

    Welcome to the SLOPE facility at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. In this building, NASA engineers experiment with different wheel designs for lunar rovers. They use a simulated c...

  15. NASA Goes to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1975-01-01

    The Educational Programs Division of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) produces a variety of educational programs and resources: professional educational conferences, teacher services, development of instructional resources, audiovisual media, and career guidance materials. (MW)

  16. NASA Hurricane Mission - GRIP

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is an overview of NASA's hurricane research campaign called Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). The six-week mission was conducted in coordination with NOAA and the National Sc...

  17. NASA's Mars Landings

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the landing sites of all six NASA spacecraft to reachMars—Viking 1, Viking 2, Pathfinder, Spirit, Opportunity, Phoenix—and thetarget location where Curiosity will touch down ...

  18. NASA Now: Aquarius

    NASA Video Gallery

    During this NASA Now program, Dr. David Le Vine explains how Aquarius will help us better predict our climate and how melting glaciers affect ocean salinity. The Aquarius satellite will scan the en...

  19. NASA and energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    NASA technology contributions to create energy sources include direct solar heating and cooling systems, wind generation of electricity, solar thermal energy turbine drives, solar cells, and techniques for locating, producing, and collecting organic materials for conversion into fuel.

  20. NASA Now: Mars Excavation

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this NASA Now episode, you will hear from Kurt Sacksteder, Chief of the Space Environments and Experiments Branch at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Sacksteder talks about the...

  1. NASA's commercial space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Richard H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will review the goals, status and progress of NASA's commercial space development program administered by the Office of Commercial Programs (OCP). The technologies and flight programs underway by NASA's Centers for Commercial Development (CCDS), NASA's field centers, and the NASA/Industry Joint Endeavor Programs will be summarized. A summary of completed and upcoming commercial payload activities on Shuttle, suborbital rockets, and orbital ELV's will be provided. The new commercial infrastructure and transportation initiatives will be discussed including the Wake Shield Facility, Consort and Joust suborbital rocket programs, the COMET orbital and recovery program, and the Commercial Middeck Accommodation Module Program with Spacehab Inc. Finally, the Commercial Space Station Freedom Program planned by OCP will be reviewed.

  2. NASA Now: Got Math?

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this NASA Now program, Jim Garvin, Ph.D, chief scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., explains how mathematics is a vital tool not only in everything happening at N...

  3. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This handbook is intended to provide general guidance and information on systems engineering that will be useful to the NASA community. It provides a generic description of Systems Engineering (SE) as it should be applied throughout NASA. A goal of the handbook is to increase awareness and consistency across the Agency and advance the practice of SE. This handbook provides perspectives relevant to NASA and data particular to NASA. The coverage in this handbook is limited to general concepts and generic descriptions of processes, tools, and techniques. It provides information on systems engineering best practices and pitfalls to avoid. There are many Center-specific handbooks and directives as well as textbooks that can be consulted for in-depth tutorials. This handbook describes systems engineering as it should be applied to the development and implementation of large and small NASA programs and projects. NASA has defined different life cycles that specifically address the major project categories, or product lines, which are: Flight Systems and Ground Support (FS&GS), Research and Technology (R&T), Construction of Facilities (CoF), and Environmental Compliance and Restoration (ECR). The technical content of the handbook provides systems engineering best practices that should be incorporated into all NASA product lines. (Check the NASA On-Line Directives Information System (NODIS) electronic document library for applicable NASA directives on topics such as product lines.) For simplicity this handbook uses the FS&GS product line as an example. The specifics of FS&GS can be seen in the description of the life cycle and the details of the milestone reviews. Each product line will vary in these two areas; therefore, the reader should refer to the applicable NASA procedural requirements for the specific requirements for their life cycle and reviews. The engineering of NASA systems requires a systematic and disciplined set of processes that are applied recursively and

  4. NASA Water Resources Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its

  5. NASA IKONOS Radiometric Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Kelly, Michelle; Holekamp, Kara; Daehler, Erik; Zanoni, Vicki; Schiller, Stephen; Thome, Kurtis

    2002-01-01

    NASA acquired imagery from the IKONOS satellite as part of its Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) program, which purchases scientific data sets from commercial sources. This viewgraph presentation describes the IKONOS satellite and its sensors, and then gives an overview of characterization efforts undertaken by NASA in cooperation with other government agencies. The characterization included relative radiometric correction, absolute radiometric characterization of data from Lunar Lake Playa, Nevada, and calibration of data from Stennis Space Center, Mississippi.

  6. NASA gateway requirements analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Denise R.; Doby, John S.; Shockley, Cynthia W.

    1991-01-01

    NASA devotes approximately 40 percent of its budget to R&D. Twelve NASA Research Centers and their contractors conduct this R&D, which ranges across many disciplines and is fueled by information about previous endeavors. Locating the right information is crucial. While NASA researchers use peer contacts as their primary source of scientific and technical information (STI), on-line bibliographic data bases - both Government-owned and commercial - are also frequently consulted. Once identified, the STI must be delivered in a usable format. This report assesses the appropriateness of developing an intelligent gateway interface for the NASA R&D community as a means of obtaining improved access to relevant STI resources outside of NASA's Remote Console (RECON) on-line bibliographic database. A study was conducted to determine (1) the information requirements of the R&D community, (2) the information sources to meet those requirements, and (3) ways of facilitating access to those information sources. Findings indicate that NASA researchers need more comprehensive STI coverage of disciplines not now represented in the RECON database. This augmented subject coverage should preferably be provided by both domestic and foreign STI sources. It was also found that NASA researchers frequently request rapid delivery of STI, in its original format. Finally, it was found that researchers need a better system for alerting them to recent developments in their areas of interest. A gateway that provides access to domestic and international information sources can also solve several shortcomings in the present STI delivery system. NASA should further test the practicality of a gateway as a mechanism for improved STI access.

  7. NASA Efforts on Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the field of nanotechnology within the theme of "New efforts in Nanotechnology Research," will be presented. NASA's interest, requirements and current efforts in this emerging field will be discussed. In particular, NASA efforts to develop nanoelectronic devices, fuel cells, and other applications of interest using this novel technology by collaborating with academia will be addressed. Progress on current collaborations in this area with the University of Puerto Rico will be highlighted.

  8. NASA, NOAA administrators nominated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan recently said he intended to nominate James Montgomery Beggs as NASA Administrator and John V. Byrne as NOAA Administrator. These two positions are key scientific posts that have been vacant since the start of the Reagan administration on January 20. The President also said he intends to nominate Hans Mark as NASA Deputy Administrator. At press time, Reagan had not designated his nominee for the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  9. NASA supported research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libby, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the scientific NASA grants and achievements accomplished by the University of California, Los Angles, is presented. The development of planetary and space sciences as a major curriculum of the University, and statistical data on graduate programs in aerospace sciences are discussed. An interdisciplinary approach to aerospace science education is emphasized. Various research programs and scientific publications that are a direct result of NASA grants are listed.

  10. 2006 NASA Strategic Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On January 14, 2004, President George W. Bush announced A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration, a new directive for the Nation's space program. The fundamental goal of this directive is "to advance U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program." In issuing it, the President committed the Nation to a journey of exploring the solar system and beyond: returning to the Moon in the next decade, then venturing further into the solar system, ultimately sending humans to Mars and beyond. He challenged NASA to establish new and innovative programs to enhance understanding of the planets, to ask new questions, and to answer questions that are as old as humankind. NASA enthusiastically embraced the challenge of extending a human presence throughout the solar system as the Agency's Vision, and in the NASA Authorization Act of 2005, Congress endorsed the Vision for Space Exploration and provided additional guidance for implementation. NASA is committed to achieving this Vision and to making all changes necessary to ensure success and a smooth transition. These changes will include increasing internal collaboration, leveraging personnel and facilities, developing strong, healthy NASA Centers,a nd fostering a safe environment of respect and open communication for employees at all levels. NASA also will ensure clear accountability and solid program management and reporting practices. Over the next 10 years, NASA will focus on six Strategic Goals to move forward in achieving the Vision for Space Exploration. Each of the six Strategic Goals is clearly defined and supported by multi-year outcomes that will enhance NASA's ability to measure and report Agency accomplishments in this quest.

  11. NASA tech brief evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    A major step in transferring technology is to disseminate information about new developments to the appropriate sector(s). A useful vehicle for transferring technology from the government sector to industry has been demonstrated with the use of periodical and journal announcements to highlight technological achievements which may meet the needs of industries other than the one who developed the innovation. To meet this end, NASA has very successfully pursued the goal of identifying technical innovations through the national circulation publication; NASA Tech Briefs. At one time the Technology Utilization Offices of the various centers coordinated the selection of appropriate technologies through a common channel. In recent years, each NASA field center has undertaken the task of evaluating submittals for Tech Brief publication independently of the others. The University of Alabama in Huntsville was selected to assist MSFC in evaluating technology developed under the various programs managed by the NASA center for publication in the NASA Tech Briefs journal. The primary motivation for the NASA Tech Briefs publication is to bring to the attention of industry the various NASA technologies which, in general, have been developed for a specific aerospace requirement, but has application in other areas. Since there are a number of applications outside of NASA that can benefit from innovative concepts developed within the MSPC programs, the ability to transfer technology to other sectors is very high. In most cases, the innovator(s) are not always knowledgeable about other industries which might potentially benefit from their innovation. The evaluation process can therefore contribute to the list of potential users through a knowledgeable evaluator.

  12. NASA's Technology Utilization Program.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    NASA's Technology Utilization Program is described, illustrating how it can be useful in achieving improved productivity, providing more jobs, solving public sector challenges, and strengthening the international competitive situation. Underlying the program is the fact that research and development conducted in NASA's aeronautics and space programs have generated much technical information concerning processes, products, or techniques which may be useful to engineers, doctors, or to others. The program is based on acquisition and publication, working with the user, and applications engineering.

  13. NASA Briefing for Unidata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The NASA representative to the Unidata Strategic Committee presented a semiannual update on NASAs work with and use of Unidata technologies. The talk covered the program of cloud computing prototypes being undertaken for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Also discussed were dataset interoperability recommendations ratified via the EOSDIS Standards Office and the HDF Product Designer tool with respect to its possible applicability to data in network Common Data Form (NetCDF) version 4.

  14. NASA Tech House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Technology Utilization House, called Tech House, was designed and constructed at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, to demonstrate new technology that is available or will be available in the next several years and how the application of aerospace technology could help advance the homebuilding industry. Solar energy use, energy and water conservation, safety, security, and cost were major considerations in adapting the aerospace technology to the construction of Tech House.

  15. Nasa's Emerging Productivity Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braunstein, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    The goals, membership, and organizational structure of the NASA Productivity Steering Committee are described as well as steps taken to make NASA a leader in the development and application of productivity and quality concepts at every level of agency management. The overall strategy for the Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement (PIQE) Program is through employee involvement, both civil servant and contractor, in all phases of agency-wide activity. Elements of the PIQE program and initial thrusts are examined.

  16. NASA Radiometric Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holekamp, Kara

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the characterization of radiometric data by NASA. The objective was to perform radiometric vicarious calibrations of imagery and compare with vendor-provided calibration coefficients. The approach was to use multiple, well-characterized sites. These sites are widely used by the NASA science community for radiometric characterization of airborne and space borne sensors. Using the data from these sites, the investigators performed independent characterizations with independent teams. Each team has slightly different measurement techniques and data processing methods.

  17. NASA thesaurus aeronautics vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the end of 1990. The Aeronautics Vocabulary contains over 4700 terms presented in a hierarchical display format. In addition to aeronautics per se, the vocabulary covers supporting terminology from areas such as fluid dynamics, propulsion engineering, and test facilities and instrumentation.

  18. NASA thesaurus: Astronomy vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A terminology of descriptors used by the NASA Scientific and Technical information effort to index documents in the area of astronomy is presented. The terms are listed in hierarchical format derived from the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus Volume 1 -- Hierarchical Listing. Over 1600 terms are included. In addition to astronomy, space sciences covered include astrophysics, cosmology, lunar flight and exploration, meteors and meteorites, celestial mechanics, planetary flight and exploration, and planetary science.

  19. NASA Propagation Studies Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angkasa, Krisjani S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an Internet website which provides information to enable the development of new commerical satellite systems and services by providing timely data and models about the propagation of satellite radio signals. In partnership with industry and academia, the program leverages NASA assets, currently the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), to obtain propagation data. The findings of the study are disseminated through refereed journals, NASA reference publications, workshops, electronic media, and direct interface with industry.

  20. NASA Performance Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Introduction NASA's mission is to advance and communicate scientific knowledge and understanding of Earth, the solar system, and the universe; to advance human exploration, use, and development of space; and to research, develop, verify, and transfer advanced aeronautics, space, and related technologies. In support of this mission, NASA has a strategic architecture that consists of four Enterprises supported by four Crosscutting Processes. The Strategic Enterprises are NASA's primary mission areas to include Earth Science, Space Science, Human Exploration and Development of Space, and Aerospace Technology. NASA's Crosscutting Processes are Manage Strategically, Provide Aerospace Products and Capabilities, Generate Knowledge and Communicate Knowledge. The implementation of NASA programs, science, and technology research occurs primarily at our Centers. NASA consists of a Headquarters, nine Centers, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, as well as several ancillary installations and offices in the United States and abroad. The nine Centers are as follows: (1) Ames Research Center, (2) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), (3) Glenn Research Center (GRC), (4) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), (5) Johnson Space Center, (6) Kennedy Space Center (KSC), (7) Langley Research Center (LaRC), (8) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and (9) Stennis Space Center (SSC).

  1. Early results from NASA's assessment of satellite servicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Thronson, Harley A., Jr.; Ahmed, Mansoor; Whipple, Arthur O.; Oegerle, William R.

    2010-07-01

    Following recommendations by the NRC, NASA's FY 2008 Authorization Act and the FY 2009 and 2010 Appropriations bills directed NASA to assess the use of the human spaceflight architecture to service existing/future observatory-class scientific spacecraft. This interest in satellite servicing, with astronauts and/or with robots, reflects the success that NASA achieved with the Shuttle program and HST on behalf of the astronomical community as well as the successful construction of ISS. This study, led by NASA GSFC, will last about a year, leading to a final report to NASA and Congress in autumn 2010. We will report on its status, results from our March satellite servicing workshop, and recent concepts for serviceable scientific missions.

  2. NASA Perspectives on Earth Observations from Satellite or 50 Years of Meteorological Satellite Experiments-The NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Einaudi, Franco

    2010-01-01

    The NASA was established in 1959. From those very eady days to the present NASA has been intimately involved with NOAA and the scientific community in the development and operation of satellite and sensor experiments. The early efforts included experiments on the TIROS and geostationary Applications Technology Satellites (ATS) series. In the latter case the spin-scan cameras conceived by Verner Suomi, along with the TIROS cameras, opened new vistas at what could be done in meteorological studies with the daily, nearly global, synoptic views from space-borne sensors As the years passed and the Nimbus series of satellites came into being in the 1960's, more quantitative observations with longer-lifetime, increasingly capable, better calibrated instruments came into being. NASA, in collaboration with and in support of NOAA, implemented operational systems that we now know as the Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) series and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series that provided dependable, continuous, dedicated satellite observations for use by the weather and atmospheric science communities. Through the 1970's, 1980's, and 1990's improved, well-calibrated instruments with more spectral bands extending into the thermal and the microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum were provided to obtain accurate soundings of the atmosphere, atmospheric chemistry constituents such as ozone, global sea surface temperature, snow and ice extent, vegetation dynamics, etc. In the 1990's and up to the present the NASA/Earth Observing System (EOS) has been developed, implemented, and operated over many years to provide a very comprehensive suite of observations of the atmosphere, as well as land and ocean parameters. The future looks bright wherein the development of new systems, broadly described by the National Academy of Science Decadal Study, is now underway. NASA, along with collaborations with NOAA, other agencies, and the

  3. Developing Successful International Faculty Led Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabregas Janeiro, Maria G.; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Rosete, Rodrigo Tello

    2012-01-01

    Faculty Led Programs are study abroad experiences led by university professors. Faculty Led Programs are considered as an opportunity for college students, especially in the United States to attend a short-term international experience (Mills, 2010). Faculty Led Program is an international experience which is different from the traditional…

  4. International Cooperation at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawney, Timothy; Feldstein, Karen

    International cooperation is a cornerstone principle of NASA’s activities, especially within the activities of the Science Mission Directorate. Nearly two thirds of the flight missions in which NASA leads or participates involve international cooperation. Numerous ground based activities also rely on international cooperation, whether because of unique expertise, unique geography, or the need for a global response. Going forward, in an era of tighter budgets and a more integrated global perspective, NASA and the rest of the space agencies around the world will be forced to work more closely together, in a broader array of activities than ever before, in order to be able to afford to push the boundaries of space exploration. The goal of this presentation is to provide an overview of NASA’s current international science cooperative activities. It will include a discussion of why NASA conducts international cooperation and look at the mechanisms through which international cooperation can occur at NASA, including peer-to-peer development of relationships. It will also discuss some of the limiting factors of international cooperation, such as export control, and ways in which to manage those constraints. Finally, the presentation would look at some of the present examples where NASA is working to increase international cooperation and improve coordination. Case studies will be used to demonstrate these mechanisms and concepts. For example, NASA continues to participate in international coordination groups such as the International Mars Exploration Working Group (IMEWG) and International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), but is expanding into new areas as well. NASA is one of the leaders in expanding and improving international coordination in the area of Near-Earth Object detection, characterization, and mitigation. Having participated in the first meetings of such groups as the International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN) and Space Missions Planning

  5. Towards a History of NASA Applied Sciences: Making Land Surface Data Useful, 1974-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, E. M.; Yuen, K.

    2012-12-01

    To date, there is very little historical work on either the NASA Applications Program, or its successor, the NASA Applied Science program. The one relevant, fully-fledged history is of the Landsat program through 1980, which was carried out under the old, long defunct, NASA Office of Applications. Much more historical work can be done on these two programs, and this paper will make a small contribution towards a fuller history by tracing the evolution of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and its migration from research product into a variety of different applications. Derived not from Landsat but from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA series of polar orbiting weather satellites, the NDVI dataset originated in ground-based research carried out during the 1970s. Once the AVHRR-derived version was validated in the mid-1980s, it immediately attracted attention from a variety of organizations interested in using it for their own purposes—famine warning and relief, locust warning, etc. It also became an important input to land surface models, which themselves evolved during this period to become the basis of still other applications. This paper will offer an historical analysis of the process by which NDVI became routinized, utilitarian, and deeply embedded in the products of other organizations.

  6. Future NASA plans for exobiology and solar system exploration. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.; Meyer, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    The prominence of exobiology as a part of the NASA program in solar system exploration reached its peak during the Viking missions of the mid-1970's. Even before those missions were finished, the Exobiology Program had been transferred out of the Division responsible for solar system exploration, and many of the direct ties to future missions became more difficult to make, providing a bureaucratic impediment to the conduct of exobiology research in space. Early in 1993, the Exobiology Program was brought back in to the Solar System Exploration Division, as an integral part of NASA's program to study this and other solar systems. As such, the Program stands to gain from an overall broad investment in missions that will study Mars, small bodies such as asteroids and comets, and outer planetary bodies such as Saturn, Titan, and even Pluto. Additional opportunities may be forthcoming on the Moon and elsewhere in Earth-orbit. Ground-based studies will continue to be an important foundation for work in space, while additional effects will be continue to use ground-based astronomical instruments to study other planetary systems, and to search for life on planets around other stars. This paper provides a current planning and budgetary prospectus on the future of Exobiology in NASA.

  7. NASA: Data on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galica, Carol

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of selected NASA Web sites for K-12 math and science teachers: the NASA Lewis Research Center Learning Technologies K-12 Home Page, Spacelink, NASA Quest, Basic Aircraft Design Page, International Space Station, NASA Shuttle Web Site, LIFTOFF to Space Education, Telescopes in Education, and Space Educator's…

  8. NASA Planetary Visualization Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.; Kim, R.

    2004-12-01

    NASA World Wind allows one to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging the combination of high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience Earth in visually rich 3D, just as if they were really there. NASA World Wind combines LandSat 7 imagery with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data, for a dramatic view of the Earth at eye level. Users can literally fly across the world's terrain from any location in any direction. Particular focus was put into the ease of usability so people of all ages can enjoy World Wind. All one needs to control World Wind is a two button mouse. Additional guides and features can be accessed though a simplified menu. Navigation is automated with single clicks of a mouse as well as the ability to type in any location and automatically zoom to it. NASA World Wind was designed to run on recent PC hardware with the same technology used by today's 3D video games. NASA World Wind delivers the NASA Blue Marble, spectacular true-color imagery of the entire Earth at 1-kilometer-per-pixel. Using NASA World Wind, you can continue to zoom past Blue Marble resolution to seamlessly experience the extremely detailed mosaic of LandSat 7 data at an impressive 15-meters-per-pixel resolution. NASA World Wind also delivers other color bands such as the infrared spectrum. The NASA Scientific Visualization Studio at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has produced a set of visually intense animations that demonstrate a variety of subjects such as hurricane dynamics and seasonal changes across the globe. NASA World Wind takes these animations and plays them directly on the world. The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) produces a set of time relevant planetary imagery that's updated every day. MODIS catalogs fires, floods, dust, smoke, storms and volcanic activity. NASA World Wind produces an easily customized view of this information and marks them directly on the globe. When one

  9. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Behnke, Jeanne; Lowe, Dawn; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for determining

  10. NASA Accountability Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA is piloting fiscal year (FY) 1997 Accountability Reports, which streamline and upgrade reporting to Congress and the public. The document presents statements by the NASA administrator, and the Chief Financial Officer, followed by an overview of NASA's organizational structure and the planning and budgeting process. The performance of NASA in four strategic enterprises is reviewed: (1) Space Science, (2) Mission to Planet Earth, (3) Human Exploration and Development of Space, and (4) Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology. Those areas which support the strategic enterprises are also reviewed in a section called Crosscutting Processes. For each of the four enterprises, there is discussion about the long term goals, the short term objectives and the accomplishments during FY 1997. The Crosscutting Processes section reviews issues and accomplishments relating to human resources, procurement, information technology, physical resources, financial management, small and disadvantaged businesses, and policy and plans. Following the discussion about the individual areas is Management's Discussion and Analysis, about NASA's financial statements. This is followed by a report by an independent commercial auditor and the financial statements.

  11. NASA Software Documentation Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as "Standard") is designed to support the documentation of all software developed for NASA; its goal is to provide a framework and model for recording the essential information needed throughout the development life cycle and maintenance of a software system. The NASA Software Documentation Standard can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. The Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. The basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  12. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  13. NASA science committee appointments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-10-01

    NASA Administrator Michael Griffin has made three new appointments to the NASA Advisory Council's (NAC' Science Committee, NASA announced on 22 September. Edward David, president of EED, Inc., and science advisor to the President from 1970 to 1973, will serve as the committee-s chair. Also appointed to the committee were Owen Garriott, a retired scientist astronaut, and Alan Stern, executive director of the Space Science and Engineering Division of the Southwest Research Institute (San Antonio, Tex.). David, Garriott, and Stern-who are among nine new members of the full advisory committee that were announced on 22 September-will replace three members of the Science Committee who resigned in August: Science Committee Chair Charles Kennel (Scripps Institution of Oceanography), Wesley Huntress (Carnegie Institution of Washington), and Eugene Levy (Rice University). The NAC's next public meeting will be held on 12 October at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

  14. NASA Langley Highlights, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Langley's mission is accomplished by performing innovative research relevant to national needs and Agency goals, transferring technology to users in a timely manner, and providing development support to other United States Government Agencies, industry, other NASA Centers, the educational community, and the local community. This report contains highlights of some of the major accomplishments and applications that have been made by Langley researchers and by our university and industry colleagues during the past year. The highlights illustrate the broad range of research and technology activities carried out by NASA Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States' leadership in aeronautics and space research. A color electronic version of this report is available at URL http://larcpubs.larc.nasa.gov/randt/1998/.

  15. Type NASA-23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binayak, Panda; Jones, Clyde S. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA-23 alloy has been designed to fulfil NASA's unique need for a high strength, oxidation-and corrosion resistant alloy that is compatible with a high-pressure hydrogen environment. This alloy is a precipitation hardened iron-nickel base alloy with excellent strength and ductility art gaseous hydrogen (GH2), comparable to those of other alloys in its class, Inconel 718 and IN-903. NASA-23 has been designed with a sufficient amount of chromium to provide good corrosion/oxidation resistance. For hydrogen resistance, the alloy maintains a (Ni + Co)/Fe ratio close to 1.26, the same as that of Incoloy 903. Hardening constituents, Nb, Ti, and Al, are optimized for strength and ductility both in air and GH2 atmospheres.

  16. NASA's Space Grant program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasch, E. Julius

    1990-01-01

    Program descriptions are provided for both phases of the U.S. NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. While Phase I consisted of the designation of 21 universities and university consortia as Space Grant Colleges/Consortia intended to maintain a balanced program of research, curriculum, and public service, the recently implemented Phase II is designed to broaden participation in the Space Grant Program by targeting states that are currently not as involved in NASA programs as are the states for which Phase one is constructed. The Phase II/Capability Enhancement Grants (CEG) thus provide grants to states with little or no present NASA involvement, with planning grants expected to lead to substantive grant proposals. States are to compete in either the Programs Grants category or the CEG category, with only one proposal accepted from each state. Program Grants, CEGs, and Fellowship requirements are outlined.

  17. NASA Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Linda

    1997-01-01

    If software is a critical element in a safety critical system, it is imperative to implement a systematic approach to software safety as an integral part of the overall system safety programs. The NASA-STD-8719.13A, "NASA Software Safety Standard", describes the activities necessary to ensure that safety is designed into software that is acquired or developed by NASA, and that safety is maintained throughout the software life cycle. A PDF version, is available on the WWW from Lewis. A Guidebook that will assist in the implementation of the requirements in the Safety Standard is under development at the Lewis Research Center (LeRC). After completion, it will also be available on the WWW from Lewis.

  18. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains how our weather occurs, and why Solar radiation is responsible. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  19. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains what high and low pressure weather systems are, and how they form. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  20. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains what high and low pressure weather systems are, and how these affect weather patterns. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  1. NASA's space processing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bredt, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Space Processing Program was initiated to develop uses of space flight that will support research efforts and manufacturing operations on the ground by processing materials in space. It is expected that the unique conditions that are available in space will provide a basis for a wide variety of economically beneficial services to science and industry in fields such as metallurgy, electronic materials, glass technology, fluid physics and chemistry, and in biological material preparation as well. Plans are described for developing payload equipment to implement materials processing experiments on the missions of the space transportation system (STS). This equipment is intended to support a diversified program of NASA-sponsored materials processing experiments by all classes of scientists, as well as pilot activities by non-NASA sponsors.

  2. This is NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Highlights of NASA's first 20 years are described including the accomplishments of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics from its creation in 1915 until its absorption into NASA in 1958. Current and future activities are assessed in relation to the Federal R&D research plan for FY 1980 and to U.S. civil space policy. A NASA organization chart accompanies descriptions of the responsibilities of Headquarters, its various offices, and field installations. Directions are given for contacting the agency for business activities or contracting purposes; for obtaining educational publications and other media, and for tours. Manpower statistics are included with a list of career opportunities. Special emphasis is given to manned space flight, space launch vehicles, space shuttle, planetary exploration, and investigations of the stars and the solar system.

  3. Exobiology: The NASA program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.; Harper, Lynn; Andersen, Dale

    1992-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Exobiology Program is to understand the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the universe. To do this, the Exobiology Program seeks to provide a critical framework and some key research to allow NASA to bear the combined talents and capabilities of the agency and the scientific community, and the unique opportunities afforded by space exploration. To provide structure and direction to the quest for answers, the Exobiology Program has instituted a comprehensive research program divided into four elements which are being implemented at several of NASA's research centers and in the university community. These program elements correspond to the four major epochs in the evolution of living systems: (1) cosmic evolution of the biogenic compounds; (2) prebiotic evolution; (3) origin and early evolution of life; and (4) evolution of advanced life. The overall research program is designed to trace the pathways leading from the origin of the universe through the major epochs in the story of life.

  4. NASA Technical Management Report (533Q)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klosko, S. M.; Sanchez, B. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this task is analytical support of the NASA Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) program in the areas of SLR data analysis, software development, assessment of SLR station performance, development of improved models for atmospheric propagation and interpretation of station calibration techniques, and science coordination and analysis functions for the NASA led Central Bureau of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS). The contractor shall in each year of the five year contract: (1) Provide software development and analysis support to the NASA SLR program and the ILRS. Attend and make analysis reports at the monthly meetings of the Central Bureau of the ILRS covering data received during the previous period. Provide support to the Analysis Working Group of the ILRS including special tiger teams that are established to handle unique analysis problems. Support the updating of the SLR Bibliography contained on the ILRS web site; (2) Perform special assessments of SLR station performance from available data to determine unique biases and technical problems at the station; (3) Develop improvements to models of atmospheric propagation and for handling pre- and post-pass calibration data provided by global network stations; (4) Provide review presentation of overall ILRS network data results at one major scientific meeting per year; (5) Contribute to and support the publication of NASA SLR and ILRS reports highlighting the results of SLR analysis activity.

  5. Towards Risk Based Design for NASA's Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; Barrientos, Francesca; Meshkat, Leila

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of Risk Based Design in the context of NASA s low volume, high cost missions. The concept of accounting for risk in the design lifecycle has been discussed and proposed under several research topics, including reliability, risk analysis, optimization, uncertainty, decision-based design, and robust design. This work aims to identify and develop methods to enable and automate a means to characterize and optimize risk, and use risk as a tradeable resource to make robust and reliable decisions, in the context of the uncertain and ambiguous stage of early conceptual design. This paper first presents a survey of the related topics explored in the design research community as they relate to risk based design. Then, a summary of the topics from the NASA-led Risk Colloquium is presented, followed by current efforts within NASA to account for risk in early design. Finally, a list of "risk elements", identified for early-phase conceptual design at NASA, is presented. The purpose is to lay the foundation and develop a roadmap for future work and collaborations for research to eliminate and mitigate these risk elements in early phase design.

  6. NASA research in aeropropulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.L.; Weber, R.J.

    1981-12-01

    Future advances in aircraft propulsion systems will be aided by the research performed by NASA and its contractors. This paper gives selected examples of recent accomplishments and current activities relevant to the principal classes of civil and military aircraft. Some instances of new emerging technologies with potential high impact on further progress are discussed. NASA research described includes noise abatement and fuel economy measures for commercial subsonic, supersonic, commuter, and general aviation aircraft, aircraft engines of the jet, turboprop, diesel and rotary types, VTOL, X-wing rotocraft, helicopters, and ''stealth'' aircraft. Applications to military aircraft are also discussed.

  7. NASA Applied Sciences Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This presentation highlights the NASA Applied Sciences Program. The goal of the program is to extend the results of scientific research and knowledge beyond the science community to contribute to NASA's partners' applications of national priority, such as agricultural efficiency, energy management and Homeland Security. Another purpose of the program's scientific research is to increase knowledge of the Earth-Sun system to enable improved predictions of climate, weather, and natural hazards. The program primarily optimizes benefits for citizens by contributing to partnering on applications that are used by state, local and tribal governments.

  8. NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Robert M.; Cooke, William; McNamara, Heather

    2004-01-01

    The Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has recently been formed within the Engineering Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. With agency-wide responsibility for defining the meteoroid environments for spacecraft engineering operations purposes, the MEO will distribute a state-of-the-art sporadic meteoroid model as well as meteor shower forecasts for spacecraft operators. To improve these models and forecasts, the MEO will manage an observation and research program. Office responsibilities, products, and plans will be discussed in this paper. The MEO is sponsored by the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance at NASA Headquarters.

  9. NASA Global Hawk Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naftel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Global Hawk Project is supporting Earth Science research customers. These customers include: US Government agencies, civilian organizations, and universities. The combination of the Global Hawks range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities separates the Global Hawk platform from all other platforms available to the science community. This presentation includes an overview of the concept of operations and an overview of the completed science campaigns. In addition, the future science plans, using the NASA Global Hawk System, will be presented.

  10. Origins of NASA names

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, H. T.; Whiteley, S. H.; Karegeannes, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    Names are selected for NASA spaceflight projects and programs from various sources. Some have their foundations in mythology and astrology or legend and folklore. Some have historic connotations; others are based on a description of their mission, often resulting in an acronym. Included are names of launch vehicles, spacecraft, manned spaceflight programs, sounding rockets, and NASA field installations. This study is limited to names of approved projects through 1974; it does not include names of numerous projects which have been or are being studied or projects that were canceled or postponed before reaching actual flight.

  11. NASA electric propulsion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Finke, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Major portions of the NASA electric propulsion technology program have attained the level of maturity required to achieve near-term technology readiness for flight missions for primary and auxiliary propulsion application. Advanced electric propulsion program elements addressing less immediate requirements are in more exploratory stages. This paper will discuss the NASA electric propulsion technology program including - planetary and earth orbit raising applications, attitude control and stationkeeping of geosynchronous satellites, and the research support program. Objectives, requirements, and hardware status are presented for each program.

  12. NASA Standard Measures Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meck, Janice V.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the limited in-flight resources available for human physiological research in the foreseeable future, NASA has increased its reliance on head-down bed rest. NASA has created the Bed Rest Project at the Johnson Space Center, which is implemented on the 6th floor of the Children's Hospital at UTMB. It has been conducted for three years. The overall objective of the Project is to use bed rest to develop and evaluate countermeasures for the ill effects of space flight before flight resources are requested for refinement and final testing.

  13. NASA Langley Highlights, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Langley's mission is accomplished by performing innovative research relevant to national needs and Agency goals, transferring technology to users in a timely manner, and providing development support to other United States Government Agencies, industry, other NASA Centers, the educational community, and the local community. This report contains highlights of some of the major accomplishments and applications that have been made by Langley researchers and by our university and industry colleagues during the past year. The highlights illustrate the broad range of research and technology activities carried out by NASA Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States' leadership in aeronautics and space research.

  14. NASA's Heliophysics System Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Steven

    2016-04-01

    NASA formulates and implements a national research program for understanding the Sun and its interactions with the Earth and the solar system and how these phenomena impact life and society. This research provides theory, data, and modeling development services to national and international space weather efforts utilizing a coordinated and complementary fleet of spacecraft, called the Heliophysics System Observatory (HSO), to understand the Sun and its interactions with Earth and the solar system, including space weather. This presentation will focus on NASA's role in space weather research and the contributions the agency continues to provide to the science of space weather, leveraging inter-agency and international collaborations for the benefit of society.

  15. NASA Publications Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The publication programs and management policies of NASA are described and the details that authors and publication specialists need to know to carry out the agency's mission of disseminating the scientific and technical information derived from its activities are highlighted. Topics covered include the various kinds of NASA formal publications; selection of publication medium; printing and distribution; and requirements concerning style and format standards, copyright transfers, the cover, color, and foldouts. The sections of a report are delineated and editorial and page make-up responsibilities are also discussed.

  16. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs have led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns as well as mitigation and prevention attempts. This paper hypothesizes that one cause is that the availability of reserves may reduce incentives to control costs. We draw a comparison to the insurance concept of moral hazard, and we use actuarial techniques to better understand the increase in mission costs due to the availability of reserves. NASA's CADRe database provided the data against which we tested our hypothesis and discovered that there is correlation between the amount of available reserves and project overruns, particularly for mission hardware cost increases. We address the question of how to prevent reserves from increasing mission spending without increasing cost risk to projects.

  17. NASA GSFC CCMC Recent Model Validation Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastaetter, L.; Pulkkinen, A.; Taktakishvill, A.; Macneice, P.; Shim, J. S.; Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Hesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) holds the largest assembly of state-of-the-art physics-based space weather models developed by the international space physics community. In addition to providing the community easy access to these modern space research models to support science research, its another primary goal is to test and validate models for transition from research to operations. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the space science models available at CCMC. Then we will focus on the community-wide model validation efforts led by CCMC in all domains of the Sun-Earth system and the internal validation efforts at CCMC to support space weather servicesjoperations provided its sibling organization - NASA GSFC Space Weather Center (http://swc.gsfc.nasa.gov). We will also discuss our efforts in operational model validation in collaboration with NOAA/SWPC.

  18. Status of a NASA Standard and Three NASA Handbooks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    NASA-STD-7003 Pyroshock Test Criteria, May 18, 1999, has been revised per direction of NASA Headquarters to make it a mandatory standard and to update it for advances in the discipline since it's initial release. NASA-HDBK-7004B Force Limited Vibration Testing, January 31, 2003, and NASA-HDBK-7005 Dynamic Environmental Criteria, March 13, 2001, are being updated to reflect advances in the disciplines since their last release. Additionally, a new NASA handbook, NASA-HDBK-7008 Spacecraft Structural Dynamics Testing is currently being prepared. This paper provides an overview of each document, summarizes the major revisions for the documents undergoing update, and provides the development schedules.

  19. LEDs for Street Lighting—Here Today

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-29

    Fact sheet that provides a brief overview of the viability of LED street lighting in municipalities and highlights case studies of two cities—Los Angeles and Seattle—that have invested in LED street lighting.

  20. NASA's Software Bank (CLIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is a NASA Johnson Space Center developed software shell for developing expert systems, is used by researchers at Ohio State University to determine solid waste disposal sites to assist in historic preservation. The program has various other applications and has even been included in a widely-used textbook.

  1. NASA's Software Bank (ASAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA-developed Artificial Satellite Analysis Program (ASAP), was purchased from COSMIC and used to enhance OPNET, a program for developing simulations of communications satellite networks. OPNET's developer, MIL3, applied ASAP to support predictions of low Earth orbit, enabling the company to offer satellite modeling capability to customers earlier than if they had to actually develop the program.

  2. NASA Microgravity Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Dan

    1999-01-01

    The Fiscal Year 1998 Annual Report describes key elements of the NASA Microgravity Research Program. The Program's goals, approach taken to achieve those goals, and program resources are summarized. A review of the Program's status at the end of FY1998 and highlights of the ground- and-flight-based research are provided.

  3. NASA Facts, Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    This newsletter from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contains a description of the purposes and potentials of the Space Shuttle craft. The illustrated document explains some of the uses for which the shuttle is designed; how the shuttle will be launched from earth, carry out its mission, and land again on earth; and what a…

  4. NASA and Me

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Douglas T.

    2010-01-01

    Topics in this student project report include: biography, NASA history and structure, overview of Johnson Space Center facilities and major projects, and an overview of the Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF). The UTAF section slides include space habitat evaluations with mockups, crew space vehicle evaluations, and human factors research.

  5. NASA Global Hawk Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    NASA Global Hawk is operational and supporting Earth science research. 29 Flights were conducted during the first year of operations, with a total of 253 flight hours. Three major science campaigns have been conducted with all objectives met. Two new science campaigns are in the planning stage

  6. NASA Facts, The Countdown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet describes the preparations for launching a giant Atlas, Gemini (Titan 11), or Saturn launch vehicle. The material is intended for use in elementary general science. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review…

  7. NASA IKONOS Radiometric Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Frisbee, Troy; Zanoni, Vicki; Blonski, Slawek; Daehler, Erik; Grant, Brennan; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Sellers, Richard; Smith, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this program: Perform radiometric vicarious calibrations of IKQNOS imagery and compare with Space Imaging calibration coefficients The approach taken: utilize multiple well-characterized sites which are widely used by the NASA science community for radiometric characterization of airborne and spaceborne sensors; and to Perform independent characterizations with independent teams. Each team has slightly different measurement techniques and data processing methods.

  8. NASA Ames ATM Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, Dallas G.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Ames research Center, in cooperation with the FAA and the industry, has a series of major research efforts underway that are aimed at : 1) improving the flow of traffic in the national airspace system; and 2) helping to define the future air traffic management system. The purpose of this presentation will be to provide a brief summary of some of these activities.

  9. Doing business with NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Because many U.S. businesses and companies want to do business with NASA, the Agency sends out procurement specialists to trade shows and conferences and organizes seminars to educate the business public on how to get on procurement lists to become product and service providers to the federal government.

  10. What's Up at NASA?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp, Betty

    1988-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) five-year plan to help elementary school teachers meet mathematics and science curriculum needs includes increasing the availability of instructional materials, providing greater access to teacher resource centers and workshops, and offering new sources of information for teachers and…

  11. NASA lithium cell applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juvinall, G. L.

    1978-01-01

    The advantages of lithium systems are described and a general summary of their application in present and future NASA programs is presented. Benefits of the lithium systems include an increased payload weight and an increased cost effectiveness to the customer. This also allows for more flexibility in the design of future space transportation systems.

  12. NASA metric transition plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA science publications have used the metric system of measurement since 1970. Although NASA has maintained a metric use policy since 1979, practical constraints have restricted actual use of metric units. In 1988, an amendment to the Metric Conversion Act of 1975 required the Federal Government to adopt the metric system except where impractical. In response to Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770, NASA revised its metric use policy and developed this Metric Transition Plan. NASA's goal is to use the metric system for program development and functional support activities to the greatest practical extent by the end of 1995. The introduction of the metric system into new flight programs will determine the pace of the metric transition. Transition of institutional capabilities and support functions will be phased to enable use of the metric system in flight program development and operations. Externally oriented elements of this plan will introduce and actively support use of the metric system in education, public information, and small business programs. The plan also establishes a procedure for evaluating and approving waivers and exceptions to the required use of the metric system for new programs. Coordination with other Federal agencies and departments (through the Interagency Council on Metric Policy) and industry (directly and through professional societies and interest groups) will identify sources of external support and minimize duplication of effort.

  13. The Road to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes the career path and projects that the author worked on during her internship at NASA. As a Graduate Student Research Program (GSRP) participant the assignments that were given include: Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Research, Spaceflight toxicology, Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group (LADTAG) and a special study at Devon Island.

  14. NASA science communications strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Clinton Administration issued a report, 'Science in the National Interest', which identified new national science goals. Two of the five goals are related to science communications: produce the finest scientists and engineers for the 21st century, and raise scientific and technological literacy of all Americans. In addition to the guidance and goals set forth by the Administration, NASA has been mandated by Congress under the 1958 Space Act to 'provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination concerning its activities and the results thereof'. In addition to addressing eight Goals and Plans which resulted from a January 1994 meeting between NASA and members of the broader scientific, education, and communications community on the Public Communication of NASA's Science, the Science Communications Working Group (SCWG) took a comprehensive look at the way the Agency communicates its science to ensure that any changes the Agency made were long-term improvements. The SCWG developed a Science Communications Strategy for NASA and a plan to implement the Strategy. This report outlines a strategy from which effective science communications programs can be developed and implemented across the agency. Guiding principles and strategic themes for the strategy are provided, with numerous recommendations for improvement discussed within the respective themes of leadership, coordination, integration, participation, leveraging, and evaluation.

  15. NASA highlights, 1986 - 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of NASA research from 1986 to 1988 are discussed. Topics covered include Space Shuttle flights, understanding the Universe and its origins, understanding the Earth and its environment, air and space transportation, using space to make America more competitive, using space technology an Earth, strengthening America's education in science and technology, the space station, and human exploration of the solar system.

  16. NASA Dryden Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the satus of NASA Dryden's aircraft guidance and control is shown. The topics include: 1) Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration (AARD); 2) Ikhana Project Update; 3) Quiet Spike; 4) F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System; 5) C-20A Precision Autopilot Development; and 6) X-48 Blended Wing Body.

  17. This is NASA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is space exploration and research in space and aeronautics for peaceful purposes and for the benefit of all mankind. The organization and programs which have been established to carry out this mission are described. Full color illustrations for the book were selected from the…

  18. NASA's Microgravity Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Dan R. (Editor); Henderson, Robin N. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Fiscal Year 1999 Annual Report describes key elements of the NASA Microgravity Research Program. The Program's goals, approach taken to achieve those goals, and program resources are summarized. A review of the Program's status at the end of FY1999 and highlights of the ground-and-flight research are provided.

  19. NASA Computational Mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This blue sky study was conducted in order to study the feasibility and scope of the notion of Computational Mobility to potential NASA applications such as control of multiple robotic platforms. The study was started on July lst, 2003 and concluded on September 30th, 2004. During the course of that period, four meetings were held for the participants to meet and discuss the concept, its viability, and potential applications. The study involved, at various stages, the following personnel: James Allen (IHMC), Albert0 Canas (IHMC), Daniel Cooke (Texas Tech), Kenneth Ford (IHMC - PI), Patrick Hayes (IHMC), Butler Hine (NASA), Robert Morris (NASA), Liam Pedersen (NASA), Jerry Pratt (IHMC), Raul Saavedra (IHMC), Niranjan Suri (IHMC), and Milind Tambe (USC). A white paper describing the notion of a Process Integrated Mechanism (PIM) was generated as a result of this study. The white paper is attached to this report. In addition, a number of presentations were generated during the four meetings, which are included in this report. Finally, an execution platform and a simulation environment were developed, which are available upon request from Niranjan Suri (nsuri@,ihmc.us).

  20. NASA Propagation Information Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ernest K.; Flock, Warren L.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Propagation Information Center became formally operational in July 1988. It is located in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. The Center is several things: a communications medium for the propagation with the outside world, a mechanism for internal communication within the program, and an aid to management.

  1. NASA Research Announcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, Fran

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of NASA's strategic and fundamental research program at the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR). The topics include: 1) Colloid-Polymer Samples; 2) Pool Boiling Experiment; 3) The Dynamics of Miscible Interfaces: A Space Flight Experiment (MIDAS); and 4) ISS and Ground-based Facilities.

  2. NASA Facts, Solar Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The design and function of solar cells as a source of electrical power for unmanned space vehicles is described in this pamphlet written for high school physical science students. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review…

  3. NASA propagation information center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ernest K.; Flock, Warren L.

    1990-07-01

    The NASA Propagation Information Center became formally operational in July 1988. It is located in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. The center is several things: a communications medium for the propagation with the outside world, a mechanism for internal communication within the program, and an aid to management.

  4. NASA and general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethell, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    General aviation remains the single most misunderstood sector of aeronautics in the United States. A detailed look at how general aviation functions and how NASA helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology in airfoils, airframes, commuter travel, environmental concerns, engines, propellers, air traffic control, agricultural development, electronics, and safety is given.

  5. NASA Facts: Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A news release on NASA's Voyager project is presented. The spacecraft, science instrumentation, experiments and a mission profile are described. A drawing identifying Voyager's major components and instrumentation was included along with diagrams showing the path of Voyager 1 (JST trajectory) past Jupiter, and the path of Voyager 2 (JXT trajectory) during its encounter with Jupiter. An exercise for student involvement was also provided.

  6. Technology transfer within NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.cyr, William

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on technology transfer within NASA are provided. Assessment of technology transfer process, technology being transfered, issues and barriers, and observations and suggestions are addressed. Topics covered include: technology transfer within an organization (and across organization lines/codes) and space science/instrument technology and the role of universities in the technology development/transfer process.

  7. NASA Bioreactor Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The schematic depicts the major elements and flow patterns inside the NASA Bioreactor system. Waste and fresh medium are contained in plastic bags placed side-by-side so the waste bag fills as the fresh medium bag is depleted. The compliance vessel contains a bladder to accommodate pressure transients that might damage the system. A peristolic pump moves fluid by squeezing the plastic tubing, thus avoiding potential contamination. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  8. NASA Integrated Services Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ing, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation will begin with a discussion on NASA's current distributed environment for directories, identity management and account management. We will follow with information concerning the drivers, design, reviews and implementation of the NISE Project. The final component of the presentation discusses processes used, status and conclusions.

  9. University guide to NASA, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This guide provides brief descriptions of the two NASA Headquarters program offices through which NASA primarily funds universities, the Office of Space Science and Applications and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. It also describes NASA's Office of Commercial Programs, which funds the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space and the Small Business Innovation Research Program. This guide explains the roles played by NASA's eight field centers and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and gives a sampling of ongoing NASA-wide educational programs and services. Most importantly, this guide provides practical information in the form of names and telephone numbers of NASA contacts.

  10. NASA Schedule Management Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.

  11. NASA | Raymonda Azrelyant Yeh Women@NASA 2015

    NASA Video Gallery

    Raymonda Azrelyant Yeh - Senior Accountant for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center The Women@NASA project is the perfect opportunity to celebrate women from across the agency who contribute to NASA’...

  12. NASA Now: Inspiration and Education: Building a Career at NASA

    NASA Video Gallery

    Be sure not to miss this episode of NASA Now, when three experts who work in very different fields at NASA discuss their jobs, responsibilities and what they enjoy most about their work. They also ...

  13. NASA's Planetary Science Missions and Participations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, James

    2016-04-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division (PSD) and space agencies around the world are collaborating on an extensive array of missions exploring our solar system. Planetary science missions are conducted by some of the most sophisticated robots ever built. International collaboration is an essential part of what we do. NASA has always encouraged international participation on our missions both strategic (ie: Mars 2020) and competitive (ie: Discovery and New Frontiers) and other Space Agencies have reciprocated and invited NASA investigators to participate in their missions. NASA PSD has partnerships with virtually every major space agency. For example, NASA has had a long and very fruitful collaboration with ESA. ESA has been involved in the Cassini mission and, currently, NASA funded scientists are involved in the Rosetta mission (3 full instruments, part of another), BepiColombo mission (1 instrument in the Italian Space Agency's instrument suite), and the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer mission (1 instrument and parts of two others). In concert with ESA's Mars missions NASA has an instrument on the Mars Express mission, the orbit-ground communications package on the Trace Gas Orbiter (launched in March 2016) and part of the DLR/Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer instruments going onboard the ExoMars Rover (to be launched in 2018). NASA's Planetary Science Division has continuously provided its U.S. planetary science community with opportunities to include international participation on NASA missions too. For example, NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs provide U.S. scientists the opportunity to assemble international teams and design exciting, focused planetary science investigations that would deepen the knowledge of our Solar System. Last year, PSD put out an international call for instruments on the Mars 2020 mission. This procurement led to the selection of Spain and Norway scientist leading two instruments and French scientists providing a significant portion of

  14. Dual LED/incandescent security fixture

    DOEpatents

    Gauna, Kevin Wayne

    2005-06-21

    A dual LED and incandescent security lighting system uses a hybrid approach to LED illumination. It combines an ambient LED illuminator with a standard incandescent lamp on a motion control sensor. The LED illuminator will activate with the onset of darkness (daylight control) and typically remain on during the course of the night ("always on"). The LED illumination, typically amber, is sufficient to provide low to moderate level lighting coverage to the wall and ground area adjacent to and under the fixture. The incandescent lamp is integrated with a motion control circuit and sensor. When movement in the field of view is detected (after darkness), the incandescent lamp is switched on, providing an increased level of illumination to the area. Instead of an "always on" LED illuminator, the LEDs may also be switched off when the incandescent lamp is switched on.

  15. UV-LED-based charge control for LISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olatunde, Taiwo; Shelley, Ryan; Chilton, Andrew; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido; Conklin, John

    2014-03-01

    The test masses inside the LISA gravitational reference sensors (GRS) must maintain almost pure geodesic motion for gravitational waves to be successfully detected. The residual accelerations have to stay below 3fm/s2/rtHz at all frequencies between 0.1 and 3 mHz. One of the well known noise sources is associated with the charges on the test masses which couple to stray electrical potentials and external electro-magnetic fields. The LISA pathfinder (LPF) will use Hg-discharge lamps emitting mostly around 253 nm to discharge the test masses via photoemission in its 2015/16 flight. A future LISA mission launched around 2030 will likely replace the lamps with newer UV-LEDs. UV-LEDs have a lower mass, a better power efficiency, and are smaller than their Hg counterparts. Furthermore, the latest generation produces light at 240 nm, with energy well above the work function of pure gold. I will describe a preliminary design for effective charge control through photoelectric effect by using these LEDs. The effectiveness of this method is verified by taking Quantum Efficiency (QE) measurements which relate the number of electrons emitted to the number of photons incident on the Au test mass surface. This presentation addresses our initial results and future plans which includes implementation and testing in the UF torsion pendulum and space-qualification in a small satellite mission which will launch in the summer of 2014, through a collaboration with Stanford, KACST, and NASA Ames Research Center.

  16. NASA UAS Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey Ervin; Mulac, Brenda Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Last year may prove to be a pivotal year for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) arena, especially in relation to routine UAS access to airspace as NASA accepted an invitation to join the UAS Executive Committee (UAS ExCom). The UAS ExCom is a multi-agency, Federal executive-level committee comprised of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and NASA with the goals to: 1) Coordinate and align efforts between key Federal Government agencies to achieve routine safe federal public UAS operations in the National Airspace System (NAS); 2) Coordinate and prioritize technical, procedural, regulatory, and policy solutions needed to deliver incremental capabilities; 3) Develop a plan to accommodate the larger stakeholder community at the appropriate time; and 4) Resolve conflicts between Federal Government agencies (FAA, DoD, DHS, and NASA), related to the above goals. The committee was formed in recognition of the need of UAS operated by these agencies to access to the National Airspace System (NAS) to support operational, training, development and research requirements. In order to meet that need, technical, procedural, regulatory, and policy solutions are required to deliver incremental capabilities leading to routine access. The formation of the UAS ExCom is significant in that it represents a tangible commitment by FAA senior leadership to address the UAS access challenge. While the focus of the ExCom is government owned and operated UAS, civil UAS operations are bound to benefit by the progress made in achieving routine access for government UAS. As the UAS ExCom was forming, NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate began to show renewed interest in UAS, particularly in relation to the future state of the air transportation system under the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). NASA made funding from the American

  17. NASA Now: Air Traffic Management

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA Now, you’ll meet aerospace engineer Aisha Bowe, who is helping NASA solve this complex problem. Learn why there is no perfectly designed system and all technological solut...

  18. Commercialization in NASA Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Charlene E.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with commercialization in NASA space operations are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) NASA's financial outlook; 2) Space operations; 3) Space operations technology; and 4) Strategies associated with these operations.

  19. NASA Reveals Most Unusual Planet

    NASA Video Gallery

    In exploring the universe, NASA has uncovered one planet more unusual than all others. This 30 second video shows you which planet that is, and explains that NASA science helps us better understand...

  20. Education and Training of Information Specialists For the 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schur, Herbert

    Economic pressures, technological changes and political decisions will affect the structure of information systems. There will be a need for the provision of more accessible, more comprehensive, faster and more standardized statistical information systems coordinated on interdisciplinary and international bases. A staff will be required to…

  1. Retrofitting America: A 1970s Home Energy Efficiency Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-17

    This paper describes a modeling tool that Building America research team CARB developed to identify the energy benefits of various retrofit energy efficiency measures for a typical 1970’s ranch home in ten cities across four climate zones in the United States.

  2. Migration of 1970s Minicomputer Controls to Modern Toolkit Software

    SciTech Connect

    Juras, R.C.; Meigs, M.J.; Sinclair, J.A.; Tatum, B.A.

    1999-11-13

    Controls for accelerators and associated systems at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been migrated from 197Os-vintage minicomputers to a modern system based on Vista and EPICS toolkit software. Stability and capabilities of EPICS software have motivated increasing use of EPICS for accelerator controls. In addition, very inexpensive subsystems based on EPICS and the EPICS portable CA server running on Linux PCs have been implemented to control an ion source test facility and to control a building-access badge reader system. A new object-oriented, extensible display manager has been developed for EPICS to facilitate the transition to EPICS and will be used in place of MEDM. EPICS device support has been developed for CAMAC serial highway controls.

  3. Clean Water for the 1970's, A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Quality Administration.

    This report describes the past activities and future plans of the Federal Water Quality Administration (FWQA). The first of the four sections in the report provides general discussion about these forms of water pollution: municipal wastes, industrial wastes, thermal pollution, oil and hazardous substances, mine drainage, sedimentation and erosion,…

  4. Population growth and United States politics in the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Nash, A E

    1973-01-01

    The 2 themes of this century, increasing environmental fragility and increasing human demands on government, are underlined by the failure of government to effectively govern, and the complex technology and modern communication systems which further divide the developing nations from the developed ones. Population stabilization may help relieve the tension between increasing expectation from government and the fiscal bind in 3 ways: 1)a higher per capita income would increase per capita government revenue which would have a better chance of meeting citizen expectations, 2)a moderately redistributive effect on personal income might occur by decreasing unwanted fertility through the dynamics of economics and increasing the role of government in elevating living standards, and 3)with reduction of government expenditure per capita, the cost of providing any given level of service would decrease. The nuclear age has altered the concept of what constitutes national security. Rapid population growth in the developing countries is also significant, and the United States economy depends on overseas investment. A constructive foreign policy, as opposed to neoimperialism or isolationism, is recommended to help influence world population growth. PMID:4788263

  5. Cohabitation and marriage in Britain since the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Beaujouan, Eva; Ní Bhrolcháin, Máire

    2011-01-01

    The article presents an overview of trends in cohabitation and marriage in Britain over several decades, using a consistent set of retrospective histories from the General Household Survey 1979-2007. Time-trends are presented, for men and women, of: the experience of different types of partnership by specified ages, the frequency of premarital cohabitation, the average time spent in different types of partnership, the timing of life course transitions, and the outcome of cohabitation and marriage at the fifth and tenth anniversaries. PMID:21987012

  6. Library Management in the 1970s: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Jeffrey; Webster, Duane

    In recent decades, new pressures have been placed on library management, including inflation, the proliferation of published materials, diversification in the demand for library services, and changing library staff expectations. Management approaches to these fundamental issues can be grouped into the following general categories: (1) management…

  7. Railroad Technology and Manpower in the 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This government bulletin examines changes in technology in the railroad industry, projects their impact on productivity, employment, and occupational requirements, and discusses methods of vocational adjustment. As one of a series of reports required by the Manpower Development and Training Act, the study was based on discussions with company,…

  8. Land use politics and law in the 1970's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, C. M.

    1975-01-01

    Political facets of the general land use challenge faced in the United States, and the legal authority for governmental action by state and federal officials under given conditions are discussed. Some current and future implications of these political and legal developments are presented. An overview of local versus state versus federal powers is presented along with practices for solving the nation's land use challenge. An analysis is provided of land use law and politics in five states playing active roles in land control. Land use politics and law at the federal level is addressed, with emphasis on three key legislative measures.

  9. Third World Communication Development in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.

    Quantitative data on various indexes of national development--mass media, "horizontal communication" (mail, telephones, and telegrams), democracy, social growth, literacy, and urbanization--were collected and estimated for more than 100 developing countries for roughly the decade between 1970 and 1980. These data were then used to test various…

  10. Problem Areas in Occupational Education for the 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Allen B.; King, Sue J.

    In a study undertaken to identify and classify some of the pressing problems in occupational education, a total of 1,007 occupational educators in the United States and territories were contacted for comments in spring and summer 1971. Based on a modified content analysis of 200 responses the major problem areas were identified, including: (1)…

  11. Women in India: Myth, Romanticism, and the 1970's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Michael S.

    1978-01-01

    Examines contradictions in perception and position of women in India. Although women are idealized, honored, and respected, they are also over-worked and expected to toil unceasingly for their husbands and families. Concludes that women in India are moving slowly toward liberation in a manner consistent with their values. (Author/DB)

  12. Cohabitation and marriage in Britain since the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Beaujouan, Eva; Ní Bhrolcháin, Máire

    2011-01-01

    The article presents an overview of trends in cohabitation and marriage in Britain over several decades, using a consistent set of retrospective histories from the General Household Survey 1979-2007. Time-trends are presented, for men and women, of: the experience of different types of partnership by specified ages, the frequency of premarital cohabitation, the average time spent in different types of partnership, the timing of life course transitions, and the outcome of cohabitation and marriage at the fifth and tenth anniversaries.

  13. NASA New England Outreach Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA New England Outreach Center in Nashua, New Hampshire was established to serve as a catalyst for heightening regional business awareness of NASA procurement, technology and commercialization opportunities. Emphasis is placed on small business participation, with the highest priority given to small disadvantaged businesses, women-owned businesses, HUBZone businesses, service disabled veteran owned businesses, and historically black colleges and universities and minority institutions. The Center assists firms and organizations to understand NASA requirements and to develop strategies to capture NASA related procurement and technology opportunities. The establishment of the NASA Outreach Center serves to stimulate business in a historically underserved area. NASA direct business awards have traditionally been highly present in the West, Midwest, South, and Southeast areas of the United States. The Center guides and assists businesses and organizations in the northeast to target opportunities within NASA and its prime contractors and capture business and technology opportunities. The Center employs an array of technology access, one-on-one meetings, seminars, site visits, and targeted conferences to acquaint Northeast firms and organizations with representatives from NASA and its prime contractors to learn about and discuss opportunities to do business and access the inventory of NASA technology. This stimulus of interaction also provides firms and organizations the opportunity to propose the use of their developed technology and ideas for current and future requirements at NASA. The Center provides a complement to the NASA Northeast Regional Technology Transfer Center in developing prospects for commercialization of NASA technology. In addition, the Center responds to local requests for assistance and NASA material and documents, and is available to address immediate concerns and needs in assessing opportunities, timely support to interact with NASA Centers on

  14. NASA's Postdoctoral Fellowship Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichman, Charles A.; Gelino, D. M.; Allen, R. J.; Prestwich, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    The three named fellowships --- the Einstein, Hubble and Sagan programs --- are among the most prestigious postdoctoral positions in astronomy. Their policies are closely coordinated to ensure the highest scientific quality, the broadest possible access to a diverse community of recent PhD graduates, and flexibility in completing the 3 year appointments in light of individual personal circumstances. We will discuss practical details related to "family-friendly" best practices such as no-cost extensions and the ability to transfer the host institution in response to "two body problems." We note, however, that the terms of the NASA fellowships are such that fellows become employees of their host institutions which set specific policies on issues such as parental leave. We look forward to participating in the discussion at this special session and conveying to NASA any suggestions for improving the fellowship program.

  15. NASA Balloon Technology Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbrother, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program has been, and will continue to be, committed to improving the capabilities of balloons to support science missions. Fundamental to vehicle improvement is a program of technology development that will enable improved flight performance throughout the next decade. The program s technology thrust areas include: materials, vehicle design & development, structural analysis, operations & support systems, performance modeling and planetary balloons. Building on the foundations of the 18-year research and development program, a technology roadmap has been generated which identifies specific areas of interest to NASA and the vision of future developments. The major components of the roadmap are: vehicle systems, balloon-craft systems, operational and safety support systems, and planetary vehicles. Current technology activities include nanocomposite balloon films, a new balloon designed to lift 3600 kgs to 36 km, a balloon rotation rate study and Mars pumpkin balloon investigations. The technology roadmap, as well as specific projects and recent advancements, will be presented.

  16. Requirements management at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenburg, L.

    2001-01-01

    Requirements have always been acknowledged as the backbone of any system. However, in many past development efforts, requirements were paid little heed. At NASA, in recent years, the hue and cry for project development has been "Faster, Better, Cheaper and Safer". This has impacted the way we develop software; it has increased the risks to quality, safety and reliability. At NASA, the Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) is working with projects to emphasize the criticality of requirements throughout development, not just in the initial phases. This emphasis is on requirements relationship to all aspects of quality, including reliability and safety. In this presentation, we will look at some of these relationships through the eyes of quality.

  17. NASA head sworn in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James C. Fletcher was sworn in on May 12, 1986, as administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). At a news conference after he was sworn in, Fletcher said that NASA would deal with both its technical problems and its procedural problems before the shuttle will fly again. According to press accounts, he stressed that funds should be made available to replace the Challenger orbiter, which was lost in an explosion on January 28.Fletcher, who had also headed the agency from 1971 to 1977, succeeds James M. Beggs, who was indicted in December 1985 for conspiring to defraud the federal government while serving as a senior executive at the General Dynamics Corporation.

  18. NASA balloon technology developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbrother, D. A.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program has been, and will continue to be, committed to improving the capabilities of balloons to support science missions. Fundamental to vehicle improvement is a program of technology development that will enable improved flight performance throughout the next decade. The program's technology thrust areas include: materials, vehicle design & development, structural analysis, operations & support systems, performance modeling and planetary balloons. Building on the foundations of the 18-year research and development program, a technology roadmap has been generated which identifies specific areas of interest to NASA and the vision of future developments. The major components of the roadmap are: vehicle systems, ballooncraft systems, operational and safety support systems, and planetary vehicles. Current technology activities include nanocomposite balloon films, a new balloon designed to lift 3600 kgs to 36 km, a balloon rotation rate study and Mars pumpkin balloon investigations. The technology roadmap, as well as specific projects and recent advancements, will be presented.

  19. NASA's Microgravity Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Dan

    1998-01-01

    This fiscal year (FY) 1997 annual report describes key elements of the NASA Microgravity Research Program (MRP) as conducted by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) within NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity, Sciences and Applications. The program's goals, approach taken to achieve those goals, and program resources are summarized. All snapshots of the program's status at the end of FY 1997 and a review of highlights and progress in grounds and flights based research are provided. Also described are major space missions that flew during FY 1997, plans for utilization of the research potential of the International Space Station, the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program, and various educational/outreach activities. The MRP supports investigators from academia, industry, and government research communities needing a space environment to study phenomena directly or indirectly affected by gravity.

  20. NASA and Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    President Bush endorsed a package of six goals developed by the governors of the 50 states, among them making the United States first in the world in mathematics and science achievement. The crux of the technical manpower problem is that too few people in the workforce today have the skills required to function in a technologically advanced society. All over the U.S., government, industry and academic organizations, individually and in concert, at the national, state and local levels, are accelerating efforts to find remedies for the educational and training maladies that threaten America's scientific and technological future. NASA is among the leading education promoting organizations and the agency is expanding its effort. In May 1990, NASA and the Department of Energy concluded an agreement for a cooperative program directed at encouraging more U.S. students to pursue careers in science, engineering and mathematics, and at improving the instructional process in those areas at the precollege and university levels.

  1. NASA wake vortex research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. P., III; Greene, George C.; Stewart, Eric C.; Stuever, Robert A.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.; Rivers, Robert A.; Vicroy, Dan D.

    1993-01-01

    NASA is conducting research that will enable safe improvements in the capacity of the nation's air transportation system. The wake-vortex hazard is a factor in establishing the minimum safe spacing between aircraft during landing and takeoff operations and, thus, impacts airport capacity. The ability to accurately model the wake hazard and determine safe separation distances for a wide range of aircraft and operational scenarios may provide the basis for significant increases in airport capacity. Current and planned NASA research is described which is focused on increasing airport capacity by safely reducing wake-hazard-imposed aircraft separations through advances in a number of technologies including vortex motion and decay prediction, vortex encounter modeling, wake-vortex hazard characterization, and in situ flow sensing.

  2. NASA's Exobiology Program.

    PubMed

    DeVincenzi, D L

    1984-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Exobiology Program is to understand the origin, evolution, and distribution of life, and life-related molecules, on Earth and throughout the universe. Emphasis is focused on determining how the rate and direction of these processes were affected by the chemical and physical environment of the evolving planet, as well as by planetary, solar, and astrophysical phenomena. This is accomplished by a multi-disciplinary program of research conducted by over 60 principal investigators in both NASA and university laboratories. Major program thrusts are in the following research areas: biogenic elements; chemical evolution; origin of life; organic geochemistry; evolution of higher life forms; solar system exploration; and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI).

  3. NASA Benefits Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several ways in which NASA research has benefited Earth and made life on Earth better. These innovations include: solar panels, recycled pavement, thermometer pill, invisible braces for straightening teeth, LASIK, aerodynamic helmets and tires for bicycles, cataract detection, technology that was used to remove Anthrax spores from mail handling facilities, study of atomic oxygen erosion of materials has informed the restoration of artwork, macroencapsulation (a potential mechanism to deliver anti cancer drugs to specific sites), and research on a salmonella vaccine. With research on the International Space Station just beginning, there will be opportunities for entrepreneurs and other government agencies to access space for their research and development. As well as NASA continuing its own research on human health and technology development.

  4. NASA's Hypersonic Investment Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Hutt, John; McClinton, Charles

    2002-01-01

    NASA has established long term goals for access to space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goal for third-generation launch systems represents significant reduction in cost and improved safety over the current first generation system. The Advanced Space Transportation Office (ASTP) at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Hypersonic Investment Area (HIA), third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframe, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), avionics, power, operations and system analysis. These technologies are being matured through research and both ground and flight-testing. This paper provides an overview of the HIA program plans and recent accomplishments.

  5. NASA reload program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byington, Marshall

    1993-01-01

    Atlantic Research Corporation (ARC) contracted with NASA to manufacture and deliver thirteen small scale Solid Rocket Motors (SRM). These motors, containing five distinct propellant formulations, will be used for plume induced radiation studies. The information contained herein summarizes and documents the program accomplishments and results. Several modifications were made to the scope of work during the course of the program. The effort was on hold from late 1991 through August, 1992 while propellant formulation changes were developed. Modifications to the baseline program were completed in late-August and Modification No. 6 was received by ARC on September 14, 1992. The modifications include changes to the propellant formulation and the nozzle design. The required motor deliveries were completed in late-December, 1992. However, ARC agreed to perform an additional mix and cast effort at no cost to NASA and another motor was delivered in March, 1993.

  6. NASA's Exobiology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devincenzi, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Exobiology Program is to understand the origin, evolution, and distribution of life, and life-related molecules, on earth and throughout the universe. Emphasis is focused on determining how the rate and direction of these processes were affected by the chemical and physical environment of the evolving planet, as well as by planetary, solar, and astrophysical phenomena. This is accomplished by a multi-disciplinary program of research conducted by over 60 principal investigators in both NASA and university laboratories. Major program thrusts are in the following research areas: biogenic elements; chemical evolution; origin of life; organic geochemistry; evolution of higher life forms; solar system exploration; and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI).

  7. Development of an Outreach Program for NASA: "NASA Ambassadors"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebo, George R.

    1996-01-01

    It is widely known that the average American citizen has either no idea or the wrong impression of what NASA is doing. The most common impression is that NASA's sole mission is to build and launch spacecraft and that the everyday experience of the common citizen would be impacted very little if NASA failed to exist altogether. Some feel that most of NASA's efforts are much too expensive and that the money would be better used on other efforts. Others feel that most of NASA's efforts either fail altogether or fail to meet their original objectives. Yet others feel that NASA is so mired in bureaucracy that it is no longer able to function. The goal of the NASA Ambassadors Program (NAP) is to educate the general populace as to what NASA's mission and goals actually are, to re-excite the "man on the street" with NASA's discoveries and technologies, and to convince him that NASA really does impact his everyday experience and that the economy of the U.S. is very dependent on NASA-type research. Each of the NASA centers currently run a speakers bureau through its Public Affairs Office (PAO). The speakers, NASA employees, are scheduled on an "as available" status and their travel is paid by NASA. However, there are only a limited number of them and their message may be regarded as being somewhat biased as they are paid by NASA. On the other hand, there are many members of NASA's summer programs which come from all areas of the country. Most of them not only believe that NASA's mission is important but are willing and able to articulate it to others. Furthermore, in the eyes of the public, they are probably more effective as ambassadors for NASA than are the NASA employees, as they do not derive their primary funding from it. Therefore it was decided to organize materials for them to use in presentations to general audiences in their home areas. Each person who accepted these materials was to be called a "NASA Ambassador".

  8. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  9. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  10. NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992 An airborne Nd:YAG (532 nm) lidar was operated by the NASA Langley Research Center about a year following the June 1991 eruption of ... Osborn [1992a, 1992b].  Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  11. NASA Space Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet briefly and succinctly treats 23 topics of particular interest to the NASA Space Human Factors Program. Most articles are by different authors who are mainly NASA Johnson or NASA Ames personnel. Representative topics covered include mental workload and performance in space, light effects on Circadian rhythms, human sleep, human reasoning, microgravity effects and automation and crew performance.

  12. NASA Oceanic Processes Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This, the Sixth Annual Report for NASA's Oceanic Processes Program, provides an overview of recent accomplishments, present activities, and future plans. Although the report was prepared for Fiscal Year 1985 (October 1, 1984 to September 30, 1985), the period covered by the Introduction extends into June 1986. Sections following the Introduction provide summaries of current flight projects and definition studies, brief descriptions of individual research activities, and a bibliography of refereed journal articles appearing within the past two years.

  13. NASA Headquarters training catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Headquarters training catalog is a comprehensive listing of all educational and employee development programs. This course catalog contains descriptions of course content, objectives, target audience, prerequisites, length of course, approximate number of times the course is offered per year, and cost of the course. Curriculum areas include graduate and undergraduate academic study; professional development program; and executive management, senior management, and supervisory development programs. Secretarial/clerical and general computer skills programs are also included.

  14. SETI: The NASA Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billingham, John

    This chapter, on the years of SETI in NASA, was initially prepared in 2000 for the celebration of Frank Drake's 70th birthday, but has never been previously published. All the material in these pages remains as valid today, in 2010, as it was 10 years ago. So it fits well into this volume on SETI Past, Present, and Future, with only minor revisions, and I am delighted that it is now seeing the light of day.

  15. NASA Photo One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.

    2013-01-01

    This is a photographic record of NASA Dryden flight research aircraft, spanning nearly 25 years. The author has served as a Dryden photographer, and now as its chief photographer and airborne photographer. The results are extraordinary images of in-flight aircraft never seen elsewhere, as well as pictures of aircraft from unusual angles on the ground. The collection is the result of the agency required documentation process for its assets.

  16. NASA Dryden Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    NASA Dryden has been engaged in exciting work that will enable lighter weight and more fuel efficient vehicles through advanced control and dynamics technologies. The main areas of emphasis are Enabling Light-weight Flexible Structures, real time control surface optimization for fuel efficiency and autonomous formation flight. This presentation provides a description of the current and upcoming work in these areas. Additionally, status is provided Dryden's work on HTV-2.

  17. NASA New Virtual Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Virtual Airport Tower is located at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. The Virtual Airport Tower's two-story structure is a full-scale, highly sophisticated simulation facility that will emulate Level 5 air traffic control towers and the busiest airports. It provides the platform to conduct in-depth human factors studies with quantifiable results using actual air traffic controllers, airline dispatchers and airport managers.

  18. Reshaping NASA's Aeronautics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Anita D.

    2007-01-01

    We will dedicate ourselves to the mastery and intellectual stewardship of the core competencies of Aeronautics for the Nation in all flight regimes. We will focus our research in areas that are appropriate to NASA's unique capabilities. we will directly address the R&D needs of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) in partnership with the member agencies of the Joint Planning and development Office (JPDO).

  19. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Des Marais, David J; Allamandola, Louis J; Benner, Steven A; Boss, Alan P; Deamer, David; Falkowski, Paul G; Farmer, Jack D; Hedges, S Blair; Jakosky, Bruce M; Knoll, Andrew H; Liskowsky, David R; Meadows, Victoria S; Meyer, Michael A; Pilcher, Carl B; Nealson, Kenneth H; Spormann, Alfred M; Trent, Jonathan D; Turner, William W; Woolf, Neville J; Yorke, Harold W

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: How does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own solar system, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high-priority efforts for the next 3-5 years. These 18 objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning.

  20. NASA Technical Standards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, WIlliam W.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program s function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned - standards integration system. The Program maintains a "one stop-shop" Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the nasa.gov Domain and the Public Domain.

  1. NASA Technical Standards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program's function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned-standards integration system. The Program maintains a 'one stop-shop' Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the nasa.gov Domain and the Public Domain.

  2. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Des Marais, David J; Nuth, Joseph A; Allamandola, Louis J; Boss, Alan P; Farmer, Jack D; Hoehler, Tori M; Jakosky, Bruce M; Meadows, Victoria S; Pohorille, Andrew; Runnegar, Bruce; Spormann, Alfred M

    2008-08-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: how does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own Solar System, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high priority efforts for the next three to five years. These eighteen objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning.

  3. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, David J.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Benner, Steven A.; Boss, Alan P.; Deamer, David; Falkowski, Paul G.; Farmer, Jack D.; Hedges, S. Blair; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Liskowsky, David R.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Meyer, Michael A.; Pilcher, Carl B.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Spormann, Alfred M.; Trent, Jonathan D.; Turner, William W.; Woolf, Neville J.; Yorke, Harold W.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: How does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own solar system, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high-priority efforts for the next 3-5 years. These 18 objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning.

  4. The NASA CELSS program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averner, Maurice M.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program was initiated with the premise that NASA's goal would eventually include extended duration missions with sizable crews requiring capabilities beyond the ability of conventional life support technology. Currently, as mission duration and crew size increase, the mass and volume required for consumable life support supplies also increase linearly. Under these circumstances the logistics arrangements and associated costs for life support resupply will adversely affect the ability of NASA to conduct long duration missions. A solution to the problem is to develop technology for the recycling of life support supplies from wastes. The CELSS concept is based upon the integration of biological and physico-chemical processes to construct a system which will produce food, potable water, and a breathable atmosphere from metabolic and other wastes, in a stable and reliable manner. A central feature of a CELSS is the use of green plant photosynthesis to produce food, with the resulting production of oxygen and potable water, and the removal of carbon dioxide.

  5. NASA Bioreactor tissue culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  6. NASA advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic fields are described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification. Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: (1) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-foot Wind Tunnel; and (2) far field noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off-design conditions. Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at takeoff but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise are also illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  7. NASA Advanced Propeller Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic i e l d s a r e described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification . Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: ( 1 ) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8-by 6-Foot Wind Tunnel and ( 2 ) farfield noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9-by 15-Font Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off design conditions . Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at take off but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise a real so illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  8. NASA Records Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callac, Christopher; Lunsford, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Records Database, comprising a Web-based application program and a database, is used to administer an archive of paper records at Stennis Space Center. The system begins with an electronic form, into which a user enters information about records that the user is sending to the archive. The form is smart : it provides instructions for entering information correctly and prompts the user to enter all required information. Once complete, the form is digitally signed and submitted to the database. The system determines which storage locations are not in use, assigns the user s boxes of records to some of them, and enters these assignments in the database. Thereafter, the software tracks the boxes and can be used to locate them. By use of search capabilities of the software, specific records can be sought by box storage locations, accession numbers, record dates, submitting organizations, or details of the records themselves. Boxes can be marked with such statuses as checked out, lost, transferred, and destroyed. The system can generate reports showing boxes awaiting destruction or transfer. When boxes are transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), the system can automatically fill out NARA records-transfer forms. Currently, several other NASA Centers are considering deploying the NASA Records Database to help automate their records archives.

  9. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Des Marais, David J; Nuth, Joseph A; Allamandola, Louis J; Boss, Alan P; Farmer, Jack D; Hoehler, Tori M; Jakosky, Bruce M; Meadows, Victoria S; Pohorille, Andrew; Runnegar, Bruce; Spormann, Alfred M

    2008-08-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: how does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own Solar System, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high priority efforts for the next three to five years. These eighteen objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning. PMID:18793098

  10. Thermoresponsive scattering coating for smart white LEDs.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jurica; Verbunt, Paul P C; Lin, Wan-Yu; Han, Yang; Van, My-Phung; Cornelissen, Hugo J; Yu, Joan J H; Bastiaansen, Cees W M; Broer, Dirk J

    2014-12-15

    White light emitting diode (LED) systems, capable of lowering the color temperature of emitted light on dimming, have been reported in the literature. These systems all use multiple color LEDs and complex control circuitry. Here we present a novel responsive lighting system based on a single white light emitting LED and a thermoresponsive scattering coating. The coated LED automatically emits light of lower correlated color temperature (CCT) when the power is reduced. We also present results on the use of multiple phosphors in the white light LED allowing for the emission of warm white light in the range between 2900 K and 4150 K, and with a chromaticity complying with the ANSI standards (C78.377). This responsive warm white light LED-system with close-to-ideal emission characteristics is highly interesting for the lighting industry.

  11. New paradigms in LED photometry and colorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada-Hernández, A.; González-Galván, L. P.; Rosas, E.

    2009-09-01

    Motivated by the growing number of applications the light emitting diodes, LEDs, are having in solid-state lighting systems, we summarize the new internationally standardized measurement methods for photometric and colorimetric quantities in LEDs; since they are commonly used to quantify some of the key performance parameters of several products used in automotive industry, traffic signaling, etc. Finally, special emphasis is given to the mismatch corrections factors calculation, and its use when measuring LEDs photometric and colorimetric quantities.

  12. Nurse-led treatment for occipital neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Pike, Denise; Amphlett, Alexander; Weatherby, Stuart

    Occipital neuralgia is a headache resulting from dysfunction of the occipital nerves. Medically resistant occipital neuralgia is treated by greater occipital nerve injection, which is traditionally performed by neurologists. A nurse-led clinic was developed to try to improve the service. Patient feedback showed that the clinic was positively perceived by patients, with most stating the nurse-led model was more efficient than the previous one, which had been led by consultants.

  13. System Reliability for LED-Based Products

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J Lynn; Mills, Karmann; Lamvik, Michael; Yaga, Robert; Shepherd, Sarah D; Bittle, James; Baldasaro, Nick; Solano, Eric; Bobashev, Georgiy; Johnson, Cortina; Evans, Amy

    2014-04-07

    Results from accelerated life tests (ALT) on mass-produced commercially available 6” downlights are reported along with results from commercial LEDs. The luminaires capture many of the design features found in modern luminaires. In general, a systems perspective is required to understand the reliability of these devices since LED failure is rare. In contrast, components such as drivers, lenses, and reflector are more likely to impact luminaire reliability than LEDs.

  14. NASA Automatic Information Security Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook details the Automated Information Security (AIS) management process for NASA. Automated information system security is becoming an increasingly important issue for all NASA managers and with rapid advancements in computer and network technologies and the demanding nature of space exploration and space research have made NASA increasingly dependent on automated systems to store, process, and transmit vast amounts of mission support information, hence the need for AIS systems and management. This handbook provides the consistent policies, procedures, and guidance to assure that an aggressive and effective AIS programs is developed, implemented, and sustained at all NASA organizations and NASA support contractors.

  15. NASA Robotics for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, RIchard T.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation focuses on NASA's use of robotics in support of space exploration. The content was taken from public available websites in an effort to minimize any ITAR or EAR issues. The agenda starts with an introduction to NASA and the "Vision for Space Exploration" followed by NASA's major areas of robotic use: Robotic Explorers, Astronaut Assistants, Space Vehicle, Processing, and In-Space Workhorse (space infrastructure). Pictorials and movies of NASA robots in use by the major NASA programs: Space Shuttle, International Space Station, current Solar Systems Exploration and Mars Exploration, and future Lunar Exploration are throughout the presentation.

  16. Enabling Exploration: NASA's Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Carol W.

    2012-01-01

    Deputy Director of Science, Carol W. Carroll has been invited by University of Oregon's Materials Science Institute to give a presentation. Carol's Speech explains NASA's Technologies that are needed where NASA was, what NASA's current capabilities are. Carol will highlight many of NASA's high profile projects and she will explain what NASA needs for its future by focusing on the next steps in space exploration. Carol's audience will be University of Oregon's future scientists and engineer's and their professor's along with various other faculty members.

  17. Solid State Lighting LED Manufacturing Roundtable Summary

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-03-31

    Summary of a meeting of LED experts to develop proposed priority tasks for the Manufacturing R&D initiative, including task descriptions, discussion points, recommendations, and presentation highlights.

  18. Blue LEDs feasibility for tissue fluorescence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dets, Sergiy M.; Denisov, Nikolay A.

    2000-04-01

    We considered the limited number of light-induced fluorescence applications for marketed ultra-bright blue LEDs where they can compete with versatile laser sources. Satisfactory optical output and miniature size as well as low power consumption of blue LEDs emitting at 470 nm allow to consider them as a promising alternatives to metal vapor or gas lasers used in many expires LIF applications. Available to authors LEDs form Hewlett-Packard, Micro Electronics Corp., Nichia Chemical Industries Ltd. and Toyoda Gosei Co. were tested to comply with demands to a tissue excitation source for portable spectroscopes. The optical performance of LEDs has shown that selected group of InGaN LEDs could be successfully used for that. The miniature illuminator that includes LED, focusing condenser, filter set and distal fiberoptic light concentrator was designed and tested in conjunction with portable CCD- equipped spectroscope. Operating in dark condition the proposed LED illuminator provides the level of fluorescence signal sufficient to detect spectral abnormalities in human Caucasian skin and excised gastrointestinal samples. All tissue autofluorescence data taken under LED illumination were compared with readings under He-Cd laser excitation and showed a good match. A new diagnostic designs based on LEDs were considered for clinical use.

  19. The stability of spectrum reproduction by LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hua; Li, Jing; Yao, Ran; Lu, Pengzhi; Pei, Yanrong

    2015-09-01

    Spectral power distribution together with color consistency and constancy of natural light is studied and simulated before the white-light LED systems are fabricated to reproduce the natural light. The model with 3, 4, 6 and more primary LEDs based on the real measured spectrum and theoretical spectrum are analyzed. The spectral power sensitivity relation between the LEDs with different wavelength and color characteristic is analyzed. This research simplifies the approach of visible spectrum reconstruction which is an efficient way to use in the design and realization of LED-based luminaire.

  20. NASA Metrology and Calibration, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The proceedings of the fourth annual NASA Metrology and Calibration Workshop are presented. This workshop covered (1) review and assessment of NASA metrology and calibration activities by NASA Headquarters, (2) results of audits by the Office of Inspector General, (3) review of a proposed NASA Equipment Management System, (4) current and planned field center activities, (5) National Bureau of Standards (NBS) calibration services for NASA, (6) review of NBS's Precision Measurement and Test Equipment Project activities, (7) NASA instrument loan pool operations at two centers, (8) mobile cart calibration systems at two centers, (9) calibration intervals and decals, (10) NASA Calibration Capabilities Catalog, and (11) development of plans and objectives for FY 1981. Several papers in this proceedings are slide presentations only.